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Sample records for 7-year prospective study

  1. Prospective clinical study of press-ceramic overlap and full veneer restorations: 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Stampf, Susanne; Stappert, Christian F J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the long-term performance of all-ceramic veneers with overlap (OV) and full veneer (FV) preparation designs. Twenty-five patients were restored using 42 OV restorations (incisal/palatal butt-joint margin) and 24 FV restorations (palatal rounded shoulder margin). All restorations were leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic anterior veneers. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for FV restorations and 97.6% for OV restorations. The all-ceramic veneers revealed significant deterioration over time according to United States Public Health Service criteria, irrespective of the preparation design. Based on the 7-year results of this study, both preparation designs can be considered reliable treatment options for anterior teeth with extended deficits.

  2. Infant Sleeping Environment and Asthma at 7 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Trevillian, Leigh F.; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Carmichael, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the role of infant bedding items, as part of a composite bedding environment, in the development of childhood wheezing. Methods. This prospective cohort investigation involved 863 children who participated in an infant survey in 1988 and an asthma study in Tasmania, Australia, in 1995. The derived 3 composite infant bedding categories corresponded to increasing numbers of house dust mite (HDM)–rich bedding items used. Outcomes measured included recent and frequent wheezing. Results. Composite infant bedding used was associated with recent wheezing. Effects increased at increasing levels of HDM–rich bedding items used. Effects were further enhanced by home environmental factors of bedroom heating, recent bedroom painting, and absence of bedroom carpeting. When any 2 or more of these environmental factors were present, a strong dose–response relationship was evident. Conclusions. Our results show that bedding exposures in infancy are prospectively associated with childhood wheezing and that home environmental conditions may modify this association. PMID:16304135

  3. Time loss injuries compromise team success in Elite Rugby Union: a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sean; Trewartha, Grant; Kemp, Simon P T; Brooks, John H M; Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen E; Cross, Matthew J; Stokes, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    A negative association between injuries and team success has been demonstrated in professional football, but the nature of this association in elite Rugby Union teams is currently unclear. To assess the association between injury burden measures and team success outcomes within professional Rugby Union teams. A seven-season prospective cohort design was used to record all time-loss injuries incurred by English Premiership players. Associations between team success measures (league points tally and Eurorugby Club Ranking (ECR)) and injury measures (injury burden and injury days per team-match) were modelled, both within (changes from season to season) and between (differences averaged over all seasons) teams. Thresholds for the smallest worthwhile change in league points tally and ECR were 3 points and 2.6%, respectively. Data from a total of 1462 players within 15 Premiership teams were included in the analysis. We found clear negative associations between injury measures and team success (70-100% likelihood), with the exception of between-team differences for injury days per team-match and ECR, which was unclear. A reduction in injury burden of 42 days (90% CI 30 to 70) per 1000 player hours (22% of mean injury burden) was associated with the smallest worthwhile change in league points tally. Clear negative associations were found between injury measures and team success, and moderate reductions in injury burden may have worthwhile effects on competition outcomes for professional Rugby Union teams. These findings may be useful when communicating the value of injury prevention initiatives within this elite sport setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Prognosis of zirconia ceramic fixed partial dentures: a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lops, Diego; Mosca, Daniela; Casentini, Paolo; Ghisolfi, Marco; Romeo, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent clinical efficacy of anterior and posterior zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs). A convenience sample of 28 patients, each wearing 1 FPD, was recalled annually throughout a 6-year follow-up period (mean: 6.5 years). Four patients did not participate in the study (dropouts), and 24 FPDs were in use during the observation period. The cumulative survival and success rates were 88.9% and 81.8%, respectively. Fixed prostheses with zirconia frameworks may be regarded as acceptable alternatives to metal-ceramic anterior and posterior FPDs.

  5. Pattern of maxillofacial fractures in severe multiple trauma patients: a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Alves, La-Salete; Aragão, Irene; Sousa, Maria-José Carneiro; Gomes, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of facial trauma is high. This study has the primary objective of documenting and cataloging maxillofacial fractures in polytrauma patients. From a total of 1229 multiple trauma cases treated at the Emergency Room of the Santo Antonio Hospital - Oporto Hospital Center, Portugal, between August 2001 and December 2007, 251 patients had facial wounds and 209 had maxillofacial fractures. Aged ranged form 13 to 86 years. The applied selective method was based on the presence of facial wound with Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥1. Men had a higher incidence of maxillofacial fractures among multiple trauma patients (86.6%) and road traffic accidents were the primary cause of injuries (69.38%). Nasoorbitoethmoid complex was the most affected region (67.46%) followed by the maxilla (57.42%). The pattern and presentation of maxillofacial fractures had been studied in many parts of the world with varying results. Severe multiple trauma patients had different patterns of maxillofacial injuries. The number of maxillofacial trauma is on the rise worldwide as well as the incidence of associated sequelae. Maxillofacial fractures on multiple trauma patients were more frequent among males and in road traffic crashes. Knowing such data is elementary. The society should have a key role in the awareness of individuals and in prevention of road traffic accidents.

  6. A 7 year prospective comparative study of three topical beta blockers in the management of primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Watson, P G; Barnett, M F; Parker, V; Haybittle, J

    2001-08-01

    To determine the long term efficacy of monotherapy with topically applied beta blocking agents and to determine whether selective beta blockers were able to preserve the visual field more effectively than non-selective agents. A prospective randomised, open, comparative study of three topically applied beta blockers-timolol, betaxolol, and carteolol-was carried out on 153 patients (280 eyes) with newly diagnosed open angle glaucoma. Those patients who were not withdrawn were followed by the same observers for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years, with clinical observations, Goldmann tonometry and 24.2 Humphrey visual field analysis. All three drugs lowered the IOP significantly from untreated levels but betaxolol took up to 12 months in some instances to reach the maximum pressure reduction. After 7 years only 43% of the eyes begun on timolol, 34% of those started on carteolol, and 29% of those on betaxolol were still being treated with these medications alone. Visual fields were analysed throughout the trial by CPSD and MD and at the end by linear regression analysis (PROGRESSOR). The visual fields remained the same without apparent improvement or deterioration throughout the period of follow up. Eight patients (11 eyes) were withdrawn because of continuing field loss in spite of reduction in IOP (six using carteolol and five using betaxolol). Analysis shows that less than half the eyes initially treated with topical beta blockers might be expected to still be being treated with their original medication after 5 years. The rest required either additional medication or trabeculectomy. There was no statistically significant improvement or deterioration in the visual fields over a 7 year period. On the evidence of this trial there are no particular advantages in using selective beta blockers.

  7. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  8. Disability in young people and adults after head injury: 5-7 year follow up of a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Whitnall, L; McMillan, T M; Murray, G D; Teasdale, G M

    2006-05-01

    Improvement 1-2 years after head injury is well established but the pattern thereafter is unclear. Past studies have not examined representative head injury populations and typically report findings in terms of functioning across social, psychological, neurobehavioural, or cognitive domains rather than global outcome. To determine the late outcome of a representative cohort of participants admitted to hospital after a head injury 5-7 years previously and to identify early and late factors correlating with persisting disability and change between one and 5-7 years. A representative cohort of head injured people whose outcome one year after injury was reported previously, were followed up 5-7 years after injury. Participants were assessed using structured and validated measures of global outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended), cognitive impairment, psychological wellbeing, health status, and social factors. Of 475 survivors studied at one year, 115 (24%) had died by seven years. In survivors at 5-7 years, disability remained frequent (53%); and the rate, similar to that found at one year (57%). Sixty three participants (29%) had improved but 55 (25%) deteriorated. The persistence of disability and its development after previous recovery each showed stronger associations with indices of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem than with initial severity of injury or persisting cognitive impairment. Admission to hospital after head injury is followed 5-7 years later by disability in a high proportion of survivors. Persistence of disability and development of new disability are strongly associated with psychosocial factors that may be open to remediation, even late after injury.

  9. Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Inflammation Across 7-Years in Racially Diverse Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Danielle L.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Brown, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination has emerged as a predictor of negative psychological and physical health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. The goals of this study were to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was independently predicted by everyday discrimination or whether race or body mass index (BMI) modified this association over a 7-year period among 2,490 women from racially diverse backgrounds. At baseline, the 10-item Williams' measure of everyday discrimination was administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess these associations. Descriptive results showed that Black and Chinese women reported greater discrimination than White, Japanese, and Hispanic women, while Black and Hispanic women had the highest levels of CRP over the 7-year period. There was no main effect of everyday discrimination (B = .003, SE = .005, p = .58) and this association did not differ as a function of race (p's > .05). The everyday discrimination × BMI interaction term significantly predicted higher CRP levels over time in the full sample of women (p = .03). Specifically, in non-obese women (BMI less than 30), higher perceived everyday discrimination was associated with higher CRP levels over the 7-year period. These findings were independent of demographic, negative affect, biomedical, and behavioral factors. The results demonstrate that greater everyday discrimination is associated with increased inflammation over time in non-obese women. These findings highlight the implications of interpersonal sources of social stress for long-term physical health via their impact on intermediary biological pathways, specifically inflammation. Greater emphasis on such linkages is warranted as we work towards ameliorating health disparities exacerbated by individual-level factors. PMID:25342861

  10. Prospective clinical split-mouth study of pressed and CAD/CAM all-ceramic partial-coverage restorations: 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Steinhart, Yann-Niclas; Stampf, Susanne; Strub, Joerg R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical split-mouth study was to investigate the longterm performance of pressed and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) all-ceramic partial-coverage restorations (PCRs). Twentyfive patients were restored with 40 lithium disilicate pressed PCRs (IPS e.max-Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and 40 leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic CAD/CAM PCRs (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). All restorations were placed in vital first or second molars. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for pressed PCRs and 97% for CAD/ CAM PCRs. Both systems showed significant deterioration over time in all modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Increased surface roughness and impaired color match were significantly more prevalent with pressed PCRs. Based on the 7-year data, both all-ceramic systems can be considered reliable treatment options for posterior PCRs.

  11. What shapes 7-year-olds' subjective well-being? Prospective analysis of early childhood and parenting using the Growing Up in Scotland study.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Research on predictors of young children's psychosocial well-being currently relies on adult-reported outcomes. This study investigated whether early family circumstances and parenting predict 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. Information on supportive friendships, liking school and life satisfaction was obtained from 7-year-olds in one Growing Up in Scotland birth cohort in 2012-2013 (N = 2869). Mothers provided information on early childhood factors from 10 to 34 months, parenting (dysfunctional parenting, home learning and protectiveness) from 46 to 70 months, and 7-year-olds' adjustment. Multivariable path models explored associations between early childhood factors, parenting and 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. Supplementary analyses compared findings with those for mother-reported adjustment. In a model of early childhood factors, maternal distress predicted less supportive friendships and lower life satisfaction (coefficients -0.12), poverty predicted less supportive friendships (-0.09) and remote location predicted all outcomes (-0.20 to -0.27). In a model with parenting added, dysfunctional parenting predicted all outcomes (-10 to -0.16), home learning predicted liking school (0.11) and life satisfaction (0.08), and protectiveness predicted life satisfaction (0.08). Effects of maternal distress were fully mediated, largely via dysfunctional parenting, while home learning mediated negative effects of low maternal education. Direct effects of poverty and remote location remained. Findings for mother-reported child adjustment were broadly similar. Unique prospective data show parenting and early childhood impact 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. They underline the benefits for children of targeting parental mental health and dysfunctional parenting, and helping parents develop skills to support children at home and school.

  12. [Independent risk factors for severe cardiovascular events in male patients with gout: Results of a 7-year prospective study].

    PubMed

    Eliseev, M S; Denisov, I S; Markelova, E I; Glukhova, S I; Nasonov, E L

    To determine risk factors for severe cardiovascular (CV) events (CVEs) in male patients with crystal-verified gout. 251 male patients with crystal-verified gout were prospectively followed up in 2003 to 2013. The mean follow-up period was 6.9±2.0 years. New severe CVE cases and deaths were recorded. Logistic regression was used to analyze the impact of traditional and other risk factors and allopurinol use on the risk for severe CVEs. 32 patients died during the follow-up period. Severe CVEs were recorded in 58 (23.1%) patients; CVE deaths were notified in 22 (8.8%) patients. The risk of all severe CVEs was high for hypertension, increased serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level (>5 mg/l), ≥ stage III chronic kidney disease (CKD) (glomerular filtration rate, <60 ml/min/1.73 m2), alcohol intake (>20 g/day), coronary heart disease (CHD), and a family history of premature CHD. The risk of fatal CVEs was highest for elevated serum hs-CRP level, ≥ stage III CKD, a family history of premature CHD, hypercholesterolemia, upper quartile of serum uric acid levels (>552 µmol/l), and regular intake of allopurinol. In addition to the traditional risk factors of CV catastrophes, the presence of chronic inflammation and the impact of high serum uric acid levels may explain the high frequency of CV catastrophes.

  13. Risk of ESRD and Death in Patients with CKD Not Referred to a Nephrologist: A 7-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lapi, Francesco; Chiodini, Paolo; Simonetti, Monica; Bianchini, Elisa; Pecchioli, Serena; Cricelli, Iacopo; Cricelli, Claudio; Piccinocchi, Gaetano; Conte, Giuseppe; De Nicola, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Rising prevalence of CKD requires active involvement of general practitioners to limit ESRD and mortality risk. However, the outcomes of patients with CKD exclusively managed by general practitioners are ill defined. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively evaluated 30,326 adult patients with nondialysis CKD stages 1–5 who had never received consultation in tertiary nephrology care recruited from 700 general practitioner offices in Italy during 2002 and 2003. CKD stages were classified as stages 1 and 2 (GFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and either albuminuria or an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code for kidney disease), stage 3a (GFR=59–45), stage 3b (GFR=44–30), stage 4 (GFR=29–15), and stage 5 (GFR<15). Primary outcome was the risk of ESRD (dialysis or transplantation) or all-cause death. Results Overall 64% of patients were in stage 3a, and 4.5% of patients were in stages 3b–5. Patients with stages 1 and 2 were younger, were predominantly men, more frequently had diabetes, and had lower prevalence of previous cardiovascular disease than patients with stages 3a–5. Hypertension was frequent in all CKD stages (80%–94%), whereas there was a lower prevalence of dyslipidemia, albuminuria, and obesity associated with more advanced CKD. During the follow-up (median=7.2 years; interquartile range=4.7–7.7), 6592 patients died and 295 started ESRD. Compared with stages 1 and 2 (reference), mortality risk (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) was higher in stages 3b–5 (1.66, 1.49–1.86, 2.75, 2.41–3.13 and 2.54, 2.01–3.22, respectively) but not stage 3a (1.11, 0.99–1.23). Similarly, ESRD risk (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) was not higher at stage 3a (1.44, 0.79–2.64) but was greater in stages 3b–5 (11.0, 6.3–19.5, 91.2, 53.2–156.2 and, 122.8, 67.9–222.0, respectively). Among modifiable risk factors, anemia and albuminuria significantly

  14. Acculturation and associated effects on abused immigrant women's safety and mental functioning: results of entry data for a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nava, Angeles; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence has negative effects on women's safety and wellbeing. When immigrant women are victimized the danger and poor health may intensify. The purpose was to determine the impact of acculturation on severity of violence, danger for murder, mental health functioning, and safety behaviors of abused immigrant women. Entry data of a 7-year prospective study of 106 abused immigrant women who were first time users of safe shelter or justice services is presented. The interview included the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, Danger Assessment, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Safety Behavior Checklist, and Acculturation for Hispanics instruments. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between acculturation and safety behaviors and BSI scores was established. Higher acculturation scores were associated with significantly more practiced safety behaviors and higher levels of depression. Understanding the specific needs of abuse immigrant women associated with acculturation is imperative to develop interventions to interrupt abuse and promote safety and mental well-being.

  15. Prospective study of incident age-related macular degeneration in relation to vigorous physical activity during a 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2009-01-01

    To test whether the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) decreases with vigorous physical activity. This was a prospective study of self-reported clinically diagnosed macular degeneration in male (n = 29,532) and female (n = 12,176) runners followed prospectively for 7.7 years. Survival analyses of incident AMD versus average running distance (kilometers per day), cardiorespiratory fitness (10-km footrace performance), body mass index (BMI), cigarette use, and diet at baseline. The 110 men and 42 women reporting incident AMD were older than those unaffected (mean +/- SE: 54.81 +/- 0.97 vs. 44.86 +/- 0.06 years), and the men were significantly more likely to have once smoked cigarettes (50.6 vs. 41.2%, P = 0.04 when adjusted for age). Age- and sex-adjusted AMD risk was greater in the men and women who consumed more meat (3.17 +/- 0.20 vs. 2.55 +/- 0.02 servings/wk) and less fruit (9.41 +/- 0.70 vs. 10.92 +/- 0.05 pieces/wk). The men and women reporting incident AMD ran for exercise significantly less than those who remained unaffected, when adjustment was made for age and sex (4.57 +/- 0.30 vs. 5.34 +/- 0.02 km/d, P < or = 0.01). When adjusted for age, sex, diet, and smoking history, the relative risk for AMD decreased 10% per km/d increment in running distance. Moreover, compared with the men and women who averaged less than 2 km/d, those averaging 2 to 4 km/d had 19% lower adjusted risk, and those averaging > or = 4 km/d had 42% to 54% lower adjusted AMD risk. Higher doses of vigorous exercise (running) are associated with lower incident AMD risk independent of weight, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cigarette use. Limitations of the analyses include the select nature of the sample and reliance on self-report of both running history and clinically diagnosed AMD.

  16. Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Jaen, Javier; Vazquez, Gonzalo; Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura; De Las Heras, Manuel; Perez-Regadera, Jose F.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical

  17. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Mary E.; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers’ involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000–2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Results Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (p<0.05), odds ratios ranging between 0.81 and 0.89 per quintile of involvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Conclusion Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes. PMID:27654635

  18. Predictors of patterns of change in health-related quality of life in older women over 7 years: evidence from a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dale, Caroline E; Bowling, Ann; Adamson, Joy; Kuper, Hannah; Amuzu, Antoinette; Ebrahim, Shah; Casas, Juan P; Nüesch, Eveline

    2013-05-01

    the evaluation of the determinants of change over time in health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in older people is limited. This study aims to identify patterns of change in HR-QoL over 7 years and their determinants using data from the British Women's Heart and Health Study, a representative sample of older women (n = 4286). longitudinal latent class analysis was used to identify subpopulations of women with similar HR-QoL trajectories from 1999-2000 to 2007. HR-QoL was measured using the EQ-5D. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to model the association of identified trajectories with baseline predictors after multiple imputation of missing data. four distinct EQ-5D trajectories were suggested: high (19% of women), high decline (22%), intermediate (42%) and low decline (16%). Prevalent arthritis (OR = 13.4; 95% CI: 8.8, 20.5), diabetes (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.5, 14.2) and obesity (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0) were the strongest predicting health conditions of adverse changes in HR-QoL and physical activity the strongest predicting lifestyle factor (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 2.0, 3.9). findings suggest that older women without obesity or pre-existing health conditions who undertake more physical activity are more likely to experience high HR-QoL, reinforcing the importance of these factors for healthy ageing.

  19. Impact of early adolescent externalizing problem behaviors on identity development in middle to late adolescence: a prospective 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents at-risk for problem behaviors can have more difficulties in developing a firm sense of personal identity. Hence the purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to scrutinize how externalizing problems in early adolescence impact identity development in middle to late adolescence. Participants were 443 (43.12% female) Dutch adolescents. Teachers rated their externalizing problem behaviors when participants were 11 or 12 years old and their identity formation was studied during five consecutive years (from 14 to 18 years of age). The sample was divided into four groups: boys and girls with a high versus a low-risk for externalizing problem behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Multi-group Latent Growth Curve and profile stability analyses were used to evaluate identity development across adolescence. Findings indicated that high-risk boys and girls reported a less structured identity, with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment. Since externalizing problems behaviors and lack of a coherent sense of identity might reinforce each other, early intervention for high-risk adolescents might foster positive youth development.

  20. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  1. A 7-year randomized prospective study of a one-step self-etching adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions. The effect of curing modes and restorative material.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical retention of a one-step self-etching adhesive system (Xeno III) in Class V non-carious cervical lesions and the effect of restorative material and curing techniques on longevity of the restorations. A total of 139 Class V restorations were placed with the self-etching primer Xeno III and a resin composite (Tetric Ceram) or a poly-acid modified resin composite (Dyract AP) in non-carious cervical lesions without intentional enamel involvement. The materials were cured with a conventional continuous light, a soft-start or a pulse-delay curing mode. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months and then yearly during a 7 year follow-up with modified USPHS criteria. Dentine bonding efficiency was determined by the percentage of lost restorations. During the 7 years, 135 restorations could be evaluated. No post-operative sensitivity was reported by the participants. Overall relative cumulative loss rate frequencies for the adhesive system at 6 and 18 months and 7 years, independent of curing technique and restorative material, were 0.8%, 6.9% and 23.0%, respectively. The self-etching adhesive fulfilled at 18 months the full acceptance ADA criteria. Tetric Ceram showed at 7 years a 20.9% loss of retention and Dyract AP a 25.0% loss rate (Log rank p = 0.48). The loss rates for the 3 curing techniques: continuous, soft start and pulse delay were 17%, 27.9% and 24.4%, respectively (Log rank p = 0.52). No secondary caries was observed. The single-step self-etching adhesive showed acceptable clinical long-time retention rates to dentine surfaces independent of restorative material and curing technique used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H S; Scanavini, Marco A; McNamara, James A

    2014-04-01

    To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3-4 mm), until a 'super class I' molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1-T2, T2-T3, and T1-T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes.

  3. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Scanavini, Marco A.; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3–4 mm), until a ‘super class I’ molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1–T2, T2–T3, and T1–T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. CONCLUSIONS Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes. PMID:23736378

  4. Long-term trajectories of back pain: cohort study with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kate M; Campbell, Paul; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe long-term trajectories of back pain. Design Monthly data collection for 6 months at 7-year follow-up of participants in a prospective cohort study. Setting Primary care practices in Staffordshire, UK. Participants 228 people consulting their general practitioners with back pain, on whom information on 6-month back pain trajectories had been collected during 2001–2003, and who had valid consent and contact details in 2009–2010, were contacted. 155 participants (68% of those contacted) responded and provided sufficient data for primary analyses. Outcome measures Trajectories based on patients’ self-reports of back pain were identified using longitudinal latent class analysis. Trajectories were characterised using information on disability, psychological status and presence of other symptoms. Results Four clusters with different back pain trajectories at follow-up were identified: (1) no or occasional pain, (2) persistent mild pain, (3) fluctuating pain and (4) persistent severe pain. Trajectory clusters differed significantly from each other in terms of disability, psychological status and other symptoms. Most participants remained in a similar trajectory as 7 years previously (weighted κ 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.65). Conclusions Most people with back pain appear to follow a particular pain trajectory over long time periods, and do not have frequently recurring or widely fluctuating patterns. The results are limited by lack of information about the time between data collection periods and by loss to follow-up. However, findings do raise questions about standard divisions into acute and chronic back pain. A new framework for understanding the course of back pain is proposed. PMID:24334157

  5. Electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions in 6-7year olds: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutte, I; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W; Schutter, D J L G

    2012-08-01

    Preliminary studies have demonstrated that school-aged children (average age 9-10years) show mimicry responses to happy and angry facial expressions. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of using facial electromyography (EMG) as a method to study facial mimicry responses in younger children aged 6-7years to emotional facial expressions of other children. Facial EMG activity to the presentation of dynamic emotional faces was recorded from the corrugator, zygomaticus, frontalis and depressor muscle in sixty-one healthy participants aged 6-7years. Results showed that the presentation of angry faces was associated with corrugator activation and zygomaticus relaxation, happy faces with an increase in zygomaticus and a decrease in corrugator activation, fearful faces with frontalis activation, and sad faces with a combination of corrugator and frontalis activation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring facial EMG response to emotional facial expressions in 6-7year old children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolated ACTH deficiency. Metabolic and endocrine studies in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed Central

    Aynsley-Green, A; Moncrieff, M W; Ratter, S; Benedict, C R; Storrs, C N

    1978-01-01

    Metabolic and endocrine studies on a 7-year-old boy who presented with hypoglycaemic convulsions are reported in detail, proving the diagnosis of isolated ACTH deficiency--a rare cause of hypoglycaemia in childhood. Adrenaline secretion during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia was reduced. Low blood alanine levels occurred during starvation-induced hypoglycaemia, together with raised total blood ketone bodies; blood glucose did not increase adequately after oral alanine at this time. Hypoglycaemia in isolated ACTH deficiency appears to be due to a combination of impaired alanine mobilisation and a decreased rate of gluconeogenesis. PMID:210721

  7. Hand eczema—prognosis and consequences: a 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, A H; Johansen, J D; Hald, M

    2014-12-01

    Hand eczema is recognized as a long-lasting disease with personal and societal repercussions. Long-term studies are required to generate information on factors contributing to a poor outcome. The aims of this 7-year follow-up study were to evaluate the clinical course of patients with hand eczema, the occupational consequences and to identify risk factors associated with a poor prognosis. In all, 536 patients with hand eczema participated and were examined by a dermatologist. The clinical severity was assessed at baseline and 7 years later using a self-administrated photographic guide. Additional information was obtained from a questionnaire. Based on the photographic guide, 73% experienced a clinical improvement. Notably, 20% had moderate to very severe hand eczema at follow-up. Severe hand eczema or frequent eruptions at baseline and eczema in other body locations during the follow-up period were risk factors of a poor prognosis. The same factors, as well as being a woman, were associated with occupational consequences and low health-related quality of life. Of those with persistent hand eczema only 40% had visited a dermatologist during the follow-up period and 7% had oral treatment. The disease had improved 7 years later; nevertheless, many patients continued to have considerable symptoms. Patients with a greater risk of a poor outcome are characterized by frequent eruptions, severe hand eczema and more widespread eczema. It should be questioned if more aggressive therapy and closer medical follow-up would be beneficial. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Malocclusions in children at 3 and 7 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor; Lennartsson, Bertil; Söderfeldt, Björn; Bondemark, Lars

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare the prevalence of malocclusion at ages 3 and 7 years in a sample of children, exploring the hypothesis that prevalence of malocclusion is higher at 3 than at 7 years of age and may be influenced by sucking habits. The study sample comprised 386 children (199 girls and 187 boys), aged 3 years at study start, sourced from three Public Dental Service clinics in Sweden. Malocclusion was diagnosed by clinical examination, using a specific protocol. Data on allergy, traumatic injuries, sucking habits, and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances were obtained by means of a questionnaire answered by child and parent in conjunction with the initial and final clinical examination. The overall prevalence of malocclusion decreased significantly, from 70 to 58% (P < 0.0001): predominantly anterior open bite, excessive overjet, and Class III malocclusion. Although high rates of spontaneous correction were also noted for deep bite, Class II malocclusion and posterior and anterior crossbites, new cases developed at almost the same rate; thus, the prevalence was unchanged at the end of the observation period. Anterior open bite and posterior crossbite were the only conditions showing significant associations with sucking habits. The results confirm the hypothesis of higher prevalence of malocclusion at 3 years of age and clearly support the strategy of deferring orthodontic correction of malocclusion until the mixed dentition stage.

  9. Physiological reactivity in children of Oklahoma City bombing survivors 7 years postdisaster: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; North, Carol S; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung

    2011-08-01

    Relatively few studies of children exposed to trauma have used objective indicators such as heart rate and blood pressure measurements to assess physiological reactivity. This pilot study examined physiological reactivity (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) and emotional indicators (posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms) in 17 children of directly exposed Oklahoma City bombing survivors and in 17 demographically matched community comparison children, 7 years after the incident. Despite generally low levels of subjectively reported posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms 7 years after the disaster, the children of survivors showed heightened objectively measured physiological reactivity relative to the comparison group. The extent to which this heightened physiological reactivity in the children of survivors was pathologic is unclear. Only 1 participant reported high levels of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms; this individual also demonstrated physiological reactivity. Results suggest children of disaster survivors may experience physiological reactivity despite absence of direct exposure to the trauma or acknowledgement of symptoms. These findings indicate the physiological effects of trauma may endure separate from subjective affect in the offspring of highly exposed disaster survivors. More research is needed to determine the potential consequences of persistent physiological reactivity.

  10. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: results of prospective patient selection by Kyushu University Criteria in 7 years.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hideaki; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toru; Harimoto, Norifumi; Soejima, Yuji; Harada, Noboru; Morita, Kazutoyo; Toshima, Takeo; Motomura, Takashi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-09-07

    Expanding patient selection beyond the Milan criteria in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been a matter for debate. We have used the Kyushu University Criteria - maximum tumor diameter <5 cm or des-γ-carboxy prothrombin <300 mAU/ml - in LDLT for HCC since June 2007. The aim of the present study was to present the results of our prospective patient selection by Kyushu University Criteria and to confirm whether or not our criteria were justified. The entire study period was divided into the pre-Kyushu era (July 1999-May 2007) and the Kyushu era (June 2007-November 2014). Eighty-nine and 90 patients underwent LDLT for HCC in the pre-Kyushu era and the Kyushu era, respectively. In the pre-Kyushu era, there were significant differences in recurrence-free and disease-specific survival between the beyond-Milan and the within-Milan patients. In the Kyushu era, however, the differences in recurrence-free and disease-specific survival between the beyond-Milan and the within-Milan patients disappeared. The 5-year overall patient survival in the Kyushu era was 89.4%. Our selection criteria enabled a considerable number of beyond-Milan patients to undergo LDLT without jeopardizing the recurrence-free, and disease-specific, and overall patient survival. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  12. Outcomes at 7 years for babies who developed neonatal necrotising enterocolitis: the ORACLE Children Study.

    PubMed

    Pike, Katie; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Kenyon, Sarah; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David; Marlow, Neil

    2012-09-01

    Within the ORACLE Children Study Cohort, the authors have evaluated long-term consequences of the diagnosis of confirmed or suspected neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) at age of 7 years. Outcomes were assessed using a parental questionnaire, including the Health Utilities Index (HUI-3) to assess functional impairment, and specific medical and behavioural outcomes. Educational outcomes for children in England were explored using national standardised tests. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore independent associates of NEC within the cohort. The authors obtained data for 119 (77%) of 157 children following proven or suspected NEC and compared their outcomes with those of the remaining 6496 children. NEC was associated with an increase in risk of neonatal death (OR 14.6 (95% CI 10.4 to 20.6)). At 7 years, NEC conferred an increased risk of all grades of impairment. Adjusting for confounders, risks persisted for any HUI-3 defined functional impairment (adjusted OR 1.55 (1.05, 2.29)), particularly mild impairment (adjusted OR 1.61 (1.03, 2.53)) both in all NEC children and in those with proven NEC, which appeared to be independent. No behavioural or educational associations were confirmed. Following NEC, children were more likely to suffer bowel problems than non-NEC children (adjusted OR 3.96 (2.06, 7.61)). The ORACLE Children Study provided opportunity for the largest evaluation of school age outcome following neonatal NEC and demonstrates significant long-term consequences of both gut function (presence of stoma, admission for bowel problems and continuing medical care for gut-related problems) and motor, sensory and cognitive outcomes as measured using HUI-3.

  13. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  14. Maternal occupational exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy and risk of asthma in 7-year-old children: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Skadhauge, Lars R; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Frydenberg, Morten; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy is associated with the development of asthma in 7-year-old Danish children, taking atopic status and sex into consideration. Design The study is a prospective follow-up of a birth cohort. Setting and participants A total of 41 724 women and their children from The Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy and 18 months after pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was parent-reported asthma among their 7-year-old children in an internet-based questionnaire. Secondary outcome was asthma among the same children with or without atopic dermatitis and among boys and girls, respectively. Results Prenatal exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) agents was borderline associated with asthma in children with OR 1.17 (0.95 to 1.44) for children with atopic dermatitis and 1.10 (0.98 to 1.22) for children without. Maternal postnatal exposure was associated with asthma (OR 1.15 (1.04 to 1.28). After mutual adjustment,postnatal exposure (OR 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) and the combined effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure (OR 1.34 (1.19 to 1.51)) seem to increase the risk of asthma in children. No significant associations were observed for other prenatal or postnatal exposures. The gender of the child did not modify the aforementioned associations. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposures during pregnancy do not seem to be a substantial risk factor for the development of asthma in 7-year-old children. Maternal prenatal and postnatal exposures to LMW agents may predispose the propensity of the children to develop asthma. Future studies should prioritise the characterisation of the timing of exposure in relation to the birth. PMID:23585388

  15. Epidemiology of sarcoidosis in Afro-Caribbean people: a 7-year retrospective study in Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Coquart, Nolwenn; Cadelis, Gilbert; Tressières, Benoît; Cordel, Nadege

    2015-02-01

    There are no reliable epidemiological data on sarcoidosis in the French West Indies, although this disease is known to be more frequent and more severe in Black African-Americans and West Indians. This retrospective study aimed to assess the incidence and prevalence of sarcoidosis in Guadeloupe over a 7-year period and to determine its epidemiological, clinical, and evolutionary characteristics. Patients were identified through the computerized databases of the three pathology laboratories and two hospitals on the islands of Guadeloupe. Histologically proven cases of sarcoidosis were selected. All patients were recalled at a single study time-point. A total of 75 patients were identified. These included 44 women and 31 men (sex ratio: 1.4), with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 47 ± 14 years and Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI. The average incidence was 2.28 per 100,000 inhabitants per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-3.02). The prevalence of sarcoidosis in 2009 was 21.09 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 16.00-26.18). Most patients (61/71, 85.9%) exhibited multiple organ involvement; the mean ± SD number of organs involved was 2.6 ± 1.1. The initiation of systemic therapy was required in 75.7% of cases. Several lines of treatment were necessary in 41.5% of affected patients. At the study time-point, seven patients were found to have died. Four of these deaths were directly attributable to sarcoidosis (mortality rate: 5.3%). This epidemiological study on sarcoidosis in Guadeloupe reveals a low incidence of the disease and a high degree of severity as evidenced by the average number of affected organs, the high frequency of extrathoracic organ involvement, the frequent use of corticosteroids, and a mortality rate of 5.3%. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.

  17. Mothers' attachment style, their mental health, and their children's emotional vulnerabilities: a 7-year study of children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Berant, Ety; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R

    2008-02-01

    The long-term contribution of mothers' attachment insecurities to their own and their children's psychological functioning was examined in a 7-year prospective longitudinal study of children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD). Sixty-three mothers of newborns with CHD participated in a three-wave study, beginning with the CHD diagnosis (T1), then 1 year later (T2), and again 7 years later (T3). At T1, the mothers reported on their attachment style and mental health. At T2, the mental health measure was administered again, along with a marital satisfaction scale. At T3, participants completed these two measures again, and their children reported on their self-concept and completed the Children's Apperception Test. Maternal avoidant attachment at T1 was the best predictor of deterioration in the mothers' mental health and marital satisfaction over the 7-year period, especially in a subgroup whose children had severe CHD. In addition, mothers' attachment insecurities (both anxiety and avoidance) at the beginning of the study were associated with their children's emotional problems and poor self-image 7 years later.

  18. A retrospective 7-years study of aluminum phosphide poisoning in Tehran: opportunities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Shadnia, S; Sasanian, G; Allami, P; Hosseini, A; Ranjbar, A; Amini-Shirazi, N; Abdollahi, M

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to survey aluminum phosphide (AIP) poisoning in a referral poisoning hospital in Tehran servicing an estimation of 10,000,000 populations. Records of all patients admitted and hospitalized during a period of 7 years from January 2000 to January 2007 were collected and analyzed according to gender, age, cause of intoxication, amount of AIP consumed, route of exposure, time between exposure and onset of treatment, signs and symptoms of intoxication at admission, therapeutic intervention, laboratory tests, and outcome. During the studied years, 471 patients were admitted to the hospital with AIP poisoning; 50% of them were men. The overall case fatality ratio was 31%. The mean age was 27.1 years, and most of the patients were between 20 and 40 years old. Self-poisoning was observed in 93% of cases. The average ingested dose was 5.1 g, and most of the patients (73%) consumed 1-3 tablets of AIP. A wide range of symptoms and signs was seen on admission, but the most common one was cardiovascular manifestations (78.12%). The majority (65%) of patients were from Tehran. Poisoning in spring and winter (34% and 24%, respectively) was more common than other seasons. Gastric decontamination with potassium permanganate, and administration of calcium gluconate, magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, and charcoal were considered for most of the patients. Mean arterial blood pH was 7.23 and bicarbonate concentration was 12.7 mEq/L. One-hundred percent of patients with blood pH <7 died and 100% of patients with blood pH >or= 7.35 survived. Electrocardiogram (EKG) abnormalities were noted in 65.6% of cases. There was a significant difference between survival and non-survival according to pH, HCO(3) concentration, and EKG abnormality. Even without an increase in resources, there appears to be significant opportunities for reducing mortality by better medical management and further restrictions on the AIP tablets usage. Arterial blood pH seems to be a

  19. Women's functioning following an intervention for partner violence: new knowledge for clinical practice from a 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Koci, Anne Floyd; McFarlane, Judith; Cesario, Sandra; Symes, Lene; Bianchi, Ann; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Liu, Fuqin; Paulson, Rene; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Zahed, Hossein

    2014-10-01

    Intimate partner violence affects one in three women worldwide, with women who experience violence almost twice as likely to experience poor mental health, especially depression, compared with women who are not abused. To learn the impact of interventions of safe shelter and justice services on improved mental health and behavior functioning, 300 abused women are interviewed every 4 months in a 7-year prospective study. For this paper, abuse, mental health and resiliency status of these women, 1 year after accessing services for the first time, are reported. Measures of mental health (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), somatization), and adult behavioral functioning are reported. At 4 months following a shelter stay or justice services, a large effect size was measured for improvement in all mental health measures; however, improvement was the lowest for PTSD. All mental health measures plateaued at 4 months with minimum further improvement at 12 months. Both internal behavioral dysfunctions (withdrawal and somatic complaints) were worse with increased depressive symptoms, as were external behavioral dysfunctions (aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors). A concerning 39.2% of the women had clinical PTSD scores at 12 months following receipt of safe shelter or justice services, compared with a much lower percentage of women with clinical depression (14.2%), clinical somatization (9.4%), and clinical anxiety (13.5%). Depression was a significant positive predictor of internal and external behavioral dysfunctions, indicating that women who had higher levels of depression tended to report more internal dysfunctions (withdrawal, anxiety, somatization) and more external behaviors (aggression and rule-breaking).

  20. The Development of L2 Oral Language Skills in Two L1 Groups: A 7-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Researching the longitudinal development of second language (L2) learners is essential to understanding influences on their success. This 7-year study of oral skills in adult immigrant learners of English as a second language evaluated comprehensibility, fluency, and accentedness in first-language (L1) Mandarin and Slavic language speakers. The…

  1. In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Body Mass at Age 7 Years: The CHAMACOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic flame retardants that bioaccumulate in humans. Child serum PBDE concentrations in California are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs may be associated with obesity by disrupting endocrine systems. Objective In this study, we examined whether pre- and postnatal exposure to the components of pentaBDE mixture was associated with childhood obesity in a population of Latino children participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California. Methods We measured PBDEs in serum collected from 224 mothers during pregnancy and their children at 7 years of age, and examined associations with body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. Results Maternal PBDE serum levels during pregnancy were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys (BMI z-score βadjusted = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.19, 0.72) but lower scores in girls (BMI z-score βadjusted = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.87, –0.05) at 7 years of age (pinteraction = 0.04). In addition, child’s serum BDE-153 concentration (log10), but not other pentaBDE congeners, demonstrated inverse associations with BMI at age 7 years (BMI z-score βadjusted = –1.15; 95% CI: –1.53, –0.77), but there was no interaction by sex. Conclusions We estimated sex-specific associations with maternal PBDE levels during pregnancy and BMI at 7 years of age, finding positive associations in boys and negative associations in girls. Children’s serum BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI at 7 years with no difference by sex. Future studies should examine the longitudinal trends in obesity with PBDE exposure and changes in hormonal environment as children transition through puberty, as well as evaluate the potential for reverse causality. Citation Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. 2015. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environ

  2. Sperm donation and its application in China: a 7-year multicenter retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Ping; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Zong; Li, Yu-Shan; Wang, Quan-Xian; Cao, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Yong; Dai, Hui-Li; Huang, Yi-Ran; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Sperm donation in China is different from that in other countries due to cultural, social and political factors. This research presents the current status of sperm donation in Mainland China and highlights some problems. Between January 2003 and December 2009, 19 471 sperm donors were screened totally and 6467 donors (33.2%) were recruited. The primary reasons for non-recruitment were either inadequate semen parameters (55.0%) or positive results for sexually transmitted diseases (7.9%). There were 327 (1.7%) qualified donors who withdrew from the program because of frustration related to failed semen parameters, participation merely for free medical tests or job transfer. A questionnaire investigating donor intention, as well as other concerns associated with sperm donation, was distributed to 516 potential donors. All potential donors indicated their primary motivation as altruism, while 90.9% mentioned monetary reward as a second motivating factor. Approximately 93.4% of donors expressed some apprehension about the risk of consanguineous mating and the protection of their identity. Over the past 7 years, 488 389 vials of donors' semen have been cryopreserved. In 36 438 artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID) cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 23.9% and the live birth rate was 16.6%. In 7148 in vitro fertilization cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 45.8% and the live birth rate was 35.2%. Human sperm banks have been strictly monitored to ensure that each sperm donor can only impregnate five women nationwide. There is still a large gap between the supply and demand for sperm donation which may be solved by updated guidelines. PMID:21623386

  3. Predictors for Asthma at Age 7 Years for Low-Income Children Enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamesis, Grace P; Covar, Ronina A; Strand, Matthew; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J.; Klinnert, Mary D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the predictive factors of early childhood wheezing in children of low socioeconomic status. Study design The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) enrolled 177 low-income children (9–24 months old) with frequent wheezing. At age 7 years, presence of asthma was assessed through caregiver reports of physician diagnosis of asthma (CRPDA) and corroborated by assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Lung function, inflammatory markers, and asthma symptom severity were compared for children with ±CRPDA, ±BHR, and asthma. Baseline predictors for CRPDA, BHR and asthma at 7 years of age were examined. Results Maternal symptom report strongly differentiated children with +CRPDA (50%) despite comparable airflow measurements (p<0.0001), and spirometric lung function measurements were different for +BHR (65%) vs. −BHR (p<0.005). Univariate analyses revealed different baseline predictors of +CRPDA and +BHR for children at age 7 years. Higher levels of maternal psychological resources were associated with +CRPDA, but not +BHR. Only 39% of children with a history of frequent wheezing met the conservative definition of asthma at age 7 years, with the following significant predictors found: low birth weight, baseline symptom severity and maternal psychological resources. Conclusions This low-income, multi-ethnic group of wheezing infants represents a unique population of children with distinct characteristics and risks for persistent asthma. Determination of asthma status at 7 years of age required objective measurement of BHR in addition to CRPDA. The association of maternal psychological resources with +CRPDA may represent a previously unrecognized factor in determination of asthma status among low-income groups. PMID:23036483

  4. Predictors for asthma at age 7 years for low-income children enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Tamesis, Grace P; Covar, Ronina A; Strand, Matthew; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J; Klinnert, Mary D

    2013-03-01

    To identify the predictive factors of early childhood wheezing in children of low socioeconomic status. The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study enrolled 177 low-income children (9-24 months old) with frequent wheezing. At age 7 years, presence of asthma was assessed through caregiver reports of physician diagnosis of asthma (CRPDA) and corroborated by assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Lung function, inflammatory markers, and asthma symptom severity were compared for children with ±CRPDA, ±BHR, and asthma. Baseline predictors for CRPDA, BHR, and asthma at 7 years of age were examined. Maternal symptom report strongly differentiated children with +CRPDA (49%) despite comparable airflow measurements (P < .0001), and spirometric lung function measurements were different for +BHR (65%) versus -BHR (P < .005). Univariate analyses revealed different baseline predictors of +CRPDA and +BHR for children at age 7 years. Higher levels of maternal psychological resources were associated with +CRPDA, but not +BHR. Only 39% of children with a history of frequent wheezing met the conservative definition of asthma at age 7 years, with the following significant predictors found: low birth weight, baseline symptom severity, and maternal psychological resources. This low-income, multi-ethnic group of wheezing infants represents a unique population of children with distinct characteristics and risks for persistent asthma. Determination of asthma status at 7 years of age required objective measurement of BHR in addition to CRPDA. The association of maternal psychological resources with +CRPDA may represent a previously unrecognized factor in the determination of asthma status among low-income groups. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relevance of Piaget's cognitive principles among 4-7 years old children: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Sharath; Surendran, Sharmila; Asokan, Sureetha; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    According to Jean Piaget, children between 4 and 7 years of age are under the intuitive sub-stage of preoperational stage. Children possess specific characteristics based on their age. These characteristic cognitive principles have not been assessed in a dental setting. Research on the cognitive development of the child and its application to dental health care can enable pediatric dentists to better understand, approach and deliver improved quality of care to children. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of Piaget's cognitive principles among preoperational children. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 children, aged 4-7 years. Various characteristics, specific for this age group, such as egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using three tangible experiments and two interview questions. A comparison of the prevalence of each character was carried out among the children based on their age. The prevalence of egocentrism based on the three mountain experiment was 65% and the personal interview showed a prevalence of 58%. Centration was appreciated in 83% of the study sample. The beaker experiment and the interview question revealed a lack of conservation in 89% and 59% of the children, respectively. There was a gradual and uniform reduction in the prevalence of the characters with an increase in age. All the three features assessed were observed in most of the children between 4 and 7 years of age as described by Piaget and most of his principles still appear valid today.

  6. Physical assessment as a predictor of mortality in people with Parkinson's disease: a study over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Gray, William K; Hildreth, Anthony; Bilclough, Julie A; Wood, Brian H; Baker, Katherine; Walker, Richard W

    2009-10-15

    The primary aim of this study was to ascertain whether a battery of physical function measures in a Parkinson's disease (PD) patient cohort predicted mortality status at 7-year follow-up. Secondary aims were establishing which specific tests were the most useful, and whether PD phenotype was a predictor. A retrospective correlation design was used in this study. A cohort of 109 PD patients underwent baseline physiotherapy assessment of gait, balance, posture, muscle strength, and ability to change postural set. We compared mortality status at 7-year follow-up and baseline physical assessment tests. Tinetti gait and balance scores, UPDRS score, 10-m walk test (time, velocity, and number of strides), posture in standing, lying to sitting, sitting to standing, getting up from floor assessments, and time to ascend and descend four steps were found to be statistically significant physical predictors of mortality at 7-year follow-up. In addition, age, sex, and mini-mental state examination were significant nonphysical predictors of mortality. Using Cox regression, a survival model was constructed with age, sex, and Tinetti gait score as independent predictors of mortality. The results of this study suggest that there is a link between reduced physical function and an increased mortality risk in PD populations.

  7. Serum vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of incident non-Alzheimer dementias: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Annweiler, C; Rolland, Y; Schott, A M; Blain, H; Vellas, B; Beauchet, O

    2011-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D has been cross-sectionally associated with dementia and stroke. The objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether serum vitamin D deficiency at baseline could predict the onset of non-Alzheimer dementias (NAD) within 7 years among older women. Forty high-functioning older women (78.4 years, 76.4/82.0; median, 25th/75th percentile) from the EPIDOS Toulouse study were divided into two groups based on vitamin D deficiency (i.e., serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <10 ng/ml) at baseline. At the end of the 7-year follow-up period, women matching the DSM-IV but not the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were diagnosed with NAD while those matching the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were considered to have Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subtle cognitive impairments at baseline, cardiovascular risk factors and Parkinson's disease were used as potential confounders. NAD was reported in 6 women (82.8 years, 80.6/86.0) after 7 years of follow-up. More NAD were observed in women with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.023). There was no between-group difference regarding the onset of AD (p = 0.332). We found an association between vitamin D deficiency at baseline and the onset of NAD (adjusted odds ratio = 19.57, p = 0.042). Conversely, vitamin D deficiency was not associated with AD (p = 0.222). Baseline vitamin D deficiency predicted the onset of NAD within 7 years among older women. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Collembola population levels 7 years after installation of the North Carolina long term soil productivity study

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Eaton

    2006-01-01

    Collembola are among the most abundant microarthropods in terrestrial ecosystems and have been shown to affect litter decomposition and nutrient release rates. Previous work 0-n the Croatan National Forest Long Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) study indicated organic matter removal and vegetation control treatments affected collembolan populations. The present study...

  9. Computer Competency: A 7-Year Study to Identify Gaps in Student Computer Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, George F.; Pearl, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Computer competency is crucial to student success in higher education. Assessment of student knowledge related to specific computer competencies can provide faculty with important information about the strengths and weaknesses of their students' computer competency skills. The purpose of this study was to identify the competency level of two…

  10. Appearance of melanocytic nevi on the backs of young Australian children: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Milne, Elizabeth; Simpson, Julie A; English, Dallas R

    2008-02-01

    To determine the rate of appearance of nevi in a cohort of children between ages 6 and 12 years. The number of nevi has been established as the strongest known risk factor for melanoma, but whether the rate at which nevi appear during childhood varies by age is not well understood. The study involved analysis of nevus development over time in a cohort of 640 Western Australian school children who formed the control group in the Kidskin intervention trial. Children were assessed at ages 6, 10 and 12 years, with nevi on the back counted from photographs. The changes in both number and density of nevi between ages 6 and 12 years were linear with respect to age. The number and density of nevi increased at a greater rate for boys compared with girls; for children with blue, hazel and green eyes compared with those with brown eyes; for blonde versus dark haired children and for children with heavy freckling compared with those with no freckles. In conclusion, further research is needed to determine whether the linear increase in nevi continues into adolescence. If so, it suggests that skin cancer prevention campaigns should target older children and adolescents as well as younger children. Longitudinal studies have important advantages over cross-sectional studies in the description of nevus development with age, and should be the preferred study design.

  11. Human factors in aircraft incidents - Results of a 7-year study (Andre Allard Memorial Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Reynard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that nearly all fatal aircraft accidents are preventable, and that most such accidents are due to human error. The present discussion is concerned with the results of a seven-year study of the data collected by the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The Aviation Safety Reporting System was designed to stimulate as large a flow as possible of information regarding errors and operational problems in the conduct of air operations. It was implemented in April, 1976. In the following 7.5 years, 35,000 reports have been received from pilots, controllers, and the armed forces. Human errors are found in more than 80 percent of these reports. Attention is given to the types of events reported, possible causal factors in incidents, the relationship of incidents and accidents, and sources of error in the data. ASRS reports include sufficient detail to permit authorities to institute changes in the national aviation system designed to minimize the likelihood of human error, and to insulate the system against the effects of errors.

  12. Human factors in aircraft incidents - Results of a 7-year study (Andre Allard Memorial Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Reynard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that nearly all fatal aircraft accidents are preventable, and that most such accidents are due to human error. The present discussion is concerned with the results of a seven-year study of the data collected by the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The Aviation Safety Reporting System was designed to stimulate as large a flow as possible of information regarding errors and operational problems in the conduct of air operations. It was implemented in April, 1976. In the following 7.5 years, 35,000 reports have been received from pilots, controllers, and the armed forces. Human errors are found in more than 80 percent of these reports. Attention is given to the types of events reported, possible causal factors in incidents, the relationship of incidents and accidents, and sources of error in the data. ASRS reports include sufficient detail to permit authorities to institute changes in the national aviation system designed to minimize the likelihood of human error, and to insulate the system against the effects of errors.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors from birth to 7 years of age: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, T A; Farris, R P; Major, C; Frank, G C; Webber, L S; Cresanta, J L; Berenson, G S

    1987-11-01

    Dietary patterns and racial differences in nutrient intake were observed in children 6 months to 4 years of age in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Even in this sample of young children, the composition of the intakes of the majority of children was not compatible with prudent recommendations of less than 35% and 10% of energy from total and saturated fat, respectively. Mean cholesterol intake of the 4-year-old children (390 mg) was approximately one half of the average daily adult levels. The polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 0.41 to 0.53 and sucrose to starch ratio from 1.32 to 1.57, reflecting a high saturated fat and sucrose intake. White children had greater intakes of sucrose than black children; however, total fat and cholesterol intakes were greater in black children. Gender differences were noted among the 2, 3, and 4-year-old children: energy, sugar, and starch intakes were greater in boys, and cholesterol intake per 1,000 kcal was greater in girls. Mean intakes per 1,000 kcal in Bogalusa were higher for fat and carbohydrate and lower for protein than reported in the Second Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. However, when the National Research Council recommended dietary allowances for protein and energy are used for comparison, a more than adequate intake was noted in these children. The data found in this newborn-infant cohort contribute information regarding the early development of dietary habits that likely influence eating behavior in later childhood and adolescence.

  14. Valvular repair or replacement for mitral endocarditis: 7-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Oh, Timothy; Voss, Jamie; Gamble, Greg; Kang, Nicholas; Pemberton, James

    2014-10-01

    A few studies have compared mitral valve repair and replacement in the setting of infective endocarditis, with varying results. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of mitral repair and replacement in endocarditis patients. All patients undergoing mitral valve repair or replacement for active mitral endocarditis during 2005-2011 were included. Operative and follow-up mortality, composite morbidity, recurrent endocarditis, and redo operations were prespecified endpoints for analyses. There were 25 and 35 patients undergoing mitral valve repair and replacement, respectively. They were followed-up for 3.9 ± 2.5 years. Valve replacement patients were older (p = 0.029), had a higher prevalence of intracardiac abscess (p = 0.035), previous endocarditis (p = 0.036), atrial fibrillation (p = 0.001), worse renal function (p = 0.013), higher risk scores (p = 0.004-0.020), and longer operation times (p < 0.001). Repair and replacement had similar rates of operative mortality (4.0% vs. 8.6%, p = 0.634), composite morbidity (16.0% vs. 28.6%, p = 0.357), survival (p = 0.564), recurrent endocarditis (p = 0.081), and redo operations (p = 0.813). Independent predictors of operative mortality were preoperative inotropic or intraaortic balloon pump support. The independent predictor of mortality during follow-up was dialysis. Independent predictors of composite morbidity were intracardiac abscess and hypercholesterolemia. The independent predictor of recurrent endocarditis was previous endocarditis, and the independent predictor of redo operation was previous stroke. Mitral valve replacement candidates had more baseline risk factors and higher raw rates of postoperative mortality and morbidity, which did not reach statistical significance. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Malnutrition, functional ability and mortality among older people aged ⩾ 60 years: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Naseer, M; Forssell, H; Fagerström, C

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 7-year mortality, controlling for functional ability, socio-demographics, lifestyle behavior and diseases, and investigate the interaction between risk of malnutrition and functional ability on the risk of mortality. A longitudinal study on home-living and special-housing residents aged ⩾ 60 years was conducted. Of 2312 randomly invited participants, 1402 responded and 1203 provided information on both nutritional status and functional ability. The risk of malnutrition was estimated by the occurrence of at least one anthropometric measure (BMI, MAC and CC) below cut-off in addition to the presence of at least one subjective measure (decreased food intake, weight loss and eating difficulty). At baseline, 8.6% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition and during the 7-year follow-up 34.6% subjects died. The risk of malnutrition was independently associated with 7-year mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-2.65). Additional independent predictors were dementia (HR 2.76, 95% CI 1.85-4.10), activity of daily living (ADL) dependence (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.62-2.67), heart disease (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16-1.78), diabetes (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.93) and older age (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.10). Moreover, the risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence in combination predicted the poorest survival rate (18.7%, P<0.001). The risk of malnutrition significantly increases the risk of mortality in older people. Moreover, risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence together explain a significantly poorer survival rate; however, the importance of this interaction decreased in the multivariable model and risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence independently explained a significant risk of mortality.

  16. The US Postmarketing Surveillance Study of Adult Osteosarcoma and Teriparatide: Study Design and Findings From the First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gilsenan, Alicia W; Midkiff, Kirk; Sherrill, Beth; Wu, Yun; Mann, Beth H; Masica, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Osteosarcoma Surveillance Study, an ongoing 15-year surveillance study initiated in 2003, is a postmarketing commitment to the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration to evaluate a potential association between teriparatide, rhPTH(1–34), a recombinant human parathyroid hormone analog (self-injectable medication to treat osteoporosis), and development of osteosarcoma in response to a finding from preclinical (animal) studies. Incident cases of primary osteosarcoma diagnosed in adults (aged ≥40 years) on or after January 1, 2003, are identified through population-based state, regional, and comprehensive cancer center registries in the US. Information on possible prior treatment with teriparatide, on demographics, and on risk factors is ascertained by patient or proxy telephone interview after patient consent. Between June 2004 and September 30, 2011, 1448 cases (diagnosed 2003 to 2009) were identified by participating cancer registries (estimated to be 62% of all adult cases in the US for that time period); 549 patients or proxies were interviewed. Interviewed patients were similar to noninterviewed patients with regard to mean age, sex, race, and geographical distribution and tumor type and site of tumor. Mean age of those interviewed was 61 years, 46% were female, 86% were white, and 77% were alive when the case was reported to the study investigators. Data collected in the study provide descriptive information on a large number of adults with osteosarcoma, an uncommon malignant bone tumor. After 7 years of the study, there were no osteosarcoma patients who had a prior history of teriparatide treatment. Thus, approximately halfway through this 15-year study, the study has not detected a pattern indicative of a causal association between teriparatide treatment and osteosarcoma in humans. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:22991313

  17. A 7-year follow-up study on the mental health of North Korean defectors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Woo-Taek; Eom, Jin-Sup; Min, Sung Kil

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to describe the relationship of past trauma and current stress on the mental health of North Korean (NK) defectors living in South Korea 7 years after a baseline assessment. Of the 200 who participated in the initial study, 106 participated in follow-up. Previous data regarding past traumatic events experienced in North Korea and during defection, past posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their current stress levels were correlated with the participants' current mental health status including depression, anxiety, and PTSD. The rate of PTSD in the sample and the scores on the PTSD symptom scale decreased significantly from the baseline. The participants' current mental health was negatively related to previous traumatic experiences in North Korea and past symptoms of PTSD, but unrelated to previous trauma experienced during defection. In addition, although current mental health was negatively related to only current culture-related stress, it was unrelated to the level of current ordinary life stress. The results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms decreased during the 7 years between assessments, and that current culture-related stress is the most important variable related to the mental health of NK defectors living in South Korea. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  18. Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Bresnahan, M; Begg, M D; Susser, E

    2001-08-11

    To examine the relation between birth weight and measured intelligence at age 7 years in children within the normal range of birth weight and in siblings. Cohort study of siblings of the same sex. 12 cities in the United States. 3484 children of 1683 mothers in a birth cohort study during the years 1959 through 1966. The sample was restricted to children born at >/=37 weeks gestation and with birth weights of 1500-3999 g. Full scale IQ at age 7 years. Mean IQ increased monotonically with birth weight in both sexes across the range of birth weight in a linear regression analysis of one randomly selected sibling per family (n= 1683) with adjustment for maternal age, race, education, socioeconomic status, and birth order. Within same sex sibling pairs, differences in birth weight were directly associated with differences in IQ in boys (812 pairs, predicted IQ difference per 100 g change in birth weight =0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.71) but not girls (871 pairs, 0.10, -0.09 to 0.30). The effect in boys remained after differences in birth order, maternal smoking, and head circumference were adjusted for and in an analysis restricted to children with birth weight >/= 2500 g. The increase in childhood IQ with birth weight continues well into the normal birth weight range. For boys this relation holds within same sex sibships and therefore cannot be explained by confounding from family social environment.

  19. Violent Offending Among Juveniles: A 7-year Longitudinal Study of Recidivism, Desistance, and Associations With Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Hein, Sascha; Barbot, Baptiste; Square, Amanda; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine Foley; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2017-04-06

    Serious and violent offending among juveniles is a consistent concern of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, yet the development of violent offending remains poorly understood because of limited availability of relevant data, small sample sizes, and shortage of longitudinal data sets. This study analyzed developmental patterns of violent offending over 7 years in the complete population of court-referred youth in Connecticut between 2006 and 2012 (N = 58,678; mean age at first offense = 14.7 years). This unique dataset provided several key findings: First, results from a latent class growth analysis showed that violent crimes peaked at age 14-15, with high-rate adolescent offenders (3.7% of the sample) accounting for 31.9% of all violent offenses. Further, 74.2% of this group desisted from violent crimes in adulthood. Higher levels of self-reported anger/irritability slightly increased the odds of violent recidivism (odds ratio, OR = 1.09), where higher levels of depression/anxiety depressed the odds (OR = 0.89). The overrepresentation of males, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic youth among high-rate adolescence offenders were traceable through adolescence but not beyond the age of 18. Together, these finding may help to inform new delinquency interventions that target the needs of this proportionally small group of violent adolescent offenders accounting for a large amount of violent crimes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio and subsequent mood disorders in young people with at-risk mental states: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Berger, M E; Smesny, S; Kim, S-W; Davey, C G; Rice, S; Sarnyai, Z; Schlögelhofer, M; Schäfer, M R; Berk, M; McGorry, P D; Amminger, G P

    2017-08-29

    While cross-sectional studies suggest that patients with mood disorders have a higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower levels of omega-3 PUFAs, it is unknown if a high n-6/3 ratio indicates vulnerability for depression. We tested this hypothesis in a 7-year follow-up study of young individuals with an ultra-high risk (UHR) phenotype. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Vienna omega-3 study, a longitudinal study of omega-3 PUFAs in individuals at UHR for psychosis (n=69). Levels of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs were measured in the phosphatidylethanolamine fraction of erythrocyte membranes at intake into the study. Mood disorder diagnosis was ascertained with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and confirmed by review of medical records and interviews of caregivers. A higher n-6/3 PUFA ratio at baseline predicted mood disorders in UHR individuals over a 7-year (median) follow-up (odds ratio=1.89, 95% CI=1.075-3.338, P=0.03). This association remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, severity of depressive symptoms at baseline and n-3 supplementation. Consistent results were obtained for individual PUFAs, including lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The predictive capacity of these findings was specific to mood disorders as no associations were found for any other psychiatric disorder. To our knowledge, our data provide the first prospective evidence that the n-6/3 PUFA ratio is associated with an increased risk for mood disorders in young people exhibiting an UHR phenotype. These findings may have important implications for treatment and risk stratification beyond clinical characteristics.

  1. Relationship between maternal gestational hypertension and home blood pressure in 7-year-old children and their mothers: Tohoku Study of Child Development.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Miki; Asayama, Kei; Staessen, Jan A; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Satoh, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2015-11-01

    Women who had hypertensive disorders in pregnancy have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in later life. No studies, however, have investigated whether maternal hypertensive disorders in pregnancy affect self-measured blood pressure at home (HBP) in mothers and their children. We evaluated the association between maternal hypertension during pregnancy and HBP based on the prospective Tohoku Study of Child Development birth cohort study, which was performed in two areas in Japan. We included children in a singleton birth at term (36-42 weeks of gestation) with a birth weight of >2400 g. We collected prenatal care data from the medical charts. Because only two mothers experienced preeclampsia, we defined gestational hypertension (GH) as a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. Seven years after birth, mothers and their children measured their HBP in the morning for 2 weeks. Of 813 eligible mothers, 28 (3.4%) experienced GH, and those were of a similar age compared with 785 non-GH mothers (37.3 vs. 38.0 years; P=0.41). Women with GH had higher body mass index (BMI) (23.8 vs. 21.4 kg m(-)(2); P=0.01) and elevated HBP (120.3/76.8 vs. 110.4/68.6 mm Hg; P<0.0002) 7 years after delivery. However, HBP was similar in children with and without GH mothers (93.5/55.9 vs. 94.1/56.1 mm Hg, P>0.38). These results were confirmatory in case-control (1:2) analyses with matching by maternal age, maternal BMI before pregnancy, survey area and parity. In conclusion, maternal GH did not affect HBP in offspring but strongly affected maternal HBP even 7 years after birth.

  2. Study of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic over a period of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Immunisation is an important part of childcare practice. It is one of the most beneficial and cost effective measures for the prevention of diseases. From the previous retrospective studies, it was evident that smallpox has been completely eradicated throughout now-a-days with the wholehearted and sincere efforts of healthcare providers by applying efficient and safe vaccine against smallpox, same is true also to polio which is now close to worldwide eradication and measles and rubella are no longer endemic in certain parts of the world. Not only has that with the introduction of safer and more efficient newer vaccines, the incidence of most other vaccine preventable disease of childhood also reduced considerably. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines for a period of seven years using prospective active surveillance. Children under the age of 7 years were taken for universal and newer scheduled vaccinations given in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic under the supervision of the clinicians maintaining strictly the guidelines of Expanded Programme of Immunisation (Government of India). This study of adverse events following immunisation in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic confirms that the adverse events such as fever (0.37%), pain and swelling at the site of injection (0.32%0, urticarial rash (0.02%), anaphylactic shock (0.003%) are negligible. There were only two reports of anaphylaxis following preschool and infant schedule vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines and typhoid vaccines in approximately 52,000 infants received over a period of 7 years starting from 1st April, 2005 to 31st March, 2012 and there were no deaths or longterm effects reported during the post follow-up period in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic.

  3. Carbamazepine--the commonest cause of toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a study of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Devi, K; George, Sandhya; Criton, S; Suja, V; Sridevi, P K

    2005-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are a group of severe life threatening drug reactions. The drugs commonly implicated as the cause of these drug reactions vary depending on host factors and the prescription pattern of drugs in that particular area. The aim of the study was to find the drugs implicated as the cause of SJS/TEN in the patients admitted in the dermatology ward at the Medical College, Thrissur and to find the clinical outcome. It was a retrospective study of 7 years from 1997 to 2004. The case records of all patients with a clinical diagnosis of TEN or SJS were studied in detail regarding the drugs implicated as the cause, the management and the clinical outcome. During the study period, 41 patients in the age group ranging from 12 to 72 years were treated as inpatients, of which 20 were males and 21 were females. The commonest drug implicated as the cause of SJS/TEN was carbamazepine (44%). The indication for carbamazepine was control of pain in more than 50% of the cases. Presence of a major systemic disease before the onset of SJS/TEN was associated with a bad prognosis. The increased use of carbamazepine, especially for control of pain, may be the reason for the increased incidence of SJS/TEN due to the same drug. Awareness about the drugs implicated in life threatening drug reactions will help physicians in preventing them by judicious use of the drugs.

  4. Mental Health Changes and Its Predictors in Adolescents using the Path Analytic Model: A 7-Year Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Soltanian, Ali Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Namazi, Soudabeh; Qaedi, Hossein; Kohan, Gholam Reza

    2014-03-01

    This 7-year observational study examines the hours of TV-watching, phone conversation with friends, using the internet, and physical activity as predictors of mental health among adolescents in south of Iran. At the baseline (in 2005), the participants were 2584 high school students in the 9th to 11th grade. At the baseline, 30% of the available participants (n = 775) were selected in the follow-up (2012) using convenience sampling method. This study used the path analysis to examine the predictors of mental health and to obtain direct, indirect and total effects of the independent variables. At the baseline (2005), female gender, internet use, maternal education, physical activity and father's education were associated with mental health (p<0.05). Baseline mental health, internet use and physical activity predicted mental health of the participants in the follow up (p<0.05). The findings of the study revealed that better mental health in later life is associated with better mental health at baseline, male gender, higher physical activity and phone communication with friends, and less use of the internet and TV.

  5. Age at migration and future risk of psychotic disorders among immigrants in the Netherlands: a 7-year incidence study.

    PubMed

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Selten, Jean-Paul; Susser, Ezra

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the increased risk for developing a psychotic disorder among immigrants is related to their age at the time of migration. In a 7-year first-contact incidence study, immigrants to the Netherlands and Dutch citizens, ages 15-54 years, who made a first contact with a physician for a suspected psychotic disorder were identified. Diagnostic interviews were administered, and DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by consensus between two psychiatrists. A comprehensive municipal registration system provided the denominator, including information on ethnicity and age at the time of migration. Lower age at the time of migration was associated with a higher incidence of psychotic disorders among immigrants. People who migrated between the ages of 0 and 4 years had the most elevated risk for psychotic disorders compared with the risk among Dutch citizens (age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratio=2.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.10-4.17), and the risk gradually decreased with older age at migration (adjusted incidence rate ratio for migration at 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and >29 years, respectively: 2.31 [CI=1.61-3.29], 1.51 [CI=1.02-2.25], and 1.00 [CI=0.58-1.72]). The adverse influence of migration on the risk for psychotic disorders is most prominent in early life, suggesting that this is an important period in the etiology of the illness.

  6. Molecular Analysis of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates from a Portuguese Cystic Fibrosis Center: a 7-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Mónica V.; Leitão, Jorge H.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Vandamme, Peter; Lito, Luís; Barreto, Celeste; Salgado, Maria José; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    This work reports results of a systematic molecular analysis involving 113 Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates obtained from 23 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients under surveillance over a 7-year period at the major Portuguese CF center, the Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon. The majority of the isolates were serial isolates from persistently infected patients (more than one-half of the population examined). In agreement with previous studies, B. cenocepacia (formerly genomovar III) was the most prevalent species; it was isolated from 52% of the patients infected with B. cepacia complex isolates. Contrasting with previous studies, a very significant percentage of the Portuguese CF subpopulation examined was infected with B. cepacia genomovar I (36%) and B. stabilis (18%). B. multivorans was recovered from two of the infected patients. All four of the species or genomovars were associated with poor clinical outcome, including the cepacia syndrome, and gave rise to chronic and transient infections, with the clinical condition depending on the patient and other still-unidentified factors. The B. cepacia epidemic strain marker region was found exclusively in genomovar III strains, while cblA was detected in genomovars I and III, only. There was no clear relation between the presence of these markers and transmissibility. Altogether, our results indicate that the use of these markers or the genomovar status in identifying patients at higher risk for infection is uncertain. PMID:12958234

  7. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes. PMID:24312035

  8. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  9. Are titanium-on-titanium TiAl6V4 modular necks safe in total hip arthroplasty for non-overweight patients? Results of a prospective series at a minimum follow-up of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Matthieu; Parratte, Sébastien; Galland, Alexandre; Lunebourg, Alexandre; Argenson, Jean-Noel

    2015-10-01

    Using extramedullar modularity in total hip arthroplasty has been proposed as an option to optimize the restoration of hip biomechanics. To avoid the problems that were observed with cobalt-chrome modular neck, titanium modular necks have been developed. The goals of our study were to evaluate the safety of titanium-on-titanium TiAl6V4 modular neck system. Hundred patients with a mean age of 69.6 ± 10.6 (42-86 years) and mean BMI of 25.07 ± 4.86 (17-38 kg/m(2)) suffering from primary or secondary arthritis of the hip were prospectively included. At a minimum of 7 years, no fracture of the modular neck was observed. No patient required a revision. No sign of loosening was found in the radiological analysis. Our study shows that titanium-on-titanium TiAl6V4 modular neck system can safely be used with good midterm clinical and radiological results for non-overweight patients. These results should be confirmed at longer follow-up.

  10. Social disorganization of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders: a 7-year first-contact incidence study.

    PubMed

    Veling, W; Susser, E; Selten, J-P; Hoek, H W

    2015-07-01

    Environmental factors such as urban birth and ethnic minority position have been related to risk for psychotic disorders. There is some evidence that not only individual, but also neighborhood characteristics influence this risk. The aim of this study was to investigate social disorganization of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders. The research was a 7-year first-contact incidence study of psychotic disorders in The Hague. Neighborhood characteristics included continuous, dichotomous and cumulative measures of socio-economic level, residential mobility, ethnic diversity, proportion of single person households, voter turnout, population density and crime level. Using multilevel Poisson regression analysis, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of psychotic disorders were calculated for the indicators of neighborhood social disorganization. A total of 618 incident cases were identified. Neighborhood socio-economic level and residential mobility had the strongest association with incidence of psychotic disorders [individual-level adjusted Wald χ2 1 = 13.03 (p = 0.0003) and 5.51 (p = 0.02), respectively]. All but one (proportion of single person households) of the dichotomous neighborhood indicators were significantly associated with a higher IRR. The cumulative degree of neighborhood social disorganization was strongly and linearly associated with the incidence of psychotic disorders (trend test, Wald χ2 5 = 25.76, p = 0.0001). The IRR in neighborhoods with the highest degree of social disorganization was 1.95 (95% CI 1.38-2.75) compared with the lowest disorganization category. The findings suggest that the risk for developing a psychotic disorder is higher for people living in socially disorganized environments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate causality.

  11. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  12. Experiencing Support During Needle-Related Medical Procedures: A Hermeneutic Study With Young Children (3-7Years).

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Katarina; Dalheim Englund, Ann-Charlotte; Enskär, Karin; Nyström, Maria; Rydström, Ingela

    Needle-related medical procedures (NRMPs) are something that all young children need to undergo at some point. These procedures may involve feelings of fear, pain and anxiety, which can cause problems later in life either when seeking healthcare in general or when seeking care specifically involving needles. More knowledge is needed about supporting children during these procedures. This study aims to explain and understand the meaning of the research phenomenon: support during NRMPs. The lived experiences of the phenomenon are interpreted from the perspective of younger children. The analysis uses a lifeworld hermeneutic approach based on participant observations and interviews with children between 3 and 7years of age who have experienced NRMPs. The research phenomenon, support for younger children during NRMPs, is understood through the following themes: being the centre of attention, getting help with distractions, being pampered, becoming involved, entrusting oneself to the safety of adults and being rewarded. A comprehensive understanding is presented wherein younger children experience support from adults during NRMPs in order to establish resources and/or strengthen existing resources. The manner in which the child will be guided through the procedure is developed based on the child's reactions. This approach demonstrates that children are actively participating during NRMPs. Supporting younger children during NRMPs consists of guiding them through a shared situation that is mutually beneficial to the child, the parent and the nurse. Play during NRMP is an important tool that enables the support to be perceived as positive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stroke Types in Rural and Urban Northern Portugal: Incidence and 7-Year Survival in a Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Manuel; Magalhães, Rui; Silva, Mário Rui; Matos, Ilda; Silva, Maria Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Differences in stroke incidence and mortality between regions could stem from differences in the incidence of particular stroke types and long-term prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different risk profiles and stroke types underlie the difference in stroke incidence and patient long-term survival in rural and urban populations. Methods All suspected first-ever-in-a-lifetime strokes occurring between October 1998 and September 2000 in 37,290 residents of rural municipalities and in 86,023 individuals living in the city of Porto were entered into a population-based registry. Standard definitions of stroke types and overlapping comprehensive sources of information were used for patient identification. Patients were examined by neurologists at 3 months, 1 year and 7 years after the index event. Results From a total of 688 patients included (226 in rural and 462 in urban areas), 76.2% had an ischaemic stroke (IS; 75.3 vs. 77.9%), 16.1% a primary intracerebral haemorrhage (PICH; 16.3 vs. 14.6%) and 3.3% a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH; 2.7 vs. 3.7%); in 4.4% (4.9 vs. 4.1%), the stroke type could not be determined. The annual incidence rate per 1,000 was 2.13 (95% CI, 1.95-2.31), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.37-0.53), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.06-0.14) and 0.12 (95% CI, 0.08-0.17), respectively. The age-specific rural/urban incidence rate ratios for IS in the youngest group (<55 years) was 0.27 (95% CI, 0.11-0.69), increasing to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.07-2.01) for those aged 65-74 years and to 1.87 (95% CI, 1.39-2.52) for those between 75 and 84 years. Rural compared to urban patients with an IS were predominantly men, had a prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.28 (95% CI, 1.05-1.56), were 65 years or older (PR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.30) and had in general a lower prevalence of risk factors. There was no evidence of rural/urban differences in 28-day case fatality for the stroke types, although IS tended to be less fatal among urban patients (10.3 vs. 13.1%), whereas PICH

  14. Breast Milk Feeding, Brain Development, and Neurocognitive Outcomes: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study in Infants Born at Less Than 30 Weeks' Gestation.

    PubMed

    Belfort, Mandy B; Anderson, Peter J; Nowak, Victoria A; Lee, Katherine J; Molesworth, Charlotte; Thompson, Deanne K; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E

    2016-10-01

    To determine the associations of breast milk intake after birth with neurological outcomes at term equivalent and 7 years of age in very preterm infants We studied 180 infants born at <30 weeks' gestation or <1250 grams birth weight enrolled in the Victorian Infant Brain Studies cohort from 2001-2003. We calculated the number of days on which infants received >50% of enteral intake as breast milk from 0-28 days of life. Outcomes included brain volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent and 7 years of age, and cognitive (IQ, reading, mathematics, attention, working memory, language, visual perception) and motor testing at 7 years of age. We adjusted for age, sex, social risk, and neonatal illness in linear regression. A greater number of days on which infants received >50% breast milk was associated with greater deep nuclear gray matter volume at term equivalent age (0.15 cc/d; 95% CI, 0.05-0.25); and with better performance at age 7 years of age on IQ (0.5 points/d; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8), mathematics (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9), working memory (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9), and motor function (0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.2) tests. No differences in regional brain volumes at 7 years of age in relation to breast milk intake were observed. Predominant breast milk feeding in the first 28 days of life was associated with a greater deep nuclear gray matter volume at term equivalent age and better IQ, academic achievement, working memory, and motor function at 7 years of age in very preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study on Cortical Hemodynamic Responses to Normal and Whispered Speech in 3- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijn, Gerard B.; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Ueno, Sanae; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Kojima, Haruyuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess cortical hemodynamic response patterns in 3- to 7-year-old children listening to two speech modes: normally vocalized and whispered speech. Understanding whispered speech requires processing of the relatively weak, noisy signal, as well as the cognitive ability to understand the speaker's reason for…

  16. A Study of Teacher Confidence in Teaching Music within the Context of the Introduction of the Foundation Phase (3-7 Years) Statutory Education Programme in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lara; Beauchamp, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher confidence in teaching music within the context of the introduction of a Foundation Phase "curriculum" in Wales for pupils aged 3-7 years. This involved a move away from music as a single subject to being part of creative development. The findings are based on a small-scale study of 12 teachers from four…

  17. Does Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Influence Muscle Development during Puberty in Girls? - A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ru; Alen, Markku; Yu, Zhusheng; Wiklund, Petri; Cheng, Shu Mei; Törmäkangas, Timo; Chen, Peijie; Cheng, Sulin

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is well known for its regulatory role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, but its role in muscle mass and strength during growth remains inconclusive. We explored the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with muscle development in girls from 11 to 18-years old. Whole body lean tissue mass (LMWB), appendicular lean mass (aLM), muscle cross-sectional area at the lower leg (mCSA), maximal voluntary contraction of elbow flexors (MVCelbow) and knee extensors (MVCknee) were assessed in 217 girls aged 10–13 years (at baseline), 215 in 2-year and 226 in 7.5-year follow-up. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed retrospectively and girls were categorized according to their 25(OH)D levels (consistently insufficient 25(OH)D GLL <50 nmol/l and consistently sufficient GHH >50 nmol/l from baseline to 7-year follow-up). We found that 25(OH)D level declined until menarche (p<0.05) while LMWB, aLM, mCSA, MVCelbow and MVCknee continued to increase (p<0.001 for all) post menarche. At pre-menarche, the GLL (n = 34) had higher LMWB and aLM than the GHH (n = 21, p<0.05), while post-menarche the GHH (n = 15) had a greater catch-up gain in LMWB (p = 0.004), aLM (p = 0.001) and mCSA (p = 0.027) compared to the GLL (n = 65) over the first 2-year period. At the age of 18, no differences in muscle mass/strength between the low (n = 151) and high (n = 77) levels of 25(OH)D groups were found. This finding was independent of vitamin D receptor genotype and other confounders. In conclusion, our results showed that levels of 25(OH)D have no significant negative influence on the development of muscle mass and strength during pubertal growth both with longitudinal and cross-sectional comparison. On the contrary, our results suggest that the temporary negative association between 25(OH)D and muscle mass arises as a consequence of fast growth prior to menarche, and this negative association is

  18. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school…

  19. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school…

  20. Presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia despite 7 years of annual ivermectin monotherapy mass drug administration for onchocerciasis control: a study in north-west Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Endeshaw, Tekola; Taye, Aseged; Tadesse, Zerihun; Katabarwa, Moses N.; Shafi, Oumer; Seid, Tewodros; Richards, Frank O.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in determining whether mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control will eliminate coendemic lymphatic filariasis (LF). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of LF microfilaremia in onchocerciasis endemic districts that had received 7 years of MDA with ivermectin. Method Three villages with a 2010 LF circulating antigenaemia prevalence (determined in a mapping exercise using immunochromatography tests) ranging from 23 to 56% were surveyed for the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria (mf) in 2012. These villages had been treated with ivermectin MDA for onchocerciasis with reported total population coverage of ≥65%. A total of 774 residents aged 2 years and above, of both genders, provided 60 μl nocturnal blood samples between 10 pm and 2 am. Standard thick smears were prepared and examined microscopically after Giemsa staining for the presence of W. bancrofti mf. Results The mean mf prevalence was 4.7% (village range 1.1–11.0%). The mean mf density was 9.8 mf/60 μl (village range 9–13.1) among the positive individuals. Children in the 2–4-year-old and 5–9-year-old age groups were infected suggesting transmission occurred during the MDA period. A village level review of MDA treatment coverage records showed an average total population coverage of 66.4% over a 7-year period, but with a considerable range of annual coverage (43.0–89.9%). In addition, village level treatment coverage data were missing from the village with the highest mf prevalence (11%) for 2 of the 7 years. Conclusion 7 years of annual mass treatment with ivermectin monotherapy for onchocerciasis did not interrupt LF transmission. In expanding the onchocerciasis ivermectin MDA programme to include LF, albendazole should be added and treatment coverage improved. PMID:26878935

  1. Presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia despite 7 years of annual ivermectin monotherapy mass drug administration for onchocerciasis control: a study in north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Endeshaw, Tekola; Taye, Aseged; Tadesse, Zerihun; Katabarwa, Moses N; Shafi, Oumer; Seid, Tewodros; Richards, Frank O

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining whether mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control will eliminate coendemic lymphatic filariasis (LF). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of LF microfilaremia in onchocerciasis endemic districts that had received 7 years of MDA with ivermectin. Three villages with a 2010 LF circulating antigenaemia prevalence (determined in a mapping exercise using immunochromatography tests) ranging from 23 to 56% were surveyed for the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria (mf) in 2012. These villages had been treated with ivermectin MDA for onchocerciasis with reported total population coverage of ≥65%. A total of 774 residents aged 2 years and above, of both genders, provided 60 μl nocturnal blood samples between 10 pm and 2 am. Standard thick smears were prepared and examined microscopically after Giemsa staining for the presence of W. bancrofti mf. The mean mf prevalence was 4.7% (village range 1.1-11.0%). The mean mf density was 9.8 mf/60 μl (village range 9-13.1) among the positive individuals. Children in the 2-4-year-old and 5-9-year-old age groups were infected suggesting transmission occurred during the MDA period. A village level review of MDA treatment coverage records showed an average total population coverage of 66.4% over a 7-year period, but with a considerable range of annual coverage (43.0-89.9%). In addition, village level treatment coverage data were missing from the village with the highest mf prevalence (11%) for 2 of the 7 years. 7 years of annual mass treatment with ivermectin monotherapy for onchocerciasis did not interrupt LF transmission. In expanding the onchocerciasis ivermectin MDA programme to include LF, albendazole should be added and treatment coverage improved.

  2. Changes and tracking of fruit, vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages intake from 18 months to 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Mona; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Nystad, Wenche; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2013-08-30

    A few studies have investigated tracking of dietary patterns or nutrient intake in pre-school children, but no studies have been identified examining tracking of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruit and vegetable intakes in early childhood (1-7 year olds). The purpose of this study was to investigate changes and tracking of intakes of fruit, vegetables and SSB, and association between maternal education and dietary tracking, from 18 months to 7 years of age. Longitudinal data from the nation-wide Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health were used, including 9025 children participating at three time points (18 months, 36 months and 7 years). Frequencies of fruit, vegetables and SSB were assessed by questionnaire. Slightly different questions were used at each time point to collect information about intake. Maternal education was categorized into ≤ 12 years, 13-16 years, ≥ 17 years. Cross-tabulation, Spearman's rho and multinomial logistic regression were used for assessing change, tracking and differences by maternal education. Analyses by gender indicated largest changes for intake of fruit and SSB from age 18 months to 7 years. Fair to moderate tracking coefficients (Spearman's rho = 0.23-0.46) for intake of fruit, vegetables and SSB were found and children assigned to low, medium and high frequency of consumption at 18 months continued to be in the same group at age 36 months and 7 years. Children of mothers with low education consumed fruit and vegetables less often and SSB more often compared to children of mothers with high education at 18 months of age. Children with higher educated mothers had lower odds for increasing fruit intake or decreasing SSB intake, compared to children with lower educated mothers showing a stable intake. The tracking coefficients for intakes were fair to moderate and differences in intakes according to maternal education were found already at age 18 months. This

  3. Changes and tracking of fruit, vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages intake from 18 months to 7 years in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A few studies have investigated tracking of dietary patterns or nutrient intake in pre-school children, but no studies have been identified examining tracking of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruit and vegetable intakes in early childhood (1–7 year olds). The purpose of this study was to investigate changes and tracking of intakes of fruit, vegetables and SSB, and association between maternal education and dietary tracking, from 18 months to 7 years of age. Methods Longitudinal data from the nation-wide Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health were used, including 9 025 children participating at three time points (18 months, 36 months and 7 years). Frequencies of fruit, vegetables and SSB were assessed by questionnaire. Slightly different questions were used at each time point to collect information about intake. Maternal education was categorized into ≤ 12 years, 13–16 years, ≥ 17 years. Cross-tabulation, Spearman’s rho and multinomial logistic regression were used for assessing change, tracking and differences by maternal education. Results Analyses by gender indicated largest changes for intake of fruit and SSB from age 18 months to 7 years. Fair to moderate tracking coefficients (Spearman’s rho = 0.23-0.46) for intake of fruit, vegetables and SSB were found and children assigned to low, medium and high frequency of consumption at 18 months continued to be in the same group at age 36 months and 7 years. Children of mothers with low education consumed fruit and vegetables less often and SSB more often compared to children of mothers with high education at 18 months of age. Children with higher educated mothers had lower odds for increasing fruit intake or decreasing SSB intake, compared to children with lower educated mothers showing a stable intake. Conclusions The tracking coefficients for intakes were fair to moderate and differences in intakes according to maternal education

  4. Sex-based differences in clinical features, management, and 28-day and 7-year prognosis of first acute myocardial infarction. RESCATE II study.

    PubMed

    García-García, Cosme; Molina, Lluís; Subirana, Isaac; Sala, Joan; Bruguera, Jordi; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Serra, Jordi; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    To analyze sex-based differences in clinical characteristics, management, and 28-day and 7-year prognosis after a first myocardial infarction. Between 2001 and 2003, 2042 first myocardial infarction patients were consecutively registered in 6 Spanish hospitals. Clinical characteristics, management, and 28-day case-fatality were prospectively recorded. Seven-year vital status was also ascertained by data linkage with the National Mortality Index. The registry included 449 women and 1593 men with a first myocardial infarction. Compared with men, women were older, had a higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, and were more likely to receive angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors but were less likely to receive beta-blockers or thrombolysis. No differences were observed in use of invasive procedures. More women had non-ST-segment elevation and unclassified myocardial infarction than men (37.9% vs 31.3% and 9.8% vs 6.1%, respectively; both P<.001). Case-fatality at 28 days was similar in women and men (5.57% vs 4.46%; P=.39). After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio of 28-day mortality for men was 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.49-2.27; P=.883) compared with women. After multivariate adjustment, men had higher 7-year mortality than women, hazard ratio 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.56; P<.001). There are demographic and clinical differences between men and women with a first myocardial infarction. The short-term prognosis of a first myocardial infarction in this century is similar in both sexes. However, the long-term vital prognosis after a first myocardial infarction is worse in men than in women. These results are observed in both ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction events. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of Multimedia Technology to Study the Ordinal Competences of Children from 3 to 7 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Pedro; Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present an ongoing research study on the evolution of pre-numerical and pre-inductive levels of ordinal thought in students from three to seven years old. Our methodology is based on multimedia technology, an automatic and objective record of the data and minimal interaction between students and researcher. A…

  6. Serum Amino Acid Profiles in Childhood Predict Triglyceride Level in Adulthood: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study in Girls.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Petri; Zhang, Xiaobo; Tan, Xiao; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Alen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2016-05-01

    Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are associated with high risk of developing dyslipidemia and type II diabetes in adults. This study aimed to examine whether serum amino acid profiles associate with triglyceride concentrations during pubertal growth and predict hypertriglyceridemia in early adulthood. This was a 7.5-year longitudinal study. The study was conducted at the Health Science Laboratory, University of Jyväskylä. A total of 396 nondiabetic Finnish girls aged 11.2 ± 0.8 years at the baseline participated in the study. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and triglyceride by enzymatic photometric methods; and amino acids by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum leucine and isoleucine correlated significantly with future triglyceride, independent of baseline triglyceride level (P < .05 for all). In early adulthood (at the age of 18 years), these amino acids were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia, whereas fat mass and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were not. Leucine was the strongest determinant discriminating subjects with hypertriglyceridemia from those with normal triglyceride level (area under the curve, 0.822; 95% confidence interval, 0.740-0.903; P = .000001). Serum leucine and isoleucine were associated with future serum triglyceride levels in girls during pubertal growth and predicted hypertriglyceridemia in early adulthood. Therefore, these amino acid indices may serve as biomarkers to identify individuals at high risk for developing hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease later in life. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role these amino acids play in the lipid metabolism.

  7. Head proportion and shape of the head of children between 2 and 7 years--results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Grit

    2007-06-01

    Based upon a longitudinal anthropometric study with integrated picture documentation, the head proportion and head shape of two to seven years old children will be analysed. The study was initiated in April 2002 in the administrative districts of Potsdam and Potsdam-Mittelmark (Germany). 351 boys and girls have been measured and photographed. The children shall be examined up to four years until September 2006 with a half year investigation distance. Twenty-three anthropometric dimensions have been measured including six dimensions of the head. These dimensions of the head are the head length, head breadth, auricular height, interpupillary distance, facial height and lower face height. Furthermore, digital pictures have been taken of each child. So the head of each child can be examined in a frontal view (Norma frontalis) and in a lateral view (Norma lateralis) and will be analysed relating to changing proportions of the head. The results demonstrated and discussed here are based on a longitudinal succession of photos and point out a method to make individual patterns of the changing head proportions and head shape visual on pictures.

  8. The Relationship Between Father Involvement and Child Problem Behaviour in Intact Families: A 7-Year Cross-Lagged Study.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Narayanan, Martina K

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the cross-lagged relationship between father involvement and child problem behaviour across early-to-middle childhood, and tested whether temperament modulated any cross-lagged child behaviour effects on father involvement. It used data from the first four waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, when children (50.3 % male) were aged 9 months, and 3, 5 and 7 years. The sample was 8302 families where both biological parents were co-resident across the four waves. Father involvement (participation in play and physical and educational activities with the child) was measured at ages 3, 5 and 7, as was child problem behaviour (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Key child and family covariates related to father involvement and child problem behaviour were controlled. Little evidence was found that more father involvement predicted less child problem behaviour two years later, with the exception of father involvement at child's age 5 having a significant, but small, effect on peer problems at age 7. There were two child effects. More hyperactive children at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5, and children with more conduct problems at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5. Child temperament did not moderate any child behaviour effects on father involvement. Thus, in young, intact UK families, child adjustment appears to predict, rather than be predicted by, father involvement in early childhood. When children showed more problematic behaviours, fathers did not become less involved. In fact, early hyperactivity and conduct problems in children seemed to elicit more involvement from fathers. At school age, father involvement appeared to affect children's social adjustment rather than vice versa.

  9. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  10. Clinical characteristics of patients with lower limb cellulitis and antibiotic usage in Hospital Kuala Lumpur: a 7-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Chin Chwen; Johar, Asmah

    2016-01-01

    Cellulitis commonly involved lower limbs. This study was carried out to determine the demography, clinical characteristics, risk factors, microbiological aspects, and antibiotics usage in this group of patients in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. A total of one hundred and twenty four patients with lower limb cellulitis treated in the Department of Dermatology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, between January 2008 and May 2013 were included in this study. There were 70 male and 54 female patients, aged between 13 and 87 years (mean 57.23±12.854). Thirty-one of them (25%) had recurrent cellulitis. Fifty-seven (46%) had fever at presentation, 55 (44.4%) had bullous cellulitis. The top risk factors identified were toe web intertrigo (n = 79, 63.7%), hypertension (n=76, 61.3%), obesity (n = 55, 44.4%), and diabetes (n = 55, 44.4%). However, only toe web intertrigo (p = 0.003), peripheral vascular disease (p = 0.01), and varicose veins (p = 0.02) were significantly higher in recurrent cellulitis. Thirty patients (24.2%) were complicated with lipodermatosclerosis, and six (4.8%) had lymphostasis verrucosa cutis. Skin swab cultures were positive in 54 (43.5%) patients, and Pseudomonas sp. was the most frequently identified organism. Mean number of antibiotics given for one episode of cellulitis was 1.7±1. The antibiotics most given were cloxacillin (n=57, 46%) and other penicillins (n = 71, 57%), followed by cephalosporins (n = 40, 32%). Identifying clinical characteristics of those at risk may help to prevent recurrence of cellulitis and long-term complications. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Epidemiology, risk factor, species distribution, antifungal resistance and outcome of Candidemia at a single French hospital: a 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Tadec, Laurent; Talarmin, Jean-Philippe; Gastinne, Thomas; Bretonnière, Cédric; Miegeville, Michel; Le Pape, Patrice; Morio, Florent

    2016-05-01

    Candidemia remains a major cause of disease worldwide and is associated with a high mortality rate. We conducted a retrospective study of candidemia at Nantes Hospital, France, between 2004 and 2010. A total of 191 episodes (n = 188 patients) were reviewed. Incidence, demographics, risk factors, antifungal management, species identification, in vitro susceptibility and 12 weeks survival were analysed. Global incidence of candidemia was 0.37‰ admissions. Higher incidences were observed in haematology (6.65‰) and intensive care units (2‰). Central venous catheter and antibiotic exposure were the most frequent risk factors (77% and 76% respectively). Candida albicans was the predominant species (51.8%) followed by C. parapsilosis (14.5%), C. glabrata (9.8%), C. tropicalis (9.8%) and C. krusei (4.1%). However, species distribution differed significantly between medical units with frequency of C. tropicalis being higher in haematology compared to other medical units. Fluconazole and caspofungin were the main antifungals given as first-line therapy. Although not significant, 12 weeks mortality rate was 30.9%, being higher for C. tropicalis (44.4%) than for C. parapsilosis (16%). Acquired azole or echinocandin resistance was noted in some isolates, underlining the need for systematic antifungal susceptibility testing in patients with candidemia. These epidemiological findings will be of interest for antifungal stewardship at our hospital. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Tracking of fatness during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a 7-year follow-up study in Madeira Island, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Duarte; Beunen, Gaston; Maia, José; Claessens, Albrecht; Thomis, Martine; Marques, António; Gouveia, Elvio; Lefevre, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Investigating tracking of fatness from childhood to adolescence, early adolescence to young adulthood and late adolescence to young adulthood. Participants from the Madeira Growth Study were followed during an average period of 7.2 years. Height, body mass, skin-folds and circumferences were measured, nine health- and performance-related tests were administered and the Baecke questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Skeletal maturity was estimated using the TW3 method. The prevalence of overweight plus obesity ranged from 8.2-20.0% at baseline and from 20.4-40.0% at follow-up, in boys. Corresponding percentages for girls were 10.6-12.0% and 13.2-18.0%. Inter-age correlations for fatness indicators ranged from 0.43-0.77. BMI, waist circumference and sum of skin-folds at 8, 12 and 16-years old were the main predictors of these variables at 15, 19 and 23-years old, respectively. Strength, muscular endurance and aerobic fitness were negatively related to body fatness. Physical activity and maturation were independently associated with adolescent (15 years) and young adult (19 years) fatness. Over 7.2 years, tracking was moderate-to-high for fatness. Variance was explained by fatness indicators and to a small extent by physical fitness, physical activity and maturation.

  13. Evisceration surgery in a highly specialized center in Mexico: A retrospective study of 7 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Ganem, M G; Zuazo, F; González, M; Abdala, A; Olvera-Morales, O; Tovilla-Canales, J L; Nava-Castañeda, Á

    2017-02-01

    Evisceration is currently becoming the technique of choice in the treatment of certain eye diseases, including, among others, painful blind eye and endophthalmitis. The most widely used implants are currently the hydroxyapatite and porous polyethylene for the rehabilitation of the anophthalmic socket. To describe the indications, type of implant material used, and complications in evisceration surgery. A retrospective, observational, descriptive study based on clinical records of patients that underwent evisceration between 2008 and 2015 in the Instituto Fundación Conde de Valenciana, Mexico. A total of 186 evisceration surgeries were performed, of which 52.7% of the patients were men. The mean age was 54 years. The right eye was eviscerated in 53% of cases, and 79.2% had a vision of no light perception. Most patients had preoperative pain. The most common diagnosis for which evisceration was performed was endophthalmitis. Phthisis bulbi was reported in 20 eyes. A primary implant was inserted in 86.81% of the cases, with 34.81% of the implants being made of porous polyethylene. Four cases showed extrusion of the implant, with 2 cases of porous polyethylene. The ocular prosthesis was tolerated in 91% of cases. There were no cases of sympathetic ophthalmia. Evisceration is shown to be a good alternative to enucleation in cases where the sclera can be preserved, showing a low incidence of sympathetic ophthalmia. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality and recovery from refractory status epilepticus in the intensive care unit: a 7-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Raoul; Marsch, Stephan; Fuhr, Peter; Rüegg, Stephan

    2013-03-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a life-threatening neurologic emergency with high mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify associations between clinical characteristics of adult RSE patients and outcome. Comprehensive medical chart review was performed of all consecutive adult RSE patients treated on the intensive care units of an academic tertiary care center between 2005 and 2011. Demographics, RSE etiologies and duration, comorbidities, as well as outcomes were assessed. Associations between clinical characteristics and death were quantified. Of 260 patients with status epilepticus, 111 developed RSE. Hypoxic encephalopathy (23%), brain tumors (14%), known and uncontrolled epilepsy (10%), and ischemic stroke (8%) were the main etiologies. During hospitalization 38% of patients died. Hypoxic encephalopathy (HE) and brain tumors were independently associated with death (relative risk [RR] 2.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-4.12; p = 0.001 and RR 2.81, 95%CI 1.59-4.96; p < 0.0001). The estimated hazard ratio of death was 3.1 (95% CI1.6-6.0; p = 0.001) for patients with HE and 1.1 (95% CI 0.5-2.3; p = 0.745) for patients with brain tumors. RSE duration and nonconvulsive status epilepticus in coma were independently associated with death (for every hour RR 1.001; 95%CI 1.00-1.002; p = 0.011 and RR 3.62; 95%CI 1.34-9.77; p = 0.005). Brain tumors and HE had high relative risks for death and were independently associated with mortality in our cohort of critically ill RSE patients. Other clinical characteristics, as well as the use of intravenous anesthetic drugs and mechanical ventilation, may not be strongly related to outcome and should therefore be used cautiously for informed decision making regarding treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Albuminuria and its associated biomedical factors among indigenous adults in Far North Queensland: a 7-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; McDermott, Robyn

    2015-12-10

    To document albuminuria prevalence and its associated factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) adults with high renal and metabolic risks from 19 rural and remote north Queensland communities. One thousand nine hundred seventy-one indigenous adults were enrolled in 1998 and 566 completed follow up in 2007 in this population-based study. Measurements included weight, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, lipids, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR), smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity (PA). Albuminuria was defined as an UACR > =2.5 g/mol in males and > =3.5 g/mol in females. The association between albuminuria and biomedical factors was assessed with generalised linear modelling. Baseline albuminuria prevalence was 19.7 % (95 % CI: 18.0-21.6 %). Follow up prevalence was 42.4 % (95 % CI: 38.4-46.5 %) among the 566 adults having the 2(nd) UACR measurements. Follow-up albuminuria was associated with fasting glucose of 5.4 mmol/L (OR 2.5, 95 % CI 1.5-4.2), GGT tertiles in a dose-response manner (OR 2.0 for 2(nd) and 3.7 for 3(rd) tertile, p for trend <0.001), and abdominal overweight and obesity (OR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.1-3.9 and 5.4, 95 % CI: 2.2-13.5 respectively). Aboriginal people with diabetes were three times more likely of having albuminuria compared to TSI counterparts, while TSI smokers had twice the likelihood (95 % CI 1.2-3.2). At both baseline and follow up, albuminuria was more prevalent among older participants. Indigenous Australians in north Queensland are at high risk of albuminuria. Overweight and obesity, glycaemia, increased GGT, and smoking were associated with albuminuria at baseline and/or follow up.

  16. Prediction of 7-year psychopathology from mother-infant joint attention behaviours: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether later diagnosis of psychiatric disorder can be predicted from analysis of mother-infant joint attention (JA) behaviours in social-communicative interaction at 12 months. Method Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined 159 videos of a mother-infant interaction for joint attention behaviour when children were aged one year, sampled from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Fifty-three of the videos involved infants who were later considered to have a psychiatric disorder at seven years and 106 were same aged controls. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, pervasive development disorder, anxiety and depressive disorders. Psychiatric diagnoses were obtained using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment when the children were seven years old. Results None of the three JA behaviours (shared look rate, shared attention rate and shared attention intensity) showed a significant association with the primary outcome of case–control status. Only shared look rate predicted any of the exploratory sub-diagnosis outcomes and was found to be positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders (OR [95% CI]: 1.5 [1.0, 2.3]; p = 0.041). Conclusions JA behaviours did not, in general, predict later psychopathology. However, shared look was positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders. This suggests that some features of JA may be early markers of later psychopathology. Further investigation will be required to determine whether any JA behaviours can be used to screen for families in need of intervention. PMID:24063312

  17. Fluorescence-Guided versus Conventional Surgical Resection of High Grade Glioma: A Single-Centre, 7-Year, Comparative Effectiveness Study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wei Ping; Liew, Boon Seng; Idris, Zamzuri; Rosman, Azmin Kass

    2017-03-01

    High grade gliomas (HGGs) are locally invasive brain tumours that carry a dismal prognosis. Although complete resection increases median survival, the difficulty in reliably demonstrating the tumour border intraoperatively is a norm. The Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Sungai Buloh is the first public hospital in Malaysia to overcome this problem by adopting fluorescence-guided (FG) surgery using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). A total of 74 patients with histologically proven HGGs treated between January 2008 and December 2014, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression were used. Significant longer survival time (months) was observed in the FG group compared with the conventional group (12 months versus 8 months, P < 0.020). Even without adjuvant therapy, HGG patients from FG group survived longer than those from the conventional group (8 months versus 3 months, P = 0.006). No significant differences were seen in postoperative Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) between the groups at 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery compared to pre-operative KPS. Cox proportional hazard regression identified four independent predictors of survival: KPS > 80 (P = 0.010), histology (P < 0.001), surgical method (P < 0.001) and adjuvant therapy (P < 0.001). This study showed a significant clinical benefit for HGG patients in terms of overall survival using FG surgery as it did not result in worsening of post-operative function outcome when compared with the conventional surgical method. We advocate a further multicentered, randomised controlled trial to support these findings before FG surgery can be implemented as a standard surgical adjunct in local practice for the benefit of HGG patients.

  18. Childhood consumption of fruit and vegetables across England: a study of 2306 6-7-year-olds in 2007.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rebecca J; Edwards, Kimberley L; Clarke, Graham P; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cade, Janet E; Ransley, Joan K

    2012-08-01

    The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS) provides children in government-run schools in England with a free piece of fruit or a vegetable each school day for the first 3 years of school. The present study examines the impact of the SFVS, in terms of its contribution towards the total daily intake of fruit and vegetables by children across England. Quantitative dietary data were collected from 2306 children in their third year of school, from 128 schools, using a 24 h food diary. The data were examined at different spatial scales, and variations in the impact of the scheme across areas with different socio-economic characteristics were analysed using a deprivation index and a geodemographic classification. The uptake of the SFVS and the total intake of fruit and vegetables by children varied across different parts of England. Participation in the SFVS was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. That is, in any one area, those children who participated in the SFVS consumed more fruit and vegetables. However, children living in deprived areas still consumed less fruit and vegetables than children living in more advantaged areas: the mean daily frequency of fruit and vegetables consumed, and rates of consumption of fruit or vegetables five times or more per d, decreased as deprivation increased (r -0.860; P = 0.001; r -0.842; P = 0.002). So the SFVS does not eliminate the socio-economic gradient in fruit and vegetable consumption, but it does help to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in deprived (and affluent) areas.

  19. Prediction of 7-year psychopathology from mother-infant joint attention behaviours: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Allely, Clare S; Johnson, Paul C D; Marwick, Helen; Lidstone, Emma; Kočovská, Eva; Puckering, Christine; McConnachie, Alex; Golding, Jean; Gillberg, Christopher; Wilson, Philip

    2013-09-24

    To investigate whether later diagnosis of psychiatric disorder can be predicted from analysis of mother-infant joint attention (JA) behaviours in social-communicative interaction at 12 months. Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined 159 videos of a mother-infant interaction for joint attention behaviour when children were aged one year, sampled from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Fifty-three of the videos involved infants who were later considered to have a psychiatric disorder at seven years and 106 were same aged controls. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, pervasive development disorder, anxiety and depressive disorders. Psychiatric diagnoses were obtained using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment when the children were seven years old. None of the three JA behaviours (shared look rate, shared attention rate and shared attention intensity) showed a significant association with the primary outcome of case-control status. Only shared look rate predicted any of the exploratory sub-diagnosis outcomes and was found to be positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders (OR [95% CI]: 1.5 [1.0, 2.3]; p = 0.041). JA behaviours did not, in general, predict later psychopathology. However, shared look was positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders. This suggests that some features of JA may be early markers of later psychopathology. Further investigation will be required to determine whether any JA behaviours can be used to screen for families in need of intervention.

  20. High GADA titer increases the risk of insulin requirement in LADA patients: a 7-year follow-up (NIRAD study 7).

    PubMed

    Zampetti, Simona; Campagna, Giuseppe; Tiberti, Claudio; Songini, Marco; Arpi, Maria Luisa; De Simone, Giuseppina; Cossu, Efisio; Cocco, Lorenzo; Osborn, John; Bosi, Emanuele; Giorgino, Francesco; Spoletini, Marialuisa; Buzzetti, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) titer and other clinical parameters could define the risk of progression to insulin therapy in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) patients during a 7-year follow-up. This study involved 220 LADA and 430 type 2 diabetes subjects followed up for 7 years from the time of GADA screening to evaluate their progression toward insulin therapy. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the markers capable of influencing this progression. During the follow-up, the drop out was 4% in both groups. A total of 119 (56.1%) out of 212 LADA patients required insulin during the 7 years of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier plots showed that 74/104 (71.1%) of high GADA titer required insulin compared with 45/108 (41.6%) of low GADA titer and with 86/412 (20.9%) of type 2 diabetes (P<0.0001 for both). A BMI of ≤25 kg/m2 and IA-2IC and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) positivity were also shown as the markers of faster progression (P<0.0001 for both). The proportion of LADA patients requiring insulin was significantly higher in the group of subjects treated also with sulfonylurea in the first year from diagnosis compared with those treated with diet and/or insulin sensitizers (P<0.001). The multivariate analysis confirmed that the presence of high GADA titer was a significant predictor of insulin requirement (P<0.0001, OR=6.95). High GADA titer, BMI ≤ 25, ZnT8 and IA-2IC positivity and sulfonylurea treatment, in the first year from diagnosis, significantly increase the progression toward insulin requirement in LADA patients. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Long-term safety and efficacy of abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate: a 7-year extended study.

    PubMed

    Westhovens, Rene; Kremer, Joel M; Emery, Paul; Russell, Anthony S; Alten, Rieke; Barré, Emilie; Dougados, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) abatacept plus methotrexate (MTX) over 7 years, the longest observational period to date, in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to MTX. Patients randomised to IV abatacept (10 or 2 mg/kg) or placebo, plus MTX, during the 1-year double-blind (DB) period of a Phase 2b study could enter the long-term extension (LTE) and receive IV abatacept 10 mg/kg monthly. Safety was assessed in patients who received ≥1 dose of abatacept; efficacy was assessed in patients originally randomised to 10 mg/kg abatacept (as-observed data). A total of 219 patients entered the LTE; 114 (52.1%) completed 7 years of treatment with abatacept plus MTX. Cumulative (DB + LTE) incidence rates of serious adverse events, serious infections, malignancies, and autoimmune events were 17.6, 3.2, 1.8, and 1.2/100 patient-years, respectively. Safety was consistent between the DB (n=220) and cumulative (n=287) periods. Improvements in American College of Rheumatology responses, disease activity, and normalisation of physical function and health-related quality of life were maintained over time. Approximately 80% of patients who achieved low disease activity or normalised modified Health Assessment Questionnaire scores at Year 1, and who remained in the study, sustained these responses in each subsequent year. IV abatacept in combination with MTX demonstrated consistent safety and sustained efficacy over 7 years in MTX inadequate responders with established RA. Furthermore, some patients demonstrated a normalisation of physical function and health-related quality of life that was sustained over time.

  2. People maintain their sun exposure behaviour in a 5-7-year follow-up study using personal electronic UVR dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Heydenreich, Jakob; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether people change their sun behaviour over a period of 7 years. Thus 32 volunteers, who had all participated in earlier sun exposure studies in 1999-2001, were enrolled in a follow-up study in 2006. They were selected to represent a previous low, medium and high UVR exposure. They participated for mean 121 days (range 65-157 days) wearing a personal, electronic wrist-borne UVR dosimeter and completed sun exposure diaries. No statistically significant differences were seen from year to year in the estimated annual UVR dose, mean UVR dose per day or mean percentage of ambient UVR. However, there was a person effect showing that participants maintained a high or low UVR dose lifestyle over the years. In 2006 the 32 participants received an estimated annual mean UVR dose of 221 SED and a median dose of 154 SED (range 25-1337 SED), while they received a mean for the previous participation years (1999-2001) of 236 SED (median 153 SED, range 24-980 SED). The estimated annual UVR dose for each of the previous sun years and the estimated annual dose for 2006 correlated significantly (R(2) = 0.51; p < 0.0001). Sun risk behaviour, expressed as days sunbathing, did not change either. The participants thus seem to have maintained their sun exposure behaviour over a 5-7-year period.

  3. A 5-7 year in vivo study of high-strength hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide) composite rods for the internal fixation of bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shin; Ishii, Shinsuke; Tamura, Jiro; Furukawa, Taizo; Neo, Masashi; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Shikinami, Yasuo; Okuno, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The biocompatibility and biodegradation of hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) composite bone implant rods were studied using two types of HA particles as reinforcing fillers, uncalcined-HA (u-HA) or calcined-HA (c-HA). Composite rods of u-HA/PLLA and c-HA/PLLA were implanted into the distal femurs of 25 rabbits. Four of these rabbits lived for more than 5 years after implantation, with one living for 7 years 4 months. Samples were retrieved after the rabbits died naturally and specimens were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For u-HA/PLLA, the shrinkage of the rods progressed further after 4 years, and some were almost completely resorbed. We could not find traces of the rod in some sections from more than 6 years. Remodeled bone encircled the residual material, and trabecular bone bonded directly to the rod was found toward the center. For u-HA/PLLA 30%, results were similar to u-HA/PLLA 40%, and the cross-sectional area had decreased by 4.0% at over 7 years. Most of the PLLA had been released from the rods. Neither obvious osteolytic nor osteoarthritic changes were found after 4 years.

  4. Are eating and psychosocial characteristics in early teenage years useful predictors of eating characteristics in early adulthood? A 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Calam, R; Waller, G

    1998-12-01

    This longitudinal research aimed to determine the utility of psychosocial and eating characteristics in early teenage years in predicting eating attitudes and behaviors in early adulthood. Self-esteem, perfectionism, family function, and eating attitudes were measured at 12 years and eating attitudes and behavior were assessed at 19 years. Sixty-three women (71.6%) remained in the study over the 7 years. Bulimic attitudes in early teenage years were related to subsequent bulimic features, while restrictive attitudes were more closely related to later purging behaviors. Self-esteem and perfectionism were only weakly linked with subsequent eating. However, different perceived family characteristics at the first stage were associated with specific aspects of eating in early adulthood. There is consistency of eating characteristics across time, but psychosocial characteristics have a more limited predictive power. Future longitudinal studies should begin earlier in childhood if psychosocial factors are to be useful predictors of eating psychopathology in adulthood.

  5. Brain structure, number magnitude processing, and math proficiency in 6- to 7-year-old children born prematurely: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Starke, Marc; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kucian, Karin; Pupp Peglow, Ulrike; Kremser, Christian; Schocke, Michael; Kaufmann, Liane

    2013-05-29

    The aim of the present voxel-based morphometry study was to examine the link between brain structure and number skills in a group of 6-7-year-old children born prematurely, which are considered to be an at-risk population for mathematical learning disabilities. Therefore, gray and white matter density values were extracted from brain areas previously reported to be relevant for number processing in developing brain systems and, thereafter, correlated with response time results tapping semantic number knowledge [i.e. numerical distance effect (NDE) derived from a number comparison task] as well as with general math proficiency (as indexed by a standardized calculation test). Behavioral results disclosed a significant NDE, thus indicating well-established number magnitude representations for one-digit numerals in our study group. Significant positive correlations between gray matter and NDE emerged in parietal regions (including the right anterior inferior and the left superior parietal lobe) and in the right superior temporal gyrus. Moreover, white matter and NDE were negatively correlated in the right anterior inferior parietal lobe and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Overall, our results are novel insofar as they show that in 6-7-year-old children born prematurely, individual differences in gray and white matter structures are associated with numerical skills. Importantly, in our study group the observed link between brain structure and behavioral performance emerges only regarding an experimental task tapping semantic number knowledge, whereas general math proficiency does not seem to be related to individual differences in brain structure in our study group.

  6. [Study of mumps immunity after administrating measles-mumps-rubella vaccine among children aged 2-7 years old in Jiangsu Province in 2015].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y B; Hu, Y; Deng, X Y; Wang, Z G; Sun, X; Lu, P S; Guo, H X; Tang, F Y; Zhou, M H

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To investigate the immunity to mumps after administrating measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) among children aged 2-7 years old in Jiangsu province in 2015. Methods: A total of 4 190 healthy children aged 2-7 years old, living in local places for at least 3 months, and having been vaccinated at least 1 dose MMR were recruited to the study from Wujin district of Changzhou city, Gaogang district of Taizhou city and Ganyu district of Lianyungang city by using stratified cluster random sampling method between September and November, 2015. Those who did not accept MMR vaccination, who refused venous blood collection, who had affected mumps according to the memory of parents or teachers and who were diagnosed serious disease by clinical doctors were excluded from study. The self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the general information of the subjects and their MMR immunization history; and 0.5-2.0 ml of venous blood was collected from each subject. ELISA was used to detect the mumps antibody level in the serum of patients. Positive was defined as the antibody level ≥108 mU/ml, and negative as <108 mU/ml. χ(2) test was used to compare the difference in positive rates among subjects; and analysis of variance was used to compare the GMC changes in different time points after MMR vaccination. Results: Among 4 190 children, 2 280 were males (54.42%) and 1 910 were females(45.58%), and the positive rate of IgG antibody was 81.38% (3 344). There were 3 156 (95.18%) children vaccinated with one dose MMR, 187 (4.80%) children with two dose MMR, and 1 (0.02%) child with three dose MMR. The difference in positive rate of IgG antibody among different aged subjects showed statistical significance (χ(2)=58.61, P<0.001), the highest positive rate was in group of subjects aged 4-5 years old, at 89.43% (406/454), while the lowest positive rate was found among subjects aged 6-7 years old, at 75.63% (1 648/2 179). The positive rate after one dose of MMR vaccination

  7. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years: A general population study of prevalence and risk factors from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC 2000).

    PubMed

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Houman, Tine; Goodman, Robert; Mette Skovgaard, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from preschool to school. A sample of 1585 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC2000 aged 5-7 years was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) with diagnostic classification by experienced clinicians. Perinatal, sociodemographic and socio-economic data was obtained from Danish national registries. The prevalence of any ICD-10 psychiatric disorder was 5.7% (95%CI: 4.4-7.1). Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) were found in 1.3% (95%CI: 0.8-1.8) and behavioural and hyperkinetic disorders were found in 1.5% (95%CI: 0.9-2.1) and 1.0% (95%CI: 0.4-1.6), respectively. Emotional disorders were found in 2.9% (95%CI: 1.9-40). More boys were diagnosed with PDD, behavioural disorders and tics. No gender differences were found in hyperactivity disorders (HD) and emotional disorders. Co-morbidity was frequent, in particular between HD and PDD, but also between HD and emotional disorder and behavioural disorder. Teenage mothers, single parents and low household income the first two years after the child's birth were associated with a three-to fourfold increased risk of psychiatric disorder in the child at age 5-7 years. The study results point to two "windows of opportunity" for prevention. In the earliest postnatal years, prevention should target families at socio-economic risk; and in the years before schooling, intervention should focus on children with symptoms of PDD, HD, and behavioural disorders.

  8. [Epidemiological study on thalassemia among the children of 0 - 7 years old among the six ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna and Dehong of Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong-Ming; Yao, Li-Qin; Fan, Li-Mei; Zou, Tuan-Biao; Chen, Qian; Hu, Li-Sha; Yang, Fa-Bin; Liu, Jin-Tao; Wang, Xing-Tian

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate of thalassemia among children of 0 - 7 years old, from six ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna and Dehong, Yunnan province. 4973 blood samples from children under 7 years old were automatically undergone blood cell count, red cell osmotic fragility and hemoglobin electrophoresis testings. The incidence rates of thalassaemia, β-thalassemia was 37.4%, and α-thalassaemia were 22.6% and 14.7% respectively. The thalassaemia incidence rates were significantly different among age groups but not in gender. The incidence of α-thalassaemia was decreasing along with the increase of age, while the incidence of β-thalassaemia was increasing along with the increase of age. Xishuangbanna had the higher incidence than in Dehong and the differences were significant between counties, The incidence of thalassemia of Mengla ranked the first (52.2%) in Xishuangbanna, The differences between different regions and different nationalities were significant, with β-thalassemia of Achang ranked the first (40.6%), The incidence of α-thalassemia among Han ranked the first as 45.5% while α-thalassaemia and β-thalassemia were different in regions. α-thalassaemia and β-thalassemia were significantly different between different ethnic people in the same regions. Multiple factor analysis showed that region seemed to be a risk factor and the mother's ethnicity was a protective factor and dependent variable on thalassaemia. The incidence of thalassaemia in Yunnan Xishuangbanna and Dehong was high among children under the age of 7 and were related to ethnic and regional differences in the areas. Specific genes were proliferated along with the extension of time. Our data provided valuable information on prevention and genetic studies on thalassaemia in the minorities of Xishuangbanna and Dehong in Yunnan province.

  9. Concerted actions of insulin-like growth factor 1, testosterone, and estradiol on peripubertal bone growth: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leiting; Wang, Qin; Wang, Qingju; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Mikkola, Tuija; Völgyi, Eszter; Cheng, Shumei; Wiklund, Petri; Munukka, Eveliina; Nicholson, Patrick; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2011-09-01

    A better understanding of how bone growth is regulated during peripuberty is important for optimizing the attainment of peak bone mass and for the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. In this report we used hierarchical models to evaluate the associations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), estradiol (E(2) ), and testosterone (T) with peripubertal bone growth in a 7-year longitudinal study. Two-hundred and fifty-eight healthy girls were assessed at baseline (mean age 11.2 years) and at 1, 2, 3.5, and 7 years. Serum concentrations of IGF-1, E(2) , and T were determined. Musculoskeletal properties in the left lower leg were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Serum levels of IGF-1, E(2) , and T increased dramatically before menarche, whereas they decreased, plateaued, or increased at a lower rate, respectively, after menarche. IGF-1 level was positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC) and total bone mineral content (tBMC) throughout peripuberty but not after adjustment for muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA). On the other hand, IGF-1 was associated with tibial length (TL) independently of mCSA before menarche. T was positively associated with TL, PC, tBMC, and cortical volumetric bone mineral density, independent of mCSA, before menarche but not after. E(2) was associated with TL positively before menarche but negatively after menarche. These findings suggest that during puberty, circulating IGF-1 promotes bone periosteal apposition and mass accrual indirectly, probably through stimulating muscle growth, whereas the effects of sex steroids on bone growth differ before and after menarche, presenting a biphasic pattern. Hence the concerted actions of these hormones are essential for optimal bone development in peripuberty. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Association between Prenatal Exposure to Methylmercury and Visuospatial Ability at 10.7 years in the Seychelles Child Development Study1

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Philip W.; Jean-Sloane-Reeves; Myers, Gary J.; Hansen, Ole Nørby; Huang, Li-Shan; Georger, Leslie A.; Cox, Christopher; Thurston, Sally W.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Clarkson, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    The Seychelles Child Development Study was designed to test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to MeHg from maternal consumption of a diet high in fish is detrimental to child neurodevelopment. To date, no consistent pattern of adverse associations between prenatal exposure and children’s development has appeared. In a comprehensive review of developmental studies involving MeHg, a panel of experts recommended a more consistent use of the same endpoints across studies to facilitate comparisons. Both the SCDS and the Faeroe Islands studies administered the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. However, the method of test administration and scoring used was different. We repeated the test on the SCDS Main Study children (mean age 10.7 years) using the same testing and scoring procedure reported by the Faeroe studies to obtain Copying Task and Reproduction Task scores. We found no association between prenatal MeHg exposure and Copying Task scores which was reported from the Faeroese study. However, our analysis did show a significant adverse association between MeHg and Reproduction Task scores with all the data (p= 0.04), but not when the single outlier was removed (p = 0.07). In a population whose exposure to MeHg is from fish consumption, we continue to find no consistent adverse association between MeHg and visual motor coordination. PMID:18400302

  11. Light drinking versus abstinence in pregnancy – behavioural and cognitive outcomes in 7-year-old children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Y; Iacovou, M; Quigley, MA; Gray, R; Wolke, D; Kelly, J; Sacker, A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether light drinking in pregnancy is linked to unfavourable developmental outcomes in children. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting UK. Population Ten thousand five hundred and thirty-four 7-year-olds. Methods Quasi-experimental using propensity score matching (PSM) to compare children born to light (up to 2 units per week) and non-drinkers. Main outcome measures Behavioural difficulties rated by parents and teachers; cognitive test scores for reading, maths and spatial skills. Results Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and PSM analyses are presented. For behavioural difficulties, unadjusted estimates for percentage standard deviation (SD) score differences ranged from 2 to 14%. On adjustment for potential confounders, differences were attenuated, with a loss of statistical significance, except for teacher-rated boys' difficulties. For boys, parent-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −11.5; OLS, −4.3; PSM, −6.8; teacher-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −13.9; OLS, −9.6; PSM, −10.8. For girls, parent-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −9.6; OLS, −2.9; PSM, −4.5; teacher-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −2.4; OLS, 4.9; PSM, 3.9. For cognitive test scores, unadjusted estimates for differences ranged between 12 and 21% of an SD score for reading, maths and spatial skills. After adjustment for potential confounders, estimates were reduced, but remained statistically significantly different for reading and for spatial skills in boys. For boys, reading: unadjusted, 20.9; OLS, 8.3; PSM, 7.3; maths: unadjusted, 14.7; OLS, 5.0; PSM, 6.5; spatial skills: unadjusted, 16.2; OLS, 7.6; PSM, 8.1. For girls, reading: unadjusted, 11.6; OLS, −0.3; PSM, −0.5; maths: unadjusted, 12.9; OLS, 4.3; PSM, 3.9; spatial skills: unadjusted, 16.2; OLS, 7.7; PSM, 6.4. Conclusion The findings suggest that light drinking during pregnancy is not linked to developmental problems in mid

  12. Changes of clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with Kawasaki disease over the past 7 years in a single center study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye Jin; Kim, Gee Na; Kil, Hong Ryang

    2013-09-01

    This single-center study was conducted to assess the changes in epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) over the past 7 years. This retrospective study included 135 children with KD, admitted to Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, between 2004 and 2005 (group A, n=53) and between 2011 and 2012 (group B, n=82). Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding the presenting signs and symptoms, demographic characteristics, and laboratory and echocardiographic findings associated with KD. The hospital admission date after onset was significantly earlier in group B than in group A (P=0.008). The proportion of patients with incomplete KD was 45.3% and 65.9% in group A and B, respectively (P=0.018). The number of pretreatment coronary artery lesions (CALs) were significantly lesser in group B than in group A. (10/53 vs. 5/82, P=0.021). No significant differences was observed in the incidence of CALs at discharge, febrile phase duration, hospital stay duration, incidence of retreatment, and intravenous immunoglobulin dose between 2 groups. The total febrile phase was shorter in patients with incomplete KD than in those with complete KD in both groups. The proportion of incomplete KD has become higher. Furthermore, early admission and management of patients with KD may be related to increased incomplete KD and decreased CALs. Therefore, we believe that a diagnostic strategy for incomplete KD should be established regardless of the presence of coronary lesions.

  13. Multi-professional training for obstetric emergencies in a U.S. hospital over a 7-year interval: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, C P; Collins, L; Bentley, S; Dong, Y; Satterwhite, C L

    2016-01-01

    Birth is less safe than it can be. We adapted the UK-developed PROMPT (PRactical Obstetric Multi-Professional Training) course to local practices and initiated annual training. This observational study used quality assurance data from University of Kansas Hospital 2 years before and 7 years after intervention encompassing 14,309 consecutive deliveries from January 2006 through December 2014. An events/trials approach was applied to changes in proportions over time. PROMPT was associated with progressive decreases in rates (P<0.05) of brachial plexus injury and umbilical artery pH <7.00 exclusive of catastrophic events. Reduced rates (P<0.05) of cesarean section, episiotomy and higher perception of nurse/physician communication were documented. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) rates declined progressively by >50% (P=NS). These improvements occurred despite younger faculty and higher rates of complicated pregnancies (P<0.05). Estimated health-care costs avoided exceeded annual training costs. Local annual multi-professional training as provided by PROMPT was temporally associated with improved obstetric outcomes.

  14. Early BCG and pertussis vaccination and atopic diseases in 5- to 7-year-old preschool children from Augsburg, Germany: results from the MIRIAM study.

    PubMed

    Möhrenschlager, Matthias; Haberl, Victoria M; Krämer, Ursula; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannnes

    2007-02-01

    The role of immunization in the development of atopic disorders is still under debate. One reason might be, that because of high vaccination coverage in most countries only few and selected children are not immunized, leading to unstable and often biased effect estimates. In Germany, the situation was different between 1985 and 1991: bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and pertussis vaccination were not officially recommended leading to high numbers of non-vaccinated children in the 1990s. We report on a cross-sectional study with 1673 participants among 5- to 7-year-old preschool children conducted in 1996. We found no hint that BCG vaccination or whole-cell pertussis (WCP) vaccination may lead to higher prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema or allergic sensitization at preschool age. None of the associations was significantly positive. WCP vaccination may be protective against asthma OR 0.55 (95% CI: 0.31-0.98) and against symptoms of eczema in boys.

  15. Occurrence of the - -(SEA), - -(THAI) and - -(FIL) α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers from a 7-Year Study at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongjantharasatien, Kobkorn; Banyatsuppasin, Wansa; Pounsawat, Sonnarong; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-08-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most common genetic diseases in Thailand. Homozygosity of α-thal-1 (- -/- -) and compound heterozygosity of α-thal-1/α-thal-2 (- -/-α) leads to Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis and Hb H (β4) disease, respectively. In order to better control and provide prevention of α-thal disease, the prevalence of α-thal-1 carriers and the types of genotypes in the Thai population should be known. A 7-year retrospective study, employing multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) of 31,632 blood samples from Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, revealed an α-thal-1 carrier rate of 14.40% with the - -(SEA) (NG_000006.1: g.26264_45564del19301), - -(THAI) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del33501) and - -(FIL) (NG_000006.1: g.11684_43534del31851) genotypes, constituting frequencies of 14.21, 0.18 and 0.01%, respectively. Although the - -(FIL) genotype is rare in the Thailand, its detection should be included in future α-thal screening programs.

  16. Stability and Change in Posttraumatic Distress: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study of Mothers and Young Children Exposed to Cumulative Trauma.

    PubMed

    Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Cohen, Sarale; Ziv, Yuval; Achituv, M; Brickman, Sophie; Blanchard, Tamar; Brom, Danny

    2017-04-01

    In situations of cumulative trauma, it is often unclear why some people remain resilient, whereas others experience distress, and how likely these responses are to change over time. To investigate the constancy of responses to cumulative trauma, stability and change in posttraumatic distress and resistance (as defined by no evidence of clinical symptoms) were assessed twice in 140 Israeli children and mothers exposed to continual rocket attacks over approximately 7 years, when the children were 2-4 (Time 1) and 9-11 years of age (Time 2). Measures included trauma exposure, posttraumatic and depressive symptoms, and child behavioral problems. We identified 4 longitudinal courses (LCs): resilient (resistance at Time 1 and Time 2), recovered (clinical distress at Time 1 and resistance at Time 2), developed symptoms (resistance at Time 1 and clinical distress at Time 2), and chronic distress (clinical distress at Time 1 and Time 2). Results showed more stability than change in the frequencies of resistance at both times of measurement. The resilient LC was the most common longitudinal course for both mothers and children. Multinomial regression models indicated that maternal posttraumatic symptoms predicted the recovered and chronic distress LCs of the children. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study on Cortical Hemodynamic Responses to Normal and Whispered Speech in 3- to 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Remijn, Gerard B; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Ueno, Sanae; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Kojima, Haruyuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess cortical hemodynamic response patterns in 3- to 7-year-old children listening to two speech modes: normally vocalized and whispered speech. Understanding whispered speech requires processing of the relatively weak, noisy signal, as well as the cognitive ability to understand the speaker's reason for whispering. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to assess changes in cortical oxygenated hemoglobin from 16 typically developing children. A profound difference in oxygenated hemoglobin levels between the speech modes was found over left ventral sensorimotor cortex. In particular, over areas that represent speech articulatory body parts and motion, such as the larynx, lips, and jaw, oxygenated hemoglobin was higher for whisper than for normal speech. The weaker stimulus, in terms of sound energy, thus induced the more profound hemodynamic response. This, moreover, occurred over areas involved in speech articulation, even though the children did not overtly articulate speech during measurements. Because whisper is a special form of communication not often used in daily life, we suggest that the hemodynamic response difference over left ventral sensorimotor cortex resulted from inner (covert) practice or imagination of the different articulatory actions necessary to produce whisper as opposed to normal speech.

  18. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  19. Women’s higher likelihood of disability pension: the role of health, family and work. A 5–7 years follow-up of the Hordaland Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women’s higher risk of disability pension compared with men is found in countries with high female work participation and universal welfare schemes. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which self-perceived health, family situation and work factors explain women’s higher risk of disability pension. We also explored how these factors influenced the gender difference across educational strata. Methods The population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) was conducted in 1997–99 and included inhabitants born in 1953–57 in Hordaland County, Norway. The current study included 5,959 men and 6,306 women in paid work with valid information on education and self-perceived health. Follow-up data on disability pension, for a period of 5–7 years, was obtained by linking the health survey to a national registry of disability pension. Cox regression analyses were employed. Results During the follow-up period 99 (1.7%) men and 230 (3.6%) women were awarded disability pension, giving a twofold risk of disability pension for women compared with men. Except for a moderate impact of self-perceived health, adjustment for family situation and work factors did not influence the gender difference in risk. Repeating the analyses in strata of education, the gender difference in risk of disability pension among the highly educated was fully explained by self-perceived health and work factors. In the lower strata of education there remained a substantial unexplained gender difference in risk. Conclusions In a Norwegian cohort of middle-aged men and women, self-perceived health, family situation and work factors could not explain women’s higher likelihood of disability pension. However, analyses stratified by educational level indicate that mechanisms behind the gender gap in disability pension differ by educational levels. Recognizing the heterogeneity within gender may contribute to a deeper understanding of women’s higher risk of disability pension. PMID

  20. Women's higher likelihood of disability pension: the role of health, family and work. A 5-7 years follow-up of the Hordaland Health Study.

    PubMed

    Haukenes, Inger; Gjesdal, Sturla; Rortveit, Guri; Riise, Trond; Maeland, John Gunnar

    2012-08-31

    Women's higher risk of disability pension compared with men is found in countries with high female work participation and universal welfare schemes. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which self-perceived health, family situation and work factors explain women's higher risk of disability pension. We also explored how these factors influenced the gender difference across educational strata. The population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) was conducted in 1997-99 and included inhabitants born in 1953-57 in Hordaland County, Norway. The current study included 5,959 men and 6,306 women in paid work with valid information on education and self-perceived health. Follow-up data on disability pension, for a period of 5-7 years, was obtained by linking the health survey to a national registry of disability pension. Cox regression analyses were employed. During the follow-up period 99 (1.7%) men and 230 (3.6%) women were awarded disability pension, giving a twofold risk of disability pension for women compared with men. Except for a moderate impact of self-perceived health, adjustment for family situation and work factors did not influence the gender difference in risk. Repeating the analyses in strata of education, the gender difference in risk of disability pension among the highly educated was fully explained by self-perceived health and work factors. In the lower strata of education there remained a substantial unexplained gender difference in risk. In a Norwegian cohort of middle-aged men and women, self-perceived health, family situation and work factors could not explain women's higher likelihood of disability pension. However, analyses stratified by educational level indicate that mechanisms behind the gender gap in disability pension differ by educational levels. Recognizing the heterogeneity within gender may contribute to a deeper understanding of women's higher risk of disability pension.

  1. Changes of clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with Kawasaki disease over the past 7 years in a single center study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye Jin; Kim, Gee Na

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This single-center study was conducted to assess the changes in epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) over the past 7 years. Methods This retrospective study included 135 children with KD, admitted to Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, between 2004 and 2005 (group A, n=53) and between 2011 and 2012 (group B, n=82). Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding the presenting signs and symptoms, demographic characteristics, and laboratory and echocardiographic findings associated with KD. Results The hospital admission date after onset was significantly earlier in group B than in group A (P=0.008). The proportion of patients with incomplete KD was 45.3% and 65.9% in group A and B, respectively (P=0.018). The number of pretreatment coronary artery lesions (CALs) were significantly lesser in group B than in group A. (10/53 vs. 5/82, P=0.021). No significant differences was observed in the incidence of CALs at discharge, febrile phase duration, hospital stay duration, incidence of retreatment, and intravenous immunoglobulin dose between 2 groups. The total febrile phase was shorter in patients with incomplete KD than in those with complete KD in both groups. Conclusion The proportion of incomplete KD has become higher. Furthermore, early admission and management of patients with KD may be related to increased incomplete KD and decreased CALs. Therefore, we believe that a diagnostic strategy for incomplete KD should be established regardless of the presence of coronary lesions. PMID:24223600

  2. Injuries in men's international ice hockey: a 7-year study of the International Ice Hockey Federation Adult World Championship Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Markku; Stuart, Michael J; Aubry, Mark; Kannus, Pekka; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Information on ice hockey injuries at the international level is very limited. The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence, type, mechanism and severity of ice hockey injuries in men's international ice hockey tournaments. All the injuries in men's International Ice Hockey Federation World Championship tournaments over a 7-year period were analysed using a strict definition of injury, standardised reporting strategies and an injury diagnosis made by a team physician. 528 injuries were recorded in games resulting in an injury rate of 14.2 per 1000 player-games (52.1/1000 player-game hours). Additionally, 27 injuries occurred during practice. For WC A-pool Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games (OWG) the injury rate was 16.3/1000 player-games (59.6/1000 player-game hours). Body checking, and stick and puck contact caused 60.7% of the injuries. The most common types of injuries were lacerations, sprains, contusions and fractures. A laceration was the most common facial injury and was typically caused by a stick. The knee was the most frequently injured part of the lower body and the shoulder was the most common site of an upper body injury. Arenas with flexible boards and glass reduced the risk of injury by 29% (IRR 0.71, (95% CI 0.56 to 0.91)). The incidence of injury during international ice hockey competition is relatively high. Arena characteristics, such as flexible boards and glass, appeared to reduce the risk of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Injuries in men's international ice hockey: a 7-year study of the International Ice Hockey Federation Adult World Championship Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games

    PubMed Central

    Tuominen, Markku; Stuart, Michael J; Aubry, Mark; Kannus, Pekka; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Background Information on ice hockey injuries at the international level is very limited. The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence, type, mechanism and severity of ice hockey injuries in men's international ice hockey tournaments. Methods All the injuries in men's International Ice Hockey Federation World Championship tournaments over a 7-year period were analysed using a strict definition of injury, standardised reporting strategies and an injury diagnosis made by a team physician. Results 528 injuries were recorded in games resulting in an injury rate of 14.2 per 1000 player-games (52.1/1000 player-game hours). Additionally, 27 injuries occurred during practice. For WC A-pool Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games (OWG) the injury rate was 16.3/1000 player-games (59.6/1000 player-game hours). Body checking, and stick and puck contact caused 60.7% of the injuries. The most common types of injuries were lacerations, sprains, contusions and fractures. A laceration was the most common facial injury and was typically caused by a stick. The knee was the most frequently injured part of the lower body and the shoulder was the most common site of an upper body injury. Arenas with flexible boards and glass reduced the risk of injury by 29% (IRR 0.71, (95% CI 0.56 to 0.91)). Conclusions The incidence of injury during international ice hockey competition is relatively high. Arena characteristics, such as flexible boards and glass, appeared to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:25293341

  4. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  5. Trends and risk factors for HIV, HCV and syphilis seroconversion among drug users in a methadone maintenance treatment programme in China: a 7-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xia; Ling, Li; Zhang, Lei

    2015-08-21

    This study explores the trends and associated factors of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis seroconversion among Chinese methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients over a follow-up period of up to 7 years. Drug users from 14 MMT clinics in Guangdong Province were recruited during 2006-2014. Participants were seronegative with at least one HIV, HCV or syphilis infection at baseline and had completed at least one follow-up test during the study period. We estimated HIV, HCV and syphilis seroconversion rates in follow-up years and identified the underlying predictors using a multivariate Cox regression model. Among 9240 participants, the overall HIV seroconversion rate was 0.20 (0.13 to 0.28)/100 person-years (pys), 20.54 (18.62 to 22.46)/100 pys for HCV and 0.77 (0.62 to 0.93)/100 pys for syphilis, over the study period. HIV seroconversion rate showed a moderate but non-significant annual decline of 13.34% (-42.48% to 30.56%) (χ(2) trend test; p=0.369), whereas the decline of HCV seroconversion was 16.12% (5.53% to 25.52%) per annum (p<0.001). Syphilis seroconversion rate remained stable (p=0.540). Urine results positive for opioid predicted HIV seroconversion (≥ 60% vs <60%; HR=3.40, 1.07 to 10.85), being unmarried (HR=1.59, 1.15 to 2.20), injection drug use in the past 30 days (HR=2.17, 1.42 to 3.32), having sexual intercourse in the past 3 months (HR=1.74, 1.22 to 2.47) and higher daily dosage of methadone (≥ 60 mL vs <60 mL; HR=1.40, 1.01 to 1.94) predicted HCV seroconversion. Being female (HR=3.56, 2.25 to 5.64) and infected with HCV at baseline (HR=2.40, 1.38 to 8.36) were associated with subsequent syphilis seroconversion. MMT in China has demonstrated moderate-to-good effectiveness in reducing HIV and HCV incidence but not syphilis infection among participating drug users. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Cross-sectional study of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness at 7 years after an acute episode of unilateral primary acute angle closure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacky W Y; Woo, Tiffany T Y; Yau, Gordon S K; Yip, Stan; Yick, Doris W F; Wong, Jasper; Wong, Raymond L M; Wong, Ian Y H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the long-term retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) status and determinants of RNFL thinning after an episode of unilateral primary acute angle closure (AAC). This cross-sectional study analyzed the medical records of consecutive patients with a single episode of unilateral AAC from 1999 to 2009 in Hong Kong. The peripapillary RNFL thickness was correlated with age, gender, presenting intraocular pressure (IOP), time to laser iridotomy, time to cataract extraction, follow-up duration, as well as the last IOP, vertical cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and vision. The fellow uninvolved eye was used as a proxy comparison of RNFL loss in the attack eye. In 40 eligible patients, the mean age was 68.3 ± 8.7 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1:7. The mean presenting IOP was 49.2 ± 14.0 mm Hg and the time from presentation to laser iridotomy was 6.7 ± 6.9 days. Forty percent of subjects received a cataract extraction at 3.2 ± 2.9 years after the attack. The last IOP, CDR, and LogMAR vision were 16.0 ± 3.8 mm Hg, 0.6 ± 0.2, and 0.6 ± 0.6 LogMAR units, respectively, at 7.9 ± 2.4 years. The RNFL thickness in the attack eye (69.2 ± 19.1 μm) was 25.2 ± 17.9% thinner than the fellow eye (93.0 ± 17.8 μm) at 7.5 ± 2.9 years post-AAC. Using univariate analysis, the last vertical CDR (odds ratio [OR] = 17.2, P = 0.049) and LogMAR visual acuity (VA) (OR = 6.6, P = 0.03) were the only significant predictors for RNFL thinning whereas none of the other covariates showed significant associations (P > 0.1). At 7.5 years following unilateral AAC, the RNFL thickness was 25% thinner than the fellow eye. CDR enlargement and poor VA were the only significant predictors for RNFL loss.

  7. A Prospective Cohort Study Comparing Workload in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Liu, Jian; Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) changes over a period of 4.7 years relative to a group of typically developing controls. A school-based sample of children in a large region of Ontario, Canada with 75 out of a possible…

  8. Father Locus of Control and Child Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…

  9. Father Locus of Control and Child Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…

  10. Determinants of first and second trimester induced abortion - results from a cross-sectional study taken place 7 years after abortion law revisions in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bonnen, Kristine Ivalu; Tuijje, Dereje Negussie; Rasch, Vibeke

    2014-12-19

    In 2005 Ethiopia took the important step to protect women's reproductive health by liberalizing the abortion law. As a result women were given access to safe pregnancy termination in first and second trimester. This study aims to describe socio-economic characteristics and contraceptive experience among women seeking abortion in Jimma, Ethiopia and to describe determinants of second trimester abortion. A cross-sectional study conducted October 2011 - April 2012 in Jimma Town, Ethiopia among women having safely induced abortion and women having unsafely induced abortion. In all 808 safe abortion cases and 21 unsafe abortion cases were included in the study. Of the 829 abortions, 729 were first trimester and 100 were second trimester abortions. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine risk factors associated with second trimester abortion. The associations are presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidential intervals. Age stratified analyses of contraceptive experience among women with first and second trimester abortions are also presented. Socio-economic characteristics associated with increased ORs of second trimester abortion were: age < 19 years, being single, widowed or divorced, attending school, being unemployment, being nullipara or para 3+, and having low education. The contraceptive prevalence rate varied across age groups and was particularly low among young girls and young women experiencing second trimester abortion where only 15% and 19% stated they had ever used contraception. Young age, poor education and the prospect of single parenthood were associated with second trimester abortion. Young girls and young women were using contraception comparatively less often than older women. To ensure women full right to control their fertility in the setting studied, modern contraception should be made available, accessible and affordable for all women, regardless of age.

  11. Major depressive episodes over the course of 7 years and hippocampal subfield volumes at 7 tesla MRI: the PREDICT-MR study.

    PubMed

    Wisse, L E M; Biessels, G J; Stegenga, B T; Kooistra, M; van der Veen, P H; Zwanenburg, J J M; van der Graaf, Y; Geerlings, M I

    2015-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volumes have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). The hippocampus consists of several subfields that may be differentially related to MDD. We investigated the association of occurrence of major depressive episodes (MDEs), assessed five times over seven years, with hippocampal subfield and entorhinal cortex volumes at 7 tesla MRI. In this prospective study of randomly selected general practice attendees, MDEs according to DSM-IV-R criteria were assessed at baseline and after 6, 12, 39 and 84 months follow-up. At the last follow-up, a T2 (0.7 mm(3)) 7 tesla MRI scan was obtained in 47 participants (60±10 years). The subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1 to 3, dentate gyrus&CA4 and entorhinal cortex volumes were manually segmented according a published protocol. Of the 47 participants, 13 had one MDE and 5 had multiple MDEs. ANCOVAs, adjusted for age, sex, education and intracranial volume, revealed no significant differences in hippocampal subfield or entorhinal cortex volumes between participants with and without an MDE in the preceding 84 months. Multiple episodes were associated with smaller subiculum volumes (B=-0.03 mL/episode; 95% CI -0.06; -0.003), but not with the other hippocampal subfield volumes, entorhinal cortex, or total hippocampal volume. A limitation of this study is the small sample size which makes replication necessary. In this exploratory study, we found that an increasing number of major depressive episodes was associated with smaller subiculum volumes in middle-aged and older persons, but not with smaller volumes in other hippocampal subfields or the entorhinal cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality predicts cognitive function over 7 years in older persons.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J; Franks, Peter

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether Neuroticism as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination measured every 6 months for 7 years. Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function.

  13. How Do Work Engagement, Workaholism, and the Work-to-Family Interface Affect Each Other? A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Hakanen, Jari; Peeters, Maria

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the long-term relationships between work engagement, workaholism, work-to-family enrichment, and work-to-family conflict (WFC). We used structural equation modeling and the three-wave 7-year follow-up data of 1580 Finnish dentists to test our hypotheses. Work engagement and work-to-family enrichment mutually predicted each other, and work engagement also negatively predicted WFC. Workaholism predicted WFC, but not vice versa. Work engagement and workaholism were unrelated over time. The results indicate that beyond its suggested benefits for organizations, work engagement may boost the positive interaction between work and family, whereas workaholism is likely to lead to WFC over time. It is valuable for organizations to distinguish work engagement from workaholism and to enhance the former while preventing the latter to have sustainably hardworking working employees with happy home lives.

  14. Neonatal brain abnormalities and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term-born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey-matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function.

  15. [A retrospective study on HBsAg clearance rate after antiviral therapy in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B aged 1-7 years].

    PubMed

    Zhu, S S; Dong, Y; Xu, Z Q; Wang, L M; Chen, D W; Gan, Y; Wang, F C; Yan, J G; Cao, L L; Wang, P; Zhang, H F

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the HBsAg clearance rate after antiviral therapy in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) aged 1-7 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the HBsAg clearance rate in 293 children who were hospitalized in 302 Hospital of PLA from June 2006 to December 2013, met the inclusion criteria, received antiviral therapy, and were followed up for at least 6 months after the withdrawal of antiviral therapy. The t-test or the rank sum test was applied according to the distribution of continuous data, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data. Results: The HBsAg positive rate of children's mothers was 91.1%. In the age groups of >1-≤2 years, >2-≤3 years, >3-≤4 years, >4-≤5 years, >5-≤6 years, and >6-≤7 years, the HBsAg clearance rates were 66.1%, 65.5%, 45.7%, 41.3%, 20.6%, and 27.6%, respectively. There were significant differences in HBsAg clearance rate between the age groups of >1-≤3 years and >3-≤5 years, >1-≤3 years and >5-≤7 years, and >3-≤5 years and >5-≤7 years (P = 0.001, 0.000, and 0.008). Of all children, 64.8% were boys, among whom 41.1% achieved HBsAg clearance, and 35.2% were girls, among whom 61.2% achieved HBsAg clearance; there was a significant difference in HBsAg clearance rate between boys and girls (P = 0.001). The children with pretreatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of ≤80 IU/L, > 80 IU/L, ≤200 IU/L, and > 200 IU/L had HBsAg clearance rates of 40.7%, 51.2%, 47.6%, and 49.4%, respectively; there were no significant differences in HBsAg clearance rate between the ALT ≤80 IU/L and ALT > 80 IU/L groups and the ALT ≤200 IU/L and ALT > 200 IU/L groups (P = 0.101 and 0.778). There was no significant difference in HBsAg clearance rate between the pretreatment HBV DNA load < 1×10(7) IU/ml and ≥1×10(7) IU/ml groups (54.9% vs 46.7%, P = 0.286). Of all children, 14.2% had genotype B and an HBsAg clearance rate of 57.1%, and 85% had

  16. [Prospective study in 2 hospitals].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Buñuales, M T; Martínez-Sáenz, M S; González-Diego, P; Vallejo-García, M; Gallardo-Anciano, J; Cestafe-Martínez, A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the incidence rate of medication reconciliation at admission and discharge in patients of La Rioja and to improve the patient safety on medication reconciliation. An observational prospective study, part of the Joint Action PaSQ, Work Package 5, European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care. The study has taken into account the definitions of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices. Any unintended discrepancy in medication between chronic treatment and the treatment prescribed in the hospital was considered as a reconciliation error. A total of 750 patients were included, 9 (1.2%) of whom showed at least one discrepancy. The patients had a total of 3,156 mediations registered: 2,313 prescriptions (73.4%) showed no differences, while 821 prescriptions (26%) were intended discrepancies and 21 prescriptions (0.6%) unintended discrepancies were considered by the physician as reconciliation errors. A percentage of 1.2 of the patients, which represents 0.6% of the medicines (one in 166 medications registered) had reconciliation errors during their hospital stay. A proceeding has been implemented by means of the physician doing the medication reconciliation and reviewing it with the help of a medication reconciliation form. The medication reconciliation is a priority strategic objective to improve the safety of patients. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Manganese superoxide dismutase activity and incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with Child-Pugh class A liver cirrhosis: a 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Caterina; Elba, Silvana; Buongiorno, Gianpiero; Guerra, Vito; D'Attoma, Benedetta; Orlando, Antonella; Russo, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate possible modifications in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity during neoplastic transformation of a cirrhotic liver and to find out whether its assessment may have predictive value to identify cirrhotic patients at a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventy-one consecutive subjects with Child-Pugh class A liver cirrhosis were recruited. At the time of enrolment, HCC was diagnosed in 20 cirrhotic patients. The 51 cirrhotic patients without HCC were followed up for the occurrence of tumour by 6-monthly screening for 7 years. During follow-up, 16 patients developed HCC. Seventy healthy subjects formed the control group. MnSOD activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. Serum MnSOD activity was significantly lower in 70 healthy subjects compared with 51 cirrhotic patients and 20 cirrhotic patients with HCC. Cirrhotic patients who developed HCC during follow-up showed significantly higher values of MnSOD activity than HCC-free patients. The best cut-off of MnSOD activity was 0.40 U/ml. At this cut-off, chi2 analysis revealed that MnSOD activity was significantly different between the HCC-free cirrhotic patients and cirrhotic patients who developed HCC. The present findings suggest that during neoplastic transformation of cirrhotic liver, an increase in MnSOD activity may occur already during the precancerous phase, making this enzyme a probable malignancy-associated parameter.

  18. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  19. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  20. Protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic stress: a comparative study of 4 communities after 7 years of continuous rocket fire.

    PubMed

    Gelkopf, Marc; Berger, Rony; Bleich, Avraham; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2012-03-01

    Many communities across the world are chronically exposed to extreme violence. Responses of residents from a city and rural community in Southern Israel, both exposed to 7 years of daily mortar fire, were compared to residents from demographically, socio-economically and geographically comparable non-exposed control samples to examine protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic war-related attacks. Samples from a highly exposed city (Sderot) and a highly exposed rural community region (Otef Aza), along with a demographically comparable comparison non-exposed city (Ofakim) and non-exposed rural community region (Hevel Lachish), were obtained in 2007 using Random Digit Dialing. In total, 740 individuals (81.8% participation rate) were interviewed about trauma exposure, mental health, functioning and health care utilization. In the highly exposed city of Sderot, 97.8% of residents had been in close proximity to falling rockets; in the highly exposed rural community region of Otef Aza, 95.5% were similarly exposed. Despite exposure to chronic rocket attacks, residents of Otef Aza evidenced little symptomatology: only one person (1.5%) reported symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functioning levels did not differ from those of non-exposed communities. In contrast, posttraumatic stress (PTS), distress, functional impairment and health care utilization were substantially higher in the highly exposed city of Sderot than the other three communities. Lack of resources was associated with increased vulnerability among city residents; predictors of PTS across all samples included being female, older, directly exposed to rockets, history of trauma, suffering economic loss, and lacking social support. Increased community solidarity, sense of belonging and confidence in authorities may have served a protective function for residents of rural communities, despite the chronic attacks to which they were exposed. Copyright

  1. Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6-7 Years: A National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…

  2. Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6-7 Years: A National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…

  3. Patterns of Physical Activity and Overweight among 7-13-Year-Old Russian Children: A 7-Year Nationally Representative Monitoring Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Popkin, B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This is a repeated cross-sectional study of overweight and physical activity (PA) and inactivity patterns of successive samples of 7-13-year-old Russian children who were surveyed six times between 1995 and 2002 as part of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. This analysis focused on moderate/vigorous (MOD/VIG) PA (e.g., active commuting to…

  4. Is Auditory Discrimination Mature by Middle Childhood? A Study Using Time-Frequency Analysis of Mismatch Responses from 7 Years to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological studies give differing impressions of when auditory discrimination is mature. Ability to discriminate frequency and speech contrasts reaches adult levels only around 12 years of age, yet an electrophysiological index of auditory discrimination, the mismatch negativity (MMN), is reported to be as large in…

  5. A Study on the Development of the Concept of Rhythm in 5 to 7-Year-Old with Profound Hearing Loss Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilir, Sule; And Others

    This study explored the development of rhythm among eight kindergarten children with profound hearing loss in Ankara, Turkey. Musical instruments were used whose frequency ranges matched those the children were capable of hearing. After a pretest, students spent 5 half-days per week in training over the course of 2 months. Training included…

  6. Cognitive Skills Used to Solve Mathematical Word Problems and Numerical Operations: A Study of 6- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Isabel Maria; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between skills that underpin mathematical word problems and those that underpin numerical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Sixty children aged 6-7 years were tested on measures of mathematical ability, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, verbal intelligence and…

  7. Is Auditory Discrimination Mature by Middle Childhood? A Study Using Time-Frequency Analysis of Mismatch Responses from 7 Years to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological studies give differing impressions of when auditory discrimination is mature. Ability to discriminate frequency and speech contrasts reaches adult levels only around 12 years of age, yet an electrophysiological index of auditory discrimination, the mismatch negativity (MMN), is reported to be as large in…

  8. Transitioning to and Sustaining District-Wide Inclusive Services: A 7-Year Study of a District's Ongoing Journey and Its Accompanying Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryndak, Diane Lea; Reardon, Ric; Benner, Susan R.; Ward, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    This case study describes the journey of one school district as it focused for 5 years on affecting district-wide systemic change related to inclusive education for all students with disabilities, including those with severe disabilities. Information is provided about the district's efforts across 5 years, and data are provided across those 5 and…

  9. Reinduction with Certolizumab Pegol in Patients with Crohn's Disease Experiencing Disease Exacerbation: 7-Year Data from the PRECiSE 4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David T.; Sandborn, William J.; Randall, Charles; Younes, Ziad; Schreiber, Stefan; Schwartz, David A.; Burakoff, Robert; Binion, David; Dassopoulos, Themos; Arsenescu, Razvan; Gutierrez, Alexandra; Scherl, Ellen; Kayhan, Cem; Hasan, Iram; Kosutic, Gordana; Spearman, Marshall; Sen, David; Coarse, Jason; Hanauer, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with Crohn's disease in whom tumor necrosis factor antagonist therapy fails have limited treatment options, and the benefit of reintroducing the same therapy remains unclear. Here, we report results from PRECiSE 4 (NCT00160706), an open-label extension study of certolizumab pegol in patients who withdrew from the placebo-controlled studies PRECiSE 1 or 2. Methods: Patients eligible for PRECiSE 4 had Crohn's disease exacerbation on placebo or primary or secondary failure to certolizumab pegol in PRECiSE 1 or 2, and received 400 mg certolizumab pegol subcutaneously at weeks 0, 2, and 4 and every 4 weeks thereafter up to 360 weeks. We assessed safety (adverse events) and efficacy (clinical remission) of extended certolizumab pegol therapy. Results: Patients enrolled in PRECiSE 4 (N = 310; mean age, 37 yr; 58% female; 95% white) had a mean Crohn's disease duration of 8.5 years before entering the qualifying studies. At weeks 52, 104, and 156, remission rates were 28.5%, 17.5%, and 12.6% by nonremitter imputation, and 63.8%, 60.0%, and 63.5% by observed cases, with 47.4%, 31.9%, and 23.2% of patients, respectively, remaining on therapy. By study end (7.5 yr), 92.3% of patients discontinued therapy, 49% on account of adverse events. No new safety signals emerged. Incidence rate (new cases)/100 patient-years was 6.11 for serious infections and 1.29 for malignancies. Conclusions: Certolizumab pegol was effective in many patients who previously discontinued certolizumab pegol for lack or loss of response. Thus, discontinuation of therapy may not always be necessary. Safety was consistent with previous findings. PMID:27400222

  10. Influenza vaccination in people with type 2 diabetes, coverage, predictors of uptake, and perceptions. Result of the MADIABETES cohort a 7years follow up study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Lopez-de-Andres, Ana; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentin; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; San Andrés-Rebollo, Francisco J; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Cárdenas-Valladolid, Juan; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-03

    We aim to determine influenza vaccination uptake among people with diabetes included in the MADIABETES cohort study in order to identify predictors of uptake and to analyze reasons for adherence and non-adherence with vaccination. Using data from the MADIABETES Study we conducted a retrospective case record form based study without controls. We included outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Information was obtained from computerized clinical records and by telephone survey. The main dependent variables were influenza vaccination uptake in the year 2013 and the reason for receiving or refusing vaccination. Overall, 65.7% had received the influenza vaccine in 2013. The mean number of influenza vaccines received from 2007 to 2013 was 3.24 (SD1.15), although 19.23% had not received any influenza vaccine and 23.3% had been vaccinated against pneumococcus. The variables that increased the probability of being vaccinated were inclusion in the age-based recommendation (⩾60years), having a chronic respiratory disease, previous pneumococcal vaccination, higher number of visits to the general practitioner, higher number of influenza vaccines, and longer time since diabetes diagnosis. A higher mean glycated haemoglobin value in 2013 was associated with a reduced probability of vaccination. Most patients (90%) agreed to be vaccinated following their physician's advice because of their age or their chronic conditions. The most common reason for refusal among men was the belief that they were not at risk (41.6% vs. 29.79% in women); the most common reason for refusal among women was fear of adverse reactions (32.53% vs. 20.23% in men). The uptake of influenza vaccination among diabetic patients in the present study was below desirable levels. The main barrier to vaccination was lack of knowledge regarding the need for and risks and advantages of influenza vaccination. Healthcare professionals should educate and encourage influenza vaccination among people with diabetes

  11. A 7-year follow-up retrospective, international, multicenter study of insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Ho, Josephine; Cardona-Hernandez, Roque; Suarez-Ortega, Larisa; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the long-term glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for at least 5 years in three diabetes centers from three different countries: Canada, Italy and Spain. This was an observational retrospective multicenter cohort study. Subjects were included if they were followed at one of the participating centers, had type 1 diabetes, age 5-20 years at time of data collection and used CSII for more than 5 years. Data collected included gender, age, disease duration, age at CSII initiation, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin requirement and serious adverse events (SAE) at baseline and every 12 months during follow-up. One hundred fifteen patients were included in the study (55% males), aged 5-20 years (mean: 13.5 ± 3.8 years), with mean diabetes duration of 6.3 ± 3.4 years, using CSII for mean of 6.9 ± 1.2 years (range 5-12 years.). HbA1c significantly improved after 1 year of CSII treatment and during follow-up (p = 0.02). When HbA1c was compared between countries, a difference was observed, with slightly lower values in Italy than in Canada and Spain (p = 0.04). When evaluated by gender, HbA1c was similar at baseline, but significantly improved only in males during all follow-up (p = 0.004). No significant differences were observed for BMI, insulin requirement or SAE. Insulin pump therapy is safe and effective in the pediatric population, although in this study, the major benefit in HbA1c was seen in males. The use of advanced pump features was associated with greater improvement in HbA1c.

  12. Long-term Effectiveness of Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy in Partial Epileptic Patients: A 7-year Study in an Epilepsy Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fei; Lang, Sen-Yang; Wang, Xiang-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Ma, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jia-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is important to choose an appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) to manage partial epilepsy. Traditional AEDs, such as carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA), have been proven to have good therapeutic effects. However, in recent years, a variety of new AEDs have increasingly been used as first-line treatments for partial epilepsy. As the studies regarding the effectiveness of new drugs and comparisons between new AEDs and traditional AEDs are few, it is determined that these are areas in need of further research. Accordingly, this study investigated the long-term effectiveness of six AEDs used as monotherapy in patients with partial epilepsy. Methods: This is a retrospective, long-term observational study. Patients with partial epilepsy who received monotherapy with one of six AEDs, namely, CBZ, VPA, topiramate (TPM), oxcarbazepine (OXC), lamotrigine (LTG), or levetiracetam (LEV), were identified and followed up from May 2007 to October 2014, and time to first seizure after treatment, 12-month remission rate, retention rate, reasons for treatment discontinuation, and adverse effects were evaluated. Results: A total of 789 patients were enrolled. The median time of follow-up was 56.95 months. CBZ exhibited the best time to first seizure, with a median time to first seizure of 36.06 months (95% confidential interval: 30.64–44.07). CBZ exhibited the highest 12-month remission rate (85.55%), which was significantly higher than those of TPM (69.38%, P = 0.006), LTG (70.79%, P = 0.001), LEV (72.54%, P = 0.005), and VPA (73.33%, P = 0.002). CBZ, OXC, and LEV had the best retention rate, followed by LTG, TPM, and VPA. Overall, adverse effects occurred in 45.87% of patients, and the most common adverse effects were memory problems (8.09%), rashes (7.76%), abnormal hepatic function (6.24%), and drowsiness (6.24%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that CBZ, OXC, and LEV are relatively effective in managing focal epilepsy as measured by time to first seizure

  13. Long-term Effectiveness of Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy in Partial Epileptic Patients: A 7-year Study in an Epilepsy Center in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Lang, Sen-Yang; Wang, Xiang-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Ma, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jia-Tang

    2015-11-20

    It is important to choose an appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) to manage partial epilepsy. Traditional AEDs, such as carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA), have been proven to have good therapeutic effects. However, in recent years, a variety of new AEDs have increasingly been used as first-line treatments for partial epilepsy. As the studies regarding the effectiveness of new drugs and comparisons between new AEDs and traditional AEDs are few, it is determined that these are areas in need of further research. Accordingly, this study investigated the long-term effectiveness of six AEDs used as monotherapy in patients with partial epilepsy. This is a retrospective, long-term observational study. Patients with partial epilepsy who received monotherapy with one of six AEDs, namely, CBZ, VPA, topiramate (TPM), oxcarbazepine (OXC), lamotrigine (LTG), or levetiracetam (LEV), were identified and followed up from May 2007 to October 2014, and time to first seizure after treatment, 12-month remission rate, retention rate, reasons for treatment discontinuation, and adverse effects were evaluated. A total of 789 patients were enrolled. The median time of follow-up was 56.95 months. CBZ exhibited the best time to first seizure, with a median time to first seizure of 36.06 months (95% confidential interval: 30.64-44.07). CBZ exhibited the highest 12-month remission rate (85.55%), which was significantly higher than those of TPM (69.38%, P = 0.006), LTG (70.79%, P = 0.001), LEV (72.54%, P = 0.005), and VPA (73.33%, P = 0.002). CBZ, OXC, and LEV had the best retention rate, followed by LTG, TPM, and VPA. Overall, adverse effects occurred in 45.87% of patients, and the most common adverse effects were memory problems (8.09%), rashes (7.76%), abnormal hepatic function (6.24%), and drowsiness (6.24%). This study demonstrated that CBZ, OXC, and LEV are relatively effective in managing focal epilepsy as measured by time to first seizure, 12-month remission rate, and retention

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Age and Alarm Symptoms for Upper GI Malignancy in Patients with Dyspepsia in a GI Clinic: A 7-Year Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Hooman; Radmard, Amir-Reza; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Kamangar, Farin; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Johansson, Mattias; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether using demographic characteristics and alarm symptoms can accurately predict cancer in patients with dyspepsia in Iran, where upper GI cancers and H. pylori infection are common. Methods All consecutive patients referred to a tertiary gastroenterology clinic in Tehran, Iran, from 2002 to 2009 were invited to participate in this study. Each patient completed a standard questionnaire and underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Alarm symptoms included in the questionnaire were weight loss, dysphagia, GI bleeding, and persistent vomiting. We used logistic regression models to estimate the diagnostic value of each variable in combination with other ones, and to develop a risk-prediction model. Results A total of 2,847 patients with dyspepsia participated in this study, of whom 87 (3.1%) had upper GI malignancy. Patients reporting at least one of the alarm symptoms constituted 66.7% of cancer patients compared to 38.9% in patients without cancer (p<0.001). Esophageal or gastric cancers in patients with dyspepsia was associated with older age, being male, and symptoms of weight loss and vomiting. Each single predictor had low sensitivity and specificity. Using a combination of age, alarm symptoms, and smoking, we built a risk-prediction model that distinguished between high-risk and low-risk individuals with an area under the ROC curve of 0.85 and acceptable calibration. Conclusions None of the predictors demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy. While our risk-prediction model had reasonable accuracy, some cancer cases would have remained undiagnosed. Therefore, where available, low cost endoscopy may be preferable for dyspeptic older patient or those with history of weight loss. PMID:22720064

  15. Primary headache disorders in children under 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ramdas, S; Prasad, M; Abu-Arafeh, I

    2013-02-01

    Research on headache disorders in young children is limited. This study aims to determine causes and clinical presentations of headache in young children attending a specialist clinic. All children attending the headache clinic over 9-year period were included. Data were collected prospectively on demography and clinical presentations of headache at every attendance. The diagnosis of headache disorders was based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II (2004). Of the 921 children (491 male) who attended the clinic, 73 children (8%) were under 7 years of age at presentation; 34 children had migraine, 11 had tension-type headache (4 chronic), 4 had mixed types of headache and 16 children had unclassified headaches. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, light intolerance and noise intolerance were common during migraine attacks and forehead was the most common site of maximal pain. Migraine is the most common headache disorder in young children attending a specialist clinic. Headache presentation is often atypical and in 20% of young children headache disorders are unclassified. Chronic tension-type headache, often considered a disease of adolescents and adults, is shown to present in early age.

  16. [Isolated iliac deep venous thrombosis. Study of 48 cases seen in 7 years among 18,297 echo-Doppler evaluations of the lower limbs].

    PubMed

    Barrellier, M T; Lezin, B; Monsallier, J M

    2001-12-01

    Isolated iliac venous thrombosis (IIVT) is uncommon. Duplex ultrasonography of the iliac vessels is not recommended and not generally performed. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of IIVT in a hospital recruitment population and to identify characteristic features of onset which might be associated with this localization in order to better target explorations. The study included 18,297 patients referred for Duplex-ultrasonographic exploration of possible deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs between January 1st 1994 and December 31st 2000. Selection of isolated iliac thrombosis, defined as the absence of retrograde extension to the common femoral vein, was made from the digitalized data recorded daily. The following factors were tested: sex, age, absence of clinical signs in the lower limb, presence of pulmonary signs. The raw odds ratios were calculated followed by construction of a multivariate logistic regression model. The circumstances of onset were retrieved from the patient's medical files. Isolated iliac venous thrombosis was discovered in 48 patients, i.e. 0.26% (95% CI 0.19%-0.35%) in the recruitment population and 0.82% (95% CI 0.61%-1.09%) among the 5827 patients with thrombosis. The common iliac was involved predominantly (35 out of 48). The left side predominated in women compared with men (24/36 versus 4/12) (p = 0.04). Specifically female circumstances (oral contraceptives, peri-obstetrical period) always led to a left localization. For the other identified circumstances (cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, orthopedic surgery, pelvic trauma), there was no predominant side. Variables explaining the multivariate model were sex, age (less than or more than 35 years), suspected pulmonary embolism, and age interaction with suspected pulmonary embolism. For women, the risk of IIVT was twice as high as for men (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.02-3.81). Young age was also a risk factor for IIVT and increased with suspected pulmonary embolism

  17. Tobacco price increase and smoking behaviour changes in various subgroups: a nationwide longitudinal 7-year follow-up study among a middle-aged Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Takeo; Shinozaki, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the effect of tobacco price increase on both cessation among smokers and relapse among quitters. Our objective was to investigate the differential impact of the tobacco price increase on the changes in smoking status in the total population and various subgroups. We analysed data from a Japanese nationally representative longitudinal study of 30 773 individuals aged 50-59 years (weighted sum of discrete-time number = 215 411) with smoking information, using inverse probability weighting to account for non-response at follow-up. Generalised estimating equation models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for smoking behavioural changes (cessation among smokers and relapse among quitters), using discrete-time design. Stratified analyses were conducted according to demographic, socioeconomic and health behavioural characteristics. From 2005 to 2012, current smoker prevalence among the middle-aged Japanese population decreased from 30.5% to 24.3%. Of all the factors surveyed, only the tobacco price increase in 2010 (up by 37%, the highest increase during the period) was significantly associated with both cessation among smokers (OR 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.90 to 2.41) and prevention of relapse among quitters (0.60, 0.46 to 0.77). Regarding the subgroup analysis, the tobacco price increase was associated with a significant reduction in relapse in the lowest income, recent quitters and very poor health subgroups. However, different associations were observed for cessation; a significant association between price increase and cessation was observed among all subgroups except for the heavy smoker and recently unemployed subgroups. We confirmed that the tobacco price rise was associated with increasing cessation and decreasing relapse concurrently. Furthermore, this price rise was associated with favourable smoking changes in nearly all population subgroups; a large differential impact was not observed across the

  18. Is auditory discrimination mature by middle childhood? A study using time-frequency analysis of mismatch responses from 7 years to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Dorothy VM; Hardiman, Mervyn J; Barry, Johanna G

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological studies give differing impressions of when auditory discrimination is mature. Ability to discriminate frequency and speech contrasts reaches adult levels only around 12 years of age, yet an electrophysiological index of auditory discrimination, the mismatch negativity (MMN), is reported to be as large in children as in adults. Auditory ERPs were measured in 30 children (7 to 12 years), 23 teenagers (13 to 16 years) and 32 adults (35 to 56 years) in an oddball paradigm with tone or syllable stimuli. For each stimulus type, a standard stimulus (1000 Hz tone or syllable [ba]) occurred on 70% of trials, and one of two deviants (1030 or 1200 Hz tone, or syllables [da] or [bi]) equiprobably on the remaining trials. For the traditional MMN interval of 100–250 ms post-onset, size of mismatch responses increased with age, whereas the opposite trend was seen for an interval from 300 to 550 ms post-onset, corresponding to the late discriminative negativity (LDN). Time-frequency analysis of single trials revealed that the MMN resulted from phase-synchronization of oscillations in the theta (4–7 Hz) range, with greater synchronization in adults than children. Furthermore, the amount of synchronization was significantly correlated with frequency discrimination threshold. These results show that neurophysiological processes underlying auditory discrimination continue to develop through childhood and adolescence. Previous reports of adult-like MMN amplitudes in children may be artefactual results of using peak measurements when comparing groups that differ in variance. PMID:22213909

  19. A cross-sectional study of age-related changes in plantar pressure distribution between 4 and 7 years: a comparison of regional and pixel-level analyses.

    PubMed

    Phethean, Jill; Pataky, Todd C; Nester, Christopher J; Findlow, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying morphological and functional development in children's feet, and thereby establishing development norms is difficult. In addition to practical challenges of experimentation on children, measurement equipment like plantar pressure (PP) platforms are almost exclusively geared towards adult-sized feet. These PP quantification problems may be exacerbated by typical regional data analysis techniques, which further reduce spatial resolution. The goal of this study was to quantify PP distributions in developing children, and also to compare the results obtained from typical (regional) techniques with those obtained from a higher-resolution (pixel-level) technique. Ninety-eight children between four and seven years of age were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Maximum PP distributions were collected for each child, and these pressures were linearly regressed against age. Present results agree with previous investigations in that maximum pressures and maximum pressure changes occurred in the forefoot. However, results from the present pixel-level technique suggest that these changes are limited to the central metatarsals, and that regional methods can suggest significance where none exists in the actual raw (pixel-level) data, due to signal aliasing and, in particular, to conflation of regional boundaries. We postulate that increased central metatarsal pressures are reflective of the coupling between generalised joint laxity decreases and relatively increasingly inclined central metatarsal bones with age.

  20. Effects of Wind Chill Factor, Temperature and Other Meteorological Parameters on the Incidence of Bell's Palsy: Results Based on a Retrospective, 7-Year Long, Greek Population Study.

    PubMed

    Kokotis, Panagiotis; Katsavos, Serafeim

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of Bell's palsy (BP), the most common type of dysfunction of the facial nerve, remains unclear despite vigorous research. Data concerning the effects of meteorological factors (MFs) on its appearance are inconclusive. The aim of our study was to examine the demographics of a convenience sample of patients with BP and to determine the effects of several MFs in the recorded number of cases per month (cpm). We retrospectively reviewed 568 files of BP patients and concomitant data of MFs during an 84-month observation period. Information collected included age, gender, diabetic status, number of cpm (months further categorized as winter or summer), mean daily and monthly temperatures and wind speeds and monthly values of wind chill factor (WCF), a measure dependent on both temperature and wind speed. Potential correlations were estimated by univariate analyses (p = 0.05). Demographics were in line with previous research regarding age and diabetic status, but indicative of slight male preponderance. Summer months and mean monthly temperatures showed significant negative correlations with cpm (p = 0.002 and <0.000, respectively) and strong positive correlation with WCF (p < 0.000). MFs can substantially influence the possibility for BP appearance. We propose WCF as a novel, reliable estimator of the overall MF-derived risk. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Risk and protective factors for disturbed eating: a 7-year longitudinal study of eating attitudes and psychological factors in adolescent girls and their parents.

    PubMed

    Westerberg-Jacobson, J; Edlund, B; Ghaderi, A

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this seven-year longitudinal study of 228 girls (9- and 13-yr olds) were to examine 1) the predictive value of eating attitudes, a wish to be thinner, dieting, perfectionism, self-esteem and Body Mass Index; 2) the girls' parents' eating attitudes and perfectionism in relation to the development of disturbed eating attitudes, seven years later; and 3) whether normal body weight, healthy eating attitudes and low perfectionism together with high self-esteem might operate as protective factors for the later development of disturbed eating attitudes. The pre-adolescent girls (9-yr olds) "wish to be thinner" and fathers' EAT scores contributed most to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes seven years later. Corresponding analysis for the adolescent girls (13-yr olds) showed that a "wish to be thinner" and mothers' rating on perfectionism contributed most to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes seven years later. Protective factors were low BMI and more healthy eating attitudes - especially moderated by high selfesteem, and a low-to-medium degree of perfectionism. High self-esteem appeared to be a protective factor when the girls had a high degree of perfectionism. These results suggest that it is important to focus on healthy eating attitudes at home to prevent overweight in early childhood, enhance self-esteem and to take a critical stand toward the thinness ideal in our society.

  2. Are Caucasian-European men delaying fatherhood? Results of a 7 year observational study of infertile couples with male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Salonia, A; Matloob, R; Saccà, A; Ferrari, M; Gallina, A; Castiglione, F; Abdollah, F; Raber, M; Brigante, C; Candiani, M; Rigatti, P; Montorsi, F

    2012-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing presence and predictors of a trend towards more advanced paternal age at presentation in a cohort of 1283 Caucasian-European infertile couples with male factor infertility (MFI) over a short time frame. Multivariate linear regression analysis tested the association between predictors [namely, partners' age, length of infertility at first presentation, patients' comorbidities as scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and educational status] and patient's age at presentation. Using anova, patient's age at presentation (F ratio: 2.43; p = 0.024) and patients' educational status (χ(2) trend: 142.38; p < 0.001) significantly increased over time. In contrast, length of infertility at first presentation, CCI and partners' age did not significantly change over time (all p ≥ 0.05). Linear regression analyses showed that CCI, educational status and year of presentation were not correlated with patients' age at presentation (all p ≥ 0.05), whereas partners' age (β = 0.170; p < 0.001) and length of infertility (β = 0.123; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of delayed fatherhood. These results showed a significant shift towards advanced paternal age, but a non-significant increase of maternal age at first presentation among Caucasian-European infertile couples with MFI over a short time frame.

  3. Human papillomavirus in young women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection 7 years after the Australian human papillomavirus vaccination programme: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric P F; Danielewski, Jennifer A; Fehler, Glenda; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Matthew G; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Garland, Suzanne M; Chen, Marcus Y; Fairley, Christopher K

    2015-11-01

    The national quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccination programme was launched in Australia in April, 2007. In this study, we aimed to explore the prevalence of vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) types contained in the 4vHPV and nine-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccines detected in young women diagnosed with chlamydia. In this cross-sectional study, we identified specimens from women aged 25 years or younger who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (Melbourne, VIC, Australia) diagnosed with chlamydia. We calculated the prevalence of 4vHPV types (6, 11, 16, and 18) and the extra five 9vHPV types (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 alone) excluding 4vHPV types, stratified by Australian financial year (and according to the prevaccination and postvaccination periods) and self-reported vaccination status, for all women, Australian-born women, Australian-born women aged 21 years and younger, and overseas-born women. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios using binomial log linear regression. Between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2014, we included 1202 women. The prevalence of 4vHPV types in Australian-born women decreased during this period (HPV 6 and 11: 2004-05 nine [16%, 95% CI 8-28] of 56 vs 2013-14 one [2%, 0-9] of 57, p<0·0001; HPV 16 and 18: 17 [30%, 19-44] vs two [4%, 0-12], p<0·0001). In Australian-born women aged 21 years and younger, HPV 6 and 11 prevalence remained at 0% for all years after 2008-09, and we detected HPV 16 and 18 in 5% or less of samples for the same period. In unvaccinated Australian-born women, we noted a significant decrease in 4vHPV types from 66 (41%, 95% CI 34-49) of 160 in the prevaccination period (from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2007) to five (19%, 6-38) of 27 in the postvaccination period (July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2014; p=0·031), but not in the 9vHPV types, excluding 4vHPV (36 [23%, 95% CI 16-30] vs seven [26%, 11-46]; p=0·805). The three-dose vaccination coverage was sufficient for the 4vHPV types to almost disappear in

  4. [Psychogenic paralysis. A prospective study].

    PubMed

    Binzer, M N; Kullgren, G

    2000-10-16

    Patients with motor conversion disorder are frequently seen in neurological departments. Long term prognosis is usually considered to be good, although earlier research has been somewhat unsystematic and mostly retrospective. This study follows a well investigated sample of patients for two to five years and attempts to identify predictors associated with prognosis. Thirty patients with a recent onset of motor conversion disorder were assessed for key psychiatric and demographic variables. They were reassessed two to five years later. Nineteen patients had recovered completely and eight patients had improved, while only three patients were unchanged or worse. Contrary to other follow-up studies none of the patients received a rediagnosis of neurological disease. The presence of a personality disorder, concomitant somatic disease, and low DSM-IV axis V score proved to be associated with poor outcome. The results of this study stresses the need for careful and well-conducted neurological and psychiatric assessments in patients with psychogenic paralyses, bearing in mind the substantial possibility for coinciding illnesses. If this is ensured, it appears that the risk of subsequent neurological rediagnosis is negligible.

  5. PTA scale for children aged 4 to 7 years: Selecting developmentally valid and reliable items.

    PubMed

    Lah, Suncica; David, Pamela; Donohue, Hayley; Epps, Adrienne; Tate, Robyn; Brookes, Naomi

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to select developmentally valid and reliable items for inclusion in criterion-referenced (pass > 90%) posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) scale for children aged 4 to 7 years in a prospective cohort study. Fifty-two typically developing children (26 male/26 female) aged 4 to 7 years were administered a set of 10 items (5 orientation, 5 memory) over 3-4 days. The total score obtained on the set of 10 items had poor developmental validity and test-retest reliability. Nevertheless, individual item analysis identified five items (three orientation and two memory items) that were consistently passed by >90% of the children on each day of testing. For these five items the total scores did not differ significantly either between age groups or between days of testing. Test-retest was extremely high (close to 1). The five items had excellent developmental validity and test-retest reliability. This study identified 5 (3 orientation and 2 memory) items that met our selection criterion and form a new PTA scale, the Sydney PTA scale (SYPTAS), for children aged 4 to 7 years.

  6. Adolescent risk factors for poisonings - a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kivistö, Juho E; Rimpelä, Arja; Mattila, Ville M

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed whether adolescents' socioeconomic background, health and health behaviours are associated with later risk of poisoning hospitalization. A prospective cohort of 54,169 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed for an average of 10.6 years. The end-point of the study was poisoning hospitalization, death or termination of follow-up in 2001. The relationships of socioeconomic background, health and health behaviour characteristics with poisoning hospitalization were studied with adjusted Cox's proportional hazard model. We identified 443 persons (0.8%) with a diagnosed poisoning leading to hospital admission. The mean age at the time of the poisoning hospitalization was 22.7 years. The strongest risk factors for poisoning hospitalization in males were more than three stress symptoms weekly (HR 1.9), poor school success (HR 1.9) and not living with both of the parents in adolescence (HR 1.8). In females, the strongest risk factors were more than three stress symptoms weekly (HR 2.1), poor school success (HR 2.2) and recurring drunkenness as drinking style (HR 1.7). Poor school performance, health and health-compromising behaviour adopted in adolescence are associated with a poisoning hospitalization risk in adulthood. Daily smoking and recurring drunkenness were strongly associated with a later poisoning hospitalization. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Neonatal Brain Abnormalities and Memory and Learning Outcomes at 7 Years in Children Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children, especially global, white-matter, grey-matter and cerebellar abnormalities. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function. PMID:23805915

  8. Penetrating head injury: a prospective study of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zafonte, R D; Wood, D L; Harrison-Felix, C L; Valena, N V; Black, K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the outcomes of persons with penetrating brain injury resulting from a gunshot wound to the head. It is a prospective study of 442 patients admitted with gunshot wounds to the head over a 7 year period to our University Trauma Center Emergency Department, an urban trauma center and an inpatient rehabilitation hospital with a specialized brain injury unit. Measures and factors described include initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, Revised Trauma Score, the Disability Rating Scale, Functional Independence Measure, levels of cognitive functioning, patient demographics, length of stay, hospital charges, and discharge disposition. Initially 36% of patients expired in or were dead upon arrival to the Emergency Department; 64% of patients survived to be admitted for inpatient care. Of those admitted, 41% expired within the first 48 h of admission. Fifty-two percent of those admitted had severe injuries, 7% moderate injuries, and 42% had mild head injuries. Sixty-two percent of the survivors were discharged from acute care to private residences. The remaining 38% were discharged to programs providing varying levels of care depending upon their level of functioning and care needs. Patients sustaining severe injuries following gunshot wound(s) to the head have high early mortality. Survivors able to participate in an inpatient rehabilitation program have good potential for functional improvement.

  9. A prospective study of 138 arthroscopies of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paulo Alexandre da; Lopes, Maria Teresa de Fatima Fernandes; Freire, Fernando Silva

    2015-01-01

    Internal derangements (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have a multifactorial etiology and are most often treated conservatively by splints, physical therapy and medications. Only in 2-5% of cases are the treatment surgical, either by arthroscopy or arthrotomy. To evaluate improvement of mouth opening, pain relief during function, position of the articular disk and complications following Arthroscopic Lyse and Lavage (ALL). A prospective study of 78 patients (138 TMJs) with TMJ ID, 5 males and 73 females, mean age 29.7 years, treated between January 2010 and April 2013, who were refractory to conservative treatment, had limited mouth opening and pain localized to the TMJ during function, and who were submitted to TMJ ALL and followed for a period of 12 months, with periodic reviews. ALL was effective in 93.6% of cases, with 85.3% experiencing improvement in mouth opening and 91.2% in pain reduction during function, 63% improvement in disk position and a rate of complications of 6.2%. In this study the ALL exhibited a high rate of success with low morbidity in internal derangements of the TMJ. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial keratitis: a prospective clinical and microbiological study

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, F.; Bruttin, O.; Zografos, L.; Guex-Crosier, Y.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To define the clinical and microbiological profile of bacterial keratitis at the Jules Gonin Eye Hospital and to test the in vitro bacterial resistance.
METHODS—Patients presenting with bacterial keratitis were prospectively followed; clinical features (age, risk factors, visual acuity) and response to therapy were analysed. Bacteriological profile was determined and the sensitivity/resistance of isolated strains were tested towards 12 ocular antibiotics (NCCLS disc diffusion test).
RESULTS—85 consecutive patients (mean age 44.3 (SD 20.7) years) were prospectively enrolled from 1 March 1997 to 30 November 1998. The following risk factors were identified: contact lens wear, 36%; blepharitis, 21%; trauma, 20%; xerophthalmia, 15%; keratopathies, 8%; and eyelid abnormalities, 6%. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis, 40%; Staphylococcus aureus, 22%; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 8%; others Streptococcus species, 5%; Pseudomonas, 9%; Moraxella and Serratia marcescens, 5% each; Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Alcaligenes xyloxidans, Morganella morganii, and Haemophilus influenza, 1% each. 1-15% of strains were resistant to fluoroquinolones, 13-22% to aminoglycosides, 37% to cefazolin, 18% to chloramphenicol, 54% to polymyxin B, 51% to fusidic acid, and 45% to bacitracin. Five of the 85 patients (5.8%) had a poor clinical outcome with a visual loss of one or more lines of visual acuity.
CONCLUSION—Fluoroquinolones appear to be the therapy of choice for bacterial keratitis, but, based upon these in vitro studies, some strains may be resistant.

 PMID:11423460

  11. A cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a childhood obesity prevention programme delivered through schools, targeting 6-7 year old children: the WAVES study protocol.

    PubMed

    Adab, Peymane; Pallan, Miranda J; Lancashire, Emma R; Hemming, Karla; Frew, Emma; Griffin, Tania; Barrett, Timothy; Bhopal, Raj; Cade, Janet E; Daley, Amanda; Deeks, Jonathan; Duda, Joan; Ekelund, Ulf; Gill, Paramjit; McGee, Eleanor; Parry, Jayne; Passmore, Sandra; Cheng, Kar Keung

    2015-05-13

    There is some evidence that school-based interventions are effective in preventing childhood obesity. However, longer term outcomes, equity of effects and cost-effectiveness of interventions have not been assessed. The aim of this trial is to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a multi-component intervention programme targeting the school and family environment through primary schools, in preventing obesity in 6-7 year old children, compared to usual practice. This cluster randomised controlled trial is set in 54 primary schools within the West Midlands, UK, including a multi-ethnic, socioeconomically diverse population of children aged 6-7 years. The 12-month intervention consists of healthy diet and physical activity promotion. These include: activities to increase time spent doing physical activity within the school day, participation in the 'Villa Vitality' programme (a programme that is delivered by an iconic sporting institution (Aston Villa Football Club), which provides interactive learning opportunities for physical activity and healthy eating), healthy cooking skills workshops in school time for parents and children, and provision of information to families signposting local leisure opportunities. The primary (clinical) outcome is the difference in body mass index (BMI) z-scores between arms at 3 and 18 months post-intervention completion. Cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) will also be assessed. The sample size estimate (1000 children split across 50 schools at follow-up) is based on 90% power to detect differences in BMI z-score of 0.25 (estimated ICC ≤ 0.04), assuming a correlation between baseline and follow-up BMI z-score of 0.9. Treatment effects will be examined using mixed model ANCOVA. Primary analysis will adjust for baseline BMI z-score, and secondary analysis will adjust for pre-specified baseline school and child level covariates. The West Midlands ActiVe lifestyle and healthy Eating in School children (WAVES) study is the

  12. Refractory status epilepticus: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Novy, Jan; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2010-02-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) that is resistant to two antiepileptic compounds is defined as refractory status epilepticus (RSE). In the few available retrospective studies, estimated RSE frequency is between 31% and 43% of patients presenting an SE episode; almost all seem to require a coma induction for treatment. We prospectively assessed RSE frequency, clinical predictors, and outcome in a tertiary clinical setting. Over 2 years we collected 128 consecutive SE episodes (118 patients) in adults. Clinical data and their relationship to outcome (mortality and return to baseline clinical conditions) were analyzed. Twenty-nine of 128 SE episodes (22.6%) were refractory to first- and second-line antiepileptic treatments. Severity of consciousness impairment and de novo episodes were independent predictors of RSE. RSE showed a worse outcome than non-RSE (39% vs. 11% for mortality; 21% vs. 63% for return to baseline clinical conditions). Only 12 patients with RSE (41%) required coma induction for treatment. This prospective study identifies clinical factors predicting the onset of SE refractoriness. RSE appears to be less frequent than previously reported in retrospective studies; furthermore, most RSE episodes were treated outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Nonetheless, we confirm that RSE is characterized by high mortality and morbidity.

  13. Mars Global Surveyor: 7 Years in Orbit!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 September 2004 Today, 12 September 2004, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) team celebrates 7 Earth years orbiting Mars. MGS first reached the red planet and performed its critical orbit insertion burn on 12 September 1997. Over the past 7 years, MOC has returned over 170,000 images; its narrow angle camera has covered about 4.5% of the surface, and its wide angle cameras have viewed 100% of the planet nearly everyday.

    At this time, MOC is not acquiring data because Mars is on the other side of the Sun relative to Earth. This period, known as Solar Conjunction, occurs about once every 26 months. During Solar Conjunction, no radio communications from spacecraft that are orbiting or have landed on Mars can be received. MOC was turned off on 7 September and is expected to resume operations on 25 September 2004, when Mars re-emerges from behind the Sun.

    The rotating color image of Mars shown here was compiled from MOC red and blue wide angle daily global images acquired exactly 1 Mars year ago on 26 October 2002 (Ls 86.4o). In other words, Mars today (12 September 2004) should look about the same as the view provided here. Presently, Mars is in very late northern spring, and the north polar cap has retreated almost to its summer configuration. Water ice clouds form each afternoon at this time of year over the large volcanoes in the Tharsis and Elysium regions. A discontinuous belt of clouds forms over the martian equator; it is most prominent north of the Valles Marineris trough system. In the southern hemisphere, it is late autumn and the giant Hellas Basin floor is nearly white with seasonal frost cover. The south polar cap is not visible, it is enveloped in seasonal darkness. The northern summer and southern winter seasons will begin on 20 September 2004.

  14. Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women older than 25 years: 7-year follow-up of the phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled VIVIANE study.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Cosette M; Skinner, S Rachel; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Garland, Suzanne M; Chatterjee, Archana; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; McNeil, Shelly; Stapleton, Jack T; Bouchard, Céline; Martens, Mark G; Money, Deborah M; Quek, Swee Chong; Romanowski, Barbara; Vallejos, Carlos S; Ter Harmsel, Bram; Prilepskaya, Vera; Fong, Kah Leng; Kitchener, Henry; Minkina, Galina; Lim, Yong Kuei Timothy; Stoney, Tanya; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Cruickshank, Margaret E; Savicheva, Alevtina; da Silva, Daniel Pereira; Ferguson, Murdo; Molijn, Anco C; Quint, Wim G V; Hardt, Karin; Descamps, Dominique; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju V; Karkada, Naveen; Geeraerts, Brecht; Dubin, Gary; Struyf, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Although the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is greatest in young women, women older than 25 years remain at risk. We present data from the VIVIANE study of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women after 7 years of follow-up. In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, healthy women older than 25 years were enrolled (age stratified: 26-35 years, 36-45 years, and ≥46 years). Up to 15% in each age stratum had a history of HPV infection or disease. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive HPV 16/18 vaccine or aluminium hydroxide control, with an internet-based system. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. We did analyses in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy and total vaccinated cohort. Data for the combined primary endpoint in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI around the point estimate was greater than 30%. For all other endpoints and cohorts, data were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI was greater than 0%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294047. The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit took place on Jan 29, 2014. 4407 women were in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2209 vaccine, n=2198 control) and 5747 women in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2877 vaccine, n=2870 control). At month 84, in women seronegative for the corresponding HPV type in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ associated with HPV 16/18 was significant in all age groups combined (90·5%, 96·2% CI 78·6-96·5). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous

  15. Histidinaemia. Part III: Impact; a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, J T; Kammerer, B L; Levy, H L; Hirsch, B Z; Scriver, C R

    1983-01-01

    We describe a prospective study of histidinaemia. Probands and siblings (n = 21) with typical histidinaemia in 16 families were ascertained by newborn screening; diagnosis was confirmed by appropriate investigations in each subject; none had been treated by low histidine diet. The median age of subjects with histidinaemia was 9.5 y (mean 10.0, SD 3.5, range 6-18). Age-matched sib-pairs and their mothers were studied. IQ scores (Full Scale, Verbal and Performance Scores), Visual-Motor Integration Performance (Bender Gestalt and Koppitz scores), Wide Range Achievement Test (Reading and Mathematics), school performance, and psychological history were evaluated, as well as the medical history (pregnancy, delivery, neonatal, post-natal development). Findings were correlated with biochemical phenotype. CNS development in histidinaemic subjects (mean and distribution of scores) was normal; outlier values did not correlate with degree of histidinaemia. We can conclude that histidinaemia detected by newborn screening is a non-disadaptive phenotype.

  16. Long-term evaluation of osseointegrated implants placed in sites augmented with sinus floor elevation associated with vertical ridge augmentation: a retrospective study of 38 consecutive implants with 1- to 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Simion, Massimo; Fontana, Filippo; Rasperini, Giulio; Maiorana, Carlo

    2004-06-01

    This clinical study retrospectively evaluated, after 1 to 7 years of prosthetic loading, 38 implants consecutively placed in 16 surgical sites, where severe atrophy of the posterior maxilla was treated by combining sinus elevation with the vertical ridge regenerative procedure. Two different surgical techniques were adopted. In seven patients (16 implants), implants were placed at the same stage as the regenerative procedures. In the other seven patients (22 implants), implant placement was performed at second-stage surgery, after 6 to 13 months of submerged membrane healing. Each implant was classified as a success, survival, or failure. The distance between the top of the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was assessed radiographically for every implant at the mesial and distal sides. Two membranes became exposed during the healing process (12.5%). In the remaining 14 sites (87.5%), the membrane remained covered for a 6- to 13-month healing period. The survival rate of the implants was 92.1%, whereas the success rate was 76.3%. Three implants (7.9%) failed. A comparison of the implant shoulder-bone-implant contact distances between abutment connection and the last examination showed a mean crestal loss of 1.65 mm at the mesial side and 1.68 mm at the distal side. The bone regenerated vertically by means of sinus floor elevation and vertical ridge augmentation showed the same biologic behavior as native, nonregenerated bone; however, in a few cases, its remodeling pattern seemed to determine slightly higher bone crest resorption.

  17. Outcomes of hypospadias repair in older children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ziada, Ali; Hamza, Amgad; Abdel-Rassoul, Mohammed; Habib, Enmar; Mohamed, Ahmad; Daw, Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation is to perform hypospadias repair at age 6 to 12 months. However, our patient population included a significant proportion of patients in adolescence and beyond undergoing primary repair. We report a comparison of outcomes in patients in different age groups. We prospectively report on patients with distal hypospadias who underwent primary repair at our institution during 7 months. Study parameters included age, degree of hypospadias, surgical technique and the complications rate. A total of 61 patients were included in analysis. All cases underwent repair using the tubularized incised plate technique. More proximal hypospadias and different repair techniques were excluded from study. Patients were classified by age, including group 1-25 (40%) 6 months to 2 years old, group 2-17 (28%) 2.2 to 3.7 years old and group 3-19 (32%) 4 years old or older. Only 6 patients (9.8%) had postoperative complications and all were in groups 2 and 3. In group 2 there were 3 complications (17.6%), including loss of repair, meatal stenosis and hematoma in 1 case each. In group 3 there were 3 cases (15.8%) of postoperative fistula. The fistula incidence was higher in group 3 (p = 0.032). Despite previous reports suggesting a much higher incidence of complications in older children the complication rate is within the acceptable range for infant hypospadias repair in some series. However, these complications were statistically significantly different between the older groups when compared with the recommended age group under American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Swiss prospective study on spider bites.

    PubMed

    Gnädinger, Markus; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Joan; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-09-04

    Knowledge of spider bites in Central Europe derives mainly from anecdotal case presentations; therefore we aimed to collect cases systematically. From June 2011 to November 2012 we prospectively collected 17 cases of alleged spider bites, and together with two spontaneous notifications later on, our database totaled 19 cases. Among them, eight cases could be verified. The causative species were: Cheiracanthium punctorium (3), Zoropsis spinimana (2), Amaurobius ferox, Tegenaria atrica and Malthonica ferruginea (1 each). Clinical presentation was generally mild, with the exception of Cheiracanthium punctorium, and patients recovered fully without sequelae. In Switzerland, spider bites generally have a benign clinical course, which is characterised by minor effects, with rapid and complete recovery. Since only verified spider bites can be regarded as spider bites, in the case of clinically important arachnidism, the spider should be sent to an expert for identification. Our study may help to diminish spider fear and reassure people who have experienced a bite.

  19. Laparoscopic Sigmoidectomy for Diverticulitis: a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Baca, Ivo; Grzybowski, Leszek; Jaacks, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment of complicated colonic diverticular disease is still debatable. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy in patients with diverticulitis. Patients offered laparoscopic surgery presented with acute complicated diverticulitis (Hinchey type I, II, III), chronically recurrent diverticulitis, bleeding, or sigmoid stenosis caused by chronic diverticulitis. Method: All patients who underwent laparoscopic colectomy within a 12-year period were prospectively entered into a database registry. One-stage laparoscopic resection and primary anastomosis constituted the planned procedure. A 4-trocar approach with suprapubic minilaparotomy was performed. Main data recorded were age, sex, postoperative pain, return of bowel function, operation time, duration of hospital stay, and early and late complications. Results: During the study period, 260 sigmoid colectomies were performed for diverticulitis. The cohort included 104 male and 156 female patients; M to F ratio was 4:6. Postoperative pain was controlled by NSAIDs or weak opioid analgesia. Fifteen patients (5.7%) required conversion from laparoscopic to open colectomy. The most common reasons for conversion were directly related to the inflammatory process, abscess, and peritonitis. Mean operative time was 130±54. Average postoperative hospital stay was 10±3 days. A longer hospital stay was recorded for Hinchey type IIb patients. Complications were recorded in 30 patients (11.5%). The most common complications that required reoperation were hemorrhage in 2 patients (0.76) and anastomotic leak in 5 patients (only 3 of them required reoperation). The mortality among them was 2 patients (0.76%). Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is safe, feasible, and effective. Therefore, laparoscopic colectomy has replaced open resection as standard surgery for recurrent and complicated diverticulitis at our institution. PMID:21605507

  20. 7 years of MAXI: monitoring X-ray transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serino, M.; Shidatsu, M.; Iwakiri, W.; Mihara, T.

    2017-03-01

    This workshop was held to celebrate the successful 7 years of observation with Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), a Japanese astrophysics payload on the International Space Station. Since the launch in 2009, MAXI has been monitoring the variable X-ray sky, and has discovered 17 new X-ray sources. Often with a help of multi-wavelength follow-up observations, one of them has been identified with the nuclear ignition of a massive nova, 6 with black-hole binaries, and 5 with those involving neutron stars. Nevertheless, 4 of them remain unidentified, and are considered to form a potentially new class of short soft transients. MAXI is also leading the time-domain astronomy, with its capability to issue alerts which triggers prompt follow-up observations in the optical and other wavelengths. So far, MAXI has detected about a hundred gamma-ray bursts, and performing unbiased watch for stellar flares. In addition, long-term X-ray variations of about a hundred of sources are continuously tracked with MAXI. This has enabled a variety of new astrophysics that cannot be achieved by snapshot observations. The recent detections of the gravitation wave events have significantly increased the importance of MAXI as a currently operating all-sky monitor, and as a member of multi-messenger astronomy which covers electromagnetic waves, neutrinos, and gravitational waves. In this symposium, the MAXI results obtained during the 7 years are reviewed, with a session assigned to those from Hitomi. The symposium also covers new prospects in the time-domain astronomy, to be developed with future X-ray missions/instruments.

  1. Atypical brain lateralisation in the auditory cortex and language performance in 3- to 7-year-old children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a child-customised magnetoencephalography (MEG) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. In young children, however, the simultaneous quantification of the bilateral auditory-evoked response during binaural hearing is difficult using conventional adult-sized MEG systems. Recently, a child-customised MEG device has facilitated the acquisition of bi-hemispheric recordings, even in young children. Using the child-customised MEG device, we previously reported that language-related performance was reflected in the strength of the early component (P50m) of the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF) in typically developing (TD) young children (2 to 5 years old) [Eur J Neurosci 2012, 35:644–650]. The aim of this study was to investigate how this neurophysiological index in each hemisphere is correlated with language performance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and TD children. Methods We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. We investigated the P50m that is evoked by voice stimuli (/ne/) bilaterally in 33 young children (3 to 7 years old) with ASD and in 30 young children who were typically developing (TD). The children were matched according to their age (in months) and gender. Most of the children with ASD were high-functioning subjects. Results The results showed that the children with ASD exhibited significantly less leftward lateralisation in their P50m intensity compared with the TD children. Furthermore, the results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that a shorter P50m latency in both hemispheres was specifically correlated with higher language-related performance in the TD children, whereas this latency was not correlated with non-verbal cognitive performance or chronological age. The children with ASD did not show any correlation between P50m latency and language-related performance; instead, increasing

  2. Indirect effects of a 7 year PCV7/PCV13 mass vaccination program in children on the incidence of pneumonia among adults: a comparative study based on two Polish cities.

    PubMed

    Patrzałek, M; Kotowska, M; Goryński, P; Albrecht, P

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 the city of Kielce, Poland, introduced a mandatory PCV7 (replaced by PCV13 in 2011) vaccination program against S. pneumoanie for all children under 2 years old. At that time, the neighboring city of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski had no such large-scale vaccination program in place. This created an opportunity to observe the results of the vaccination by comparing the incidence of pneumonia in these two cities. The aim of this study was to analyze how the incidence of pneumonia among adults was indirectly affected by the PCV7/PCV13 vaccination program in children during the 7 year follow-up period. We performed a retrospective study. PCV7/PCV13 vaccinations were delivered according to a 2 + 1 schedule. The vaccination rate in the analyzed period amounted to almost 99%. The following age groups were analyzed: 30-49, 50-64 and 65+. The Cochran-Armitage test was used to investigate the significance of the observed trend in pneumonia morbidity. The significance of deviations from a linear trend was also tested. In addition, the importance of the trend (in the case of deviations from linearity) was confirmed with the use of the Mantel test. In the 65+ age group there was a decrease of 66.5% in the incidence of diagnosed pneumonia (p < 0.0001). This was followed by smaller, but statistically significant, declines in the other age groups: 30.75% in the 30-49 age group (p = 0.001) and 56.8% in the 50-64 age group (p < 0.0001). This decreasing trend continued for seven consecutive years of observation. In addition, we demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of pneumonia in all age groups in the City of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The results clearly indicate that the indirect effectiveness of the PCV7/PCV13 vaccine program, performed according to the 2 + 1 schedule and applied in Kielce, Poland, is statistically significant.

  3. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  4. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  5. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  6. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGES

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  7. [Prospective study of patients with prolonged fever].

    PubMed

    Calderón, E; Legorreta, J; Sztabinski, G; Hernández, M; Wilkins, A; Gómez, D; Dávila, A

    1975-01-01

    A prospective study was made in 283 patients who attended IMAN's Children's Hospital, with fever the main symptom. A clinical and paraclinical procedure was designed for the study of each patient. 112 patients were eliminated because they did not follow the established criteria. All patients had acute infectious diseases considered trivial; 85% were 3 weeks to 2 years of age. They all had an antibacterial treatment without precise diagnosis. It was considered that on admission the patients showed a normal course in the natural history of the basic disease. The study group included 171 patients 2 months to 13 years of age; 62.5% had fever due to infection, 12.2% to collagenopathies, 7% to neoplasias 5.2% to miscellaneous causes and 12.8% were not diagnosed. The most common infectious causes for prolonged fever were tuberculosis, upper respiratory infections, amoebic liver abscess, typhoid fever and malaria. Careful questioning and clinical examination were enough to enlighten diagnosis in more than 80% of the patients.

  8. The optimal postnatal growth trajectory for term small for gestational age babies: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoping; Chen, Yan; Ye, Jiangfeng; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To identify an optimal growth trajectory for term small for gestational age (SGA) babies from birth to 7-years-old. Data were from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a US multicenter prospective cohort study from 1959-1976. Five weight growth trajectories of the 1957 term SGA babies were grouped by a latent class model. We selected the optimal growth pattern based on the lowest overall risks of childhood diseases. Compared with appropriate for gestational age children, SGA babies with no catch-up growth (439, 22.4%) had higher risks of infection in infancy (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.6), growth restriction (11.2, 8.6-14.6), and low IQ (2.1, 1.7-2.8) at age 7 years. Those with excessive catch-up growth (176, 8.9%) had higher risks of overweight/obesity (7.5, 5.4-10.5) and elevated blood pressure (1.7, 1.1-2.4) at age 7 years. Babies with slow catch-up growth (328, 16.8%) or regression after 4 months (285, 14.6%) were associated with higher risks of low IQ (1.6, 1.2-2.1) and growth restriction (2.2, 1.5-3.2), respectively. Only babies with appropriate catch-up growth (729, 37.3%) did not have increased risk of adverse outcomes. Further, we also tested linear growth trajectories with similar findings. The optimal growth trajectory for term SGA infants may be fast catch-up growth to about the 30th percentile in the first several months, with modest catch-up growth thereafter, to be around the 50th percentile by 7-years-old. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Danish High Risk and Resilience Study--VIA 7--a cohort study of 520 7-year-old children born of parents diagnosed with either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or neither of these two mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Thorup, Anne A E; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Ellersgaard, Ditte Vestbjerg; Burton, Birgitte Klee; Christiani, Camilla Jerlang; Hemager, Nicoline; Skjærbæk, Mette; Ranning, Anne; Spang, Katrine Søborg; Gantriis, Ditte Lou; Greve, Aja Neergaard; Zahle, Kate Kold; Mors, Ole; Plessen, Kerstin Jessica; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-10-02

    Severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are known to be diseases that to some extent, but not entirely can be understood genetically. The dominating hypothesis is that these disorders should be understood in a neurodevelopmental perspective where genes and environment as well as gene-environment-interactions contribute to the risk of developing the disease. We aim to analyse the influences of genetic risk and environmental factors in a population of 520 7-year-old children with either 0, 1 or 2 parents diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis or bipolar disorder on mental health and level of functioning. We hypothesize that a larger proportion of children growing up with an ill parent will display abnormal or delayed development, behavioural problems or psychiatric symptoms compared to the healthy controls. We are establishing a cohort of 5207 year old children and both their parents for a comprehensive investigation with main outcome measures being neurocognition, behaviour, psychopathology and neuromotor development of the child. Parents and children are examined with a comprehensive battery of instruments and are asked for genetic material (saliva or blood) for genetic analyses. The participants are recruited via Danish registers to ensure representativity. Data from registers concerning social status, birth complications, somatic illnesses and hospitalization are included in the database. Psychological and relational factors like emotional climate in the family, degree of stimulation and support in the home and attachment style are also investigated. Data collection started January 1, 2013, and is successfully ongoing. By Aug 2015 424 families are included. About 20% of the invited families decline to participate, equal for all groups.

  10. Study of Prospective Teachers' Conceptualization of Value Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koruklu, Nermin; Aktamis, Hilal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any changes in the conceptualization of prospective teachers' values preferences during their university studies. The research group was composed of 208 prospective teachers who were studying at Science Education, Social Science Education and Fine Arts Education at Adnan Menderes…

  11. A Study of Prospective Teachers' Consumption Patterns on Special Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective teachers' consumption patterns on special days. The sample was comprised of 29 prospective teachers (22 females and 7 males) who studied Primary School Teaching in the Faculty of Education at Sakarya University during the 2014-2015 Academic Year. The study was designed as a phenomenological…

  12. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio; de Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque; de Sousa, Rosângela Maria Lopes; Costa, Vera Lívia Xavier de Castro; Silva, Flor de Maria Araújo Mendonça; da Hora, Ana Flávia Lima Teles; da Silva, Edna Lúcia Coutinho; Reis, Lívia Mariane Castelo Branco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Objective To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. Results The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%), 39 men (68.42%), 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%), 16 literate (28.07 %) and 30 married (52.63%). The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32%) at time zero to 17 (29.82%) after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28%) before and 10 (17.54%) after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14%) to 28 (49.12%), and severe of three (5.26%) for two (3.51%) patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory. PMID:24598954

  13. Neurosurgery in rural Nigeria: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Komolafe, Edward Oluwole

    2016-01-01

    Background: Africa has very few neurosurgeons. These are almost exclusively in urban centers. Consequently, people in rural areas, most of the African population, have poor or no access to neurosurgical care. We have recently pioneered rural neurosurgery in Nigeria. Objectives: This report details our initial experiences and the profile of neurosurgical admissions in our center. Methods: A prospective observational study of all neurosurgical patients managed at a rural tertiary health institution in Nigeria from December 2010 to May 2012 was done. Simple descriptive data analysis was performed. Results: A total of 249 males (75.2%) and 82 females (24.8%) were managed. The median age was 37 years (range: Day of birth – 94 years). Trauma was the leading cause of presentation with 225 (68.0%) and 35 (10.6%) having sustained head and spinal injuries, respectively. Operative intervention was performed in 54 (16.3%). Twenty-four (7.2%) patients discharged against medical advice, mostly for economic reasons. Most patients (208, 63.4%) had satisfactory outcome while 30 (9.1%) died. Conclusion: Trauma is the leading cause of rural neurosurgical presentations. There is an urgent need to improve access to adequate neurosurgical care in the rural communities. PMID:27695224

  14. A Study on Chocolate Consumption in Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned and conducted to determine the chocolate consumption habits of prospective teachers. The study population was comprised of students attending the Faculty of Education at Gazi University in Ankara and the sample consisted of 251 prospective teachers selected with simple random sampling. 96.4% and 3.6% of the prospective…

  15. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  16. Prospects for future proton studies at HRIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, C. R.; Batchelder, J. C.; Ginter, T. N.; Gross, C. J.; Grzywacz, R.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; McConnell, J. W.; Rykaczewski, K.; Toth, K. S.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2000-05-01

    Great progress has been made in the last 20 years in the study of proton emission from unstable nuclei, but the prospects for additional strides in the next several years are bright. The present main limitations on the study of proton radioactivity are related to the inability to produce copious quantities of nuclides beyond the proton drip line, and the difficulty of measuring proton radioactivity of a mass-separated nucleus in the first few microseconds of its existence. At the Holifield Facility we will attack the second of these limitations by using new signal processing CAMAC modules DGF-4C. Digitizing of the preamplifier signals should enable the analysis of a proton decay occurring at times even less than 1 microsecond after an implant in a strip detector. In the same process, the threshold energy at which we can make measurements will be lowered. These two things will hopefully enable the measurement of lower-energy, but faster decays of isotopes in the 100Sn region and below. For the latter region, the proton decays crucial for a rp-process scenario are of particular interest (e.g. 69Br decay). Secondly, for very short-lived species, we plan to make measurements (without residue separation) at points much closer to the target, thus reducing the flight time between the target and detector. As more intense radioactive beams become available, eg. 56Ni, we will utilize these to produce more neutron-deficient nuclides by use of colder reactions than is possible with stable beams. In some cases where delayed proton emitters are present in the same isobaric chain, the use of the cold reactions with radioactive beams can provide purer samples of the isotope of interest, with a reduction in background from the delayed proton emitters in the same mass chain.

  17. Hand injuries in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Ramanan; Dias, Joseph J; Burke, Frank D; Stanton, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to identify the true incidence, pattern, and location of the injury and nature of fracture after hand injuries in different pediatric age groups attending a hand unit. Three hundred sixty children (237 boys, 123 girls) under 16 years of age who presented with hand injuries between April 1, 2000, and Sept. 30, 2000, were included in the study. Bony injuries accounted for 65.5% (236 injuries); 33.3% (120 injuries) were soft tissue injuries. The projected annual incidence rate for skeletal injuries was 418/100,000 children. The incidence was low in toddlers (34/100,000), more than doubled in preschool children (73/100,000), and steeply increased to around 20-fold after the 10th year (663/100,000). Girls had a higher incidence of hand injuries among toddlers and preschool children. Crushing was the most common cause of hand injury (64%), and most injuries were sustained at home (45%). Toddlers sustained soft tissue injuries predominantly (86%) and older children sustained more bony injuries (77%). Sport was the cause of injures commonly in the older children. There was a higher incidence of fracture in the little finger (52%) followed by the thumb (23%). The proximal phalanx was the most frequently fractured bone (67%) among the phalanges. Diaphyseal fractures (46%) were more common in the metacarpals, and basal fractures (51%) were common in the phalanges. At discharge more than 80% of the patients felt that they were cured or significantly better. This paper highlights the changing pattern and the different varieties of hand injuries in different pediatric age groups.

  18. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  19. Long-term results of intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy for nonmetastatic locally advanced pancreatic cancer: Retrospective cohort study, 7-year experience with 247 patients at the National Cancer Center in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingtai; Che, Xu; Zhang, Jianwei; Huang, Huang; Zhao, Dongbing; Tian, Yantao; Li, Yexiong; Feng, Qinfu; Zhang, Zhihui; Jiang, Qinglong; Zhang, Shuisheng; Tang, Xiaolong; Huang, Xianghui; Chu, Yunmian; Zhang, Jianghu; Sun, Yuemin; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Chengfeng

    2016-09-01

    To assess prognostic benefits of intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and evaluate optimal adjuvant treatment after IOERT.A retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data was conducted at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China National Cancer Center.Two hundred forty-seven consecutive patients with nonmetastatic LAPC who underwent IOERT between January 2008 and May 2015 were identified and included in the study. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from the day of IOERT. Prognostic factors were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year actuarial survival rates were 40%, 14%, and 7.2%, respectively, with a median OS of 9.0 months. On multivariate analysis, an IOERT applicator diameter < 6 cm (hazards ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-0.97), no intraoperative interstitial sustained-release 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.32-0.66), and receipt of postoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy (HR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.25) were significantly associated with improved OS. Pain relief after IOERT was achieved in 111 of the 117 patients, with complete remission in 74 and partial remission in 37. Postoperative complications rate and mortality were 14.0% and 0.4%, respectively. Nonmetastatic LAPC patients with smaller size tumors could achieve positive long-term survival outcomes with a treatment strategy incorporating IOERT and postoperative adjuvant treatment.Chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy might be a recommended adjuvant treatment strategy for well-selected cases. Intraoperative interstitial sustained-release 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy should not be recommended for patients with nonmetastatic LAPC.

  20. Suction evacuation of hemothorax: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Savage, Stephanie A; Cibulas, George A; Ward, Tyler A; Davis, Corinne A; Croce, Martin A; Zarzaur, Ben L

    2016-07-01

    Although tube thoracostomy is a common procedure after thoracic trauma, incomplete evacuation of fluid places the patient at risk for retained hemothorax. As little as 300 to 500 cm of blood may result in the need for an additional thoracostomy tube or, in more severe cases, lung entrapment and empyema. We hypothesized that suction evacuation of the thoracic cavity before tube placement would decrease the incidence of late complications. Patients requiring tube thoracostomy within 96 hours of admission were prospectively identified and underwent suction evacuation of the pleural space (SEPS) before tube placement. These patients were compared to historical controls without suction evacuation. Demographics, admission vital signs, laboratory values, details of chest tube placement, and outcomes were collected on all patients. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare outcomes between groups. A total of 199 patients were identified, consisting of 100 retrospective controls and 99 SEPS patients. There were no differences in age, sex, admission injury severity score or chest abbreviated injury score, admission laboratory values or vital signs, or hospital length of stay. Mean (SD) volume of hemothorax in SEPS patients was 220 (297) cm; with only 48% having a volume greater than 100 cm at the time of tube placement. Three patients developed empyema, and 19 demonstrated retained blood; there was no difference between SEPS and control patients. Suction evacuation of the pleural space was significantly protective against recurrent pneumothorax after chest tube removal (odds ratio, 0.332; 95% confidence interval, 0.148-0.745). Preemptive suction evacuation of the thoracic cavity did not have a significant impact on subsequent development of retained hemothorax or empyema. Suction evacuation of the pleural space significantly decreased incidence of recurrent pneumothorax after thoracostomy removal. Although the mechanism is unclear, such a benefit may make this

  1. [A retrospective study on the liver pathological characteristics and the effect of antiviral treatment for 1 to 7 years old children with heptitis B e antigen negative chronic hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Zhu, S S; Dong, Y; Wang, L M; Xu, Z Q; Chen, D W; Gan, Y; Wang, F C; Yan, J G; Cao, L L; Wang, P; Zhang, M; Zhang, H F

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the liver pathological characteristics and the clearance rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with antiviral treatment for 1 to 7 years old children with heptitis B e antigen(HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B. A total of 49 cases with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B were treated with interferon (IFN) or IFN treatment for 6 months added with lamivudine, and were followed up for at least 6 months.Retrospective analysis was performed on the liver pathological characteristics, the efficacy of antivirus treatment and its influencing factors of the HBsAg clearance rate in the cases from June 2006 to December 2013 in the 302 Hospital of People's Liberation Army.The χ(2) test was used to compare the rates. (1)The median age of cases was 3 years old(1-7 years old), 38 children were male(78%). Cases in the age group 1-2, >2 -3, >3 -4, >4-5, >5-6 and >6-7 were 7, 8, 14, 6, 6 and 8 respectively. HBsAg was 100% positive in mother of the cases. (2)There were 7 children whose pre-treatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were ≤80 U/L and pre-treatment ALT>200 U/L in 25 children. There were 24 children whose pre-treatment HBVDNA ≥1×10(7) U/ml. Genetype analysis was detected in 43 children, 3 children were B genotype, 38 were C genotype, 2 were B and C genotype. (3)Liver biopsy was performed in all children. The degree of liver inflammation ≥2 was seen in 48 (98%) children.Severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were found in 21(43%) children. (4)In the age group 1-2, >2-3, >3-4, >4-5, >5-6 and >6-7 years old , the clearance of HBsAg was 5, 6, 2, 1, 0 and 0 respectively. The HBsAg clearance rate between 1-3 years old group and 3-7 years old group has significant difference ((73%(11/15) vs. 9%(3/34), χ(2)=18.180, P=0.000). (5)The clearance of HBsAg in male group was 11, but 3 in female group.It showed no significant difference between two groups (χ(2)=0.073, P=0.787). (6) The clearance rate of HBsAg were 0, 24%(4/17) and 40%(10/25) in the groups of

  2. A prospective long-term study of return to work after nontraumatic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Alex; Gazzeri, Roberto; Pircher, Martina; Unterhuber, Vera; Schwarz, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    Patients generally have a good prognosis and develop only occasional neurological complications after nontraumatic, nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This prospective long-term study investigated the normal return to work of patients who had experienced nontraumatic nonaneurysmal SAH. From June 2001 to June 2004, all patients presenting with nonaneurysmal nontraumatic SAH were asked to participate in this study. The population was divided in two groups: perimesencephalic (pSAH) and nonperimesencephalic pattern (npSAH). All patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and completed psychological questionnaires assessing their general cognitive and language functions, memory and construction ability, attention, anxiety and depression, and quality of life. The patients were interviewed at the hospital, and neuropsychological assessments were conducted regularly for 7 years. The cognitive assessment after 7 years revealed a statistically significant difference between the pSAH and npSAH groups with respect to the activation and elaboration speed of attention as well as long-term non-verbal memory. Nine patients could not return to their former jobs after nonaneurysmal SAH. Although nontraumatic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is typically a pathology with an excellent prognosis, there is evidence that this event may influence working life for a long time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conduct Disorder and Initiation of Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfer, Christian; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Min, Sung-Joon; McQueen, Matt; Crowley, Thomas; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Sakai, Joseph; Thurstone, Christian; Hoffenberg, Analice; Hartman, Christie; Hewitt, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of conduct disorder (CD) on substance use initiation. Method: Community adolescents without CD (n = 1,165, mean baseline age = 14.6 years), with CD (n = 194, mean baseline age = 15.3 years), and youth with CD recruited from treatment (n = 268, mean baseline age = 15.7 years) were prospectively followed and…

  4. Conduct Disorder and Initiation of Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfer, Christian; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Min, Sung-Joon; McQueen, Matt; Crowley, Thomas; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Sakai, Joseph; Thurstone, Christian; Hoffenberg, Analice; Hartman, Christie; Hewitt, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of conduct disorder (CD) on substance use initiation. Method: Community adolescents without CD (n = 1,165, mean baseline age = 14.6 years), with CD (n = 194, mean baseline age = 15.3 years), and youth with CD recruited from treatment (n = 268, mean baseline age = 15.7 years) were prospectively followed and…

  5. The Cognitive Processes Underlying Event-Based Prospective Memory in School-Age Children and Young Adults: A Formal Model-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.; Martin, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Fifty children 7 years of age (29 girls, 21 boys), 53 children 10 years of age (29 girls, 24 boys), and 36 young adults (19 women, 17 men) performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task. All 3 groups differed significantly in prospective memory performance, with adults showing the best performance and with 7-year-olds showing the…

  6. The Cognitive Processes Underlying Event-Based Prospective Memory In School Age Children and Young Adults: A Formal Model-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute Johanna; Martin, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Fifty 7-year-olds (29 female), 53 10-year-olds (29 female), and 36 young adults (19 female), performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task. All three groups differed significantly in prospective memory performance with adults showing the best performance and 7-year-olds the poorest performance. We used a formal multinomial process tree model of event-based prospective memory to decompose age differences in cognitive processes that jointly contribute to prospective memory performance. The formal modeling results demonstrated that adults differed significantly from the 7-year-olds and 10-year-olds on both the prospective component and the retrospective component of the task. The 7-year-olds and 10-year-olds differed only in the ability to recognize prospective memory target events. The prospective memory task imposed a cost to ongoing activities in all three age groups. PMID:20053020

  7. Report of a 7 year case-control study of continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion and subcutaneous insulin therapy among patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus: favourable effects on hypoglycaemic episodes.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, P R; Logtenberg, S J J; Groenier, K H; Gans, R O B; Bilo, H J G; Kleefstra, N

    2014-11-01

    Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) is a last-resort treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who fail to reach adequate glycaemic control with subcutaneous (SC) insulin therapy. Aim was to compare the long-term effects of CIPII and SC insulin therapy among patients with T1DM in poor glycaemic control. Patients in which CIPII was initiated in 2006 were compared with a control group of T1DM patients who continued SC therapy. Linear mixed models were used to calculate differences between the baseline (2006) and final (2013) measurements within and between groups. A total of 95 patients of which 21 were using CIPII and 74 using SC insulin were included. Within the CIPII group, the number of hypoglycaemic episodes decreased with -5 (95% CI -8 to -3) per 2 weeks while it remained stable among SC patients. Over time, only the number of hypoglycaemic episodes decreased more with CIPII as compared to SC insulin treatment (difference: -6 (95% CI -9 to -4)). There were no differences between treatment groups regarding clinical parameters and quality of life scores over time. Pump or catheter dysfunction led to ketoacidosis in 6 patients: 2 using CIPII and 4 SC insulin. After 7 years of follow-up, there is a persistent decline of hypoglycaemic events among CIPII treated T1DM patients. Besides less hypoglycaemic episodes with CIPII therapy, there are no differences between long-term CIPII and SC insulin therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal phenolic compounds exposure and neurobehavioral development at 2 and 7years of age.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Chien, Chun-Ju; Tsai, Meng-Shan; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2017-12-15

    Phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) are known as endocrine-disrupting compounds and are commonly used. Their impacts on the neurodevelopment of children are inconclusive. The current study aims to investigate the association between umbilical cord blood levels of BPA, NP, OP and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 and 7years of age. The study was based on the Taiwan Birth Panel Study, a prospective birth cohort. We collected cord blood plasma to measure phenolic compound levels using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the follow-up, 208 mother-child pairs with 2-year-old children and 148 mother-child pairs with 7-year-old children were recruited in this study. We used the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) for neurodevelopmental assessments at 2 and 7years of age, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used for statistical analysis. The detection rates of BPA, NP, and OP were 55.9%, 77.6%, and 68.3%, respectively. In this study, the median BPA, NP, and OP levels in 2-year-olds were 3.3, 72.6, and 3.3 (ng/ml), respectively. However, the median levels of BPA, NP, and OP were 3.2, 49.3, and 6.6 (ng/ml), respectively. The levels of phenolic compounds were log10-transformed for statistical analysis. Gender stratification was performed. In the WISC-IV neurocognitive assessment, we found both a significant negative association and a trend between cord blood plasma BPA levels and full-scale IQ (p for trend<0.01), the verbal comprehension index (p for trend<0.01), and the perceptual reasoning index (p for trend<0.01) in the study population. After stratification by sex, significant associations were found in full-scale IQ (p for trend=0.03) and the verbal comprehension (p for trend<0.01) index in boys. In girls, prenatal BPA exposure had adverse effects on full-scale IQ (p for trend=0

  9. Women's Studies in the 1990s: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judith

    1991-01-01

    This speech examines women's studies in Australia in the 1970s and 1980s, limitations and problems facing women's studies in the 1990s, and prospects. Discussed are effects of the "Dawkins Revolution," women's studies and feminist scholarship, women's studies curricula, institutional problems, political problems, and the changing faculty…

  10. Indications and outcome for obstetric patients' admission to intensive care unit: a 7-year review.

    PubMed

    Lataifeh, I; Amarin, Z; Zayed, F; Al-Mehaisen, L; Alchalabi, H; Khader, Y

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the indications, interventions and clinical outcome of pregnant and newly delivered women admitted to the multidisciplinary intensive care unit at the King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan over a 7-year period from January 2002 to December 2008. The collected data included demographic characteristics of the patients, mode of delivery, pre-existing medical conditions, reason for admission, specific intervention, length of stay and maternal outcome. A total of 43 women required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), which represented 0.37% of all deliveries. The majority (95.3%) of patients were admitted to the ICU postpartum. The most common reasons for admissions were (pre)eclampsia (48.8%) and obstetric haemorrhage (37.2). The remainder included adult respiratory distress syndrome (6.9%), pulmonary embolism (2.3%) and neurological disorders (4.6%). Mechanical ventilation was required to support 18.6% of patients and transfusion of red blood cells was needed for 48.8% of patients. There were three maternal deaths (6.9%). A multidisciplinary team approach is essential to improve the management of hypertensive disorders and postpartum haemorrhage to achieve significant improvements in maternal outcome. A large, prospective study to know which women are at high risk of admission to the intensive care units and to prevent serious maternal morbidity and mortality is warranted.

  11. Morbidity pattern of children with asthma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, K; Bajracharya, B L; Dhakal, S; Shrestha, M

    2006-01-01

    To determine the morbidity pattern of asthma in children attending the paediatric asthma follow-up clinic. Longitudinal prospective follow up of hundred and four patients, diagnosed as asthma, over a period of 2 years was done. Regular follow up by the same person during each visit and proper supervision of standard treatment along with parental education regarding the asthma, was done. The mean age of children presenting with asthma was 6.7 years. Majority of children 49 (47.5%) were graded as mild persistent asthma. Fifty nine (56.7%) children were missing school more than 7 days per month. Family history was present in forty one percent of the children. Fifty seven (54.8%) children were taking significant amount of junk food and were undernourished. Significant reduction in school-missing days and Emergency Room visits was noted in these children during the follow up period. Awareness of disease is an important aspect of asthma management. Proper treatment and follow up with emotional support and education of the care taker, about the asthma, can reduce the morbidity pattern of asthma in children.

  12. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  13. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Panayiotopoulos, C P; Obeid, T; Tahan, A R

    1994-01-01

    We made a long term prospective study of 66 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Prevalence was 10.2% among 672 patients with epilepsies. Sex distribution was equal. Sixty-three were not diagnosed on referral; JME was not initially recognized in the epilepsy clinic in 22. Clinical typical absence seizures were reported in 33.3%, myoclonic jerks in 97% and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC) in 78.8% of the patients. Mean age (+/- SD) at onset was 10.5 +/- 3.4 years (range 5-16 years) for absence seizures, 15 +/- 3.5 years (range 8-26 years) for myoclonic jerks, and 16 +/- 3.5 years (9-28) years (range 1-9 years) and GTC by 4.4 +/- 2.7 years (range 1-8 years) in 14 (21.2%) patients who manifested all three types of seizure. Absence were never antedated by myoclonic jerks or GTC. Myoclonic jerks occurred on awakening in 87.5% of the patients. GTC occurred mainly on awakening, but other patients had nocturnal or diurnal GTC with no circadian distribution. Neurologic examination was normal for all patients except for tremor of the hands similar to essential tremor, noted in 35% of patients. Computed tomography (CT) brain scans were normal: 93% of patients had precipitating factors: sleep deprivation (89.5%), fatigue (73.7%), photosensitivity (36.8%; television and video games 8.8%), menstruation (24.1% of women), mental concentration (22.8%), and stress (12.3%). Incidence of JME among siblings (13 of 41 examined families) implies an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for this Arab population. EEGs were frequently normal in treated patients. At least one abnormal EEG was recorded in 56 (84.9%) patients. Abnormalities consisted mainly of generalized discharges of spike/double spike and/or polyspike and slow wave. Frequent multiple spikes and discharge fragmentations varied from 0.5- to 20-s duration (mean 6.8 s). Twenty (30.3%) had focal abnormalities, and 18 (27.3%) had photoconvulsive discharges. Eighty-eight percent of patients remained seizure

  14. Bidirectional cross-sectional and prospective associations between physical activity and body composition in adolescence: Birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro C.; Reichert, Felipe F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Dumith, Samuel C.; Menezes, Ana M.; Victora, Cesar G.; Wells, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional and prospective associations between physical activity and body composition in adolescence. This is a prospective study, including 4,103 adolescents belonging to the Pelotas (Brazil) 1993 birth cohort, who were followed up at the mean ages of 11.3 and 14.7 years. Subsample analyses included 511 individuals with accelerometry and deuterium dilution data at 13.3 years. Sum of skinfolds at age 11.3 years was highly correlated with skinfolds at age 14.7 years (rho = 0.74, P < 0.001). More than 85% of participants remained in the same quintile or changed by not more than one quintile during the 3.4 year period. Tracking of physical activity was considerably lower, although still significant; the correlation was 0.24 (P < 0.001) and 61.4% of the adolescents moved one or less quintiles. In fully-adjusted models, no significant cross-sectional or longitudinal associations were found between physical activity and body composition, neither in boys nor in girls. These null results were confirmed in the 511 individuals with accelerometry and deuterium data. We provide evidence of tracking of physical activity and particularly body composition during adolescence. Our results do not support the hypothesis that physical activity and fatness are strongly related in adolescents. PMID:22141438

  15. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  16. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  17. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  18. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  19. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  20. Incident disability in older adults: prediction models based on two British prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Nüesch, Eveline; Pablo, Perel; Dale, Caroline E; Prieto-Merino, David; Kumari, Meena; Bowling, Ann; Ebrahim, Shah; Casas, Juan P

    2015-03-01

    To develop and validate a prediction model for incident locomotor disability after 7 years in older adults. Prospective British cohort studies: British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS) for development and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) for validation. Community-dwelling older adults. Multivariable logistic regression models after selection of predictors with backward elimination. Model performance was assessed using metrics of discrimination and calibration. Models were internally and externally validated. Locomotor disability was reported in BWHHS by 861 of 1,786 (48%) women after 7 years. Age, a history of arthritis and low physical activity levels were the most important predictors of locomotor disability. Models using routine measures as predictors had satisfactory calibration and discrimination (c-index 0.73). Addition of 31 blood markers did not increase the predictive performance. External validation in ELSA showed reduced discrimination (c-index 0.65) and an underestimation of disability risks. A web-based calculator for locomotor disability is available (http://www.sealedenvelope.com/trials/bwhhsmodel/). We developed and externally validated a prediction model for incident locomotor disability in older adults based on routine measures available to general practitioners, patients and public health workers, and showed an adequate discrimination. Addition of blood markers from major biological pathways did not improve the performance of the model. Further replication in additional data sets may lead to further enhancement of the current model. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Surface reflectance and material studies for the PROSPECT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowes, Alyssa; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PROSPECT Experiment aims to probe the existence of sterile neutrino oscillations by measuring the energy spectrum of antineutrinos emanating from nuclear reactors in a matrix of optically separated target scintillator cells at a variety of reactor-detector baselines. By measuring the absolute spectrum we also learn about reactors and what isotopes they produce. In order to properly model and optimise PROSPECT's energy resolution and background rejection capabilities, the reflective properties of the cell surfaces must be well understood. To address this, a study of various reflective surfaces under consideration to be used in the detector was conducted at non-normal incident angles through liquid using a custom-built laser-based reflectance measurement system. This presentation will describe the apparatus, reflectance measurements, and implications for the PROSPECT optical cell performance. Future plans to incorporate measurements into existing optical simulations will also be discussed. Funding provided by Illinois Institute of Technology College of Science.

  2. Finasteride induced depression: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Ardabili, Babak; Pourandarjani, Ramin; Habibollahi, Peiman; Mualeki, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Background Finasteride is a competitive inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase enzyme, and is used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. Animal studies have shown that finasteride might induce behavioral changes. Additionally, some cases of finasteride-induced depression have been reported in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine whether depressive symptoms or anxiety might be induced by finasteride administration. Methods One hundred and twenty eight men with androgenetic alopecia, who were prescribed finasteride (1 mg/day) were enrolled in this study. Information on depressed mood and anxiety was obtained by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Participants completed BDI and HADS questionnaires before beginning the treatment and also two months after it. Results Mean age of the subjects was 25.8(± 4.4) years. At baseline, mean BDI and HADS depression scores were 12.11(± 7.50) and 4.04(± 2.51), respectively. Finasteride treatment increased both BDI (p < 0.001) and HADS depression scores significantly (p = 0.005). HADS anxiety scores were increased, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.061). Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that finasteride might induce depressive symptoms; therefore this medication should be prescribed cautiously for patients with high risk of depression. It seems that further studies would be necessary to determine behavioral effects of this medication in higher doses and in more susceptible patients. PMID:17026771

  3. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  4. Sebaceous adenitis in a 7-year-old Arabian gelding

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 7-year-old Arabian gelding was presented with a 9-month history of progressive patches of nonpruritic scaling, crusting, alopecia, and leukoderma of the periocular areas and muzzle, becoming generalized over time. Sebaceous adenitis was diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Lesions resolved without treatment, coinciding with regression of a sarcoid on the neck. PMID:16808233

  5. 38 CFR 3.212 - Unexplained absence for 7 years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.212 Unexplained absence for 7 years. (a) If satisfactory evidence is produced establishing the fact of the... or more and that a diligent search disclosed no evidence of his or her existence after the date of...

  6. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Cancer.gov

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  7. Mastalgia-Cancer Relationship: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ali Cihat; Yıldız, Pınar; Yıldız, Mustafa; Kahramanca, Şahin; Kargıcı, Hülagü

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mastalgia is an important symptom affecting approximately 70% of women and it disrupts the quality of life especially due to the worry of having cancer. In our study, the type and severity of mastalgia symptom of patients who presented to the outpatient clinic with mastalgia complaint were assessed along with their physical examination findings and radiology results. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the relationship between mastalgia and malignity when assessed in combination with the risk factors of patients. Materials and Methods The age, family history, menopausal status, age at the first childbirth, menarche, presence/absence of hormone replacement therapy, type of mastalgia, comorbidities and examination findings of 104 patients, who presented to the General Surgery outpatient clinic with mastalgia symptom, were recorded and assessed in the light of radiological study results. Results With respect to the mastalgia types of the patients, 38.5% had cyclic pain, 57.7% non-cyclic pain and 3.8% other types of pain. Mild mastalgia was present in 46.2% of the patients, moderate mastalgia in 24% and severe mastalgia in 29.8% of them. According to the BIRADS category, 48.1% of the patients were identified to have BIRADS 1 mass lesions, 39.4% BIRADS 2, 9.6% BIRADS 3 and 2.9% BIRADS 5 mass lesions. The patients who were identified to have BIRADS 5 mass lesions described non-cyclic and severe pain in the post-menopausal period. They had palpable masses along with the pain symptom. Conclusion Our study suggests that mastalgia symptom does not per se result in suspicion of malignancy, but physical examination and radiological imaging should also be used as needed for confirmation. Studies with a larger patient population are needed to shed light on the mastalgia epidemiology and its relationship with cancer.

  8. Mastalgia-Cancer Relationship: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ali Cihat; Yıldız, Pınar; Yıldız, Mustafa; Kahramanca, Şahin; Kargıcı, Hülagü

    2015-04-01

    Mastalgia is an important symptom affecting approximately 70% of women and it disrupts the quality of life especially due to the worry of having cancer. In our study, the type and severity of mastalgia symptom of patients who presented to the outpatient clinic with mastalgia complaint were assessed along with their physical examination findings and radiology results. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the relationship between mastalgia and malignity when assessed in combination with the risk factors of patients. The age, family history, menopausal status, age at the first childbirth, menarche, presence/absence of hormone replacement therapy, type of mastalgia, comorbidities and examination findings of 104 patients, who presented to the General Surgery outpatient clinic with mastalgia symptom, were recorded and assessed in the light of radiological study results. With respect to the mastalgia types of the patients, 38.5% had cyclic pain, 57.7% non-cyclic pain and 3.8% other types of pain. Mild mastalgia was present in 46.2% of the patients, moderate mastalgia in 24% and severe mastalgia in 29.8% of them. According to the BIRADS category, 48.1% of the patients were identified to have BIRADS 1 mass lesions, 39.4% BIRADS 2, 9.6% BIRADS 3 and 2.9% BIRADS 5 mass lesions. The patients who were identified to have BIRADS 5 mass lesions described non-cyclic and severe pain in the post-menopausal period. They had palpable masses along with the pain symptom. Our study suggests that mastalgia symptom does not per se result in suspicion of malignancy, but physical examination and radiological imaging should also be used as needed for confirmation. Studies with a larger patient population are needed to shed light on the mastalgia epidemiology and its relationship with cancer.

  9. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  10. Offenders with Intellectual Disability: A Prospective Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, P.; Hassiotis, A.; Banes, J.

    2004-01-01

    Intellectually disabled offenders (IDO) are a poorly served and under-recognized group, who are likely to require long-term specialist treatments and interventions. Method This prospective study investigated the characteristics and factors that influence outcome in this group, with particular reference to therapeutic interventions. Sixty-one…

  11. Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Coping in Pediatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehnder, Daniel; Prchal, Alice; Vollrath, Margarete; Landolt, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    Findings about the influence of coping on psychological adjustment in children with different medical conditions are inconsistent and often based on cross-sectional data. This prospective study evaluated the effect of various coping strategies on children's post-traumatic stress symptoms and behavioral problems 1 month and 1 year after an…

  12. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  13. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  14. Friendly and Hostile Country Perceptions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Beytullah; Topçu, Ersin

    2017-01-01

    Peace education requires that students have a correct and academic perception regarding other countries. These perceptions of students, who acquire certain perceptions starting from primary school to university, need to be based on real facts and should not contain extravagance. This study aims to determine whether 3rd year Prospective Social…

  15. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  16. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  17. Prospects of Elliptic Flow Studies at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraksiev, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    As a key observable, anisotropic flow presents a unique insight into heavy ion collision physics. The presented poster reveals the prospects of studying elliptic flow at the NICA/MPD facility through the UrQMD model. Here, results for the elliptic flow of simulated and reconstructed hadrons at the planned NICA energy range are presented.

  18. Cerebral Palsy and Growth Failure at 6 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bonnie E.; McDonald, Scott A.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Pappas, Athina; Hintz, Susan R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between severity of cerebral palsy (CP) and growth to 6 to 7 years of age among children with moderate to severe (Mod/Sev) hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). It was hypothesized that children with Mod/Sev CP would have poorer growth, lower cognitive scores, and increased rehospitalization rates compared with children with no CP (No CP). METHODS: Among 115 of 122 surviving children followed in the hypothermia trial for neonatal HIE, growth parameters and neurodevelopmental status at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years were available. Group comparisons (Mod/Sev CP and No CP) with unadjusted and adjusted analyses for growth <10th percentile and z scores by using Fisher’s exact tests and regression modeling were conducted. RESULTS: Children with Mod/Sev CP had high rates of slow growth and cognitive and motor impairment and rehospitalizations at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years. At 6 to 7 years of age, children with Mod/Sev CP had increased rates of growth parameters <10th percentile compared with those with No CP (weight, 57% vs 3%; height, 70% vs 2%; and head circumference, 82% vs 13%; P < .0001). Increasing severity of slow growth was associated with increasing age (P < .04 for weight, P < .001 for length, and P < .0001 for head circumference). Gastrostomy feeds were associated with better growth. CONCLUSIONS: Term children with HIE who develop Mod/Sev CP have high and increasing rates of growth <10th percentile by 6 to 7 years of age. These findings support the need for close medical and nutrition management of children with HIE who develop CP. PMID:24019415

  19. Cerebral palsy and growth failure at 6 to 7 years.

    PubMed

    Vohr, Betty R; Stephens, Bonnie E; McDonald, Scott A; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Hintz, Susan R; Shankaran, Seetha; Higgins, Rosemary D; Das, Abhik

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the association between severity of cerebral palsy (CP) and growth to 6 to 7 years of age among children with moderate to severe (Mod/Sev) hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). It was hypothesized that children with Mod/Sev CP would have poorer growth, lower cognitive scores, and increased rehospitalization rates compared with children with no CP (No CP). Among 115 of 122 surviving children followed in the hypothermia trial for neonatal HIE, growth parameters and neurodevelopmental status at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years were available. Group comparisons (Mod/Sev CP and No CP) with unadjusted and adjusted analyses for growth <10th percentile and z scores by using Fisher's exact tests and regression modeling were conducted. Children with Mod/Sev CP had high rates of slow growth and cognitive and motor impairment and rehospitalizations at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years. At 6 to 7 years of age, children with Mod/Sev CP had increased rates of growth parameters <10th percentile compared with those with No CP (weight, 57% vs 3%; height, 70% vs 2%; and head circumference, 82% vs 13%; P < .0001). Increasing severity of slow growth was associated with increasing age (P < .04 for weight, P < .001 for length, and P < .0001 for head circumference). Gastrostomy feeds were associated with better growth. Term children with HIE who develop Mod/Sev CP have high and increasing rates of growth <10th percentile by 6 to 7 years of age. These findings support the need for close medical and nutrition management of children with HIE who develop CP.

  20. Stature and idiopathic scoliosis. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Archer, I A; Dickson, R A

    1985-03-01

    A study of 130 scoliotic children with curves measuring 10 degrees or more has been performed in order to elucidate the importance of stature, growth and development. Girls with adolescent idiopathic curves measuring 15 degrees or more were taller than girls with smaller idiopathic curves and taller than those whose scoliosis was secondary to leg-length inequality (pelvic tilt scoliosis). No differences were observed as regards growth velocity or development. The increased standing height may be genetic but the uncoiling effect of the normal kyphosis to give a flat lateral profile is a more likely cause. The familial trend in idiopathic scoliosis may therefore be explained by the genetically determined shape of the spine in the median (sagittal) plane.

  1. Fatigue in advanced cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Katherine; Walsh, Declan; Rybicki, Lisa A; Davis, Mellar P; Seyidova-Khoshknabi, Dilara

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a common advanced cancer symptom. Clinical features are not well known. The authors surveyed consecutive patients admitted to a palliative medicine program to identify clinical correlates of fatigue. Data collected included age, sex, performance status, primary site, prior chemotherapy/radiation therapy, and blood transfusions. Visual analogue scales assessed fatigue, quality of life, and ability to perform daily activities. Weight change was estimated. Laboratory results including lactate dehydrogenase and hemoglobin were recorded. Fatigue severity was associated with brain metastases, poor performance status, poor quality of life, and reduced ability to perform activities. Prior radiation therapy was associated with less severe fatigue. Age, sex, and hemoglobin level were not associated with fatigue. Fatigue was universal on referral. Brain metastases and poor quality of life independently predicted severity. Hemoglobin level did not predict fatigue. Further studies are necessary to define the clinical features and relationships of fatigue.

  2. [Cardiovascular changes in acromegaly. Prospective study].

    PubMed

    Badui, E; González, C; García Rubi, D; Futran, J; Olguín, R; Espinosa, R

    1984-01-01

    We present 38 acromegalyc patients who were studied by non invasive methods to assess the frequency of cardiovascular complications. Seventy one percent of the cases presented some type of cardiovascular alteration. In 68% we observed left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography which was the most sensitive method to detect it. In 71% we obtained abnormal electrocardiograms, mainly because of conduction disturbances, being right bundle branch block the most frequent. Half of the cases had pulmonary fibrosis and chronic bronchitis. Arterial hypertension was present in 32%. Diabetes mellitus in 21%. Only 2 cases had coronary heart disease. In 37% of the patients who underwent hypophisectomy we observed regression up to 90% of the cardiac complications except for left ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary fibrosis. None of the patients has died.

  3. Overdose after detoxification: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wines, James D; Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2007-07-10

    The aim of this study was to determine predictors of non-fatal overdose (OD) among a cohort of 470 adults after detoxification from heroin, cocaine or alcohol. We examined factors associated with time to OD during 2 years after discharge from an urban detoxification unit in Boston, MA, USA using multivariable regression analyses. Separate analyses were performed for both the total sample and a subgroup with problem opioid use. Lifetime prevalence for any OD was 30.9% (145/470) in the total sample and 42.3% (85/201) in patients with opioid problems. During the 2-year follow-up, OD was estimated to occur in 16.9% of the total sample and 26.7% of the opioid problem subgroup, with new-onset (incidence) OD estimated at 5.7% and 11.0%, respectively. Factors associated with an increased hazard of OD in both samples included white race, more depressive symptoms, and prior OD regardless of intent. Prior suicidal ideation or attempt was not associated with future OD. Findings underscore both the high prevalence of non-fatal OD among detoxification patients especially opioid users, and the potency of prior OD as a risk factor for future OD. Depressive symptoms, a modifiable risk factor, may represent a potential intervention target to prevent OD, including some "unintentional" ODs.

  4. Tobramycin nephrotoxicity. A prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Coca, Antonio; Martinez, Alberto; Soriano, Eladio; Blade, Juan; Segura, Fernando; Ribas-Mundo, Manuel

    1979-01-01

    The nephrotoxicity of tobramycin given at a dose of 4·5 mg/kg/day for a period of 12 days to a group of 90 patients with a mean age of 62·9 years was studied. Toxicity was determined on the basis of 3 main criteria (oliguria <400 ml/24 hr, serum creatinine 0·4 mg increase over a minimum basal level of 1·2 mg/100 ml, BUN 5 mg increase over a minimum of 25 mg/100 ml); and 3 minor criteria (proteinuria, microhaematuria and cylindruria). These parameters were determined before treatment at 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, and 30 days afterwards. The age and coexistence of factors such as hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, cardiac insufficiency, shock and dehydration were considered. Nephrotoxicity level ranges from 3·3 to 38·8% depending on the criterion used, and is related to hypertension (P<0·001), age (P<0·005) and association with ampicillin (P<0·005). Nephrotoxicity was reversible spontaneously in 96·7% of the cases and no differences have been observed between patients with moderate renal insufficiency and those with normal renal function on the initiation of treatment. PMID:523366

  5. Adherence to immunosuppression: a prospective diary study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E J; Prohaska, T R; Gallant, M P; Siminoff, L A

    2007-12-01

    Immunosuppression adherence among kidney transplant recipients is essential for graft survival. However, nonadherence is common, jeopardizing graft survival. Besides skipping dosages, little is known about other forms of medication nonadherence and their underlying reasons. This study sought to examine patients' extent of medication adherence over time and reasons for nonadherence. Thirty-nine new kidney transplant recipients were asked to complete a month-long medication-taking diary that included reporting medication nonadherence such as skipped medications, medications taken early or late, taking dosages greater or less than prescribed, and the reason for each occurrence of nonadherence. Of the 20 (51%) patients who completed the diary, 11 (55%) reported at least 1 form of nonadherence. Eleven patients reported taking their immunosuppression at least 1 hour later than the prescribed time, 1 patient reported skipping medication, but no patients reported changing the dosage on their own. Immunosuppression was taken on average 1.5 hours after the prescribed time. Of those patients who took their medications late, there were on average 3.1 occasions of taking it late. The most common reasons for this behavior included health care-related issues, followed by oversleeping, being away from home, work-related barriers, and forgetting. The majority of kidney transplant recipients took medications later than prescribed during 1 month. Future research should determine the clinical impact on graft function of late administration of immunosuppression. Interventions should be designed to better assist kidney recipients with taking medications on time, especially when they are away from home.

  6. Medium- to Long-Term Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on Hospital Care in Belgium: A 7-Year Follow-Up of the Rotavirus Belgium Impact Study (RotaBIS).

    PubMed

    Standaert, Baudouin; Strens, Danielle; Alwan, Ali; Raes, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus (RV) vaccination was introduced in Belgium in 2006. With the high uptake it had (>85%), a sharp decline in hospitalizations was observed during the first years after vaccine introduction. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this decline was maintained and to simulate projections. The Rotavirus Belgium Impact Study allowed an analysis of the RV vaccine impact amongst children in 11 hospitals in Belgium over a 9-year period (2005-2013) with 2 years pre- and 7 years post-vaccine introduction. Results were compared by year and by subsequent birth cohort aging up to 5 years. The two different analysis methods helped dismantling the different (direct and indirect) effects of vaccine protection to simulate future hospitalization trends. During the whole observation period, 40,552 RV detection tests were performed of which 5832 were positive (14.4%). After RV vaccine introduction, a significant reduction in number of tests performed (-38%) was combined with a dramatic drop in numbers of positive tests (-76.6%). The decreases were spectacular during the first two years of vaccine introduction; after that period, the decrease flattened. Cross-sectional comparison with cohort data showed that the initial drop was heavily influenced by the herd effect of the vaccine. Cohort analysis demonstrated a low rate of residual disease over time, suggesting another infection source other than the child population. The residual disease will be maintained in the community when a same vaccination strategy is continued over time, starting vaccination of children only at 6 weeks' time. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01563146.

  7. A Prospective Study of Holiday Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Yanovski, Jack A.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Sovik, Kara N.; Nguyen, Tuc T.; O'Neil, Patrick M.; Sebring, Nancy G.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is commonly asserted that the “average American” gains five pounds (2.27 kg) or more over the holiday period between Thanksgiving and New Year's Day, yet few data support this statement. Methods To estimate actual holiday-related weight variation, we measured body weight in a non-clinical sample of 195 adults. Subjects were weighed four times, 6-8 weeks apart, such that weight change was determined for three intervals: Pre-Holiday (from late September to mid-November, Holiday (November to January) and Post-Holiday (January to March). A final weight was obtained in 165 participants the following September. Other vital signs and self-reported health measures were obtained to mask the main outcome of interest. Results Mean weight increased significantly during the Holiday (+0.37 ± 1.52 kg, P<0.001), but not during the Pre-Holiday (+0.18 ± 1.49 kg, P=0.09), or Post-Holiday (–0.07 ± 1.14 kg, P=0.36) interval. Holiday weight gain was greater than Post-holiday weight gain (P < 0.002). Compared with their weight in September, study subjects had an average net weight gain of +0.48 ± 2.22 kg at their March measurement (P<0.003). Between March and the next September, there was no significant additional weight change (+0.21 kg ± 2.3 kg, P=0.13) for the 165 participants who returned for follow-up. Conclusions Average holiday weight gain is 0.37 kg, far less than commonly asserted. As this gain is not reversed during spring or summer months, the net 0.48 kg fall/winter weight gain appears likely to contribute to the increase in body weight that frequently occurs during adulthood. PMID:10727591

  8. A prospective study of holiday weight gain.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, J A; Yanovski, S Z; Sovik, K N; Nguyen, T T; O'Neil, P M; Sebring, N G

    2000-03-23

    It is commonly asserted that the average American gains 5 lb (2.3 kg) or more over the holiday period between Thanksgiving and New Year's Day, yet few data support this statement. To estimate actual holiday-related weight variation, we measured body weight in a convenience sample of 195 adults. The subjects were weighed four times at intervals of six to eight weeks, so that weight change was determined for three periods: preholiday (from late September or early October to mid-November), holiday (from mid-November to early or mid-January), and postholiday (from early or mid-January to late February or early March). A final measurement of body weight was obtained in 165 subjects the following September or October. Data on other vital signs and self-reported health measures were obtained from the patients in order to mask the main outcome of interest. The mean (+/-SD) weight increased significantly during the holiday period (gain, 0.37+/-1.52 kg; P<0.001), but not during the preholiday period (gain, 0.18+/-1.49 kg; P=0.09) or the postholiday period (loss, 0.07+/-1.14 kg; P=0.36). As compared with their weight in late September or early October, the study subjects had an average net weight gain of 0.48+/-2.22 kg in late February or March (P=0.003). Between February or March and the next September or early October, there was no significant additional change in weight (gain, 0.21 kg+/-2.3 kg; P=0.13) for the 165 participants who returned for follow-up. The average holiday weight gain is less than commonly asserted. Since this gain is not reversed during the spring or summer months, the net 0.48-kg weight gain in the fall and winter probably contributes to the increase in body weight that frequently occurs during adulthood.

  9. Comparison between the Analgesic Effect of two Techniques on the Level of Pain Perception During venipuncture in Children up to 7 Years of Age: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek Vardhan; Kaur, Amanlo; Singla, Ruku; Chitkara, Neha; Bajaj, Krushnan V.; Rawat, H.C.L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Distraction techniques are often provided by nurses, parents or child life specialists and help in pain alleviation during procedures. The use of non pharmacological procedures to cope with pain behaviour is less costly and most of these procedures can be administered by a nurse. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess and compare the analgesic effect of holding the child by a family member versus holding the child by a family member along with an animation distraction intervention on the level of pain perception during venipuncture in children up to seven years of age. Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling technique was used to select 70 children admitted in paediatric ward of Guru Gobind Singh Medical Hospital, Faridkot, 35 children in each group viz. Group 1(child held by family member during venipuncture) and Group 2 (child held by family member along with an animation distraction during venipuncture) and video clippings were made for each subject in both groups. Standardized FLACC pain scale was used to assess the level of pain during venipuncture by seeing the video clips of procedure in both groups. Results: Findings revealed that the mean pain score of Group 1 was 3.86 and that of Group 2 was 2.43. Findings revealed that in Group 1 majority 31(88.57%) got severe pain and none remained relaxed during venipuncture whereas in Group 2 majority 10(28.58%) got moderate pain, 09(25.71%) remained relaxed and only 07(20%) got severe pain. The comparison of mean pain score of both groups was checked statistically by computing independent t-test and the value of t comes out to be 7.199 with p-value 0.000*** which was found to be highly significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that when during painful procedures like venipuncture if children are given any non-pharmacological intervention like animated distraction along with their family member it helps in managing the pain. In other words, it distracts/diverts the child’s attention from

  10. Comparison between the Analgesic Effect of two Techniques on the Level of Pain Perception During venipuncture in Children up to 7 Years of Age: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harsh Vardhan; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan; Kaur, Amanlo; Singla, Ruku; Chitkara, Neha; Bajaj, Krushnan V; Rawat, H C L

    2014-08-01

    Distraction techniques are often provided by nurses, parents or child life specialists and help in pain alleviation during procedures. The use of non pharmacological procedures to cope with pain behaviour is less costly and most of these procedures can be administered by a nurse. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess and compare the analgesic effect of holding the child by a family member versus holding the child by a family member along with an animation distraction intervention on the level of pain perception during venipuncture in children up to seven years of age. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 70 children admitted in paediatric ward of Guru Gobind Singh Medical Hospital, Faridkot, 35 children in each group viz. Group 1(child held by family member during venipuncture) and Group 2 (child held by family member along with an animation distraction during venipuncture) and video clippings were made for each subject in both groups. Standardized FLACC pain scale was used to assess the level of pain during venipuncture by seeing the video clips of procedure in both groups. Findings revealed that the mean pain score of Group 1 was 3.86 and that of Group 2 was 2.43. Findings revealed that in Group 1 majority 31(88.57%) got severe pain and none remained relaxed during venipuncture whereas in Group 2 majority 10(28.58%) got moderate pain, 09(25.71%) remained relaxed and only 07(20%) got severe pain. The comparison of mean pain score of both groups was checked statistically by computing independent t-test and the value of t comes out to be 7.199 with p-value 0.000*** which was found to be highly significant. The study concluded that when during painful procedures like venipuncture if children are given any non-pharmacological intervention like animated distraction along with their family member it helps in managing the pain. In other words, it distracts/diverts the child's attention from pain and results in better cooperation of child during

  11. [Prenatal diagnosis. Review, personal and prospective studies].

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J

    1979-07-07

    instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes.

  12. Periodontal abscess as a possible oral clinical sign in the diagnosis of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus of elderly in a dental clinic set up - a 7-year cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alagl, Adel S

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the periodontal abscess as a possible oral clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the elderly. In this clinical outpatient department, cross-sectional study of 84 months, 143 212 subjects between the ages of 40 and 84 years were screened for the presence of periodontal abscess. Relevant medical and dental histories were recorded using a questionnaire. The subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, presence of periodontal abscess, and absence of other systemic disease were referred for laboratory diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (HbA1c). The subjects tested positive for the diabetes were noted, statistical evaluation was undertaken to correlate between undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and periodontal abscess. It was found out that 0.05% undiagnosed diabetes was noted among the 143 212 patients. Among the 143 212 subjects, 1352 met the inclusion criteria having periodontal abscess. Mean age of the participants was 57 ± 14.2 years. Among the 1352 subjects with periodontal abscess: 793 (58.65%) subjects had increased HbA1c (≥6.5% or 47.5 mmol/mol or 7.8 mmol/L); 559 (41.35%) individuals reported to have normal HbA1c (≤6.5% or 47.5 mmol/mol or 7.8 mmol/L). The difference was found to be statistically significant. Periodontal abscess can be considered as possible oral clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Elderly individuals visiting dental clinics need to be given due attention to find out the possibility of having this systemic condition. Medical fraternities are advised to consider oral health parameters in the evaluation of the medical status of elderly individuals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Smoking and Parkinson's disease: systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Campbell, Michael J; Hofman, Albert; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Rafael

    2004-06-01

    We estimated the pooled risk of tobacco smoking for Parkinson's disease (PD). Inclusion criteria included systematic searches of MedLine, PsycLIT, Embase, Current Contents, previously published reviews, examination of cited reference sources, and personal contact and discussion with several investigators expert in the field. Published prospective studies on PD and cigarette smoking. When two or more studies were based on an identical study, the study that principally investigated the relationship or the study that was published last was used. Seven prospective studies were carried out between 1959 and 1997, of which six reported risk estimates. Four cohorts were based on standardised mortality rates, which were exclusively of male. Only one study included risk estimates for both males and females separately. The risk of ever smoker was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.61). There was an obvious protective effect of current smoking in the pooled estimate (relative risk, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.26-0.47). Former smokers had lower risk compared with never smokers (relative risk, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.88). Although our pooled estimates show that smoking is inversely associated with the risk of PD, the four prospective studies that were based on follow-up of mortality of smokers had many limitations. Further studies evaluating the association between smoking and PD in women are strongly needed.

  14. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  15. Effect of Retirement on Sleep Disturbances: the GAZEL Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Hall, Martica; Sjösten, Noora; Kivimäki, Mika; Salo, Paula; Ferrie, Jane E.; Jokela, Markus; Pentti, Jaana; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in health following retirement are poorly understood. We used serial measurements to assess the effect of retirement on sleep disturbances. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The French national gas and electricity company. Participants: Fourteen thousand seven hundred fourteen retired employees (79% men). Measurements and Results: Annual survey measurements of sleep disturbances ranging from 7 years before to 7 years after retirement (a mean of 12 measurements). Before retirement 22.2% to 24.6% of participants reported having disturbed sleep. According to repeated-measures logistic-regression analysis with generalized estimating equations estimation, the odds ratio (OR) for having a sleep disturbance in the postretirement period was 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.71-0.77), compared with having a sleep disturbance in the preretirement period. The postretirement improvement in sleep was more pronounced in men (OR 0.66 [0.63-0.69]) than in women (OR 0.89 [0.84-0.95]) and in higher-grade workers than lower-grade workers. Postretirement sleep improvement was explained by the combination of preretirement risk factors suggesting removal of work-related exposures as a mechanism. The only exception to the general improvement in sleep after retirement was related to retirement on health grounds. In this group of participants, there was an increase in sleep disturbances following retirement. Conclusions: Repeated measurements provide strong evidence for a substantial and sustained decrease in sleep disturbances following retirement. The possibility that the health and well-being of individuals are significantly worse when in employment than following retirement presents a great challenge to improve the quality of work life in Western societies in which the cost of the aging population can only be met through an increase in average retirement age. Citation: Vahtera J; Westerlund H; Hall M; Sjösten N; Kivimäki M; Salo P; Ferrie JE; Jokela M

  16. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S.; Nashwan, Samar Z.; Al-Shamiri, Mostafa Q.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.

    2017-01-01

    Background One important cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, few studies have assessed PH in OHS patients. Therefore, we prospectively assessed the prevalence of PH in a large sample of OHS patients. Methods In this prospective observational study, all consecutive OHS patients referred to the sleep disorders clinic during the study period were included. All patients underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG), spirometry, arterial blood samples and thyroid tests. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed for patients who agreed to participate in the study. PH was defined as systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) >40 mmHg. Results Echocardiographic data were available for 77 patients with a mean age of 60.5±11.7 years, a BMI of 43.2±10.4 kg/m2, and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score of 11.4±5.5. SPAP was >40 mmHg in 53 patients (68.8%), with a mean SPAP of 64.1±17.1 mmHg. There were no differences between the OHS patients with PH and those with normal PAP in terms of age, BMI, presenting symptoms, comorbidities, arterial blood gasses (ABG), and spirometric and PSG parameters. Approximately 71.4% of women and 61.9% of men with OHS also had PH. SPAP was >40–55 mmHg in 19 (24.7%) patients (18 women), >55–70 mmHg in 15 (19.5%) patients (6 women) and >70 mmHg in 19 (24.7%) patients (16 women). Severe PH (SPAP >70 mmHg) was diagnosed in 28.6% of the women and 14.3% of the men. Conclusions PH is very common among patients with OHS who have been referred to sleep disorders clinics. PH should be considered in the regular clinical assessment of all patients with OHS. PMID:28449486

  17. Coffee consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver onset: a prospective study in the general population.

    PubMed

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Salomone, Federico; Webb, Muriel; Lotan, Roni; Yeshua, Hanny; Halpern, Zamir; Santo, Erwin; Oren, Ran; Shibolet, Oren

    2015-03-01

    Retrospective studies suggest that coffee consumption may exert beneficial effects in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver; however, prospective data supporting a protective role on liver steatosis development are lacking. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and fatty liver onset in the general population. The analysis was performed both in a cross-sectional cohort (n = 347) and, prospectively, in a subcohort of patients without fatty liver at baseline and followed-up for 7 years (n = 147). Fatty liver was diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound and liver steatosis was quantified noninvasively by hepatorenal index (HRI) and SteatoTest, whereas FibroTest was used to assess fibrosis degree. A structured questionnaire on coffee consumption was administrated during a face-to-face interview. Neither the incidence nor the prevalence of fatty liver according to ultrasonography, SteatoTest, and the HRI was associated with coffee consumption. In the cross-sectional study, high coffee consumption was associated with a lower proportion of clinically significant fibrosis ≥ F2 (8.8% vs 16.3%; P = 0.038); consistently, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, high coffee consumption was associated with lower odds for significant fibrosis (odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.97; P = 0.041) and was the strongest predictor for significant fibrosis. No association was demonstrated between coffee consumption and the new onset of nonalcoholic fatty liver, but coffee intake may exert beneficial effects on fibrosis progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mobile phone use and risk of brain neoplasms and other cancers: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Benson, Victoria S; Pirie, Kirstin; Schüz, Joachim; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie; Green, Jane

    2013-06-01

    Results from some retrospective studies suggest a possible increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma in users of mobile phones. The relation between mobile phone use and incidence of intracranial central nervous system (CNS) tumours and other cancers was examined in 791,710 middle-aged women in a UK prospective cohort, the Million Women Study. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Women reported mobile phone use in 1999 to 2005 and again in 2009. During 7 years' follow-up, 51,680 incident invasive cancers and 1,261 incident intracranial CNS tumours occurred. Risk among ever vs never users of mobile phones was not increased for all intracranial CNS tumours (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.90-1.14, P = 0.82), for specified CNS tumour types nor for cancer at 18 other specified sites. For long-term users compared with never users, there was no appreciable association for glioma (10+ years: RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.55-1.10, P = 0.16) or meningioma (10+ years: RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.66-1.84, P = 0.71). For acoustic neuroma, there was an increase in risk with long term use vs never use (10+ years: RR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.07-5.64, P = 0.03), the risk increasing with duration of use (trend among users, P = 0.03). In this large prospective study, mobile phone use was not associated with increased incidence of glioma, meningioma or non-CNS cancers.

  19. Sedentary behaviour and cardiovascular disease: a review of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S; Caspersen, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Background Current estimates from objective accelerometer data suggest that American adults are sedentary for ~7.7h/day. Historically, sedentary behaviour was conceptualized as one end of the physical activity spectrum but is increasingly being viewed as a behaviour distinct from physical activity. Methods Prospective studies examining the associations between screen time (watching television, watching videos and using a computer) and sitting time and fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) were identified. These prospective studies relied on self-reported sedentary behaviour. Results The majority of prospective studies of screen time and sitting time has shown that greater sedentary time is associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal CVD. Compared with the lowest levels of sedentary time, risk estimates ranged up to 1.68 for the highest level of sitting time and 2.25 for the highest level of screen time after adjustment for a series of covariates, including measures of physical activity. For six studies of screen time and CVD, the summary hazard ratio per 2-h increase was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.13–1.20). For two studies of sitting time, the summary hazard ratio per 2-h increase was 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.09). Conclusions Future prospective studies using more objective measures of sedentary behaviour might prove helpful in quantifying better the risk between sedentary behaviour and CVD morbidity and mortality. This budding science may better shape future guideline development as well as clinical and public health interventions to reduce the amount of sedentary behaviour in modern societies. PMID:22634869

  20. A Prospective Study of Factors Affecting Recovery from Musculoskeletal Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    for musculoskeletal disorders . J Occup Rehabil. 2005;15:377–92. 18. Crook J, Milner R, Schultz IZ, Stringer B. Determinants of occupational disability...Spine. 1996;21:2900–7. 61. Hansson T, Jensen I. Sickness absence due to back and neck disorders . Scan J Public Health. 2004;32:109–51. 62. Lincoln AE...Naval Health Research Center A Prospective Study of Factors Affecting Recovery from Musculoskeletal Injuries Stephanie Booth-Kewley Emily

  1. Prospective study of HPV types, HPV persistence and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, Karin; Eloranta, Sandra; Sparén, Pär; Dahlström, Lisen Arnheim; Gunnell, Anthony; Lindgren, Anders; Palmgren, Juni; Ploner, Alexander; Sanjeevi, Carani B.; Melbye, Mads; Dillner, Joakim; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ylitalo, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Background The link between squamous cell cervical carcinoma and HPV 16/18 is well-established but the magnitude of the risk association is uncertain and the importance of other high-risk HPV types unclear. Methods In two prospective nested case-control series among women participating in cytological screening in Sweden, we collected 2772 cervical smears from 515 women with cancer in situ (CIS), 315 with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and individually matched controls. All smears were tested for HPV with PCR assays and the median follow-up until diagnosis was 5-7 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Presence of HPV16/18 in the first smear was associated with 8.5-fold (95% CI 5.3-13.7), and 18.6-fold (95% CI 9.0-38.9) increased risks of CIS and SCC, respectively, compared to women negative for HPV. Infection with other high-risk HPV types in the first smear was also associated with significantly increased risks for both CIS and SCC. Persistence of HPV16 infection conferred a RR of 18.5 (95% CI, 6.5-52.9) for CIS and 19.5 (95% CI 4.7-81.7) for SCC. The HPV16/18 attributable risk proportion was estimated to 30-50% of CIS, and 41-47% of SCC. Other high-risk HPV types also conferred significant proportions. Conclusions Our large population-based study provides quantification of risks for different HPV types and prospective evidence that non-16/18 high-risk HPV types increase the risk for future cervical cancer. Impact This study gives further insights into cervical cancer risk stratification with implications for HPV-based prevention strategies. PMID:20671136

  2. Participation in Aesthetic Sports and Girls’ Weight Concerns at Ages 5 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Method Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls’ weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Results Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Discussion Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. PMID:11920993

  3. Participation in aesthetic sports and girls' weight concerns at ages 5 and 7 years.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B; Birch, Leann L

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls' weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

  5. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  6. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  7. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  8. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  9. Home modification and prevention of frailty progression in older adults: a Japanese prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mitoku, Kazuko; Shimanouchi, Setsu

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether home modification was associated with subsequent progression of frailty and mortality in older adults. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 574 adults 65 and older who required a low or moderate level of care. Of these, 34% modified their homes-most frequently a corridor-and the most common type of modification was the installation of handrails. The mortality was significantly lower among older adults with home modifications than in those without home modifications at 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.32, 0.87]), 3 years (HR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.54, 0.81]), and 4.7 years (HR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.65, 0.91]). These findings suggest that home modification may prevent the progression of frailty (i.e., need for low/moderate level of care increasing to the need for high level of care) in older adults.

  10. The PROSPECTS study: design of a prospective cohort study on prognosis and perpetuating factors of medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS).

    PubMed

    van Dessel, Nikki; Leone, Stephanie S; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the rationale and methodology of the PROSPECTS study, a study which aims to assess the course and prognosis of medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS), in terms of symptom severity and physical and social functioning. Additionally, it aims to identify different course types and to determine which factors are associated with these course types. Based on these factors, one or more prediction models will be developed. This study is a prospective, multicenter longitudinal cohort study with 1 baseline and 4 follow-up measurements during a 3 year period. 450 MUPS patients (age 18-70 years) will be included, divided over a primary care group, recruited in general practices, and a secondary/tertiary care group, recruited in specialized MUPS care programs. Primary outcome measures are severity of symptoms and degree of functional impairment. Secondary outcome measures are health care consumption and level of depressive symptoms and anxiety. Potential predictors are based on current theoretical models describing the perpetuation of MUPS and include somatic, psychological and social factors. Latent Class Growth Mixture Modeling will be used to identify distinct course types. Logistic regression analysis will be used to identify risk factors associated with these course types. Finally, one or more multivariate prediction models for the course of MUPS will be developed and tested. The PROSPECTS study aims to enhance our insight into the course of MUPS, thus contributing to better recognition of future patients at risk for persistent MUPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of prenatal and early childhood stress with reduced lung function in 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison G; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu M; Rosa, Maria J; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Morgan, Wayne J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-08-01

    No prior study has examined associations between prenatal and early-life stress on childhood lung function or identified critical windows of exposure. To prospectively examine associations between prenatal and early-life stress and childhood lung function. Stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score ascertained during pregnancy and between 1 and 2 years post partum. Spirometry was performed when children were a mean (SD) of 6.99 (0.89) years old. Associations of prenatal and early postnatal stress with spirometry z scores were examined in 199 children using linear regression. Effect modification by child sex was explored. Most mothers were minorities (65% Hispanic, 21% African American), had 12 years or less of education (67%), and did not smoke prenatally (78%). The highest level of prenatal stress (≥5 NLEs) was associated with lower levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (z score = -0.53, P = .03), forced vital capacity (FVC) (z score = -0.49, P = .04), and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% (FEF25%-75%) (z score = -0.68, P = .01) after covariate adjustment; effects were similar for postnatal stress considered separately. In sex-stratified analyses, high postnatal stress (≥5 NLEs) was associated with lower FEV1 (z score = -0.76, P = .01), FVC (z score = -0.77, P = .01), and FEF25%-75% (z score = -0.67, P = .02) in boys but not girls, although the interaction term was not significant (P for interaction >.10). These are the first prospective data that link perinatal stress with reduced child lung function. High levels of stress in the prenatal and postnatal periods were associated with symmetric reductions in FEV1 and FVC consistent with impaired lung growth. Given that lung function growth patterns are established by 7 years of age, these findings have lifelong implications. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reorganization of nutritional therapy can markedly reduce the rate of catheter-related blood stream infections in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition - a 7-year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Borkowska, Anna; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Sroka, Mariusz; Zagierski, Maciej; Gosk, Anna; Słomińska-Frączek, Magdalena; Bogowski, Grzegorz; Plata-Nazar, Katarzyna; Sznurkowska, Katarzyna; Krzykowski, Grzegorz; Kamińska, Barbara

    2014-12-16

    Antecedentes: La implementación de medidas higiénicas y cambios sencillos en la estructura del personal médico puede reducir considerablemente la tasa de bacteriemia asociada al catéter (BAC) en pacientes que reciben nutrición parenteral. Objetivo: Analizar el impacto de los cambios organizacionales dentro de los servicios de nutrición parenteral sobre las tasas de BAC en pacientes pediátricos. Métodos: Hemos comparado las tasas de BAC documentadas antes, durante y después de la implementación de los cambios organizacionales (introducción de un grupo de apoyo nutricional y los procedimientos relacionados, formación del personal médico). Descubrimientos: Un total de 260 series de nutrición parenteral fueron ofrecidos a 141 pacientes pediátricos durante el periodo analizado. Se documentaron treinta BAC durante este periodo. Los factores etiológicos más frecuentes eran staphylococci (21/30), seguidos por Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli y Candida albicans (2/30 cada uno). Los cambios organizacionales fueron reflejados en una reducción de la incidencia de BAC en más de 8 veces: el valor inicial disminuyó desde 10.14 hasta 6.89 por 1000 días-catéter y hasta 1.17 por 1000 días-catéter durante y después de la reorganización, respectivamente. Conclusión: La introducción de un grupo de apoyo nutricional, acompañada de una extensa formación del personal médico puede resultar en una reducción considera ble de la tasa de BAC en pacientes pediátricos que reciben nutrición parenteral en en un entorno hospitalario.

  13. Evaluation of guidelines for injured children at high risk for VTE: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Landisch, Rachel M; Hanson, Sheila J; Cassidy, Laura D; Braun, Kristin; Punzalan, Rowena C; Gourlay, David M

    2017-03-02

    Pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a widely accepted practice in adult trauma patients to prevent associated morbidity and mortality. However, VTE prophylaxis has not been standardized in injured pediatric patients. Our institution identified factors potentially associated with a high risk of VTE in critically injured children that led to prospective implementation of VTE prophylaxis guidelines. We hypothesize the guidelines are accurate in predicting children at risk for VTE. Data were prospectively collected on injured children from 8/2010-8/2015. Pharmacologic prophylaxis was indicated for patients identified by the guidelines as high risk for VTE. Prophylaxis was deferred and a screening ultrasound (US) performed if the high risk VTE patients were also at high risk for bleeding. To assess the accuracy of predicting confirmed cases of VTE, stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of individual risk factors with VTE controlling for age (≥13 years). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve measured the accuracy of the final model to predict a VTE. Of 4061 trauma patients, 588 were admitted to the ICU, with the guidelines identifying 199 as high risk for VTE. VTE occurred in 3.9% (23/588) of the ICU population and 10% (20/199) of the high risk group. The median age of VTE patients in the ICU was 9.7 years. Statistically significant predictors (p<0.05) of VTE in the multivariate model included presence of a central venous catheter (OR=5.2), inotropes (OR=7.7), immobilization (OR=5.5) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) < 9 (OR=1.3). The area under ROC curve of this model was 0.92, demonstrating its excellent predictive ability. Specific clinical factors in critically injured children are associated with a high risk for VTE. Incorporating these risk factors in VTE prophylaxis guidelines facilitates more accurate risk stratification and may allow for improved VTE prevention in pediatric trauma. Prognostic

  14. Social consequences of multiple sclerosis: clinical and demographic predictors - a historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pfleger, C C H; Flachs, E M; Koch-Henriksen, N

    2010-11-01

    Time to disability pension is one of the endpoints to be used to determine the prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in prospective studies.   To assess the time to cessation of work and receiving disability pension in MS, and how it may depend on gender, type of work and age and symptom at onset. A total of 2240 Danes with onset of definite/probable MS 1980-1989, identified from the Danish MS-Registry, were included. Information on social endpoints was retrieved from Statistics Denmark. Cox regression analyses were used with onset as starting point. Afferent onset symptoms [hazard ratio (HR 0.57)] and non-physical type of work (HR 0.70) were favourable prognostic factors compared with high age at onset, physical work and efferent symptoms at onset. The mean time to disability pension was 13 years for patients with afferent/brainstem onset symptom but 8.7 years for those with efferent onset symptoms (P < 0.0001). The effect of onset symptom was reduced and the effect of sex became significant when all covariates and age at onset were included in multivariate Cox regression. Onset age, type of onset symptom and work are robust predictors of disability pension in MS. Disability pension proves to be a reliable milestone in estimation of the prognosis of MS. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 EFNS.

  15. Tracking excess weight and obesity from childhood to young adulthood: a 12-year prospective cohort study in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Starc, Gregor; Strel, Janko

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the tracking of obesity from childhood to young adulthood in Slovenia. A subsample included 4833 children from the Slovenian national sample (n 21 777) who were included in the SLOFIT monitoring system from 1997 to 2008, with complete data at 7 years and 18 years. A 12-year prospective cohort study. Height, weight and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were measured at 7, 11, 14 and 18 years. The BMI cut-off points of the International Obesity Taskforce were used to identify excess weight and obesity. The survey was conducted in Slovenian primary and secondary schools from 1988 to 2008 but only the data from the measurements in 1997, 2001, 2004 and 2008 are presented. Height, weight and BMI at 18 years were well predicted from childhood and became more predictable with age, while TSF was not. Obese and overweight children had the greatest risk of becoming obese or overweight young adults. The history of their weight shows that 40.0 % of males and 48.6 % of females who were obese at 18 years had already been obese at 7 years. Overweight or obese Slovenian children are more likely to become overweight or obese adolescents and young adults than reported in other similar European and American studies, which indicates the need for early prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity.

  16. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  17. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  18. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  19. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  20. The Acquisition Process of Finnish Morphology in 2-7-Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyytinen, Paula

    1982-01-01

    Some results of seven studies of children's native Finnish language acquisition from 1971-1980 are summarized, focusing on two aspects: the main features in the development of Finnish inflection forms in 2-7-year-old children, and selected information derived from children's errors at the various age levels. Subjects were 260 children attending…

  1. Skill-Related Uncertainty and Expected Value in 5- to 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Schlottmann, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Studies using an Information Integration approach have shown that children from four years have a good intuitive understanding of probability and expected value. Experience of skill-related uncertainty may provide one naturalistic opportunity to develop this intuitive understanding. To test the viability of this view, 16 5- and 16 7-year-olds…

  2. Is DVT prophylaxis overemphasized? A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kosir, M A; Kozol, R A; Perales, A; McGee, K; Beleski, K; Lange, P; Dahn, M

    1996-02-01

    This study was designed to prospectively evaluate a previously published prognostic index for predicting deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in general surgical patients with conventional prophylaxis. Patients undergoing procedures of at least 1 hr duration (abdominal, thoracic, head and neck, inguinal) requiring general or spinal anesthetic were prospectively randomized into the following groups: Group 1, sequential pneumatic compression devices during surgery and 2 days postoperatively; Group 2, subcutaneous heparin (5000 U q 12 hr) starting 1 hr before surgery and for 7 days postop; Group 3, control group. All patients underwent duplex evaluation of bilateral lower extremity deep venous systems preoperatively and on postoperative Days 1, 3, and 30. In addition, a previously developed predictive DVT incidence indicator, the prognostic index (PI), was calculated for each patient. A total of 137 patients were entered into the study with 29 removed for patient/staff reasons. There were no differences in PI among the three groups at the 0.05 level (ANOVA). The distribution of risk factors for DVT including increased age, body size, hemoglobin (Hb), and colorectal procedures were distributed evenly among the groups. Additional factors such as diabetes, COPD, PVD, immobilization, and cancer were also evenly distributed among the groups. The PI predicted a 20% incidence of DVT. For Groups 1 (n = 25), 2 (n = 38), and 3 (n = 45) no DVTs were detected over the 30 days of study. During the study period, 8 DVTs were detected by duplex evaluation in general surgical patients not in the study (1.5%). In conclusion, in a prospective randomized study using sequential pneumatic compression devices, subcutaneous heparin or no prophylaxis in matched general surgical patients at moderate to high risk for thromboembolism, no DVTs occurred for up to 30 days. Furthermore, neither a PI nor other factors associated with DVT accurately predicted the incidence of DVT in this patient population.

  3. Vitamin D and hypertension: Prospective study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Dan; Nie, Xiao-lu; Wu, Shouling; Cai, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to determine the link between vitamin D concentrations and incident hypertension in prospective study and meta-analysis. Methods The study was embedded in the Kailuan Study, a population-based cohort of adults that contains underground miners. In 2012, we studied 2,456 men and women free of prevalent hypertension, age 21 to 67 at baseline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured from previously frozen baseline samples using ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoadSorbent Assay). We use the logistic regression analysis to estimate the odd radio (ORs) 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with incident hypertension. To help place our new data in context, we conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis of previous prospective reports of vitamin D and hypertension. Results During a median follow-up of 2 years, 42.6% of the cohort (n = 1047) developed hypertension. Compared with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D >30ng/ml, 25-hydroxyvitamin D <20 ng/ml was associated with a greater hypertension risk (OR: 1.225 [95% CI: 1.010 to 1.485] p = 0.04), although the association was attenuated and not statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders (OR: 1.092 [95% CI: 0.866 to 1.377] p = 0.456). This meta-analysis included seven prospective studies for 53,375 participants using adjusted HR founded a significant association between vitamin D deficiencies and incident hypertension (HRs = 1.235 (95% CI: 1.083 to 1.409, p = 0.002)). Conclusion Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were not associated with a greater risk of incident hypertension. More research is needed to further determine the role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in hypertension prevention and therapy. PMID:28358827

  4. Prospective study of physical activity and risk of developing a stress fracture among preadolescent and adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Field, Alison E; Gordon, Catherine M; Pierce, Laura M; Ramappa, Arun; Kocher, Mininder S

    2011-08-01

    To identify predictors of developing a stress fracture among adolescent girls during a 7-year period. Prospective cohort study. Adolescent girls living throughout the United States. A total of 6831 girls aged 9 to 15 years at baseline in the Growing Up Today Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study. Exposures were assessed by self-report questionnaires completed by adolescent girls in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2003. The adolescent girls' history of stress fracture, including age when fracture occurred and site, were reported by their mothers, who are registered nurses, in 2004. Cox proportional hazards models were used in the analysis. Main Outcome Measure Incident stress fracture that occurred between 1997 and 2004. During 7 years of follow-up, 267 girls (3.9%) developed a stress fracture. Independent of age, age at menarche, family history of fracture, and hours per week of low- and moderate-impact activity, hours per week of running (hazard ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.23), basketball (hazard ratio = 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.23), and cheerleading/gymnastics (hazard ratio = 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.22) were significant predictors of developing a stress fracture. No other type of high-impact activity was associated with an increased risk. Girls who engage in running, basketball, cheerleading, or gymnastics should be encouraged to include varied training in lower-impact activities to decrease the cumulative amount of impact in order to minimize their risk of stress fractures.

  5. A randomised, controlled trial of circumpatellar electrocautery in total knee replacement without patellar resurfacing: a concise follow-up at a mean of 3.7 years.

    PubMed

    van Jonbergen, H P W; Scholtes, V A B; Poolman, R W

    2014-04-01

    In the absence of patellar resurfacing, we have previously shown that the use of electrocautery around the margin of the patella improved the one-year clinical outcome of total knee replacement (TKR). In this prospective randomised study we compared the mean 3.7 year (1.1 to 4.2) clinical outcomes of 300 TKRs performed with and without electrocautery of the patellar rim: this is an update of a previous report. The overall prevalence of anterior knee pain was 32% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 26 to 39), and 26% (95% CI 18 to 35) in the intervention group compared with 38% (95% CI 29 to 48) in the control group (chi-squared test; p = 0.06). The overall prevalence of anterior knee pain remained unchanged between the one-year and 3.7 year follow-up (chi-squared test; p = 0.12). The mean total Western Ontario McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Indices and the American Knee Society knee and function scores at 3.7 years' follow-up were similar in the intervention and control groups (repeated measures analysis of variance p = 0.43, p = 0.09 and p = 0.59, respectively). There were no complications. A total of ten patients (intervention group three, control group seven) required secondary patellar resurfacing after the first year. Our study suggests that the improved clinical outcome with electrocautery denervation compared with no electrocautery is not maintained at a mean of 3.7 years' follow-up.

  6. Testicular atrophy following paediatric primary orchidopexy: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Durell, J; Johal, N; Burge, D; Wheeler, R; Griffiths, M; Kitteringham, L; Stanton, M; Manoharan, S; Steinbrecher, H; Malone, P; Griffin, S J

    2016-08-01

    With the Nordic consensus statement advocating orchidopexy at an earlier age, the present study sought to investigate the outcomes of primary paediatric orchidopexy at a tertiary UK centre. To prospectively assess testicular atrophy following primary orchidopexy for undescended testes in a paediatric population. Secondary outcomes were complication rates and whether outcomes were dependent on grade of operating surgeon. Prospective data regarding age at operation, classification of the undescended testis, length of follow-up, and subjective comparison of intraoperative and postoperative testicular volumes compared with the contralateral testis were collected. Testicular atrophy was defined as >50% loss of testicular volume or a postoperative testicular volume <25% of the volume of the contralateral testis. Patients were excluded for incomplete data and follow-up <6 months. Data for 234 patients were analysed. Testicular atrophy occurred in 2.6% of cases. There was no reported testicular re-ascent. All secondary acquired cases underwent a previous ipsilateral hernia repair. There was no significant difference in outcomes comparing the grade of surgeon (consultant n = 8, trainee/staff-grade surgeon n = 7-8). There was a trend towards postoperative catch-up growth in approximately one fifth of cases. Previous studies have reported a testicular atrophy rate of 5%. The present study reported a similar rate of 2.6%. In agreement with a previous publication, it was also found that testicular atrophy was not dependent on the grade of operating surgeon. The mechanism for testicular catch-up growth is not well understood. Animal studies have supported the hypothesis that increased temperature has a detrimental effect on testicular volume. However, follow-up in the present cohort was short (median 6.9 months), making interpretation of this finding difficult. It is acknowledged that clinical palpation alone to determine testicular volume potentially introduces intra

  7. A Prospective Study of Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ependymoma

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Li, Chenghong; Xiong, Xiaoping; Kun, Larry E.; Boop, Frederic A.; Sanford, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Successful therapy for ependymoma includes aggressive surgical intervention and radiation therapy administered using methods which minimize the risk of side effects. We extended this treatment approach to include children under the age of 3 years. Methods Between July 1997 and 2007, 153 pediatric patients (median age 2·9 years, range 0·9–22·9 years) with localized ependymoma received conformal radiation therapy after definitive surgery. Doses of 59·4 (n=131) or 54·0 Gy (n=22) were prescribed to a 10mm clinical target volume margin surrounding the post-operative residual tumor and/or tumor bed. The patients had the following characteristics: anaplastic ependymoma (n=85), infratentorial location (n=122), prior chemotherapy (n=35) and extent of resection (gross-total=125, near-total=17, subtotal=11). Disease control, patterns of failure and complications were recorded for patients followed through 10 years. Findings With a median follow-up of 5·3 years (range 0·4 to 10·4 years), death was recorded in 23 patients and tumor progression in 36, including local (n=14), distant (n=15) and combined failure (n=7). Tumor grade predicted overall (OS) and event-free (EFS) survival and distant failure. Extent of resection predicted OS, EFS and local failure. Race predicted OS. The 7 year local control, event-free and overall survival were 83·7% (95% CI: 73·9–93·5%), 69·1% (95% CI: 56·9–81·3%) and 81·0% (95% CI: 71·0–91·0%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of local and distance failure were 16·3% (95% CI: 9·6–23·0%) and 11·48% (95% CI: 5·9–17·1%), respectively. Considering only those patients treated with immediate post-operative CRT (without delay or chemotherapy) the 7 year OS, EFS and CI of local and distant failure were 85·0% (95% CI: 74·2–95·8%), 76·9% (95% CI: 63·4–90·4%), 12·59% (95% CI: 5·1–20·1%)and 8·56% (95% CI: 2·8–14·3%), respectively. The incidence of secondary malignant brain tumor at 7 years

  8. Prospective study of chemical exposures and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, MG; Morozova, N; O'Reilly, EJ; McCullough, ML; Calle, EE; Thun, MJ; Ascherio, A

    2009-01-01

    Background Although environmental toxins, including pesticides, are suspected of contributing to the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), no data exist from large prospective investigations. This study assessed the association between exposure to chemicals and risk of ALS in a prospective cohort study. Methods We prospectively assessed the relation between self-report of regular exposure to 11 different chemical classes or X-rays and ALS mortality among over 1 million participants in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II. Follow-up from 1989 through 2004 identified 617 deaths from ALS among men and 539 among women. We calculated adjusted rate ratios (RR) using Cox proportional hazards. Results The RR for ALS mortality among individuals exposed to pesticides/herbicides compared to the unexposed was 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.44), but somewhat higher after excluding those with missing duration of pesticides exposure (RR: 1.44; 95% CI: 0.89-2.31; p=0.14). A non-significant increase in ALS mortality was found among individuals who reported exposure to formaldehyde (RR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.93-1.92). Excluding those with missing duration of formaldehyde exposure, the RR was 2.47 (95% CI: 1.58-3.86), and there was a strongly significant dose-response relation with increasing years of exposure (p-trend=0.0004). Conclusions We found little evidence for an association between pesticides/herbicide exposure and ALS. In contrast, we found evidence suggesting an increased risk of ALS with formaldehyde exposure. Because of the longitudinal design, this result is unlikely to be due to bias, but it should nevertheless be interpreted cautiously and needs to be independently verified. PMID:19372290

  9. Environmental biotechnology in India: prospects and case studies.

    PubMed

    Khanna, P

    1996-09-01

    The emergence and acceptance of the concept of sustainable development warrants that the scope of environmental biotechnology be enlarged to address issues like environmental monitoring, restoration of environmental quality, resource/residue/waste-recovery/utilization/treatment, and substitution of the non-renewable resource base with renewable resources. This paper delineates the current and prospective applications in these sub-areas of environmental biotechnology, and documents case studies on environmental monitoring (enteric viruses), restoration of environmental quality (oil spill remediation), resource recovery (hydrocarbon recovery from oily sludges, biosurfactants from distillery spentwash, desulphurization of coal & sour gases), and substitution of non-renewable resources with renewables (conversion of lignocellulisics into value added chemicals).

  10. Haematological abnormalities in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D.; Imrie, C. W.; Davidson, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively in the first week of their admission using haematological and coagulation tests. Platelet counts initially fell and later returned to admission levels. Rising levels of plasma fibrinogen were recorded. The kaolin cephalin clotting time was shorter than its control in twenty-one patients. Eighteen patients had elevated fibrinogen degradation products and fourteen had a positive ethanol gelation test. It is suggested that by taking into account the results in series of individual patients a degree of intravascular coagulation may be a common feature of acute pancreatitis. In one patient (presented in detail) strong evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulation was found PMID:887529

  11. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50,000 adults in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-04-17

    To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Prospective cohort study. The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. 50,045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. 17% (n = 8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use.

  12. Associations of anthropometry since birth with sagittal posture at age 7 in a prospective birth cohort: the Generation XXI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Raquel; Simpkin, Andrew J; Heron, Jon; Alegrete, Nuno; Tilling, Kate; Howe, Laura D; Barros, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Adult sagittal posture is established during childhood and adolescence. A flattened or hypercurved spine is associated with poorer musculoskeletal health in adulthood. Although anthropometry from birth onwards is expected to be a key influence on sagittal posture design, this has never been assessed during childhood. Our aim was to estimate the association between body size throughout childhood with sagittal postural patterns at age 7. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants A subsample of 1029 girls and 1101 boys taking part in the 7-year-old follow-up of the birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal) was included. We assessed the associations between anthropometric measurements (weight, height and body mass index) at birth, 4 and 7 years of age and postural patterns at age 7. Postural patterns were defined using latent profile analysis, a probabilistic model-based technique which allows for simultaneously including anthropometrics as predictors of latent profiles by means of logistic regression. Results Postural patterns identified were sway, flat and "neutral to hyperlordotic"in girls, and "sway to neutral", flat and hyperlordotic in boys; with flat and hyperlordotic postures representing a straightened and a rounded spine, respectively. In both girls and boys, higher weight was associated with lower odds of a flat pattern compared with a sway/"sway to neutral"pattern, with stronger associations at older ages: for example, ORs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88) per SD increase in birth weight and 0.36 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.68) per SD increase in weight at age 7 in girls, with similar findings in boys. Boys with higher ponderal index at birth were more frequently assigned to the hyperlordotic pattern (OR=1.44 per SD; p=0.043). Conclusions Our findings support a prospective sculpting role of body size and therefore of load on musculoskeletal spinopelvic structures, with stronger associations as children get older. PMID:28751482

  13. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Jonathan M; Thomson, W Murray; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Moffitt, Terrie E; Zeng, Jiaxu; Foster Page, Lyndie A; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between community water fluoridation (CWF) and IQ. Methods. We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 30, 1973 (95.4% retention of cohort after 38 years of prospective follow-up). Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.5-milligram fluoride tablets were assessed in early life (prior to age 5 years); we assessed IQ repeatedly between ages 7 to 13 years and at age 38 years. Results. No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight (as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes). Conclusions. These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status.

  14. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Zeng, Jiaxu; Foster Page, Lyndie A.; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between community water fluoridation (CWF) and IQ. Methods. We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 30, 1973 (95.4% retention of cohort after 38 years of prospective follow-up). Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.5-milligram fluoride tablets were assessed in early life (prior to age 5 years); we assessed IQ repeatedly between ages 7 to 13 years and at age 38 years. Results. No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight (as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes). Conclusions. These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status. PMID:24832151

  15. Television Video Games in the Treatment of Amblyopia in Children Aged 4-7 Years.

    PubMed

    Dadeya, Subhash; Dangda, Sonal

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the role of television video games in childhood amblyopia treatment. This prospective, randomized, interventional study included 40 patients between 4-7 years of age, with unilateral amblyopia (visual acuity in amblyopic eye between 1-0.6 LogMAR equivalents) attending the squint clinic at a tertiary eye hospital. All patients were prescribed optimal spectacle correction and occlusion therapy, i.e. full time patching according to patient's age, was initiated after six weeks.; full-time patching according to patient's age was initiated after 6 weeks. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 20 each. Patients in the first group, Group A (control), were prescribed patching alone. Patients in the second group, Group B (study), were made to play action video games, with the help of a commercial television set, along with patching. They attended 12 half-hour sessions each, at weekly intervals. Follow-up assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (both distance and near) and stereoacuity measurements at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks. The mean age of patients was 6.03 ± 1.14 years. The distance BCVA in the amblyopic eye showed a significant improvement at final follow-up (12 weeks) in both groups: from 0.84 ± 0.19 to 0.55 ± 0.21 LogMAReq in Group A and 0.89 ± 0.16 to 0.46 ± 0.22 LogMAReq in Group B. However, improvement in BCVA was significantly better in group B at all visits (P=0.002, 12 weeks). The study group also had a significantly better outcome in terms near visual acuity improvement (P = 0.006, 12 weeks). There was also greater stereoacuity improvement in group B, with 7 patients improving to 100 secs of arc or better. Video games supplemental to occlusion may be considered favorable for visual development in amblyopic children, and the study encourages further research on this subject.

  16. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis– A Prospective Study of the Underlying Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Surya Narayana; Belle, Jayaprakash; Rau, N.R; Shetty, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare muscular disorder characterised by episodic weakness associated with hypokalaemia. The disease can either be inherited or acquired and misdiagnosis of the disease is quite common. Most of the data available on the disease is from the western world. Studies reporting aetiological, clinical and metabolic profiles of Indian population are sparse. Hence we tried to provide insights of the disease among the Indian population. Aim To study the aetiological, clinical and metabolic profile of patients diagnosed with Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP). Materials and Methods This is an observational and analytical study on HPP diagnosed patients, during September 2011 to September 2014 in Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. A total of 23 patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical evaluation and metabolic workup for secondary causes of HPP were analysed. Results Of the 23 patients, 57% had primary HPP while 43% had secondary HPP. The group of patients with primary HPP comprised of 92% males and 8% females with mean age of 28 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 18 hours. The group with secondary HPP comprised of 70% males and 30% females with mean age of 38.7 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 60 hours. The secondary causes of HPP were thyrotoxicosis (50%), infective diarrhea (20%), Crohn’s disease (10%), renal tubular acidosis (RTA) Type I (10%) and Conn’s syndrome (10%). Conclusion In our study primary HPP was found to be more common than secondary HPP. Males were predominantly affected in both groups. HPP should be ruled out before starting therapy for Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). PMID:26500936

  17. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a district general hospital: increased success over 7 years.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R D; Waites, J H; Hubbard, W N; Wicks, M

    1990-01-01

    In a 12-month prospective survey of CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation), 32 out of 192 patients (16.6%) survived to go home. This is a clear improvement compared with 7 years previously. This is attributed to better training in the use and management of CPR and more widespread availability of defibrillators. Certain patients could not be resuscitated--those with electromechanical dissociation, carcinoma, or multiple pathology. Age by itself was not a bar to resuscitation. There is still a high rate of inappropriate calls, often because of uncertainty by nurses about the use of CPR. This could be improved with clearer guidelines in hospitals about the value of CPR in selected patients. PMID:2152462

  18. Causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, W.; Meng, X.

    2000-01-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients (mean (SD) 46 (11) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism and anorexia and 29 patients (35 (9) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism without anorexia were studied. The study was conducted at the thyroid clinic of the PUMC Hospital, Beijing, China from March to August 1997. The patients' ages, serum free calcium, liver function and emotional state, specifically the level of anxiety (using the self anxiety scale, Chinese version), were compared before and/or after antithyroid drug treatment in the two groups. This prospective study suggested that the causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism are complicated. Older age, abnormal liver function, and the level of anxiety are significantly related to anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism, but hypercalcaemia was not confirmed to be related to anorexia in the study.


Keywords: hypercalcaemia; hyperthyroidism; anorexia; anxiety PMID:10775283

  19. Stress and dysmenorrhoea: a population based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Wang, X; Wang, W; Chen, C; Ronnennberg, A; Guang, W; Huang, A; Fang, Z; Zang, T; Wang, L; Xu, X

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhoea is the most common gynaecological disorder in women of reproductive age. Despite the association between stress and pregnancy outcomes, few studies have examined the possible link between stress and dysmenorrhoea. Aims and Methods: Using a population based cohort of Chinese women, the independent effect of women's perceived stress in the preceding menstrual cycle on the incidence of dysmenorrhoea in the subsequent cycle was investigated prospectively. The analysis included 1160 prospectively observed menstrual cycles from 388 healthy, nulliparous, newly married women who intended to conceive. The perception of stress and the occurrence of dysmenorrhoea in each menstrual cycle were determined from daily diaries recorded by the women. Results: After adjustment for important covariates, the risk of dysmenorrhoea was more than twice as great among women with high stress compared to those with low stress in the preceding cycle (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3). The risk of dysmenorrhoea was greatest among women with both high stress and a history of dysmenorrhoea compared to women with low stress and no history of dysmenorrhoea (OR = 10.4, 95% CI 4.9 to 22.3). Stress in the follicular phase of the preceding cycles had a stronger association with dysmenorrhoea than stress in the luteal phase of the preceding cycles. Conclusion: This study shows a significant association between stress and the incidence of dysmenorrhoea, which is even stronger among women with a history of dysmenorrhoea. PMID:15550609

  20. Colonic atresia in cattle: A prospective study of 43 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Norm G.; Arighi, Mimi; Horney, F. Don; Barker, Ian K.; Livesey, Michael A.; Hurtig, Mark H.; Johnson, Roger P.

    1988-01-01

    This prospective study was initiated to document the success rate obtained in the treatment of colonic atresia in calves, identify factors that influence survival rate, and to report the histopathological appearance of the proximal blind end of the ascending colon. Forty-three calves with intestinal obstruction due to colonic atresia were admitted to the Ontario Veterinary College between September 1982 and May 1986. Parameters recorded prospectively in this study included age, breed, sex, history, vital signs, acid-base and electrolyte status, location of intestinal atresia, medical and surgical management, and outcome. The typical history and clinical signs included failure to pass meconium or feces, decreased appetite, and progressive depression and abdominal distension. The most common site of colonic atresia was the midportion of the spiral loop of the ascending colon (n = 25). Of the 43 calves, three (7%) were euthanized at surgery, 21 (49%) died in the hospital, and 19 (44%) survived and were discharged from the hospital. Four of the surviving calves died subsequent to discharge giving an overall long-term (mean 15.9 months) survival rate of 35%. No significant risk factors were identified, although experienced surgeons showed a trend towards increased survival rate. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423141

  1. Prospective study of phobic anxiety and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Chen, Honglei; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ascherio, Alberto

    2003-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the risk of PD among people with anxiety has not been examined in a prospective cohort study. We examined this relation prospectively within the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a cohort of US male health professionals. In 1988, anxiety was assessed using the Crown-Crisp phobic anxiety index in 35,815 men without PD, stroke, or cancer at baseline. There were 189 incident cases of PD during 12 years of follow-up. After adjusting for age, smoking, and caffeine intake, the relative risk of PD among men with the highest level of anxiety (Crown-Crisp index scores of 4 and above) was 1.5 (95% CI = 1.0-2.1; P-trend = 0.01) compared to men with the lowest level of anxiety. This positive association persisted after excluding cases of PD with onset in the first 2 years of follow-up. Use of anxiolytic medication was also associated with an elevated risk of PD (RR= 1.6; 95% CI = 0.9-3.1), but adjusting for this potential confounder did not materially affect the association between anxiety and risk of PD. Our results suggest that anxiety is a risk factor for PD. Whether this association is causal or the result of shared underlying biology remains a question. Copyright 2003 Movement Disorder Society

  2. Post-marketing surveillance of CustomBone Service implanted in children under 7 years old.

    PubMed

    Frassanito, Paolo; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Massimi, Luca; Di Rocco, Concezio; Nataloni, Angelo; Fabbri, Greta; Caldarelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The CustomBone Service is a bioceramic implant suitable for cranial repair in both adults and children, although there are no clinical data about its use in children under 7 years of age. This surveillance study investigates the outcome in this age group. Twenty-eight children under 7 years old (range, 2.5-6 years) received CustomBone Service from July 2006 to May 2013 in 16 international hospitals. Data of 23 children (12 males and 11 females), harboring 24 prosthesis, were available with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Sites of the cranial defect were frontal or parietal (20.8 % each), parieto-temporal (16.7 %), fronto-parietal or occipital (12.5 % each), fronto-parieto-temporal or fronto-temporal (8.3 % each). Initial diseases were trauma (54.2 %), malformation (37.5 %), or tumor of the bone/skin (8.3 %). Rupture of the implant occurred in a single case during the implant (1/26 surgeries, 3.8 %) and the cranial repair was achieved by means of the back-up prosthesis. Five adverse events were registered during the follow-up period consisting of three cases of fracture and two of exposure/infection of the prosthesis. All cases required the removal of the device (20.8 %). The failure rate of CustomBone Service under 7 years of age was higher than reported in adults and children over 7 years old (20.8 vs. 3.8 %), However, CustomBone Service may be considered a valid option under 7 years old since other materials are burdened by more significant rates of complications in the long-term period. Due to specific properties of this material, indication to CustomBone Service in toddlers should be carefully evaluated by the surgeon on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Occipital Nerve Stimulation for Refractory Chronic Migraine: Results of a Long-Term Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Dolores; Acin, Pilar; Bermejo, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Refractory chronic migraine affects approximately 4% of the population worldwide and results in severe pain, lifestyle limitations, and decreased quality of life. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) refers to the electric stimulation of the distal branches of greater and lesser occipital nerves; the surgical technique has previously been described and has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of a wide variety of headache disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of ONS for medically intractable chronic migraine. Prospective, long-term, open-label, uncontrolled observational study. Single public university hospital. Patients who met the International Headache Society criteria for chronic migraine, all of them having been previously treated with other therapeutic alternatives, and who met all inclusion and exclusion criteria for neurostimulation, received the implantation of an ONS system after a positive psychological evaluation and a positive response to a preliminary occipital nerve blockage. The implantation was performed in 2 phases: a 10 day trial with implanted occipital leads connected to an external stimulator and, if more than 50% pain relief was obtained, permanent pulse generator implantation and connection to the previously implanted leads. After the surgery, the patients were thoroughly evaluated annually using different scales: pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), number of migraine attacks per month, sleep quality, functionality in social and labor activities, reduction in pain medication, patient satisfaction, tolerability, and reasons for termination. The average follow-up time was 9.4 ± 6.1 years, and 31 patients completed a 7-year follow-up period. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled and classified according to the location and quality of their pain, accompanying symptoms, work status, and psychological effects. Substantial pain reduction was obtained in most patients, and the VAS decreased by 4.9 ± 2

  4. [Prospect of application of molecular phylogeography in study of geoherbs].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingjun; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Lanping; Shao, Aijuan

    2009-08-01

    This paper firstly introduces the concept, method and current research of molecular phylogeography and then discusses its application in the study of geoherbs. The relativity between three genetic differentiation patterns of plant inferred by molecular phylogeography (i.e. allopatric fragmentation, restricted gene flow with isolation by distance and range expansion) and the formation of genuine character is analysed. Molecular authentication of geoherbs based on molecular phylogeography has the advantage of former molecular identification at technology and knowing genetic differentiation of geoherbs. Using molecular phylogeography for study on changing history of geoherbs habitat is also explicated. The problem of germplasm degeneration in cultural geoherbs could be effectively resolved by molecular phylogeography method. The application of molecular phylogeography in these subjects opens up prospects for study on geoherbs by using the principle and method of molecular phylogeography.

  5. Hypnosis and dental anesthesia in children: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Huet, Adeline; Lucas-Polomeni, Marie-Madeleine; Robert, Jean-Claude; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Wodey, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this prospective study initially hypothesized that hypnosis would lower the anxiety and pain associated with dental anesthesia. Thirty children aged 5 to 12 were randomly assigned to 2 groups receiving hypnosis (H) or not (NH) at the time of anesthesia. Anxiety was assessed at inclusion in the study, initial consultation, installation in the dentist's chair, and at the time of anesthesia using the modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale (mYPAS). Following anesthesia, a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a modified objective pain score (mOPS) were used to assess the pain experienced. The median mYPAS and mOPS scores were significantly lower in the H group than in the NH group. Significantly more children in the H group had no or mild pain. This study suggests that hypnosis may be effective in reducing anxiety and pain in children receiving dental anesthesia.

  6. A prospective study of occupation and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Zeegers, Maurice P A; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2004-03-01

    A wide variety of occupations has been associated with prostate cancer in previous retrospective studies. Most attention has been paid to farming, metal working, and the rubber industry. Today, these results cannot be affirmed with confidence, because many associations could be influenced by recall bias, have been inconsistent, or have not been confirmed satisfactory in subsequent studies. This study was conducted to investigate and confirm these important associations in a large prospective cohort study. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study among 58,279 men. In September 1986, the cohort members (55-69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Related job codes were clustered in professional groups. These predefined clusters were investigated in 3 time windows: 1) profession ever performed, 2) longest profession ever held, and 3) last profession held at baseline. Follow up for incident prostate cancer was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1993. A case-cohort approach was used based on 830 cases and 1525 subcohort members. To minimize false-positive results, 99% confidence intervals (99% CI) were calculated. Although moderately decreased prostate cancer risks were found for electricians, farmers, firefighters, woodworkers, textile workers, butchers, salesmen, teachers, and clerical workers, none of the relative risks (RR) were found to be statistically significant. For road transporters, metal workers, and managers, no association with prostate cancer risk was found. Although the RR for railway workers, mechanics, welders, chemists, painters, and cooks was moderately increased, these estimates were not statistically significant. For men who reported to have ever worked in the rubber industry, we found a substantially increased prostate cancer risk, but not statistically significant (RR, 4.18; 99% CI = 0.22-80.45). For policemen, we found a substantial and

  7. Bone density in proton pump inhibitors users: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ozdil, Kamil; Kahraman, Resul; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Calhan, Turan; Gozden, Erdem H; Akyuz, Umit; Erer, Burak; Sokmen, Mehmet H

    2013-09-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) receive long-term therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) agents. Several studies have recently been published suggesting that treatment with PPI may cause bone fractures, although the number of prospective studies in this regard is limited. The aim of this study is to prospectively investigate the effect of PPIs on bone density. Between March 2009 and January 2011, 114 GERD patients (18-56 years) and 110 healthy controls were included in the present study. Bone mineral densitometry (BMD) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was assessed at lumbar spine and femur neck. BMD measurements were performed on all subjects at the beginning of the study. The patients were divided according to three drugs by their treatment with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, or pantoprazole. The study group was followed for at least 6 months on PPI therapy, and then BMD measurements were repeated. The mean duration of treatment with PPIs was 8.5 ± 2.3 months. In patients receiving PPIs, the mean reduction in total vertebra T score following treatment compared to pre-treatment values was 00.23 ± 0.42 units (95 % CI 0.15-0.30) (p < 0.01), while the mean reduction in the femur T score was 0.10 ± 0.40 units (95 % CI 0.03-0.18) (p = 0.03). Reduction following treatment in L4 and total vertebra T scores of lansoprazole group was significantly higher than of pantoprazole group (p = 0.04). Reduction in femur T score of esomeprazole group was higher than of lansoprazole group and pantroprazole group, but it is not statistically significant. Treatment with a PPI results in a significant reduction in bone density. Close monitoring is beneficial for patients who are to receive long-term treatment with PPI.

  8. A prospective study of bilateral inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, J. W.; Johnson, C. D.; Jarrett, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of outcome after inguinal hernia repair in patients undergoing simultaneous repair of bilateral hernias (n = 31), sequential repair of bilateral hernias (n = 5), and unilateral hernia repair (n = 75) is reported. There were no differences in wound complications, post-operative respiratory complications, or other adverse effects in the three groups. Operating time was similar in the unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs (median 55 min), but was longer (100 min) for the combination of two sequential repairs. Hospital stay was shortest for patients undergoing unilateral repair (2 days) but was less with bilateral simultaneous repair (4 days) than after two sequential repairs (total of 6 days). There were 12 (11%) wound complications of which five (5%) were infections. There was no difference in complication rate between unilateral and bilateral hernia repair. Postoperative recovery was assessed prospectively and was recorded at 1 month. There was no difference between unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs in the number of days before the patient was able to climb stairs easily, drive a car or return to work. The duration of the requirement for analgesia was similar in each group. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous hernia repair can be carried out with no greater morbidity than a unilateral repair, and the return to normal activity is as rapid. Bilateral hernias should be repaired simultaneously rather than sequentially. PMID:2221764

  9. Exposure to aripiprazole during embryogenesis: a prospective multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bellet, Florelle; Beyens, Marie-Noëlle; Bernard, Nathalie; Beghin, Delphine; Elefant, Elisabeth; Vial, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of major malformations after aripiprazole exposure during the embryonic period. The secondary purposes were to assess the risk of miscarriage, prematurity, fetal growth retardation and maternal complications and to describe possible neonatal adverse effects. We conducted a cohort study using data prospectively collected by the French Pharmacovigilance Centres participating to the Terappel program and the Centre de Référence sur les Agents Tératogènes between 2004 and 2011. The exposed group consisted of pregnant women exposed to aripiprazole during embryogenesis, and the unexposed group consisted of pregnant women without exposure or exposed to non-teratogenic agents. Two unexposed patients, matched for age and gestational age at call, were randomly selected for each exposed patient. Eighty-six patients were included in the exposed group and 172 in the unexposed group. Exposure to aripiprazole was not significantly associated with an increased rate of major malformations (OR 2.30, 95%CI 0.32-16.7) or miscarriage (1.66, 0.63-4.38) or gestational diabetes (1.15, 0.33-4.04) compared to non-exposure. The study revealed significantly increased rates of prematurity (OR 2.57, 95%CI 1.06-6.27) and fetal growth retardation (2.97, 1.23-7.16) in exposed newborns, difficult to interpret because of the short duration of maternal exposure. Two cases of neonatal complications were reported among the 19 newborns exposed to aripiprazole near delivery. This study failed to demonstrate a significant association between aripiprazole exposure during the embryonic period and major malformations. More powerful prospective studies are required to clarify the reproductive safety profile of aripiprazole. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Natural history of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the boxer dog: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Meurs, K M; Stern, J A; Reina-Doreste, Y; Spier, A W; Koplitz, S L; Baumwart, R D

    2014-01-01

    Boxer arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease that may result in sudden death or heart failure. To prospectively study the natural history of Boxer ARVC. 72 dogs (49 ARVC, 23 controls). Boxers >1 year of age were recruited for annual reevaluation. CONTROLS were defined as being ≥6 years of age and having <50 ventricular premature complex (VPCs)/24 h. ARVC was defined as ≥300 VPCs/24 h in the absence of other disease. Dogs were genotyped for the striatin deletion when possible. Descriptive statistics were determined for age; VPC number; annual change in VPC number; and left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic dimensions. Survival time was calculated. median age of 7 years (range, 6-10); number of VPCs 12 (range, 4-32). Median time in study of 6 years (range, 2-9). Seventeen of 23 were genotyped (5 positive, 12 negative). ARVC: median age of diagnosis of 6 (range, 1-11). Median time in study 5 years (range, 3-8). A total of 33% were syncopal and 43/49 were genotyped (36 positive, 7 negative). Yearly change in VPCs was 46 (range, -7,699 to 33,524). Annual percentage change in LV dimensions was 0, and change in fractional shortening (FS%) was 2%. Two dogs had FS% <20%. Although ARVC dogs died suddenly, there was no difference in survival time between groups. ARVC median age of survival was 11 years, and for controls was 10 years. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a disease of middle age and frequently is associated with the striatin deletion. Syncope occurs in approximately 1/3 of affected dogs; systolic dysfunction is uncommon. The prognosis in many affected dogs is good. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. The burden among family caregivers of elderly cancer patients: prospective study in a Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Lkhoyaali, Sihame; El Haj, Meryem Ait; El Omrani, Fadwa; Layachi, Mohammed; Ismaili, Nabil; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-08-13

    In Morocco, families play a major role in caring for elderly cancer patients. We conducted a prospective descriptive study, in the National Institute of Oncology in Morocco. The study aimed to include family members who are caregivers for patients aged ≥70 years old. After obtaining IRB approval, a total of 150 caregivers responded to the questionnaire. Mean age was 44.7 years. The majority were females (59.3%), living in urban areas (66.7%), and educated (62.7%).Offspring (sons or daughters) represented 56.7, 54% lived with their relatives in the same house. Most of the participants were married and have familial responsibilities. In relatives, anxiety was found in 79.3%, it was related to fear of losing the patient in 57% and resulted in the use of anxiolytics in 10%. Guilt feeling towards patients regarding neglecting their early symptoms was reported in 38%. Depression and anxiety were more frequent among female relatives and among those of urban origin. Obsession of dying from cancer was present in about 30% and fear of contagion was more common among those from rural areas and illiterate. Economic resources were exceeded in 78.7 and 56% have used banking credits, and sale of properties. Work lay-off was recorded in 54%. Relatives participated in treatment making decisions in 86% of patients. Even there was a great impact on elderly cancerous patients relatives, the benefits of caregiving was observed in 80%. More studies have to be conducted, especially in developing countries where the lack of resources majors the impact on family caregivers.

  12. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks.

  13. Blue filter amblyopia treatment protocol for strabismic amblyopia: a prospective comparative study of 50 cases.

    PubMed

    Metzler, U; Ham, O; Flores, V; Claramunt, M; Sepulveda, C; Casanova, D

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of monochromatic visual evoked potentials confirm the strong suppression of (the cortical representation of) paracentral retinal areas of functionally amblyopic eyes, by a flat response to a blue stimulus. A clinical trial stimulating these areas with blue light was encouraging, and justified a prospective comparison of this treatment with conventional classic treatment. In 50 strabismic children with amblyopia, the blue filter treatment protocol (flash stimulation with, and the wearing of, a blue filter during occlusion of the better eye for one hour daily) was compared with the classical treatment (full time total occlusion by patch) in a prospective matched and randomized study. Patients 3 to 7 years old without previous treatment and a visual acuity up to 0.3 were admitted to the study. Visual acuity and fixation behavior were used as the parameters of comparison. Visual Evoked Potentials by monochromatic flashes were also studied. Results of treatment were compared after 6 months. The visual acuity outcome for the blue filter treatment was "statistically significantly" better (p=0.005). The greatest improvement was seen in the subgroup of children with eccentric fixation (p=0.01). Fixation behavior also showed a better outcome from the blue filter treatment (p=0.05) favoring especially children between 3 and 5 years. In children of this age with a visual acuity better than 0.1 we found a very "statistically significant" difference between the two treatments (p=0.004). In children 3 to 5 years old with poorer visual acuity we also found a "statistically significant" difference in the two treatments (p=0.04). The interocular difference of amplitude on the Visual Evoked Potentials also demonstrated more improvement in children treated with the blue filter. This treatment improved especially the cortical response to blue flash stimulation, correlating to paracentral retinal areas. The blue filter treatment protocol provided better results for

  14. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  15. Serum creatinine and prostate cancer risk in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stephanie J; Mackrain, Katrina; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Selhub, Jacob; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-10-01

    Several studies have examined serum creatinine as a marker for prostate cancer stage, recurrence, and prognosis. We evaluated whether serum creatinine concentration was associated with risk of developing prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of male smokers. A nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of 50- to 69-year-old Finnish men was conducted. Two controls (n = 464) were matched to each case (n = 232) on study center, intervention group, date of baseline blood draw (+/-45 days), and age (+/-5 years). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. All P values were two-sided. Cases had significantly higher prediagnostic serum creatinine concentrations compared with controls (medians of 1.13 versus 1.10 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.004). Serum creatinine was associated with a significantly greater risk of prostate cancer (multivariate odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-3.75 for highest versus lowest quartile), with a significant trend (P trend = 0.0008). Exclusion of subjects with a reported history of diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or hypertension, or whose cancer was diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up, did not alter the association. Risk did not differ by disease stage or time from blood draw to diagnosis. Prospectively measured serum creatinine, within normal ranges, is positively related to prostate cancer risk. Future research should reexamine the association in other populations, including any interrelationship with serum prostate-specific antigen.

  16. Prospective study comparing laparoscopic and open adenomectomy: Surgical and functional results.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segui, A; Angulo, J C

    Open adenomectomy (OA) is the surgery of choice for large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia, and laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) represents a minimally invasive alternative. We present a long-term, prospective study comparing both techniques. The study consecutively included 199 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate volumes>80g who were followed for more than 12 months. The patients underwent OA (n=97) or LA (n=102). We recorded and compared demographic and perioperative data, functional results and complications using a descriptive statistical analysis. The mean age was 69.2±7.7 years (range 42-87), and the mean prostate volume (measured by TRUS) was 112.1±32.7mL (range 78-260). There were no baseline differences among the groups in terms of age, ASA scale, prostate volume, PSA levels, Qmax, IPSS, QoL or treatments prior to the surgery. The surgical time (P<.0001) and catheter time (P<.0002) were longer in the LA group. Operative bleeding (P<.0001), transfusion rate (P=.0015) and mean stay (P<.0001) were significantly lower in the LA group. The LA group had a lower rate of complications (P=.04), but there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of major complications (Clavien score≥3) (P=.13) or in the rate of late complications (at one year) (P=.66). There were also no differences between the groups in the functional postoperative results: IPSS (P=.17), QoL (P=.3) and Qmax (P=.17). LA is a reasonable, safe and effective alternative that results in less bleeding, fewer transfusions, shorter hospital stays and lower morbidity than OA. LA has similar functional results to OA, at the expense of longer surgical times and longer catheter times. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Periodontal disease and breast cancer: Prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Freudenheim, Jo L; Genco, Robert J; LaMonte, Michael J; Millen, Amy E; Hovey, Kathleen M; Mai, Xiaodan; Nwizu, Ngozi; Andrews, Christopher A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease (PD) has been consistently associated with chronic disease; there are no large studies of breast cancer although oral-associated microbes are present in breast tumors. Methods In the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, 73,737 women without previous breast cancer were followed. Incident, primary, invasive breast tumors were verified by physician adjudication. PD was by self-report. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards, adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. Because the oral microbiome of those with PD differs with smoking status, we examined associations stratified by smoking. Results 2,124 incident, invasive breast cancer cases were identified after mean follow-up of 6.7 years. PD, reported by 26.1% of women, was associated with increased breast cancer risk (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26), particularly among former smokers who quit within 20 years (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77). Among current smokers, the trend was similar (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.83 to 2.11); there were few cases (n=74) and the CI included the null. The population attributable fraction was 12.06% (95% CI 1.12 to 21.79) and 10.90% (95% CI 10.31 to 28.94) for PD among former smokers quitting within 20 years and current smokers, respectively. Conclusion PD, a common chronic inflammatory disorder, was associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, particularly among former smokers who quit in the past 20 years. Impact Understanding a possible role of the oral microbiome in breast carcinogenesis could impact prevention. PMID:26689418

  18. Body mass index and risk of Parkinson's disease: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Sesso, Howard D; Paffenbarger, Ralph S; Lee, I-Min

    2007-11-15

    High body mass index has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, and, recently, Alzheimer's disease. There are few data on the association of body mass index with Parkinson's disease, and results have been inconsistent. The authors conducted a prospective study among 10,812 men in the Harvard Alumni Health Study, followed from 1988 to 1998 (mean age at baseline: 67.7 years), to test the hypothesis that body mass index is associated with Parkinson's disease risk. Among 106 incident cases of Parkinson's disease, body mass index at baseline was not associated with Parkinson's disease risk (for body mass index <22.5, 22.5-<24.9, and > or =25.0 kg/m2: multivariate relative risks = 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 2.40), 1.00 (referent), and 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.41)). The authors had information on body mass index during late adolescence, when men entered college; this was unrelated to Parkinson's disease risk as well. Subjects who lost at least 0.5 units of body mass index per decade between college entry and 1988 had a significantly increased Parkinson's disease risk, compared with men having stable body mass index (multivariate relative risk = 2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 6.10). The authors conclude that body mass index is unrelated to Parkinson's disease risk and speculate that the observation of increased risk with body mass index loss since late adolescence may reflect weight loss due to Parkinson's disease that preceded clinical diagnosis.

  19. Opium use and risk of mortality from digestive diseases: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Masoud M; Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Poustchi, Hossein; Bagheri, Mohammad; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-11-01

    Opium use, particularly in low doses, is a common practice among adults in northeastern Iran. We aimed to investigate the association between opium use and subsequent mortality from disorders of the digestive tract. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled during a 4-year period (2004-2008) and followed annually until December 2012, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. In all, 8,487 (17%) participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 474 deaths from digestive diseases were reported (387 due to gastrointestinal cancers and 87 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any digestive disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-1.93). The association was dose dependent, with a HR of 2.21 (1.57-3.31) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. no use (Ptrend=0.037). The HRs (95% CI) for the associations between opium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of digestive mortality were 1.38 (1.07-1.76) and 2.60 (1.57-4.31), respectively. Increased risks were seen both for smoking opium and for ingestion of opium. Long-term opium use, even in low doses, is associated with increased risk of death from both malignant and nonmalignant digestive diseases.

  20. Can semiology predict psychogenic nonepileptic seizures? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Syed, Tanvir U; LaFrance, W Curt; Kahriman, Emine S; Hasan, Saba N; Rajasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Gulati, Deepak; Borad, Samip; Shahid, Asim; Fernandez-Baca, Guadalupe; Garcia, Naiara; Pawlowski, Matthias; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Amina, Shahram; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2011-06-01

    Reducing health and economic burdens from diagnostic delay of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) requires prompt referral for video electroencephalography (VEEG) monitoring, the diagnostic gold standard. Practitioners make VEEG referrals when semiology suggests PNES, although few semiological signs are supported by well-designed studies, and most VEEG studies neglect to concurrently measure how accurately seizure witnesses can ascertain semiology. In this study, we estimate the value of eyewitness-reported and video-documented semiology for predicting PNES, and we measure accuracy of eyewitness reports. We prospectively interviewed eyewitnesses of seizures in patients referred for VEEG monitoring, to inquire about 48 putative PNES and ES signs. Multiple, EEG-blinded, epileptologists independently evaluated seizure videos and documented the presence/absence of signs. We used generalized estimating equations to identify reliable video-documented PNES and ES signs, and we compared eyewitness reports with video findings to assess how accurately signs are reported. We used logistic regression to determine whether eyewitness reports could predict VEEG-ascertained seizure type. We analyzed 120 seizures (36 PNES, 84 ES) from 35 consecutive subjects. Of 45 video-documented signs, only 3 PNES signs ("preserved awareness," "eye flutter," and "bystanders can intensify or alleviate") and 3 ES signs ("abrupt onset," "eye-opening/widening," and postictal "confusion/sleep") were significant and reliable indicators of seizure type. Eyewitness reports of these 6 signs were inaccurate and not statistically different from guessing. Consequentially, eyewitness reports of signs did not predict VEEG-ascertained diagnosis. We validated our findings in a second, prospective cohort of 36 consecutive subjects. We identified 6 semiological signs that reliably distinguish PNES and ES, and found that eyewitness reports of these signs are unreliable. We offer suggestions to improve the

  1. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years.

    PubMed

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) proposed the Triple Aim, strategic organizing principles for health care organizations and geographic communities that seek, simultaneously, to improve the individual experience of care and the health of populations and to reduce the per capita costs of care for populations. In 2010, the Triple Aim became part of the US national strategy for tackling health care issues, especially in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Since that time, IHI and others have worked together to determine how the implementation of the Triple Aim has progressed. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on this endeavor: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously "improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations." IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and

  2. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  3. An up to 7-Year Retrospective Analysis of Biologic and Technical Complication With the All-on-4 Concept.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Marco; Canullo, Luigi; Pisano, Milena; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Meloni, Silvio Mario

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively biologic and technical complications as well as clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients treated with 4 implants according to the All-on-4 protocol and followed up to 7 years of function. Data from 56 consecutive patients presenting complete edentulous jaw, aged 18 years or older, treated between January 2008 and December 2013, were evaluated. The outcomes were implant and prosthetic survival and success rates, any complications, and marginal bone loss (MBL). Two-hundred twenty-four implants were placed in 56 patients. During the entire follow-up, 1 maxillary implant but no prosthesis failed during the healing process. Fourteen patients experienced 1 complication each (10 technical, 4 biologic). The overall implant and prosthetic success rate was 98.2% and 82.1%, respectively. All complications were considered as minor and successfully resolved chairside. A mean MBL of 1.30 ± 0.63 mm was observed at the last follow-up. Statistically significant difference was found for postextractive implants (0.79 ± 0.26) vs implants placed in healed sites (1.03 ± 0.46; P = 0.024). Within the limits of the present study, the All-on-4 concept may be a valuable surgical and prosthetic option for the treatment of complete edentulous jaws. However, minor technical and biologic complications can occur. Further long-term prospective data with primary outcomes focused on success rates are needed.

  4. Functional outcomes at age 7 years of moderate preterm and full term children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Jozien C; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    2015-03-01

    To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project study, a community-based, prospective cohort study of 336 AGA and 42 SGA born children (median gestational age 35 weeks, range 31-41). Of the SGA children, 32 were moderately preterm, 10 were full term; of the AGA, these numbers were 216 and 120, respectively. At 6.9 years, we assessed intelligence, verbal memory, attention, visuomotor integration, and motor skills and we collected the parent-reported executive functioning. We compared the outcomes of the SGA children with those of their AGA peers. The performance of SGA children was similar to that of their AGA peers, except for attention control which was abnormal more often in SGA children (OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.32-12.12). The IQ of SGA children was 3 points lower, but this difference failed to reach significance. At school age, children born SGA have a greater risk of abnormal test scores on attention control than children born AGA, independent of gestational age. Their motor and many other cognitive functions are similar. The impact of these outcomes seems limited. Nevertheless, the consequences for school performance deserve attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Study and prospects for clinical diseases treated with scraping therapy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-ying; Yang, Jin-sheng

    2009-02-01

    In order to explore characteristics of clinical diseases treated by scraping therapy, summarize laws of clinical application of scraping therapy, and prospect for research direction of scraping therapy in future, collect 437 articles about scraping therapy between 1994-2007 and analyze and summarize the treated diseases and methods of scraping therapy. Results indicate that scraping therapy has been widely applied to commonly encountered diseases and frequently encountered diseases in departments of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology and pediatrics, etc. with more obvious therapeutic effects. Clinically, it can combine with acupuncture and moxibustion, cupping, massage, blood-letting puncture and other methods. In future, the studies on standardization of manipulation and standards for assessment of therapeutic effect, suitable diseases and the mechanisms of scraping therapy, and development of tools and media, etc. of scraping therapy should be strengthened.

  6. Voice therapy in pediatric functional dysphonia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Trani, Margherita; Ghidini, Angelo; Bergamini, Giuseppe; Presutti, Livio

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of voice therapy according to Borragan's method associated to S. Magnani's vocal counselling in functional dysphonia in children. We prospectively treated 16 patients with vocal fold nodules (10 males, 6 females). Age ranged from 6 to 11 years with a mean age of 9 years. We performed a full screening phoniatric evaluation. In addition psychological tests were carried out to investigate psychological background. We lost three patients at follow-up; one patient received surgery, eight patients healed (43.75%), four improved (25%). There was no statistical difference in the analysis of electroacoustical parameters while MPT significatively raised after therapy. If patients have motivation voice therapy could improve functional dysphonia in children. It is also important psychological background. Further studies on bigger populations with long-term follow-up are needed.

  7. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qinghao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes. PMID:27669268

  8. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qinghao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-09-22

    Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes.

  9. A prospective study of injury affecting competitive collegiate swimmers.

    PubMed

    Chase, Kristin I; Caine, Dennis J; Goodwin, Brett J; Whitehead, James R; Romanick, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence and distribution of injuries affecting collegiate competitive swimmers and to test possible injury risk factors. A prospective cohort design was used to follow 34 swimmers (16 M, 18 F) from an NCAA Division I Midwest University over one academic year. Exposure-based injury rates were determined for both practice and competition. Risk of injury was assessed relative to gender, years swimming, and history of injury. Twenty of 34 swimmers sustained 31 injuries with overall injury rates of 5.55 injuries per 1000 athlete exposures and 3.04 injuries per 1000 hours exposure. Practice injury rates for female swimmers were higher than for women's practice injury rates in other NCAA sports. The most common injury locations were the shoulder, back, and knee. Risk factors that remained significant in the multivariate analysis were history of injury to the same anatomical location and history of injury at other anatomical sites.

  10. Palliative Care Caregivers' Grief Mediators: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra M; Delalibera, Mayra A; Barbosa, António

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the mediators of complicated grief in a Portuguese sample of caregivers. Grief mediators were prospectively evaluated using a list of risk factors completed by the palliative care team members, during the predeath and bereavement period. More than 6 months after the death, we applied PG-13 to diagnose prolonged grief disorder (PGD). The sample was composed of 64 family caregivers. Factors associated with PGD were insecure and dependent relationship, unresolved family crisis, and the perceived deterioration and disfigurement of the patient. The results show relational factors are relevant, but we must consider the reciprocal influence among factors, as well as their impact on specific symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Transformational leadership and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between transformational leadership and depressive symptoms in employees working within healthcare. 447 employees completed a baseline survey and 274 completed a follow-up survey 18 months later. 188 completed both baseline and follow-up survey. Transformational leadership was measured using the Global Transformational Leadership Scale and depression was measured using with the Major Depression Inventory. Transformational leadership was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at baseline (beta=-0.31, p<.01, 8% variance) follow-up (beta=- 0.25, p<.01, 3% variance) and prospectively (beta=- 0.21, p<.05, 4% variance). Managers with a transformational leadership style may help toward protecting employees from developing major depression.

  12. Uniparental disomy in congenital disorders: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Lindor, N.M.; Karnes, P.S.; Michels, V.V.

    1995-08-28

    Whole chromosome uniparental disomy (UPD) for several different chromosomes has been described in individuals with phenotypes that encompass a broad range of abnormalities. We prospectively searched for UPD in 25 cytogenetically normal individuals who had one or more of the following features: nonsyndromic multiple congenital anomalies, short stature, mental retardation, or dysmorphic findings. Using highly polymorphic microsatellite repeats, biparental inheritance of at least one locus on every chromosome was found in every individual and uniparental inheritance was not detected at any locus. If UPD does exist in this clinical setting, its frequency is less than 13.7% (95% confidence interval). Our data indicate that additional studies will be required to determine the true incidence of UPD in this population. 41 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod K.; Schaller, Bernhard; Dash, Hari Hara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay) in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe. PMID:25191182

  14. Volleyball injuries presenting in casualty: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Solgård, L; Nielsen, A B; Møller-Madsen, B; Jacobsen, B W; Yde, J; Jensen, J

    1995-01-01

    During 1986, all sports injuries (n = 5222) were prospectively recorded at the two casualty departments in Arhus, Denmark. Volleyball injuries (n = 278) accounted for 5.3% of all sports injuries. An evaluation of the rehabilitation period and the consequences of the injuries was undertaken by questionnaire three years after the injury. The injury incidence was 1.9 injuries/1000 inhabitants/year. Hand, finger, and ankle sprains were the most frequent injuries. Female players had significantly more hand/finger injuries than male players, who incurred more ankle/foot injuries. Knee (6%) and ankle injuries (31%) were responsible for the longest duration of absence from sports participation. There were relatively few chronic injuries. The study suggests the need to enhance prophylactic measures with regard to blocking and overhand pass techniques, in order to reduce the number and extent of ankle and hand/finger injuries. PMID:8800857

  15. [Postoperative pain therapy in urology. A prospective study].

    PubMed

    Gronau, E; Pannek, J; Benninghoff, A; Seibold, W; Senge, T

    2002-05-01

    A sufficient analgesic treatment in the early postoperative period is important for the patients comfort level. Moreover, physical therapy for prophylaxis of pneumonia and thrombosis is better tolerated. In a prospective study, we compared two postoperative pain management regimens to establish a sufficient pain management without the need of additional costs or manpower. Of 215 patients undergoing major urologic surgery, 111 patients received on demand medication exclusively (group 1), whereas 104 patients were treated with basic analgesics combined with on demand medication (group 2). Pain intensity, side effects and subjective well being were evaluated with a visual analogue scale and a standardised interview. Pain intensity and side effects were significantly lower in group 2. Thus, with combined analgesic treatment, postoperative pain relieve can be achieved safely and without additional costs.

  16. Acute diabetes insipidus in severe head injury: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hadjizacharia, Pantelis; Beale, Elizabeth O; Inaba, Kenji; Chan, Linda S; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-10-01

    The incidence and risk factors for acute diabetes insipidus after severe head injury and the effect of this complication on outcomes have not been evaluated in any large prospective studies. We conducted a prospective study of all patients admitted to the surgical ICU of a Level I trauma center with severe head injury (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] >or= 3). The following potential risk factors with p < 0.2 on bivariate analysis were included in a stepwise logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for diabetes insipidus and its association with mortality: age, mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating), blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, head and other body area AIS, skull fracture, cerebral edema and shift, intracranial hemorrhage, and pneumocephaly. There were 436 patients (blunt injuries, 392; penetrating injuries, 44); 387 patients had isolated head injury. Diabetes insipidus occurred in 15.4% of all patients (blunt, 12.5%; penetrating, 40.9%; p < 0.0001) and in 14.7% of patients with isolated head injury (blunt, 11.8%; penetrating, 39.5%; p < 0.0001). The presence of major extracranial injuries did not influence the incidence of diabetes insipidus. Independent risk factors for diabetes insipidus in isolated head injury were Glasgow Coma Scale3. Diabetes insipidus was an independent risk factor for death (adjusted odds ratio, 3.96; 95% CI [1.65, 9.72]; adjusted p value = 0.002). The incidence of acute diabetes insipidus in severe head injury is high, especially in penetrating injuries. Independent risk factors for diabetes insipidus include a Glasgow Coma Scale3. Acute diabetes insipidus was associated with significantly increased mortality.

  17. Vaginal breech delivery: results of a prospective registration study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most countries recommend planned cesarean section in breech deliveries, which is considered safer than vaginal delivery. As one of few countries in the western world Norway has continued to practice planned vaginal delivery in selected women. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively registered neonatal and maternal outcomes in term singleton breech deliveries in a Norwegian hospital during a ten years period. We aim to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in term breech pregnancies subjected either to planned vaginal or elective cesarean section. Methods A prospective registration study including 568 women with term breech deliveries (>37 weeks) consecutively registered at Sorlandet Hospital Kristiansand between 2001 and 2011. Fetal and maternal outcomes were compared according to delivery method; planned vaginal delivery versus planned cesarean section. Results Of 568 women, elective cesarean section was planned in 279 (49%) cases and vaginal delivery was planned in 289 (51%) cases. Acute cesarean section was performed in 104 of the planned vaginal deliveries (36.3%). There were no neonatal deaths. Two cases of serious neonatal morbidity were reported in the planned vaginal group. One infant had seizures, brachial plexus injury, and cephalhematoma. The other infant had 5-minutes Apgar < 4. Twenty-nine in the planned vaginal group (10.0%) and eight in the planned cesarean section group (2.9%) (p < 0.001) were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. However, only one infant was admitted for ≥4 days. According to follow-up data (median six years) none of these infants had long-term sequelae. Regarding maternal morbidity, blood loss was the only variable that was significantly higher in the planned cesarean section group versus in the vaginal delivery group (p < 0.001). Conclusions Strict guidelines were followed in all cases. There were no neonatal deaths. Two infants had serious neonatal morbidity in the planned

  18. A Model of Microteaching Lesson Study Implementation in the Prospective History Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utami, Indah Wahyu Puji; Mashuri; Nafi'ah, Ulfatun

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching lesson study is a model to improve prospective teacher quality by incorporating several element of microteaching and lesson study. This study concern on the implementation of microteaching lesson study in prospective history teacher education. Microteaching lesson study model implemented in this study consist of three stages: plan,…

  19. Incidence of oral leucoplakias among 20,358 Indian villagers in a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Mehta, F S; Pindborg, J J; Bhonsle, R B; Sinor, P N

    1976-05-01

    A group of 20,358 villagers in two districts of India has been followed for 7 years to study the incidence of oral leucoplakia. The follow-up rate of the population in two districts ranged from 61% to 71%. In one of the districts (Bhavnagar) no new cases of leucoplakia were found among females in the 7-year period. Among males 105 cases developed (4-0/1000/year). The incidence was highest among hookli (clay pipe) smokers. In the Ernakulam district the incidence among males was 3-3/1000/year whereas among females it was 1-9/1000/year. The mixed habits group had the highest incidence of oral leucoplakias (7-2 and 9-9/1000/year among males and females respectively).

  20. Arthroscopic excision of acetabular osteoid osteoma in a 7-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Aşık, Mehmet; Erşen, Ali; Polat, Gökhan; Bilgili, Fuat; Tunalı, Onur

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the case report of a 7-year-old patient who was treated with hip arthroscopy for an acetabular osteoid osteoma. A 7-year-old patient was referred to our clinic with hip pain. In the assessment of the patient, an acetabular osteoid osteoma was detected in his right hip; it was adjacent to his triradiate cartilage. An arthroscopic surgery was planned as an alternative to open safe hip dislocation. The osteoid osteoma was completely removed with hip arthroscopy. Postoperative CT scanning and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Exposure of the acetabulum can be problematic in paediatric patients due to the potential risks of open safe dislocation. Hip arthroscopy can safely be used for benign hip lesions in paediatric patients. Level of evidence Case report, Level V.

  1. The psychological impact of traffic injuries sustained in a road crash by bicyclists: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Craig, A; Elbers, N A; Jagnoor, J; Gopinath, B; Kifley, A; Dinh, M; Pozzato, I; Ivers, R Q; Nicholas, M; Cameron, I D

    2017-04-03

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) in comparison to car occupants who also sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7 years) who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered health care practitioner. Injury included musculoskeletal and soft tissue injuries and minor/moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI), excluding severe TBI, spinal cord injury, and severe multiple fractures. Assessment also occurred 6 months postinjury. Telephone-administered interviews assessed a suite of measures including sociodemographic, preinjury health and injury factors. Psychological impact was measured by pain catastrophization, trauma-related distress, and general psychological distress. The psychological health of the cyclists was compared to that of the car occupants (n = 234; mean age 43.1 years). A mixed model repeated measures analysis, adjusted for confounding factors, was used to determine differences between groups and regression analyses were used to determine contributors to psychological health in the cyclists 6 months postinjury. Cyclists had significantly better psychological health (e.g., lower pain catastrophizing, lower rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], and lower general distress levels) compared to car occupants at baseline and 6 months postinjury. Factors predictive of cyclists' psychological distress included younger age, greater perceived danger of death, poorer preinjury health, and greater amount of time in hospital after the injury. These data provide insight into how cyclists perceive and adjust to their traffic injuries compared to drivers and passengers who sustain traffic injuries, as well as direction for

  2. Nonshaved cranial surgery in black Africans: technical report and a medium-term prospective outcome study.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Amos O

    2016-07-01

    Nonshaved neurosurgery, cranial or spinal, is well reported among Caucasians but hardly among native Africans. The ungroomed scalp hairs of black Africans have unique anthropological characteristics needing special attention for shaveless cranial surgery. A technical report of the execution of this surgical procedure among an indigenous patient population in a sub-Sahara African country is presented, as well as an outcome analysis in a prospective cohort over a 7-year period. A total of 303 patients (211 males, 70 %) fulfilled the criteria for this study. The surgical procedure was primary in 278 (92 %) and redo in 8 %. It was emergency surgery in 153 (51 %). They were trauma craniotomies or decompressive craniectomies in 95 cases (31 %), craniotomies for tumour resections in 86 (28 %), and the surgical dissections for other conditions in 122 (41 %). The duration of surgery ranged from 30 min to 8.5 h, mean 2.5 (SD, 1.6), median 2. In-hospital clinical outcome was good (normal status or moderate deficit on dichotomized Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)) in 273 (90.1 %) cases while surgical site infections occurred in only 10 cases (3.3 %). The type of surgery, redo or primary, did not have any significant association with the in-hospital outcome (p = 0.5), nor with the presence of surgical site infection (SSI) (p = 0.7). The length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 63 months (mean, 7) with no untoward complications reported so far. Medium-term outcome of nonshaved neurosurgery in this indigenous black Africans remains favourable with no attendant significant adverse after-effects.

  3. A prospective cohort study of stroke mortality and arsenic in drinking water in Bangladeshi adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic in drinking water causes increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and death from CAD, but its association with stroke is not known. Methods Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in well water at baseline. 61074 men and women aged 18 years or older on January 2003 were enrolled in 2003. The cohort was actively followed for an average of 7 years (421,754 person-years) through December 2010. Based on arsenic concentration the population was categorized in three groups and stroke mortality HR was compared to the referent. The risk of stroke mortality Hazard Ratio (HR) and 95% Confidence Interval was calculated in relation to arsenic exposure was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders. Results A total of 1033 people died from stroke during the follow-up period, accounting for 23% of the total deaths. Multivariable adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval) for stroke for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ≥50 μg/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.20 (0.92 to 1.57), and 1.35 (1.04 to 1.75) respectively (Ptrend=0.00058). For men, multivariable adjusted HRs (95%) for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ≥50 μg/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.12 (0.78 to 1.60), and 1.07 (0.75 to 1.51) respectively (Ptrend=0.45) and for women 1.0 (reference),1.31 (0.87 to 1.98), and 1.72 (1.15 to 2.57) respectively (Ptrend=0.00004). Conclusion The result suggests that arsenic exposure was associated with increased stroke mortality risk in this population, and was more significant in women compared to men. PMID:24548416

  4. A prospective, randomized study analyzing sartorius transposition following inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Judson, Patricia L; Jonson, Amy L; Paley, Pamela J; Bliss, Robin L; Murray, Karuna P; Downs, Levi S; Boente, Matthew P; Argenta, Peter A; Carson, Linda F

    2004-10-01

    Based on the reduced morbidity seen in our retrospective study, we undertook a prospective, randomized trial to determine whether transposition of the sartorius muscle improves post-operative morbidity in women with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva undergoing inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy. Patients with squamous carcinoma of the vulva requiring inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy were randomized to undergo sartorius transposition or not. All patients received perioperative antibiotics, DVT prophylaxis, and closed suction surgical site drainage. Outcomes assessed include wound cellulitis, wound breakdown, lymphocyst formation, lymphedema, and/or rehospitalization. Cohorts were compared using Fisher's exact test. Baseline characteristics were compared using Student's t test or Fischer's exact test as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of sartorius transposition, after adjusting for other factors. From June 1996 to December 2002, 61 patients underwent 99 inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomies, 28 with sartorius transposition, and 33 without. The mean (SD) age for controls and patients undergoing sartorius transposition was 63.5 (15.2) and 73.8 (13.7) years, respectively (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in BSA, tobacco use, co-morbid medical conditions, past surgical history, medication use, size of incision, duration of surgery, number of positive lymph nodes, pathologic stage, pathologic grade, pre- or postoperative hemoglobin, or length of hospitalization. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of wound cellulitis, wound breakdown, lymphedema, or rehospitalization. The incidence of lymphocyst formation was increased in the sartorius transposition group. After adjusting for age, however, the groups appeared similar. Sartorius transposition after inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy does not reduce postoperative wound morbidity.

  5. A prospective cohort study of stroke mortality and arsenic in drinking water in Bangladeshi adults.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Sohel, Nazmul; Yunus, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Hore, Samar Kumar; Zaman, Khalequ; Bhuiya, Abbas; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2014-02-18

    Arsenic in drinking water causes increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and death from CAD, but its association with stroke is not known. Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in well water at baseline. 61074 men and women aged 18 years or older on January 2003 were enrolled in 2003. The cohort was actively followed for an average of 7 years (421,754 person-years) through December 2010. Based on arsenic concentration the population was categorized in three groups and stroke mortality HR was compared to the referent. The risk of stroke mortality Hazard Ratio (HR) and 95% Confidence Interval was calculated in relation to arsenic exposure was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders. A total of 1033 people died from stroke during the follow-up period, accounting for 23% of the total deaths. Multivariable adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval) for stroke for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ≥50 μg/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.20 (0.92 to 1.57), and 1.35 (1.04 to 1.75) respectively (Ptrend=0.00058). For men, multivariable adjusted HRs (95%) for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ≥50 μg/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.12 (0.78 to 1.60), and 1.07 (0.75 to 1.51) respectively (Ptrend=0.45) and for women 1.0 (reference),1.31 (0.87 to 1.98), and 1.72 (1.15 to 2.57) respectively (Ptrend=0.00004). The result suggests that arsenic exposure was associated with increased stroke mortality risk in this population, and was more significant in women compared to men.

  6. [Sexuality and contraception: a prospective study of 85 cases].

    PubMed

    Mathlouthi, Nabil; Jarraya, Mouna; Bengharbi, Anissa; Dhouib, Mohamed; Chaabene, Kaies; Trabelsi, Khaled; Amouri, Habib; Ben Ayed, Belhassen; Guermazi, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    Contraception opposing procreation interferes with the primary purpose of sexuality. Few studies have yet been made on the actual interaction between contraception and sexuality. To study contraceptive practices ie non medicalized contraception and oral contraception, study aspects of women's sexuality and to study the physiological impact and psychological contraception on women's sexuality. Prospective and analytical study conducted over a period spanning from October 2008 to February 2009. This study was based on a survey, carried out through an oral questionnaire to 85 women in reproductive age, married, with contraceptive-based pill or natural birth control for at least one cycle, having experienced during their personal background a sexuality contraception or at least one contraceptive method other than its current average. Comparison between the group of women using oral contraception and women not using contraception medicalized showed significant differences in outcomes relating to: the average frequency of intercourse / month (p = 0.01), sexual desire ( p = 0.01), sexual pleasure (p = 0.03). The comparison of the different parameters of sexuality among the group of women using intra uterine device and women using oral contraceptives showed no significant differences in the parameters of sexuality. The awareness of the big importance of the interaction between sexuality and contraception, in one way or another, could help us tailor our applications to contraceptive practices of each woman.

  7. Clinical features of headache at altitude: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Silber, E; Sonnenberg, P; Collier, D J; Pollard, A J; Murdoch, D R; Goadsby, P J

    2003-04-08

    Headache is the most common nervous system complication at altitude; however, there have been few attempts to characterize clinical features of high-altitude headaches (HAH). To measure prospectively the incidence of HAH and to determine its risk factors and characteristics. Members of an expedition to Kanchenjunga base camp in Nepal (5,100 m) were prospectively studied. Subjects were interviewed prior to the trip and while trekking recorded headaches experienced at >3,000 m using a structured questionnaire incorporating International Headache Society (IHS) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) criteria. In addition, clinical features of headaches in 19 trekkers in other groups above 3,000 m were recorded using the same questionnaire. Eighty-three percent (50/60) reported at least 1 HAH (median 2, range 0 to 10). Those who developed HAH were younger (p = 0.04); women and persons with headaches in daily life were more likely to report severe headaches (p = 0.03 and p = 0.07). One hundred thirty-eight HAH, experienced by 69 persons, are described. The mean altitude at which headaches occurred was 4,723 m. Twenty-six percent of headaches woke subjects at night or occurred upon awakening. HAH reported by migraineurs were accompanied by more phonophobia (p = 0.008). There were no IHS accompanying symptoms in 44% of headaches or symptoms of AMS in 52% of headaches. Headaches are a frequent complication of ascent to altitude. Older age appears to offer some protection, whereas headaches were more severe in women and persons with headaches in daily life. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with some suggesting intracranial hypertension. There is a need for evidence-based diagnostic criteria for headaches at altitude.

  8. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy for chronic elbow tendinosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Darryl E; Beckley, James M; Smith, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Elbow tendinopathy is the most common cause of elbow pain affecting active populations. Surgical excision is reserved for patients with refractory symptoms. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy performed under local anesthesia also removes degenerated tissue and therefore provides an alternative treatment option to surgical excision. This investigation prospectively documented the safety and 1-year efficacy of ultrasonic percutaneous tenotomy performed by a single operator. Nineteen patients, aged 38 to 67 years, in whom >6 months of conservative management for medial (7) or lateral (12) elbow tendinopathy had failed were prospectively studied. All patients were treated with percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy of the elbow by a single operator. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) index, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) were assessed by an independent observer before treatment and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment. No procedural complications occurred. Total treatment time was <15 minutes, and ultrasonic energy time averaged 38.6 ± 8.8 seconds per procedure. Average VAS scores were significantly improved from 6.4 to 2.6 at 6 weeks and were 0.7 at 12 months (P < .0001). Similar improvement occurred with the Quick DASH (pretreatment, 44.1; 12 months, 8.6, P < .0001) and MEPS (pretreatment, 59.1; 12 months, 83.4; P < .0001). Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy performed under local anesthesia appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for chronic, refractory lateral or medial elbow tendinopathy up to 1 year after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early adiposity rebound is associated with metabolic risk in 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    González, L; Corvalán, C; Pereira, A; Kain, J; Garmendia, M L; Uauy, R

    2014-10-01

    Early adiposity rebound (AR <5 years) has been consistently associated with increased obesity risk, but its relationship with metabolic markers is less clear; in addition, the biologic mechanisms involved in these associations have not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the association between timing of AR and metabolic status at age 7 years, evaluating the potential role of adiposity, adipose functionality and skeletal maturation in this association. We estimated the age of AR from the body mass index (BMI) trajectories from 0 to 7 years in 910 children from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study (GOCS). At 7 years, we measured waist circumference (WC) and blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and constructed a metabolic risk score. We also measured percent fat mass (adiposity), plasma concentrations of leptin and adiponectin (adipose functionality) and bone age using wrist ultrasound (skeletal maturation). We found that 44% of the children had an AR <5 years. Earlier AR was associated with larger WC (β: 5.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.29-5.91)), higher glucose (β: 1.02 (1.00-1.03)), insulin resistance (β Homeostatic Model Assessment: 1.06 (1.03-1.09)), triglycerides (β: 10.37 (4.01-6.73)) and adverse metabolic score (β: 0.30 (0.02-0.37)). Associations decreased significantly if adiposity was added to the models (i.e. β WC: 0.85 (0.33-1.38)) and, to a lesser extent, when adipokines (i.e. β WC: 0.73 (0.14-1.32)) and skeletal maturation (i.e. β WC: 0.65 (0.10-1.20)) were added. In GOCS children, AR at a younger age predicts higher metabolic risk at 7 years; these associations are mostly explained by increased adiposity, but adipose dysfunction and accelerated skeletal maturation also have a role.

  10. The level of physical fitness in children aged 6-7years with low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Elżbieta; Zaręba, Monika; Kozieł, Sławomir

    2017-08-01

    Level of physical fitness is related to the functional status of most of the bodily functions and so it appears to be very important to identify perinatal factors influencing physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of birth weight on the level of physical fitness in children 6-7years of age. Physical fitness was assessed using EUROFIT tests in 28,623 children, aged 6-7years, from rural areas in Poland. Children below the 10th percentile for birth weight for gestational age were defined as small for gestational age (SGA). The influence of birth weight on parameters of fitness was assessed by means of covariance analysis. With the controls of age, sex and body size, children of low birth weight have shown significantly lower levels of body flexibility and running speed. The leg strength of children with SGA turned out to be significantly lower only in 7-year-old boys. This study has revealed the significant influence of birth weight on physical fitness. The results suggest the importance of early intervention and its possible benefits for developing and maintaining the proper level of physical fitness further in life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. [Acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Experience of 7 years].

    PubMed

    Cejudo Carranza, E; Helguera Martínez, A; García Cáceres, E

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this clinical investigation was to evaluate the frequency, clinical presentation, evolution, and maternal-fetal morbimortality of Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (AFL). Over a period of 7 years from January 1990 to December 1996 the charts of patients with diagnosis of Gestational Acute Fatty Liver released from the Adult Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Luis Castelazo Ayala of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social were examined. The following information was retrieved: presenting symptoms, diagnosis on admission to the hospital and intensive care unit, evolution, laboratory, paraclinical, biopsy and serological findings, complications in mother and child, management and method of terminating pregnancy. Twelve cases of AFL of Pregnancy were detected. The disease was not suspected on hospital admission in the majority of the cases; all sought attention because of an obstetric complication requiring termination of pregnancy such as acute fetal distress or rupture of membranes. The average age of the patients was 25 years with an average gestational age of the fetuses of 36 weeks. Symptoms were presented one to seven days and consisted of jaundice in 100% of the cases, systemic hypertension in 75%, abdominal pain in 67%, nausea and vomiting in 50%, preeclampsia in 41% and consciousness disturbances in 17%. Outstanding laboratory findings included TGO 57 +/- 108 U/L, TGP 53 +/- 114 U/L, hypocholesterolemia 79 +/- 30 mg/dL, total bilirubin 15.6 +/- 7 mg/dL, coagulation times prolonged almost two fold, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia of 41,883 +/- 24,352 mm3, hypoglycemia of 51 +/- 16 mg/dL, and serum creatinine of 2.8 +/- 1.7 mg/dL. Ultrasound was performed in all patients but showed no specific alterations. CT scans on four patients demonstrated positive evidence in. Liver biopsies were performed on seven patients. The principal complications were DIC, hypoglycemia, acidosis, acute kidney failure, encephalopathy, three still births and one maternal

  12. Impact of Obesity on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Adolescents: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Saloom, H F; Papageorgiou, S N; Carpenter, G H; Cobourne, M T

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a widespread chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by an increased overall disease burden and significant association with periodontitis. The aim of this prospective clinical cohort study was to investigate the effect of obesity on orthodontic tooth movement. Fifty-five adolescent patients (27 males, 28 females) with a mean (SD) age of 15.1 (1.7) years and mean (SD) body mass index (BMI) of 30.2 (3.5) kg/m(2) in obese and 19.4 (2.2) kg/m(2) in normal-weight groups were followed from start of treatment to completion of tooth alignment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Primary outcome was time taken to complete tooth alignment, while secondary outcomes included rate of tooth movement and change in clinical parameters (plaque/gingival indices, unstimulated whole-mouth salivary flow rate, gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers). Data collection took place at baseline (start of treatment: appliance placement), 1 h and 1 wk following appliance placement, and completion of alignment. Results were analyzed by descriptive statistics followed by generalized estimating equation regression modeling. There were no significant differences between groups in time taken to achieve tooth alignment (mean [SD] 158.7 [75.3] d; P = 0.486). However, at 1 wk, initial tooth displacement was significantly increased in the obese group ( P < 0.001), and after adjusting for confounders, obese patients had a significantly higher rate of tooth movement compared with normal-weight patients (+0.017 mm/d; 95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.025; P < 0.001) over the period of alignment. Explorative analyses indicated that levels of the adipokines leptin and resistin, the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the cytokine receptor for nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were significantly different between obese- and normal-weight patients and associated with observed rates of tooth movement. This represents the first prospective data demonstrating a different response in

  13. Natural History of Multiple System Atrophy in North America: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Low, Phillip A.; Reich, Stephen G.; Jankovic, Joseph; Shults, Clifford W.; Stern, Matthew B.; Novak, Peter; Tanner, Caroline M.; Gilman, Sid; Marshall, Frederick J.; Wooten, Frederick; Racette, Brad; Chelimsky, Thomas; Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Sandroni, Paola; Mandrekar, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, fatal neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting a combination of parkinsonism and/or cerebellar ataxia with autonomic failure. We report the first North American prospective natural history study of MSA, and the effects of phenotype and autonomic failure on prognosis. Methods 175 subjects with probable MSA, both MSA-P and MSA-C, were recruited and prospectively followed for 5 years with evaluations every 6 months in 12 centers. Natural history was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We compared MSA-P with MSA-C and evaluated predictors of outcome. These subjects were evaluated with UMSARS I (a functional score of symptoms and ability to undertake activities of daily living), UMSARS II (neurological motor evaluation), and the Composite Autonomic Symptoms Scale (COMPASS)-select (a measure of autonomic symptoms and autonomic functional status. Findings Mean age of symptom onset was 63.4 (SD 8.57) years. Median survival from symptom onset by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 9.8 years (95% CI 8.8-10.7). Subjects with severe symptomatic autonomic failure (symptomatic orthostatic hypotension, urinary incontinence) at diagnosis had a worse prognosis, surviving 8.0 years (95% CI, 6.5-9.5, n=62) while remaining subjects survived a median of 10.3 years (95% CI, 9.3-11.4, n=113). At baseline MSA-P (n=126) and MSA-C (n=49) were not different in symptoms and function, UMSARS I, 25.2 (8.08) vs 24.6 (8.34), p=0.835; UMSARS II, 26.4 (8.77) vs 25.4 (10.51), p=0.7635; COMPASS_select), 43.5 (18.66) vs 42.8 (19.56), p=0.835. Progression, evaluated by change in UMSARS I, UMSARS II, COMPASS_select over the next 5 years, was not significantly different between MSA-P and MSA-C. Median time to death from enrollment baseline was 1.8 (95% CI, 0.9-2.7) years. Interpretation Probable MSA represents late-stage disease with short survival. Natural history of MSA-P and MSA-C are similar. Severe symptomatic autonomic failure at diagnosis is

  14. Evaluation of guidelines for injured children at high risk for venous thromboembolism: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Landisch, Rachel M; Hanson, Sheila J; Cassidy, Laura D; Braun, Kristin; Punzalan, Rowena C; Gourlay, David M

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a widely accepted practice in adult trauma patients to prevent associated morbidity and mortality. However, VTE prophylaxis has not been standardized in injured pediatric patients. Our institution identified factors potentially associated with a high risk of VTE in critically injured children that led to prospective implementation of VTE prophylaxis guidelines. We hypothesize that the guidelines are accurate in predicting children at risk for VTE. Data were prospectively collected on injured children from August 2010 to August 2015. Pharmacologic prophylaxis was indicated for patients identified by the guidelines as high risk for VTE. Prophylaxis was deferred and a screening ultrasound was performed if the high-risk VTE patients were also at high risk for bleeding. To assess the accuracy of predicting confirmed cases of VTE, stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of individual risk factors with VTE controlling for age (≥13 years). A receiver operating characteristic curve measured the accuracy of the final model to predict a VTE. Of 4,061 trauma patients, 588 were admitted to the ICU, with the guidelines identifying 199 as high risk for VTE. VTE occurred in 3.9% (23/588) of the ICU population and 10% (20/199) of the high risk group. The median age of VTE patients in the ICU was 9.7 years. Statistically significant predictors (p < 0.05) of VTE in the multivariate model included presence of a central venous catheter (OR = 5.2), inotropes (OR = 7.7), immobilization (OR = 5.5), and a Glasgow Coma Scale of <9 (OR = 1.3). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of this model was 0.92, demonstrating its excellent predictive ability. Specific clinical factors in critically injured children are associated with a high risk for VTE. Incorporating these risk factors in VTE prophylaxis guidelines facilitates more accurate risk stratification and may allow for

  15. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2007-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  16. The Early Growth and Development Study: A Prospective Adoption Design

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V.; Conger, Rand D.; Reid, John B.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2014-01-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N = 350 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study were recruited following the birth of the child through adoption agencies located throughout the United States. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until child age 3 years. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant/toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described. PMID:17539368

  17. A prospective study of iliotibial band strain in runners.

    PubMed

    Hamill, Joseph; Miller, Ross; Noehren, Brian; Davis, Irene

    2008-10-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome is the leading cause of lateral knee pain in runners. It is thought that pain develops from strain on the iliotibial band due to friction of the iliotibial band sliding over the lateral femoral epicondyle. The purpose of this study was to investigate mechanical strain in the iliotibial band as a possible causative factor in the development of iliotibial band syndrome. From a large prospective study, female runners who incurred iliotibial band syndrome during the study were compared to a control group who incurred no injuries. Strain, strain rate and duration of impingement were determined from a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. The results indicated that the iliotibial band syndrome subjects exhibited greater strain throughout the support period, but particularly at midsupport compared to the control group. Strain rate was significantly greater in the iliotibial band syndrome group compared to the control group and was greater in the involved limb of the iliotibial band syndrome group compared to their contralateral limb. However, there were no differences in the duration of impingement between the groups. This study indicates that a major factor in the development of iliotibial band syndrome is strain rate. Therefore, we suggest that strain rate, rather than the magnitude of strain, may be a causative factor in developing iliotibial band syndrome. The effect size (>0.5) indicated that strain rate may be biologically significant in the etiology of iliotibial band syndrome.

  18. Nonoperative treatment of acute traumatic spinal injuries: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nnadi, Mon; Bankole, O B

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic spinal injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is no agreed method of care. Neurological recovery in complete injury has been dismal. Aims and Objectives : The aim of this study is to determine the neurological recovery at discharge in traumatic spinal injury patients managed nonoperatively in our center. This was a prospective descriptive study carried out on traumatic spinal injury patients managed by neurosurgical unit in our center from August 2010 to July 2013. The unit started in July 2010 with virtually no available facilities for surgical care for these patients. All patients were managed nonoperatively. The unit recorded data of the patients in accident and emergency, intensive care unit, and wards using structured proforma. Data were analyzed using Epi Info 7 software. There were 76 patients studied of which 57 were males and 25 were females. Fifty three were caused by road traffic accident. Nineteen were complete injury. Patients with incomplete injuries did well at discharge. Completeness of injury significantly affected the outcome. The neurological recovery in incomplete spinal injuries in our study was good, but poor in complete injury. Conservative treatment should be adopted in developing countries in patients with poor resources and in centers where facilities are not available for adequate imaging and surgical care. Trauma system is imperative in our country.

  19. Migraine, Headache and the Risk of Depression: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rist, Pamela M.; Schürks, Markus; Buring, Julie E.; Kurth, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Background While cross-sectional studies have shown associations between migraine and depression, few studies have been able to evaluate the association between migraine and incident depression. Methods Prospective cohort study among 36,016 women without a history of depression enrolled in the Women’s Health Study who provided information about migraine and headache at baseline. Women were classified as either having non-migraine headache, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, past history of migraine or no history of headache. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between migraine and headache status and incident depression. Results At baseline, 5115 women reported a history of non-migraine headache, 1805 reported migraine with aura, 2723 reported migraine without aura and 1896 reported a past history of migraine. During 13.8 mean years of follow-up, 3833 new cases of depression occurred. The adjusted relative risks of incident depression were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.56) for non-migraine headache, 1.53 (95% CI: 1.35, 1.74) for migraine with aura, 1.40 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.56) for migraine without aura and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.37, 1.77) for past history of migraine compared to no history of headache. Conclusions Middle-aged women with migraine or non-migraine headache are at increased risk of incident depression. PMID:23588795

  20. Migraine, headache, and the risk of depression: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rist, Pamela M; Schürks, Markus; Buring, Julie E; Kurth, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    While cross-sectional studies have shown associations between migraine and depression, few studies have been able to evaluate the association between migraine and incident depression. A prospective cohort study among 36,016 women without a history of depression enrolled in the Women's Health Study who provided information about migraine and headache at baseline. Women were classified as either having nonmigraine headache, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, past history of migraine or no history of headache. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between migraine and headache status and incident depression. At baseline, 5115 women reported a history of nonmigraine headache, 1805 reported migraine with aura, 2723 reported migraine without aura, and 1896 reported a past history of migraine. During 13.8 mean years of follow-up, 3833 new cases of depression occurred. The adjusted relative risks of incident depression were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.56) for nonmigraine headache, 1.53 (95% CI: 1.35, 1.74) for migraine with aura, 1.40 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.56) for migraine without aura, and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.37, 1.77) for past history of migraine compared to no history of headache. Middle-aged women with migraine or nonmigraine headache are at increased risk of incident depression. Frequent migraine attacks (weekly or daily) were associated with the highest risk for developing depression.

  1. Renal profile in patients with orthopaedic trauma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ashish; John, Bobby; Pawar, Basant; Sadiq, Shalinder

    2009-08-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) and to identify factors contributing to development of ARF in orthopaedic trauma patients. A total of 55 patients who presented over a period of one year with trauma to upper and lower limbs were studied. Patients with renal injury, chest or abdominal injury, isolated fractures of the hands, feet and axial skeleton involvement were excluded. Out of these, five developed acute renal failure, three recovered and two died. The overall incidence of ARF in this study was 9.1%. Patients with lower limb injuries are at higher risk of developing ARF. Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) > or = 7, higher age, patient presenting with shock, increased myoglobin levels in urine and serum have been correlated with a greater risk of patients developing ARF and a higher mortality. This study attempts to determine the magnitude of crush injury causing renal failure and the incidence of renal failure in patients with injuries affecting the appendicular skeleton exclusively.

  2. Elevated temperature and 6- to 7-year outcome of neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Laptook, Abbot R; McDonald, Scott A; Shankaran, Seetha; Stephens, Bonnie E; Vohr, Betty R; Guillet, Ronnie; Higgins, Rosemary D; Das, Abhik

    2013-04-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether higher temperature after hypoxia-ischemia is associated with death or intelligence quotient (IQ)<70 at 6 to 7 years among infants treated with intensive care without hypothermia. Control infants (noncooled, n=106) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network hypothermia trial had serial esophageal and skin temperatures over 72 hours. Each infant's temperature was ranked to derive an average of the upper and lower quartile, and median of each site. Temperatures were used in logistic regressions to determine adjusted associations with death or IQ<70 at 6 to 7 years. Secondary outcomes were death, IQ<70, and moderate/severe cerebral palsy (CP). IQ and motor function were assessed with Wechsler Scales for Children and Gross Motor Function Classification System. Results are odds ratio (OR; per degree Celsius increment within the quartile or median) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Primary outcome was available for 89 infants. At 6 to 7 years, death or IQ<70 occurred in 54 infants (37 deaths, 17 survivors with IQ<70) and moderate/severe CP in 15 infants. Death or IQ<70 was associated with the upper quartile average of esophageal (OR=7.3, 95% CI=2.0-26.3) and skin temperature (OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.2-10.4). CP was associated with the upper quartile average of esophageal (OR=12.5, 95% CI=1.02-155) and skin temperature (OR=10.3, 95% CI=1.3-80.2). Among noncooled infants of a randomized trial, elevated temperatures during the first postnatal days are associated with increased odds of a worse outcome at 6 to 7 years. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  3. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and child behavior at age 6-7 years.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica P; Tang, Deliang; Wang, Shuang; Vishnevetsky, Julia; Zhang, Bingzhi; Diaz, Diurka; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-06-01

    Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread urban air pollutants from fossil fuel burning and other combustion sources. We previously reported that a broad spectrum of combustion-related DNA adducts in cord blood was associated with attention problems at 6-7 years of age in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) longitudinal cohort study. We evaluated the relationship between behavioral problems and two different measures of prenatal exposure--both specific to PAH--in the same cohort. Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City (NYC) were followed from in utero to 6-7 years. Prenatal PAH exposure was estimated by personal air monitoring of the mothers during pregnancy as well as by the measurement of DNA adducts specific to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative PAH, in maternal and cord blood. At 6-7 years of age, child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (n = 253). Generalized linear models were used to test the association between prenatal PAH exposure and behavioral outcomes. In multivariate analyses, high prenatal PAH exposure, whether characterized by personal air monitoring (greater than the median of 2.27 ng/m³) or maternal and cord adducts (detectable or higher), was positively associated with symptoms of Anxious/Depressed and Attention Problems (p ≤ 0.05). These results provide additional evidence that environmental levels of PAH encountered in NYC air can adversely affect child behavior.

  4. A study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States was examined, and the prospects were ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data.

  5. Prospective study concerning 71 cases of caesarean scar endometriosis (CSE).

    PubMed

    Pas, Katarzyna; Joanna, Skręt-Magierło; Renata, Raś; Skręt, Andrzej; Barnaś, Edyta

    2017-04-11

    A prospective study was undertaken involving 71 patients with caesarean scar endometriosis (CSE) between the years 2007 and 2013. A prospective study enabled us to find out: mean age of patients with CSE; 34.0 years (range 22.0-48.0), time between CS and diagnosis of CSE; 12.0 months (range 19.0-39.0), duration between symptoms and surgery; 24.0 months (range 1.0-204.0), mean operation time; 40.0 min. (range 15.0-160.0), and mean lesion size; 54.4 ± 42.3 mm(3). In three patients (4.2%) a large deficit in the abdominal wall was closed by means of polypropylene mesh. One of them conceived a year later. Surgical excision is the only effective treatment in patients with CSE. Wide local excision with clear margins is the key to prevent recurrence. Repair of large post-excisional deficits with mesh may also be offered to woman planning their next pregnancy. Impact statement • What is already known on this subject? Endometriosis in the scar may occur after various abdominal surgeries, more frequently after caesarean sections. The excision of large nodules is connected with suboptimal cosmetic outcomes and the possibility of recurrence. • What the results of this study add? In this study including 71 patients with CSE, wide excision with electrocoagulatory was associated with a single recurrence in 12-month follow-up. In three patients (4.2%) large deficits in the abdominal wall were closed with the use of polypropylene mesh. One of them conceived a year later and had a successful pregnancy. • What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or futher research? Surgical excision is the only effective treatment in patients with CSE. Wide local excision with clear margins is the key to preventing recurrence. Repair of large post excisional deficit with mesh may be offered also to woman planning pregnancy.

  6. A prospective study of injuries inflicted on children by children.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Jonathan P; Woodhams, Sarah; Weinberg, Laurence; Alao, David; Mitchell, Louisa

    2010-01-01

    Intentional injuries inflicted upon children by adults rightly cause great concern and have been studied extensively. In contrast, little is known about the pattern, nature and extent of injuries sustained by children inflicted by other children. A funded prospective study of injured children was undertaken over 18 months. Children's injuries were studied in an epidemiologically complete population comprising the western two-thirds of Cornwall. Information was collected from ten hospitals in standardised fashion using the widely accepted Children's Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Programme (CHIRPP). 597 injuries (67% involving boys) were identified as having been inflicted apparently deliberately by other children. 62% of injuries affected children aged under 12 years. 245 injuries (41%) occurred at or around school, 143 (24%) at home. Most injuries involved soft tissues, but there were 116 fractures, which accounted for 22 of the 40 hospital admissions. Interestingly, despite a description of an ''assault'', only 38% of injuries were initially coded as intentional by treating hospital staff. These results reveal the previously largely unrecognised scale of the problem of interpersonal violence between children. It is not surprising that most injuries occurred in or around school, given that this is where children interact with other children. The attitude of healthcare professionals may need to change if this problem is to be properly addressed. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitreous Microparticle Shedding in Retinal Detachment: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Tumahai, Perle; Saas, Philippe; Ricouard, Fanny; Biichlé, Sabéha; Puyraveau, Marc; Laheurte, Caroline; Delbosc, Bernard; Saleh, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are membrane-derived vesicles measuring less than 1 μm in diameter. They are shed from nearly every activated or preapoptotic cell and may exhibit biologic activities in inflammation or apoptosis settings. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether MP shedding was higher in the vitreous of patients with retinal detachment (RD). This was a prospective, comparative study. Levels of vitreous MPs (including phosphatidylserine [PS]-expressing MPs, photoreceptor cell-derived MPs, and photoreceptor cell-derived MPs expressing PS) and soluble proinflammatory factors (i.e., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and IL-6) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Samples were obtained from 49 eyes undergoing RD surgery and 41 control eyes. Vitreous levels of all the MPs studied were significantly increased in the RD group. Vitreous MP levels were correlated with levels of at least one proinflammatory factor depending on MP subsets. Concerning clinical parameters, vitreous PS-expressing MP and PS-expressing photoreceptor cell-derived MP levels were higher depending on the duration of RD at surgery, the detached retina surface, and the macula status and were found more sensitive than proinflammatory factors only for the duration of RD at surgery. Vitreous concentrations of MPs (mainly derived from photoreceptor cells) are higher after rhegmatogenous RD and found to be correlated with soluble proinflammatory factors.

  8. New prospects for the study of leprosy in the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Rees, R. J. W.

    1969-01-01

    Although Mycobacterium leprae was identified earlier than Myco. tuberculosis, it has still not been cultured in vitro and only in 1960 was an infection obtained in laboratory animals. However, important advances have been made in the field of experimental leprosy in the last decade due to the development of new techniques and models for studying Myco. leprae in vivo, thus overcoming the limitations imposed by a non-cultivable mycobacterium. Quantitative techniques using Myco. lepraemurium provided the first model for developing an indirect method for distinguishing dead (non-infectious) from living (infectious) bacilli, based on morphological differences in organisms stained by the Ziehl—Neelsen method. However, the most important advances resulted from the limited and localized growth of Myco. leprae when inoculated into the foot pads of mice and, later, the more substantial and generalized multiplication of Myco. leprae in immunologically deficient mice (thymectomized and irradiated with a dose of 900 r). Moreover, in the immunologically deficient animals, the infection eventually resulted in a disease replicating that of lepromatous type leprosy in man, including the involvement of peripheral nerves. The results from these studies and the future prospects for the study of leprosy in the laboratory are reviewed in this article. ImagesFIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 4FIG. 7 PMID:4898388

  9. A Prospective Study of Herpes Zoster in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katakam, Bhumesh Kumar; Kiran, Geeta; Kumar, Udaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. Aims: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014. Consecutive cases clinically diagnosed as HZ in the pediatric age group were taken up. Results: We report the clinico-epidemiological study of 26 cases of HZ, their benign course and recovery among children. Conclusions: HZ is a rare disease in childhood. Varicella in early childhood is a risk factor of HZ in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children. Childhood zoster occurs in either healthy or underlying immunodeficient children. The appearance of HZ in a young child does not always imply an underlying immunodeficiency or malignancy. But the identification of HZ with or without immunodeficiency is of prime importance from the treatment and prognostic point of view and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vesicular eruptions. The prognosis is generally good in healthy children. PMID:27688444

  10. Prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Malcolm, A.W.; Bothe, A. Jr.; Valerio, D.; Blackburn, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    A prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation was carried out in 32 patients with a primary pelvic malignancy and prior weight loss. Both curative and palliative patients were eligible for the study. Seventeen patients were randomized to receive intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) and fifteen patients served as controls who were maintained on their regular diet. Patients were stratified by percent body weight loss. Tolerance to therapy was assessed by evaluation of functional status and by using nutritional parameters of body weight change, change in serum protein levels, and response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests. The curative IVH group tolerated therapy well by both functional and nutritional measurements. All curative IVH patients completed the planned radiation therapy without a treatment break and were fully active following treatment. Patients gained an average of 4.0 kg body weight during irradiation, which was significantly different from the curative control patients. They demonstrated a significant increase in serum transferrin reflecting an improvement in visceral protein. In addition, all showed a positive response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests at the completion of irradiation. The palliative IVH patients often did poorly because of progression of disease and demonstrated only an elevation of serum transferrin during treatment. The results in the curative IVH group suggest a potential adjunctive role for intravenous hyperalimentation in the malnourished cancer patient undergoing pelvic irradiation. Clearly, further study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation is needed using curative patients with a single tumor type and significant prior weight loss.

  11. Asthma control measurement using five different questionnaires: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Francois; de Meulder, Isabelle; Paesmans, Marianne; Muylle, Inge; Bruyneel, Marie; Ninane, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    Questionnaires play a key place in the assessment of asthma control. Different questionnaires have been developed. However, it remains largely unknown whether they can be used interchangeably. We wondered whether the panel of frequently used scores would give similar measurement of asthma control. The present study aimed to assess the agreement between five specific questionnaires. In this prospective study, ninety-nine patients completed five commonly used asthma control scores: the GINA, the Asthma Control Test™, the Royal College of Physician score, the Asthma Therapy Assessment Questionnaire (ATAQ), and the Asthma Control Questionnaire(©) (ACQ). The kappa coefficient was used to assess the agreement between questionnaires. The agreement between the GINA and other scores was only moderate (kappa coefficients amounted from 0.41 to 0.60). With respect to the "controlled" level, all the other scores gave higher results than GINA. All other scores also tended to underestimate GINA "uncontrolled level". For the "partly controlled level" defined by 3 of the 5 questionnaires, ACQ identified the same percentage of patients than GINA while ATAQ overestimated this percentage. This study shows only moderate agreement between five commonly used asthma control scores. The GINA score showed the lowest percentage of controlled and the highest percentage of uncontrolled asthma. As a consequence, all these scores do not seem to evaluate the same symptoms. NCT01350661. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parental overweight/obesity, social factors, and child overweight/obesity at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Dubois, Lise; Burnier, Daniel; Girard, Manon; Prud'homme, Denis

    2011-12-01

    This study used gender-based analyses to examine whether child overweight/obesity is related to parental overweight/obesity and sociodemographic factors, in a representative population-based cohort of 7-year-old children. Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 was used. Children (n= 1336) were randomly selected from each public health region of Québec. The study was based on face-to-face interviews and a set of questionnaires addressed to mothers and fathers. Compared to children with no overweight/obese parent, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of being overweight/obese with two overweight/obese parents was 5 for boys (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-10.85) and 5.87 for girls (95%CI: 2.63-13.12). Gender differences appeared when one parent was overweight/obese. For girls, having either an overweight/obese mother (OR, 3.10; 95%CI: 1.14-8.38) or father (OR, 3.64; 95%CI: 1.68-7.91) significantly increased the odds of being overweight/obese at 7 years. For boys, however, having only an overweight/obese father (OR, 2.05; 95%CI: 1.01-4.16) was related to overweight/obesity, but having only an overweight/obese mother was not related to overweight/obesity at 7 years for boys. In girls, but not in boys, having an immigrant mother also significantly related to overweight/obesity (OR, 2.71; 95%CI: 1.28-5.75) at 7 years, after controlling for other social factors. Gender differences in socialization may explain why at 7 years of age, girls' bodyweight is influenced by having even one overweight/obese parent (mother or father), while boys' bodyweight appears to be influenced only by father's overweight/obesity when only one parent is overweight/obese. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Structured Smoking Cessation Training for Medical Students: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Ronja; Schiekirka, Sarah; Brown, Jamie; Bobak, Alex; McEwen, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physician adherence to guideline recommendations regarding the provision of counseling and support for smokers willing to quit is low. A lack of training during undergraduate medical education has been identified as a potential cause. This prospective intervention study evaluated a novel teaching module for medical students. Methods: As part of a 6-week cardiovascular course, 125 fourth-year undergraduate medical students received a multimodal and interactive teaching module on smoking cessation, including online learning material, lectures, seminars, and practical skills training. Short- and medium-term effects on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and self-reported practice were measured using written examinations and an objective structured clinical examination at the end of the module and 6 months later. Results were compared to data obtained from a historical control cohort (n = 70) unexposed to the intervention. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, scores in the knowledge test were significantly higher in the intervention than the control group (61.1% vs. 51.7%; p < .001). A similar pattern was observed in the objective structured clinical examination (71.5% vs. 60.5%; p < .001). More students in the intervention than control group agreed that smoking was a chronic disease (83.1% vs. 68.1%; p = .045). The control group was more likely to report recording smoking status (p = .018), but no group difference was detected regarding the report of advising to quit (p = .154). Conclusions: A novel teaching module for undergraduate medical students produced a sustained learning outcome in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes but not self-reported practice. Implications: Studies across the world have identified considerable knowledge gaps and deficits in practical training with regard to smoking cessation counseling in undergraduate medical students. This paper describes a teaching intervention informed by current recommendations for the design of

  14. Father-Child Transmission of School Adjustment: A Prospective Intergenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah; Kerr, David C. R.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of school adjustment was explored in a sample of 213 children and their fathers. The fathers were participants in a longitudinal study that began when they were in the 4th grade, and their children have been assessed at the ages of 21 months and 3, 5, and 7 years. Two components of school adjustment were…

  15. Father-Child Transmission of School Adjustment: A Prospective Intergenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah; Kerr, David C. R.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of school adjustment was explored in a sample of 213 children and their fathers. The fathers were participants in a longitudinal study that began when they were in the 4th grade, and their children have been assessed at the ages of 21 months and 3, 5, and 7 years. Two components of school adjustment were…

  16. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  17. Experience with alendronate treatment for 7 years among Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Uzawa, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the outcome of alendronate treatment for 7 years among Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures. Thirty-five Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures (mean age at baseline 58.2 years) who had been treated with alendronate for over 7 years in our outpatient clinic were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; the urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were monitored; the incidence of fractures during the 7-year treatment period was then assessed. The urinary NTX and serum ALP levels decreased (-46.1% at 3 months and -21.1% at 7 years, respectively) and the lumbar spine and total hip BMD increased (+14.2 and +10.1% at 7 years, respectively), compared with the baseline values. Four patients (11.4%) experienced vertebral fractures, and one patient (2.9%) experienced a nonvertebral fracture. No serious adverse events were observed, including osteonecrosis of the jaw or atypical femoral fractures. These results suggested that alendronate suppressed bone turnover and increased the lumbar spine and total hip BMD from the baseline values over the course of the 7-year treatment period without causing any severe adverse events in Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures.

  18. Detection of oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among HPV negative older and younger women after 7 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Kim Agerholm; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge on risk factors of being human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive among older women is sparse. The aim was to determine the frequency of oncogenic HPV appearance after 7 years among initially HPV-negative women and to examine potential risk factors that influence the occurrence of HPV in older women using multiple logistic regression. For comparison, a younger cohort of women examined under identical study settings was included. This prospective cohort study comprised 1,577 older women (age 40-50 at enrolment) and 2,920 women aged 22-32. Participants were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination at two time points (7 years apart). Cervical samples were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and only women who tested HC2-negative at baseline were included. The HPV prevalence among older and younger women was 6.4% and 10.7%, respectively, and there was no "second peak" observed among older women. Recent sexual partners were a strong determinant of HPV appearance irrespective of age. Lifetime number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV appearance among older women, even after adjustment for recent sexual behavior. In addition, menopause was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of HPV appearance at follow-up. In conclusion, appearance of HPV in previously HPV-negative older women may be due to both recent sexual behavior and previous exposure that is, reactivation of a latent HPV infection.

  19. A sibling-controlled, prospective study of outcomes at home and school in children with severe congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Christopher G; Armstrong, Mark P; Mullen, Mairead; Doherty, Nicola N; Casey, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare behaviour problems and competencies, at home and school, in 7-year-old children with congenital heart disease with a sibling control group, to examine the prospective determinants of outcome from infancy, and to explore whether any gains were maintained in our sub-group of children who had participated in a previous trial of psychological interventions in infancy. A total of 40 children who had undergone surgery to correct or palliate a significant congenital heart defect in infancy were compared (Child Behavior Checklist) with a nearest-age sibling control group (18 participants). Comparisons were made between sub-groups of children and families who had and had not participated in an early intervention trial. Problems with attention, thought and social problems, and limitations in activity and school competencies, were found in comparison with siblings. Teacher reports were consistent with parents, although problems were of a lower magnitude. Disease, surgical, and neurodevelopmental functioning in infancy were related to competence outcomes but not behaviour problems. The latter were mediated by family and maternal mental health profiles from infancy. Limited, but encouraging, gains were maintained in the sub-group that had participated in the early intervention programme. The present study is strengthened by its longitudinal design, use of teacher informants, and sibling control group. The patterns of problems and limitations discerned, and differential determinants thereof, have clear implications for interventions. We consider these in the light of our previously reported intervention trial with this sample and current outcomes at the 7-year follow-up.

  20. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  1. Treatment of Micrognathia by Intraoral Distraction Osteogenesis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, M.; Arularasan, S. Gidean; Divakar, T. K.; Thirunavukkarasu, Rohini

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maxillofacial deformities are always psychologically and physically distressing to the patients and is also challenging to the treating surgeons. The term Micrognathia means a “small jaw”. True micrognathia, where the maxilla or the mandibular skeleton does not grow to the full size can be congenital or acquired. Distraction osteogenesis also called as callus distraction or callostasis or osteodistraction or distraction histogenesis is a biological process of regenerating newly formed bone and adjacent soft tissue by a gradual and controlled traction of surgically separated bone segments. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the versatility of distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of micrognathia. Materials and Methods: Four patients (three males and one female) with micrognathia of mandible were included in this prospective study. The patients were between the age group of 10-20 years. Facial asymmetry was the chief complaint of all the patients. In all the patients following treatment protocol was carried out, Osteotomy and placement of intraoral distraction device under general anaesthesia, latency phase (5-7 days), activation period-rate 1.5 mm per day, consolidation period of 8 weeks, removal of distraction device under local anaesthesia. The parameters assessed were ramus height, body length, hyo mental distance, posterior pharyngeal airway space, chin projection, facial symmetry occlusion, mid line shift pre and post operatively. Results: The mean increase in ramus height achieved was 9.2 + 2.17 mm and the mandibular body length achieved was 10.4+1.67 mm. There was an average increase in hyo-mental distance of 2.75 cm +0.9 cm postoperatively showing a definitive improvement in the airway. The posterior pharyngeal space measured from the lateral cephalogram preoperatively ranged from 3-6 mm and post operatively from 6-9 mm.Intraorally there was a shift in occlusion to class I molar relation in three patients and there was

  2. Treatment of Micrognathia by Intraoral Distraction Osteogenesis: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, M; Arularasan, S Gidean; Divakar, T K; Thirunavukkarasu, Rohini

    2017-01-01

    Maxillofacial deformities are always psychologically and physically distressing to the patients and is also challenging to the treating surgeons. The term Micrognathia means a "small jaw". True micrognathia, where the maxilla or the mandibular skeleton does not grow to the full size can be congenital or acquired. Distraction osteogenesis also called as callus distraction or callostasis or osteodistraction or distraction histogenesis is a biological process of regenerating newly formed bone and adjacent soft tissue by a gradual and controlled traction of surgically separated bone segments. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the versatility of distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of micrognathia. Four patients (three males and one female) with micrognathia of mandible were included in this prospective study. The patients were between the age group of 10-20 years. Facial asymmetry was the chief complaint of all the patients. In all the patients following treatment protocol was carried out, Osteotomy and placement of intraoral distraction device under general anaesthesia, latency phase (5-7 days), activation period-rate 1.5 mm per day, consolidation period of 8 weeks, removal of distraction device under local anaesthesia. The parameters assessed were ramus height, body length, hyo mental distance, posterior pharyngeal airway space, chin projection, facial symmetry occlusion, mid line shift pre and post operatively. The mean increase in ramus height achieved was 9.2 + 2.17 mm and the mandibular body length achieved was 10.4+1.67 mm. There was an average increase in hyo-mental distance of 2.75 cm +0.9 cm postoperatively showing a definitive improvement in the airway. The posterior pharyngeal space measured from the lateral cephalogram preoperatively ranged from 3-6 mm and post operatively from 6-9 mm.Intraorally there was a shift in occlusion to class I molar relation in three patients and there was posterior open bite in one patient. Marked

  3. Brachiobasilic versus brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Koksoy, Cuneyt; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Balci, Deniz; Solak, Tuba; Köse, S Kenan

    2009-01-01

    The most recent Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines recommend that the order of preference for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) placement is the radial-cephalic primary AVF, followed by the secondary brachiocephalic (BC) and, if either of these is not viable, then brachiobasilic (BB) AVF should be fashioned. However, there is limited prospective data comparing technical and clinical outcomes of these two approaches. The purpose of our study was to compare outcome, patency, and complication rates in these two autogenous upper arm AV accesses. Between December 2003 and and January 2007, patients (61 male, 39 female) who have lost more distal AVFs were enrolled in the study. After preoperative duplex mapping, patients with patent both basilic and cephalic veins greater than 3 mm of diameter were randomized into BCAVF and BBAVF groups, each group consisting of 50 patients. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia as one-stage procedures. Follow-up data were prospectively collected. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate primary and secondary patency rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analysis was used to find risks for the occurrence of thrombosis. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and preoperative history dialysis access were comparable between groups with the exception of the fact that mean caliber of the basilic veins were larger (4.51 +/- 0.93 mm vs 3.90 +/- 0.1 mm; P = .002). The mean duration of operation was significantly shorter in the BC group compared with the BB group (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the thirty day mortality, wound complications, 24 hour thrombosis, postoperative hemorrhage, maturation, and time to maturation between the groups. Mean follow-up was 43.2 +/- 1.8 months. Primary patency at 1 and 3 years of follow-up was 87% and 81% for the BC group and 86% and 73% for the BB group (P = .7) Secondary patency at one and three year follow-up was 87% and 70% for

  4. Morbidity of harvesting of chin grafts: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nkenke, E; Schultze-Mosgau, S; Radespiel-Tröger, M; Kloss, F; Neukam, F W

    2001-10-01

    In a prospective study, 20 patients who underwent harvesting of chin grafts as outpatients, were followed up for 12 months (3 further patients with incomplete follow-up data were excluded from the study). Preoperatively and 7 days, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, follow-up data were assessed. Evaluation of the superficial sensory function of the inferior alveolar nerve was determined by the Pointed-Blunt Test and the Two-Point-Discrimination Test. Sensory disturbances were objectively assessed by testing thermal sensitivity with the "Pain and Thermal Sensitivity" Test (PATH Test). In addition, evaluation of the pulp sensitivity of teeth 35-45 was carried out by cold vitality testing. One week postoperatively, 8 patients were affected by superficial sensory impairment. 8 nerve territories showed hypoaesthetic reactions and 5 showed hyperaesthetic reactions. After 12 months, two patients still suffered from hypoaesthesia of one side of the chin. There was a statistically significant sensitivity impairment of the chin for all patients comparing the preoperative data of the Two-Point-Discrimination Test (left/right median: 8.17/8.17 mm, interquartile range (IQR) 1.00/2.00 mm) with the first postoperative measurement (left/right median 9.00/8.33 mm, IQR 1.67/2.66 mm). Comparing the latter to the last postoperative measurement there was significant tendency for regeneration of a nerve function (left/right median 8.00/7.84 mm, IQR 0.66/2.00 mm). In the PATH Test all hypoaesthetic areas could be identified by a reduction of thermal sensitivity. After the first postoperative examination 21.6% (n=38/176) of the examined teeth had lost their pulp sensitivity. After 12 postoperative months 11.4% (n=20/176) still did not react sensitively. Many of these were canines (n=8/20). Comparing the preoperative to the first postoperative examination, there was a significant reduction of pulp sensitivity. However, statistically significant recovery until the last postoperative

  5. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  6. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers.METHODS:We recruited beachgoers at Boquer6n Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness.RESULTS: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/ml (median, 712 cells/ml). The category with the highest (≥75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% Cl: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% Cl: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% Cl: 1.12, 1

  7. Telomere length and periodontal attachment loss: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, William Murray; Zeng, Jiaxu; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Foster Page, Lyndie A; Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Sheila M; Braithwaite, Antony W; Robertson, Stephen P; Poulton, Richie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association between telomere erosion and periodontitis in a long-standing prospective cohort study of New Zealand adults. Specific hypotheses tested were as follows: (i) that exposure to periodontitis at ages 26 and 38 was associated with accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion and (ii) that accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion was associated with higher rates of periodontitis by ages 26 and 38. Periodontal attachment loss data were collected at ages 26 and 38. Blood samples taken at the same ages were analysed to obtain estimates of leucocyte telomere length and erosion over a 12-year period. Overall, the mean telomere length was reduced by 0.15 T/S ratio (adjusted) from age 26 to 38 among the 661 participants reported on here. During the same period, the mean attachment loss increased by 10%, after adjusting for sex, socio-economic status and smoking. Regression models showed that attachment loss did not predict telomere length, and that telomere erosion did not predict attachment loss. Although both periodontitis and telomere length are age-dependent, they do not appear to be linked, suggesting that determination of leucocyte telomere length may not be a promising clinical approach at this age for identifying people who are at risk for periodontitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tooth loss in individuals under periodontal maintenance therapy: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lorentz, Telma Campos Medeiros; Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Cortelli, José Roberto; Vargas, Andréia Maria Duarte; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence, the underlying reasons, and the influence of predictors of risk for the occurrence of tooth loss (TL) in a program of Periodontal Maintenance Therapy (PMT). The sample was composed of 150 complier individuals diagnosed with chronic moderate-severe periodontitis who had finished active periodontal treatment and were incorporated in a program of PMT. Social, demographic, behavioral and biological variables were collected at quarterly recalls, over a 12-month period. The effect of predictors of risk of and confounding for the dependent variable TL was tested by univariate and multivariate analysis, as well as the underlying reasons and the types of teeth lost. During the monitoring period, there was a considerable improvement in periodontal clinical parameters, with a stability of periodontal status in the majority of individuals. Twenty-eight subjects (18.66%) had TL, totaling 47 lost teeth (1.4%). The underlying reasons for TL were: periodontal disease (n = 34, 72.3%), caries (n = 3, 6.4%), prosthetic reasons (n = 9, 19.2%), and endodontic reasons (n = 1, 2.1%). Additionally, subjects with 10% of sites with probing depth between 4 and 6 mm were 5 times more likely to present TL (OR = 5.13, 95% CI 2.04-12.09). In this study, the incidence of TL was small and limited to few individuals. Additionally, gender and severity of periodontitis were significantly associated with TL during the monitoring period.

  9. [Tricuspid valve stenosis. A prospective study of 35 cases].

    PubMed

    Diaof, M; Ba, S A; Kane, A; Sarr, M; Diop, I B; Diouf, S M

    2004-01-01

    Authors report the results of prospective and longitudinal study. The aims of this study were to evaluate among 35 patients, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment aspects of tricuspid stenosis (TS), as well as evolution and pronostical factors. The prevalence of TS was about 4.2%. The main clinical signs were: dyspnoea (94.2%), jugular veinus pulses (42.8%), superior cave syndrom (68.8%), diastolic rumble (74.3%). ECG showed sinus rhythm (51.4%), a right atrial hypertrophy (48.5%). Echocardiography showed tricuspid leaflets thickened (82.8%), a right atrial hypertrophy (48.5%), a mean gradient between right atrial and right ventricle: 8.6 +/- 3.14 mmHg (65.7%) and mean tricuspid area about 1.41 +/- 0.83 cm2 (continuous equation); about 1.74 +/- 1.29 cm2 (Hatle formula) and 1.11 0.84 cm2 (simplified Hatle formula). Aetiology was only rheumatic fever. After a follow-up of 8.53 +/- 6.06 months, the mortality rate was 28.5%. Complications were irreducible heart failure (24 cases), liver failure (2 cases) and stroke (3 cases). Factors associated with mortality were: severity of tricuspid stenosis and pulmonary hypertension, importance of dyspnea and heart failure (p < 0.041).

  10. Relation between hysterectomy and the irritable bowel: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Prior, A; Stanley, K M; Smith, A R; Read, N W

    1992-01-01

    Some women with irritable bowel syndrome date the onset of symptoms to previous hysterectomy. To assess prospectively the incidence of gastrointestinal symptomatology arising de novo after hysterectomy, and to study the effect of surgery on pre-existing symptoms, 205 women completed a symptom questionnaire before and six weeks and six months after surgery. Beforehand, symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome occurred in 22% of patients. At six months after operation, 60% of these had improved or were symptom free while 20% had increased symptomatology. New gastrointestinal symptoms were present more than once per week in 10% of previously asymptomatic women. Constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome was the commonest symptom complex seen de novo, occurring more than once per week in 5% of the group. No relation was found between new symptomatology and the type of hysterectomy, oophorectomy, or the administration of perioperative antibiotics. This study suggests that many women with pre-existing gastrointestinal symptomatology improve after hysterectomy. However, symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome do arise de novo in 10%. As hysterectomy is common, gastroenterologists can expect to see women presenting with post-hysterectomy problems. PMID:1624165

  11. Massage Therapy for Lyme Disease Symptoms: a Prospective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Meghan J.; Moyer, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To study the effects of massage therapy (MT) on Lyme disease (LD) symptoms and affect. Methods A 21-year-old female college student previously diagnosed with LD was recruited for a prospective case study that incorporated alternating periods of treatment and nontreatment across 65 days. Her self-reported symptoms of pain, fatigue, and impairment of concentration were assessed by means of a daily diary with corresponding visual analog scales. Immediate effects of MT on affect were assessed by completion of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales before and after each treatment session. Results LD symptoms decreased during treatment periods and increased during nontreatment periods. Positive affect was increased at every MT session. Conclusions MT is a promising treatment for the symptoms pain, fatigue, and impaired concentration associated with LD. In addition, MT reliably increased positive affect. Massage therapists should consider using light-to-medium pressure MT for treatment of persons who present with a similar pattern of LD symptoms, and further research with this population is warranted. PMID:23429967

  12. A prospective study on postoperative pain after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja; Purhonen, Sinikka; Kokki, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain and early recovery in cataract patients. Patients and methods A total of 201 patients who underwent elective first eye cataract extraction surgery were enrolled, and 196 were included in the final analysis. The study design was a single-center, prospective, follow-up study in a tertiary hospital in eastern Finland. Postoperative pain was evaluated with the Brief Pain Inventory at four time points: at baseline, and at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks postsurgery. Results Postoperative pain was relatively common during the first hours after surgery, as it was reported by 67 (34%) patients. After hospital discharge, the prevalence decreased; at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks, 18 (10%), 15 (9%) and 12 (7%) patients reported having ocular pain, respectively. Most patients with eye pain reported significant pain, with a score of ≥4 on a pain scale of 0–10, but few had taken analgesics for eye pain. Those who had used analgesics rated the analgesic efficacy of paracetamol and ibuprofen as good or excellent. Other ocular irritation symptoms were common after surgery; as a new postoperative symptom, foreign-body sensation was reported by 40 patients (22%), light sensitivity by 29 (16%), burning by 15 (8%), and itching by 15 (8%). Conclusion Moderate or severe postoperative pain was relatively common after cataract surgery. Thus, all patients undergoing cataract surgery should be provided appropriate counseling on pain and pain management after surgery. PMID:23885165

  13. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  14. Course of migraine during pregnancy and postpartum: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sances, G; Granella, F; Nappi, R E; Fignon, A; Ghiotto, N; Polatti, F; Nappi, G

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the course of migraine during pregnancy and postpartum. Of all the pregnant women consecutively attending an obstetrics and gynaecology department for a routine first-trimester antenatal check-up, 49 migraine sufferers--two were affected by migraine with aura (MA) and 47 by migraine without aura (MO)--who had experienced at least one attack during the 3 months preceding pregnancy were identified, enrolled in the study and given a headache diary. Subsequent examinations were performed at the end of the second and third trimesters and 1 month after delivery. Migraine was seen to improve in 46.8% of the 47 MO sufferers during the first trimester, in 83.0% during the second and in 87.2% during the third, while complete remission was attained by 10.6%, 53.2%, and 78.7% of the women, respectively. Migraine recurred during the first week after childbirth in 34.0% of the women and during the first month in 55.3%. Certain risk factors for lack of improvement of migraine during pregnancy were identified: the presence of menstrually related migraine before pregnancy was associated with a lack of headache improvement in the first and third trimesters, while second-trimester hyperemesis, and a pathological pregnancy course were associated with a lack of headache improvement in the second trimester. Breast feeding seemed to protect from migraine recurrence during postpartum.

  15. Mastitis in Chinese breastfeeding mothers: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Qiu, Liqian; Binns, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a common problem encountered by breastfeeding mothers. This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of lactation mastitis among Chinese women. A prospective cohort study on infant feeding practices was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in Jiangyou, Sichuan Province, China. Poisson regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing the incidence of mastitis within 6 months postpartum. Of the 670 Chinese mothers who were breastfeeding at discharge, 42 women (6.3%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis during the first 6 months after delivery. The cumulative incidence of mastitis was 10.3%. Mothers with a cracked and sore nipple (incidence rate ratio 2.24; 95% confidence interval 1.38, 3.63) and those who felt stressed (incidence rate ratio 3.15; 95% confidence interval 1.56, 6.37) appeared to sustain more episodes of mastitis. The incidence of lactation mastitis was low among Chinese mothers. To further reduce the risk of mastitis, instructions on the correct positioning of the baby during breastfeeding should be emphasized. Providing new mothers with guidance on how to cope with stress may also prevent the recurrence of the condition.

  16. Risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, I P; Peponis, V; Parikakis, E; Maniatea, A; Patsea, E; Mitropoulos, P

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) in patients undergoing phacoemulsification.MethodsParticipants in the study were 1274 consecutive patients, who underwent routine phacoemulsification cataract surgery. The following data were recorded and evaluated as possible risk factors: ophthalmological conditions, axial length of the eye, sociodemographic features, clinical data (hypertension and diabetes mellitus), medications being taken at the time of surgery, and duration of their intake. Cases were characterized intraoperatively as IFIS and non-IFIS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed.ResultsIFIS was observed in 63/1274 eyes (4.9%, 95% CI: 3.9-6.7%). Current use of tamsulosin, alfuzosin, terazosin, benzodiazepines, quetiapine, and finasteride, as well as hypertension, were all independently associated with IFIS. Significant associations were noted for male sex, rivastigmine, and short axial length, which did not reach significance at the multivariate analysis. Duration of α-blockers intake was not found to be associated with IFIS.ConclusionApart from the well-established associations with α-blockers, this prospective study points to benzodiazepines, quetiapine, finasteride, and hypertension as potential risk factors for IFIS. Short axial length and rivastigmine were significantly associated with IFIS only at the univariate analysis.

  17. A prospective study of teleconferencing for orthopaedic consultations.

    PubMed

    Aarnio, P; Lamminen, H; Lepistö, J; Alho, A

    1999-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study of teleconsulting in orthopaedics. A commercial videoconferencing system was connected by three ISDN lines between the Satakunta Central Hospital in Pori and the Orton Orthopaedic Hospital in Helsinki, 240 km away. A document camera was used to transfer radiographic images and paper documents. Twenty-nine patients who needed an orthopaedic consultation were studied over three months. They were examined by a surgeon in Pori with the aid of teleconferencing and again later in a traditional, face-to-face appointment in Helsinki. Patients and doctors completed questionnaires after the consultations. Technically, the videoconferencing system functioned reliably and the quality of the video was judged to be good. Twenty patients (69%) would not have needed to travel for a face-to-face appointment, because the teleconsultation afforded a definite treatment decision. The orthopaedic surgeons considered all the treatment decisions arising from the teleconsultation good, except in one case which was considered satisfactory. The quality of the radiographic images transferred with the document camera was good or very good in 17 cases and satisfactory in three cases. None of the patients had experienced videoconferencing before; 87% of them thought that teleconsultation was a good or very good method and the rest felt that it was satisfactory. All patients wanted to participate in teleconsultations again and most would have recommended it to other patients.

  18. Political violence and mental health in Nepal: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Hruschka, Daniel J; Worthman, Carol M; Kunz, Richard D; Baldwin, Jennifer L; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Acharya, Nanda Raj; Koirala, Suraj; Thapa, Suraj B; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D; Robkin, Navit; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Nepal, Mahendra K

    2012-10-01

    Post-conflict mental health studies in low-income countries have lacked pre-conflict data to evaluate changes in psychiatric morbidity resulting from political violence. This prospective study compares mental health before and after exposure to direct political violence during the People's War in Nepal. An adult cohort completed the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in 2000 prior to conflict violence in their community and in 2007 after the war. Of the original 316 participants, 298 (94%) participated in the post-conflict assessment. Depression increased from 30.9 to 40.6%. Anxiety increased from 26.2 to 47.7%. Post-conflict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 14.1%. Controlling for ageing, the depression increase was not significant. The anxiety increase showed a dose-response association with conflict exposure when controlling for ageing and daily stressors. No demographic group displayed unique vulnerability or resilience to the effects of conflict exposure. Conflict exposure should be considered in the context of other types of psychiatric risk factors. Conflict exposure predicted increases in anxiety whereas socioeconomic factors and non-conflict stressful life events were the major predictors of depression. Research and interventions in post-conflict settings therefore should consider differential trajectories for depression v. anxiety and the importance of addressing chronic social problems ranging from poverty to gender and ethnic/caste discrimination.

  19. Prognostic factors of Bell's palsy: prospective patient collected observational study.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takashi; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Yanagihara, Naoaki

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various parameters potentially influencing poor prognosis in Bell's palsy and to assess the predictive value for Bell's palsy. A single-center prospective patient collected observation and validation study was conducted. To evaluate the correlation between patient characteristics and poor prognosis, we performed univariate and multivariate analyzes of age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and facial grading score 1 week after onset. To evaluate the accuracy of the facial grading score, we prepared a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). We also calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and positive/negative predictive value. We included Bell's palsy patients who attended Ehime University Hospital within 1 week after onset between 1977 and 2011. We excluded patients who were less than 15 years old and lost-to-follow-up within 6 months. The main outcome was defined as non-recovery at 6 months after onset. In total, 679 adults with Bell's palsy were included. The facial grading score at 1 week showed a correlation with non-recovery in the multivariate analysis, although age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension did not. The AUROC of the facial grading score was 0.793. The Y-system score at 1 week moderate accurately predicted non-recovery at 6 months in Bell's palsy.

  20. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers.METHODS:We recruited beachgoers at Boquer6n Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness.RESULTS: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/ml (median, 712 cells/ml). The category with the highest (≥75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% Cl: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% Cl: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% Cl: 1.12, 1

  1. Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; van der Meulen, Marjon F G; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Vrancken, Alexander F J E; Franssen, Hessel; Notermans, Nicolette C

    2010-08-01

    Migrant sensory neuropathy (Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis) is characterized by sudden numbness in the distribution of one or multiple cutaneous nerves. To study disease course and outcome, we prospectively followed 12 patients who presented to our tertiary referral neuromuscular outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2004. Medical history, neurological, laboratory and electrophysiological examinations were obtained from all patients. All patients were reviewed a second time in 2007, and five had a follow-up electrophysiological examination. At the first visit, 50% described an episode of stretching preceding the sensory complaints. All but three described pain in the affected area before or concomitant with sensory loss. At clinical examination a median of six skin areas were affected, and in 75% this could be confirmed by nerve conduction studies in at least one nerve. Forty-two percent had involvement of the trigeminal nerve. After a mean disease duration of 7.5 years, three patients reported a complete disappearance of sensory complaints and five that the pain had disappeared, but numbness remained. Three patients still had both painful and numb sensory deficits. One patient developed a distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy. In conclusion, Wartenberg's sensory neuritis is a distinct, exclusively sensory, neuropathy, marked by pain preceding numbness in affected nerves. An episode of stretching preceding pain is not necessary for the diagnosis. Wartenberg's sensory neuritis often retains its spotty, exclusively sensory characteristics after long term follow-up.

  2. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation after whiplash injury: an observational prospective outcome study.

    PubMed

    Angst, Felix; Françoise, Gysi; Verra, Martin; Lehmann, Susanne; Jenni, Walter; Aeschlimann, André

    2010-04-01

    To examine the state of, and change in, biopsycho-social health and quality of life of patients after whiplash injury, before and after an inpatient interdisciplinary pain management programme. Observational, prospective cohort study (n = 103) using medical record data and standardized self-assessments to compare health state with general population norms and to determine effects by means of standardized effect sizes. The therapy programme consisted of drug adaptation, graded activity exercise, relaxation therapies, and behavioural therapy. Compared with population norms, patients' health was significantly deteriorated in all dimensions of the Short Form 36, depression and anxiety at all examined times. After rehabilitation, pain improved by effect sizes up to 0.65, function/role performance up to 0.87, vitality up to 0.67 and coping up to 0.41. At the 6-month follow-up, these effects remained, with effect sizes between 0.45 and 0.87. The median working capacity improved from 8 h per week at baseline to 21 h at follow-ups. The rehabilitation programme showed moderate to large mid-term improvements in important health dimensions, medication reduction and working capacity. Further controlled studies are required to quantify and attribute these improvements more precisely.

  3. Autoantibodies in Burkitt's lymphoma patients from the Ugandan prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Lenoir, G M; Franklin, R M

    1986-03-01

    Pre- and post syndrome sera from five Burkitt's lymphoma patients who partook in the Ugandan prospective study (A. Geser et al., Int. J. Cancer 29 (1982) 397-400) were investigated with respect to autoantibodies. Neighbours and siblings of these patients served as controls and all of these groups were compared with sera from 50 Caucasian normal controls (CNC). Antibody levels significantly higher than those in CNC were found in all African groups for actin, desmin, vimentin, tubulin, keratin, laminin, and collagen type I. Polyclonal B-cell activation, as measured by antibodies to DNP, and high levels of antibodies to P. falciparum were also found. Anti-DNP and antibodies to malaria were also present in sera from our earlier study on Burkitt's lymphoma (E. Vainio et al., Clin. exp. Immunol. 54 (1983) 387-396). Whereas EBV infected B cells do produce autoantibodies, there is a potentiation of autoantibody formation as a result of infection with malaria, which seems to provide an independent trigger of polyclonal B cell activation. This latter event might be one of the factors which results in a correlation of Burkitt's lymphoma with malaria endemic regions.

  4. A prospective clinical study of polycarboxylate cement in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Sánchez, Bárbara; García-Mira, Berta; Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of polycarboxylate cement as retrograde filling material. Design: A prospective clinical study was made of 25 patients subjected to periapical surgery with ultrasound and magnifying loupes, in which polycarboxylate cement was used as retrograde filling material. Measurements were made of the area and diameter of the lesions pre- and postoperatively, and 6 and 12 months after the operation. The apical resection and retrograde filling areas were also measured, and the prognosis following surgery was recorded. Results: A total of 23 patients with 31 apicoectomized teeth were studied (2 patients being lost to follow-up). The mean area of the periapical lesions before surgery was 52.25 mm2, with a mean major diameter of 6.1 mm and a mean lesser diameter of 4.8 mm. The success rate after 12 months was 54.7%, according to the criteria of Von Arx and Kurt. The prognosis was poorer in females, in larger lesions, and in cases with larger retrograde filling areas. Conclusions: Polycarboxylate cement offers good results, with important bone regeneration after periapical surgery. Key words: Periapical surgery, endodontic treatment, polycarboxylate cement. PMID:22143701

  5. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    PubMed

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  6. Monitoring of Gas Emboli During Hysteroscopic Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-Qun; Zhao, Su-Zhen; Li, Zhan-Wen; Lv, Su-Ping; Liu, Yue-Qiang; Li, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a high frequency of gas emboli during hysteroscopy, but guidelines for the prevention, early detection, and intervention of gas embolism during hysteroscopic procedures are still lacking. This study aimed to gain a clearer understanding of risk factors and specific signs and symptoms associated with gas emboli. This prospective study enrolled 120 women scheduled for hysteroscopy using 5% glucose as distension medium. The gas bubbles were monitored sequentially in internal iliac vein, common iliac vein, inferior vena cava, superior vena cava, heart, and pulmonary artery under the gray-scale imaging of Doppler ultrasound. The frequency, extent, and the hemodynamic and respiratory effects of gas emboli were evaluated. The interventions and outcomes were recorded. The risk factors associated with gas emboli, and their relationship with the frequency and extent of gas emboli, were assessed. In our study, evidence of gas emboli under Doppler ultrasound monitoring was observed in 44 (36.7%) patients. The operation was continued and finished as soon as possible for patients presenting with stable vital signs or transient hemodynamic and respiratory changes, which resolved spontaneously without intervention. The operation was paused for patients presenting with significant hemodynamic changes or loss of consciousness, and the operation was resumed shortly after resumption of stable vital signs following symptomatic treatment. All patients in our study finished the operation and recovered without developing serious complications. Data analysis showed prolonged procedure duration and increased bleeding volume were both positively correlated with the frequency and extent of gas emboli. Our study demonstrated a high frequency of gas emboli during hysteroscopy. Doppler ultrasonic monitoring combined with a clearer understanding of specific signs, symptoms, and risk factors will facilitate early detection and intervention of gas emboli during

  7. The incidence of monoclonal proteins during 7 years of screening in a District General Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R A; Smith, L; Pickering, P E

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of monoclonal proteins, during a 7-year period, in the population served by a typical District General Hospital. 183,300 sera were electrophoresed and 804 monoclonal proteins were detected. Various biochemical prognostic criteria, such as the concentration of monoclonal protein, incidence of Bence-Jones protein and the presence of reduced polyclonal immunoglobulins, were studied in an attempt to assess the benign or malignant nature of the monoclonal protein. In this study, 75% of the patients with monoclonal proteins fulfilled at least one of these criteria, demonstrating the importance of long-term monitoring. PMID:6698575

  8. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. Results 17% (n=8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Conclusion Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use. PMID:22511302

  9. Subsidence following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF): a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Giang, Gloria; Maharaj, Monish M.; Phan, Steven; Mobbs, Ralph J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a widely used surgical technique for disorders of the lumbar spine. One potential complication is the subsidence of disc height in the post-operative period. Few studies have reported the rate of subsidence in ALIF surgery prospectively. We prospectively evaluated the rate of subsidence in adult patients undergoing ALIF. Methods Results were obtained by reviewing scans of 147 patients. Disc heights were measured on radiographic scans taken pre-operatively in addition to post-operatively immediately, at 6 weeks and at 18 months. The anterior and posterior intervertebral disc heights were measured. Subsidence was defined as greater than or equal to 2 mm loss of height. Results A total of 15 patients (10.2%) had subsidence, with 7 being male. Each case was of delayed cage subsidence (DCS) >6 weeks postoperatively. The mean subsidence was 4.7 mm (range, 2.4–7.8). Mean anterior disc height was 8.6±0.4 mm preoperatively, which improved to 15.1±0.5 mm at latest follow-up. Mean posterior disc height was 4.7±0.2 mm preoperatively, which improved to 8.7±0.4 mm at latest follow-up. The mean lumbar lordosis (LL) angle was 42.5°±10.8° and the mean local disc angle (LDA) was 6.7°±4.0°. The 91.2% (n=114/125) of patients with appropriate radiological follow-up demonstrated fusion by latest follow-up. There was no correlation between subsidence rate with patient reported outcomes [Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form 12 Item survey (SF-12)] and fusion rates. There was a significant negative correlation between LL and extent of subsidence (Pearson correlation =−0.754, P=0.012). Conclusions In conclusion, we found that the subsidence rate at follow-up was generally low following standalone ALIF for this patient series. Patient clinical outcomes and bony fusion rates were not significantly influenced by subsidence. PMID:28744497

  10. Subsidence following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF): a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Prashanth J; Phan, Kevin; Giang, Gloria; Maharaj, Monish M; Phan, Steven; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2017-06-01

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a widely used surgical technique for disorders of the lumbar spine. One potential complication is the subsidence of disc height in the post-operative period. Few studies have reported the rate of subsidence in ALIF surgery prospectively. We prospectively evaluated the rate of subsidence in adult patients undergoing ALIF. Results were obtained by reviewing scans of 147 patients. Disc heights were measured on radiographic scans taken pre-operatively in addition to post-operatively immediately, at 6 weeks and at 18 months. The anterior and posterior intervertebral disc heights were measured. Subsidence was defined as greater than or equal to 2 mm loss of height. A total of 15 patients (10.2%) had subsidence, with 7 being male. Each case was of delayed cage subsidence (DCS) >6 weeks postoperatively. The mean subsidence was 4.7 mm (range, 2.4-7.8). Mean anterior disc height was 8.6±0.4 mm preoperatively, which improved to 15.1±0.5 mm at latest follow-up. Mean posterior disc height was 4.7±0.2 mm preoperatively, which improved to 8.7±0.4 mm at latest follow-up. The mean lumbar lordosis (LL) angle was 42.5°±10.8° and the mean local disc angle (LDA) was 6.7°±4.0°. The 91.2% (n=114/125) of patients with appropriate radiological follow-up demonstrated fusion by latest follow-up. There was no correlation between subsidence rate with patient reported outcomes [Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form 12 Item survey (SF-12)] and fusion rates. There was a significant negative correlation between LL and extent of subsidence (Pearson correlation =-0.754, P=0.012). In conclusion, we found that the subsidence rate at follow-up was generally low following standalone ALIF for this patient series. Patient clinical outcomes and bony fusion rates were not significantly influenced by subsidence.

  11. Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rockx, Barry; De Wit, Matty; Vennema, Harry; Vinjé, Jan; De Bruin, Erwin; Van Duynhoven, Yvonne; Koopmans, Marion

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the natural history of human Calicivirus infection in the community. Clinical information was obtained from 99 subjects infected with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) and 40 subjects infected with Sapporo-like viruses (SLV) in a prospective, community-based cohort study. NLV infection was common in all age groups, whereas SLV infection was mainly restricted to children aged <5 years. Symptoms lasted for a median of 5 and 6 days for NLV and SLV infections, respectively. Disease was characterized by diarrhea during the first 5 days (87% of patients with NLV infection and 95% of patients with SLV infection) and vomiting on the first day (74% for NLV and 60% for SLV). Vomiting was less common in children aged <1 year (59% for NLV and 44% for SLV) than it was among children aged >/=1 year (>75% for NLV and >67% for SLV). Overall, NLV was detected in 26% of patients up to 3 weeks after the onset of illness. This proportion was highest (38%) for children aged <1 year. SLV shedding subsided after 14 days. These data show that the durations of disease and viral shedding of caliciviruses are longer than has been described elsewhere. Therefore, the impact of these infections may have been underestimated.

  12. Telomere length and periodontal attachment loss: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, WM; Zeng, J; Broadbent, JM; Foster Page, LA; Shalev, I; Moffitt, TE; Caspi, A; Williams, SM; Braithwaite, AW; Robertson, SP; Poulton, R

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine the association between telomere erosion and periodontitis in a longstanding prospective cohort study of New Zealand adults. Specific hypotheses tested were: (1) that exposure to periodontitis at ages 26 and 38 was associated with accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion; and (2) that accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion was associated with higher rates of periodontitis by ages 26 and 38. Materials and Methods Periodontal attachment loss data were collected at ages 26 and 38. Blood samples taken at the same ages were analysed to obtain estimates of leucocyte telomere length and erosion over a 12-year period. Results Overall, mean telomere length reduced by 0.15 T/S ratio (adjusted) from age 26 to 38 among the 661 participants reported on here. During the same period, the mean attachment loss increased by 10%, after adjusting for sex, socio-economic status and smoking. Regression models showed that attachment loss did not predict telomere length, and that telomere erosion did not predict attachment loss. Conclusions Although both periodontitis and telomere length are age-dependent, they do not appear to be linked, suggesting that determination of leucocyte telomere length may not be a promising clinical approach at this age for identifying people who are at risk for periodontitis. PMID:26713854

  13. A prospective study of work stressors and the common cold.

    PubMed

    Park, S-G; Kim, H-C; Min, J-Y; Hwang, S H; Park, Y-S; Min, K-B

    2011-01-01

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for infectious diseases. Although psychological stress at work is considered an important problem for many workers, there is little evidence for the effect of work-related stress on infectious diseases. To investigate whether work-related stress affected the occurrence of the common cold in South Korean workers in small- to medium-sized manufacturing companies. We conducted a prospective study, involving 1241 workers. At the outset, we collected information regarding sociodemographic and work characteristics. At follow-up after 6 months, we asked subjects whether they had experienced common cold symptoms during the preceding 4 months. Male subjects experiencing stress at the outset were more likely to report having experienced the common cold at follow-up (odds ratios: high job demand group 1.74; 95% CI: 1.28-2.36; insufficient job control 1.42; 95% CI: 1.05-1.93; inadequate social support 1.40; 95% CI: 1.03-1.91). For females, no significant association between work stress and occurrence of the common cold was detected. Males experiencing work stress in job demand, job control and social support reported an increased occurrence of the common cold at follow-up but this association was not seen in females.

  14. A Prospective Three Generational Study of Fathers’ Constructive Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee D.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study considered multiple influences on 102 fathers’ constructive parenting of 181 children. Fathers in the second generation (G2) were recruited as boys on the basis of neighborhood risk for delinquency and assessed through early adulthood. The fathers’ parents (G1) and the G2 mothers of G3 also participated. A multiagent, multimethod approach was used to measure G1 and G2 constructive parenting (monitoring, discipline, warmth, and involvement), G2 positive adolescent adjustment, and problem behavior in all 3 generations, including G3 difficult temperament and externalizing problems in early and middle childhood, respectively. Path modeling supported direct transmission of G1 constructive parenting of G2 in late childhood to G2 constructive parenting of G3 in middle childhood. Of note, G1 parenting indirectly influenced G2 parenting through G2 positive adjustment but not through G2 adolescent antisocial behavior. G1 parenting influenced G2 parenting in both early and middle childhood of G3. G2 parenting influenced G3 problem behavior but not vice versa. Intergenerational continuities in parenting persisted, even when additional influences were considered. Transmission pathways are not limited to life-course adversity. Rather, constructive parenting is maintained, in part, by engendering positive adjustment in offspring. PMID:19702390

  15. Neuropsychological correlates of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kartsounis, L D; Poynton, A; Bridges, P K; Bartlett, J R

    1991-12-01

    Stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy is a surgical procedure performed for the alleviation of intractable affective disorders. It involves the destruction of bifrontal pathways located beneath and in front of the head of the caudate nucleus. We report the first prospective study of the neuropsychological correlates of this operation in 23 patients. Tests of general intelligence, speed and attention, as well as a wide range of focal cognitive tests, including tasks which have been reported in the literature to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction, were administered 1 wk before the operation, 2 wks after the operation and approximately 6 mths after the operation. The results indicated that this operation does not cause any significant, long-term adverse, cognitive deficits. In the post-operative assessment, however, patients show a significant deterioration in their performance on recognition memory tests and a large proportion of them present with a marked tendency to confabulate on recall tasks. In addition, their performance on some of the tasks which are considered to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction is found to be significantly impaired. These deficits are interpreted to reflect frontal lobe dysfunction due to widespread post-operative oedema rather than damage to the subcaudate pathways. The potential for research on these transient effects of the operation for the advancement of our understanding of frontal lobe functions is discussed.

  16. Metabolic Bone Disease in Viral Cirrhosis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Goubraim, Rabia; Kabbaj, Nawal; Salihoun, Mouna; Chaoui, Zakia; Nya, M'Hamed; Amrani, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Metabolic Bone disorders are well-recognized extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. The aim was to report their prevalence and the associated factors to their development in patients with viral cirrhosis. Patients and Methods. All consecutive patients with viral cirrhosis were prospectively enrolled. Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, liver function, and phosphocalcic tests were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine and total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Forty-six cirrhotic patients were included with hepatitis C (87%) and hepatitis B (13%). The Child-Pugh score was grade A in 87% of cases and grade B in 13%. Thirty-seven patients had decreased bone mineral density with osteopenia in 24 patients and osteoporosis in 13 patients. Decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D was found in 95.6% of cases. Bone disorders were significantly more frequent in old patients with low body mass index, long duration of liver disease, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. None of these factors was an independent factor associated with bone disorders. Conclusion. Our study revealed a high prevalence of metabolic bone disorders among viral cirrhotic patients. Consequently, bone mineral density assessment should be performed systematically in all cirrhotic patients. PMID:27398385

  17. Right heart in septic shock: prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ratender Kumar; Kumar, Sudeep; Nadig, Sreevatsa; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Poddar, Banani; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The right heart often receives less attention during echocardiography. The situation is no different in septic shock. We prospectively investigated the echocardiographic indices of the right heart in septic shock adult patients. Septic shock ICU patients within 24 h of admission were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as per the 2005 guidelines from the American Society of Echocardiography. Eighty-eight septic shock patients (M:F = 52:36) underwent TTE. Thirty-six patients survived. Significant differences in demographic and biochemical (laboratory and metabolic) parameters, severity scores, life-support therapies (vasopressors, ventilation), and length of ICU stay were observed between survivors and non-survivors. Right heart abnormalities of chamber dimension and systolic and diastolic function existed in 79, 25, and 86 % of patients, respectively. Right ventricle subcostal wall thickness (91 %), pulse Doppler myocardial performance index (73 %), and E/E' (63 %) were the predominant abnormalities in chamber dimension, systolic function, and diastolic function of the right heart, respectively. However, the presence of these abnormalities did not signify poor survival in our study. Right heart dimensional and functional abnormalities exist in high proportions in septic shock. However, their predictability of poor outcomes remains questionable.

  18. Diarrhoea in irradiated patients: a prospective multicentre observational study.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Stefano; Maranzano, Ernesto; De Angelis, Verena; Lupattelli, Marco; Frata, Paolo; Spagnesi, Stefano; Frisio, Maria Luisa; Mandoliti, Giovanni; Delia, Pietro; Malinverni, Giuseppe; Trippa, Fabio; Fabbietti, Letizia; Parisi, Salvatore; De Vecchi, Pietro; Sansotta, Giuseppe; Giorgetti, Celestino; Bergami, Tiziano; Orecchia, Roberto; Portaluri, Maurizio; Signor, Marco; Pontoriero, Antonio; Santacaterina, Anna; Di Gennaro, Davide

    2013-11-01

    To determine the incidence of cancer treatment-induced diarrhoea in patients submitted to irradiation. Forty-five Italian radiation oncology departments took part in this prospective observational study and a total of 1020 patients were enrolled. The accrual lasted three consecutive weeks; evaluation was based on diary cards filled in daily by patients during radiotherapy and one week after cessation. Diary cards recorded both the onset and intensity of diarrhoea. A total of 1004 patients were eligible for this analysis. 147/1004 (14.6%) patients had diarrhoea. The median minimum number of daily events was 1 (range 1-7) with a median maximum events of 3 (range 1-23). 82/147 patients (56.2%) had a drug prescription for diarrhoea. In the evaluation of the onset of diarrhoea, in multivariate analysis, we found the following factors to be statistically significant predictors of an increased likelihood of diarrhoea: primitive tumour site, therapeutic purpose and field size. Patients with abdominal-pelvic cancer, treated with curative purpose and using large field sizes are at high risk of cancer treatment-induced diarrhoea. Diarrhoea was also observed in patients treated at other sites. In this population group there is the need for more stringent monitoring during the delivery of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Ramin; Sibdari, Siamak Yousef; Rafiee, Elham; Yazdanian, Shideh

    2011-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infection and is a necrosis of the fascia and surrounding tissues. Despite recent advances in its management, outcomes have not improved and mortality rate is still high. Between September 2007 and August 2009, we prospectively studied twenty-four histopathologically proven necrotizing fasciitis patients to assess the prognostic factors that indicate the outcome. Mortality rate was 20.8%. Twelve patients (50%) improved, while seven patients (29.2%) were complicated by limb loss. Mortality rates related to upper and lower limb involvement were similar (20% vs. 22.2%). The rates of gangrene and amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than other comorbidities. Patients with gram-positive infections had significantly lower rates of amputation (15.4% vs. 54.5%, P = 0.04). Mean band cell count and serum potassium level were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors same as leukocyte count in the patients with gangrene, while serum sodium level was significantly lower in nonsurvivors. We conclude that hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and increased band cells in the peripheral blood of patients may be useful parameters in distinguishing life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis; hence, we recommended lower threshold to amputation during surgery for this group of patients.

  20. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru.

  1. Neonatal invasive candidiasis: a prospective multicenter study of 118 cases.

    PubMed

    López Sastre, José B; Coto Cotallo, Gil D; Fernández Colomer, Belén

    2003-04-01

    A prospective multicenter study was conducted to assess the epidemiology of neonatal invasive candidiasis in Spain. In a total of 20,565 admissions to the 27 participating neonatal units over an 18-month period, systemic candidiasis was diagnosed in 118 (0.57%) neonates. Candida species were isolated from the blood in 79 infants, from the urine in 33, and from the cerebrospinal fluid in 4; in 2 cases, histologic evidence of deep tissue candidiasis was found at autopsy. Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (< or = 1500 g) showed a significantly higher incidence of systemic candidiasis (4.8%) than infants weighing > 1500 g (0.2%) ( p < 0.001). Candida albicans was the most frequent species (52.5%) followed by C. parapsilosis (23.7%), and C. tropicalis (7.6%). Only seven infants were treated with amphotericin B (initial dose 0.18 +/- 0.3 mg/kg, maximal daily dose 1.7 +/- 0.9 mg/kg) but treatment was stopped in three of them (43%) due to nephrotoxicity. Liposomal amphotericin B was given to 81 neonates and amphotericin B lipid complex to 29. There were no differences in mortality rate and in the incidence of adverse effects in relation to treatment with liposomal amphotericin B or amphotericin B lipid complex. The mortality rate was 10.2% and all deaths occurred in the VLBW cohort with candidemia.

  2. Endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy: a long-term prospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, M E; Kaban, L B; Troulis, M J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy (EVRO) with rigid fixation for the treatment of mandibular prognathism or asymmetry. Inclusion criteria were age >15 years, adequate clinical and radiographic documentation, and minimum postoperative follow-up of 3 years. Exclusion criteria were refusal to consent, rheumatoid arthritis, steroid use, and smoking. Demographic data, pre-operative (T0), immediate postoperative (T1), and latest follow-up (T2) clinical examinations and cephalometric analysis, procedure data, complications, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were documented. Ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses included mandibular hyperplasia (n = 5), stable condylar hyperplasia (n = 4), and mandibular asymmetry secondary to condylar resorption (n = 1). In total, 17 EVROs were performed. The mean operative time was 33 min per side. Mean mandibular setback was 4.7 mm. Mean LOS was 1.9 days. Latest follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 years. Skeletal stability was confirmed in nine patients. One patient exhibited recurrence of mandibular prognathism at 5 years due to late growth. No VII nerve deficits were encountered. Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paresthesia was noted in four patients, which resolved postoperatively. EVRO was fast and resulted in minimal blood loss, quick recovery, and skeletal stability.

  3. Pain perception following different neurosurgical procedures: a quantitative prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, Manju; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Agarwal, Meena; Mahapatra, A K

    2016-08-01

    Pain following neurosurgery has never been given due attention. This was a prospective study to assess pain following various neurosurgical procedures. Patients underwent pain assessment on 11-point scale(0-10) for 24 hours following neurosurgery, and analyzed in relation to various factors. Among total 159 patients, 88(55%), 58(37%) and 13(8%) had undergone cranial, spinal and peripheral nerve procedures respectively. The mean pain score within 12 hours was 3.51(SD ± 2.53), which increased significantly during 13-24 hours to 5.06(SD ± 2.6)(P<0.001). During 13-24 hours, the pain score among those who underwent infratentorial procedures (8.02 ± 2.77) was significantly higher than among those who underwent supratentorial procedures (3.48 ± 1.99)(P<0.001). The pain score of patients who underwent lumbar surgery (6.5 ± 1.93) was significantly higher than of those who underwent cervical surgery (4.04 ± 2.43)(P<0.001). Age and gender did not show any significant influence on pain. Pain is significantly greater during 13-24 hours after neurosurgery, especially after infratentorial and lumbar surgical procedures, compared to others.

  4. Injuries in military parachuting: a prospective study of 4499 jumps.

    PubMed

    Ekeland, A

    1997-04-01

    In this prospective study, the parachuting injuries which occurred during 2031 jumps in basic courses of free fall were compared with the injuries occurring during 2468 jumps for reserve paratroopers on training exercises. Fifty-eight injuries were recorded in 51 paratroopers. The ankle was most commonly affected, and 80 per cent of the injuries involved the lower extremity. Only 14 per cent of the injured troopers suffered severe injuries (fractures, knee ligament ruptures). The injury rate for paratroopers on basic courses (19.7 injuries per 1000 jumps) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than for those on training exercises (4.5 injuries per 1000 jumps). Similar observations were made for severe injuries (2.0 versus 1.2 injuries per 1000 jumps, respectively). The injury risk increased with age. Most of the injuries occurred on landing, and about 70 per cent were mainly caused by improper landing fall technique. The rate of serious parachuting injuries was low for Norwegian paratroopers.

  5. Ultrasonography of Leprosy Neuropathy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lugão, Helena Barbosa; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p<0.05). Despite this reduction, we observed a greater frequency of poor CSA outcomes in the MB compared to the PB (77.8% and 40.6%; p>0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; p<0.05). There was significantly higher odds ratio (7.75; 95%CI: 1.56-38.45) for poor CSA outcomes only for M nerve in patients with reactions. Poor echogenicity outcomes were more frequent in MB (59.4%) compared to PB (22.2%) (p<0.05). There was significant association between poor Doppler outcomes and neuritis. Gender, disease duration, and leprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions.

  6. Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

  7. Antipsychotic induced metabolic changes & treatment response: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Eesha; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Varambally, Shivarama; Sivakumar, Palanimuthu T; Subbakrishna, Doddaballapur K; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic side effects of antipsychotics contribute to morbidity and non-compliance in treatment of psychosis. Multiple studies suggest that metabolic side effects correlate with response to antipsychotic treatment. However, few studies have systematically looked at this. We conducted an exploratory, naturalistic, prospective, trans-diagnostic study to examine this association. 100 patients with psychosis, initiated on antipsychotic treatment alone, were assessed on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), visual analog scale for appetite, anthropometric measurements (weight, waist circumference, body mass index), and fasting serum lipid and glucose profiles at baseline, 2-4 weeks (n=71) and 8-12 weeks (n=39). Subjects who dropped out at first/second follow-ups did not differ from those who followed-up, in age, sex, illness duration and BPRS scores. On forward stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, early (2-4 weeks) increase in appetite and triglyceride levels (R(2)=0.257; p=0.003) together predicted 26% variance in treatment response (BPRS score reduction) at first follow-up. At second follow-up 16% of variance in treatment response was predicted by early (2-4 weeks) increase in triglyceride levels (R(2)=0.169; p=0.009). Early appetite and triglyceride changes predicted antipsychotic treatment response. Involvement of dopaminergic, serotonergic and histaminergic neural pathways could explain the association between appetite and treatment response. Insulin signaling pathways have been implicated in lipid changes with antipsychotics. Study findings suggest metabolic side effects may be early predictors of antipsychotic response. These findings warrant further examination to elucidate the interaction between metabolic pathways and psychotic illnesses, and possibly mechanism of action of antipsychotics beyond dopamine blockade. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Multimodal Approach for Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Segura-Pérez, María; Hernández-Criado, M Teresa; Calvo-Lobo, César; Vega-Piris, Lorena; Fernández-Martín, Raquel; Rodríguez-Sanz, David

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pain intensity in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) following a multimodal rehabilitation protocol. A prospective study was carried out following the Template for Intervention Description and Replication criteria. Patients were recruited from the rehabilitation unit of a university hospital in Spain between 2009 and 2013. Patients were included if they had a medical diagnosis of MPS in any of the following regions: cervicobrachial (n = 102), lumbosacral (n = 30), elbow (n = 14), ankle and foot (n = 10), and temporomandibular jaw (n = 1). The multimodal rehabilitation protocol included myofascial trigger point dry needling, spray and stretching, Kinesio taping, eccentric exercise, and patient education. The protocol was applied for 4 weeks (5 sessions) for the active and/or latent myofascial trigger points in each body region. Pain intensity was measured by using the visual analog scale (VAS) immediately before beginning of the study and 1 week after completion of the protocol. The study sample comprised 150 patients (mean ± standard deviation age, 51.5 ± 1.19 years). Statistically significant differences were obtained for reduction in pain intensity (4 ± 2.03; P = .002). Clinically relevant reductions (VAS ≥30 mm; P < .001) were obtained in 78.7% of the interventions. Four treatment sessions reduced the VAS score by 10 mm in 83.55% of the sample. There were no statistically significant differences (P = .064) for reduction in pain intensity in the different body regions. A multimodal rehabilitation protocol showed clinically relevant differences in the reduction in pain intensity in different body regions in patients with MPS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units.

  10. Methylphenidate in Pregnancy: A Multicenter, Prospective, Comparative, Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Diav-Citrin, Orna; Shechtman, Svetlana; Arnon, Judy; Wajnberg, Rebecka; Borisch, Cornelia; Beck, Evelin; Richardson, Jonathan Luke; Bozzo, Pina; Nulman, Irena; Ornoy, Asher

    2016-09-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant medicinally used in the treatment of attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD). Data on its use in human pregnancy are limited. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the risk of major congenital anomalies after pregnancy exposure to methylphenidate for medical indications. In a prospective, comparative, multicenter observational study performed in 4 participating Teratology Information Services (in Jerusalem, Berlin, Newcastle upon Tyne, and Toronto) between 1996 and 2013, methylphenidate-exposed pregnancies were compared with pregnancies counseled for nonteratogenic exposure (NTE) after matching by maternal age, gestational age, and year at initial contact. 382 methylphenidate-exposed pregnancies (89.5% in the first trimester) were followed up. The overall rate of major congenital anomalies was similar between the groups (10/309 = 3.2% [methylphenidate] vs 13/358 = 3.6% [NTE], P = .780). The rates of major congenital anomalies (6/247 = 2.4% [methylphenidate] vs 12/358 = 3.4% [NTE], P = .511) and cardiovascular anomalies (2/247 = 0.8% [methylphenidate] vs 3/358 = 0.8% [NTE], P = .970) were also similar after exclusion of genetic or cytogenetic anomalies and limiting methylphenidate exposure to the period of organogenesis (weeks 4-13 after the last menstrual period). There was a higher rate of miscarriages and elective terminations of pregnancy in the methylphenidate group. Significant predictors for the miscarriages using Cox proportional hazards model were methylphenidate exposure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.23-3.20; P = .005) and past miscarriage (adjusted HR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.55; P < .001). The present study suggests that methylphenidate does not seem to increase the risk for major malformations. Further studies are required to establish its pregnancy safety and its possible association with miscarriages.

  11. A prospective study of patient safety incidents in gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Medical error occurs frequently with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aime to assess the frequency and type of endoscopy patient safety incidents (PSIs). Patients and methods A prospective observational study of PSIs in routine diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy was undertaken in a secondary and tertiary care center. Observations were undertaken within the endoscopy suite across pre-procedure, intra-procedure and post-procedure phases of care. Experienced (Consultant-level) and trainee endoscopists from medical, surgical, and nursing specialities were included. PSIs were defined as any safety issue that had the potential to or directly adversely affected patient care: PSIs included near misses, complications, adverse events and “never events”. PSIs were reviewed by an expert panel and categorized for severity and nature via expert consensus. Results One hundred and forty procedures (92 diagnostic, 48 therapeutic) over 37 lists (experienced operators n = 25, trainees n = 12) were analyzed. One hundred forty PSIs were identified (median 1 per procedure, range 0 – 7). Eighty-six PSIs (61 %) occurred in 48 therapeutic procedures. Zero PSIs were detected in 13 diagnostic procedures. 21 (15 %) PSIs were categorized as severe and 12 (9 %) had the potential to be “never events,” including patient misidentification and wrong procedure. Forty PSIs (28 %) were of intermediate severity and 78 (56 %) were minor. Oxygen monitoring PSIs occurred most frequently. Conclusion This is the first study documenting the range and frequency of PSIs in endoscopy. Although many errors are minor without immediate consequence, further work should identify whether prevention of such recurrent errors affects the incidence of severe errors, thus improving safety and quality. PMID:28191498

  12. Sense of coherence predicts uncomplicated delivery: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Oz, Yasmin; Sarid, Orly; Peleg, Roni; Sheiner, Eyal

    2009-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate factors predicting uncomplicated deliveries and specifically whether a sense of coherence (SOC) and perceived stress can predict such deliveries. A prospective observational study was conducted employing self-administered SOC and perceived stress scale (PSS) questionnaires with pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic for routine surveillance. Following delivery, data regarding maternal and fetal delivery complications were collected from the participants' medical records. Of one hundred forty-five women completing the study, 43.4% completed the delivery process without complications. Women experiencing delivery complications, on average, had lower SOC scores (67.7 +/- 1.19 vs. 72.2 +/- 1.32, p = 0.014). Maternal complications (as opposed to fetal complications) accounted for this divergence and were related to lower SOC scores (67.74 +/- 1.19 vs. 72.18 +/- 1.32, p = 0.01). PSS was not associated with uncomplicated delivery (18.82 +/- 0.59 vs. 17.98 +/- 0.62, p = 0.341). Nulliparity, however, was associated with higher occurrence of complicated delivery (31.9% of complicated vs. 13.2% of uncomplicated deliveries, p = 0.007). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that high SOC (OR = 1.042; 95% CI = 1.004-1.08; p = 0.03) and nulliparity (OR = 0.293; 95% CI = 0.113-0.758; p = 0.011) both were independent predictors of uncomplicated delivery, directly and inversely, respectively. In conclusion, higher SOC scores are an independent protective factor for the prediction of uncomplicated delivery.

  13. Prevalence of anal symptoms in general practice: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tournu, Géraldine; Abramowitz, Laurent; Couffignal, Camille; Juguet, Frédéric; Sénéjoux, Agnès; Berger, Stéphane; Wiart, Anne-Laure; Bernard, Marc; Provost, Françoise; Pillant-Le Moult, Hélène; Bouchard, Dominique; Aubert, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-03

    Anal disorders are largely underestimated in general practice. Studies have shown patients conceal anal symptoms leading to late diagnosis and treatment. Management by general practitioners is poorly described. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anal symptoms and their management in general practice. In this prospective, observational, national study set in France, all adult patients consulting their general practitioner during 2 days of consultation were included. Anal symptoms, whether spontaneously revealed or not, were systematically collected and assessed. For symptomatic patients, the obstacles to anal examination were evaluated. The general practitioner's diagnosis was collected and a proctologist visit was systematically proposed in case of anal symptoms. If the proctologist was consulted, his or her diagnosis was collected. From October 2014 to April 2015, 1061 patients were included by 57 general practitioners. The prevalence of anal symptoms was 15.6% (95% CI: 14-18). However, 85% of these patients did not spontaneously share their symptoms with their doctors, despite a discomfort rating of 3 out of 10 (range 1-5). Although 65% of patients agreed to an anal examination, it was not proposed in 45% of cases with anal symptoms. Performing the examination was associated with a significantly higher diagnosis rate of 76% versus 20% (p < 0.001). Proctologist and general practitioner diagnoses were consistent in 14 out of 17 cases. Patients' concealed anal symptoms are significant in general practice despite the impact on quality of life. Anal examination is seldom done. Improved training of general practitioners is required to break the taboo.

  14. Combined pubic rami and sacral osteoporotic fractures: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Alnaib, M; Waters, S; Shanshal, Y; Caplan, N; Jones, S; St Clair Gibson, A; Kader, D

    2012-06-01

    Pelvic osteoporotic fractures (POFs) are often associated with considerable morbidity and mortality mainly as a result of infections and cardiovascular events. Patients usually need prolonged institutionalization, rehabilitation, and follow-up, with a high rate of dependency and cost. The most common sites of POFs include the pubic rami, sacrum, ilium, and acetabulum. Combined pubic rami (PROFs) and sacral osteoporotic fractures (SOFs) have been reported, mostly in retrospective studies, describing the mechanism of injury and incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between PROFs and SOFs and to assess the effect of combined PROFs and SOFs on patients' mobility, discharge destination, and length of stay. We prospectively studied 67 patients with low-impact PROFs and/or SOFs. There were 54 (80.4%) female and 13 (19.6%) male patients, and the average age was 87.5 (range 65-96) years. All patients were assessed by the fracture liaison service. Patients had magnetic resonance imaging or bone scan when there was history of low back pain following the injury or lumbosacral tenderness on clinical examination. The mean length of stay for all patients was 45 (± 35) days. Mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant relationship was found between low back pain and a positive finding of sacral fracture. Patients with combined PROFs and SOFs showed significantly longer length of stay than those with isolated PROFs. The presence of low back pain and tenderness in patients who had low-impact pelvic injuries was highly suggestive of the presence of an associated SOF. There was a high association between sacral and PROFs. The length of stay of patients with PROFs associated with sacral osteoporotic fractures was significantly longer than that of patients with PROFs only. Therefore, we recommend considering the high association between SOFs and PROFs in planning the management and rehabilitation of patients with POFs.

  15. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wisborg, K; Barklin, A; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B

    2008-06-01

    To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. Prospective follow-up study. Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about psychological stress during pregnancy. Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological stress) and 3 (high psychological stress). Women with an intermediate level of psychological stress (scores of 7-11) were considered the reference group. Scores of 0-6 were defined as a low level of psychological stress and scores of 12-36 as the highest level. The association between psychological stress and stillbirth was presented as relative risks with 95% CIs. Adjustment for potential confounding factors was carried out by logistic regression analyses. Stillbirth (delivery of a dead fetus at >28 weeks of gestation). There were 66 stillbirths (3.4 per thousand) in the population studied. Compared with women with an intermediate level of psychological stress during pregnancy, women with a high level of stress had 80% increased risk of stillbirth (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.2). Adjustment for maternal age, parity, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy, education and cohabitation failed to change the result. The results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of preterm deliveries. Exclusion of women with complications during pregnancy such as diabetes, hypertension, vaginal bleeding, immunisation and imminent preterm delivery failed to change the results. Likewise, restriction to women's first pregnancy in the cohort did not change the results. Psychological stress during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth.

  16. Evaluation of neurosensory disturbance following orthognathic surgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Degala, Saikrishna; Shetty, Sujeeth Kumar; Bhanumathi, M

    2015-03-01

    The prospective study was to evaluate the incidence, type of neurosensory disturbance (NSD), grade its severity and monitor its recovery occurring in the lower lip and chin due to damage to inferior alveolar nerve following orthognathic surgery involving mandible. The study included 10 patients who have undergone sagittal split osteotomy, genioplasty, and anterior subapical osteotomy (ASO). All the patients examined preoperatively and post operatively 1 week, 1 and 6 months according to standardized test to clarify the subjective and objective neurosensory status of the injured nerve. Pin prick test, blunt test, two-point discrimator test, brush stoke direction, light touch test, warm and cold test were used bilaterally to lower lip and chin area. Seven patients underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) (70 %), one patient had BSSO with genioplasty (10 %), two patients had BSSO with ASO (20 %). During the operation none of the nerves were transectioned, in 60 % of patients nerve was not visible and in 40 % of patients nerve was seen in distal segment. 70 % of patients underwent setback, 30 % of patients underwent advancement. The subjective evaluation of the patients revealed the incidence of 90 % at 1 week, 30 % at 1 month, 20 % at 6 months and 10 % at 1 year post operatively. The altered sensation reported subjectively was hypoesthesia in 50 % of the patients, anaesthesia in 40 % of the patients. There was 100 % recovery in advancement cases and 93.5 % recovery in setback cases. There is a high incidence of NSD of the lower lip and chin after BSSO related to advancement, setback, intraoperative nerve encounter and surgical skill. However, recovery of sensation occurs with increasing frequency during the follow-up period. The clinical neurosensory tests are effective guides to study the neurosensory deficit.

  17. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Brian J; Eogan, Maeve; O'Connell, Michael P; Fahey, Tom; Gallagher, Paul J; Clarke, Tom; White, Martin J; McDermott, Christine; O'Sullivan, Anne; Carmody, Deirdre; Gleeson, Justin; Murphy, Deirdre J

    2012-08-01

      Methadone use in pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study aimed to examine perinatal outcomes and NAS in relation to (i) concomitant drug use and (ii) methadone dose.   Prospective cohort study.   Two tertiary care maternity hospitals.   A total of 117 pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment recruited between July 2009 and July 2010.   Information on concomitant drug use was recorded with the Addiction Severity Index. Perinatal outcomes included pre-term birth (<37 weeks' gestation), small-for-gestational-age (<10th centile) and neonatal unit admission. NAS outcomes included: incidence of medically treated NAS, peak Finnegan score, cumulative dose of NAS treatment and duration of hospitalization.   Of the 114 liveborn infants 11 (9.6%) were born pre-term, 49 (42.9%) were small-for-gestational-age, 56 (49.1%) had a neonatal unit admission and 29 (25.4%) were treated medically for NAS. Neonates exposed to methadone-only had a shorter hospitalization than those exposed to methadone and concomitant drugs (median 5.0 days versus 6.0 days, P = 0.03). Neonates exposed to methadone doses ≥80 mg required higher cumulative doses of morphine treatment for NAS (median 13.2 mg versus 19.3 mg, P = 0.03). The incidence and duration of NAS did not differ between the two dosage groups.   The incidence and duration of the neonatal abstinence syndrome is not associated with maternal methadone dose, but maternal opiate, benzodiazepine or cocaine use is associated with longer neonatal hospitalization. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A

    2014-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia is the present gold standard in treatment of symptomatic gall bladder disease. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia which could be more cost effective. A prospective study was conducted was over a fourteen month period at a teaching hospital to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia(SA). Patients meeting inclusion criteria were taken up for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia by standardized techniques. They underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were the secondary outcomes measured. All patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy without any major complications. None had to be converted to general anaesthesia in this series. The operation had to be converted to open incision in 3 patients. Commonest complaint was pain in right shoulder and anxiety at the beginning of operation/pneumoperitoneum. All patients were highly or well satisfied during follow up. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. In this study spinal anaesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was found to be safe even in patients with respiratory problems, cost-effective, with minimal postoperative pain and smooth recovery; the disadvantage being occasional right shoulder pain following pneumo-peritoneum (40%). Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups where cost is a major factor; provided proper backup is present.

  19. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia: A prospective, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Sangeeta; Chauhan, Ashutosh; Chaterjee, Pallab; Alam, Mohammed T

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Spinal anaesthesia has been reported as an alternative to general anaesthesia for performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). AIMS: Study aimed to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia (SA) in comparison to general anaesthesia(GA) SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective, randomised study conducted over a two year period at an urban, non teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients meeting inclusion criteria e randomised into two groups. Group A and Group B received general and spinal anaesthesia by standardised techniques. Both groups underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were secondary outcome measure. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The Student t test, Pearson′s chi-square test and Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Out of 235 cases enrolled in the study, 114 cases in Group A and 110 in Group B analysed. Mean anaesthesia time appeared to be more in the GA group (49.45 vs. 40.64, P = 0.02) while pneumoperitoneum time and corresponding the total surgery time was slightly longer in the SA group. 27/117 cases who received SA experienced intraoperative events, four significant enough to convert to GA. No postoperative complications noted in either group. Pain relief significantly more in SA group in immediate post operative period (06 and 12 hours) but same as GA group at time of discharge (24 hours). No late postoperative complication or readmission noted in either group. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups in developing countries where cost factor is a major factor. PMID:23741111

  20. Short term prospective study of cognitive functioning in lead workers.

    PubMed Central

    Stollery, B T; Broadbent, D E; Banks, H A; Lee, W R

    1991-01-01

    In a short term prospective study 70 male lead workers performed a series of cognitive tasks on three occasions during an eight month period. Concurrently with the cognitive testing, the concentrations of blood lead, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and urinary aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) were measured. Indicators of lead absorption were stable during the study and each subject was allocated to either a low (below 20 micrograms/dl), medium (21-40 micrograms/dl), or high (41-80 micrograms/dl) group on the basis of their average blood lead concentrations. Performance deficits tended to be restricted to the high lead group and, in general, neither practice nor continued exposure during the study altered the magnitude of these deficits. The main deficit was a slowing of sensory motor reaction time, which was seen most clearly when the cognitive demands of the task were low. In the cognitively simple five choice task, blood lead concentration correlated with impaired decision making, response execution, and "lapses in concentration." In the other cognitive tasks the high blood lead group tended also to be slower by a factor of about 1.08 but the dominance of cognitive over sensory motor demands attenuated the exposure-performance correlations. The high lead group also had difficulty in recalling nouns poorly related to the focus of an earlier semantic classification task. This difficulty increased over time and was one of the few findings that correlated with all measures of lead absorption. It is concluded that the primary psychological profile of lead impairment is one of sensory motor slowing coupled with difficulties in remembering incidental information. PMID:1954152

  1. Conservative Treatment of Distal Radius Fractures: A Prospective Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Pilar; Izquierdo, Óscar; Castellanos, Juan

    2017-06-01

    Disability of the upper limb is one of the consequences of distal radius fracture (DRF). The outcome of DRF treatment is based on objective clinical variables, as strength or range of movement (ROM); sometimes these variables do not correlate with the functional level of the patient. The principal objective of our study was to assess the repercussion of conservative treatment of DRF on upper limb disability. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. We collected data of 61 nonconsecutive DRFs treated conservatively from July 2007 to August 2008. Average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score before fracture was 20.8 points; average DASH score after the fracture was 42.6. There was a significant increase in the upper limb disability after 1 year of follow-up in the patients treated conservatively ( P < .001; size effect, 1.06). Average radial inclination, radial tilt, and radial length were 18.18°, 3.35°, and 5.76 mm, respectively. Average ROM for flexion-extension was 100.6° and for pronation-supination 144.0°. ROM for flexion-extension of the unaffected wrist was 128.2° and for pronation-supination 172.4°. We did not find any significant statistical correlation between the increase in disability and the decrease in the ROM ( P > .05). We did not find any significant statistical correlation between the increase in the disability and the worsening in the radiological parameters ( P > .05). Our results confirm the hypothesis that the conservative treatment of DRF produced an increase in the upper limb disability after 1 year of follow-up. Our study does not show a correlation between the increase in upper limb disability and the decrease in wrist ROM. Our study did not find a correlation between radiological measures and DASH scores.

  2. Outcomes of borderline rheumatic heart disease: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bertaina, Geneviève; Rouchon, Bernard; Huon, Bertrand; Guillot, Nina; Robillard, Corinne; Noël, Baptiste; Nadra, Marie; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier; Mirabel, Mariana

    2017-02-01

    The advent of systematic screening for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) by echocardiography in endemic regions has led to a new entity: borderline RHD. The pathogenicity and natural history of borderline RHD needs to be addressed. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of children detected by echocardiography as having borderline RHD. Schoolchildren in 4th grade (i.e., aged 9-10years) who were prospectively echo-screened for RHD (2012-2014) in Nouméa, New Caledonia, were asked to participate. Children with borderline RHD according to consistent independent review by two cardiologists were included and followed-up in 2015. Among the 8684 schoolchildren screened, 49 were diagnosed with borderline RHD according to the Cardiologist clinically involved in the child's management plan. After independent review by two cardiologists, 25 children were consistently diagnosed with borderline RHD and included in the follow-up study. Overall, inter-observer agreement was moderate with diagnostic kappa values of 0.63 (95% CI 0.45-0.78). After a median follow-up of 23months (IQR (20.5-33.0), 15 children (60.0%) had stability of valvular lesions, 8 (32.0%) had normal findings according to the WHF criteria. Two children (8.0%) had definite RHD on the follow-up echocardiogram, but no clinical events or audible pathological murmur during the study period. No factor could be identified as prognostic of either stability or progression. Borderline RHD diagnosed by systematic screening in high-risk populations remains mostly unchanged at 2years follow-up. Diagnosis of borderline RHD may require two reviewers for consistency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Prospective study of filtering blebs after XEN45 surgery.

    PubMed

    Olate-Pérez, Á; Pérez-Torregrosa, V T; Gargallo-Benedicto, A; Neira-Ibáñez, P; Cerdà-Ibáñez, M; Osorio-Alayo, V; Barreiro-Rego, A; Duch-Samper, A

    2017-08-01

    To qualitatively analyse the evolution of filtering blebs after XEN surgery, by using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). A prospective study was performed on filtering blebs of 30 eyes with cataracts and glaucoma, surgically operated on using phacoemulsification and XEN45 implantation (PHACO-XEN). AS-OCT was used to analyse bleb morphology and reflectivity at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Functionality was studied considering an intraocular pressure (IOP)≤18mmHg without antihypertensive medication. The IOP enabled the blebs to be classified into non-functional: flat (6.67%) and encapsulated (3.33%); and functional (90%), which were then divide by their morphology into cystic (5/27), diffuse (2/27), and layered (20/27). Cystic types had a mean IOP of 12.8, 12.6, and 14.0mmHg at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. In the diffuse type, the mean IOP was 13.0, 11.5 and 13.0mmHg at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. In the layers pattern the mean IOP was 14.45, 14.55 and 14.8mmHg at 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. The percentage of blebs with high reflectivity was 48.15%, 62.96%, and 77.78%, at 3, 6 and 12 months, with a mean IOP of 14.23, 14.59, and 15.14mmHg in each time period, respectively. AS-OCT could be a good predictor of bleb functionality in PHACO-XEN surgery. Those with a cystic pattern or low reflectivity seem to have better post-operative success. Nevertheless, more long-term studies are required. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comparative Study of Problematic Internet Use and Loneliness among Turkish and Korean Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutgun, Aylin; Deniz, Levent; Moon, Man-Ki

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to compare the problematic internet use and its relation to loneliness among two nations' prospective teachers, Turkey and South Korea. Five hundred and ninety five prospective teachers from three universities, two from Turkey and one from South Korea participated in the study. Generalized Problematic Internet Use…

  5. An Instrument Development Study for Determining Prospective Science Teachers' Science-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koksal, Mustafa Serdar; Ertekin, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    The study is focusing on development of an instrument to determine science-specific epistemological beliefs of prospective science teachers. The study involved 364 (male = 82, female = 282) prospective science teachers enrolled in a science teacher education program. The confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis and correlation analysis…

  6. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  7. A Qualitative Case Study of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge about Instructional Strategies: Introducing Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospective chemistry teachers' knowledge about instructional strategies, one component of pedagogical content knowledge about introducing particulate theory, as well as sources of this knowledge. Twenty-two prospective chemistry teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by the means of a…