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Sample records for 7-year study period

  1. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  2. Study of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic over a period of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Immunisation is an important part of childcare practice. It is one of the most beneficial and cost effective measures for the prevention of diseases. From the previous retrospective studies, it was evident that smallpox has been completely eradicated throughout now-a-days with the wholehearted and sincere efforts of healthcare providers by applying efficient and safe vaccine against smallpox, same is true also to polio which is now close to worldwide eradication and measles and rubella are no longer endemic in certain parts of the world. Not only has that with the introduction of safer and more efficient newer vaccines, the incidence of most other vaccine preventable disease of childhood also reduced considerably. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines for a period of seven years using prospective active surveillance. Children under the age of 7 years were taken for universal and newer scheduled vaccinations given in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic under the supervision of the clinicians maintaining strictly the guidelines of Expanded Programme of Immunisation (Government of India). This study of adverse events following immunisation in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic confirms that the adverse events such as fever (0.37%), pain and swelling at the site of injection (0.32%0, urticarial rash (0.02%), anaphylactic shock (0.003%) are negligible. There were only two reports of anaphylaxis following preschool and infant schedule vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines and typhoid vaccines in approximately 52,000 infants received over a period of 7 years starting from 1st April, 2005 to 31st March, 2012 and there were no deaths or longterm effects reported during the post follow-up period in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic.

  3. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  4. Human African trypanosomiasis with 7-year incubation period: clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Wengert, Oliver; Kopp, Marcel; Siebert, Eberhard; Stenzel, Werner; Hegasy, Guido; Suttorp, Norbert; Stich, August; Zoller, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also referred to as "sleeping sickness", is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Diagnosing imported HAT outside endemic areas is difficult and diagnosis is often delayed. We report a case of imported human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an unusually long incubation period of at least 7 years. A 33 year old male African patient, a former resident of Cameroon, presented with a 4-month history of progressive personality changes. A few weeks before presentation the patient had first been admitted to a psychiatric ward and received antidepressant treatment, until a lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis and then antibiotic treatment for suspected neuroborreliosis was initiated. The patient continued to deteriorate during antibiotic treatment and became increasingly lethargic. Under antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory treatment, the condition of the patient gradually improved over the following months and he recovered completely after 24 months of follow-up. This well-documented case illustrates typical difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis outside endemic areas and provides an overview of typical clinical, neuropathological and neuroimaging findings in T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis, guiding the clinician in establishing the correct diagnosis in this rare disease.

  5. Prenatal Diagnosis of Right Dominant Heart in Fetuses: A Tertiary Center Experience over a 7-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Juan; Zhu, Mei; Liang, Hao; Li, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Right dominant heart (RDH) in fetuses can occur with a number of cardiac as well as noncardiac anomalies. Analysis of the enlargement of the right cardiac chamber in the fetus remains a major challenge for sonographers and echocardiographers. The aim of this study was to report the experience with prenatal diagnosis of RDH in the fetuses over a 7-year period. Methods: Fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of RDH from July 2009 to July 2016 were evaluated in two different categories: according to the gestational age, Group I (n = 154, second trimester) and Group II (n = 298, third trimester); and according to the fetal echocardiography diagnosis, Group A (n = 452, abnormal cardiac structure) and Group B (n = 90, normal cardiac structure). Differences in categorical variables were assessed by Chi-square exact test and continuous variables were evaluated by independent Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test depending on parametric or nonparametric nature of the data. Results: Over a 7-year period, 452 fetuses were referred for the assessment of suspected RDH. Left-sided obstructive lesions were observed most frequently in the fetuses with RDH. When comparing Group I with Group II and Group A with Group B, the latter groups exhibited significant differences in the right/left ventricle (RV/LV) ratio (1.435 vs. 1.236, P = 0.002; 1.309 vs. 1.168, P = 0.047), RV width Z-score (1.626 vs. 1.104, P < 0.001; 1.553 vs. 0.814, P = 0.014), and above +2 cutoff percentages (14.3% vs. 22.5%; P = 0.038; 21.5% vs. 12.2%, P = 0.046). Multivariable logistic regression revealed no variables associated with perinatal survival. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that RDH warrants careful attention to the possible presence of a structural cardiac anomaly, especially left-sided obstructive lesions. A diagnosis of RDH is best supported by a combination of the RV Z-score and RV/LV ratio. Most of the fetuses with RDH and structurally normal hearts had favorable outcomes. PMID:28229989

  6. Malocclusions in children at 3 and 7 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor; Lennartsson, Bertil; Söderfeldt, Björn; Bondemark, Lars

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare the prevalence of malocclusion at ages 3 and 7 years in a sample of children, exploring the hypothesis that prevalence of malocclusion is higher at 3 than at 7 years of age and may be influenced by sucking habits. The study sample comprised 386 children (199 girls and 187 boys), aged 3 years at study start, sourced from three Public Dental Service clinics in Sweden. Malocclusion was diagnosed by clinical examination, using a specific protocol. Data on allergy, traumatic injuries, sucking habits, and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances were obtained by means of a questionnaire answered by child and parent in conjunction with the initial and final clinical examination. The overall prevalence of malocclusion decreased significantly, from 70 to 58% (P < 0.0001): predominantly anterior open bite, excessive overjet, and Class III malocclusion. Although high rates of spontaneous correction were also noted for deep bite, Class II malocclusion and posterior and anterior crossbites, new cases developed at almost the same rate; thus, the prevalence was unchanged at the end of the observation period. Anterior open bite and posterior crossbite were the only conditions showing significant associations with sucking habits. The results confirm the hypothesis of higher prevalence of malocclusion at 3 years of age and clearly support the strategy of deferring orthodontic correction of malocclusion until the mixed dentition stage.

  7. Streptococcus pyogenes emm Types and Clusters during a 7-Year Period (2007 to 2013) in Pharyngeal and Nonpharyngeal Pediatric Isolates.

    PubMed

    Koutouzi, F; Tsakris, A; Chatzichristou, P; Koutouzis, E; Daikos, G L; Kirikou, E; Petropoulou, N; Syriopoulou, V; Michos, A

    2015-07-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surveillance of emm types has important implications, as it can provide baseline information for possible implementation of vaccination. A total of 1,349 GAS pediatric isolates were collected during a 7-year period (2007 to 2013); emm typing was completed for 1,282 pharyngeal (84%) or nonpharyngeal (16%) isolates, and emm clusters and temporal changes were analyzed. Thirty-five different emm types, including 14 subtypes, were identified. The most prevalent emm types identified were 1 (16.7%), 12 (13.6%), 77 (10.9%), 4 (10.8%), 28 (10.4%), 6 (6.8%), 3 (6.6%), and 89 (6.6%), accounting for 82.3% of total isolates. Rheumatogenic emm types comprised 16.3% of total isolates. The emm types 12, 4, and 77 were more prevalent among pharyngeal isolates, and the emm types 1, 89, 6, 75, and 11 were more prevalent among nonpharyngeal isolates. The emm types identified belonged to 13 emm clusters, and the 8 most prevalent clusters comprised 97% of all isolates. There were statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of emm types 12, 4, 5, and 61 and increases in the prevalence of emm types 89, 75, and 11, compared with the period 2001 to 2006. The proposed 30-valent GAS vaccine, which is currently in preclinical studies, encompasses 97.2% of the emm types detected in our study and 97.4% of the erythromycin-resistant strains. In addition, it includes 93.3% of the emm types involved in bacteremia. A much greater diversity of GAS emm types was identified in our area than described previously. Seasonal fluctuations and the introduction of new emm types were observed. Continuous surveillance of emm types is needed in order to evaluate the possible benefits of an M protein-based GAS vaccine.

  8. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  9. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  10. Long-term trajectories of back pain: cohort study with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kate M; Campbell, Paul; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe long-term trajectories of back pain. Design Monthly data collection for 6 months at 7-year follow-up of participants in a prospective cohort study. Setting Primary care practices in Staffordshire, UK. Participants 228 people consulting their general practitioners with back pain, on whom information on 6-month back pain trajectories had been collected during 2001–2003, and who had valid consent and contact details in 2009–2010, were contacted. 155 participants (68% of those contacted) responded and provided sufficient data for primary analyses. Outcome measures Trajectories based on patients’ self-reports of back pain were identified using longitudinal latent class analysis. Trajectories were characterised using information on disability, psychological status and presence of other symptoms. Results Four clusters with different back pain trajectories at follow-up were identified: (1) no or occasional pain, (2) persistent mild pain, (3) fluctuating pain and (4) persistent severe pain. Trajectory clusters differed significantly from each other in terms of disability, psychological status and other symptoms. Most participants remained in a similar trajectory as 7 years previously (weighted κ 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.65). Conclusions Most people with back pain appear to follow a particular pain trajectory over long time periods, and do not have frequently recurring or widely fluctuating patterns. The results are limited by lack of information about the time between data collection periods and by loss to follow-up. However, findings do raise questions about standard divisions into acute and chronic back pain. A new framework for understanding the course of back pain is proposed. PMID:24334157

  11. Prospective clinical study of press-ceramic overlap and full veneer restorations: 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Stampf, Susanne; Stappert, Christian F J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the long-term performance of all-ceramic veneers with overlap (OV) and full veneer (FV) preparation designs. Twenty-five patients were restored using 42 OV restorations (incisal/palatal butt-joint margin) and 24 FV restorations (palatal rounded shoulder margin). All restorations were leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic anterior veneers. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for FV restorations and 97.6% for OV restorations. The all-ceramic veneers revealed significant deterioration over time according to United States Public Health Service criteria, irrespective of the preparation design. Based on the 7-year results of this study, both preparation designs can be considered reliable treatment options for anterior teeth with extended deficits.

  12. A retrospective 7-years study of aluminum phosphide poisoning in Tehran: opportunities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Shadnia, S; Sasanian, G; Allami, P; Hosseini, A; Ranjbar, A; Amini-Shirazi, N; Abdollahi, M

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to survey aluminum phosphide (AIP) poisoning in a referral poisoning hospital in Tehran servicing an estimation of 10,000,000 populations. Records of all patients admitted and hospitalized during a period of 7 years from January 2000 to January 2007 were collected and analyzed according to gender, age, cause of intoxication, amount of AIP consumed, route of exposure, time between exposure and onset of treatment, signs and symptoms of intoxication at admission, therapeutic intervention, laboratory tests, and outcome. During the studied years, 471 patients were admitted to the hospital with AIP poisoning; 50% of them were men. The overall case fatality ratio was 31%. The mean age was 27.1 years, and most of the patients were between 20 and 40 years old. Self-poisoning was observed in 93% of cases. The average ingested dose was 5.1 g, and most of the patients (73%) consumed 1-3 tablets of AIP. A wide range of symptoms and signs was seen on admission, but the most common one was cardiovascular manifestations (78.12%). The majority (65%) of patients were from Tehran. Poisoning in spring and winter (34% and 24%, respectively) was more common than other seasons. Gastric decontamination with potassium permanganate, and administration of calcium gluconate, magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, and charcoal were considered for most of the patients. Mean arterial blood pH was 7.23 and bicarbonate concentration was 12.7 mEq/L. One-hundred percent of patients with blood pH <7 died and 100% of patients with blood pH >or= 7.35 survived. Electrocardiogram (EKG) abnormalities were noted in 65.6% of cases. There was a significant difference between survival and non-survival according to pH, HCO(3) concentration, and EKG abnormality. Even without an increase in resources, there appears to be significant opportunities for reducing mortality by better medical management and further restrictions on the AIP tablets usage. Arterial blood pH seems to be a

  13. Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Inflammation Across 7-Years in Racially Diverse Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Danielle L.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Brown, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination has emerged as a predictor of negative psychological and physical health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. The goals of this study were to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was independently predicted by everyday discrimination or whether race or body mass index (BMI) modified this association over a 7-year period among 2,490 women from racially diverse backgrounds. At baseline, the 10-item Williams' measure of everyday discrimination was administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess these associations. Descriptive results showed that Black and Chinese women reported greater discrimination than White, Japanese, and Hispanic women, while Black and Hispanic women had the highest levels of CRP over the 7-year period. There was no main effect of everyday discrimination (B = .003, SE = .005, p = .58) and this association did not differ as a function of race (p's > .05). The everyday discrimination × BMI interaction term significantly predicted higher CRP levels over time in the full sample of women (p = .03). Specifically, in non-obese women (BMI less than 30), higher perceived everyday discrimination was associated with higher CRP levels over the 7-year period. These findings were independent of demographic, negative affect, biomedical, and behavioral factors. The results demonstrate that greater everyday discrimination is associated with increased inflammation over time in non-obese women. These findings highlight the implications of interpersonal sources of social stress for long-term physical health via their impact on intermediary biological pathways, specifically inflammation. Greater emphasis on such linkages is warranted as we work towards ameliorating health disparities exacerbated by individual-level factors. PMID:25342861

  14. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.

  15. Atypical femoral fractures in Italy: a retrospective analysis in a large urban emergency department during a 7-year period (2007-2013).

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoni, Mario; Giusti, Andrea; Girasole, Giuseppe; Abbate, Barbara; Verzicco, Ignazio; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) seen in a large emergency department in Italy. It was a retrospective study of all men and women aged 40 years or older admitted to the Emergency Department of Parma University Hospital for a femoral fracture. Cases were identified in the hospital database with use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code 820 or 821 or text strings. All the radiographic images of fractures not clearly identified as proximal or condylar were retrieved and evaluated by three independent reviewers. Fractures were considered as atypical if all three reviewers agreed on at least four of five major features defined by the 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research criteria. In the 7-year period (2007-2013), with a total follow-up of 1,383,154 patient-years, we found 22 AFFs in 21 patients, accounting for 7.1% of low-trauma subtrochanteric/femoral shaft fractures and 0.6% of all femoral fractures. The incidence was very low (1.6 in 100,000 patient-years in both sexes combined). In contrast, the incidence of classic fractures of the proximal end of the femur was at least two orders of magnitude higher (typical/atypical rate ratio 152). Bisphosphonate use was reported in 13 patients (62%; mean treatment duration 9 years; range 5-14 years). Among 286 patients with typical subtrochanteric/femoral shaft fractures, 20 were being treated with bisphosphonate (7%; odds ratio 22; 95% confidence interval 8-58; p < 0.001). This study confirms the very low incidence of AFFs in the largest Italian cohort of patients to date. Even though the risk is higher in patients treated with bisphosphonates, AFFs are very rare, and typical femoral fractures are at least 100-fold more frequent.

  16. Application of Moran’s Test with an Empirical Bayesian Rate to Leading Health Care Problems in Taiwan in a 7-Year Period (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pui-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on using Moran’s tests and logistic regression to detect changes in spatial clustering for females and males. Methods: For spatial distribution analysis, an average morbidity rate for a 7-year period was calculated. Medical cases from Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) were used as the numerator, and the denominator was the average mid-year population. Spatial analysis techniques, with a morbidity-smoothing coefficient estimate based on the empirical Bayesian method, were incorporated and applied to global and local Moran tests. In addition, we used a logistic regression model to test the characteristics of similarity and dissimilarity between males and females and to formulate the common spatial risk. Results: The mean found by local spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to identify spatial cluster patterns. There is great interest in discovering the relationship between leading health care problems and spatial risk factors. For example, in Taiwan, the geographic distribution of clusters where neoplasms were prevalent was found to closely correspond to the locations in the arseniasis-endemic areas of Southwestern and Northeastern Taiwan, as well as to locations in the Tainan urban area (for females) and clusters in Changhua County and Yunlin County (for males). The high-density populations in urban areas showed carcinogen clusters in Taiwan’s 3 main urban centers (i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung) for female neoplasms. Conclusion: Cluster mapping helped clarify issues such as the spatial aspects of both the internal and external correlations for leading health care events. This information greatly assists in assessing spatial risk factors, which facilitates the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies, as well as the implementation of effective health care services. PMID:22980379

  17. Molecular Analysis of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates from a Portuguese Cystic Fibrosis Center: a 7-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Mónica V.; Leitão, Jorge H.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Vandamme, Peter; Lito, Luís; Barreto, Celeste; Salgado, Maria José; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    This work reports results of a systematic molecular analysis involving 113 Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates obtained from 23 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients under surveillance over a 7-year period at the major Portuguese CF center, the Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon. The majority of the isolates were serial isolates from persistently infected patients (more than one-half of the population examined). In agreement with previous studies, B. cenocepacia (formerly genomovar III) was the most prevalent species; it was isolated from 52% of the patients infected with B. cepacia complex isolates. Contrasting with previous studies, a very significant percentage of the Portuguese CF subpopulation examined was infected with B. cepacia genomovar I (36%) and B. stabilis (18%). B. multivorans was recovered from two of the infected patients. All four of the species or genomovars were associated with poor clinical outcome, including the cepacia syndrome, and gave rise to chronic and transient infections, with the clinical condition depending on the patient and other still-unidentified factors. The B. cepacia epidemic strain marker region was found exclusively in genomovar III strains, while cblA was detected in genomovars I and III, only. There was no clear relation between the presence of these markers and transmissibility. Altogether, our results indicate that the use of these markers or the genomovar status in identifying patients at higher risk for infection is uncertain. PMID:12958234

  18. Mothers' attachment style, their mental health, and their children's emotional vulnerabilities: a 7-year study of children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Berant, Ety; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R

    2008-02-01

    The long-term contribution of mothers' attachment insecurities to their own and their children's psychological functioning was examined in a 7-year prospective longitudinal study of children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD). Sixty-three mothers of newborns with CHD participated in a three-wave study, beginning with the CHD diagnosis (T1), then 1 year later (T2), and again 7 years later (T3). At T1, the mothers reported on their attachment style and mental health. At T2, the mental health measure was administered again, along with a marital satisfaction scale. At T3, participants completed these two measures again, and their children reported on their self-concept and completed the Children's Apperception Test. Maternal avoidant attachment at T1 was the best predictor of deterioration in the mothers' mental health and marital satisfaction over the 7-year period, especially in a subgroup whose children had severe CHD. In addition, mothers' attachment insecurities (both anxiety and avoidance) at the beginning of the study were associated with their children's emotional problems and poor self-image 7 years later.

  19. In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Body Mass at Age 7 Years: The CHAMACOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic flame retardants that bioaccumulate in humans. Child serum PBDE concentrations in California are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs may be associated with obesity by disrupting endocrine systems. Objective In this study, we examined whether pre- and postnatal exposure to the components of pentaBDE mixture was associated with childhood obesity in a population of Latino children participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California. Methods We measured PBDEs in serum collected from 224 mothers during pregnancy and their children at 7 years of age, and examined associations with body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. Results Maternal PBDE serum levels during pregnancy were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys (BMI z-score βadjusted = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.19, 0.72) but lower scores in girls (BMI z-score βadjusted = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.87, –0.05) at 7 years of age (pinteraction = 0.04). In addition, child’s serum BDE-153 concentration (log10), but not other pentaBDE congeners, demonstrated inverse associations with BMI at age 7 years (BMI z-score βadjusted = –1.15; 95% CI: –1.53, –0.77), but there was no interaction by sex. Conclusions We estimated sex-specific associations with maternal PBDE levels during pregnancy and BMI at 7 years of age, finding positive associations in boys and negative associations in girls. Children’s serum BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI at 7 years with no difference by sex. Future studies should examine the longitudinal trends in obesity with PBDE exposure and changes in hormonal environment as children transition through puberty, as well as evaluate the potential for reverse causality. Citation Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. 2015. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environ

  20. Predictors for Asthma at Age 7 Years for Low-Income Children Enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamesis, Grace P; Covar, Ronina A; Strand, Matthew; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J.; Klinnert, Mary D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the predictive factors of early childhood wheezing in children of low socioeconomic status. Study design The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) enrolled 177 low-income children (9–24 months old) with frequent wheezing. At age 7 years, presence of asthma was assessed through caregiver reports of physician diagnosis of asthma (CRPDA) and corroborated by assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Lung function, inflammatory markers, and asthma symptom severity were compared for children with ±CRPDA, ±BHR, and asthma. Baseline predictors for CRPDA, BHR and asthma at 7 years of age were examined. Results Maternal symptom report strongly differentiated children with +CRPDA (50%) despite comparable airflow measurements (p<0.0001), and spirometric lung function measurements were different for +BHR (65%) vs. −BHR (p<0.005). Univariate analyses revealed different baseline predictors of +CRPDA and +BHR for children at age 7 years. Higher levels of maternal psychological resources were associated with +CRPDA, but not +BHR. Only 39% of children with a history of frequent wheezing met the conservative definition of asthma at age 7 years, with the following significant predictors found: low birth weight, baseline symptom severity and maternal psychological resources. Conclusions This low-income, multi-ethnic group of wheezing infants represents a unique population of children with distinct characteristics and risks for persistent asthma. Determination of asthma status at 7 years of age required objective measurement of BHR in addition to CRPDA. The association of maternal psychological resources with +CRPDA may represent a previously unrecognized factor in determination of asthma status among low-income groups. PMID:23036483

  1. Respiratory viruses in hospital patients on the Witwatersrand. A 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Joosting, A C; Harwin, R M; Orchard, M; Martin, E; Gear, J H

    1979-03-17

    Virological investigations were carried out on 4 151 patients with respiratory disease hospitalized between May 1966 and April 1972. The groups examined were Black and White children and Black miners. Influenza viruses were more common among malnourished Black children and tended to cause more severe disease. This was also true of adenovirus and Herpesvirus hominis type 1 infections. Adenoviruses appear to be secondary invaders, frequently after a measles or influenza attack. A generalized epidemic of adenovirus type 7 occurred in 1967, the longest, coldest and most humid winter during the survey. The season of peak occurrence for respiratory syncytial (RS) virus is autumn, not winter as found elsewhere. The parainfluenza viruses differ from each other, types 1 and 2 being commoner in older children (12--48 months), mainly causing laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB), whereas type 3 is commoner in younger children (0--23 months), mainly causing pneumonia. The miners showed a preponderance of influenza A infections. The miners' origin from remote villages and high turnover rate create a situation where a given strain will persist at a moderate level for long periods, unlike in the general population where an outbreak lasts for only about 6--8 weeks. As opposed to other closed communities, adenovirus infections were rare. The reason for this is obscure.

  2. Pattern of maxillofacial fractures in severe multiple trauma patients: a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Alves, La-Salete; Aragão, Irene; Sousa, Maria-José Carneiro; Gomes, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of facial trauma is high. This study has the primary objective of documenting and cataloging maxillofacial fractures in polytrauma patients. From a total of 1229 multiple trauma cases treated at the Emergency Room of the Santo Antonio Hospital - Oporto Hospital Center, Portugal, between August 2001 and December 2007, 251 patients had facial wounds and 209 had maxillofacial fractures. Aged ranged form 13 to 86 years. The applied selective method was based on the presence of facial wound with Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥1. Men had a higher incidence of maxillofacial fractures among multiple trauma patients (86.6%) and road traffic accidents were the primary cause of injuries (69.38%). Nasoorbitoethmoid complex was the most affected region (67.46%) followed by the maxilla (57.42%). The pattern and presentation of maxillofacial fractures had been studied in many parts of the world with varying results. Severe multiple trauma patients had different patterns of maxillofacial injuries. The number of maxillofacial trauma is on the rise worldwide as well as the incidence of associated sequelae. Maxillofacial fractures on multiple trauma patients were more frequent among males and in road traffic crashes. Knowing such data is elementary. The society should have a key role in the awareness of individuals and in prevention of road traffic accidents.

  3. Human factors in aircraft incidents - Results of a 7-year study (Andre Allard Memorial Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Reynard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that nearly all fatal aircraft accidents are preventable, and that most such accidents are due to human error. The present discussion is concerned with the results of a seven-year study of the data collected by the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The Aviation Safety Reporting System was designed to stimulate as large a flow as possible of information regarding errors and operational problems in the conduct of air operations. It was implemented in April, 1976. In the following 7.5 years, 35,000 reports have been received from pilots, controllers, and the armed forces. Human errors are found in more than 80 percent of these reports. Attention is given to the types of events reported, possible causal factors in incidents, the relationship of incidents and accidents, and sources of error in the data. ASRS reports include sufficient detail to permit authorities to institute changes in the national aviation system designed to minimize the likelihood of human error, and to insulate the system against the effects of errors.

  4. Violent Offending Among Juveniles: A 7-year Longitudinal Study of Recidivism, Desistance, and Associations With Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Hein, Sascha; Barbot, Baptiste; Square, Amanda; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine Foley; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2017-04-06

    Serious and violent offending among juveniles is a consistent concern of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, yet the development of violent offending remains poorly understood because of limited availability of relevant data, small sample sizes, and shortage of longitudinal data sets. This study analyzed developmental patterns of violent offending over 7 years in the complete population of court-referred youth in Connecticut between 2006 and 2012 (N = 58,678; mean age at first offense = 14.7 years). This unique dataset provided several key findings: First, results from a latent class growth analysis showed that violent crimes peaked at age 14-15, with high-rate adolescent offenders (3.7% of the sample) accounting for 31.9% of all violent offenses. Further, 74.2% of this group desisted from violent crimes in adulthood. Higher levels of self-reported anger/irritability slightly increased the odds of violent recidivism (odds ratio, OR = 1.09), where higher levels of depression/anxiety depressed the odds (OR = 0.89). The overrepresentation of males, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic youth among high-rate adolescence offenders were traceable through adolescence but not beyond the age of 18. Together, these finding may help to inform new delinquency interventions that target the needs of this proportionally small group of violent adolescent offenders accounting for a large amount of violent crimes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Maternal occupational exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy and risk of asthma in 7-year-old children: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Skadhauge, Lars R; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Frydenberg, Morten; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy is associated with the development of asthma in 7-year-old Danish children, taking atopic status and sex into consideration. Design The study is a prospective follow-up of a birth cohort. Setting and participants A total of 41 724 women and their children from The Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy and 18 months after pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was parent-reported asthma among their 7-year-old children in an internet-based questionnaire. Secondary outcome was asthma among the same children with or without atopic dermatitis and among boys and girls, respectively. Results Prenatal exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) agents was borderline associated with asthma in children with OR 1.17 (0.95 to 1.44) for children with atopic dermatitis and 1.10 (0.98 to 1.22) for children without. Maternal postnatal exposure was associated with asthma (OR 1.15 (1.04 to 1.28). After mutual adjustment,postnatal exposure (OR 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) and the combined effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure (OR 1.34 (1.19 to 1.51)) seem to increase the risk of asthma in children. No significant associations were observed for other prenatal or postnatal exposures. The gender of the child did not modify the aforementioned associations. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposures during pregnancy do not seem to be a substantial risk factor for the development of asthma in 7-year-old children. Maternal prenatal and postnatal exposures to LMW agents may predispose the propensity of the children to develop asthma. Future studies should prioritise the characterisation of the timing of exposure in relation to the birth. PMID:23585388

  6. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  7. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  8. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Mary E.; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers’ involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000–2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Results Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (p<0.05), odds ratios ranging between 0.81 and 0.89 per quintile of involvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Conclusion Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes. PMID:27654635

  9. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  10. A Study of Teacher Confidence in Teaching Music within the Context of the Introduction of the Foundation Phase (3-7 Years) Statutory Education Programme in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lara; Beauchamp, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher confidence in teaching music within the context of the introduction of a Foundation Phase "curriculum" in Wales for pupils aged 3-7 years. This involved a move away from music as a single subject to being part of creative development. The findings are based on a small-scale study of 12 teachers from four…

  11. Prospective clinical split-mouth study of pressed and CAD/CAM all-ceramic partial-coverage restorations: 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Steinhart, Yann-Niclas; Stampf, Susanne; Strub, Joerg R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical split-mouth study was to investigate the longterm performance of pressed and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) all-ceramic partial-coverage restorations (PCRs). Twentyfive patients were restored with 40 lithium disilicate pressed PCRs (IPS e.max-Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and 40 leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic CAD/CAM PCRs (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). All restorations were placed in vital first or second molars. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for pressed PCRs and 97% for CAD/ CAM PCRs. Both systems showed significant deterioration over time in all modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Increased surface roughness and impaired color match were significantly more prevalent with pressed PCRs. Based on the 7-year data, both all-ceramic systems can be considered reliable treatment options for posterior PCRs.

  12. Application of Multimedia Technology to Study the Ordinal Competences of Children from 3 to 7 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Pedro; Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present an ongoing research study on the evolution of pre-numerical and pre-inductive levels of ordinal thought in students from three to seven years old. Our methodology is based on multimedia technology, an automatic and objective record of the data and minimal interaction between students and researcher. A…

  13. Head proportion and shape of the head of children between 2 and 7 years--results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Grit

    2007-06-01

    Based upon a longitudinal anthropometric study with integrated picture documentation, the head proportion and head shape of two to seven years old children will be analysed. The study was initiated in April 2002 in the administrative districts of Potsdam and Potsdam-Mittelmark (Germany). 351 boys and girls have been measured and photographed. The children shall be examined up to four years until September 2006 with a half year investigation distance. Twenty-three anthropometric dimensions have been measured including six dimensions of the head. These dimensions of the head are the head length, head breadth, auricular height, interpupillary distance, facial height and lower face height. Furthermore, digital pictures have been taken of each child. So the head of each child can be examined in a frontal view (Norma frontalis) and in a lateral view (Norma lateralis) and will be analysed relating to changing proportions of the head. The results demonstrated and discussed here are based on a longitudinal succession of photos and point out a method to make individual patterns of the changing head proportions and head shape visual on pictures.

  14. The Relationship Between Father Involvement and Child Problem Behaviour in Intact Families: A 7-Year Cross-Lagged Study.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Narayanan, Martina K

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the cross-lagged relationship between father involvement and child problem behaviour across early-to-middle childhood, and tested whether temperament modulated any cross-lagged child behaviour effects on father involvement. It used data from the first four waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, when children (50.3 % male) were aged 9 months, and 3, 5 and 7 years. The sample was 8302 families where both biological parents were co-resident across the four waves. Father involvement (participation in play and physical and educational activities with the child) was measured at ages 3, 5 and 7, as was child problem behaviour (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Key child and family covariates related to father involvement and child problem behaviour were controlled. Little evidence was found that more father involvement predicted less child problem behaviour two years later, with the exception of father involvement at child's age 5 having a significant, but small, effect on peer problems at age 7. There were two child effects. More hyperactive children at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5, and children with more conduct problems at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5. Child temperament did not moderate any child behaviour effects on father involvement. Thus, in young, intact UK families, child adjustment appears to predict, rather than be predicted by, father involvement in early childhood. When children showed more problematic behaviours, fathers did not become less involved. In fact, early hyperactivity and conduct problems in children seemed to elicit more involvement from fathers. At school age, father involvement appeared to affect children's social adjustment rather than vice versa.

  15. Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Jaen, Javier; Vazquez, Gonzalo; Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura; De Las Heras, Manuel; Perez-Regadera, Jose F.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical

  16. A 5-7 year in vivo study of high-strength hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide) composite rods for the internal fixation of bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shin; Ishii, Shinsuke; Tamura, Jiro; Furukawa, Taizo; Neo, Masashi; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Shikinami, Yasuo; Okuno, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The biocompatibility and biodegradation of hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) composite bone implant rods were studied using two types of HA particles as reinforcing fillers, uncalcined-HA (u-HA) or calcined-HA (c-HA). Composite rods of u-HA/PLLA and c-HA/PLLA were implanted into the distal femurs of 25 rabbits. Four of these rabbits lived for more than 5 years after implantation, with one living for 7 years 4 months. Samples were retrieved after the rabbits died naturally and specimens were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For u-HA/PLLA, the shrinkage of the rods progressed further after 4 years, and some were almost completely resorbed. We could not find traces of the rod in some sections from more than 6 years. Remodeled bone encircled the residual material, and trabecular bone bonded directly to the rod was found toward the center. For u-HA/PLLA 30%, results were similar to u-HA/PLLA 40%, and the cross-sectional area had decreased by 4.0% at over 7 years. Most of the PLLA had been released from the rods. Neither obvious osteolytic nor osteoarthritic changes were found after 4 years.

  17. Acculturation and associated effects on abused immigrant women's safety and mental functioning: results of entry data for a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nava, Angeles; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence has negative effects on women's safety and wellbeing. When immigrant women are victimized the danger and poor health may intensify. The purpose was to determine the impact of acculturation on severity of violence, danger for murder, mental health functioning, and safety behaviors of abused immigrant women. Entry data of a 7-year prospective study of 106 abused immigrant women who were first time users of safe shelter or justice services is presented. The interview included the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, Danger Assessment, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Safety Behavior Checklist, and Acculturation for Hispanics instruments. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between acculturation and safety behaviors and BSI scores was established. Higher acculturation scores were associated with significantly more practiced safety behaviors and higher levels of depression. Understanding the specific needs of abuse immigrant women associated with acculturation is imperative to develop interventions to interrupt abuse and promote safety and mental well-being.

  18. Concerted actions of insulin-like growth factor 1, testosterone, and estradiol on peripubertal bone growth: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leiting; Wang, Qin; Wang, Qingju; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Mikkola, Tuija; Völgyi, Eszter; Cheng, Shumei; Wiklund, Petri; Munukka, Eveliina; Nicholson, Patrick; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2011-09-01

    A better understanding of how bone growth is regulated during peripuberty is important for optimizing the attainment of peak bone mass and for the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. In this report we used hierarchical models to evaluate the associations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), estradiol (E(2) ), and testosterone (T) with peripubertal bone growth in a 7-year longitudinal study. Two-hundred and fifty-eight healthy girls were assessed at baseline (mean age 11.2 years) and at 1, 2, 3.5, and 7 years. Serum concentrations of IGF-1, E(2) , and T were determined. Musculoskeletal properties in the left lower leg were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Serum levels of IGF-1, E(2) , and T increased dramatically before menarche, whereas they decreased, plateaued, or increased at a lower rate, respectively, after menarche. IGF-1 level was positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC) and total bone mineral content (tBMC) throughout peripuberty but not after adjustment for muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA). On the other hand, IGF-1 was associated with tibial length (TL) independently of mCSA before menarche. T was positively associated with TL, PC, tBMC, and cortical volumetric bone mineral density, independent of mCSA, before menarche but not after. E(2) was associated with TL positively before menarche but negatively after menarche. These findings suggest that during puberty, circulating IGF-1 promotes bone periosteal apposition and mass accrual indirectly, probably through stimulating muscle growth, whereas the effects of sex steroids on bone growth differ before and after menarche, presenting a biphasic pattern. Hence the concerted actions of these hormones are essential for optimal bone development in peripuberty.

  19. Association between Prenatal Exposure to Methylmercury and Visuospatial Ability at 10.7 years in the Seychelles Child Development Study1

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Philip W.; Jean-Sloane-Reeves; Myers, Gary J.; Hansen, Ole Nørby; Huang, Li-Shan; Georger, Leslie A.; Cox, Christopher; Thurston, Sally W.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Clarkson, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    The Seychelles Child Development Study was designed to test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to MeHg from maternal consumption of a diet high in fish is detrimental to child neurodevelopment. To date, no consistent pattern of adverse associations between prenatal exposure and children’s development has appeared. In a comprehensive review of developmental studies involving MeHg, a panel of experts recommended a more consistent use of the same endpoints across studies to facilitate comparisons. Both the SCDS and the Faeroe Islands studies administered the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. However, the method of test administration and scoring used was different. We repeated the test on the SCDS Main Study children (mean age 10.7 years) using the same testing and scoring procedure reported by the Faeroe studies to obtain Copying Task and Reproduction Task scores. We found no association between prenatal MeHg exposure and Copying Task scores which was reported from the Faeroese study. However, our analysis did show a significant adverse association between MeHg and Reproduction Task scores with all the data (p= 0.04), but not when the single outlier was removed (p = 0.07). In a population whose exposure to MeHg is from fish consumption, we continue to find no consistent adverse association between MeHg and visual motor coordination. PMID:18400302

  20. Occurrence of the - -(SEA), - -(THAI) and - -(FIL) α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers from a 7-Year Study at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongjantharasatien, Kobkorn; Banyatsuppasin, Wansa; Pounsawat, Sonnarong; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-08-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most common genetic diseases in Thailand. Homozygosity of α-thal-1 (- -/- -) and compound heterozygosity of α-thal-1/α-thal-2 (- -/-α) leads to Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis and Hb H (β4) disease, respectively. In order to better control and provide prevention of α-thal disease, the prevalence of α-thal-1 carriers and the types of genotypes in the Thai population should be known. A 7-year retrospective study, employing multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) of 31,632 blood samples from Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, revealed an α-thal-1 carrier rate of 14.40% with the - -(SEA) (NG_000006.1: g.26264_45564del19301), - -(THAI) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del33501) and - -(FIL) (NG_000006.1: g.11684_43534del31851) genotypes, constituting frequencies of 14.21, 0.18 and 0.01%, respectively. Although the - -(FIL) genotype is rare in the Thailand, its detection should be included in future α-thal screening programs.

  1. Early BCG and pertussis vaccination and atopic diseases in 5- to 7-year-old preschool children from Augsburg, Germany: results from the MIRIAM study.

    PubMed

    Möhrenschlager, Matthias; Haberl, Victoria M; Krämer, Ursula; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannnes

    2007-02-01

    The role of immunization in the development of atopic disorders is still under debate. One reason might be, that because of high vaccination coverage in most countries only few and selected children are not immunized, leading to unstable and often biased effect estimates. In Germany, the situation was different between 1985 and 1991: bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and pertussis vaccination were not officially recommended leading to high numbers of non-vaccinated children in the 1990s. We report on a cross-sectional study with 1673 participants among 5- to 7-year-old preschool children conducted in 1996. We found no hint that BCG vaccination or whole-cell pertussis (WCP) vaccination may lead to higher prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema or allergic sensitization at preschool age. None of the associations was significantly positive. WCP vaccination may be protective against asthma OR 0.55 (95% CI: 0.31-0.98) and against symptoms of eczema in boys.

  2. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  3. Cross-sectional study of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness at 7 years after an acute episode of unilateral primary acute angle closure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacky W Y; Woo, Tiffany T Y; Yau, Gordon S K; Yip, Stan; Yick, Doris W F; Wong, Jasper; Wong, Raymond L M; Wong, Ian Y H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the long-term retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) status and determinants of RNFL thinning after an episode of unilateral primary acute angle closure (AAC). This cross-sectional study analyzed the medical records of consecutive patients with a single episode of unilateral AAC from 1999 to 2009 in Hong Kong. The peripapillary RNFL thickness was correlated with age, gender, presenting intraocular pressure (IOP), time to laser iridotomy, time to cataract extraction, follow-up duration, as well as the last IOP, vertical cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and vision. The fellow uninvolved eye was used as a proxy comparison of RNFL loss in the attack eye. In 40 eligible patients, the mean age was 68.3 ± 8.7 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1:7. The mean presenting IOP was 49.2 ± 14.0 mm Hg and the time from presentation to laser iridotomy was 6.7 ± 6.9 days. Forty percent of subjects received a cataract extraction at 3.2 ± 2.9 years after the attack. The last IOP, CDR, and LogMAR vision were 16.0 ± 3.8 mm Hg, 0.6 ± 0.2, and 0.6 ± 0.6 LogMAR units, respectively, at 7.9 ± 2.4 years. The RNFL thickness in the attack eye (69.2 ± 19.1 μm) was 25.2 ± 17.9% thinner than the fellow eye (93.0 ± 17.8 μm) at 7.5 ± 2.9 years post-AAC. Using univariate analysis, the last vertical CDR (odds ratio [OR] = 17.2, P = 0.049) and LogMAR visual acuity (VA) (OR = 6.6, P = 0.03) were the only significant predictors for RNFL thinning whereas none of the other covariates showed significant associations (P > 0.1). At 7.5 years following unilateral AAC, the RNFL thickness was 25% thinner than the fellow eye. CDR enlargement and poor VA were the only significant predictors for RNFL loss.

  4. [A retrospective study on HBsAg clearance rate after antiviral therapy in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B aged 1-7 years].

    PubMed

    Zhu, S S; Dong, Y; Xu, Z Q; Wang, L M; Chen, D W; Gan, Y; Wang, F C; Yan, J G; Cao, L L; Wang, P; Zhang, H F

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the HBsAg clearance rate after antiviral therapy in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) aged 1-7 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the HBsAg clearance rate in 293 children who were hospitalized in 302 Hospital of PLA from June 2006 to December 2013, met the inclusion criteria, received antiviral therapy, and were followed up for at least 6 months after the withdrawal of antiviral therapy. The t-test or the rank sum test was applied according to the distribution of continuous data, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data. Results: The HBsAg positive rate of children's mothers was 91.1%. In the age groups of >1-≤2 years, >2-≤3 years, >3-≤4 years, >4-≤5 years, >5-≤6 years, and >6-≤7 years, the HBsAg clearance rates were 66.1%, 65.5%, 45.7%, 41.3%, 20.6%, and 27.6%, respectively. There were significant differences in HBsAg clearance rate between the age groups of >1-≤3 years and >3-≤5 years, >1-≤3 years and >5-≤7 years, and >3-≤5 years and >5-≤7 years (P = 0.001, 0.000, and 0.008). Of all children, 64.8% were boys, among whom 41.1% achieved HBsAg clearance, and 35.2% were girls, among whom 61.2% achieved HBsAg clearance; there was a significant difference in HBsAg clearance rate between boys and girls (P = 0.001). The children with pretreatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of ≤80 IU/L, > 80 IU/L, ≤200 IU/L, and > 200 IU/L had HBsAg clearance rates of 40.7%, 51.2%, 47.6%, and 49.4%, respectively; there were no significant differences in HBsAg clearance rate between the ALT ≤80 IU/L and ALT > 80 IU/L groups and the ALT ≤200 IU/L and ALT > 200 IU/L groups (P = 0.101 and 0.778). There was no significant difference in HBsAg clearance rate between the pretreatment HBV DNA load < 1×10(7) IU/ml and ≥1×10(7) IU/ml groups (54.9% vs 46.7%, P = 0.286). Of all children, 14.2% had genotype B and an HBsAg clearance rate of 57.1%, and 85% had

  5. Protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic stress: a comparative study of 4 communities after 7 years of continuous rocket fire.

    PubMed

    Gelkopf, Marc; Berger, Rony; Bleich, Avraham; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2012-03-01

    Many communities across the world are chronically exposed to extreme violence. Responses of residents from a city and rural community in Southern Israel, both exposed to 7 years of daily mortar fire, were compared to residents from demographically, socio-economically and geographically comparable non-exposed control samples to examine protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic war-related attacks. Samples from a highly exposed city (Sderot) and a highly exposed rural community region (Otef Aza), along with a demographically comparable comparison non-exposed city (Ofakim) and non-exposed rural community region (Hevel Lachish), were obtained in 2007 using Random Digit Dialing. In total, 740 individuals (81.8% participation rate) were interviewed about trauma exposure, mental health, functioning and health care utilization. In the highly exposed city of Sderot, 97.8% of residents had been in close proximity to falling rockets; in the highly exposed rural community region of Otef Aza, 95.5% were similarly exposed. Despite exposure to chronic rocket attacks, residents of Otef Aza evidenced little symptomatology: only one person (1.5%) reported symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functioning levels did not differ from those of non-exposed communities. In contrast, posttraumatic stress (PTS), distress, functional impairment and health care utilization were substantially higher in the highly exposed city of Sderot than the other three communities. Lack of resources was associated with increased vulnerability among city residents; predictors of PTS across all samples included being female, older, directly exposed to rockets, history of trauma, suffering economic loss, and lacking social support. Increased community solidarity, sense of belonging and confidence in authorities may have served a protective function for residents of rural communities, despite the chronic attacks to which they were exposed.

  6. Light drinking versus abstinence in pregnancy – behavioural and cognitive outcomes in 7-year-old children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Y; Iacovou, M; Quigley, MA; Gray, R; Wolke, D; Kelly, J; Sacker, A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether light drinking in pregnancy is linked to unfavourable developmental outcomes in children. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting UK. Population Ten thousand five hundred and thirty-four 7-year-olds. Methods Quasi-experimental using propensity score matching (PSM) to compare children born to light (up to 2 units per week) and non-drinkers. Main outcome measures Behavioural difficulties rated by parents and teachers; cognitive test scores for reading, maths and spatial skills. Results Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and PSM analyses are presented. For behavioural difficulties, unadjusted estimates for percentage standard deviation (SD) score differences ranged from 2 to 14%. On adjustment for potential confounders, differences were attenuated, with a loss of statistical significance, except for teacher-rated boys' difficulties. For boys, parent-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −11.5; OLS, −4.3; PSM, −6.8; teacher-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −13.9; OLS, −9.6; PSM, −10.8. For girls, parent-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −9.6; OLS, −2.9; PSM, −4.5; teacher-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −2.4; OLS, 4.9; PSM, 3.9. For cognitive test scores, unadjusted estimates for differences ranged between 12 and 21% of an SD score for reading, maths and spatial skills. After adjustment for potential confounders, estimates were reduced, but remained statistically significantly different for reading and for spatial skills in boys. For boys, reading: unadjusted, 20.9; OLS, 8.3; PSM, 7.3; maths: unadjusted, 14.7; OLS, 5.0; PSM, 6.5; spatial skills: unadjusted, 16.2; OLS, 7.6; PSM, 8.1. For girls, reading: unadjusted, 11.6; OLS, −0.3; PSM, −0.5; maths: unadjusted, 12.9; OLS, 4.3; PSM, 3.9; spatial skills: unadjusted, 16.2; OLS, 7.7; PSM, 6.4. Conclusion The findings suggest that light drinking during pregnancy is not linked to developmental problems in mid

  7. Long-term evaluation of osseointegrated implants placed in sites augmented with sinus floor elevation associated with vertical ridge augmentation: a retrospective study of 38 consecutive implants with 1- to 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Simion, Massimo; Fontana, Filippo; Rasperini, Giulio; Maiorana, Carlo

    2004-06-01

    This clinical study retrospectively evaluated, after 1 to 7 years of prosthetic loading, 38 implants consecutively placed in 16 surgical sites, where severe atrophy of the posterior maxilla was treated by combining sinus elevation with the vertical ridge regenerative procedure. Two different surgical techniques were adopted. In seven patients (16 implants), implants were placed at the same stage as the regenerative procedures. In the other seven patients (22 implants), implant placement was performed at second-stage surgery, after 6 to 13 months of submerged membrane healing. Each implant was classified as a success, survival, or failure. The distance between the top of the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was assessed radiographically for every implant at the mesial and distal sides. Two membranes became exposed during the healing process (12.5%). In the remaining 14 sites (87.5%), the membrane remained covered for a 6- to 13-month healing period. The survival rate of the implants was 92.1%, whereas the success rate was 76.3%. Three implants (7.9%) failed. A comparison of the implant shoulder-bone-implant contact distances between abutment connection and the last examination showed a mean crestal loss of 1.65 mm at the mesial side and 1.68 mm at the distal side. The bone regenerated vertically by means of sinus floor elevation and vertical ridge augmentation showed the same biologic behavior as native, nonregenerated bone; however, in a few cases, its remodeling pattern seemed to determine slightly higher bone crest resorption.

  8. Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6-7 Years: A National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…

  9. Is Auditory Discrimination Mature by Middle Childhood? A Study Using Time-Frequency Analysis of Mismatch Responses from 7 Years to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological studies give differing impressions of when auditory discrimination is mature. Ability to discriminate frequency and speech contrasts reaches adult levels only around 12 years of age, yet an electrophysiological index of auditory discrimination, the mismatch negativity (MMN), is reported to be as large in…

  10. Cognitive Skills Used to Solve Mathematical Word Problems and Numerical Operations: A Study of 6- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Isabel Maria; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between skills that underpin mathematical word problems and those that underpin numerical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Sixty children aged 6-7 years were tested on measures of mathematical ability, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, verbal intelligence and…

  11. Transitioning to and Sustaining District-Wide Inclusive Services: A 7-Year Study of a District's Ongoing Journey and Its Accompanying Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryndak, Diane Lea; Reardon, Ric; Benner, Susan R.; Ward, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    This case study describes the journey of one school district as it focused for 5 years on affecting district-wide systemic change related to inclusive education for all students with disabilities, including those with severe disabilities. Information is provided about the district's efforts across 5 years, and data are provided across those 5 and…

  12. Reinduction with Certolizumab Pegol in Patients with Crohn's Disease Experiencing Disease Exacerbation: 7-Year Data from the PRECiSE 4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David T.; Sandborn, William J.; Randall, Charles; Younes, Ziad; Schreiber, Stefan; Schwartz, David A.; Burakoff, Robert; Binion, David; Dassopoulos, Themos; Arsenescu, Razvan; Gutierrez, Alexandra; Scherl, Ellen; Kayhan, Cem; Hasan, Iram; Kosutic, Gordana; Spearman, Marshall; Sen, David; Coarse, Jason; Hanauer, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with Crohn's disease in whom tumor necrosis factor antagonist therapy fails have limited treatment options, and the benefit of reintroducing the same therapy remains unclear. Here, we report results from PRECiSE 4 (NCT00160706), an open-label extension study of certolizumab pegol in patients who withdrew from the placebo-controlled studies PRECiSE 1 or 2. Methods: Patients eligible for PRECiSE 4 had Crohn's disease exacerbation on placebo or primary or secondary failure to certolizumab pegol in PRECiSE 1 or 2, and received 400 mg certolizumab pegol subcutaneously at weeks 0, 2, and 4 and every 4 weeks thereafter up to 360 weeks. We assessed safety (adverse events) and efficacy (clinical remission) of extended certolizumab pegol therapy. Results: Patients enrolled in PRECiSE 4 (N = 310; mean age, 37 yr; 58% female; 95% white) had a mean Crohn's disease duration of 8.5 years before entering the qualifying studies. At weeks 52, 104, and 156, remission rates were 28.5%, 17.5%, and 12.6% by nonremitter imputation, and 63.8%, 60.0%, and 63.5% by observed cases, with 47.4%, 31.9%, and 23.2% of patients, respectively, remaining on therapy. By study end (7.5 yr), 92.3% of patients discontinued therapy, 49% on account of adverse events. No new safety signals emerged. Incidence rate (new cases)/100 patient-years was 6.11 for serious infections and 1.29 for malignancies. Conclusions: Certolizumab pegol was effective in many patients who previously discontinued certolizumab pegol for lack or loss of response. Thus, discontinuation of therapy may not always be necessary. Safety was consistent with previous findings. PMID:27400222

  13. A 7-year follow-up retrospective, international, multicenter study of insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Ho, Josephine; Cardona-Hernandez, Roque; Suarez-Ortega, Larisa; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the long-term glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for at least 5 years in three diabetes centers from three different countries: Canada, Italy and Spain. This was an observational retrospective multicenter cohort study. Subjects were included if they were followed at one of the participating centers, had type 1 diabetes, age 5-20 years at time of data collection and used CSII for more than 5 years. Data collected included gender, age, disease duration, age at CSII initiation, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin requirement and serious adverse events (SAE) at baseline and every 12 months during follow-up. One hundred fifteen patients were included in the study (55% males), aged 5-20 years (mean: 13.5 ± 3.8 years), with mean diabetes duration of 6.3 ± 3.4 years, using CSII for mean of 6.9 ± 1.2 years (range 5-12 years.). HbA1c significantly improved after 1 year of CSII treatment and during follow-up (p = 0.02). When HbA1c was compared between countries, a difference was observed, with slightly lower values in Italy than in Canada and Spain (p = 0.04). When evaluated by gender, HbA1c was similar at baseline, but significantly improved only in males during all follow-up (p = 0.004). No significant differences were observed for BMI, insulin requirement or SAE. Insulin pump therapy is safe and effective in the pediatric population, although in this study, the major benefit in HbA1c was seen in males. The use of advanced pump features was associated with greater improvement in HbA1c.

  14. Long-term Effectiveness of Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy in Partial Epileptic Patients: A 7-year Study in an Epilepsy Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fei; Lang, Sen-Yang; Wang, Xiang-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Ma, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jia-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is important to choose an appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) to manage partial epilepsy. Traditional AEDs, such as carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA), have been proven to have good therapeutic effects. However, in recent years, a variety of new AEDs have increasingly been used as first-line treatments for partial epilepsy. As the studies regarding the effectiveness of new drugs and comparisons between new AEDs and traditional AEDs are few, it is determined that these are areas in need of further research. Accordingly, this study investigated the long-term effectiveness of six AEDs used as monotherapy in patients with partial epilepsy. Methods: This is a retrospective, long-term observational study. Patients with partial epilepsy who received monotherapy with one of six AEDs, namely, CBZ, VPA, topiramate (TPM), oxcarbazepine (OXC), lamotrigine (LTG), or levetiracetam (LEV), were identified and followed up from May 2007 to October 2014, and time to first seizure after treatment, 12-month remission rate, retention rate, reasons for treatment discontinuation, and adverse effects were evaluated. Results: A total of 789 patients were enrolled. The median time of follow-up was 56.95 months. CBZ exhibited the best time to first seizure, with a median time to first seizure of 36.06 months (95% confidential interval: 30.64–44.07). CBZ exhibited the highest 12-month remission rate (85.55%), which was significantly higher than those of TPM (69.38%, P = 0.006), LTG (70.79%, P = 0.001), LEV (72.54%, P = 0.005), and VPA (73.33%, P = 0.002). CBZ, OXC, and LEV had the best retention rate, followed by LTG, TPM, and VPA. Overall, adverse effects occurred in 45.87% of patients, and the most common adverse effects were memory problems (8.09%), rashes (7.76%), abnormal hepatic function (6.24%), and drowsiness (6.24%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that CBZ, OXC, and LEV are relatively effective in managing focal epilepsy as measured by time to first seizure

  15. Impact of early adolescent externalizing problem behaviors on identity development in middle to late adolescence: a prospective 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents at-risk for problem behaviors can have more difficulties in developing a firm sense of personal identity. Hence the purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to scrutinize how externalizing problems in early adolescence impact identity development in middle to late adolescence. Participants were 443 (43.12% female) Dutch adolescents. Teachers rated their externalizing problem behaviors when participants were 11 or 12 years old and their identity formation was studied during five consecutive years (from 14 to 18 years of age). The sample was divided into four groups: boys and girls with a high versus a low-risk for externalizing problem behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Multi-group Latent Growth Curve and profile stability analyses were used to evaluate identity development across adolescence. Findings indicated that high-risk boys and girls reported a less structured identity, with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment. Since externalizing problems behaviors and lack of a coherent sense of identity might reinforce each other, early intervention for high-risk adolescents might foster positive youth development.

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Age and Alarm Symptoms for Upper GI Malignancy in Patients with Dyspepsia in a GI Clinic: A 7-Year Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Hooman; Radmard, Amir-Reza; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Kamangar, Farin; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Johansson, Mattias; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether using demographic characteristics and alarm symptoms can accurately predict cancer in patients with dyspepsia in Iran, where upper GI cancers and H. pylori infection are common. Methods All consecutive patients referred to a tertiary gastroenterology clinic in Tehran, Iran, from 2002 to 2009 were invited to participate in this study. Each patient completed a standard questionnaire and underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Alarm symptoms included in the questionnaire were weight loss, dysphagia, GI bleeding, and persistent vomiting. We used logistic regression models to estimate the diagnostic value of each variable in combination with other ones, and to develop a risk-prediction model. Results A total of 2,847 patients with dyspepsia participated in this study, of whom 87 (3.1%) had upper GI malignancy. Patients reporting at least one of the alarm symptoms constituted 66.7% of cancer patients compared to 38.9% in patients without cancer (p<0.001). Esophageal or gastric cancers in patients with dyspepsia was associated with older age, being male, and symptoms of weight loss and vomiting. Each single predictor had low sensitivity and specificity. Using a combination of age, alarm symptoms, and smoking, we built a risk-prediction model that distinguished between high-risk and low-risk individuals with an area under the ROC curve of 0.85 and acceptable calibration. Conclusions None of the predictors demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy. While our risk-prediction model had reasonable accuracy, some cancer cases would have remained undiagnosed. Therefore, where available, low cost endoscopy may be preferable for dyspeptic older patient or those with history of weight loss. PMID:22720064

  17. A cross-sectional study of age-related changes in plantar pressure distribution between 4 and 7 years: a comparison of regional and pixel-level analyses.

    PubMed

    Phethean, Jill; Pataky, Todd C; Nester, Christopher J; Findlow, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying morphological and functional development in children's feet, and thereby establishing development norms is difficult. In addition to practical challenges of experimentation on children, measurement equipment like plantar pressure (PP) platforms are almost exclusively geared towards adult-sized feet. These PP quantification problems may be exacerbated by typical regional data analysis techniques, which further reduce spatial resolution. The goal of this study was to quantify PP distributions in developing children, and also to compare the results obtained from typical (regional) techniques with those obtained from a higher-resolution (pixel-level) technique. Ninety-eight children between four and seven years of age were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Maximum PP distributions were collected for each child, and these pressures were linearly regressed against age. Present results agree with previous investigations in that maximum pressures and maximum pressure changes occurred in the forefoot. However, results from the present pixel-level technique suggest that these changes are limited to the central metatarsals, and that regional methods can suggest significance where none exists in the actual raw (pixel-level) data, due to signal aliasing and, in particular, to conflation of regional boundaries. We postulate that increased central metatarsal pressures are reflective of the coupling between generalised joint laxity decreases and relatively increasingly inclined central metatarsal bones with age.

  18. Are Caucasian-European men delaying fatherhood? Results of a 7 year observational study of infertile couples with male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Salonia, A; Matloob, R; Saccà, A; Ferrari, M; Gallina, A; Castiglione, F; Abdollah, F; Raber, M; Brigante, C; Candiani, M; Rigatti, P; Montorsi, F

    2012-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing presence and predictors of a trend towards more advanced paternal age at presentation in a cohort of 1283 Caucasian-European infertile couples with male factor infertility (MFI) over a short time frame. Multivariate linear regression analysis tested the association between predictors [namely, partners' age, length of infertility at first presentation, patients' comorbidities as scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and educational status] and patient's age at presentation. Using anova, patient's age at presentation (F ratio: 2.43; p = 0.024) and patients' educational status (χ(2) trend: 142.38; p < 0.001) significantly increased over time. In contrast, length of infertility at first presentation, CCI and partners' age did not significantly change over time (all p ≥ 0.05). Linear regression analyses showed that CCI, educational status and year of presentation were not correlated with patients' age at presentation (all p ≥ 0.05), whereas partners' age (β = 0.170; p < 0.001) and length of infertility (β = 0.123; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of delayed fatherhood. These results showed a significant shift towards advanced paternal age, but a non-significant increase of maternal age at first presentation among Caucasian-European infertile couples with MFI over a short time frame.

  19. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Grace Period Study ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The...Collection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Grace Period Study comment'' in the subject line of the message... are not fully understood. Few studies in the past ten years have dealt with the grace period, and...

  20. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  1. Experience with alendronate treatment for 7 years among Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Uzawa, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the outcome of alendronate treatment for 7 years among Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures. Thirty-five Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures (mean age at baseline 58.2 years) who had been treated with alendronate for over 7 years in our outpatient clinic were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; the urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were monitored; the incidence of fractures during the 7-year treatment period was then assessed. The urinary NTX and serum ALP levels decreased (-46.1% at 3 months and -21.1% at 7 years, respectively) and the lumbar spine and total hip BMD increased (+14.2 and +10.1% at 7 years, respectively), compared with the baseline values. Four patients (11.4%) experienced vertebral fractures, and one patient (2.9%) experienced a nonvertebral fracture. No serious adverse events were observed, including osteonecrosis of the jaw or atypical femoral fractures. These results suggested that alendronate suppressed bone turnover and increased the lumbar spine and total hip BMD from the baseline values over the course of the 7-year treatment period without causing any severe adverse events in Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures.

  2. A 7-year survey of superficial and cutaneous mycoses in a public hospital in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Nicácia Barbosa; de Sousa Júnior, Francisco Canindé; Diniz, Mariana Guimarães; Fernandes, Ana Cristina Santos; Cardoso, Fernando José Ramos; Zaror, Luiz Conrado; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the frequency of superficial and cutaneous mycoses and their etiologic agents during a 7-year period (2002–2008) in Natal, Brazil. A total of 1,717 specimens of skin, nail, and hair were collected from 1,382 patients with suspected mycoses lesions and were then subjected to direct microscopy and culture. PMID:24031755

  3. Non-Periodic Helix TWT Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    IA-A087 413 LITTON SYSTEMS INC SAN CARLOS CA ELECTRON TUBE DIV F/6 9/1 NON-PERIODIC HELIX TWT STUDY.(U) MAY 80 N00173-76C-014 UNCLASSIFIED ML...IEEEEEEmhEEI U-80 - ’l////////,, 11111 128 25 L1. = *""L 1- 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ’IT-, ( (NO-PERIODIC HELIX WTSTUDY0 I EXTENSION OF CONTRACT... Helix Circuit 4 - 2 Non-Periodic Helix Structure 7 3 Unwound Tape for Non-Periodic Helix 8 4 Typical Helix Assembly 10 5 Typical Ladder Assembly 11 6

  4. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  5. The incidence of monoclonal proteins during 7 years of screening in a District General Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R A; Smith, L; Pickering, P E

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of monoclonal proteins, during a 7-year period, in the population served by a typical District General Hospital. 183,300 sera were electrophoresed and 804 monoclonal proteins were detected. Various biochemical prognostic criteria, such as the concentration of monoclonal protein, incidence of Bence-Jones protein and the presence of reduced polyclonal immunoglobulins, were studied in an attempt to assess the benign or malignant nature of the monoclonal protein. In this study, 75% of the patients with monoclonal proteins fulfilled at least one of these criteria, demonstrating the importance of long-term monitoring. PMID:6698575

  6. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis– A Prospective Study of the Underlying Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Surya Narayana; Belle, Jayaprakash; Rau, N.R; Shetty, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare muscular disorder characterised by episodic weakness associated with hypokalaemia. The disease can either be inherited or acquired and misdiagnosis of the disease is quite common. Most of the data available on the disease is from the western world. Studies reporting aetiological, clinical and metabolic profiles of Indian population are sparse. Hence we tried to provide insights of the disease among the Indian population. Aim To study the aetiological, clinical and metabolic profile of patients diagnosed with Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP). Materials and Methods This is an observational and analytical study on HPP diagnosed patients, during September 2011 to September 2014 in Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. A total of 23 patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical evaluation and metabolic workup for secondary causes of HPP were analysed. Results Of the 23 patients, 57% had primary HPP while 43% had secondary HPP. The group of patients with primary HPP comprised of 92% males and 8% females with mean age of 28 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 18 hours. The group with secondary HPP comprised of 70% males and 30% females with mean age of 38.7 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 60 hours. The secondary causes of HPP were thyrotoxicosis (50%), infective diarrhea (20%), Crohn’s disease (10%), renal tubular acidosis (RTA) Type I (10%) and Conn’s syndrome (10%). Conclusion In our study primary HPP was found to be more common than secondary HPP. Males were predominantly affected in both groups. HPP should be ruled out before starting therapy for Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). PMID:26500936

  7. MR LLRF VXI upgrade beam study period

    SciTech Connect

    Mesiner, K.; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    AD/RFI/LLRF group personnel performed several studies with the MR LLRF VXI upgrade system during the evening of 7/29/95. The study period lasted about 4 hours. The MR operating conditions were a mixture of $29 and $2B cycles, with beam injected only on the $29. The author believes the $2B cycles were present for reasons unrelated to the study. The basic study period goal was to test the initial VXI version of MR LLRF finite state machine (FSM) execution. This goal represents what has been called MR LLRF VXI Upgrade Implementation Stage No.2 throughout presentations and documentation on the upgrade project. The test includes control of MR LLRF NIM hardware, the MR RF cavities, and beam via XVI TTL FSM outputs. Numerous MR LLRF VXI system objects, or components, must work together correctly for a successful test. Very briefly, the required objects include VXI Front End hardware, the ACNET/Front End interface code, and the VXI/NIM Interface chassis (the chassis solves VXI-CAMAC-NIM RF and FSM output connectivity and development problems). Though this initial FSM does not yet fully support Upgrade Implementation Stage 2 functionality, all code and hardware for the following basic functionality is tested.

  8. Topological study of the periodic system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Mesa, Héber; Llanos, Eugenio J; Villaveces, José L

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a topological study of the Space of Chemical Elements, SCE, based on a clustering analysis of 72 elements, each one defined by a vector of 31 properties. We looked for neighborhoods, boundaries, and other topological properties of the SCE. Among the results one sees the well-known patterns of the Periodic Table and relationships such as the Singularity Principle and the Diagonal Relationship, but there appears also a robustness property of some of the better-known families of elements. Alkaline metals and Noble Gases are sets whose neighborhoods have no other elements besides themselves, whereas the topological boundary of the set of metals is formed by semimetallic elements.

  9. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  10. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  11. ULS Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Arnold; And Others

    Developed in response to issues raised about the circulation of bound periodicals, the cost of photocopies, and the condition of the photocopiers, this report of the Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services at the Virginia Commonwealth University libraries recommends goals for periodicals services for both campuses of the university.…

  12. Sebaceous adenitis in a 7-year-old Arabian gelding

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 7-year-old Arabian gelding was presented with a 9-month history of progressive patches of nonpruritic scaling, crusting, alopecia, and leukoderma of the periocular areas and muzzle, becoming generalized over time. Sebaceous adenitis was diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Lesions resolved without treatment, coinciding with regression of a sarcoid on the neck. PMID:16808233

  13. Cerebral Palsy and Growth Failure at 6 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bonnie E.; McDonald, Scott A.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Pappas, Athina; Hintz, Susan R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between severity of cerebral palsy (CP) and growth to 6 to 7 years of age among children with moderate to severe (Mod/Sev) hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). It was hypothesized that children with Mod/Sev CP would have poorer growth, lower cognitive scores, and increased rehospitalization rates compared with children with no CP (No CP). METHODS: Among 115 of 122 surviving children followed in the hypothermia trial for neonatal HIE, growth parameters and neurodevelopmental status at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years were available. Group comparisons (Mod/Sev CP and No CP) with unadjusted and adjusted analyses for growth <10th percentile and z scores by using Fisher’s exact tests and regression modeling were conducted. RESULTS: Children with Mod/Sev CP had high rates of slow growth and cognitive and motor impairment and rehospitalizations at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years. At 6 to 7 years of age, children with Mod/Sev CP had increased rates of growth parameters <10th percentile compared with those with No CP (weight, 57% vs 3%; height, 70% vs 2%; and head circumference, 82% vs 13%; P < .0001). Increasing severity of slow growth was associated with increasing age (P < .04 for weight, P < .001 for length, and P < .0001 for head circumference). Gastrostomy feeds were associated with better growth. CONCLUSIONS: Term children with HIE who develop Mod/Sev CP have high and increasing rates of growth <10th percentile by 6 to 7 years of age. These findings support the need for close medical and nutrition management of children with HIE who develop CP. PMID:24019415

  14. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  15. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  16. Analysis of monthly, winter, and annual temperatures in Zagreb, Croatia, from 1864 to 2010: the 7.7-year cycle and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Asok K.; Ogrin, Darko

    2016-02-01

    Long instrumental records of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation are very useful for studying regional climate in the past, present, and future. They can also be useful for understanding the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation processes on the regional climate. This paper investigates the monthly, winter, and annual temperature time series obtained from the instrumental records in Zagreb, Croatia, for the period 1864-2010. Using wavelet analysis, the dominant modes of variability in these temperature series are identified, and the time intervals over which these modes may persist are delineated. The results reveal that all three temperature records exhibit low-frequency variability with a dominant periodicity at around 7.7 years. The 7.7-year cycle has also been observed in the temperature data recorded at several other stations in Europe, especially in Northern and Western Europe, and may be linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and/or solar/geomagnetic activity.

  17. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  18. Indications and outcome for obstetric patients' admission to intensive care unit: a 7-year review.

    PubMed

    Lataifeh, I; Amarin, Z; Zayed, F; Al-Mehaisen, L; Alchalabi, H; Khader, Y

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the indications, interventions and clinical outcome of pregnant and newly delivered women admitted to the multidisciplinary intensive care unit at the King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan over a 7-year period from January 2002 to December 2008. The collected data included demographic characteristics of the patients, mode of delivery, pre-existing medical conditions, reason for admission, specific intervention, length of stay and maternal outcome. A total of 43 women required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), which represented 0.37% of all deliveries. The majority (95.3%) of patients were admitted to the ICU postpartum. The most common reasons for admissions were (pre)eclampsia (48.8%) and obstetric haemorrhage (37.2). The remainder included adult respiratory distress syndrome (6.9%), pulmonary embolism (2.3%) and neurological disorders (4.6%). Mechanical ventilation was required to support 18.6% of patients and transfusion of red blood cells was needed for 48.8% of patients. There were three maternal deaths (6.9%). A multidisciplinary team approach is essential to improve the management of hypertensive disorders and postpartum haemorrhage to achieve significant improvements in maternal outcome. A large, prospective study to know which women are at high risk of admission to the intensive care units and to prevent serious maternal morbidity and mortality is warranted.

  19. Up to 7 Years of Sustained Weight Loss for Weight Loss Program Completers

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nia S.; Polsky, Sarit; Catenacci, Victoria A.; Furniss, Anna L.; Prochazka, Allan V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two issues remain elusive in weight management programs: significant, long-term weight loss maintenance and widely accessible programs that produce significant weight loss for reasonable costs. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term weight loss of participants who consecutively renew their annual membership in Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a national, nonprofit, low-cost, peer-led weight loss program. Methods This completers’ analysis was a retrospective cohort study of overweight and obese men and women who joined TOPS in 2005–2011 and consecutively renewed their annual membership at least once. Data were analyzed from June to October 2013. TOPS participants’ weights are sent to the national database when they join and at the time of their annual renewal, thus follow-up weight is only available for those who renew their membership. Among 207,469 individuals who joined during the study period, 74,629 (35.9%) had at least one consecutive annual renewal and were included in the study. Results Cumulative mean (95% CI) weight change as a percentage of initial weight ranged from −6.0% (−6.0%, −5.9%) for 74,629 participants who renewed at 1 year to −8.3% (−8.7%, −7.8%) for 2,289 participants with 7 years of consecutive annual renewal. Conclusions In the subset of individuals who choose to renew their program membership, TOPS can effectively promote maintenance of clinically significant weight loss for an extended period of time. RCTs are needed to further evaluate this low-cost, widely available program, which could be a viable option to treat overweight and obesity. PMID:26033350

  20. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  1. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  2. Skill-Related Uncertainty and Expected Value in 5- to 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Schlottmann, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Studies using an Information Integration approach have shown that children from four years have a good intuitive understanding of probability and expected value. Experience of skill-related uncertainty may provide one naturalistic opportunity to develop this intuitive understanding. To test the viability of this view, 16 5- and 16 7-year-olds…

  3. MECAR operation during the 6/95 study period

    SciTech Connect

    Capista, Dave; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The MECAR system was scheduled to be used 36 hours during the study period. In practice the system was used a bit more since there is increasing pressure to switch completely over to MECAR. During this period of MECAR operation there were power supply studies, tune calibration, general tune-up with this system, and identification and some repair of bugs found in both the applications program and the MECAR operating system.

  4. Indications for cesarean deliveries during a 7-year period in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana; Policiano, Catarina; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Analisar a evolução da taxa de cesarianas e as principais indicações para cesariana num centro terciário.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo conduzido num hospital universitário que incluiu 5751 grávidas submetidas a cesariana entre 2005 e 2011. Analisaram-se as taxas de cesarianas, incluindo a taxa de primeiras cesarianas e de cesarianas repetidas. Para avaliar a contribuição relativa de cada uma das indicações na variação da taxa de primeiras cesarianas recorreu-se à regressão linear e determinou-se o valor do r2 ajustado.Resultados: Durante o período do estudo a taxa de cesarianas diminuiu de 30,9% para 27,6%. Esta descida deveu-se à diminuição da taxa de primeiras cesarianas (21,9% para 18,2%), apesar de se ter constatado um ligeiro aumento da taxa de cesarianas repetidas (9,0 para 9,4%). Entre as indicações para primeiras cesarianas, as causas materno-fetais e de apresentação anómala foram as que diminuiram mais, com valores de r2 ajustado de 0,70 e 0,55, respectivamente.Discussão: Os dados coligidos permitiram identificar a hipótese de que a diminuição da taxa de cesarianas se deveria a uma retração detectada sobretudo a nível das primeiras cesarianas, em particular as decorrentes de causas materno-fetais e apresentação anómala.Conclusão: A diminuição da taxa de primeiras cesarianas pode ser atribuída a várias modificações na prática clínica do Departamento, como a implementação da versão cefálica externa, a indução do trabalho de parto a partir das 41 semanas de gestação, em gravidezes de baixo risco e da realização de provas de trabalho de parto em casos de patologia materno-fetal. No entanto, indicações subjectivas, como a paragem de progressão do trabalho de parto e a suspeita de sofrimento fetal são ainda causas major de primeiras cesarianas.

  5. ACLCP Periodical Storage Center: Feasibility Study, September 1974-April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicki, Dorothy

    A study of alternative models for establishing a cooperative storage center for little used library materials by the members of the Area College Libraries of Central Pennsylvania (ACLCP) focused on periodicals. Considerations discussed include advantages--lower cost; space for growth and better access to holdings retained in active collections;…

  6. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Deibert, E.

    2016-12-01

    We have used systematic, sustained visual observations from the AAVSO International Database and the AAVSO time-series analysis package VSTAR to study the unexplained "long secondary periods" (LSPs) in 27 pulsating red giants. In our sample, the LSPs range from 479 to 2967 days, and are on average 8.1 +/- 1.3 times the excited pulsation period. There is no evidence for more than one LSP in each star. In stars with both the fundamental and first overtone radial period present, the LSP is more often about 10 times the latter. The visual amplitudes of the LSPs are typically 0.1 magnitude and do not correlate with the LSP. The phase curves tend to be sinusoidal, but at least two are sawtooth. The LSPs are stable, within their errors, over the timespan of our data, which is typically 25,000 days. The amplitudes, however, vary by up to a factor of two or more on a time scale of roughly 20-30 LSPs. There is no obvious difference between the carbon (C) stars and the normal oxygen (M) stars. Previous multicolor observations showed that the LSP color variations are similar to those of the pulsation period, and of the LSPs in the Magellanic Clouds, and not like those of eclipsing stars. We note that the LSPs are similar to the estimated rotation periods of the stars, though the latter have large uncertainties. This suggests that the LSP phenomenon may be a form of modulated rotational variability.

  7. PTA scale for children aged 4 to 7 years: Selecting developmentally valid and reliable items.

    PubMed

    Lah, Suncica; David, Pamela; Donohue, Hayley; Epps, Adrienne; Tate, Robyn; Brookes, Naomi

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to select developmentally valid and reliable items for inclusion in criterion-referenced (pass > 90%) posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) scale for children aged 4 to 7 years in a prospective cohort study. Fifty-two typically developing children (26 male/26 female) aged 4 to 7 years were administered a set of 10 items (5 orientation, 5 memory) over 3-4 days. The total score obtained on the set of 10 items had poor developmental validity and test-retest reliability. Nevertheless, individual item analysis identified five items (three orientation and two memory items) that were consistently passed by >90% of the children on each day of testing. For these five items the total scores did not differ significantly either between age groups or between days of testing. Test-retest was extremely high (close to 1). The five items had excellent developmental validity and test-retest reliability. This study identified 5 (3 orientation and 2 memory) items that met our selection criterion and form a new PTA scale, the Sydney PTA scale (SYPTAS), for children aged 4 to 7 years.

  8. Clinical Performance of the ASR and ReCap Resurfacing Implants—7 Years Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Borgwardt, Arne; Borgwardt, Lotte; Borgwardt, Lise; Zerahn, Bo; Fabricius, Sandra D; Ribel-Madsen, Søren

    2015-06-01

    We perform a non-randomized, consecutive pilot study on the ASR and ReCap resurfacing hip implants and have completed 7 years follow-up. Forty-six non-osteoporotic patients with hip osteoarthritis and anatomical conditions suitable for resurfacing were divided into 2 equal groups and operated sequentially, starting with the ASR implants. Sixteen patients operated with ASR and 19 patients with ReCap have been followed-up. There were no significant differences between the two groups preoperatively as to physical function, pain, or femoral BMD. The serum concentrations of cobalt and chromium were higher in the ASR group from 1/2 to 7 years postoperatively. Five of 16 ASR implants have been revised, and none of the ReCap implants. BMD below the femoral component increased in both groups.

  9. Arthroscopic excision of acetabular osteoid osteoma in a 7-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Aşık, Mehmet; Erşen, Ali; Polat, Gökhan; Bilgili, Fuat; Tunalı, Onur

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the case report of a 7-year-old patient who was treated with hip arthroscopy for an acetabular osteoid osteoma. A 7-year-old patient was referred to our clinic with hip pain. In the assessment of the patient, an acetabular osteoid osteoma was detected in his right hip; it was adjacent to his triradiate cartilage. An arthroscopic surgery was planned as an alternative to open safe hip dislocation. The osteoid osteoma was completely removed with hip arthroscopy. Postoperative CT scanning and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Exposure of the acetabulum can be problematic in paediatric patients due to the potential risks of open safe dislocation. Hip arthroscopy can safely be used for benign hip lesions in paediatric patients. Level of evidence Case report, Level V.

  10. Black carbon decomposition during 7 years and its transformation in soil estimated by 14C labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Y.; Bogomolova, I.; Glaser, B.

    2012-04-01

    Incomplete combustion of organics (vegetation or fossil fuel) led to accumulation of charred products in soils. Such charred products, frequently called black carbon (BC), may act as an important long-term carbon (C) sink because its microbial decomposition and chemical transformation is very slow. There are no studies with direct estimations of BC decomposition rates and its transformation in soil. We produced BC by charring 14C labeled residues of perennial ryegrass and incubated this 14C labeled BC in a Haplic Luvisol or in loess. The decomposition rates of BC were estimated based on 14CO2 sampled 55 times during the 7-years incubation period. The decomposition rates of BC calculated based on 14C in CO2 were similar in soil and in loess and were about 10-5 d-1 (=10-3 % d-1). This corresponds to a decomposition of about 0.3% BC a-1 under optimal conditions. Considering about 10 times slower decomposition of BC under natural conditions, the mean residence time of BC is about 2000 years. Three years after the incubation start, we traced the BC transformation in soil by 14C incorporation into microbial biomass, DOC, PLFA, sugars, neutral lipids, glycolipids, sugars and benzene polycarboxylic acids. The most 14C (>80%) remained in benzene polycarboxylic acids confirming very high stability of BC. Incorporation of BC-14C into microbial biomass, DOC and PLFA was less than 0.5%. We conclude that despite very high stability of BC and very slow process rates, the application of 14C labeling opens new ways for very sensitive tracing of BC transformation products in released CO2, microbial biomass, DOC, and SOM pools with various properties.

  11. IGR J16318-4848: 7 Years of INTEGRAL Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barragan, Laura; Wilms, Joern; kreykenbohm, Ingo; Hanke, manfred; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of IGR 116318-4848 in 2003 January, INTEGRAL has accumulated more than 5.8 Ms in IBIS/ISGRI. We present the first extensive analysis of the archival INTEGRAL data (IBIS/ISGRI, and JEM-X when available) for this source, together with the observations carried out by XMM-Newton (twice in 2003, and twice in 2004) and Suzaku (2006). The source is very variable in the long-term, with periods of low activity, where the source is almost not detected, and flares with a luminosity approximately 10 times greater than its average value (5.4 cts/s). IGR 116318-4848 is a HMXB containing a sgB[e] star and a compact object (most probably a neutron star) deeply embedded in the stellar wind of the mass donor. The variability of the source (also in the short-term) can be ascribed to the wind of the optical star being very clumpy. We study the variation of the spectral parameters in time scales of INTEGRAL revolutions. The photoelectric absorption is, with NH around 10(exp 24)/ square cm, unusually high. During brighter phases the strong K-alpha iron line known from XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations is also detectable with the JEM-X instrument.

  12. Cerebral mycosis: 7-year retrospective series in a tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Raparia, Kirtee; Powell, Suzanne Z; Cernoch, Pat; Takei, Hidehiro

    2010-06-01

    This study focuses on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, diagnosis and outcome of all cases of central nervous system (CNS) fungal infections in a tertiary center. Medical records of 18 patients of culture-proven CNS fungal infections were retrospectively reviewed from 2000 to 2007, including 12 isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and seven from tissue biopsy. Patient demographic data included 10 males and eight females. The mean age was 55 years (range: 24-89 years). All but one patient were immunocompromised. Fungal organisms isolated from CSF included: Cryptococcous neoformans (8 patients), Coccidioides immitis (3 patients), and Aspergillus versicolor (1 patient). Histopathology of seven biopsy cases revealed groups of pigmented golden-brown fungal forms in three cases; three cases showed septate fungi, two of which had melanin in their walls; and one case showed multiple round spherules. These cases on microbiological cultures grew Coccidioides immitis (1 patient), Aspergillus fumigatus (1 patient), Cladophialophora bantiana (2 patients), Fonsecaea monophora (1 patient) and Scedosporium apiospermum (2 patients). Five of the seven fungal organisms isolated from tissue biopsies were dematiaceous fungi. Twelve patients died after a period of a few weeks to months, two were lost to follow-up, and four are alive with severe neurological sequelae. CNS fungal infections in our cohort were more common in patients post-transplant and with hematologic malignancies. In our series, rare dematiaceous fungi are emerging agents for cerebral mycosis. The outcome of CNS fungal infections is poor despite vigorous antifungal therapy.

  13. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  14. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    PubMed Central

    MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba; SALIBA, Nemre Adas; SALIBA, Orlando; SUMIDA, Doris Hissako; de SOUZA, Neila Paula; CHIBA, Fernando Yamamoto; GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods: Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results: A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720) had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754) were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373) were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L). Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions: The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:23559106

  15. A 7-year follow-up of multidisciplinary rehabilitation among chronic neck and back pain patients. Is sick leave outcome dependent on psychologically derived patient groups?

    PubMed

    Bergström, Gunnar; Bergström, Cecilia; Hagberg, Jan; Bodin, Lennart; Jensen, Irene

    2010-04-01

    A valid method for classifying chronic pain patients into more homogenous groups could be useful for treatment planning, that is, which treatment is effective for which patient, and as a marker when evaluating treatment outcome. One instrument that has been used to derive subgroups of patients is the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate a classification method based on the Swedish version of the MPI, the MPI-S, to predict sick leave among chronic neck and back pain patients for a period of 7 years after vocational rehabilitation. As hypothesized, dysfunctional patients (DYS), according to the MPI-S, showed a higher amount of sickness absence and disability pension expressed in days than adaptive copers (AC) during the 7-years follow-up period, even when adjusting for sickness absence prior to rehabilitation (355.8days, 95% confidence interval, 71.7; 639.9). Forty percent of DYS patients and 26.7% of AC patients received disability pension during the follow-up period. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Further analyses showed that the difference between patient groups was most pronounced among patients with more than 60days of sickness absence prior to rehabilitation. Cost-effectiveness calculations indicated that the DYS patients showed an increase in production loss compared to AC patients. The present study yields support for the prognostic value of this subgroup classification method concerning long-term outcome on sick leave following this type of vocational rehabilitation.

  16. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly.

  17. ENSO-cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian; Hankin, Stuart; Roach, Regina; Markowska, Monika; McDonald, Janece

    2016-11-01

    Speleothems (cave deposits), used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O) variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE) Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform palaeorainfall reconstruction from

  18. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  19. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  20. A Period Study of the Close Binary V508 Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Berahitdin

    The short-period (0d.34) close binary V508 Oph was observed in 2005 and four new times of minima were derived. All of the available times of minima, including the new ones, covering 69 years were analyzed. It was shown that the period change of the system is very complex. Two possible period oscillations with periods of 24.73 and 9.91 years and amplitudes of about 0.011 and 0.002 day, respectively, were found to superimpose on upward parabolic change, indicating a secular period increase at a rate of dp/dt = 4.24 × 10-9 days yr-1. The mechanisms that could explain the period changes of the system are discussed.

  1. Acute diarrhoeal disease in children under 7 years of age in a peri-urban slum of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Araya, M.; Figueroa, G.; Espinoza, J.; Montesinos, N.; Spencer, E.; Brunser, O.

    1985-01-01

    A group of 168 families who lived in a peri-urban slum in Santiago were surveyed for 9 months. All of them had a child under 7 years of age. Medical activities and data collection were carried out at a Field Station and by means of twice-weekly visits to each home, at which time cases of diarrhoea were recorded and investigated. Faecal samples for bacteriological, parasitological and rotavirus studies were obtained during each episode. The characteristics of clinical course, hygienic practices in the family, and monthly anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers were also recorded. The mean monthly incidence of diarrhoea was 7.1 episodes per 100 children. Of the episodes, 44.2% were associated with pathogenic bacteria, 14.4% with rotavirus, 38.4% with parasites and in 27.9% no enteropathogens were identified. It was found that adequate hygienic habits were not associated with a decreased risk of developing diarrhoea and that about 60% of children did not have diarrhoea throughout the study period. The nutritional status was adequate in most cases: weight-for-age was below the 5th percentile in 11.5% of subjects and the height-for-age was normal in all. No moderate or severe cases of malnutrition were detected. PMID:4067299

  2. A study of periodic and aperiodic ferromagnetic antidot lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Vinayak S.

    This thesis reports our study of the effect of domain wall pinning by ferromagnetic (FM) metamaterials [1] in the form of periodic antidot lattices (ADL) on spin wave spectra in the reversible regime. This study was then extended to artificial quasicrystals in the form of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T). Our DC magnetization study of these metamaterials showed reproducible and temperature dependent knee anomalies in the hysteretic regime that are due to the isolated switching of the FM segments. Our dumbbell model analysis [2] of simulated magnetization maps indicates that FM switching in P2T is nonstochastic . We have also acquired the first direct, two-dimensional images of the magnetization of Permalloy films patterned into P2T using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Our SEMPA images demonstrate P2T behave as geometrically frustrated networks of narrow ferromagnetic film segments having near-uniform, bipolar (Ising-like) magnetization, similar to artificial spin ices (ASI). We find the unique aperiodic translational symmetry and diverse vertex coordination of multiply-connected P2T induce a more complex spin-ice behavior driven by exchange interactions in vertex domain walls, which differs markedly from the behavior of disconnected ASI governed only by dipolar interactions. Keywords: Ferromagnetic Antidot Lattices, Metamaterials, Ferromagnetic Resonance, Artificial Quasicrystal, Artificial Spin Ice. [1] VV Kruglyak et al. "Magnonic metamaterials". In: Metamaterial, edited by X.-Y. Jiang (InTech, 2012) (2012). [2] Claudio Castelnovo, Roderich Moessner, and Shivaji L Sondhi. "Magnetic monopoles in spin ice". In: Nature 451.7174 (2008), pp. 42--45.

  3. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-07

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials.

  4. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  5. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  6. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  7. [Study on optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides)].

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Peng; Wu, Ye-Kuan

    2014-08-01

    To ascertain the optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides) the configuration yield and quality of L. macranthiodes bloom verity and bud verity flower at different develop periods were Observed. The quality of L. macranthiodes which harvested at different times of the day was Compared. The configuration was significant difference between different develop period of L. macranthiodes flower. As bud growth, yield increased. Bloom verity of L. macranthoides chlorogenic acid content was significantly lower after opening (silver flower stage, golden flower stage), before opening (young bud stage, green-white stage) have no significant difference of the quality. Bud verity of L. macranthoides macranthoidin B is significant lower at yellow-white stage, young bud stage and green-white stage have no significant difference of the quality. The chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A content is significant difference between L. macranthoides harvested at different time of the day. The optimal harvest period of bloom verity is the white stage, picking time for 10:00 before and after 18:00. The optimal harvest period is the green-white stage, picking time is 8:00 before and after 18:00.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Maryse F.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Vedar, Michelle; Calderon, Norma; Trujillo, Celina; Johnson, Caroline; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Context: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic at high doses. Few studies have examined whether chronic exposure at lower levels could adversely affect children’s cognitive development. Objective: We examined associations between prenatal and postnatal exposure to OP pesticides and cognitive abilities in school-age children. Methods: We conducted a birth cohort study (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study) among predominantly Latino farmworker families from an agricultural community in California. We assessed exposure to OP pesticides by measuring dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine collected during pregnancy and from children at 6 months and 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, to 329 children 7 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education and intelligence, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score, and language of cognitive assessment. Results: Urinary DAP concentrations measured during the first and second half of pregnancy had similar relations to cognitive scores, so we used the average of concentrations measured during pregnancy in further analyses. Averaged maternal DAP concentrations were associated with poorer scores for Working Memory, Processing Speed, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Children in the highest quintile of maternal DAP concentrations had an average deficit of 7.0 IQ points compared with those in the lowest quintile. However, children’s urinary DAP concentrations were not consistently associated with cognitive scores. Conclusions: Prenatal but not postnatal urinary DAP concentrations were associated with poorer intellectual development in 7-year-old children. Maternal urinary DAP concentrations in the present study were higher but nonetheless within the range of levels measured in the general U.S. population. PMID:21507776

  9. A Fundamental Study of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Periodic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-09

    household radiators or electric heaters, furnaces, combustion chambers, fires, rocket nozzles , power plants, engines etc. The importance of radiation...can be applied to any other problem related to the wave propagation through periodic structures such as acoustic wave and ultrasonic wave propagation

  10. Malnutrition and its risk factors among children 1-7 years old in rural Malaysian communities.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Noorhayati, M I; Mohammod, C G; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatimah, A; Fatmah, M S

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nutritional status of children aged 1-7 years in Malaysian rural communities and to identify its risk factors. In all, 221 children were assessed using anthropometric measurements, dietary questionnaires and other tools. Weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height were analysed. Based on the NCHS standards, the overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 46.2%, 18.1% and 30.3% respectively. Almost one-third of the 1-2 years old groups were malnourished. Univariate analysis identified household income £ MR750.00 as a significant risk factor of stunting and wasting.

  11. Parental longevity and 7-year changes in blood pressures in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Zureik, Mahmoud; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine; Courbon, Dominique; Czernichow, Sébastien; Blacher, Jacques; Ducimetière, Pierre; Safar, Michel E; Hercberg, Serge

    2005-08-01

    In this report, we examined the cross-sectional and the 7-year longitudinal changes in blood pressures in adult offspring according to parental longevity. A population of volunteers free of symptomatic cardiovascular diseases who participated to the Supplementation en Vitamines et en Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX) Vascular Study (mean age 52.3 years; 48.3% women) were examined at baseline and 7 years later. Paternal (n=994) and maternal (n=896) longevity were analyzed separately. The prevalence of hypertension at baseline in subjects whose father died at <65 years of age, in those whose fathers were alive by age 65 but died by 80 years of age, and in those whose fathers were alive by age 80 was respectively 34.9%, 28.5%, and 20.2% (P<0.001). The means of systolic blood pressure in the 3 groups of paternal longevity were respectively 128.4 (+/-16.0), 125.3 (+/-14.2), and 123.6 (+/-14.4) mm Hg (P<0.001). During the follow-up, the mean systolic blood pressure increases in the 3 groups of paternal longevity were respectively 5.3 (+/-17.0), 4.2 (+/-14.0), and 1.6 (+/-13.2) mm Hg (P<0.001). In subjects without hypertension at baseline, hypertension occurred during the follow-up in 26.6%, 17.7%, and 15.3% (P<0.009), respectively. Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline or changes in cardiovascular risk factors did not modify these results. In contrast, there was no relationship between maternal longevity and blood pressure measurements in either cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. This study suggests that paternal premature death was associated with accelerated progression of systolic blood pressure and higher occurrence of hypertension in offspring. These results indicate that there are dynamic and continuous processes linking paternal longevity to blood pressure in adults.

  12. INCIDENCE OF, AND RISK FACTORS FOR, MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 5-7 YEARS IN SOUTH INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary.

  13. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and child attention problems at 3–7 years

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, Whitney J.; Lederman, Sally A.; Sjödin, Andreas; Jones, Richard; Wang, Shuang; Perera, Frederica P.; Wang, Richard; Rauh, Virginia A.; Herbstman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) comprise a class of halogenated compounds used extensively as flame retardant chemicals in consumer products resulting in nearly ubiquitous human exposure. Mounting evidence suggests that PBDEs are developmental neurotoxicants; however, associations between early life exposure and child behavior have been largely limited to a single developmental time point. Methods The study population consists primarily of white, black and Chinese women who were pregnant on 11 September 2001 and delivered at 1 of 3 downtown New York City hospitals. Maternal–child pairs were followed through age 7 years. Cord blood was collected at delivery and PBDE plasma levels for 210 samples were analyzed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Child Behavior Checklist, a validated maternal-report instrument used for assessing child behavior, was administered annually between the ages of 3 and 7 years. We analyzed the association between natural log-transformed and dichotomized (low vs. high) PBDEs and attention problems using multivariable adjusted negative binomial regression. Results We detected 4 PBDE congeners in more than 50% of samples, with concentrations highest for BDE-47 (median ± IQR: 11.2 ± 19.6 ng/g). In adjusted analyses, we detected associations between BDE-47 (1.21, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.47), and BDE-153 (1.18, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.39) in cord plasma and increased attention problems among children at age 4 (n = 109) but not 6 (n = 107) years. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a positive trend between prenatal PBDE exposure and early childhood attention problems, and are consistent with previous research reporting associations between prenatal PBDE exposure and disrupted child behaviors. PMID:26344673

  14. Past, present, and future: a 7-year update of Viagra (sildenafil citrate).

    PubMed

    Jackson, G; Gillies, H; Osterloh, I

    2005-06-01

    More than 30 million men are estimated to have erectile dysfunction (ED) in the United States. Worldwide, ED is estimated to affect more than 150 million men, and that number is expected to exceed 300 million men by the year 2025. The prevalence of ED ranges from 7% in men aged 18-29 years to 85% in men aged 76-85 years. In addition, a recent report showed that 68% of patients with ED aged 18 years and older have at least one comorbid diagnosis of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes or depression, and research suggests that ED may be an early indicator of systemic vascular disease. Viagra (sildenafil citrate), the first-in-class phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, was introduced in 1998 for the treatment of ED. In the 7 years since its market launch, more than 750,000 physicians have prescribed sildenafil to more than 23 million men, helping establish an excellent safety and efficacy record. Clinical studies have demonstrated that sildenafil successfully treats ED of varied organic, psychogenic or mixed aetiology, and is effective in men with ED and comorbidities such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes or depression. Sildenafil was a breakthrough medication that addressed a previously unfulfilled medical need. The impact of sildenafil has stimulated academic, clinical and industrial research to better understand the nature of sexual function and develop better treatment and management for sexual dysfunctions such as ED. With the advent of other erectogenic therapies for the treatment of ED, this 7-year update will focus on the unique history and development of sildenafil, its current use and applications and its future directions and indications. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of sildenafil on our understanding of sexual health and on the extensive safety and efficacy data that have been amassed from numerous clinical trials.

  15. Levers for Language Growth: Characteristics and Predictors of Language Trajectories between 4 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Cristina; Eadie, Patricia; Bavin, Edith L.; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence is required as to when and where to focus resources to achieve the greatest gains for children’s language development. Key to these decisions is the understanding of individual differences in children’s language trajectories and the predictors of those differences. To determine optimal timing we must understand if and when children’s relative language abilities become fixed. To determine where to focus effort we must identify mutable factors, that is those with the potential to be changed through interventions, which are associated with significant differences in children’s language scores and rate of progress. Methods Uniquely this study examined individual differences in language growth trajectories in a population sample of children between 4 and 7 years using the multilevel model for change. The influence of predictors, grouped with respect to their mutability and their proximity to the child (least-mutable, mutable-distal, mutable-proximal), were estimated. Results A significant degree of variability in rate of progress between 4 and 7 years was evident, much of which was systematically associated with mutable-proximal factors, that is, those factors with evidence that they are modifiable through interventions with the child or family, such as shared book reading, TV viewing and number of books in the home. Mutable-distal factors, such as family income, family literacy and neighbourhood disadvantage, hypothesised to be modifiable through social policy, were important predictors of language abilities at 4 years. Conclusions Potential levers for language interventions lie in the child’s home learning environment from birth to age 4. However, the role of a family’s material and cultural capital must not be ignored, nor should the potential for growth into the school years. Early Years services should acknowledge the effects of multiple, cascading and cumulative risks and seek to promote child language development through the

  16. Periodic trends in bond dissociation energies. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Eckert-Maksić, Mirjana; Maksić, Zvonimir B; Alkorta, Ibón; Elguero, José

    2005-05-19

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of all possible A-X single bonds involving the first- and second-row atoms, from Li to Cl, where the free valences are saturated by hydrogens, have been estimated through the use of the G3-theory and at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd)//B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) DFT level of theory. BDEs exhibit a periodical behavior. The A-X (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, and Si) BDEs show a steady increase along the first and the second row of the periodic table as a function of the atomic number Z(X). For A-X bonds involving electronegative atoms (A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl) the bond energies achieve a maximum around Z(X) = 5. The same behavior is observed when BDEs are plotted against the electronegativity chi(X) of the atom X. Thus, for A-X bonds (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si), the BDEs for a fixed A increases, grosso modo, as the electronegativity differences between X and A increase, with some exceptions, which reflect the differences in the relaxation energies of the radicals produced upon the bond cleavage. A similar trend, albeit less pronounced, is found for single A-X bonds, where A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl. However, there is an additional feature embodied in the enhancement of the strength of the A-boron bonds due to the ability of boron to act as a strong electron acceptor. The trends in bond lengths and charge densities at the bond critical points are in line with the aforementioned behavior.

  17. Treatment of an extensive unicystic ameloblastoma in a 7-year-old child: the best approach?

    PubMed

    de Paulo, L F B; Oliveira, M T F; Rodrigues, Á R; Zanetta-Barbosa, D

    2015-03-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign, slow-growing neoplasm of the jaw that arises from odontogenic epithelium. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl with a unicystic ameloblastoma of the mandible, and describe our approach to treatment.

  18. 7 Minutes of Totality in 7 Years: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Bell, S.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid succession, two chances to experience a total solar eclipse will soon occur over the middle of the United States. Usually, a total solar eclipse is, at most, a once in a lifetime event. However, the celebrated shadows will race over the Shawnee National Forest, near Makanda, Illinois, twice in less than 7 years. The centerlines of the 2017 August 21 and 2024 April 08 eclipses will cross at this convenient location. If you are planning a trip to that legendary heart of darkness, you should consider a site just northwest of Makanda for both events. The two eclipse centerlines are expected to intersect at 37º 38.2’ N and 89º 15.4’ W, in the Shawnee National Forest. In 2017, totality lasting about 2 min 45 sec is expected at this location, which is the maximum duration for that eclipse. In 2024, nearly 4 min 13 sec of darkness will occur at the crossover point, but the longest period of totality for this eclipse will be seen in Mexico. Historically, southern Illinois is mostly sunny in late August and early April. If rain or clouds mar your 2017 experience, you can hope for better weather when you return in 2024. A number of activities can enrich your outreach program: spotting planets and stars, locating shadow effects, monitoring climate changes, and watching wildlife responses. In addition, you will be able to compare and contrast your observations during the two eclipses there. Planning an expedition to this rare intersection reduces your flexibility in case of inclement weather--a small price for the novelty of multiple visits. Unless you are a dedicated eclipse chaser, 2017 may not seem imminent. However, your outreach program choices now may shape your plans for the eclipses to come. For additional information, visit the USNO Eclipse Portal at http://www.eclipse.org.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi

  19. Body Dissatisfaction and Its Correlates in 5- to 7-Year-Old Girls: A Social Learning Experiment.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marisol; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Smith, Haylie; Sladek, Michael R

    2016-06-02

    There is limited research on cognitive risk factors for eating disorders among young girls despite accumulating evidence that body dissatisfaction and thin-ideal internalization can begin to occur between 3 and 5 years of age. To improve upon the existing literature and significantly contribute to the prevention and intervention literature, the current study examined body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, and self-objectification in girls between 5 and 7 years of age. The sample consisted of 151 mother-daughter dyads with 63 five-year-olds, 39 six-year-olds, and 49 seven-year-olds. Girls were interviewed about their body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal, and self-objectification. In addition, all mothers and daughters participated in an individual and joint mirror experiment. Levels of body dissatisfaction were consistent across 5- to 7-year-olds. Thin-ideal internalization was higher among 5-year-olds than 6- and 7-year-olds. In contrast, self-objectification was higher among 6- and 7-year-olds than 5-year-old girls. Mother's body dissatisfaction significantly and positively predicted daughter's body dissatisfaction during the joint mirror experiment. Similarly, mother's body satisfaction significantly and positively predicted daughter's body satisfaction. Results from this study suggest that girls model their mothers' self-body talk. In addition, girls will change their positive or negative body responses after being exposed to their mothers' response.

  20. Clinical evaluation on porcelain laminate veneers bonded with light-cured composite: results up to 7 years.

    PubMed

    D'Arcangelo, Camillo; De Angelis, Francesco; Vadini, Mirco; D'Amario, Maurizio

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of laminate porcelain veneers bonded with a light-cured composite. Thirty patients were restored with 119 porcelain laminate veneers. The veneers were studied for an observation time of 7 years. Marginal adaptation, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, color match, and anatomic form were clinically examined following modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Each restoration was also examined for cracks, fractures, and debonding. Pulp vitality was verified. In addition, plaque and gingival indexes and increase in gingival recession were recorded. Survival rate evaluating absolute failures and success rate describing relative failures were statistically determined, using both restoration and patient-related analyses. On the basis of the criteria used, most of the veneers rated Alfa. After 7 years, the results of the clinical investigation regarding marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration revealed only 2.5% and 4.2% Bravo ratings, respectively, among the 119 initially placed veneers. Using the restoration as the statistical unit, the survival rate was 97.5%, with a high estimated success probability of 0.843 after 7 years. Using the patient as the statistical unit, the survival rate was 90.0% and the estimated success probability after 7 years was 0.824. Gingival response to the veneers was all in the satisfactory range. Porcelain laminate veneers offer a predictable and successful treatment modality giving a maximum preservation of sound tooth. The preparation, cementation, and finishing procedures adopted are considered key factors for the long-term success and aesthetical result of the veneer restorations.

  1. Tooth wear in the deciduous dentition of 5-7-year-old children: risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gatou, Tarsitsa; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and severity of tooth wear in deciduous dentition and its relationship with possible risk factors. A stratified cluster sample of 243 5-7-year-old children was examined using the tooth wear index of Smith and Knight, and their exposure to intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors was retrospectively investigated through a structured questionnaire. The severity of wear was quantitatively estimated by the number of surfaces with affected dentine and by the cumulative score of the sextants, based on the Basic Erosive Wear Examination scoring system. Only 1.6% of the children were tooth wear free, whereas 45.6% had moderate to severe wear involving dentine. Maxillary canines were the most affected teeth (83.2%), and occlusal/incisal the most affected surfaces (52.7%). The likelihood of tooth wear involving dentine was greater in boys than girls (OR = 1.72), in immigrants than in Greeks (OR = 1.93), and in 6- and 7-year olds than in 5-year olds (OR = 2.78 to 2.93). After adjustment for age, gender, and nationality, exposure to several dietary factors and especially to soft drinks was found to significantly affect the prevalence (OR = 1.27) and the severity of tooth wear. Every additional serving/week of consumption of soft drinks increases the number of surfaces with dentine affected by 0.03 per year (p < 0.05) and the cumulative score of sextants by 0.04 (p < 0.05). The cluster of children with the higher prevalence and severity of tooth wear had an average exposure to soft drinks of 10 servings/week for a duration of 4 years. The cumulative score of sextants was better predicted by the assessed risk factors, in comparison with the number of surfaces with affected dentine. Tooth wear is a common condition in children, related both to the physiological process of aging of dentition and to the erosive effect of dietary factors. Strategies to reduce the intake of soft drinks in children are expected to have multiple

  2. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  3. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis lagged behind the onset of rheumatoid arthritis by 7 years

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wen, Hong-yan; Wang, Li-hua; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The co-existence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), presenting either together or in succession, is very rare. A variety of histopathological features in the clinical renal disease may occur in RA. Only 8 studies have previously reported this poorly understood connection. Clinical findings/diagnoses: A case of a 54-year-old male with RA lasting for more than 7 years developed cheirarthritis as the first signs. Symmetric polyarthralgia and multiple swollen joints throughout the body were followed, accompanied with morning stiffness. Gradually, he suffered from albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia in 2014. The patient had the history of administering loxoprofen, celecoxib, leflunomide, and methotrexate. He was diagnosed as RA, nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy confirmed FSGS. Conclusion: Our case and the review of the literature indicate that FSGS is one of the causes of nephrotic syndrome in RA. It strongly suggested that RA patients with the abnormal kidney functions should be routinely screened for FSGS to guide the therapy, achieve both RA and FSGS remission, determine a prognosis, and avoid end-stage renal lesion. PMID:28072731

  4. A study of lightning flashes attending periods of banded snowfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Market, Patrick S.; Becker, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Lightning flashes (N = 1088) associated with 24 thundersnow events in the central United States were analyzed to document flash polarity, signal strength, and multiplicity. Negative lightning flashes (N = 872; 80%) dominated positive flashes (N = 216; 20%) with wintry precipitation in this study, which stands in contrast to the majority of the research done on winter thunderstorms (primarily in Japan). Otherwise, limited work has been done, although thundersnow has been documented in the mid-latitudes of North America, Europe and Asia. Statistics on peak amplitude were determined for negative (positive) flashes, yielding mean and standard deviation values of -24 kA +/- 22 kA (+38 kA +/- 34 kA). A subset of winter lightning events (N = 16) were then sought that occurred with banded (single or multiple) snowfall, as banding often denotes greater organization in the atmosphere (e.g., a jet streak aloft to aid in ascent, or a low level jet streak to aid with moisture and thermal transport) and thus the potential for deeper snow totals. Radar reflectivity values were recorded at the location of each lightning flash, as well as the maximum radar reflectivity within the associated snow band. The location of the lightning activity within the snow band was also noted as being either leading edge (LE), trailing edge (TE), core (C), or not correlated (NC), with respect to the motion of the parent band. The majority of lightning flashes were found downstream of areas of highest radar reflectivity with respect to the motion of the snow bands, and not with the highest reflectivity values. If one uses the highest reflectivity values in a snowband as a proxy for the greatest surface snowfall intensity, then the ground terminus of a cloud-to-ground lightning (CG) flash is often not co-located with the heaviest snowfall rates. However, the work completed here does place the location of the typical CG flash ~15 km downstream of the snowband location, so one could use the occurrence

  5. Rationalization of Periodical Holdings: A Case Study at Chalmers University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Describes study of periodical use in medium-sized university of technology which examined use of individual periodicals in relation to language of publication; patterns of use for interlibrary lending and for multiple copy journals; methods and costs for acquiring infrequently used periodicals. Thirty-three references and most frequently used…

  6. 7 years of MacGyver sessions at EGU and AGU: what happened?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; Selker, John; Weijs, Steven; Luxemburg, Wim; Wickert, Andy; Blume, Theresa; Bamburger, Jan; Stoof, Cathelijne; Tauro, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    The session that this poster is in, the: "Self-made sensors and unintended use of measurement equipment", also known as the "MacGyver-session" has had 7 years of scientists contributing their self made devices, hacks and solutions with the hydrological community. In 2009, the first session was held at the AGU fall meeting and since 2011 a session is also organised at the EGU General Assembly. On this poster, and in the accompanying review paper, we will present an overview of the work presented in the last 7 years, cataloging the work of the inventive scientists who have contributed to these successful, and above all: fun, sessions.

  7. Sporotrichosis on the face of a 7-year-old boy following a bicycle accident.

    PubMed

    Williams, Blake A; Jennings, Thomas A; Rushing, Erica C; Wirges, Marla; Russell, Brian E

    2013-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy presented with an annular verrucous plaque on the chin of 5 weeks duration. The lesion occurred after a bicycle accident and was unresponsive to antibiotics. Fungal culture grew Sporothrix schenckii. Sporotrichosis should be considered and fungal culture obtained whenever a nodule or plaque fails to respond to initial treatment.

  8. Eosinophilic keratitis and keratoconjunctivitis in a 7-year-old domestic shorthaired cat

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 7-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair was presented with a several-month history of an ulcerated right cornea with marked stromal edema and inflammation that was nonresponsive to therapy. A diagnosis of eosinophilic keratitis was made, based on cytologic examination of corneal scrapings. The lesion resolved after treatment with topical corticosteroids. PMID:16363332

  9. Serous Retinal Detachment in Dome-shaped Macula with 7 Years Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Alakeely, Adel G.; Alrashaed, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) was first described by Gaucher et al. as a convex protrusion of macula within a staphyloma in highly myopic eyes that cause visual impairment associated with serous foveal detachment (SFD). We describe a patient with persistent SFD in DSM documented by serial spectral domain optical coherence tomography for 7 years with stable vision. PMID:27994399

  10. Educational Implications of Developmental Transitions: Revisiting the 5- to 7-Year Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold; McDonough, Susan C.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the 5- to 7-year shift is essential if educators are to help children adjust to elementary school. The timing and quality of this shift is influenced by child characteristics, home environment, cultural context, and previous group learning experience. Since child development depends on children's engagement in cultural…

  11. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  12. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie…

  13. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  14. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  15. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  16. Observations of the gamma-ray emission from the Quiescent Sun with Fermi Large Area Telescope during the first 7 years in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainó, S.; Giglietto, N.; Moskalenko, I.; Orlando, E.; Strong, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    The high energy gamma-ray emission from the quiescent Sun is due to the interactions of cosmic ray (CR) protons and electrons with matter and photons in the solar environment. Such interactions lead to two component gamma-ray emission: a disk-like emission due to the nuclear interactions of CR protons and nuclei in the solar atmosphere and a space extended emission due to the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of CR electrons off solar photons in the whole heliosphere. The observation of these two solar emission components may give useful information about the evolution of the solar cycle by probing two different CR components (proton and electrons) in regions not directly accessible by direct observations. We present the results of the observations of the Sun with Fermi-LAT in the first 7 years on orbit, with the exception of the flaring periods. Significantly large photon statistics and improved processing performance with respect to previous analysis allow us to explore both components of the emission in greater details and perform better comparisons of data with current models of the IC component. This allows us to probe CR electrons in the inner heliosphere which is not possible by other methods. Moreover, the longer period of observations allows us to study the variations of the emission between the maximum and the minimum of the solar cycle.

  17. A use study of speech pathology and audiology periodicals at Illinois State University.

    PubMed

    Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L

    1997-10-01

    No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology.

  18. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  19. [Acute suppurative thyroiditis in 7 year-old girl with piriform sinus fistula].

    PubMed

    Asano, Takeshi; Uchikoba, Yoko; Zhi, Cai Ling; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Miho; Shimizu, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2002-12-01

    A 7 year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with high grade fever and redness, swelling and tenderness in left neck. CT scan revealed cyst formation (4.5x3 cm) in left lobe of thyroid with swelling of surrounding lymphonodes. We diagnosed her as acute suppurative thyroiditis and treated her with intravenous antibiotics infusion and incisional drainage. After the treatment, the clinical course was uneventful. Pharyngograph revealed left piriform sinus fistula.

  20. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  1. [Adenotonsillectomy: the evaluation of the long-term results after more than 7 years from the intervention].

    PubMed

    Esposito, E; Pucci, V; Mesolella, M; Motta, S

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out on 110 patients with various diseases related to chronic inflammation of the tonsils and to hypertrophic adenoids. Sixty-two of these patients underwent adenotonsillectomy, while the others were followed clinically and, where necessary, given medical treatment. At the first observation the patients were between the ages of 2 and 12 (mean age 6.1 years). At the start of the present study the patients ages ranged from 10 to 22 (mean age 17 years). Clinical follow-up was carried out on the patients 2 and 7 years after the first observation and/or adenotonsillectomy. The patients were divided into homogeneous groups according to the severity of symptoms. The A.A. evaluated changes of the following clinical parameters: annual frequency of inflammatory pharyngotonsillar episodes, nasal respiratory obstruction, sore throat, otologic pathology. Evaluations were carried out statistically in each group. After more than 7 years from surgery, the significant reduction of various diseases related to chronic inflammation of the tonsils and to hypertrophic adenoids, in accordance with the findings after 2 years from surgery, underline the effectiveness of adenotonsillectomy in correctly selected candidates.

  2. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors.

  3. Utility of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in Children Ages 4–7 Years with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather; Kirk, John Woodard; Mahone, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that assessment for non-credible performance is a necessary component of pediatric neuropsychological examination. The current study examined the utility and validity of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in children ages 4–7 years with and without Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-six children (30 controls, 36 ADHD) completed all three TOMM trials. There were no significant group differences in total score on any trial, or passing rate for Trial 2 or Retention. Four-year-olds with ADHD achieved “passing” score on Trial 1 less often than controls. Across groups, performance on Trial 2 and Retention improved with age, such that 85% of the sample achieved passing score. Four-year olds had greater difficulty and achieved passing score significantly less often than children 5–7 years. Moreover, half of the 4-year olds performed worse on Retention than Trial 2, calling into question the utility of the Retention trial at this age. Performance was associated with IQ only within the ADHD group on the Retention trial. Results suggest that the TOMM can be used with confidence in clinical groups as young as 5 years. Among 4-year olds, performance appears dependent on severity of ADHD or disruptive behaviors, and may be associated with factors other than effort. PMID:25247460

  4. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  5. The Role of the Working Memory and Language Skills in the Prediction of Word Problem Solving in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttälä, Minna; Aunio, Pirjo; Lepola, Janne; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory (WM) and language skills (vocabulary, listening comprehension) in predicting preschool and kindergarten-aged children's ability to solve mathematical word problems presented orally. The participants were 116 Finnish-speaking children aged 4-7?years. The…

  6. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  7. Emotional anticipation after delivery - a longitudinal neuroimaging study of the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Gingnell, Malin; Toffoletto, Simone; Wikström, Johan; Engman, Jonas; Bannbers, Elin; Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-12-01

    Neuroimaging research has begun to unveil the mechanisms behind emotion processing during the postpartum period, which, in turn, may be of relevance for the development of postpartum depression. The present study sought to longitudinally investigate the neural correlates of emotion anticipation during the postpartum period in healthy women. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to measure the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the brain in response to anticipation of negative emotional stimuli and during processing of images with positive or negative valence. The participating women were scanned twice: the first scan occurred during the first 48 hours after delivery, and the second was performed 4-6 weeks after delivery. The early postpartum period was characterized by higher anterior cingulate cortex reactivity during anticipation of negative emotional stimuli than the late postpartum period. This was accompanied by a negative relationship with insular reactivity during the early postpartum period and a trend towards an increase in insular reactivity in the late postpartum period. Thus, during the first four weeks of the postpartum period, a diminished top-down regulatory feedback on emotion-related areas of the brain was noted. This finding suggests a physiologically important adaptation during the healthy postpartum period.

  8. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 7-year-old Brazilian boy.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, C M B; Gueiros, L A M; Leon, J E; do Carmo Abreu e Lima, M; de Almeida, O P; Leão, J C

    2011-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are amongst the commonest malignancies in adults but in paediatric patients are exceptionally rare, particularly those involving the oral mucosa. The aim of the present report is to describe the features of a gingival well-differentiated SCC in a 7-year-old Brazilian boy. Immunostaining for p53, Ki-67 and Mcm2 showed increased cellular proliferation compared with normal epithelium. In situ hybridization failed to identify human papilloma virus infection. Correct diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous carcinoma can be difficult in children and differentiation from pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is essential to establish proper treatment.

  9. Background acetabular aneurysmal bone cyst in a 7 year-old: Presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Saus Milán, N; Pino Almero, L; Mínguez Rey, M F

    2016-01-01

    The bone cyst is a rare benign tumor that usually develops in childhood. There are several treatment options, however when it is located within the pelvis treatment is complex. A 7 year-old patient who presented with 3 months of right hip pain and limping. The initial radiograph showed a discrete periostic reaction and acetabulum effacement. The MRI and CT scans suggested the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst and was confirmed by open biopsy. Two serial embolizations were performed with good results, the patient was asymptomatic one year after.

  10. Deltoid contracture mimicking shoulder dislocation in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Lian, L Y; Zhang, L J; Zhao, Q

    2010-09-01

    Contracture of the deltoid muscle, a relatively uncommon disorder in children, can be caused by repeated intramuscular injection, trauma, or congenital disease. The typical clinical manifestations of deltoid contracture (i.e., a palpable fibrous cord within the deltoid muscle, abduction contracture of the shoulder, winged scapula, and skin dimpling over the fibrous bands), however, may be atypical or even lacking, thus, leading to misdiagnosis. The procedure going from misdiagnosis to recognition of the correct diagnosis is reviewed in a 7-year-old boy with deltoid contracture.

  11. Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Galiani, Sebastian; Ram, Pavani K; Hubbard, Alan E; Briceño, Bertha; Gertler, Paul J; Colford, John M

    2013-02-15

    Many community-based studies of acute child illness rely on cases reported by caregivers. In prior investigations, researchers noted a reporting bias when longer illness recall periods were used. The use of recall periods longer than 2-3 days has been discouraged to minimize this reporting bias. In the present study, we sought to determine the optimal recall period for illness measurement when accounting for both bias and variance. Using data from 12,191 children less than 24 months of age collected in 2008-2009 from Himachal Pradesh in India, Madhya Pradesh in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal, we calculated bias, variance, and mean squared error for estimates of the prevalence ratio between groups defined by anemia, stunting, and underweight status to identify optimal recall periods for caregiver-reported diarrhea, cough, and fever. There was little bias in the prevalence ratio when a 7-day recall period was used (<10% in 35 of 45 scenarios), and the mean squared error was usually minimized with recall periods of 6 or more days. Shortening the recall period from 7 days to 2 days required sample-size increases of 52%-92% for diarrhea, 47%-61% for cough, and 102%-206% for fever. In contrast to the current practice of using 2-day recall periods, this work suggests that studies should measure caregiver-reported illness with a 7-day recall period.

  12. First observational tests of eternal inflation: Analysis methods and WMAP 7-year results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Johnson, Matthew C.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2011-08-01

    In the picture of eternal inflation, our observable universe resides inside a single bubble nucleated from an inflating false vacuum. Many of the theories giving rise to eternal inflation predict that we have causal access to collisions with other bubble universes, providing an opportunity to confront these theories with observation. We present the results from the first observational search for the effects of bubble collisions, using cosmic microwave background data from the WMAP satellite. Our search targets a generic set of properties associated with a bubble-collision spacetime, which we describe in detail. We use a modular algorithm that is designed to avoid a posteriori selection effects, automatically picking out the most promising signals, performing a search for causal boundaries, and conducting a full Bayesian parameter estimation and model selection analysis. We outline each component of this algorithm, describing its response to simulated CMB skies with and without bubble collisions. Comparing the results for simulated bubble collisions to the results from an analysis of the WMAP 7-year data, we rule out bubble collisions over a range of parameter space. Our model selection results based on WMAP 7-year data do not warrant augmenting ΛCDM with bubble collisions. Data from the Planck satellite can be used to more definitively test the bubble-collision hypothesis.

  13. Patterns and trends of pediatric bloodstream infections: a 7-year surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Buetti, N; Atkinson, A; Kottanattu, L; Bielicki, J; Marschall, J; Kronenberg, A

    2017-03-01

    We characterize the epidemiology of pediatric bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Switzerland. We analyzed pathogen distribution and resistance patterns in monomicrobial and polymicrobial BSIs in children from 2008 to 2014 using data from the Swiss antibiotic resistance centre (ANRESIS). A confirmatory statistical analysis was performed comparing pathogens and resistance across 20 acute care hospitals. We identified 3,067 bacteremia episodes, of which 1,823 (59 %) were considered true BSI episodes. Overall, S. aureus (16.5 %, 300) was the most frequent pathogen, followed by E. coli (15.1 %, 276), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, 12.9 %, 235), S. pneumoniae (11.1 %, 202) and non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae (8.7 %, 159). S. aureus and E. coli showed similar frequencies in all of the variables analyzed (e.g., hospital acquisition, hospital type, medical specialty). The proportion of these microorganisms did not change over time, resistance rates remained low (4.3 % methicillin resistance in S. aureus; 7.3 % third-/fourth-generation cephalosporin resistance in E. coli), and no significant resistance trends were observed. We observed a 50 % increase of CoNS BSIs from 2008 (9.8 %, 27) to 2014 (15.2 %, 46, p value for trend = 0.03). S. pneumoniae decreased from 17.5 % (48) to 6.6 % (20) during that timeframe (p for trend = 0.007). S. aureus and E. coli remained the most significant pathogens among pediatric BSIs in Switzerland, exhibiting low resistance rates. CoNS accounted for a greater proportion of BSIs over time. The decrease in bacteremic pneumococcal infections can likely be attributed to the introduction of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in 2011.

  14. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  15. Incubation period and immune function: a comparative field study among coexisting birds.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria G; Martin, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species.

  16. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  17. Utility of ten-second uptake periods for kinetic studies of serotonin uptake by intact platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, J.L.; Kirk, K.L.; Stark, H.

    1981-09-01

    When washed human platelets accumulate serotonin (5HT), it is possible with the use of formaldehyde fixative to measure uptake over periods as short as 10 seconds. To evaluate the utility of these short times for kinetic studies of 5HT uptake, we have examined the accuracy with which the 10 second uptake rate reflects changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. The amount of 5HT taken up over a 10 second period appears to be determined by the concentration of 5HT present in the extracellular medium during that time period, and the uptake rate can change rapidly following sudden changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. However, the extent of inhibition of 5HT uptake in the presence of imipramine of extracellular 5HT concentrations greater than 10-5M is somewhat different depending on whether the 5HT is allowed to accumulate for a 10-second or a 5- or 10-minute uptake period. A 10-second uptake period thus appears to be useful for kinetic studies of initial 5HT uptake velocities under normal conditions, but under inhibitory conditions may give results differing from those obtained with minute-long periods.

  18. Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5–7 Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Key, Alexandra P.F.; Molfese, Dennis L.; O’Brien, Louise; Gozal, David

    2010-01-01

    Poor sleep in children is associated with lower neurocognitive functioning and increased maladaptive behaviors. The current study examined the impact of snoring (the most common manifestation of sleep-disordered breathing) on cognitive and brain functioning in a sample of 35 asymptomatic children ages 5–7 years identified in the community as having habitual snoring (SDB). All participants completed polysomnographic, neurocognitive (NEPSY) and psychophysiological (ERPs to speech sounds) assessments. The results indicated that sub-clinical levels of SDB may not necessarily lead to reduced performance on standardized behavioral measures of attention and memory. However, brain indices of speech perception and discrimination (N1/P2) are sensitive to individual differences in the quality of sleep. We postulate that addition of ERPs to the standard clinical measures of sleep problems could lead to early identification of children who may be more cognitively vulnerable because of chronic sleep disturbances. PMID:20183723

  19. Electroencephalography Spectral Power Density in First-Episode Mania: A Comparative Study with Subsequent Remission Period

    PubMed Central

    GÜVEN, Sertaç; KESEBİR, Sermin; DEMİRER, R. Murat; BİLİCİ, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim in this study was to investigate spectral power density (PSD) in first-episode mania and subsequent remission period and to evaluate their difference. Methods Sixty-nine consecutive cases referring to our hospital within the previous 1 year, who were evaluated as bipolar disorder manic episode according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) at the first episode and had the informed consent form signed by first degree relatives, were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included having previous depressive episode, using drugs which could influence electroencephalographic activity before electroencephalography (EEG), and having previous neurological disease, particularly epilepsy, head trauma, and/or loss of consciousness. EEG records were obtained using a digital device in 16 channels; 23 surface electrodes were placed according to the International 10–20 system. Spectral power density (dbμV/Hz) of EEG signal provided information on the power carried out by EEG waves in defined frequancy range per unit frequency in the present study. Results A peak power value detected on the right with FP2P4 and on the left with F7T3 electrodes were found to be higher in the manic episode than in the remission period (p=0.018 and 0.025). In the remission period, in cases with psychotic symptoms during the manic period, F4C4 peak power value was found to be lower than that in cases with no psychotic findings during the manic period (p=0.027). There was no relation was found between YMRS scores and peak power scores. Conclusion Electrophysiological corollary of mood episode is present from the onset of the disease, and it differs between the manic and remission periods of bipolar disorder. In the remission period, peak power values of PSD distinguish cases with psychotic findings from cases without psychotic findings when they were manic.

  20. New Light Curves and Period Studies of V502 OPH W UMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Nabil S.

    NEW LIGHT CURVES AND PERIOD STUDIES OF V502 OPH W UMa SYSTEM N.S.Awadalla National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics( NRIAG ) Helwan Cairo EGYPT New BVR photoelectric observations of the W UMa eclipsing binary system V502 Oph have been presented and analyzed. The geometric and physical elements of the system have been obtained and compared to the previous results. The classification of the system concerning the sub-type of the W UMa binary has been studied as well as its evolution stage. Its period variation in a view of the light time effect has been examin

  1. Split-field FDTD method for oblique incidence study of periodic dispersive metallic structures.

    PubMed

    Baida, F I; Belkhir, A

    2009-08-15

    The study of periodic structures illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is a simple task that can be numerically simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. On the contrary, for off-normal incidence, a widely modified algorithm must be developed in order to bypass the frequency dependence appearing in the periodic boundary conditions. After recently implementing this FDTD algorithm for pure dielectric materials, we here extend it to the study of metallic structures where dispersion can be described by analytical models. The accuracy of our code is demonstrated through comparisons with already-published results in the case of 1D and 3D structures.

  2. [7-year clinical experience with a spatial, bioactive copper intrauterine device (Spider Cu)].

    PubMed

    Krzaklewski, S; Reszczyński, A

    1981-03-01

    During the past 15 years, the Wroclaw Medical Academy Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology experimented on the construction of IUDs. The paper discusses the positive and negative points of those devices which were produced as compared with the Gravigard and the Copper T-200. There were 702 women observed for 7 years while wearing the Spider Cu IUD, designed in 1973. The Spider Cu is a spatial, bioactive device with copper added characterized by its blunt shape and elasticity which makes uterine trauma or perforation impossible. It is highly safe and effective and is protected by patents in several countries including Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, India, and the U.S. The paper postulates a broad introduction of this IUD in home pharmaceutical trade. (author's)

  3. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a district general hospital: increased success over 7 years.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R D; Waites, J H; Hubbard, W N; Wicks, M

    1990-01-01

    In a 12-month prospective survey of CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation), 32 out of 192 patients (16.6%) survived to go home. This is a clear improvement compared with 7 years previously. This is attributed to better training in the use and management of CPR and more widespread availability of defibrillators. Certain patients could not be resuscitated--those with electromechanical dissociation, carcinoma, or multiple pathology. Age by itself was not a bar to resuscitation. There is still a high rate of inappropriate calls, often because of uncertainty by nurses about the use of CPR. This could be improved with clearer guidelines in hospitals about the value of CPR in selected patients. PMID:2152462

  4. Inferring sublexical correspondences from sight vocabulary: evidence from 6- and 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M; Masterson, J; Dixon, M; Quinlan, P

    1999-05-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate 6-to-7-year-old children's ability to acquire knowledge of sublexical correspondences between print and sound from their reading experience. A computer database containing the printed word vocabulary of children taking part in the experiment was compiled and used to devise stimuli controlled for grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) frequency and rime neighbourhood consistency according to the children's reading experience. Knowledge of GPC rules and rime units was compared by asking children to read aloud three types of nonword varying in regularity of GPC and consistency of rime pronunciation. Results supported the view that children can acquire knowledge of both GPC rules and rime units from their reading experience. GPC rule strength affects the likelihood of a GPC response; rime consistency affects the likelihood of a rime response.

  5. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  6. Subalpine grassland carbon balance during 7 years of increased atmospheric N deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Matthias; Enderle, Jan; Bassin, Seraina

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution agents interact when affecting biological sinks for atmospheric CO2, e.g., the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of grassland ecosystems. Factors favoring plant productivity, like atmospheric N deposition, are usually considered to favor SOC storage. In a 7-year experiment in subalpine grassland under N- and O3-deposition treatment, we examined C fluxes and pools. Total N deposition was 4, 9, 14, 29 and 54 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N4, N9, etc.); annual mean phytotoxic O3 dose was 49, 65 and 89 mmol m-2 projected leaf area. We hypothesized that between years SOC of this mature ecosystem would not change in control treatments and that effects of air pollutants are similar for plant yield, net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and SOC content, leading to SOC content increasing with N deposition. Cumulative plant yield showed a significant N and N × N effect (+38 % in N54) but no O3 effect. In the control treatment SOC increased significantly by 9 % in 7 years. Cumulative NEP did show a strong, hump-shaped response pattern to N deposition with a +62 % increase in N14 and only +39 % increase in N54 (N effect statistically not significant, N × N interaction not testable). SOC had a similar but not significant response to N, with highest C gains at intermediate N deposition rates, suggesting a unimodal response with a marginal (P = 0.09) N × N interaction. We assume the strong, pollutant-independent soil C sink developed as a consequence of the management change from grazing to cutting. The non-parallel response of SOC and NEP compared to plant yield under N deposition is likely the result of increased respiratory SOC losses, following mitigated microbial N-limitation or priming effects, and a shift in plant C allocation leading to smaller C input from roots.

  7. Butane Hash Oil Burns: A 7-Year Perspective on a Growing Problem.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Kathleen S; Barsun, Alura; Kwan, Peter; Teo, Esther H; Palmieri, Tina L; Sen, Soman; Maguina, Pirko; Greenhalgh, David G

    With the legalization of marijuana in four states, and decriminalization in many others, marijuana is becoming easier to obtain. The authors have experienced an increase in burn injuries related to the production of butane hash oil (BHO; a concentrated tetrahydrocannabinol product produced by the distillation of marijuana plant products with pressurized butane). This article updates our experience and highlights the increasing public health problem associated with these burns. Charts of patients who presented to the burn center with suspicion of BHO-related injuries between January 2007 and December 2014 were examined. Data collected included demographics, injury characteristics, treatment utilized, and outcomes. Charts of 101 patients were identified as having BHO-related burn injury. The mean age of these patients was 30.5 ± 10.6 years (mean ± standard deviation, range: 2-55 years) and 93.1% were male. Patients sustained a mean of 26.8 ± 24.1% TBSA burn with 14.3 ± 25.1% third degree burns. Three patients died as the result of their injuries. Patients required a mean of 12 ± 48.4 ventilator days, and 27.1 ± 59.4 days in the hospital. The number of patients presenting with these burns increased over the past 7 years. BHO burns occur most commonly in February (12 patients), on Wednesday (19 patients), and between 18:00 and 06:00 (58 patients). There has been a sharp increase in the number of patients presenting with burn-associated BHO production in the region over the past 7 years. The authors as burn care providers need to increase public awareness of this issue and aid in the development of legislation to help prevent these burns before it becomes a public health crisis.

  8. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  9. Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred mares under Indian subtropical conditions: A retrospective survey over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumeet; Dhaliwal, G S; Dadarwal, Dinesh

    2010-02-01

    Service records of 253 mares (1181 mare-years) spanning over 7 consecutive years, from nine organized Thoroughbred stud farms, situated in the subtropical northwestern India were retrospectively analyzed to assess their reproductive performance. The overall per cycle pregnancy rate at Day 16 and overall foaling rates were 50.30% and 68.95%, respectively, and were significantly higher in mares aged 3-7 years than > or =18 years old mares. The late embryonic losses (9.86%) that occurred between Days 16 and 39 post-ovulation contributed more than 50% of the overall detected pregnancy losses (19.11%). The overall percent detected pregnancy losses were lower in mares at ages 3-7 years compared to those at ages > or =18 years (14.78% vs. 46.43%, respectively; P<0.0001). Chronic barren and habitual aborter mares tended to affect reproductive efficiency of mares. Fifty percent of the mares that experienced > or =2 consecutive abortions or barren years, again stayed aborted or barren in the next seasons, respectively. No effect of numbers of matings per oestrus was observed on overall fertility. Neither the induction of oestrus nor ovulation by exogenous hormonal treatment had any effect on most of the analyzed reproductive parameters. Regarding breeding month or years, the reproductive efficiency did not differ significantly. The incidence of multiple pregnancies was 5.40% and percent late embryonic loses were higher (P=0.0016) in twin (21.98%) than singleton (8.64%) pregnancies. In conclusion, comparatively lower fertility rates were recorded in Thoroughbred mares bred under Indian subtropical climatic conditions than those reported from temperate regions that might be due to difference in breeding management rather than prevailing environment.

  10. Environmental input and cognitive growth: a study using time-period comparisons.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocher, J; Levine, S; Vevea, J

    1998-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relation of input to cognitive growth in a single population of children. We studied 4 domains: Language, Spatial Operations, Concepts, and Associative Memory. Four groups of children drawn from the same population were tested in October of kindergarten, April of kindergarten, October of first grade, and April of first grade. These time points are 6 months apart, but they span periods that differ in amount of school input children receive. Much greater growth was found over time periods with greater amounts of school input (October to April) than over time periods with less school input (April to October) for Language, Spatial Operations, and Concepts, but not for Associative Memory. These findings suggest that amount of input is causally related to cognitive growth in particular domains.

  11. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    PubMed

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices.

  12. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  13. Extended AB period study of the electron pairing transition in t-J ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Koichi; Aoki, Hideo

    1996-11-01

    The extended Aharonov-Bohm period test, recently proposed by the present authors, is used to study the electron pairing transition in the t-J ladders. The critical point is detected as a gap opening in the extended spectral flow. The result suggests a pairing prior to the onset of a phase separation, which is consistent with a recent Tomonaga-Luttinger analysis.

  14. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  15. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  16. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  17. Ionic adsorption on the brucite (0001) surface: A periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkos, Eszter; Kerridge, Andrew; Austin, Jonathan; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the generalised gradient approximation level is employed within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method (PEECM) to model the brucite (0001) surface. Three representative studies are then used to demonstrate the reliability of the PEECM for the description of the interactions of various ionic species with the layered Mg(OH)2 structure, and its performance is compared with periodic DFT, an approach known to be challenging for the adsorption of charged species. The adsorption energies of a series of s block cations, including Sr2+ and Cs+ which are known to coexist with brucite in nuclear waste storage ponds, are well described by the embedded cluster model, provided that basis sets of triple-zeta quality are employed for the adsorbates. The substitution energies of Ca2+ and Sr2+ into brucite obtained with the PEECM are very similar to periodic DFT results, and comparison of the approaches indicates that two brucite layers in the quantum mechanical part of the PEECM are sufficient to describe the substitution. Finally, a detailed comparison of the periodic and PEECM DFT approaches to the energetic and geometric properties of differently coordinated Sr[(OH)2(H2O)4] complexes on brucite shows an excellent agreement in adsorption energies, Sr-O distances, and bond critical point electron densities (obtained via the quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules), demonstrating that the PEECM can be a useful alternative to periodic DFT in these situations.

  18. Multiperiodicity in quasi-periodic pulsations of flare hard X-rays: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Szaforz, Ż.

    We present a case study of the solar flare (SOL2001-10-02T17:31) that showed quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in hard X-rays with two simultaneously excited periods, P_1 = 26-31 s and P_2 = 110 s. Complete evolution of the flare recorded by the Yohkoh telescopes, together with the patrol SOHO/EIT images, allowed us to identify magnetic structures responsible for particular periods and to propose an overall scenario which is consistent with the available observations. Namely, we suggest that emerging magnetic flux initiated the reconnection with legs of a large arcade of coronal loops that had been present in an active region for several days. The reconnection excited MHD oscillations in both magnetic structures simultaneously: period P_1 was generated in the emerging loop and in a loop being a result of the reconnection; period P_2 occurred in the arcade. Both resonators produced photons of different spectra. We anticipate that multiperiodicity in hard X-rays can be a common feature of flare hybrids, i.e. the events, in which magnetic structures of different sizes interact.

  19. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  20. Developmental Trajectories in Siblings of Children with Autism: Cognition and Language from 4 Months to 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamliel, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit; Jaffe, Dena H.; Manor, Orly; Sigman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    We compared the cognitive and language development at 4, 14, 24, 36, 54 months, and 7 years of siblings of children with autism (SIBS-A) to that of siblings of children with typical development (SIBS-TD) using growth curve analyses. At 7 years, 40% of the SIBS-A, compared to 16% of SIBS-TD, were identified with cognitive, language and/or academic…

  1. Stable aquaculture of the Japanese lancelet Branchiostoma japonicum for 7 years.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kinya; Igawa, Takeshi; Kaji, Takao; Henmi, Yasuhisa

    2013-12-01

    Despite advances in the study on animal evolution in the last two decades, paucity of experimental data on cephalochordates comparable to those on the other chordates hinders an integrative understanding of chordate evolutionary history. To obtain lancelet data under well-controlled experiments, laboratory cultures of lancelets have been performed at several institutions. In a mass culture started in 2005, we have obtained up to three consecutive generations of Branchiostoma japonicum. Using sand substratum, survival rates of laboratory lancelets until maturation have improved to greater than 30%, much higher than compared to previously, and for adults the annual average survival rate was 82.3%. The high survival rate allows maintaining animals at least 6 years and potentially longer. Water temperatures lower than 23°C obviously reduced the frequency of spawning even after the onset of spawning period, and 1-2 days after changing the temperature at 25°C animals became spawned well. We also observed obvious sex reversal from male to female in individuals that had been cultured for 3 years or more. Our continuous culture has provided sufficient materials for vital experiments on early development and for studying metamorphosis, as well as for the conservation of wild populations. The subculture of successive laboratory generations will provide a valuable resource for genetic studies.

  2. Diffusion Tensor Tractography of the Cerebellar Peduncles in Prematurely Born 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Shany, Eilon; Inder, Terrie E; Goshen, Sharon; Lee, Iris; Neil, Jeffrey J; Smyser, Christopher D; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J; Shimony, Joshua S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm-born children and their perinatal clinical and imaging characteristics with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of the three cerebellar peduncles at age 7. Included in this prospective longitudinal study were 140 preterm-born children (<30 weeks gestation) who underwent neurodevelopmental assessment (IQ, motor, language, working memory) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at age 7 years. White matter tracts in the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles were delineated using regions of interest drawn on T2-weighted images and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps. Diffusion measures (mean diffusivity (MD) and FA) and tract volumes were calculated. Linear regression was used to assess relationships with outcome. The severity of white matter injury in the neonatal period was associated with lower FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and lower tract volumes of both SCPs and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCPs). In the MCP, higher IQ was associated with lower MD in the whole group and higher FA in right-handed children. In the SCP, lower motor scores were associated with higher MD and higher language scores were associated with higher FA. These associations remained significant in multivariable models. This study adds to the body of literature detailing the importance of cerebellar involvement in cognitive function related to reciprocal connections with supratentorial structures.

  3. Periosteal fasciitis in a 7-year old girl: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lääveri, M; Heikinheimo, K; Baumhoer, D; Slootweg, P J; Happonen, R-P

    2017-03-02

    Periosteal fasciitis, considered a subtype of nodular fasciitis, is a rare benign soft tissue mass often misdiagnosed as a malignant lesion due to its fast and infiltrative growth pattern and histological features. Nodular fasciitis is usually found in the upper extremities in adults and in the head and neck region in children. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to overtreatment, potentially causing disturbed orofacial development in growing children. A rapidly growing asymptomatic mass, initially suspected to be a malignant bone tumour, was found in the left angle area of the mandible in a healthy 7-year-old girl. Radiographic examination revealed an exophytic, expansile and destructive nodule arising from the periosteal region. A diagnosis of periosteal fasciitis was established based on histological findings in an open biopsy specimen and the lesion was subsequently enucleated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a USP6 gene rearrangement and confirmed the diagnosis molecularly. Due to the aggressive growth pattern without external trauma and the results of the gene rearrangement test, it is suggested that nodular fasciitis be regarded as a benign neoplasm rather than as a reactive process. The patient remains free of disease at 3 years after surgery.

  4. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986–1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

  5. Intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Tomori, Yuji; Sudo, Yoshihiro; Iizawa, Norishige; Nanno, Mitsuhiko; Takai, Shinro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus is an extremely rare injury in children, especially in those under 8 years of age. To our best knowledge, there have been 55 reported cases of this fracture type in children in the English literature, 12 of which involved children under 8 years of age. Patient Concerns: We report a case of intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus in a7-year-old boy fell in a gymnasium, injuring his left elbow. Interventions: Closed reduction was initially attempted under fluoroscopic guidance, but anatomic reduction could not be achieved because the fragments were extremely unstable and irreducible. Considering the displacement and the failure of closed reduction, ORIF through a posterior approach was performed. Open reduction and double cross-pinning across the medial and lateral condylar fragments were performed through a posterior approach. Diagnoses: Plain radiographs showed a displaced intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus. Arthrography under general anesthesia showed a severely displaced intra-articular fracture, with rotational displacement of the lateral condyle. Outcomes: Thirteen months after surgery, there was no functional disturbance or radiographic evidence of avascular necrosis or epiphyseal growth arrest. Lessons: Open reduction and double cross-pinning through a posterior approach can be a reliable procedure for intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus in children. PMID:28178167

  6. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-07-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort.

  7. Management of Ruptured Occult Left Hydronephrotic Kidney in 7-Year - old Boy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    More, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Pre-existing, occult, congenital renal anomalies are often discovered during evaluation of children for blunt injury of the kidney and abdomen, presenting with or without haematuria. This is a report of 7-year-old boy; who presented with blunt injury abdomen with haematuria following fall from motorcycle. He had pallor, and features of hypovolumic shock and peritonitis. Skiagram of the abdomen showed haziness of the abdomen, without free gas under diaphragm. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed significant hemoperitoneum and gross hydronephrosis of the left kidney, which was undiagnosed previously. Exploratory laparotomy was done for peritonitis and the findings were hemoperitoneum, hematoma at the left mesocolon and left retroperitoneum. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen reported left hydronephrosis due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction with rupture of the renal pelvis. The ruptured hydronephrotic kidney was successfully managed by nephrostomy followed by delayed open dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. His postoperative recovery following pyeloplasty was uneventful and he was doing well at follow-up after a month of pyeloplasty. PMID:25478398

  8. Neutrino cosmology after WMAP 7-year data and LHC first Z' bounds.

    PubMed

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo; Goldberg, Haim

    2012-02-24

    The gauge-extended U(1)(C)×SU(2)(L)×U(1)(I(R))×U(1)(L) model elevates the global symmetries of the standard model (baryon number B and lepton number L) to local gauge symmetries. The U(1)(L) symmetry leads to three superweakly interacting right-handed neutrinos. This also renders a B-L symmetry nonanomalous. The superweak interactions of these Dirac states permit ν(R) decoupling just above the QCD phase transition: 175 is < or approximately equal to T(ν(R))(dec)/MeV is < or approximately equal to 250. In this transitional region, the residual temperature ratio between ν(L) and ν(R) generates extra relativistic degrees of freedom at BBN and at the CMB epochs. Consistency with both WMAP 7-year data and recent estimates of the primordial 4He mass fraction is achieved for 3

  9. First hip arthroplasty register in Italy: 55,000 cases and 7 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, B.; De Clerico, M.; Petropulacos, K.; Toni, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Register for Orthopaedic Prosthetic Implantation (RIPO) has been prospectively collecting data on hip prostheses performed in all the orthopaedic units in the region Emilia-Romagna since January 2000. The register aims to determine the characteristics of patients, evaluate the effectiveness of prostheses, and allow internal audit. Adherence to the register is compulsory (93% capture). By 31 December 2006 the register contained data on 35,041 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), 14,613 hemiarthoplasties, and 5,878 revisions. All prosthetic components are registered on an individual basis. Survival analysis is done following the Kaplan Meier method. Cumulative survival rate at 7 years is 96.8% (95% CI: 96.4–97.1%) for THA and 97.6% (97.0–98.3%) for hemiarthroplasties. Multivariate analysis verified that survival of the THA is affected by pathology, where the worst conditions are rheumatoid arthritis, femoral neck fracture, and sequelae of coxitis or Paget’s disease. Results are comparable to other major registers of Northern Europe and Australia. PMID:17987290

  10. Detection of New Point Sources in WMAP 7 Year Data Using Internal Templates and Needlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodeller, Sandro; Hansen, Frode K.; Marinucci, Domenico

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a new needlet-based method to detect point sources in cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps and have applied it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7 year data. We use both the individual frequency channels as well as internal templates, the latter being the difference between pairs of frequency channels and hence having the advantage that the CMB component is eliminated. Using the area of the sky outside the Kq85 galactic mask, we detect a total of 2102 point sources at the 5σ level in either the frequency maps or the internal templates. Of these, 1116 are detected either at 5σ directly in the frequency channels or at 5σ in the internal templates and >=3σ at the corresponding position in the frequency channels. Of the 1116 sources, 603 are detections that have not been reported so far in WMAP data. We have made a catalog of these sources available with position and flux estimated in the WMAP channels where they are seen. In total, we identified 1029 of the 1116 sources with counterparts at 5 GHz and 69 at other frequencies.

  11. Five- to 7-year-olds' finger gnosia and calculation abilities.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Robert; Humberstone, Judi

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the relationship between 65 5- to 7-year-olds' finger gnosia, visuo-spatial working memory, and finger-use in solving single-digit addition problems. Their non-verbal IQ and basic reaction time were also assessed. Previous research has found significant changes in children's representational abilities between 5 and 7 years. One aim of the research was to determine whether changes in finger representational abilities (finger gnosia) occur across these ages and whether they are associated with finger-use in computation. A second aim was to determine whether visuo-spatial working memory is associated with finger gnosia and computation abilities. We used latent class profile analysis to identify patterns of similarities and differences in finger gnosia and computation/finger-use abilities. The analysis yielded four finger gnosia subgroups that differed in finger representation ability. It also yielded four finger/computation subgroups that differed in the relationship between finger-use and computation success. Analysis revealed associations between computation finger-use/success subgroups, finger gnosia subgroups, and visuo-spatial working memory. A multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that finger gnosia subgroup membership and visuo-spatial working memory uniquely contribute to a model predicting finger-use in computation group membership. The results show that finger gnosia abilities change in the early school years, and that these changes are associated with the ability to use fingers to aid computation.

  12. Five- to 7-Year-Olds’ Finger Gnosia and Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Robert; Humberstone, Judi

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the relationship between 65 5- to 7-year-olds’ finger gnosia, visuo-spatial working memory, and finger-use in solving single-digit addition problems. Their non-verbal IQ and basic reaction time were also assessed. Previous research has found significant changes in children’s representational abilities between 5 and 7 years. One aim of the research was to determine whether changes in finger representational abilities (finger gnosia) occur across these ages and whether they are associated with finger-use in computation. A second aim was to determine whether visuo-spatial working memory is associated with finger gnosia and computation abilities. We used latent class profile analysis to identify patterns of similarities and differences in finger gnosia and computation/finger-use abilities. The analysis yielded four finger gnosia subgroups that differed in finger representation ability. It also yielded four finger/computation subgroups that differed in the relationship between finger-use and computation success. Analysis revealed associations between computation finger-use/success subgroups, finger gnosia subgroups, and visuo-spatial working memory. A multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that finger gnosia subgroup membership and visuo-spatial working memory uniquely contribute to a model predicting finger-use in computation group membership. The results show that finger gnosia abilities change in the early school years, and that these changes are associated with the ability to use fingers to aid computation. PMID:22171220

  13. Ménière's disease in children aged 4-7 years.

    PubMed

    Brantberg, Krister; Duan, Maoli; Falahat, Babak

    2012-05-01

    This is a retrospective review of clinical data and audiovestibular test results from four children in whom symptoms suggesting Ménière's disease started at 4-7 years of age. The four patients all had spontaneous recurrent attacks of (spinning) vertigo and fluctuating low frequency sensorineural hearing loss from an early age, suggesting a diagnosis of definite Ménière's disease. Presumably, due to age-related inability to communicate auditory symptoms, the children did not initially meet requirements for a diagnosis of Ménière's disease. However, by 8 years of age, all four children reported tinnitus and/or fullness in the affected ear and, thus, met the AAO criteria for Ménière's disease. Even if information on subjective auditory symptoms is missing, it is reasonable to consider young children with idiopathic spontaneous recurrent attacks of vertigo in whom audiograms reveals fluctuating low frequency hearing loss to have Ménière's disease. This report is a reminder that Ménière's disease may also occur in young children.

  14. Eculizumab to treat antibody-mediated rejection in a 7-year-old kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Chehade, Hassib; Rotman, Samuel; Matter, Maurice; Girardin, Eric; Aubert, Vincent; Pascual, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    We report on successful early eculizumab administration to treat acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) in a highly sensitized kidney transplant recipient. The recipient is a 7-year-old boy who received, 6 months after a desensitization protocol with monthly intravenous immunoglobulin infusion, a second kidney transplant in the presence of low donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). Both pretransplant lymphocytotoxic and flow cytometric crossmatch were negative. Allograft function recovered promptly, with excellent initial function. On postoperative day (POD) 4, the child developed significant proteinuria with an acute rise in serum creatinine. Allograft biopsy showed severe acute ABMR. Intravenous eculizumab (600 mg), preceded by a single session of plasmapheresis, was administered on POD 5 and 12 along with a 4-day thymoglobulin course. After the first dose of eculizumab, a strikingly rapid normalization of allograft function with a decrease in proteinuria occurred. However, because circulating DSA levels remained elevated, the child received 3 doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (POD 15, 16, and 17), with a significant subsequent decrease in DSA levels. At 9 months after transplant, the child continues to maintain excellent allograft function with undetectable circulating DSA levels. This unique case highlights the potential efficacy of using early eculizumab to rapidly reverse severe ABMR in pediatric transplantation, and therefore it suggests a novel therapeutic approach to treat acute ABMR.

  15. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  16. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  17. Study of the resonances of periodic plane media immersed in water: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Aissam; Maréchal, Pierre; Lenoir, Olivier; Ech-Cherif El-Kettani, Mounsif; Chenouni, Driss

    2013-03-01

    The paper deals with the study of the resonances of 1D periodic media composed of N elementary cells formed with two perfectly bonded layers which exhibit a high acoustic impedance contrast. In the case of a periodic bilayer structure constituted of a fluid layer and an elastic plate, it was shown in previous theoretical works that additional modes appear compared to those of a single plate. These are called structure modes. At low frequency, the so-called vertical modes are found. Approximate expressions of their cut-off frequencies are given and their numerical values match with the exact ones. At high frequency, the Lamb type modes are degenerated and modes in the fluid layers are also observed. Preliminary experimental results have already proved the existence of such phenomena for one and two periods. In our work, an experimental validation has been performed in the case of N periods made with a glass isotropic elastic plate and a water fluid layer, where the number N ranges from two to five. A good agreement is shown compared to theoretical works.

  18. Mössbauer studies on ancient chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhengfang; Zheng, Qi; Zheng, Yufang

    1988-12-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100°C in steps of 100°C for 2h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Mössbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900 1000°C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  19. Study of biological rhythms of small intestinal cryptic epithelial mitosis of different periodicity by fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Zharkova, N A; Antochin, A I; Zakharchenko, A V

    2009-05-01

    Rhythms of cell division with different periods in the mouse small intestinal cryptic epithelium were studied using Fourier analysis. It was found that the proliferative system of the crypt is characterized by an intricate spatial and temporal organization. The amplitude of low-frequency rhythms increases, while the amplitude of high-frequency rhythms decreased in the direction from the crypt bottom to the neck.

  20. Effects of 7 years of growth hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitary adults.

    PubMed

    Chrisoulidou, A; Beshyah, S A; Rutherford, O; Spinks, T J; Mayet, J; Kyd, P; Anyaoku, V; Haida, A; Ariff, B; Murphy, M; Thomas, E; Robinson, S; Foale, R; Johnston, D G

    2000-10-01

    Short-term studies of GH replacement in adult hypopituitarism have usually demonstrated beneficial effects on body composition and circulating lipids, with neutral or occasionally adverse effects on glucose tolerance. Fasting hyperinsulinemia has been reported. GH effects on cardiac function have been variable. The effects of long-term GH therapy, taking into account the consequences of increasing age, are not fully known. Thirty-three hypopituitary, initially middle-aged adults were studied over a 7-yr period; 12 patients took GH therapy (mean, 0.7 mg daily) continuously (group A); 11 took GH for only 6-18 months, a minimum of 5 yr previously (group B); and 10 patients never received GH therapy (group C). Other pituitary replacement was maintained. Effects on anthropometry, body composition (by bioimpedance analysis, total body potassium, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), circulating lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations, cardiac 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, and exercise tolerance were assessed before and after the treatment period. Continuous GH therapy had no significant effect on body weight, but it prevented the increase in waist circumference and waist to hip ratio that occurred in the patients without GH substitution (waist to hip ratio, group A, 0.87+/-0.08 at baseline, 0.85+/-0.09 at 7 yr; group B, 0.89+/-0.11 at baseline, 0.94+/-0.11 at 7 yr; P < 0.005 for GH effect; group C, 0.87+/-0.10 at baseline, 0.92+/-0.10 at 7 yr; P < 0.005 for GH effect). A GH-induced decrease in subscapular skinfold thickness was also observed. By bioimpedance analysis, GH therapy caused an increase in total body water and fat-free mass, and a decrease in the percent body fat. Although changes occurred with time in all groups, no significant additional GH therapy effects were observed on glucose tolerance, insulin concentrations, lipid levels, cardiac dimensions, echocardiographic diastolic function, or exercise tolerance. In conclusion, prolonged GH

  1. A randomised, controlled trial of circumpatellar electrocautery in total knee replacement without patellar resurfacing: a concise follow-up at a mean of 3.7 years.

    PubMed

    van Jonbergen, H P W; Scholtes, V A B; Poolman, R W

    2014-04-01

    In the absence of patellar resurfacing, we have previously shown that the use of electrocautery around the margin of the patella improved the one-year clinical outcome of total knee replacement (TKR). In this prospective randomised study we compared the mean 3.7 year (1.1 to 4.2) clinical outcomes of 300 TKRs performed with and without electrocautery of the patellar rim: this is an update of a previous report. The overall prevalence of anterior knee pain was 32% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 26 to 39), and 26% (95% CI 18 to 35) in the intervention group compared with 38% (95% CI 29 to 48) in the control group (chi-squared test; p = 0.06). The overall prevalence of anterior knee pain remained unchanged between the one-year and 3.7 year follow-up (chi-squared test; p = 0.12). The mean total Western Ontario McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Indices and the American Knee Society knee and function scores at 3.7 years' follow-up were similar in the intervention and control groups (repeated measures analysis of variance p = 0.43, p = 0.09 and p = 0.59, respectively). There were no complications. A total of ten patients (intervention group three, control group seven) required secondary patellar resurfacing after the first year. Our study suggests that the improved clinical outcome with electrocautery denervation compared with no electrocautery is not maintained at a mean of 3.7 years' follow-up.

  2. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  3. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiong; Zhang, Hong; Tong, Qin-Ye; Chen, Zhuo

    2014-02-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented.

  4. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  5. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  6. Numerical study of deformation-induced fluid flows in periodic osteonal matrix under harmonic axial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah

    2009-05-01

    Living bone is a tissue that is constantly renewed. It has been demonstrated that bone fluid flow and induced shear effects on the bone cells are important players in triggering and signaling bone formation and remodelling. This Note presents a model studying interstitial fluid flow in cortical bone under axial harmonic loads. These living tissues are considered as saturated anisotropic poroelastic material characterized by three-dimensional periodic groups of osteons. Using a frequency-domain analysis, the fluid shear stress variations are studied for various loading conditions and geometrical or physical bone matrix parameters. To cite this article: V.-H. Nguyen et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  7. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  8. Natural history of herpes zoster: late follow-up of 3.9 years (n=43) and 7.7 years (n=10).

    PubMed

    Reda, Haatem; Greene, Kaitlin; Rice, Frank L; Rowbotham, Michael C; Petersen, Karin L

    2013-10-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common complication after herpes zoster (HZ). Subjects who completed a longitudinal observational 6-month study (4 visits) of the natural history of HZ were recontacted for 2 additional follow-up visits that included pain and sensory symptom assessment, quantitative sensory testing, capsaicin response test, and 3-mm punch skin biopsies in HZ-affected, mirror-image, and control skin sites. Forty-three subjects (14 with PHN at 6 months) of the original 94 subjects in the cohort were comprehensively assessed at a median 3.9 years after HZ onset (visit 5), and 10 subjects underwent a final assessment at a median 7.7 years after HZ onset (visit 6). At 3.9 years, none of the 29 subjects who had been pain free at 6 months had a recurrence of pain. Only 2 of the 14 subjects with PHN at 6 months still had pain at 3.9 years. One subject with PHN at 6 months was free of symptoms at 3.9 years but had very mild pain at 7.7 years. Sensory function continued on a path toward normalization, but was still abnormal in many subjects, especially those who met criteria for PHN at 6 months. Even at 7.7 years, reinnervation of HZ-affected skin was not apparent.

  9. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Annual Progress Report for the 1985 Study Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the first year of a 3-year study designed to assess the possible environmental effects of a +-500-kV dc transmission line. This first annual report documents site development, initiation of the livestock and crop studies, and the integration and interfacing of the agricultural and BPA's electrical monitoring study. The overall objective is to assess whether operation of a +-500-kV dc transmission line results in any detectable effects (beneficial or adverse) on plants or livestock, under controlled, simulated farming and ranching conditions. These two biological systems were selected because they can be expected to experience long-term exposure to maximum field and ion concentrations on the transmission right-of-way. This study is designed to provide data on end points and parameters of primary interest in commercial farming and ranching operations.

  10. Sensitization to food and airborne allergens in children with atopic dermatitis followed up to 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Dan; Sjöberg, Olof; Foucard, Tony

    2003-12-01

    Previously we investigated the eczema prognosis and the risk of developing allergic asthma and rhinitis in a cohort of 94 children with atopic dermatitis. In this second study on the same cohort we address the development of sensitization to foods and airborne allergens, risk factors and, the question whether children with atopic dermatitis who will not become sensitized can be recognized early. Children with atopic dermatitis were followed up regularly from infancy or early childhood to 7 years of age with clinical examination and blood sampling. After age 3, skin prick tests with inhalation allergens were performed yearly. In most children both clinical allergy and sensitization to egg and milk were transient but those to peanut were persistent. Eighty per cent of the children became sensitized to airborne allergens and 75% of them noticed symptoms when exposed. Heredity for atopy and eczema, sensitization to hen's egg, and early onset of eczema entailed an increased risk of becoming sensitized. Children never sensitized had late onset of eczema and less heredity for atopic disease but did not differ in other respects from the sensitized children.

  11. Pet exposure and the symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in 6-7 years old children.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mehran; Mirzaei, Mohsen; Baghiani Moghadam, Behnam; Fotouhi, Ehsan; Zare Mehrjardi, Atefeh

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases are frequent in children and their prevalence and severity differ in the different regions of the world. The association between pet ownership in childhood and subsequent asthma and sensitization is very controversial.In our survey conducted with standardized method (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), 3200 children 6-7 years old were questioned regarding asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. The prevalence of Attacks and shortness of breath with wheezing during last 12 months in the children who had exposure to pets in the first year of life was 34.3% 'that was less than children who had not exposure (OR=3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-8.21, P=0.021). Also during the past 12 months the prevalence of night dry coughs, allergic rhinitis symptoms and eczema symptoms in those who had pet exposure in the first year of their life was lower than the children did not have it. However there was no significant difference in some other symptoms of asthma in two groups.Our findings suggest that pet exposure in the first year of life can have a protective effect on asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema.

  12. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  13. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  14. A comparative study of stress episode prevalence and duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Temple, Daniel H; McGroarty, Jennifer N; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsumura, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    This study reconstructs linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) prevalence and stress episode duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido, Japan (HKJ). Results are compared to Jomon period samples from coastal Honshu, Japan (HSJ) and Tigara Inupiat from Point Hope, Alaska (PHT) to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the manifestation of stress among circum-Pacific foragers. LEH were identified macro- and microscopically by enamel surface depressions and increased perikymata spacing within defects. Individuals with more than one anterior tooth affected by LEH were labeled as LEH positive. Stress episode durations were estimated by counting the number of perikymata within the occlusal wall of each LEH and multiplying that number by constants reflecting modal periodicities for modern human teeth. LEH prevalence and stress episode duration did not differ significantly between the two Jomon samples. Significantly greater frequencies of LEH were found in HKJ as compared to PHT foragers. However, HKJ foragers had significantly shorter stress episode durations as compared to PHT. This suggests that a greater proportion of HKJ individuals experienced stress episodes than did PHT individuals, but these stress events ended sooner. Similarity in stress experiences between the two Jomon samples and differences between the HKJ and PHT are found. These findings are important for two reasons. First, stress experiences of foraging populations differ markedly and cannot be generalized by subsistence strategy alone. Second, due to significant differences in episode duration, stress experiences cannot be understood using prevalence comparisons alone.

  15. Dental fluorosis, dental caries and fluoride exposure among 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Riordan, P J

    1993-01-01

    Mild dental fluorosis is frequently linked to fluoridated water, but discretionary fluoride sources may also be important. The aim of this study was to record age of weaning and fluoride exposure from water, toothpaste and supplements, and to relate these to the presence of caries and fluorosis in children born in 1983. In Perth (Western Australia) 14 school classes were selected. The 350 children (mean age 7.5 years) ultimately included gave fluoride exposure data for the period birth to 4 years of age. Caries (DMFT, WHO criteria, no radiographs) and dental fluorosis (TF index, dry permanent incisors) were registered clinically. Most (89%) children had lived at least 2.5 years in a fluoridated area. Supplement use was minimal and unrelated to caries or fluorosis. Mean age of weaning of those who had been breast-fed was 7.7 months; by 9 months, 74% had been weaned. Eighty-five percent liked toothpaste, 60.7% had swallowed it, and the mean age of starting to use it was 1.5 (SD 0.96) years. Caries prevalence was 0.1 and mean DMFT was 0.13. The prevalence of fluorosis was 0.48; 63% of fluorosis was TF score 1. Residence in a fluoridated area for > or = 2.5 of the first 4 years of life had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.9 for fluorosis. Weaning before 9 months of age, swallowing toothpaste and liking toothpaste were also statistically significant risk factors. Major risk factors for more severe fluorosis (TF > or = 2) were early weaning and swallowing toothpaste (ORs 2.77 and 2.64, respectively). Residence in a fluoridated area (OR 2.2) was not a statistically significant risk factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Changes in Lipids and Lipoproteins after Selective LDL Apheresis (7-Year Experience)

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Hatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Mihas, Constantinos; Gontoras, Nikos; Litras, Panagiotis; Devekousos, Dimitris; Kontodima, Panagiota; Sorontila, Constantina; Bilianou, Helen; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins and the cardiovascular events after selective LDL apheresis. Methods and Results. Two pediatric patients with familial hypercholesterolemia aged 11 and 13 years and 19 dyslipidemic adults aged 41 ± 14 years underwent direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) sessions. The mean follow-up period was 47 ± 23 months. The total cholesterol (TC) values before and after treatment were 8.2 ± 2.2 and 3.1 ± 1.6 mmol/l (318 ± 86 and 122 ± 62 mg/dL), respectively. The interval mean of TC was 6.9 ± 1.9 mmol/l (268 ± 75 mg/dL). The LDL cholesterol concentrations before and after treatment were 6.6 ± 2.1 and 1.7 ± 1.1 mmol/l, (256 ± 82 mg/dL and 65 ± 41 mg/dL), respectively. The percentage of acute LDL cholesterol reduction was 75 ± 11%. Cardiovascular events were observed in seven patients. The average annual event rate was 5.51%. Conclusion. LDL apheresis is a very important therapeutic tool in managing patients at high risk for premature CAD or with aggressive CAD, despite adequate medical treatment. PMID:22315677

  17. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  18. DMFT Study for Valence Fluctuations in the Extended Periodic Anderson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzaki, Ryu; Nasu, Joji; Koga, Akihisa

    2016-02-01

    We study valence fluctuations at finite temperatures in the extended periodic Anderson model, where the Coulomb interaction between conduction and localized f-electrons is taken into account, using dynamical mean-field theory combined with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CT-QMC) method. The valence transition with the hysteresis is clearly found, indicating the first-order phase transition between the Kondo and mixed-valence states. We demonstrate that spin correlation rapidly develops when the system approaches the valence transition point. The comparison of the impurity solvers, the CT-QMC, non-crossing approximation, and one-crossing approximation, is also addressed.

  19. Analytical Study of Periodic Solutions on Perturbed Equatorial Two-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelmagd, Elbaz I.; Mortari, Daniele; Selim, Hadia H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents analytical derivations to study periodic solutions for the two-body problem perturbed by the first zonal harmonic parameter. In particular, three different semianalytical approaches to solve this problem have been studied: (1) the classic perturbation theory, (2) the Lindstedt-Poincaré technique, and (3) the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method. In addition, the numerical integration by Runge-Kutta algorithm is established. However, the numerical comparison tests show that by increasing the value of angular momentum the solutions provided by Lindstedt-Poincaré and Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky methods become similar, and they provide almost identical results using a smaller value for the perturbed parameter which quantify the dynamical flattening of the main body, the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky provides more accurate results to design elliptical periodic solutions than Lindstedt-Poincaré technique when the perturbed parameter has a relatively large value, regardless of the value of angular momentum. This study can be applied to equatorial orbits to obtain closed-form analytical solutions.

  20. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  1. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  2. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition.

  3. In Utero DDT and DDE Exposure and Obesity Status of 7-Year-Old Mexican-American Children in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schall, Raul Aguilar; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been hypothesized to increase risk of obesity later in life. Objectives: The Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study is a longitudinal birth cohort of low-income Latinas living in a California agricultural community. We examined the relation of in utero DDT and DDE exposure to child obesity at 7 years of age. We also examined the trend with age (2, 3.5, 5, and 7 years) in the exposure–obesity relation. Methods: We included 270 children with o,p´-DDT, p,p´-DDT, and p,p´-DDE concentrations measured in maternal serum during pregnancy (nanograms per gram lipid) and complete 7-year follow-up data including weight (kilograms) and height (centimeters). Body mass index (BMI; kilograms per meter squared) was calculated and obesity was defined as ≥ 95th percentile on the sex-specific BMI-for-age Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts. Results: At 7 years, 96 (35.6%) children were obese. A 10-fold increase in o,p´-DDT, p,p´-DDT, or p,p´-DDE, was nonsignificantly associated with increased odds (OR) of obesity [o,p´-DDT adjusted (adj-) OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.82; p,p´-DDT adj-OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.74; p,p´-DDE adj-OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.72, 2.06]. With increasing age at follow-up, we observed a significant trend toward a positive association between DDT and DDE exposure and odds of obesity. Conclusion: We did not find a significant positive relation between in utero DDT and DDE exposure and obesity status of 7-year-old children. However, given the observed trend with age, continued follow-up will be informative. PMID:23512307

  4. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  5. Study on the Period of the Use of Datong-li in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young-Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lim, Young-Ryan

    2010-03-01

    It has been generally known that Datong-li (a Chinese calendar in the Ming dynasty)was first introduced into Korea in the nineteenth reign of King Gongmin (1370) of the Goryeo dynasty and lasted to the third reign of King Hyeojong (1652) of the Joseon dynasty. This understanding is based on the records of Goryeo-sa (History of the Goryeo dynasty) and of Seoungwan-ji (Official book of Seoungwan)/ Jeungbomunheon bigo (Explanatory Notes of Library ocument). To verify the period of the use of Datong-li in Korea, we develop a Fortran code to calculate the calendar day by Datong-li and also investigate historical literatures and extant almanacs. As a result, we find the possibility that Datong-li had been in use since 1389 at least. However,we cannot confirm whether Datong-li was first enforced in 1370 or not. On the other hand, we confirm that Datong-li was used until 1653 and reintroduced during the period from 1667 to 1669. Also, we find that previous studies had some errors in the sexagenary cycle of the real first day of a month. We think that this study will contribute to understanding the calendrical history of the Joseon dynasty.

  6. Emergence periodicity of Phlebotomus argentipes annandale and brunetti (Diptera: psychodidae): A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P

    2009-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.

  7. A Study on Effects of Waiting Period in Software Operation on the Operator's Psychophysiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Tatsuhiro; Segawa, Norihisa; Miyazaki, Masatoshi; Yamazaki, Kiyoyuki; Murayama, Yuko

    The authors have been studying psychophysiological workload of human interface (HI) with physiological measurements and analysis. In this study, we investigated a kind of mental workload produced by user's unexpected waiting period from the request input to the termination of data processing during personal computer (PC) operation. As the experimental setting of HI, we used interactive software containing easy questions with unexpected time interval between each question. The effects of progress indicator (PI) indicating during waiting period on psychophysiological status of users were analyzed by using respiration, finger plethysmogram (PTG), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements. Results showed that the theta wave component of the EEG increased in the non-PI condition, even though autonomic nervous system parameters showed no significant change. Negative correlation between preference score for HI and integrated theta component percentage was observed only in non-PI condition. It is supposed that the PI was controlling theta activity coused by waiting stress in experimental condition. Utilizing physiological indices for HI assessment, this experimental method could be available to waiting stress estimation.

  8. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  9. Musculoskeletal symptoms and job strain among nursing personnel: a study over a three year period.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, M; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Wigaeus Hjelm, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion. PMID:9423583

  10. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  11. A comprehensive study for the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with periodic structure.

    PubMed

    Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Chew, Weng Cho

    2010-03-15

    A comprehensive study of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with the periodic strip structure is presented in this paper. The finite-difference frequency-domain method is employed to discretize the inhomogeneous wave function for modeling the solar cell. In particular, the hybrid absorbing boundary condition and the one-sided difference scheme are adopted. The parameter extraction methods for the zeroth-order reflectance and the absorbed power density are also discussed, which is important for testing and optimizing the solar cell design. For the numerical results, the physics of the absorption peaks of the amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell are explained by electromagnetic theory; these peaks correspond to the waveguide mode, Floquet mode, surface plasmon resonance, and the constructively interference between adjacent metal strips. The work is therefore important for the theoretical study and optimized design of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell.

  12. An ab initio periodic study of acidic chabazite as a candidate for dihydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Torres, F J; Civalleri, B; Pisani, C; Ugliengo, P

    2006-06-01

    A theoretical B3LYP study, adopting a polarized double-zeta quality Gaussian basis set, was performed to characterize acidic chabazite by using the periodic CRYSTAL03 program. Different Si/Al loadings (1/1, 3/1, 5/1, and 11/1) were considered, and for each of them the most stable aluminum distribution and location of the acidic proton, needed as charge balancer, were identified. With the optimal structures, the energy of formation and the anharmonic O-H stretching frequency were calculated with the latter being in good agreement with the experimental data. The B3LYP optimal position of H2 physisorbed at the acidic Brönsted sites of chabazite (Si/Al = 11/1 and 5/1) brings about an interaction energy definitely smaller than that derived from infrared spectroscopy, because of the known deficiencies of this functional to cope with dispersive interactions. The latter was included by means of an ONIOM-like procedure that combines periodic B3LYP energy with results at the MP2 level on selected clusters cut out of the chabazite framework. Adsorption of two H2 molecules for Si/Al = 5/1 chabazite showed a complete independence of each Brönsted site, and neither through-space nor intrastructure polarization effects are present. Within the periodic B3LYP approach shifts in both O-H and H-H anharmonic frequencies were also computed and compared with unperturbed values and with the available experimental results.

  13. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  14. Mission Performance of the GLAS Thermal Control System - 7 Years In Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    ICESat (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite) was launched in 2003 carrying a single science instrument - the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Its primary mission was to measure polar ice thickness. The GLAS thermal control architecture utilized propylene Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) technology to provide selectable and stable temperature control for the lasers and other electronics over a widely varying mission thermal environment. To minimize expected degradation of the radiators, Optical Solar Reflectors (OSRs) were used for both LHP radiators to minimize degradation caused by UV exposure in the various spacecraft attitudes necessary throughout the mission. Developed as a Class C mission, with selective redundancy, the thermal architecture was single st ring, except for temperature sensors used for heater control during normal operations. Although originally planned for continuous laser operations over the nominal three year science mission, laser anomalies limited operations to discrete measurement campaigns repeated throughout the year. For trending of the science data, these periods were selected to occur at approximately the same time each year, which resulted in operations during similar attitudes and beta angles. Despite the laser life issues, the LHPs have operated nearly continuously over this time, being non-operational for only brief periods. Using mission telemetry, this paper looks at the performance of the thermal subsystem during these periods and provides an assessment of radiator degradation over the mission lifetime.

  15. Sample size determination for alternate periods of use study designs with binary responses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jorge G; Neerchal, Nagaraj K

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider several study designs that arise in practice, which are variations of standard crossover designs. Often, they may result from modifications made to a standard crossover design due to practical considerations. Characteristic features of the studies we are concerned with are (a) treatments consist of external use of products with little or no possibility of carry over effects, and (b) the periods of use are dictated by the subjects or by some specific event, such as diaper leakage or menstrual flow. We consider a number of such study designs for estimating the difference in the efficacy of two treatments or test products. We provide brief descriptions of studies to motivate the study design, the underlying data structure, and computations of the variances of the usual unbiased estimators of the difference in efficacy, and the sample size formulas. The situations considered here cover a number of popular crossover designs. The objective of our work is to provide guidance to members of a wide audience on how to answer the sample size question for their own nonstandard situations. We conclude the article with a brief report on a simulation study we conducted to investigate the impact of estimation on the sample size determination and consequently on the actual power realized in an effort to promote the "best practice" of checking whether the recommended sample sizes indeed achieve the desired level of power.

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  17. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  18. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  19. Detection of (in)activity periods in human body motion using inertial sensors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  20. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  1. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  2. A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET.

    PubMed

    Chugani, H T

    1998-01-01

    Studies with positron emission tomography indicate that the human brain undergoes a period of postnatal maturation that is much more protracted than previously suspected. In the newborn, the highest degree of glucose metabolism (representative of functional activity) is in primary sensory and motor cortex, cingulate cortex, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellar vermis, and hippocampal region. At 2 to 3 months of age, glucose utilization increases in the parietal, temporal, and primary visual cortex; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. Between 6 and 12 months, glucose utilization increases in frontal cortex. These metabolic changes correspond to the emergence of various behaviors during the first year of life. The measurement of absolute rates of glucose utilization during development indicates that the cerebral cortex undergoes a dynamic course of metabolic maturation that persists until ages 16-18 years. Initially, there is a rise in the rates of glucose utilization from birth until about age 4 years, at which time the child's cerebral cortex uses over twice as much glucose as that of adults. From age 4 to 10 years, these very high rates of glucose consumption are maintained, and only after then is there a gradual decline of glucose metabolic rates to reach adult values by age 16-18 years. Correlations between glucose utilization rates and synaptogenesis are discussed, and the argument is made that these findings have important implications with respect to human brain plasticity following injury as well as to "critical periods" of maximal learning capacity.

  3. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  4. Primary prevention in health care employees: a prospective intervention study with a 3-year training period.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Harald; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas; Effendy, Isaak

    2006-04-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. Because educational programs have shown convincing success in certain occupations (e.g. in hairdressers), this study investigates the effect of a special training program in health care trainees. 521 trainees from 14 nursing schools in Central Germany were randomly divided in 2 groups, (i) an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and (ii) a control group without any further teaching. Morphological changes of the hands, use of hand care creams and knowledge regarding skin care were evaluated regularly during their 3 years lasting training period (1999-2002). In the intervention group, we found at the end of the 3-year training period a significant better skin condition of the hands than in the control group: a 3-year prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% versus 89.3%. The unteached trainees (control group) had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.8 [95% confidential interval (CI): 2.9-7.8] for developing any skin changes on the hands after 3 years. Besides the effect of the teaching, the history of hand dermatitis before the study start was an independent risk factor for development of further hand dermatitis [OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.6). Age and sex showed no influence on the skin condition. Atopic constitution had an influence on the development of skin changes only at the evaluation after 18 month. The observed effect in the intervention group may best be explained by different behaviour of the trainees, e.g. the amount of hand washing was reduced, while procedure of hand disinfection remained unchanged compared with the control group. However, the amount of used skin care cream did not differ between the both groups. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands. Therefore

  5. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  6. A search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year WMAP temperature maps using a fast convolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewicz, P.; Wandelt, B. D.; Banday, A. J.

    2013-02-01

    We present a method for the computation of the variance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps on azimuthally symmetric patches using a fast convolution approach. As an example of the application of the method, we show results for the search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We re-analyse claims concerning the unusual variance profile of rings centred at two locations on the sky that have recently drawn special attention in the context of the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario proposed by Penrose. We extend this analysis to rings with larger radii and centred on other points of the sky. Using the fast convolution technique enables us to perform this search with higher resolution and a wider range of radii than in previous studies. We show that for one of the two special points rings with radii larger than 10° have systematically lower variance in comparison to the concordance Λ cold dark matter model predictions. However, we show that this deviation is caused by the multipoles up to order ℓ = 7. Therefore, the deficit of power for concentric rings with larger radii is yet another manifestation of the well-known anomalous CMB distribution on large angular scales. Furthermore, low-variance rings can be easily found centred on other points in the sky. In addition, we show also the results of a search for extremely high-variance rings. As for the low-variance rings, some anomalies seem to be related to the anomalous distribution of the low-order multipoles of the WMAP CMB maps. As such our results are not consistent with the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario.

  7. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  8. A periodic density functional theory study of cumene formation catalyzed by H-mordenite.

    PubMed

    Rozanska, X; Barbosa, L A M M; van Santen, R A

    2005-02-17

    A periodic density functional theory study of the alkylation of benzene with propene in proton-exchanged mordenite has been achieved. The two different reaction routes that are usually proposed for this reaction, namely the direct and the step-by-step reaction pathways, have been investigated. The explicit consideration of the zeolite catalyst framework allows a better level of description of the interactions between the catalyst framework and the reaction than what is obtained with the cluster approach method. The direct reaction route is found to be the preferred one. It is observed that the cluster approach method, which does not describe the zeolite framework, is unable to qualitatively described the trend in activation energies. This is owing to the greater stabilization of larger transition state by the mordenite zeolite framework compared with smaller ones.

  9. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  10. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  11. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  12. Successful Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap Reconstruction for a Recurrent Ischial Pressure Ulcer: A Case With Multiple Recurrences Over a 7-year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Yu; Shih, Yu-Jen; Chou, Chang-Yi; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Ischial pressure ulcers are difficult ulcers to treat and have a low treatment success rate compared to sacral and trochanteric ulcers; regional flap failure further complicates the treatment. Reported here is a case of a 65-year-old man who experienced a spinal injury with paraplegia due to trauma 20 years ago. The patient experienced a recurrent ischial ulcer since 2007, and underwent several types of flap reconstruction with poor outcomes over a 7-year period. Therefore, the chosen intervention was a pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) fasciocutaneous flap reconstruction for the ischial ulcer via a subcutaneous route. Over the 10-month follow-up, the recurrent ischial ulcer healed without wound dehiscence. Island pALT reconstruction appears to be an alternative technique for treating recurrent ischial pressure ulcers. Though reconstruction of ischial ulcers via the pALT technique has been described previously, this may be the first case report to describe pALT flap in a patient with recurrent ischial ulcers after failed reconstructions using a gluteus maximus flap, V-Y advancement flap, and hatchet flap.Ischial pressure ulcers are difficult to treat and have a low treatment success rate1 compared to sacral and trochanteric ulcers. In addition, there are many different techniques that can be used to treat ischial pressure ulcers, including primary wound closure, gluteus maximus flaps, V-Y advancement flaps, or inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps. However, several experts have recently described using the pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) flap for reconstruction of recurrent ischial pressure ulcers.1,2 In the presented case, the authors followed a single patient with paraplegia with a recurrent ischial ulcer who had undergone several types of wound treatment over a 7-year period. The indurated ulcer was ultimately resolved by pALT reconstruction.

  13. Older Breast Cancer Survivors: Factors Associated with Self-reported Symptoms of Persistent Lymphedema Over 7-years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Silliman, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema of the arm is a common complication of breast cancer with symptoms that can persist over long periods of time. For older women (over 50% of breast cancer cases) it means living with the potential for long-term complications of persistent lymphedema in conjunction with the common diseases and disabilities of aging over survivorship. Methods We identified women ≥65-years diagnosed with primary stage I-IIIA breast cancer. Data were collected over 7-years of follow-up from consenting patients’ medical records and telephone interviews. Data collected included self-reported symptoms of persistent lymphedema, breast cancer characteristics, and selected sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Results The overall prevalence of symptoms of persistent lymphedema was 36% over 7-years of follow-up. Having stage II or III (OR=1.77, 95%CI 1.07–2.93) breast cancer and having a BMI>30 (OR=3.04, 95%CI 1.69–5.45) were statistically significantly predictive of symptoms of persistent lymphedema. Women ≥80-years were less likely to report symptoms of persistent lymphedema when compared to younger women (OR=0.44, 95%CI 0.18–0.95). Women with symptoms of persistent lymphedema consistently reported worse general mental health and physical function. Conclusion Symptoms of persistent lymphedema were common in this population of older breast cancer survivors and had a noticeable effect on both physical function and general mental health. Our findings provide evidence of the impact of symptoms of persistent lymphedema on the quality of survivorship of older women. Clinical and research efforts focused on risk factors for symptoms of persistent lymphedema in older breast cancer survivors may lead to preventative and therapeutic measures that help maintain their health and well-being over increasing periods of survivorship. PMID:19968661

  14. Enterobius vermicularis: an unusual cause of recurrent urinary tract infestation in a 7-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupeshwari; Sharma, Tanya; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Dhingra Bhan, Bhavna

    2015-04-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, the pinworm, is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. Ectopic infestations in the genital or urinary tracts rarely occur and chronic enterobiasis of the urinary tract has rarely been reported. Here we present such a case in a 7-year-old girl presenting with fever, pain in the abdomen, vomiting and burning micturition. Ultrasonography and micturating cystourethrogram (MCU) studies were normal. The ova were demonstrated from both the patient's urine and stool specimen. This child was treated successfully with Albendazole and Ivermectin.

  15. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  16. IgG4-related Sclerosing Mesenteritis in a 7-year-old Saudi Girl

    PubMed Central

    Hasosah, Mohammed Y.; Satti, Mohamed B.; Yousef, Yasmin A.; Alzahrani, Daifullah M.; Almutairi, Sajdi A.; Alsahafi, Ashraf F.; Sukkar, Ghassan A.; Alzaben, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is a rare, benign inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, affecting the membranes of the digestive tract that involves lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, fat necrosis, and fibrosis of the mesentery. We report a child patient with a history of recurrent abdominal pain and fever who was found to have an intra-abdominal mass suspicious for malignancy. A tissue biopsy revealed the diagnosis of SM associated with IgG4-related systemic disease. The patient is currently maintained on 5 mg prednisone daily and no recurrence of symptoms was noted during the 24-month follow-up period. We emphasize, therefore, that SM can present clinical challenges and the presence of SM should cue clinicians to search for other coexisting autoimmune disorders that can have various outcomes. PMID:25434322

  17. Good clinical outcomes from a 7-year holistic programme of fistula repair in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Delamou, Alexandre; Diallo, Moustapha; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Delvaux, Thérèse; Millimono, Sita; Kourouma, Mamady; Beattie, Karen; Barone, Mark; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Khogali, Mohamed; Edginton, Mary; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Ruminjo, Joseph; Zhang, Wei-Hong; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Female genital fistula remains a public health concern in developing countries. From January 2007 to September 2013, the Fistula Care project, managed by EngenderHealth in partnership with the Ministry of Health and supported by USAID, integrated fistula repair services in the maternity wards of general hospitals in Guinea. The objective of this article was to present and discuss the clinical outcomes of 7 years of work involving 2116 women repaired in three hospitals across the country. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using data abstracted from medical records for fistula repairs conducted from 2007 to 2013. The study data were reviewed during the period April to August 2014. Results The majority of the 2116 women who underwent surgical repair had vesicovaginal fistula (n = 2045, 97%) and 3% had rectovaginal fistula or a combination of both. Overall 1748 (83%) had a closed fistula and were continent of urine immediately after surgery. At discharge, 1795 women (85%) had a closed fistula and 1680 (79%) were dry, meaning they no longer leaked urine and/or faeces. One hundred and fifteen (5%) remained with residual incontinence despite fistula closure. Follow-up at 3 months was completed by 1663 (79%) women of whom 1405 (84.5%) had their fistula closed and 80% were continent. Twenty-one per cent were lost to follow-up. Conclusion Routine programmatic repair for obstetric fistula in low resources settings can yield good outcomes. However, more efforts are needed to address loss to follow-up, sustain the results and prevent the occurrence and/or recurrence of fistula. Objectifs La fistule génitale féminine reste un problème de santé publique dans les pays en développement. De janvier 2007 à septembre 2013, le projet Fistula Care, géré par Engender Health en partenariat avec le Ministère de la Santé et soutenu par l’USAID, a intégré les services de réparation de fistules dans les maternités des hôpitaux généraux en Guin

  18. Case-control study of the PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and colorectal adenoma formation

    PubMed Central

    ALEXANDER, MELANNIE; BURCH, JAMES B.; STECK, SUSAN E.; CHEN, CHIN-FU; HURLEY, THOMAS G.; CAVICCHIA, PHILIP; RAY, MEREDITH; SHIVAPPA, NITIN; GUESS, JACLYN; ZHANG, HONGMEI; YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D.; CREEK, KIM E.; LLOYD, STEPHEN; YANG, XIAOMING; HÉBERT, JAMES R.

    2015-01-01

    Clock genes are expressed in a self-perpetuating, circadian pattern in virtually every tissue including the human gastrointestinal tract. They coordinate cellular processes critical for tumor development, including cell proliferation, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer and other cancers. This mechanism has not been elucidated, yet may involve dysregulation of the ‘period’ (PER) clock genes, which have tumor suppressor properties. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been associated with sleep disorders, differences in diurnal hormone secretion, and increased premenopausal breast cancer risk. Susceptibility related to PER3 has not been examined in conjunction with adenomatous polyps. This exploratory case-control study was the first to test the hypothesis that the 5-repeat PER3 VNTR sequence is associated with increased odds of adenoma formation. Information on demographics, medical history, occupation and lifestyle was collected prior to colonoscopy. Cases (n=49) were individuals with at least one histopathologically confirmed adenoma. Controls (n=97) included patients with normal findings or hyperplastic polyps not requiring enhanced surveillance. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjusting for potential confounding. Adenomas were detected in 34% of participants. Cases were more likely to possess the 5-repeat PER3 genotype relative to controls (4/5 OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9–4.8; 5/5 OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4–18.1; 4/5+5/5 OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7–5.4). Examination of the Oncomine microarray database indicated lower PERIOD gene expression in adenomas relative to adjacent normal tissue. Results suggest a need for follow-up in a larger sample. PMID:25501848

  19. Climate and prevalence of atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old school children in Spain. ISAAC PhASE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; García-Marcos Alvarez, Luís; Kogan, Michael D.; González, Agustín Llopis; Gimeno, Antonio Martínez; Ontoso, Inés Aguinaga; Díaz, Carlos González; Pena, Alberto Arnedo; Aurrecoechea, Begoña Domínguez; Monge, Rosa María Busquets; Quiros, Alfredo Blanco; Garrido, José Batlles; Canflanca, Iñaqui Miner; Varela, Ángel López-Silvarrey

    2008-11-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic skin disease. Recent reports indicate that the worldwide prevalence of AE is increasing and that various environmental factors are implicated in its aetiology. Climatic conditions have been related with AE prevalence, and Spain has varying climatic conditions. The aim of this study is to document the possible climatic influence on the prevalence of AE in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in three different climatic regions in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of 28,394 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 10 Spanish centres in three different climatic regions. The mean participation rate was 76.5%. AE prevalence was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Spanish Academy of Dermatology criteria used in Spain to diagnose AE. The data, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the annual number of sunny hours per climatic region, were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Meteorology. Different AE prevalences were found in all three climatic regions studied: Atlantic, 32.9; Mediterranean 28.3; and Continental 31.2 per 100 children studied ( p < 0.005). AE was positively associated with precipitation and humidity, and was negatively associated with temperature and the number of sunny hours. The results show that AE is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions.

  20. Outpatient rehabilitation utilization and medical expenses in children aged 0-7 years with ADHD: analyses of population-based national health insurance data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Medical costs of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are substantial and have a large impact on the public health system. The present study presents information regarding outpatient rehabilitation care usage and medical expenditure for children with ADHD. A cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database for the year 2009. A total of 6643 children aged 0-7 years with ADHD (ICD-9-CM codes 314.0x: attention deficit disorder, 314.00: attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity, or 314.01: attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity) who had used outpatient rehabilitation care were included in the analyses. Results showed that the mean annual rehabilitation care was 22.24 visits. Among the care users, 76% of patients were male, and 24% were female. More than half of the children with ADHD had comorbid mental illnesses as well. A logistic regression analysis of outpatient rehabilitation expenditure (low vs. high) showed that of those children with ADHD, those aged 0-2 years tended to incur more medical costs than those aged 6-7 years. Other factors such as frequency of rehabilitation visits, hospital medical setting and ownership, location of medical care setting, and types of rehabilitation were also significantly correlated with medical expenditure. The results from this study suggest that health care systems should ensure accurate diagnosis and measurement of impairment to maintain appropriate and successful management of rehabilitation needs for children with ADHD.

  1. A serious case of failed extubation: difficulty removing a laser resistant tracheal tube in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Batas, D; Park, C; Hermon-Taylor, A C

    2005-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl underwent laser ablation of tonsillar remnants. Following the procedure, which was surgically uncomplicated, the laser resistant tracheal tube used could not be removed; it was firmly lodged in the larynx, immediately below the glottic opening. This case highlights the importance of careful selection of laser resistant tracheal tubes for use in paediatric patients and challenges traditional concepts of paediatric upper airway anatomy.

  2. Parent-Infant Vocalisations at 12 Months Predict Psychopathology at 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allely, C. S.; Purves, D.; McConnachie, A.; Marwick, H.; Johnson, P.; Doolin, O.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant…

  3. [Effectiveness of semax in acute period of hemispheric ischemic stroke (a clinical and electrophysiological study)].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Miasoedov, N F; Nezavibat'ko, V N; Zhuravleva, E Iu; Vanichkin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Efficiency of Semax (synthetic derivative of ACTH-4-10) was studied in 30 patients in acute period of hemispherical ischemic stroke. Control group consisted of 80 patients with the strokes analogous in severity and location of the damages and which were treated by conventional therapy. Different clinical rating scales were used for both objectivization of the severity of the patients' state and estimation of the degree of neurological defect. The control of Semax influence on the functional state of the brain included monitoring of EEG with mapping, repeated analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials and their mapping. It was established that including of Semax in combined intensive therapy of acute ischemic stroke had some influence on the rate of restoration of the damaged neurological functions in terms of increasing the regress of general cerebral and focal, especially motor disorders. The most effective daily doses were 12 mg for patients with strokes of moderate severity and 18 mg for patients with severe strokes (treatment course--5 and 10 days).

  4. Unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on low coordinated Pd surface: A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli, Patricia G.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption of several unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules on a stepped Pd(4 2 2) surface was studied. Using a periodic method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism, different adsorption geometries for ethylene, three butene isomers ( cis/ trans-2-butene and 1-butene), acetylene and 2-butyne were investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for a free defect surface as Pd(1 1 1). The 1-butene is more stable on the free defect surface than on Pd(4 2 2). On the stepped surface, the olefins adsorb tilted towards the step and increases, in almost all the cases, the magnitude of the adsorption energy. Conversely, the 3-fold site is the most stable for the alkynes adsorption on the stepped surface, as it was found on Pd(1 1 1). The analysis of the dipole moment change indicate a charge transfer from the double bond of the olefin to the metallic surface, being higher for the Pd(1 1 1) surface. In case of the alkynes, an important back-donation is produced. Except the alkynes and the 1-butene molecule, the results show the preference of ethylene and cis/ trans-2-butene to be adsorbed on the stepped surface. These observations are related with experimental catalytic results.

  5. Butanethiol adsorption and dissociation on Ag (111): A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aixiao; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Richardi, Johannes; Calatayud, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The molecular and dissociative adsorption of butanethiol (C4H9SH) on regular Ag (111) surfaces has been studied by means of periodic ab initio density functional techniques. In molecular form, butanethiol is bound to the surface only by weak polarization-induced forces with the C-S axis tilted by 38° relative to the normal surface. The S atom occupies a position between a hollow fcc and a bridge site. In the dissociative adsorption process, the S-H bond breaks leading to butanethiolate. The S atom of the thiolate also occupies a threefold position, slightly displaced to a hollow fcc site compared to the thiol adsorption case. The C-S axis of the thiolate is tilted by about 37°. The calculated adsorption energies show that the butanethiol and butanethiolate have similar adsorption ability. The computed reaction pathway for the S-H dissociation gives an activation energy of 0.98 eV indicating that the thiolate formation from thiol, although not spontaneous at room temperature, might be feasible on silver surfaces. The dissociation process induces both adsorbate and surface polarization with a significant charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate.

  6. Detection of oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among HPV negative older and younger women after 7 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Kim Agerholm; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge on risk factors of being human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive among older women is sparse. The aim was to determine the frequency of oncogenic HPV appearance after 7 years among initially HPV-negative women and to examine potential risk factors that influence the occurrence of HPV in older women using multiple logistic regression. For comparison, a younger cohort of women examined under identical study settings was included. This prospective cohort study comprised 1,577 older women (age 40-50 at enrolment) and 2,920 women aged 22-32. Participants were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination at two time points (7 years apart). Cervical samples were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and only women who tested HC2-negative at baseline were included. The HPV prevalence among older and younger women was 6.4% and 10.7%, respectively, and there was no "second peak" observed among older women. Recent sexual partners were a strong determinant of HPV appearance irrespective of age. Lifetime number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV appearance among older women, even after adjustment for recent sexual behavior. In addition, menopause was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of HPV appearance at follow-up. In conclusion, appearance of HPV in previously HPV-negative older women may be due to both recent sexual behavior and previous exposure that is, reactivation of a latent HPV infection.

  7. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness Predicts Major Cardiovascular Events During 7-Year Follow-Up in 64-Year-Old Women Irrespective of Other Glucometabolic Factors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Caroline; Bergström, Göran

    2016-10-11

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CV events are caused by atherosclerosis. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with greater carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and increased risk for CVD. The present study examined if common carotid artery IMT (CCAIMT) is predictive of CVD irrespective of glucose tolerance category and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of 639 women with different glucose tolerance categories. During 7-year follow-up, 30 events in the cardiac and 32 events in the cerebral territory were documented. Unadjusted Cox hazard models showed that CCAIMT, glucose tolerance category, and HbA1c were associated with increased risk. An adjusted and extended model, including CCAIMT, glucose tolerance category, and HbA1c, showed that CCAIMT was still associated with events with an almost unchanged hazard ratio. In conclusion, this study suggests that CCAIMT is predictive of major CV events during 7-year follow-up, irrespective of glucose tolerance category, HbA1c, and other established risk factors in a cohort of 64-year-old women.

  8. Experimental study of flow in a channel with a periodically heated wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Ayumu; Taneda, Keinosuke; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2015-11-01

    Flows in a channel with spatially periodic wall heating are examined experimentally at the Reynolds numbers below Re = 20 and at the Rayleigh number based on the amplitude of the periodic heating and the channel half width Rap = 3500, to realize the super-thermohydrophobic effect leading to a significant drag reduction (Floryan, 2012). The periodic heating is applied at the lower wall while the temperature of the upper wall is uniform and controlled. The results show that steady separation bubbles are created by periodic heating, which separate the main stream from the wall and, thus, the net friction drag is reduced. It is also found that the separation bubbles are strengthened when the average temperature of the lower wall exceeds that of the upper wall. Comparisons between the experiments and the theoretical results are presented.

  9. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  10. An Orbital Period Study of the W UMa-Type Binary RZ Comae Berenicis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Sheng-Bang; He, Jia-Jia

    2005-12-01

    New photoelectric and CCD photometry observations of a short-period W UMa-type binary system, RZ Com, are presented. The light curves of Broglia (1960, Contr. Milano-Merate, 165) were symmetric in V band, while the present light curve shows a typical O'Connell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum II by 0.015mag. It is found that the light curve of the binary star has changed from W-subtype to A-subtype according to Binnendijk's classification. This variation may be caused by the activity of dark spot on the primary component. Combining four newly determined times of the light minimum with others published in the literature, the orbital period change of the system was investigated. A small-amplitude oscillation (A = 0.0058 d), with a period of 44.8yr has been discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase with a rate of dP/dt = +4.12 × 10-8 d yr-1. The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or by magnetic-activity cycles of the components. The mass ratio of RZ Com is q = 0.43. The secular period variation is in agreement with the conclusions of Qian (2001, MNRAS, 328, 914; 2003, MNRAS, 342, 1260). This indicates that it is on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian.

  11. ESD practice through global approach -7-year practices of developing science lessen modules and fostering integrated decision making ability-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiyama, Kosei

    2016-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) has devised and carried out overseas exchange programs on ESD issues for 7 years. These programs have been carried out as a part of a government-aided project called SSH (Super Science High School) *1. To start with, we had cooperative study program with a school in Germany in 2009, and next year with a school in Korea, and then gradually have expanded the cooperative schools. Since 2013, we have worked with schools in four countries; Korea, Thailand, Czech and Germany. Science lesson modules here refers to an assembly of a set of lessons, newly developed and improved for the project. These modules characteristically require the students to make decisions by themselves on given problems. In the course of the decision making, students learn what kind of data or facts should be presented as evidence and how they can make their decisions known to others. Among several modules we have designed, the one introduced here deals with the use of solar energy, which we carried out with a school in Korea in 2014-2015. It also includes lessons of the fuel cells using energy from hydrogen gas generated by solar cells. It aims to develop global human resources through carefully planned activities. First, the students of both schools make mixed groups and conduct experiments in physics, chemistry or biology on a given problem related to solar energy. Then they discuss in groups using data obtained from the experiments and through the Internet as evidence. After the thorough discussion, each group gives a presentation on their decision. The analysis of the presentations and the questionnaire to the students revealed the following points: 1) Students have come to have multidimensional perspectives on the utilization of solar energy. 2) Students have come to combine the results of different experiments when making decisions. 3) Students have developed flexible attitudes toward other cultures. 4) Students have developed communication skills in

  12. Reading Touch Screen Storybooks with Mothers Negatively Affects 7-Year-Old Readers’ Comprehension but Enriches Emotional Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kirsty M.; Pye, Rachel E.; Randell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    controlling behaviors had significant effects on comprehension, the mechanisms driving comprehension were not fully explained by the data. The potential for touch screen storybooks to contribute to cognitive overload in 7-year-old developing readers is discussed, as is the complex relationship between cognitive and emotional scaffolding behaviors, emotional engagement, and comprehension. Sample characteristics and methodological limitations are also discussed to help inform future research. PMID:27899903

  13. Reading Touch Screen Storybooks with Mothers Negatively Affects 7-Year-Old Readers' Comprehension but Enriches Emotional Engagement.

    PubMed

    Ross, Kirsty M; Pye, Rachel E; Randell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    controlling behaviors had significant effects on comprehension, the mechanisms driving comprehension were not fully explained by the data. The potential for touch screen storybooks to contribute to cognitive overload in 7-year-old developing readers is discussed, as is the complex relationship between cognitive and emotional scaffolding behaviors, emotional engagement, and comprehension. Sample characteristics and methodological limitations are also discussed to help inform future research.

  14. Migraine and periodic limb movement disorders in sleep in children: a preliminary case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between sleep and headaches are complex and manifold. About the variety of phenomena that can disrupt the sleep macrostructure and can impact its restorative function, the periodic limb movements disorder (PLMd) can be considered as the most powerful. No studies are known about the role of PLMd in the pathophysiology of migraine in children. Aim of study is to assess the prevalence of PLMd and migraine and their relationship with disability and pain intensity in a pediatric sample, referred for migraine without aura by pediatricians. Methods After a preliminary sleep habits screening with the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children, 34 migraine subjects affected by migraine without aura (20 M, 14 F) (mean age 9.08; SD ± 2.28) and 51 volunteers healthy children (28 M, 23 F) (mean age 9.37; SD ± 1.81) accepted to underwent overnight PSG recordings in the Sleep Laboratory of the Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, in order to define the macrostructural sleep characteristics and the prevalence of PLMd. Subsequently, the migraineurs sample was studied in order to define the relationship between disability, pain intensity, therapeutical responsiveness and the presence of PLMd. Results In the migraineurs children group, the individuals with PLM pathological index (PLMI ≥ 5) represent the 26.47% of sample and present higher frequency (p < 0.001), intensity (p < 0.001), duration (p = 0.006) and life impairment as scored in the PedMIDAS (p < 0.001) of headache and lower efficacy of prophylactic (p = 0.001) and acute (p = 0.006) pharmacological treatment than MoA children without PLM pathological index. Conclusions This preliminary study indicates the potential value of the determination of the PLMd signs, and the importance of the PSG evaluation in children affected by migraine, particularly when the clinical and pharmacological management tend to fail in the attacks control. PMID:23815623

  15. Evidence for Substantial Genetic Risk for Psychopathy in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viding, Essi; Blair, R. James R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with early warning signs of life-long psychopathy, callous-unemotional traits (CU) and high levels of antisocial behaviour (AB) can be identified in childhood. We report here the first twin study of high levels of psychopathic tendencies in young children. Methods: At the end of the first school year, teachers provided…

  16. Development of the Updating Executive Function: From 7-Year-Olds to Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R.; Herrero, Laura; Rucián, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Updating information in working memory (WM) is a critical executive function responsible both for continuously replacing outdated information with new relevant data and to suppress or inhibit content that is no longer relevant according to task demands. The goal of the present research is twofold: First, we aimed to study updating development in…

  17. First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, the authors examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, at age 4.5, and in first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as…

  18. Modality Switching Cost during Property Verification by 7 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosi, Solene; Kalenine, Solene; Blaye, Agnes; Bonthoux, Francoise

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies in neuroimagery and cognitive psychology support the view of sensory-motor based knowledge: when processing an object concept, neural systems would re-enact previous experiences with this object. In this experiment, a conceptual switching cost paradigm derived from Pecher, Zeelenberg, and Barsalou (2003, 2004) was used to…

  19. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  20. Orbital period studies of the two contact binaries TZ Bootis and Y Sextantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.; Liu, Q.

    2000-03-01

    The physical properties of the two A-type contact binaries TZ Boo and Y Sex are nearly the same. In the present paper, many of their published times of light minima are collected and the changes in their orbital periods are analyzed. It is indicated that the orbital period of TZ Boo shows several alternating jumps while it undergoes a secular decrease of -11.8x10-8 days/year. Several random jumps superposed on a secular decrease (-5.5x10-8 days/year) are also found in the period of Y Sex. The secular decrease is usually interpreted as mass transfer from the more to the less massive components, or mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the systems. According to the AML theory, on the contact stage, the orbital AML is mainly caused by the mass transfer from the less to the more massive component and the mass ratio decreasing and orbital period gradually increasing are the corresponding results. The extremely low mass ratio and orbital angular momentum of the two systems show that they are evolved via AML and the present secular decrease in the periods may suggest that the magnetic activity in the two systems are very strong. The relation between the changes of the orbital periods and the magnetic activity in the two systems are discussed. We think that the interplay between the variable AML and variable magnetic coupling can explain both the jumps and secular decrease in the orbital periods of the two systems. Table~2 and Table~4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strabg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  1. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. A study of coronal X-ray emission from short-period Algol binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; White, N. E.

    1995-01-01

    A study of X-ray emission from five short-period Algol-type binaries based on observations with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and ROSAT is presented. We have observed RZ Cas with both satellites, and beta Per, U Cep, delta Lib, and TW Dra with ROSAT. Significant intensity variations are seen in the X-ray emission from RZ Cas, U Cep, TW Dra, and delta Lib. These variations seem unrelated to the eclipsing behavior of these systems and are probably due to either rotational modulation of compact active regions on the surfaces of the chromospherically active secondary components or to flaring activity in the systems. The spectra of all but one of the systems require the presence of at least two discrete plasma components with different temperatures (0.6 - 0.7 keV, and approximately 2 keV) and the abundances of the medium-Z elements 20% - 50% of the solar photospheric values. The high resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the ASCA spectra allow us to individually constrain the coronal abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe in RZ Cas. We demonstrate that, if we use the elemental abundances and temperatures obtained from the analysis of their ASCA spectra as (fixed) inputs, to fit the ROSAT PSPC spectra well requires the presence of a third component (kT approximately 0.2 - 0.3 keV) in RZ Cas and beta Per. A continuous emission measure model of the power-law type (EM(T) variesas (T/T(sub max)(sup alpha)) generally gives a poor fit to the ASCA and ROSAT data on most sources. Circumstellar or circumbinary absorbing matter seems to be present in some of these systems, as indicated by the variable total column density needed to fit their X-ray spectra.

  3. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  4. Vaginismus in Iran: A Single Center Report of 7 Years Experience

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan-Taghavi, Mohammad Hossein; Asghari-Moghaddam, Mohammad Ali; Froutan, Seyed Kazem; Jadid-Milani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vaginismus is a sexual disorder that can cause painful intercourse. Although several studies have shown a relationship between higher education and socio-economic level of women with vaginismus, the relationship between demographic characteristics and other variables remains unclear. Objectives: The present study was conducted to determine the demographic characteristics of women with vaginismus, coming to family health clinic, between 2007 and 2013. Patients and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study that was conducted on 115 clinical records, from early 2007 until the end of 2013, that have received a diagnosis of vaginismus. In these clinical records, the data on female and male age, education and employment, duration of marriage, type of marriage (traditional, virtual, etc.), being a virgin, erectile dysfunction of husband, information of families, sexual satisfaction, marital satisfaction, residential, non-medical types of medical treatment and hymenectomy were derived. Results: The results showed that the average age of women was 29 ± 5 years and the average age of the spouses was 33 ± 6 years. Undergraduate education most prominent among women (52%) and spouses (42%). In terms of employment status, most women were housewives (54%) and the majority of male were employees (54%). The most frequent form of marriage was traditional (80%). The maximum elapsed time of marriage was between 1 - 3 years (43%). In most women, the first attempt for intercourse was from the second day of marriage to the end of the first week (73%). Hymenectomy was done by 9% of women. Totally, 45% of the men, the wives of whom were suffering from vaginismus, experienced erectile dysfunction. In 37% of couples, their sexual life was satisfactory. The most referred specialist for treatment was the urologist (17%). In 27% of women with vaginismus, numerous references to a variety of medical specialists and psychologists were also recorded. Of the total, 7% of couples

  5. A study on periodic solutions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F. B.; Zhang, W. E-mail: gaofabao@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    For the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in the inertial frame, we interpret the fact that there is no non-trivial 2π-periodic solution of the problem's homogeneous system. Furthermore, based on Reissig's theory, the existence of periodic solutions for the CR3BP is proved rigorously by using the above fact in conjunction with an a priori estimate. It is significant that the existence of periodic solutions of the CR3BP is mainly influenced by factors such as initial values, primary masses, and selection of the problem's control function. In addition, it is notable that the analytic proof of Poincaré's first class solutions is addressed for all values of the mass parameter in the interval (0, 1), the value of which must be sufficiently small according to previously published literature.

  6. Analysis of a 7 year tropospheric ozone vertical distribution at the Observatoire de Haute Provence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Ancellet, Gerard; Megie, Gerard

    1994-01-01

    A seven year (1984-90) climatology of tropospheric vertical ozone soundings, performed by electrochemical sondes at the OHP (44 deg N, 6 deg E, 700 m ASL) in Southern France, is presented. Its seasonal variation shows a broad spring/summer maximum in the troposphere. The contribution of photochemical ozone production and transport from the stratosphere to this seasonal variation are studied by a correlative analysis of ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, with emphasis on potential vorticity. This analysis shows the impact of dynamical and photochemical processes on the spatial and temporal ozone variability. In particular, a positive correlation (r = 04.0, significance greater than 99.9 percent) of ozone with potential vorticity is observed in the middle troposphere, reflecting the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the vertical ozone distribution.

  7. Biomass properties and gasification behavior of 7-year-old Siberian elm

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, W.A.; Argent, R.M.; Walawender, W.P.

    1987-04-01

    Studies were conducted to establish baseline information for use in characterizing Siberian elm as energy or fiber feedstock. Biomass properties were determined. Calorific value (4698 cal/g) and specific gravity (0.55) of Siberian elm are similar to those of soft elms, and its fiber length is relatively short (1.00 mm). Ash content was 1.65%. Gasification produces a medium energy gas (3 x 10/sup 6/ cal/cubic m) with yield varying from 0.17 to 0.96 cubic m/kg over a gasification temperature range of 600 to 700 C. Oven-dry yields were 9.8 t/ha annually at 700 trees/ha. 23 references.

  8. [Study on ammonia-N degradation monitoring by analyzing long-period fiber grating spectrum character].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-yue; Liang, Da-kai; Zeng, Jie; Cao, Zhi-bin; Zeng, Jian-min

    2010-09-01

    In the present paper, the principle of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring sensor was discussed in detail firstly based on a sensitive characteristic that the resonance spectrum of long-period fiber grating changes with refractive index in external environment. The relationship between the resonance peaking wavelength of long-period fiber grating and the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was also analyzed detailedly. Then, the long-period fiber grating spectrum measurement technology was selected to obtain long-period fiber grating spectrum curves corresponding to seven different kinds of concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, and the resonance wavelengths increased with the increase in the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The variations of the resonance wavelength decreased from 2.707 to 0.068 nm and had a relatively good corresponding relationship with the concentration values of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The responsivity of this correlation is 52.78 pm x mg(-1) x L. The concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was acquired exactly through the way of monitoring the changes of the spectrum attribute, at the same time, the process and the extent of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater degradation were estimated. This method, which can directly monitor the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, is simple and easy to operate. The measurement and transmission section of the system are completely composed of optical fiber, which can avoid the electronic interference. There is no necessary to use chemic reagent to sign the solutions, which are going to be degraded. In conclusion, the late-model long-period fiber grating ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring system could achieve a real time, rapid, accurate and long distance measurement.

  9. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  10. Posture control development in children aged 2-7 years old, based on the changes of repeatability of the stability indices.

    PubMed

    Sobera, Małgorzata; Siedlecka, Bożena; Syczewska, Małgorzata

    2011-03-10

    One of the most common problems encountered in posture control studies is relatively poor repeatability of postural stability measures based on the COP (center of pressure) time-series which results from the inherent variability of postural control. The repeatability of the data reflecting the postural control mechanisms in young children is still not well enough explained. The differences between of the repeatability of the stability indices of left and right foot may reflect the lateralization development of legs in the support function. The aim of the present study was two-fold: the assessment of the repeatability of the stability indices in three consecutive trials in young children, aged 2-7 years old, during quiet bipedal stance and the description of process of lower limbs lateralization, based on the difference of repeatability of both feet stability the indices changing with years. The subjects were 272 young healthy children aged 2-7 years old separated in 6 groups for children of different age. Each child stood for around 90s on two AccuSway force platforms (AMTI). The shifts of COP beneath left and right legs were recorded onto a computer by using appropriate software compatible with platforms. The indices of the ellipse area and velocity COP shifts were calculated. For assessment of the repeatability the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of the indices was used between the 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd trials. Young children of 2-4 years old exhibit low level of the stability indices repeatability which increases in 5-year-old children, 6-year-olds revealed both low and high and 7-year-olds good and high levels of repeatability. Youngest children showed higher repeatability of the ellipse area of the left leg, 3- and 4-year-olds the right leg, while 6-year-olds again the left leg. In 5- and 7-year-olds there were no differences in the repeatability of stability indices between the left and right foot. The comparisons of the

  11. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  12. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  13. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to... studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. The Postal Service shall provide a list of special studies whose results are used to produce the estimates in...

  14. 7-year of surface ozone in a coastal city of central Italy: Observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancofiore, Fabio; Verdecchia, Marco; Di Carlo, Piero; Tomassetti, Barbara; Aruffo, Eleonora; Busilacchio, Marcella; Bianco, Sebastiano; Di Tommaso, Sinibaldo; Colangeli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Hourly concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been measured for seven years, from 1998 to 2005, in a seaside town in the central Italy. Seasonal trends of O3 and NO2 recorded in the considered years are studied. Furthermore, we have focused our attention on data collected during the 2005, analyzing them using two different methods: a regression model and a neural network model. Both models are used to simulate the hourly ozone concentration, using several sets of input. In order to evaluate the performance of the model four statistical criteria are used: correlation coefficient (R), fractional bias (FB), normalized mean squared error (NMSE) e factor of two (FA2). All the criteria show that the neural network has better results compared to the regression model in all the simulations. In addiction we have tested some improvements of the neural network model, results of these tests are discussed. Finally, we have used the neural network to forecast the ozone hourly concentrations a day ahead and 1, 3, 6, 12 hour ahead. Performances of the model in predicting ozone levels are discussed.

  15. The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  16. Development of the updating executive function: From 7-year-olds to young adults.

    PubMed

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R; Herrero, Laura; Rucián, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Updating information in working memory (WM) is a critical executive function responsible both for continuously replacing outdated information with new relevant data and to suppress or inhibit content that is no longer relevant according to task demands. The goal of the present research is twofold: First, we aimed to study updating development in 548 participants of 4 different age ranges--7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and young adults--using the updating task devised by R. De Beni and P. Palladino (2004), which allows differentiating maintenance and inhibition processes. Second, we attempted to determine the relation between these processes across development as well as the differentiation among different types of inhibition processes tapped by this task. Results showed that there was an improvement of memory performance with age along with an upgrading of inhibitory efficiency. However, whereas in memory performance, a progressive increase was observed until the age of 15 years followed by stabilization, in inhibition, a continuous progressive increase was observed until young adulthood. Importantly, results showed that development of the different inhibitory mechanisms does not progress equally. All the groups committed more errors related to inefficient suppression mechanisms in WM than errors related to control of long-term memory interference. Principal component analysis showed that updating implies different subprocesses: active maintenance/suppression of information in WM and control of proactive interference. Developmental trajectories showed that the maintenance/suppression of information in the WM component continues to develop far beyond adolescence but that proactive interference control is responsible for variations in updating across development.

  17. Patterns of consonant deletion in typically developing children aged 3 to 7 years.

    PubMed

    James, Deborah G H; van Doorn, Jan; McLeod, Sharynne; Esterman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Children with and without speech, language and/or literacy impairment, delete consonants when they name pictures to elicit single words. Consonant deletion seems to be more frequent in long words (words of three or more syllables) than in short words (words of one or two syllables). However, it may be missed in long words because they are not routinely assessed and, even if they are, there is little normative data about them. The study aims were (1) to determine if a relationship exists between consonant deletion and the number of syllables in words, (2) delimit variation in the numbers of children using it, its frequency of occurrence and the words it affects and (3) to discuss the application of these data to clinical practice. The participants were 283 typically developing children, aged 3;0 to 7;11 years, speaking Australian English with proven normal language, cognition and hearing. They named pictures, yielding 166 selected words that were varied for syllable number, stress and shape and repeatedly sampled all consonants and vowels of Australian English. Almost all participants (95%) used consonant deletion. Whilst a relationship existed between consonant deletion frequency and the number of syllables in words, the syllable effect was interpreted as a proxy of an interaction of segmental and prosodic features that included two or more syllables, sonorant sounds, non-final weak syllables, within-word consonant sequences and/or anterior-posterior articulatory movements. Clinically, two or three deletions of consonants across the affected words may indicate typical behaviour for children up to the age of 7;11 years but variations outside these tolerances may mark impairment. These results are further evidence to include long words in routine speech assessment.

  18. The Anatomy of American Football: Evidence from 7 Years of NFL Game Data

    PubMed Central

    Papalexakis, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    How much does a fumble affect the probability of winning an American football game? How balanced should your offense be in order to increase the probability of winning by 10%? These are questions for which the coaching staff of National Football League teams have a clear qualitative answer. Turnovers are costly; turn the ball over several times and you will certainly lose. Nevertheless, what does “several” mean? How “certain” is certainly? In this study, we collected play-by-play data from the past 7 NFL seasons, i.e., 2009–2015, and we build a descriptive model for the probability of winning a game. Despite the fact that our model incorporates simple box score statistics, such as total offensive yards, number of turnovers etc., its overall cross-validation accuracy is 84%. Furthermore, we combine this descriptive model with a statistical bootstrap module to build FPM (short for Football Prediction Matchup) for predicting future match-ups. The contribution of FPM is pertinent to its simplicity and transparency, which however does not sacrifice the system’s performance. In particular, our evaluations indicate that our prediction engine performs on par with the current state-of-the-art systems (e.g., ESPN’s FPI and Microsoft’s Cortana). The latter are typically proprietary but based on their components described publicly they are significantly more complicated than FPM. Moreover, their proprietary nature does not allow for a head-to-head comparison in terms of the core elements of the systems but it should be evident that the features incorporated in FPM are able to capture a large percentage of the observed variance in NFL games. PMID:28005971

  19. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Scanavini, Marco A.; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3–4 mm), until a ‘super class I’ molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1–T2, T2–T3, and T1–T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. CONCLUSIONS Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes. PMID:23736378

  20. Optimizing LINAC-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years' clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, Karin . E-mail: Karin.Dieckmann@akhwien.at; Georg, Dietmar; Bogner, Joachim; Zehetmayer, Martin; Petersch, Bernhard; Chorvat, Martin; Weitmann, Hajo; Poetter, Richard

    2006-11-15

    uveal melanomas provides good local control. The new prototype system improves the quality of treatment and offers the possibility of movement-gated treatments. In an ongoing study, treatment-related side effects are correlated with dose levels. Such correlations can be used to further optimize linac-based SRT of uveal melanoma.

  1. The ILAN sprite campaigns in Israel: results from 7 years of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Mezuman, Keren; Price, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The ILAN (Imaging of Lightning And Nocturnal flashes, http://ilanteam.com/) campaigns have been conducted since 2004 from Israel, observing winter thunderstorms in the eastern Mediterranean. We searched for transient luminous events using the standard commercial CCD cameras (Watec N100, 902H2 Ultimate) and the UFO-capture software for event detection, commonly used by other TLE- research groups in Europe and Japan. Winter thunderstorms mostly occur in conjunction with the passage of cold fronts in Cyprus lows, and thus TLEs are best observed when the storms are 200-300 km west of the Israeli coastline, above the Mediterranean Sea. We present statistical analysis of 505 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (above 40% of events) between 00:30-02:50 LST (Local Standard Time, UT+2). This distribution is very different from that of lightning in the region, which peaks ~ 05:00 LST over the sea (Altaratz et al., 2001), hinting at the different temporal behavior of +CG flashes, known to be the major producers of sprites. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites is dominated by column sprites (49.3%) with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan (Matsudo et al., 2007). Other shapes (trees, wishbones, etc.; Bór, 2013) appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.8% of observations, with 83.2% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogenous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). In some rare cases we observed 12-23 elements in a single sprite. The number of elements and the temporal distribution of different sprite types will be presented and compared with the properties of the parent thunderstorms. Altaratz, O., Levin Z. and Y. Yair, 2001: Winter thunderstorms in Israel - a study with lightning location systems and weather radar. Month. Weath. Rev

  2. Orbital Period Variation Study of the Algol Eclipsing Binary DI Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, M. A.; Amin, S. M.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss the orbital period changes of the Algol semi-detached eclipsing binary DI Peg by constructing the (O-C) residual diagram via using all the available precise minima times. We conclude that the period variation can be explained by a sine-like variation due to the presence of a third body orbiting the binary, together with a long-term orbital period increase ( dP/dt=0.17 sec/century) that can be interpreted to be due to mass transfer from the evolved secondary component (of rate 1.52×10^{-8} M_{⊙}/ yr) to the primary one. The detected low-mass third body (M_{3 min.}=0.22±0.0006 M_{⊙}) is responsible for a periodic variation of about 55 years light time effect. We have determined the orbital parameters of the third component which show a considerable eccentricity e_{3}= 0.77±0.07 together with a longitude of periastron ω_{3}=300° ± 10°.

  3. Comparative Study of Periodical Literature Indexing: Print versus Electronic Access. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    This 2-year project at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing online periodical indexing to the journal holdings of the UTA libraries by demonstrating an extended use of the libraries' NOTIS Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) to provide better access to local resources. Three approaches…

  4. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  5. A Case Study of Periodical Use by Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of information in the literature about the sources used for research by modern Master of Library and Information Science students in the United States, and so the objective of this project is to understand the use of periodical articles by these students. Specifically: do articles play a major role in student research, how current…

  6. [Psychophysiological structure of verbal and nonverbal intellect in 6-7 year old children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Bezrukikh, M M; Loginova, E S

    2011-01-01

    Wechsler test revealed the peculiarities of intellectual development of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is shown that the psychophysiological structure of intelligence in 6-7 year old children without any signs of ADHD is characterized by a high level of development and close interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Their peers with ADHD demonstrate an insufficient level of development of visual-spatial perception, voluntary activity organization and regulation, and a lower level of interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Significant differences between verbal and nonverbal integral indices are the evidence of the deficit in voluntary attention and voluntary regulation and in the integrity of operational cognitive structures.

  7. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  8. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  9. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  10. Indoor radon periodicities and their physical constraints: a study in the Coimbra region (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neves, L J P F; Barbosa, S M; Pereira, A J S C

    2009-10-01

    Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic red sandstones. A low average activity of radon was observed (36 Bq m(-3)), however showing a very well marked daily periodicity (10+/-5 Bq m(-3)), with maximum values occurring more frequently between 9 and 10 a.m. Daily variations are shown to have no relation with earth tides, and their amplitudes exhibit a significant correlation with outdoor temperature; no dependence on barometric pressure was found. Rainfall disturbs the observed daily radon cycles through a strong reduction of their amplitude, but has no effect on the long-term variability of the gas concentration.

  11. Left cheek bias for emotion perception, but not expression, is established in children aged 3-7 years.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Annukka K; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Aznar, Ana

    2017-01-01

    As the left hemiface is controlled by the emotion-dominant right hemisphere, emotion is expressed asymmetrically. Portraits showing a model's left cheek consequently appear more emotive. Though the left cheek bias is well established in adults, it has not been investigated in children. To determine whether the left cheek biases for emotion perception and expression are present and/or develop between the ages of 3 and 7 years, 145 children (71 male, 74 female; M age = 65.49 months) completed two experimental tasks: one assessing biases in emotion perception, and the other assessing biases in emotion expression. Regression analysis confirmed that children aged 3-7 years find left cheek portraits happier than right cheek portraits, and age does not predict the magnitude of the bias. In contrast when asked to pose for a photo expressing happiness children did not show a left cheek bias, with logistic regression confirming that age did not predict posing orientations. These findings indicate that though the left cheek bias for emotion perception is established by age 3, a similar bias for emotion expression is not evident by age 7. This implies that tacit knowledge of the left cheek's greater expressivity is not innate but develops in later childhood/adolescence.

  12. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy.

  13. Influence of harvest method and period on olive oil composition: an NMR and statistical study.

    PubMed

    D'Imperio, Marco; Gobbino, Marco; Picanza, Antonio; Costanzo, Simona; Della Corte, Anna; Mannina, Luisa

    2010-10-27

    The influence of harvest period and harvest method on olive oil composition was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by some quality parameters such as free acidity, peroxide value, and UV spectrophotometric indices. This work focuses on two secondary factors (harvest period and harvest method) and investigated their interactions with primary (genetic and pedoclimatic) and secondary (agronomic practices and technological procedures) factors. To avoid misinterpretation, the general linear model analysis (GLM) was used to adjust the result obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). In this way, the effect of the factor of interest was corrected for the effects of the other factors that might influence the variable under investigation. The weight of each factor was evaluated by the variance component analysis (VCA). Finally, multivariate statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were applied. Samples were grouped according to the harvest period and harvest method. Volatile compounds, that is, hexanal and trans-2-hexenal, as well as the sn-1,3-diglycerides and squalene, significantly decreased during the ripening. The relative value of the ΔK parameter and the hexanal amount were higher in the olive oils obtained from olives harvested by one type of hand-held machine (shaker), whereas the unsaturated fatty chains in the olive oils were higher when another type (comb) was used.

  14. A Comparison of Two CD-ROM Periodical Indexes for Use in the Middle School. A Scholarly Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrash, Beverly M.

    This purpose of this study was to determine which periodical index--InfoTrac or EBSCO Magazine Article Summaries--is the most appropriate for use by middle school students preparing required research projects. The study population consisted of randomly selected sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students (N=50) in a Cobb County (Georgia) middle…

  15. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  16. Cepheids and Long Period Variables in M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Anne; Macri, Lucas M.; Bradshaw, Andrew K.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.

    2009-09-01

    We are conducting a long-term photometric survey of the nearby galaxy M 33 to discover Cepheids, eclipsing binaries, and long-period variables. The dataset combines previously-obtained optical images from the DIRECT project with new observations acquired at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. The entire data set spans over 7 years with excellent synoptic coverage which will enable the discovery and characterization of stars displaying variability over a wide range of timescales (days, weeks, months, years). In this preliminary work we show representative light curves of different variables we found so far in two fields, color-magnitude diagrams, and optical Cepheid Period-Luminosity relations for M 33. The ultimate goal of the project is to provide an absolute calibration of the Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation, and to study its metallicity dependence at optical wavelengths.

  17. Bioengineering studies of periodic external compression as prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis-part I: numerical studies.

    PubMed

    Kamm, R D

    1982-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of the technique of periodic external compression for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. In the model the veins of the lower leg are portrayed as a continuous system rather than as discrete elements as in previous models. Consequently, we are able to explore the detailed effects of different modes of compression including (i) uniform compression, the simultaneous application of uniform pressure over the entire lower leg, (ii) graded compression, the application of nonuniform pressure, maximum at the ankle and minimum at the knee, and (iii) wavelike compression, a wave of compression proceeding from the ankle toward the knee. These numerical results indicate that the effectiveness of uniform compression is severely compromised by the formation of a flow-limiting throat at the proximal end of the compression cuff that reduces both the rate at which blood is discharged from the lower leg and the total blood volume removed. Both of these detrimental effects can be avoided by the use of either wavelike of graded compression. Both alternated methods are shown to produce more uniform augmentation of volume flow rate, flow velocity and shear stress, throughout the entire lower leg. In the companion paper, Part II [18] (see following article), these same compression modes are tested using a simple hydraulic model consisting of a single latex tube inside a foam cylinder as a highly simplified representation of a human leg.

  18. Environmental Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure at Home, Mobile and Cordless Phone Use, and Sleep Problems in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Anke; van Eijsden, Manon; Guxens, Monica; Beekhuizen, Johan; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vrijkotte, Tania; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years. Methods This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations was assessed with a geospatial model (NISMap) and from indoor sources (cordless phone/WiFi) using parental self-reports. Parents also reported their children’s use of mobile or cordless phones. When children were seven years old, we evaluated sleep quality as measured with the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) filled in by parents. Of eight CSHQ subscales, we evaluated sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness with logistic or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for child’s age and sex and indicators of socio-economic position of the parents. We evaluated the remaining three subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep disordered breathing) as unrelated outcomes (negative control) because these were a priori hypothesised not to be associated with RF-EMF. Results Sleep onset delay, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness were not associated with residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations. Sleep duration scores were associated with RF-EMF levels from base stations. Higher use mobile phones was associated with less favourable sleep duration, night wakenings and parasomnias, and also with bedtime resistance. Cordless phone use was not related to any of the sleeping scores. Conclusion Given the different results across the evaluated RF-EMF exposure sources and the observed association between mobile phone use and the negative control sleep scale, our study does not support the hypothesis that it is the exposure to RF-EMF that is detrimental to sleep quality in 7-year old children, but potentially other factors that are related to mobile phone

  19. A numerical study of transition control by periodic suction-blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three dimensional amplitudes, a two dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

  20. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Fought, Rick L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals. PMID:25031560

  1. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  2. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fought, Rick L

    2014-07-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals.

  3. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.

  4. Photometric study and absolute parameters of the short-period eclipsing binary HH Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Demircan, Y.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system HH Bootis from new CCD (BVRI) light curves and published radial velocity data. The photometric data were obtained in 2011 and 2012 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO). Light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters. The system was determined to be a W-type W UMa system of a type different from that suggested by Dal and Sipahi (2013). An interesting cyclic period variation in the time intervals between primary and secondary eclipses ("half-period variation") was discovered and analyzed and its possible cause is discussed. Combining our photometric solution with the spectroscopic data we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.627M⊙ , M2 = 1.068M⊙ , R1 = 0.782R⊙ and R2 = 0.997R⊙ . New light elements were derived and finally the evolutionary status of the system is discussed.

  5. The First Photometric Study of the Short-period Shallow Contact System LO Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Han, Q. W.; Liu, J. Z.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the first complete photometric light curves in the B, V, and R passbands for an eclipsing binary LO Com are presented, and the photometric solution for the LO Com is derived by analyzing these light curves by using the Wilson and Devinney code. From the photometric solution, it is found that the LO Com is a W-type W UMa binary with a mass ratio of q={m}2/{m}1=2.478 and a contact degree of f=(3.2+/- 0.25) % . By combining the two new minimum times with those published earlier in the literature, we have found that the (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation corresponding to a long-term decrease in the orbital period with a rate of {{d}}P/{{d}}t=-1.18× {10}-7 days yr-1. This long-term decrease in its orbital period may be caused by mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one.

  6. A study of the equatorial signatures of long period transient events (600 - 7200 s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Dutra, S.; Trivedi, N.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.; Schuch, N.

    Transient variations in the H magnetic field component of magnetograms at high latitude are a common feature. They are associated with energy transference from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Abrupt changes in the solar wind generate Alfvén and fast mode waves through the magnetosphere. The Alfvén wave doesn't propagate in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, so equatorial signatures are probably caused by fast mode waves. On the other hand, complicated signatures observed at high latitudes represent a composition of Alfvén and fast mode waves. A second suggested propagation mechanism to low latitudes is the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In this work, geomagnetic data from the Brazilian magnetic stations at Belém (BLM), Eusébio (EUS), Ji-Paraná (JIP), São luis (SLZ) and São Martinho da Serra (SMS), all located near the geomagnetic equator, are used to look for equatorial signatures of transient events with periods of 600 - 7200s. This period range includes two special types of transient variations named Traveling convection vortices (TCV) and DP2 fluctuations. We try to identify their morphological characteristics and compare with the high latitude phenomena's characteristics. Satellite data (WIND, ACE and GOES) are used to see magnetosphere signatures and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during the events. The main objective is try to find the contribution of each propagation mechanism of these transient events arriving at the equatorial latitudes.

  7. Coding Properties of Three Intrinsically Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cells under Periodic Stimuli: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Yi-Hong; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    As the sole output neurons in the retina, ganglion cells play significant roles in transforming visual information into spike trains, and then transmitting them to the higher visual centers. However, coding strategies that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) adopt to accomplish these processes are not completely clear yet. To clarify these issues, we investigate the coding properties of three types of RGCs (repetitive spiking, tonic firing, and phasic firing) by two different measures (spike-rate and spike-latency). Model results show that for periodic stimuli, repetitive spiking RGC and tonic RGC exhibit similar spike-rate patterns. Their spike- rates decrease gradually with increased stimulus frequency, moreover, variation of stimulus amplitude would change the two RGCs' spike-rate patterns. For phasic RGC, it activates strongly at medium levels of frequency when the stimulus amplitude is low. While if high stimulus amplitude is applied, phasic RGC switches to respond strongly at low frequencies. These results suggest that stimulus amplitude is a prominent factor in regulating RGCs in encoding periodic signals. Similar conclusions can be drawn when analyzes spike-latency patterns of the three RGCs. More importantly, the above phenomena can be accurately reproduced by Hodgkin's three classes of neurons, indicating that RGCs can perform the typical three classes of firing dynamics, depending on the distinctions of ion channel densities. Consequently, model results from the three RGCs may be not specific, but can also applicable to neurons in other brain regions which exhibit part(s) or all of the Hodgkin's three excitabilities. PMID:27721751

  8. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status with bone mineral density in 0-7 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhenying; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Zi; Li, Yinfang; Liang, Guanyu; Lv, Heyun; Hong, Hong; Song, Yuan; Wei, Yarong; Yue, Hongni; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Guoqin; Ni, Yufei; Zhu, Mei; Wu, Aiping; Yan, Juhua; Ji, Chenbo; Guo, Xirong; Wen, Juan; Qin, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the status of serum 25-hydoxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and identify the relationship between 25(OH)D and bone mineral density (BMD). In an effort to explore the appropriate definition of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in 0–7 year old children. Results The median serum 25(OH)D concentrations was 62.9 nmol/L and 28.9% of the children had a low 25(OH)D (< 50 nmol/L). And a linear relation between 25(OH)D concentrations and BMD was surveyed (r = 0.144 , P < 0.001). After adjusting for the confounders, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with BMD (β = 172.0, 95%CI = 142.8–201.2, P < 0.001), and low 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L) had a high stake for low BMD (OR = 1.424, 95%CI = 1.145–1.769, P = 0.001). Additionally, there was a nonlinear relation between 25(OH)D and low BMD, and a critical value for 25(OH)D of 75 nmol/L appeared for low BMD. The prevalence of low BMD was 14.1% in children with 25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L, much lower than that of the concentrations between 50–75 nmol/L and < 50 nmol/L. Materials and Methods A total of 4,846 children 0–7 years old were recruited in Jiangsu Province, China. BMD and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were determined by quantitative ultrasound and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of 25(OH)D concentrations with BMD. Conclusions Serum 25(OH)D concentrations was related with BMD and 25(OH)D concentrations < 75 nmol/L might be a more appropriate definition of VD deficiency in 0–7 year old children. PMID:27821808

  9. Using the Immunization Information System to Determine Vaccination Coverage Rates among Children Aged 1–7 Years: A Report from Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Hu, Yu; Zhong, Yanpeng; Chen, Yaping; Tang, Xuewen; Guo, Jing; Shen, Lingzhi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Zhejiang Immunization Information System (ZJIIS) was established in 2004. This study described the coverage rates of NIP vaccines in Zhejiang Province using the ZJIIS. Methods: Children aged 1–7 years (born from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2011) registered in ZJIIS were enrolled in this study. All immunization records were obtained from the ZJIIS on 31 December 2012. The cohort method had been used for identifying trends and patterns in vaccine administration. Immunization coverage estimates were analyzed for both individual NIP vaccines and “Fully immunized” by age group, birth cohort, immigration status, and geography area. We also examined the timeliness vaccination for the 2010 birth cohort. Results: A total of 3,579,896 children were registered in ZJIIS. All the vaccines and doses which scheduled to be given at ≤12 months of age exceeded 90%. There was substantial decrease trend in the vaccines scheduled at >12 months of age and most of these vaccines were below 90%. The coverage of migrant children was lower than for resident children and the coverage of WenZhou (WZ), Zhoushan (ZS) and TaiZhou (TZ) was lower than other municipalities for most of vaccines across all the birth cohorts. Nearly 20%–30% of children of 2010 birth cohort delayed for the primary series vaccination scheduled at ≤12 months of age, especially among migrant children. Conclusions: The ZJIIS is useful in tracking vaccine coverage of children aged 1–7 years and the data provided by ZJIIS reflected the fact that NIP delivery was improving in Zhejiang Province, while identifying some areas for improvement. We recommend continuing surveillance to estimate of vaccine coverage through ZJIIS. Immunization strategies such as Assessment, Feedback, Incentives, and Exchange program, reminder/recall activity, home visits, school entry requirements and school-based clinics could be used to reach a higher coverage of the population. PMID:24603495

  10. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  11. Periodontal treatment in a generalized severe chronic periodontitis patient: A case report with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction. PMID:26038666

  12. Periodontal treatment in a generalized severe chronic periodontitis patient: A case report with 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction.

  13. Large ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in a 7-year-old girl with analysis of 108 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kirjavainen, Antti; Tuovinen, Veikko; Sándor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) are rare conditions in children and are often asymptomatic. AFOs are found by routine clinical and radiological examination or when they cause obvious intra- or extra-oral swelling. Materials and Methods: A case of an AFO in a 7-year-old girl is described, and 107 cases from the literature and this report are analyzed. Results: The total of 108 cases revealed the average age at presentation of AFO to be 6.3 years in boys and 9.6 years in girls. There was a slight male predilection and AFO lesions most often occurred in the posterior mandible. AFO was almost always associated with an unerupted tooth or teeth. Conclusions: While the recurrence rate of AFO was found to be 5.5%, long-term postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up is advised to ensure no future signs of aggressive recurrence. PMID:27563600

  14. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. A 7-year old boy with rapid growth and pubic hair].

    PubMed

    Berents-Oosterhof, M Y; Noordam, C; Otten, B J

    2000-12-16

    A 7-year-old boy was tall, with a developing penis and initial growth of pubic hair. Due to the accelerated growth there was no premature adrenarche and due to the increased testicular volume there must have been a central cause for the production of androgens. Further specific investigations revealed an astrocytoma of the hypothalamus. After radiotherapy, the tumour exhibited no growth. The pubertal development was inhibited and the growth later stimulated by means of medication. In the case of pubertas praecox the growth chart and pubertal stages including testicular volume can help to differentiate between central and peripheral precocious puberty, narrow the diagnostic evaluation and reduce the time of the initial therapy.

  15. A 7-year-old with indurated skin and unilateral progressive joint immobility: A case of stiff skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ogunmakin, Kehinde; Vangipuram, Ramya; Sturgeon, Ashley; Shimizu, Ikue

    2015-09-17

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare sclerotic condition that presents during infancy or early childhood. It has an insidious chronic course and may lead to significant co-morbidity and reduced quality of life. Often, affected individuals experience impaired ambulation and immobilization related to joint involvement. Clinically, it may resemble other sclerotic diseases, so histopathological evaluation is necessary to establish a diagnosis. As it is a condition with limited treatment options, prompt diagnosis and early initiation of physical therapy is crucial to prevent joint restriction and maintain quality of life. We describe a case of a 7-year-old with stiff skin syndrome, and review the literature to discuss the clinical presentation, histological findings, and management of this condition.

  16. Study of periodic surface profile on improving the window capacity at single and repetitive pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, X. W.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Shao, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, W. Y.; Ke, C. F.; Chen, C. H.; Liang, Y. Q.; Wu, X. L.; Guo, L. T.; Chang, C.

    2015-09-15

    The surface breakdown of dielectric windows seriously limits the transmission of high power microwaves (HPM), and has blocked the development of microwave technology in recent decades. In this paper, X-band HPM experiments of window breakdown at the vacuum/dielectric interface and the atmosphere/dielectric interface at single and repetitive pulses were conducted. The cross-linked polystyrene (CLPS) dielectric window with a periodic surface profile can significantly improve the breakdown threshold at single and repetitive pulses. Furthermore, the flat surface layer of CLPS was discovered to be carbonized to a depth of several millimeters and filled with electrical trees at repetitive pulses. Theoretical models were built to understand the underlying physics behind the phenomena in experiments. With the analysis of the electron resonance process breaking the molecular bond and the temperature rise caused by the traversing current in the dielectric material, a microscopic explanation for the carbonization of the dielectric window was introduced.

  17. Experimental study and theoretical modeling of the long period variations of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alania, Michael; Siluszyk, Marek; Wawrzynczak-Szaban, Anna

    2012-07-01

    We analyze experimental data of neutron monitors and solar wind parameters during #21 solar cycle (1976-1987). In galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity is well established a step like changes in both ascending and descending periods of solar activity. We compose two-dimensional (2-D) time dependent model of GCR modulation based on Parker's transport equation to explain a general 11-year wave of the GCR intensity with the step-like changes, and each step-like changes individually, i.e. time scale of investigations is carried out by means of daily and monthly data. An innovation in proposed model is that besides the well known fundamental processes responsible for modulation of the GCR intensity, we implement in the model the parameters characterizing temporal changes of the exponent n of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turbulence, module B of the IMF, tilt angle δ of the Heliospheric Neutral Sheet, and changes of drift effect of the GCR particles upon solar activity assuming that drift effect of the GCR particles is maximal in the minimum epoch, when drift dominates, and is neglected in the maximum epoch, when diffusion dominates. We show that an acceptable compatibility is kept for the investigated period of 1976-1987 (solar cycle #21), when the expected temporal changes of the GCR particles density (11-year wave) is shifted for 18 months with respect to the temporal changes of the smoothed experimental data of the GCR intensity. We consider, that a delay time ˜18 months can be considered as an effective delay time caused by the combined influence of all parameters implemented in the 2-D model.

  18. The study of atmospheric CO pollution over the center of Moscow in autumn period

    SciTech Connect

    Fokeeva, E.V.; Pekour, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The results of CO near-ground concentration measurements are presented which were taken by virtue of electrochemical method at the center of Moscow during one autumn month in 1993. Simultaneous measurements were performed of the total column content of CO over Moscow making use of sun radiation absorption detection in the infrared (in the wavelength range of 4.6 mcm). To determine an urban increment of CO content over regional background the data of analogous measurements were used which were collected in the rural suburb 45 km west from Moscow center One-hour averaged near-ground CO concentration were in the limits 0.4 to 5.8 mg/m{sup 3}, and an average total column CO content vary from 0.09 to 0.167 atm*cm. The measurements were accompanied by acoustic sounding of the atmosphere boundary layer with the use of three component Doppler SODAR. The peculiarities of average and concrete diurnal variation of near-ground CO concentrations can well be interpreted by virtue of SODAR data indicating the type of stratification, the mixing height and the wind velocity during a whole day. Comparison and analysis are performed of the average diurnal variations of near-ground CO concentration in autumn and summer periods in account to the occurrence frequency of surface inversion within selected periods. Almost complete coincidence has been found of the shape of CO concentration diurnal variations with those of NO and soot. An estimate of specific CO source power in the city is performed in account to the data on the mixing height and wind velocity mean within a layer of 250 m.

  19. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-11

    INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume STUDY 10: 097 STUDY NO: 097 ABBR: HCV ANIMAL 10 ~eek ·3 ~eek ·1 GROUP: 7557 7541...097 ABBR: HCV ANIMAL 10 ~eek ·3 INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume IJeek ·1 IJeek 2 IJeek 4 IJeelc 8 IJeek 13...animals sacrificed after the recovery period. It was usually focal and subcapsular. It consisted of interstitial fibrosis , mononuclear cell

  20. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  1. A numerical study of periodic slug flow at zero gravity and normal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, K.; Bugg, J. D.; Gabriel, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports numerical simulations of slug flow at zero and normal gravity. The particular experimental results chosen for validation were obtained at microgravity under conditions which resulted in evenly-spaced and evenly-sized Taylor bubbles facilitating a simulation with periodic boundary conditions. The numerical technique was a free-surface method which explicitly tracked the motion of the gas-liquid interface using a volume-of-fluid specification and a finite volume discretisation of the solution domain. The large scale features of the bubble such as the classic bullet-shaped nose were well predicted by the model. Unsteady features of the bubble shape such as waves in the film and fluctuations of the bottom surface were also predicted but are harder to compare quantitatively to the experiments. The velocity field predictions reveal several interesting features of the flow. When viewed by an observer moving with the bubbles, the liquid slug is dominated by a large recirculating region with the flow travelling from the leading to the trailing bubble along the tube centreline. In this frame of reference, the near-wall region features a jet of fluid issuing from the film of the leading bubble which entrains fluid in the slug. As the film of the trailing bubble begins to form, the entrained fluid must be ejected since the flowrate in the film of each bubble must be the same. It appears to be this process that drives the main recirculation.

  2. ''Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Periodic Density Functional Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Structures''

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Hudson

    2004-10-27

    This project is directed at a fundamental understanding of hydrogen bonding, the primary reversible interaction leading to defined geometries, networks and supramolecular aggregates formed by organic molecules. Hydrogen bonding is still not sufficiently well understood that the geometry of such supramolecular aggregates can be predicted. In the approach taken existing quantum chemical methods capable of treating periodic solids have been applied to hydrogen bonded systems of known structure. The equilibrium geometry for the given space group and packing arrangement were computed and compared to that observed. The second derivatives and normal modes of vibration will then be computed and from this inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra were computed using the normal mode eigenvectors to compute spectral intensities. Appropriate inclusion of spectrometer line width and shape was made in the simulation and overtones, combinations and phonon wings were be included. These computed spectra were then compared with experimental results obtained for low-temperature polycrystalline samples at INS spectrometers at several facilities. This procedure validates the computational methodology for describing these systems including both static and dynamic aspects of the material. The resulting description can be used to evaluate the relative free energies of two or more proposed structures and so ultimately to be able to predict which structure will be most stable for a given building block.

  3. The study of structural color filter based on periodic nanohole arrays for bio-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seunguk; Shin, Jeonghee; Yoo, Seungjun; Kim, Samhwan; Jeon, Byoungok; Moon, Cheil; Jang, Jae-Eun

    2015-07-01

    A nanostructure which induces localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can be utilized in visible light and near infrared (NIR) regions and it shows promising features as a bio-detector because LSPR state is changed easily by different bio-related materials. Owing to transparent property of many biomolecules as well as diluted states in base solutions, it is hard to distinguish each other by eye or microscope analysis. However, difference in molecular structure and composition makes difference in optical characteristics such as a refractive index or a dielectric constant. Therefore, our LSPR-based nanohole array structure which has high sensitivity to detect small changes in optical characteristics can be a great candidate for a bio detector. Here, we fabricated structural color filters (SCFs) to detect wavelength shifts for several biomolecules and optimized the nanohole array structures for high sensitivity. Periodic nanohole arrays were designed to present resonance peaks in visible light region for optical analysis and fabricated in Au or Al thin film layer. The spectral shifts were detected caused by biomolecules.

  4. Evanescent-wave amplification studied using a bilayer periodic circuit structure and its effective medium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruopeng; Zhao, Bo; Lin, Xian Qi; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present both theoretical analysis and experimental verification of evanescent-wave amplification by using a bilayer periodic circuit structure and its effective medium model. We propose a series-shunt capacitor (C-C) structure to simulate a magnetic plasma, whose permittivity is positive and permeability is negative, and a series-shunt inductor (L-L) structure to simulate an electric plasma, whose permittivity is negative and permeability is positive, in which the structure cells are not required to be electrically small. In addition, we derive and define an effective permittivity and permeability for the C-C and L-L structures in closed forms, which are completely different from the published ones. When the two structures are cascaded together to form a bilayer structure, we show that evanescent waves which exist in two single layers independently can be amplified exponentially if a certain resonant condition is satisfied. Such a resonant condition is equivalent to the antimatching condition for the permittivity and permeability of the effectively electric and magnetic plasmas. To show the accuracy of this equivalent medium model, we compare both circuit-simulation results for the C-C and L-L structures and theoretical-prediction results for the effective magnetic and electric plasmas, which have excellent agreement. Finally, we design an experiment using lumped capacitors and inductors mounted on a printed circuit board to verify the amplification of evanescent waves sufficiently. The measurement results have good agreement with the simulation results.

  5. Periodic limb movements during sleep and prevalent hypertension in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Brian B; Sillau, Stefan; Dean, Dennis A; Lutsey, Pamela L; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) are associated with immediate increases in blood pressure. Both PLMS and hypertension have different distributions across racial/ethnic groups. We sought to determine whether PLMS is associated with hypertension among various racial/ethnic groups. A total of 1740 men and women underwent measurement of blood pressure and polysomnography with quantification of PLMS. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140, diastolic BP ≥90, or taking antihypertensive medication. For those taking antihypertensives, an estimated pretreatment SBP value was derived based on observed SBP and medication type/dose. Measures of PLMS, PLMS index, and PLMS arousal index were the main explanatory variables. Hypertension and SBP were modeled with logistic and multivariable regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle/habitual factors, apnea-hypopnea index, and race/ethnicity. In the overall cohort, prevalent hypertension was modestly associated with PLMS index (10 U; odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.10) and PLMS arousal index (1 U; 1.05; 1.01-1.09) after adjusting for confounders. Association in the overall cohort was influenced by large effect sizes in blacks, in whom the odds of prevalent hypertension increased by 21% (1%-45%) for 10 U PLMS index increase and 20% (2%-42%) for 1-U PLMS arousal index increase. In blacks, every 1-U PLMS arousal index increase was associated with SBP 1.01 mm Hg higher (1.01; 0.04-1.98). Associations between PLMS and blood pressure outcomes were also suggested among Chinese-Americans but not in whites or Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of community-dwelling men and women, prevalent hypertension and SBP are associated with PLMS frequency in blacks.

  6. Experimental study of outdoor propagation of spherically speading periodic acoustic waves of finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The outdoor propagation of spherically spreading sound waves of finite amplitude was investigated. The main purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent to which the outdoor environment, mainly random inhomogeneity of the medium, affects finite amplitude propagation. Periodic sources with fundamental frequencies in the range 6 to 8 kHz and source levels SPLlm from 140 to 149 dB were used. The sources were an array of 7 to 10 horn drivers and a siren. The propagation path was vertical and parallel to an 85 m tower, whose elevator carried the traveling microphone. The general conclusions drawn from the experimental results were as follows. The inhomogeneities caused significant fluctuations in the instantaneous acoustic signal, but with sufficient time averaging of the measured harmonic levels, the results were comparable to results expected for propagation in a quiet medium. Propagation data for the fundamental of the siren approached within 1 dB of the weak shock saturation levels. Extra attenuation on the order of 8 dB was observed. The measurements generally confirmed the predictions of several theoretical models. The maximum propagation distance was 36 m. The narrowbeam arrays were much weaker sources. Nonlinear propagation distortion was produced, but the maximum value of extra attenuation measured was 1.5 dB. The maximum propagation distance was 76 m. The behavior of the asymetric waveforms received in one experiment qualitatively suggested that beam type diffraction effects were present. The role of diffraction of high intensity sound waves in radiation from a single horn was briefly investigated.

  7. Undergraduate Pilot Training Task Frequency Study. Final Report for Period October 1972-October 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James E.; Rust, Steven K.

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the number of training task repetitions required for an Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) student to become proficient, and (2) to determine the total number of task repetitions that UPT students receive for each maneuver in T-37 and T-38 training. The project was conducted in two parts. Study 1…

  8. Work Sampling Study of an Engineering Professor during a Regular Contract Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; McDonald, Dale B.

    2015-01-01

    Work sampling is a technique that has been employed in industry and fields such as healthcare for some time. It is a powerful technique, and an alternative to conventional stop watch time studies, used by industrial engineers to focus upon random work sampling observations. This study applies work sampling to the duties performed by an individual…

  9. Using the Fourier-series approach to study interactions between moving wheels and a periodically supported rail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, X.; Li, M.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, the Fourier-series approach is employed to study wheel-rail interactions generated by a single, or multiple wheels moving at a constant speed along a railway track. This approach has been previously explored by other researchers and what is presented here is an improved version. In this approach, the track is represented by an infinitely long periodic structure with the period equal to the sleeper spacing and the vertical irregular profile (roughness) of the railhead is assumed to be periodic in the track direction with the period equal to the length of a number (integer), N, of sleeper bays. By assuming linear dynamics for the wheel/track system and for steady state, each wheel/rail force is a periodic function of time and can be expressed as a Fourier series. Fourier coefficients are then shown to be determined by solving, separately, N sets of linear algebraic equations. The coefficient matrix of each set of equations is independent of rail roughness and therefore this approach is particularly useful in modelling the generation and growth of rail roughness of short wavelengths. Excitation purely from the axle loads moving over the periodic track structure is realised by assuming a smooth railhead surface, and subsequently roughness equivalent to such an excitation is defined and evaluated. This equivalent roughness may, in addition to the actual rail roughness, be input into models in which the effect of moving axle loads has been excluded, so that the predictions from those models can be improved. Results are produced using the improved Fourier-series approach to investigate the effects of wheel speeds, roughness wavelengths and interactions between multiple wheels on wheel/rail contact forces.

  10. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR242511 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 2 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-07

    HISTORICAL DATABASE REPORT HCV PLT PT RBC RETICS WBC DBA IF IF DOG BEAGLE Male CONTROL DATA MEAN 69.6 286 7.8 6.37 0.4 8.2...PERIOD IN DOGS EMI?? INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL HEMATOLOGY REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume STUDY ID: UIC-18 - SEX: HALE STUDY NO: 193 ABBR: HCV ...Corpuscular Volume STUDY ID: UIC-18 STUDY NO: 193 ABBR: HCV - SEX: FEMALE UNITS: fL Animal ID WEEK -3 WEEK -1 WEEK 4

  11. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1].

  12. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  13. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  14. Single cell contractility studies based on compact moiré system over periodic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Surks, Howard; Zhang, Xin

    2010-05-01

    Abnormal vascular cell contractile performance is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. Conventional cell force measurement technique requires individually tracking the sensing units and complex computation efforts for further studying cell contractility. We developed instead a robust and simple compact optical moiré system that measures phase changes encoded in carrier moiré patterns generated from two layers of gratings. Cell mechanics study including cell contractile forces and stress and strain distributions during normal and abnormal cell contractions can thus be conveniently analyzed. The distinct signals from moiré patterns in longitudinal and transverse directions revealed abnormal cell mechanical contractility linked to cardiovascular disease.

  15. 13-week drinking water toxicity study of hydrogen peroxide with 6-week recovery period in catalase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Freeman, C; Trochimowicz, H; de Gerlache, J; Jacobi, S; Malinverno, G; Mayr, W; Regnier, J F

    2000-07-01

    A GLP OECD guideline study was conducted to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of hydrogen peroxide (HP) when administered continuously in the drinking water of catalase-deficient (C57BL/6N) mice and reversibility of toxic effects. Groups of mice (15/sex/group) received solutions of 0, 100, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm HP in distilled water for 13 weeks; five/sex/group continued on untreated distilled water for an additional 6 weeks. Animals drinking 3000 ppm HP exhibited depressed water and food consumption and body weight. Females drinking 1000 ppm HP had reduced water consumption with intermittent effects on food consumption, but no body weight effects. HP administration did not produce any mortality, clinical signs, hematological effects or organ weight effects on brain, liver, kidneys, adrenals, testes, heart or spleen. Total protein and globulin were depressed among high dose males. Mild to minimal duodenal mucosal hyperplasia was noted in animals receiving 1000 and 3000 ppm HP and one male receiving 300 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no other histopathological findings. All effects noted during the treatment period, including the duodenal hyperplasia, were reversible during the 6-week recovery period. Females dosed with 300-3000 ppm HP during the treatment period showed increased water consumption during the recovery period. The no-observed-effect level (NOEL), based on duodenal mucosal hyperplasia, is 100 ppm in drinking water or 26 and 37 mg/kg/day HP, respectively, for males and females.

  16. An Analytical Study on Periodically Changing Flow Cells in Groundwater Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhao, K. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wan, L.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Current understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow is mainly based on Tóth's (1962, 1963) pioneering study, which assumed that water table is a subdued replica of topography and the annual mean water table controls the pattern of groundwater flow. In fact, water table is driven by dynamic forcing and changes with time. This study modifies the conceptual model of basin-scale groundwater flow by taking the fluctuating water-table into account. For both unit basin and complex basin, water table fluctuates throughout the basin cross-section except for at basin valleys. By the method of separation of variables, we derive the analytical solution of hydraulics head and stream function in the unit basin and the complex basin, and discuss the characteristics of the time-dependent flow cells. For the unit basin, the change in amplitude of hydraulic head fluctuation with depth is studied. For the complex basin, the time-dependent distribution of internal stagnation points is discussed. In addition, the relationship between flowing artesian zone and the fluctuating water-table is discussed. The results of the current study enhance our understanding on the transient nature of basin-scale groundwater flow.

  17. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  18. Evaluation and developmental studies of possible active seismic experiments during the post-Apollo period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic velocity studies pertinent to the lunar crust and mantle are briefly summarized. The compressional and shear wave velocities in loose aggregates are discussed along with the effects of temperature on seismic velocity in compacted powders. Abstracts of papers concerning the lunar structure are included.

  19. CBVE: A Study to Measure Its Effectiveness in Kentucky. Final Report. Interim Period 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Roger D.; Cobb, Robert A.

    An interim study was conducted in Kentucky to determine the effectiveness of Competency Based Vocational Education (CBVE) and to compare its effectiveness to that of traditional teaching methodologies. Research surveys of those directly involved in the implementation of CBVE were used to ascertain if CBVE is meeting its self-stated goals.…

  20. From Consciousness to Technology: The Implications of Wave Periodicity Research for Communication Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Attempting to introduce a new viewpoint to communication studies, this speculative and philosophical paper posits technology as an "echo of consciousness." Section one examines technology as a manifestation of attitude, presenting the premise that technologies, consciousness, and systems are not separate components, but products of…

  1. Pronounced reversible hyperammonemic encephalopathy associated with combined valproate-topiramate therapy in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Weise, Sebastian; Syrbe, Steffen; Preuss, Matthias; Bertsche, Astrid; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Bernhard, Matthias K

    2015-01-01

    Valproate is one of the most frequently used anticonvulsive drugs in children and adults. Valproate is a generally well tolerated medication. However, encephalopathy with or without hyperammonemia is one of its rare adverse events. We present a 7-year-old girl who suffered from epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and absence epilepsy. She was initially treated with topiramate. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy and long-term therapy with valproate were initiated due to an increase of seizure frequency. At day 5 of therapy, a further increase of seizure frequency was observed followed by lethargy and somnolence. Liver enzymes remained within normal range, but ammonia serum levels increased to a maximum of 544 mmol/l. Discontinuing valproate and starting potassium-benzoate and sodium-phenylbutyrate improved the clinical condition and ammonia serum levels. Haemodialysis was not required. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging ruled out brain edema. The patient was further on successfully treated with a combination of both, topiramate and levetiracetam. Seizures did not recur and development was normal until now (3 years later). To the best of our knowledge, we observed the highest ammonia serum levels ever reported in valproate-induced hyperammonemia with a complete remission of the subsequent encephalopathy. Topiramate might increase the risk of valproate-induced encephalopathy by carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

  2. Neuroticism Combined With Slower and More Variable Reaction Time: Synergistic Risk Factors for 7-Year Cognitive Decline in Females

    PubMed Central

    Shickle, Darren A.; Roberts, Beverly A.; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Among adults, slower and more variable reaction times are associated with worse cognitive function and increased mortality risk. Therefore, it is important to elucidate risk factors for reaction time change over the life course. Method. Data from the Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) were used to examine predictors of 7-year decline in reaction time (N = 4,260). Regression-derived factor scores were used to summarize general change across 4 reaction time variables: simple mean, 4-choice mean, simple variability, and 4-choice variability (53.52% of variance). Results. Age (B = .02, p < .001) and HALS1 baseline reaction time (B = −.10, p = .001) were significant risk factors for males (N = 1,899). In addition to these variables, in females (N = 2,361), neuroticism was significant and interacted synergistically with baseline reaction time (B = .06, p = .04). Adjustment for physiological variables explained the interaction with neuroticism, suggesting that candidate mechanisms had been identified. Discussion. A priority for future research is to replicate interactions between personality and reaction time in other samples and find specific mechanisms. Stratification of population data on cognitive health by personality and reaction time could improve strategies for identifying those at greater risk of cognitive decline. PMID:22367712

  3. Alectinib induced CNS radiation necrosis in an ALK+NSCLC patient with a remote (7 years) history of brain radiation.

    PubMed

    Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Weitz, Michael; Jalas, John R; Kelly, Daniel F; Wong, Vanessa; Azada, Michele C; Quines, Oliver; Klempner, Samuel J

    2016-06-01

    Alectinib is a second generation ALK inhibitor that has significant clinical activity in central nervous system (CNS) metastases in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pseudoprogression (PsP) due to radiation necrosis during alecitnib treatment of central nervous system (CNS) metastases from ALK-rearranged NSCLC as been reported. Hence, distinguishing radiation-related PsP from alectinib-induced radiographic changes is important to avoid erroneous early trial discontinuation and abandonment of an effective treatment. However, it remains difficult to assess casuality of radiation necrosis is related to recent direct radiation or induced by alectinib treatment or both. It is also unknown how long from previous radiation can alectinib still induce radiation necrosis. Here we reported a crizotinib-refractory ALK-positive NSCLC patient who develop radiation necrosis in one of his metastatic CNS lesions after approximately 12 months of alectinib treatment who otherwise had on-going CNS response on alectinib. His most recent radiation to his CNS metastases was 7 years prior to the start of alectinib. This case illustrates that in the setting of pror CNS radiation, given the significant clinical activity of alectinib in CNS metastases in ALK-positive NSCLC patients the risk of CNS radiation necrosis remains long after previous radiation to the CNS metastases has been completed and can occur after durable response of treatment.

  4. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  5. Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guixia; Chen, Xiaoxin; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Xingdong; Zeng, Guozhang

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 μg/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132), r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284), r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children. PMID:25419876

  6. Outcomes of polyethylene liner cementation into a fixed metal acetabular shell with minimum follow-up of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung-Sik; Yoon, Sun-Jung; Lee, Ju Rang

    2015-01-01

    Cementation of a polyethylene liner into the well-fixed shell is a convenient option for revision total hip arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed 45 patients who had liner cementation to investigate the risk factors which gave rise to major complications and reoperation. Patients were observed for a minimum of 7 years (range 7.8-14 years). Relevant risk factors (age, BMI, surgical approach, previous cup size and position, types of coated surface) were assessed with Cox regression analysis. The mean Harris Hip Score was improved from 62.5 (range 57-68) preoperatively to 87.1 (range 70-97). A total of 7 hips (15.5%) had acetabular component loosening that was treated with reoperation. Prevalence of acetabular component loosening was statistically significantly higher in hydroxyapatite-coated group (5 of 13) than in the Ti-coated group (2 of 32, p = 0.015). All recurrent dislocations occurred in patients treated with a posterior approach. Diameter of the previous metal shell of below 54 mm showed a lower 10-year survival rate than those greater than 54 mm in diameter. PE liner cementation in stable metal cup is a useful alternative option for carefully selected patients. Pre-existing HA-coated cups as well as small sized cups were indicative of poor outcomes.

  7. Anomalous parity asymmetry of WMAP 7-year power spectrum data at low multipoles: Is it cosmological or systematics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-09-01

    It is natural to assume a parity-neutral Universe and accordingly no particular parity preference in the cosmic microwave background sky. However, our investigation based on the WMAP 7-year power spectrum shows there exists a large-scale odd-parity preference with high statistical significance. We also find that the odd-parity preference in WMAP7 data is slightly higher than earlier releases. We have investigated possible origins, and ruled out various noncosmological origins. We also find that the primordial origin requires |Re[Φ(k)]|≪|Im[Φ(k)]| for k≲22/η0, where η0 is the present conformal time. In other words, it requires translational invariance in the primordial Universe to be violated on scales larger than 4Gpc. The Planck surveyor, which possesses wide frequency coverage and systematics distinct from the WMAP, may allow us to resolve the mystery of the anomalous odd-parity preference. Furthermore, polarization maps of large-sky coverage will reduce degeneracy in cosmological origins.

  8. Case-Case Analysis Using 7 Years of Travelers' Diarrhea Surveillance Data: Preventive and Travel Medicine Applications in Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Mary Carol; Tilley, Drake H; Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Villanueva, Miguel; Costa, Fernando Maldonado; Lopez, Martha; Steinberg, Hannah E; Giannina Luna, C; Meza, Rina; Silva, Maria E; Gilman, Robert H; Simons, Mark P; Maves, Ryan C; Cabada, Miguel M

    2017-02-06

    In Cusco, Peru, and South America in general, there is a dearth of travelers' diarrhea (TD) data concerning the clinical features associated with enteropathogen-specific infections and destination-specific risk behaviors. Understanding these factors would allow travel medicine providers to tailor interventions to patients' risk profiles and travel destination. To characterize TD etiology, evaluate region-specific TD risk factors, and examine relationships between preventive recommendations and risk-taking behaviors among medium- to long-term travelers' from high-income countries, we conducted this case-case analysis using 7 years of prospective surveillance data from adult travelers' presenting with TD to a physician in Cusco. At the time of enrollment, participants provided a stool sample and answered survey questions about demographics, risk behaviors, and the clinical features of illness. Stool samples were tested for norovirus (NV), bacteria, and parasites using conventional methods. Data obtained were then analyzed using case-case methods. NV (14%), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (11%), and Campylobacter (9%), notably ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter, were the most frequently identified pathogens among adults with TD. Coinfection with multiple enteropathogens occurred in 5% of cases. NV caused severe disease relative to other TD-associated pathogens identified, confining over 90% of infected individuals to bed. Destination-specific risk factors include consumption of the local beverage "chicha," which was associated with Cryptosporidium infection. Preventive interventions, such as vaccines, directed against these pathogens could significantly reduce the burden of TD.

  9. [Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies for restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement disorder].

    PubMed

    Happe, S; Paulus, W

    2006-06-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a clinical diagnosis based on the four essential criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). An idiopathic form can be separated from a symptomatic form. Neurophysiological studies have investigated the pathophysiology of the idiopathic RLS or have been used to exclude a symptomatic cause, in particular polyneuropathy. So far cortical excitability changes, corticomotor, somatosensory and auditory pathways, spinal cord excitability, B-wave rhythm and cycling alternating pattern, as well as reflex mechanisms have been investigated by electroencephalography, evoked potentials, Bereitschaftspotentials, nerve conduction and thermal threshold measurements, electromyography, transcranial Doppler sonography, measurements of the spinal flexor reflex as well as neuroimaging techniques. The etiology of the RLS cannot be revealed by these methods, neurophysiological studies in RLS are, however, useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and for exclusion of a polyneuropathy or other symptomatic causes. In addition to neurophysiological investigations, small fiber neuropathy, which seems to be a more common finding in RLS patients than expected to date, may need biopsy for confirmation. This review will focus on investigations of the different systems involved with diverse neurophysiological methods.

  10. PHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF THREE NEGLECTED SHORT-PERIOD CONTACT BINARIES GN BOOTIS, BL LEONIS, AND V1918 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.

    2013-03-15

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320({+-} 0.002) and f = 5.8({+-} 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476({+-} 0.005) and f = 21.3({+-} 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264({+-} 0.002), and f = 49.7({+-} 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O - C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q - f and q - dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  11. Energy and water balance studies of a snow cover during snowmelt period at a high arctic site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, O.; Maréchal, D.; Sand, K.; Killingtveit, Å.

    The predicted global warming is supposed to have an enhanced effect on the arctic regions. How this will influence the water, carbon dioxide and methane balances in the European arctic tundra is the objective of the EU-funded project ``Understanding Land Surface Physical Processes in the Arctic'' (LAPP), to which where SINTEF is one of several contributors. The snow cover is one of the limiting factors for these exchange processes and knowledge of how it behaves and will behave under a different climate is important. Data collected for water and energy balance studies in an area close to Ny-Ålesund at 79°N at Svalbard are the basis of this study. Measurements during the ablation periods since 1992 show an average air temperature for the periods of 2.1°C, an average incoming shorwave radiation of 230W/m2 and an average measured runoff intensity of 14mm/day with a maximum of 68mm/day. Three models of different complexity are tested in order to simulate the water and energy balance of a snow cover on the arctic tundra. The three models are: a complex numerical model (CROCUS), a simple energy balance model and a temperature index model. The simulations were carried out for the melt periods in 1992 and 1996 as these two periods represent very different meteorological conditions. The results of these simulations exposed weaknesses in all the models. The energy balance model lacks calculation of cold content in the snowpack. This influences both the outgoing longwave radiation and the timing of the melt. Due to the effect of compensating errors in the simulations, CROCUS performed better than the simple energy balance model but also this model has problems with the simulation of outgoing longwave radiation. The temperature index model does not perform well for snowmelt studies in regions were radiation is the main driving energy source for the melt.

  12. Sphenoid sinus fungall ball: a retrospective study over a 10- year period.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Ph; Grenier, J; Pirlet, A; Poirrier, A L; Stephens, J S; Rombaux, Ph

    2013-06-01

    A fungal ball consists of a dense conglomerate of fungal hyphae growing at the surface of the sinus mucosa without tissue infiltration. The maxillary sinus is by far the most commonly involved paranasal sinus cavity followed by the sphenoid sinus. The present study is a retrospective study of 25 consecutive cases treated during the last 10 years in the two hospitals be- longing to the Catholic University of Louvain (CHU Mont-Godinne and UCL Saint Luc). We report the symptomatology, the imaging and discuss the different surgical managements. We conclude that the clinician must have a high index of suspicion when dealing with a unilateral rhinosinusitis persisting despite a maximal and well conducted medical treatment. This is particularly so in elderly women when associated with facial pain and post nasal drip, particularly when the computed tomography shows an unilateral opacity of the sphenoid sinus with or without a sclerosis or an erosion of the bony walls, a polyp in the sphenoethmoidal recess or a hyperdensity mimicking a foreign body. An endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy is the treatment of choice in most cases, allowing good ventilation of the sinus and radical removal of all the fungal concretion. A biopsy of the sinus mucosa adjacent to fungal elements is of upmost important to confirm the non- invasiveness of the fungi within the tissue. Antifungal medication is not required in uncomplicated forms. All host factors producing some degree of immunosuppression must be corrected when present and must alert the clinician to rule out any forms of invasive disease.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Filho, F. E.; da Silva, J. H.; Saraiva, G. D.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Barros, O. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 108 years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  15. Physically based distributed hydrological model calibration based on a short period of streamflow data: case studies in four Chinese basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenchao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Guoqiang; Cui, Xingqi; Yu, Jingshan; Zuo, Depeng; Xu, Zongxue

    2017-01-01

    Physically based distributed hydrological models are widely used for hydrological simulations in various environments. As with conceptual models, they are limited in data-sparse basins by the lack of streamflow data for calibration. Short periods of observational data (less than 1 year) may be obtained from fragmentary historical records of previously existing gauging stations or from temporary gauging during field surveys, which might be of value for model calibration. However, unlike lumped conceptual models, such an approach has not been explored sufficiently for physically based distributed models. This study explored how the use of limited continuous daily streamflow data might support the application of a physically based distributed model in data-sparse basins. The influence of the length of the observation period on the calibration of the widely applied soil and water assessment tool model was evaluated in four Chinese basins with differing climatic and geophysical characteristics. The evaluations were conducted by comparing calibrations based on short periods of data with calibrations based on data from a 3-year period, which were treated as benchmark calibrations of the four basins, respectively. To ensure the differences in the model simulations solely come from differences in the calibration data, the generalized likelihood uncertainty analysis scheme was employed for the automatic calibration and uncertainty analysis. In the four basins, contrary to the common understanding of the need for observations over a period of several years, data records with lengths of less than 1 year were shown to calibrate the model effectively, i.e., performances similar to the benchmark calibrations were achieved. The models of the wet Jinjiang and Donghe basins could be effectively calibrated using a shorter data record (1 month), compared with the dry Heihe and upstream Yalongjiang basins (6 months). Even though the four basins are very different, when using 1-year or

  16. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  17. Visual search is postponed during the period of the AB: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lagroix, Hayley E P; Grubert, Anna; Spalek, Thomas M; Di Lollo, Vincent; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In the phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB), perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). Studies in which T2 consisted of a pop-out search array provided evidence suggesting that visual search is postponed during the AB. In the present work, we used behavioral and electrophysiological measures to test this postponement hypothesis. The behavioral measure was reaction time (RT) to T2; the electrophysiological measure was the onset latency of an ERP index of attentional selection, known as the N2pc. Consistent with the postponement hypothesis, both measures were delayed during the AB. The delay in N2pc was substantially shorter than that in RT, pointing to multiple sources of delay in the chain of processing events, as distinct from the single source postulated in current theories of the AB. Finally, the finding that the N2pc was delayed during the AB strongly suggests that attention is involved in the processing of pop-out search arrays.

  18. An Ultraviolet Study of Non-periodic Variability in Accreting Pre-Main Sequence Stars: UXors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, N. L.; Herbst, W.

    1994-05-01

    Many earlier type (K0 or hotter) pre-main sequence stars are known to occasionally and irregularly fade by as much as 2-3 magnitudes in V. Such excursions occur on timescales of ten to forty days. They include both G-type T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars. We propose UX Ori as a prototype for this class of variable stars and refer to them as UXors. We have used archival IUE spectra and a catalog of UBVRI photometry to study the variations of 5 such objects, namely: RY Lup, RY Tau, CO Ori, BF Ori, and UX Ori. The leading hypothesis for explaining their behavior is variable circumstellar obscuration. Relationships between UV spectral line fluxes and equivalent widths and V magnitude are found and displayed. Some shell features in UX Ori and BF Ori switch from absorption to emission during the minima. The equivalent width of these (emission) features [FeII(1,62,63) and MgII(1)] increases as the star fades. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the interval of 1200 to 8900 angstroms were constructed for several stars at different V magnitude light levels. A strong depression in the SED around 2200 angstroms, caused by iron lines is quite noticeable in UX Ori and BF Ori when the stars are bright. The source and location of the variable obscuring material is discussed.

  19. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    PubMed

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  20. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  1. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  2. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio) is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human. PMID:22348507

  3. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  4. Investigating predictability of in vitro toxicological assessments of cigarettes: analysis of 7 years of regulatory submissions to Canadian regulatory authorities.

    PubMed

    Belushkin, M; Piadé, J-J; Chapman, S; Fazekas, G

    2014-03-01

    A wealth of in vitro toxicological information on different types of tobaccos and tobacco products has been acquired and published, although the link between in vitro data and impact on human health remains elusive. The present study investigates the possibility of establishing quantitative models for the in vitro toxicological endpoint responses to cigarette smoke. To this end, it relies on information submitted to Canadian health authorities during the period 2006-2012. To our knowledge, this is the first time that published results concerning the influence of such factors as cigarette blend, diameter and filter type on in vitro toxicity are confirmed at the level of a representative range of products on a market. Taking these cigarette design features into account and adding a limited amount of quantitative mainstream smoke composition information, it is shown that, within the boundaries of the considered cigarette design parameters, the in vitro toxicological response can be effectively predicted. In vitro tests of tobacco products are an invaluable initial comparative product assessment tool. The present results reveal the limited value of data from repeated tests on products which do not undergo significant modifications.

  5. Decentralization of CD4 testing in resource-limited settings: 7 years of experience in six African countries.

    PubMed

    Marinucci, F; Medina-Moreno, S; Paterniti, A D; Wattleworth, M; Redfield, R R

    2011-05-01

    Improving access to CD4 testing in resource-limited settings can be achieved through both centralized and decentralized testing networks. Decentralized testing models are more suitable for countries where the HIV epidemic affects a large portion of rural populations. Timely access to accurate CD4 results is crucial at the primary level of the health system. For the past 7 years, the Institute of Human Virology of the University of Maryland School of Medicine has implemented a flexible and sustainable three-phase model: (1) site assessment and improvement, (2) appropriate technology selection with capacity building through practical training and laboratory mentoring, and (3) quality management system strengthening and monitoring, to support accessibility to reliable CD4 counting at the point of service. CD4 testing capacity was established in 122 of 229 (53%) laboratories supported in Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Among those in rural settings, 46% (69/151) had CD4 testing available at site level, with a functioning flow cytometer installed at 28% (8/29) and 50% (61/122) of level 1 and level 2 sites, respectively. To strengthen local capacity, a total of 1,152 laboratory technicians were trained through 188 training sessions provided both on-site and at central locations. The overall quality of CD4 total testing procedure was assessed at 76% (92/121) of the laboratories, with 25% (23/92), 34% (31/92), and 33% (30/92) of them reporting excellent, good, and satisfactory performance. Balancing country-specific factors with the location of the clinic, number of patients, and the expected workload, was crucial in adapting this flexible model for decentralizing CD4 testing. The close collaboration with local governments and private vendors was key to successfully expanding access to CD4 testing within the framework of HIV care and treatment programs and for the sustainability of medical laboratories in resource-limited settings.

  6. Minor neurological dysfunction, cognitive development, and somatic development at the age of 3 to 7 years after dexamethasone treatment in very-low birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, J; Tomaselli, J; Maurer, U; Mueller, W; Urlesberger, B

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess minor neurological dysfunction, cognitive development, and somatic development after dexamethasone therapy in very-low-birthweight infants. Thirty-three children after dexamethasone treatment were matched to 33 children without dexamethasone treatment. Data were assessed at the age of 3-7 years. Dexamethasone was started between the 7th and the 28th day of life over 7 days with a total dose of 2.35 mg/kg/day. Exclusion criteria were asphyxia, malformations, major surgical interventions, small for gestational age, intraventricular haemorrhage grades III and IV, periventricular leukomalacia, and severe psychomotor retardation. Each child was examined by a neuropediatrician for minor neurological dysfunctions and tested by a psychologist for cognitive development with a Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and a Draw-a-Man Test. There were no differences in demographic data, growth, and socio-economic status between the two groups. Fine motor skills and gross motor function were significantly better in the control group (p<0.01). In the Draw-a-Man Test, the control group showed better results (p<0.001). There were no differences in development of speech, social development, and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. After dexamethasone treatment, children showed a higher rate of minor neurological dysfunctions. Neurological development was affected even without neurological diagnosis. Further long-term follow-up studies will be necessary to fully evaluate the impact of dexamethasone on neurological and cognitive development.

  7. Changes in body-site distribution of common melanocytic naevi among 7-year-old Swedish children between 2002 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maria A; Lindelöf, Bernt; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Rodvall, Ylva; Wiklund, Kerstin

    2015-09-01

    An observational population-based study conducted among 2 sets of 7-year-old children in Sweden in 2002 and 2007 revealed evidence of improved sun protection, also reflected in a significant reduction in the total number of melanocytic naevi. Based on these data-sets, the aim of the current study was to determine whether the overall reduction in naevi had impacted differently on body sites based on their main pattern of sun exposure. In 2002, median naevi counts/m2 were highest on intermittently sun-exposed sites: 13.8 (95% CI 8.0-22.7) compared with chronically sun-exposed sites: 11.0 (95% CI 0.0-20.5). In 2007, median naevi counts/m2 on intermittently sun-exposed body sites were significantly lower: 8.7 (95% CI 4.7-15.2), p < 0.0001, while on chronically exposed sites median naevi counts/m2 were unaltered: 10.3 (95% CI 0.0-14.4), p = 0.9313. Changes were most evident among boys. Future research can evaluate whether this shift in naevi distribution in Swedish children translates into a reduction in cutaneous melanomas on intermittently sun-exposed body sites.

  8. A Study of the X-ray Periodicities in the Remarkable Transient Source Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Falcone, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Swift J1644+57 was discovered when it exhibited bright X-ray activity that was believed to be triggered from the infall of a tidally disrupted star near a massive black hole. The observation of a tidal disruption event (TDE) can provide clues to the geometry and physics near the black hole. If a jet forms, as we think happened with Swift J1644+57, it can provide data to study jet creation and the density of matter in a possible accretion disc. We have analyzed Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of Swift J1644+57 from initial onset to 502 days after TDE onset. We used a Z-transform Discrete Correlation Function (ZDCF) to search for periodicities in the Swift X-ray light curve. We analyzed the X-ray light curve in five time regions, including 0 to 4.5 days after TDE onset, 4.5 to 55 days after TDE onset, 55 to 104 days after TDE onset, 104 to 145 days after TDE onset, and 145 to 502 days after TDE onset. After implementing red and white noise reduction modeling to our ZDCF analysis, we found plausible detections of periodicities. We briefly discuss implications of these periods on the geometry and feeding of the tidal disruption event.

  9. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period Solar Type Near-Contact W UMa Binary, FF Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Van Hamme, Walter V.

    2016-01-01

    High precision BVRcIc light curves of FF Vul were observed during the Fall, 2015 season at the Dark Sky Observatory 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University, and the SARA North 0.91-m reflector at KPNO. It is an eclipsing binary with a period of only 0.444983 (2) d. This is the shortest period of our recently studied Pre Contact W UMa Binary (PCWB's), V2421 Cyg, V1043 Cas, ZZ Eri, V500 Peg, and Mis V1287. Our Binary Maker fits and our Wilson-Devinney solution show that the binary is a near-contact, semidetached binary, i.e., a V1010 Oph type configuration (the more massive component has filled its critical lobe while the secondary component is under-filling). Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457285.7262 ±0.0002, 2457306.6425 ±0.0002, 2457310.6469 ±0.0002HJD II = 2457279.7222 ±0.0006, 2457280.6124 ±0.0017.The following quadratic ephemerides was determined from all available times of minimum light:JDHelMinI=2457310.6473±0.0007d + 0.4449758±0.0000002 X E -0.00000000006± 0.00000000001 X E2The continuous 20 year period study reveals a period decrease in the orbital period at about the 6 sigma level. Our modeling shows a near-equatorial hot spot on the following side of the secondary component. This is probably due to a matter transfer onto the secondary component. The light curve has a large difference in primary and secondary amplitudes and the light curve solution gives a component temperature difference of more than 1500 K. The solution shows a total secondary eclipse of 23 minutes duration. As expected in binaries of this type, it has a cool spot region on its primary component.

  10. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  11. A 35-month prospective study on onset of scabies in a psychiatric hospital: discussion on patient transfer and incubation period.

    PubMed

    Makigami, Kuniko; Ohtaki, Noriko; Yasumura, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of scabies introduction into a hospital. We addressed the following question: Do patients transferred from other institutions pose a higher risk than patients from the community? From July 2003 to May 2006, a trained physician surveyed the inpatients and staff of a psychiatric hospital (six wards, 300 beds) on a monthly basis. During the study period, specific infection control measures beyond standard precautions, such as prophylactic treatment, were not adopted. There were 333 newly-admitted patients during the study period and among them, 122 were transferred from other institutions. Seven patients were diagnosed with scabies. Two of these patients were infected while in the hospital (secondary infection), thus the number of introduced scabies cases (index cases) was five. Four of the index cases were transferred from other institutions (three from psychiatric hospitals and one from a nursing home). The source of infection for one index case was unexplained. The rate of scabies infection among transferred patients was 3.3% while the infection rate among patients from the community was 0.5%. Therefore, transferred patients pose a higher risk than those from the community. The average time from admission to diagnosis of scabies was 141 days (range 34-313 days). The hospital personnel checked the skin condition of all patients at admission and none of the four patients showed symptoms of scabies.

  12. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutter, D J L G; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with DBD (with and without ADHD) (n = 67) and with ADHD only (n = 27) were compared to typically developing children (TD) (n = 37). Parents and teachers rated affective empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Children reported affective empathic ability in response to sad story vignettes. Empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress was assessed with a computer task, the Interpersonal Response Task (IRT). Compared to TD, children with DBD (with and without ADHD) and those with ADHD only were rated as less empathic by their teachers, but not by their parents. No differences between groups were observed in children who reported affect correspondence. Children with DBD (with and without ADHD) showed less prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress compared to TD. Children with ADHD only did not differ from TD. An additional analysis comparing all children with a diagnosis to the TD group revealed that the difference in prosocial behavior remained after controlling for ADHD symptoms, but not after controlling for DBD symptoms. These findings of impaired empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in young children with DBD suggest that interventions to ameliorate peer relationships may benefit from targeting on increasing prosocial behavior in these children.

  13. The International Geophysical Month: Short periods of cooperative study can consolidate the gains of the International Geophysical Year.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, R A; Martin, L H

    1961-12-01

    For convenience, we summarize below some of the main advantages of the IGM concept. 1) Most organizations can mount and support intensive field operations for short periods. 2) High-quality data would be obtained, and the data could be processed more promptly than in long-term projects. 3) Laboratory equipment could in many instances be mnade available for field operations. 4) Top-caliber researchers would be available for field operations. 5) The participation of small research groups and of research workers from government and industry would be fostered. 6) Student participation would improve educational programs in, and attract needed talent to, the geophysical sciences. 7) Ship, satellite, and rocket observations could be scheduled for IGM's. 8) International scientific conferences scheduled to follow IGM's would attract working scientists. It is not suggested that these short-term exercises should replace the long synoptic programs characteristic of the IGY. Rather it is proposed that they supplement and guide any such future long-term program. If adopted, they would produce many data of value for the planning and timing of the International Year of the Quiet Sun. To bring emphasis on special observations during the IQSY, International Geophysical Months might well be scheduled to coincide with the June and December solstices, to be followed by an IGM at an equinoctial period. This would provide periods for concentrated sampling-periods in somewhat the same category as the Regular World Intervals adopted during the IGY. The more elaborate experiments could be confined to the International Geophysical Months, so that only those studies for which continuous observations are essential would be scheduled for the entire period. The duration of an International Geophysical Month would be sufficient for carrying out experiments requiring moving platforms such as ships, rockets, or satellites. It is recommended that every effort be made to schedule the first IGM

  14. Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of γ Doradus stars: methodology and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as γ Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims: We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods: Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of γ Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results: The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions: Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for γ Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars. Based on data gathered with the NASA Discovery mission Kepler and the HERMES spectrograph, which is installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la

  15. Patterns of nonfatal heroin overdose over a 3-year period: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Mills, Katherine L; Havard, Alys; Teesson, Maree

    2007-03-01

    To determine annual patterns and correlates of nonfatal heroin overdose across 3 years, data were analyzed on 387 heroin users recruited for the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), interviewed at 12, 24, and 36 months. A heroin overdose across follow-up was reported by 18.6%, and naloxone had been administered to 11.9%. Annual rates of overdose declined between baseline and 12 months and then remained stable. Previous overdose experience was strongly related to subsequent overdose. Those with a history of overdose before ATOS were significantly more likely to overdose during the study period. In particular, there was a strong association between overdose experience in any 1 year and increased overdose risk in the subsequent year. This is the first study to examine long-term annual trends in nonfatal heroin overdose. While overdose rates declined after extensive treatment, substantial proportions continued to overdose in each year, and this was strongly associated with overdose history.

  16. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2012-05-01

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ≈ oyster ≥ mud shrimp ≈ eelgrass > sand ≈ ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

  17. Choice of fluid therapy in patients of craniopharyngioma in the perioperative period: A hospital-based preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, K. K.; Dutta, Pinaki; Singh, Apinderpreet; Gupta, Prakamya; Srinivasan, Anand; Bhagat, Hemant; Mathuriya, S. N.; Shah, Viral N.; Bhansali, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Electrolyte imbalance and acute diabetes insipidus (DI) are the most common complications in patients undergoing craniopharyngioma surgery. Improper management of water and electrolyte imbalance is common cause of morbidity and mortality. Data is sparse and controversial regarding the choice of fluid therapy in this population during perioperative period. Methods: In this retrospective-prospective study involving 73 patients (58 retrospective), the type of fluid therapy was correlated with occurrence of hypernatremia, hyponatremia, DI, morbidity, and mortality. In the retrospective study, 48 patients received normal saline and 10 received mixed fluids as per the prevailing practice. In the prospective group, five patients each received normal saline, half normal saline, and 5% dextrose randomly. Results: The sodium values were significantly higher in first 48 h in the group that received normal saline compared with other groups (P < 0.001). The use of normal saline was associated with higher incidence of hypernatremia, DI, and mortality (P = 0.05), while the group that received 5% dextrose was associated with hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and seizures. There was no perioperative hypotension with use of any of the fluids. Conclusion: Our results indicate half normal saline was fluid of choice with diminished incidence of water and electrolyte abnormalities without increase in mortality during postoperative period. PMID:25101200

  18. Solubility of Two Root-End Filling Materials over Different Time Periods in Synthetic Tissue Fluid: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Sahebi, Safoora; Karami, Elahe; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Insolubility is an important criterion for an ideal root-end filling material to both prevent any microleakage between the root canal and the periradicular space and provide sealing ability. Purpose Many recent studies have shown that mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) have acceptable sealing ability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the solubility of these root-end filling materials. Materials and Method Forty stainless steel ring moulds with an internal diameter of 10±1 mm and a height of 2±0.1 mm were selected. Samples of MTA and CEM were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and inserted into the moulds. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups and kept in synthetic tissue fluid (STF) for 2 different time periods (7 and 28 days). The control group contained 8 empty rings. The moulds’ weights were recorded before and after immersion in STF. The changes in the weight of the samples were measured and compared using a two- way ANOVA test at a significance level of 5%. Specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at a magnification of 500×. Results There was no significant difference in weight changes between MTA and CEM samples (p> 0.05). Conclusion MTA and CEM have similar solubility in STF in different time periods. PMID:26331148

  19. 13-week inhalation toxicity study (including 6- and 13-week recovery periods) with ammonium persulfate dust in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Signorin, J; Ulrich, C E; Butt, M T; D'Amato, E A

    2001-11-01

    The subchronic inhalation toxicity of ammonium persulfate was characterized using Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) at respirable dust concentrations of 0, 5.0, 10.3, and 25 mg/m(3). Whole-body exposures were conducted 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk. Gravimetric airborne test material samples were taken daily and particle size samples were taken weekly from each exposure chamber for analysis. Ten animals/sex/group were necropsied after 13 wk of exposure, and 5 animals/sex/group were held for 6- and 13-wk recovery periods. Animals were observed for clinical signs. Effects on body weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry and hematology, ophthalmologic parameters, organ weights, gross lesions, and histopathology were evaluated. There were no exposure-related deaths during the study. Rales and increased respiration rate were noted in both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group, and in a few animals in the 10.3 mg/m(3) group. The incidence of these clinical signs decreased to zero during the first few weeks of the recovery period. Body weights for both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group were significantly depressed during most of the exposure period compared to the control group. By the end of the recovery period, body weights for the exposed animals were similar to the control group values. Lung weights were elevated in the 25 mg/m(3) group after 13 wk of exposure, but were similar to controls at 6 wk postexposure. Irritation of the trachea and bronchi/bronchiole was noted microscopically after 13 wk of exposure to 25 mg/m(3). These lesions had recovered by 6 wk postexposure. Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 10.3 mg/m(3), while the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for exposure of rats to a dust aerosol of ammonium persulfate was 5.0 mg/m(3).

  20. Brownian dynamics studies on DNA gel electrophoresis. I. Numerical method and ``periodic'' behavior of elongation-contraction motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Ryuzo; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-10-01

    The dynamics of a DNA molecule which is undergoing constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) is studied by a Brownian dynamics simulation method we have developed. In the method a DNA molecule is modeled as a chain of spherical electrolyte beads and the gel as a three-dimensional array of immobile beads. With the constraint for the separation of each pair of bonded beads to be less than a certain fixed value, as well as with the excluded volume effect, the simultaneous Langevin equations of motion for the beads are solved by means of the Lagrangian multiplier method. The resultant mobilities μ as a function of electric field coincide satisfactorily with the corresponding experimental results, once the time, the length, and the field of the simulation are properly scaled. In relatively strong fields "periodic" behavior is found in the chain dynamics and is examined through the time evolution of the radius of the longer principal axis, Rl(t). It is found that the mean width of a peak in Rl(t), or a period of one elongation-contraction process of the chain, is proportional to the number of beads in the chain, M, while the mean period between two such adjacent peaks is independent of M for large M. These results, combined with the observation that the chain moves to the field direction by the distance proportional to M in each elongation-contraction motion, yield the saturation of mobility for large M. This explains the reason that CFGE cannot separate DNA according to their size L(∝M) for large L.

  1. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period.

  2. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  3. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  4. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m-3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east), intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-east) and clean period (PM1~2 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-west/north). The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in PM0.2-1 samples were 1) soot and 2) (ammonium)sulphates and their mixtures with variable amounts of C, K, soot and/or other inclusions. Number proportions of those two particle groups in PM0.2-1 samples were 0-12% and 83-97%, respectively. During the pollution episode, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-). During the intermediate period, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest

  5. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact eclipsing binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei

    2016-05-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of - 5.1(± 0.4) × 10-7 days/year. We assume this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm / dt = 7.06 ×10-7M⊙ /year . By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. In the future, its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  6. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact Eclipsing Binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Hongpeng, Lu; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of -5.1(±0.4)×10-7 days/year. We believe this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm/dt = 7.06×10-7M⊙/year. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. Its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  7. Light trapping efficiency of periodic and quasiperiodic back-reflectors for thin film solar cells: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micco, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Pisco, M.; La Ferrara, V.; Mercaldo, L. V.; Delli Veneri, P.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2013-08-01

    Recently, great efforts have been carried out to design optimized metallic nano-grating back-reflectors to improve the light absorption in thin film solar cells. In this work, we compare the performances of deterministic aperiodic backreflectors in the form of 1-D nanogratings based on the generalized Fibonacci deterministic aperiodic sequence with a standard periodic one. The case of study here analyzed relies on a realistic solar cell model, where light absorption is evaluated only in the intrinsic region of an amorphous silicon P-I-N junction. We found that the results of comparison are strongly influenced by the amorphous silicon extinction coefficient within the near-infrared wavelength range, where most photonic-plasmonic modes (responsible for the light absorption enhancement typically observed when structured metal nanogratings are employed) are excited. In particular, with device-grade hydrogenated amorphous silicon, we demonstrate that Fibonacci-like backreflectors are able to provide an absorption enhancement of about 4% and 20% with respect to periodic and flat metallic backreflectors, respectively. We also found that aperiodic gratings guarantee better results in terms of robustness to the incident angle of the incoming radiation. Overall, our results confirm that aperiodic geometries are effectively able to offer some intriguing perspectives to enhance light trapping capability in thin film solar cells especially thanks to the large set of patterns employable to enable a proper design of resonant modes number and their spectral locations.

  8. Recurrence rates of bipolar disorder during the postpartum period: a study on 276 medication-free Italian women.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giuseppe; Rosso, Gianluca; Aguglia, Andrea; Bogetto, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    The postpartum period is considered a time of heightened vulnerability to bipolar disorder. The primary goal of this study was to examine the frequency and the polarity of postpartum episodes in a clinical sample of women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. In addition, we sought to examine whether there are differences in terms of clinical features of bipolar disorder between women with and without postpartum episodes. Lastly, we analyzed the potential relationship between polarity of the postpartum episodes and clinical features of bipolar disorder. The presence/absence of postpartum episodes and their characteristics were obtained from medical records of 276 women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. Two hundred seven women (75.0 %) had a history of one or more postpartum mood episodes: depressive (79.7 %), (hypo)manic (16.4 %), or mixed episodes (3.9 %). Psychotic symptoms during postpartum episodes were associated with depression in 37 (22.4 %) patients, with mania in 19 (67.8 %) patients, and with mixed episodes in 7 (87.5 %) patients. Postpartum manic and mixed episodes were significantly associated with type I disorder and with psychotic features. Our findings indicate high risk of clinically ascertained mood episodes during postpartum period in bipolar women who are not treated during pregnancy.

  9. Health-Related Physical Fitness, BMI, physical activity and time spent at a computer screen in 6 and 7-year-old children from rural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Elżbieta; Mleczko, Edward; Bergier, Józef; Markowska, Małgorzata; Nowak-Starz, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of the effect of various forms of physical activity, BMI, and time devoted to computer games on the level of Health-Related Physical Fitness (H-RF) in 6-7-year-old children from Polish rural areas. The study covered 25,816 children aged 6-7: 12,693 girls and 13,123 boys. The evaluations included body height and weight, and 4 H-RF fitness components (trunk strength, explosive leg power, arm strength and flexibility). The BMI was calculated for each child. The Questionnaire directed to parents was designed to collect information concerning the time devoted by children to computer games, spontaneous and additional physical activity. The strength of the relationships between dependent and independent variables was determined using the Spearman's rank correlation (RSp), and the relationship by using the regression analysis. The BMI negatively affected the level of all the H-RF components analysed (p=0.000). The negative effect of computer games revealed itself only with respect to flexibility (p=0.000), explosive leg power (p=0.000) and trunk muscle strength (p=0.000). A positive effect of spontaneous activity was observed for flexibility (p=0.047), explosive leg power (p=0.000), and arm strength (p=0.000). Additional activity showed a positive relationship with trunk muscles strength (p=0.000), and explosive leg power (p=0.000). The results of studies suggest that it is necessary to pay attention to the prevention of diseases related with the risk of obesity and overweight among Polish rural children as early as at pre-school age. There is also a need during education for shaping in these children the awareness of concern about own body, and the need for active participation in various forms of physical activity.

  10. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  11. Determination of Normal Ranges of Shock Index and Other Haemodynamic Variables in the Immediate Postpartum Period: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Hannah L.; Cottam, Kate; Hezelgrave, Natasha L.; Seed, Paul T.; Briley, Annette; Bewley, Susan; Chappell, Lucy C.; Shennan, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the normal ranges of vital signs, including blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and shock index (SI) (HR/systolic BP), in the immediate postpartum period to inform the development of robust obstetric early warning scores. Study Design We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study evaluating vital signs collected within one hour following delivery in women with estimated blood loss (EBL) <500ml (316 women) delivering at a UK tertiary centre over a one-year period. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to explore associations of demographic and obstetric factors with SI. Results Median (90% reference range) was 120 (100–145) for systolic BP, 75 (58–90) for diastolic BP, 90 (73–108) for MAP, 81 (61–102) for HR, and 0.66 (0.52–0.89) for SI. Third stage Syntometrine® administration was associated with a 0.03 decrease in SI (p = 0.035) and epidural use with a 0.05 increase (p = 0.003). No other demographic or obstetric factors were associated with a change in shock index in this cohort. Conclusion This is the first study to determine normal ranges of maternal BP, MAP, HR and SI within one hour of birth, a time of considerable haemodynamic adjustment, with minimal effect of demographic and obstetric factors demonstrated. The lower 90% reference point for systolic BP and upper 90% reference point for HR correspond to triggers used to recognise shock in obstetric practice, as do the upper 90% reference points for systolic and diastolic BP for obstetric hypertensive triggers. The SI upper limit of 0.89 in well postpartum women supports current literature suggesting a threshold of 0.9 as indicating increased risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27997586

  12. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Joyful and serious intentions in the work of hospital clowns: A meta-analysis based on a 7-year research project conducted in three parts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The present meta-analysis focuses on a 7-year research project entitled “Hospital clowns—in encounters with ailing children” and funded by the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. The aim of the meta-analysis, which is based on the project's three studies, was to attempt to achieve a deeper psychological and more nuanced understanding of the unique encounters taking place between the hospital clowns and ailing children in the study. The methodological procedures were qualitative and included 51 interviews with four informant groups: the clowns, staff, children, and their parents. The meta-analysis revealed the unique aspects of hospital clowns’ work with respect to: a) a quality of care that transcends boundaries, that is, a magical safe area where demands and adjustment were temporarily set aside and where the lighter side of life took precedence; b) a non-demanding quality of care, where joy could be experienced without requiring something in return, where the child's terms mattered and where the child perspective was clearly in focus; and c) a defusing quality of care, which is expressed as a positive counterweight that was otherwise lacking in medical care, where the hospital clowns used different solutions that bypassed regular hospital routines by temporarily distracting and making things easier for the children, parents, and staff in various care situations. Finally, the aim of the theoretical framework, in its synthesizing form, was to promote further psychological understanding of the area of humor that exists between fantasy and reality—an intermediate or transitional area that the hospital clowns created together with the children. In this transitional area, the hospital clowns’ unique contribution can be interpreted, in psychological terms, as being available as a vicarious therapeutic clown figure in a magical world that parallels reality. PMID:23336988

  14. Growing trees in child brains: graph theoretical analysis of electroencephalography-derived minimum spanning tree in 5- and 7-year-old children reflects brain maturation.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Maria; Smit, Dirk J A; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco J C; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Stam, Cornelis J

    2013-01-01

    The child brain is a small-world network, which is hypothesized to change toward more ordered configurations with development. In graph theoretical studies, comparing network topologies under different conditions remains a critical point. Constructing a minimum spanning tree (MST) might present a solution, since it does not require setting a threshold and uses a fixed number of nodes and edges. In this study, the MST method is introduced to examine developmental changes in functional brain network topology in young children. Resting-state electroencephalography was recorded from 227 children twice at 5 and 7 years of age. Synchronization likelihood (SL) weighted matrices were calculated in three different frequency bands from which MSTs were constructed, which represent constructs of the most important routes for information flow in a network. From these trees, several parameters were calculated to characterize developmental change in network organization. The MST diameter and eccentricity significantly increased, while the leaf number and hierarchy significantly decreased in the alpha band with development. Boys showed significant higher leaf number, betweenness, degree and hierarchy and significant lower SL, diameter, and eccentricity than girls in the theta band. The developmental changes indicate a shift toward more decentralized line-like trees, which supports the previously hypothesized increase toward regularity of brain networks with development. Additionally, girls showed more line-like decentralized configurations, which is consistent with the view that girls are ahead of boys in brain development. MST provides an elegant method sensitive to capture subtle developmental changes in network organization without the bias of network comparison.

  15. Joyful and serious intentions in the work of hospital clowns: A meta-analysis based on a 7-year research project conducted in three parts.

    PubMed

    Linge, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    The present meta-analysis focuses on a 7-year research project entitled "Hospital clowns-in encounters with ailing children" and funded by the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. The aim of the meta-analysis, which is based on the project's three studies, was to attempt to achieve a deeper psychological and more nuanced understanding of the unique encounters taking place between the hospital clowns and ailing children in the study. The methodological procedures were qualitative and included 51 interviews with four informant groups: the clowns, staff, children, and their parents. The meta-analysis revealed the unique aspects of hospital clowns' work with respect to: a) a quality of care that transcends boundaries, that is, a magical safe area where demands and adjustment were temporarily set aside and where the lighter side of life took precedence; b) a non-demanding quality of care, where joy could be experienced without requiring something in return, where the child's terms mattered and where the child perspective was clearly in focus; and c) a defusing quality of care, which is expressed as a positive counterweight that was otherwise lacking in medical care, where the hospital clowns used different solutions that bypassed regular hospital routines by temporarily distracting and making things easier for the children, parents, and staff in various care situations. Finally, the aim of the theoretical framework, in its synthesizing form, was to promote further psychological understanding of the area of humor that exists between fantasy and reality-an intermediate or transitional area that the hospital clowns created together with the children. In this transitional area, the hospital clowns' unique contribution can be interpreted, in psychological terms, as being available as a vicarious therapeutic clown figure in a magical world that parallels reality.

  16. Joyful and serious intentions in the work of hospital clowns: a meta-analysis based on a 7-year research project conducted in three parts.

    PubMed

    Linge, Lotta

    2013-01-04

    The present meta-analysis focuses on a 7-year research project entitled "Hospital clowns-in encounters with ailing children" and funded by the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. The aim of the meta-analysis, which is based on the project's three studies, was to attempt to achieve a deeper psychological and more nuanced understanding of the unique encounters taking place between the hospital clowns and ailing children in the study. The methodological procedures were qualitative and included 51 interviews with four informant groups: the clowns, staff, children, and their parents. The meta-analysis revealed the unique aspects of hospital clowns' work with respect to: a) a quality of care that transcends boundaries, that is, a magical safe area where demands and adjustment were temporarily set aside and where the lighter side of life took precedence; b) a non-demanding quality of care, where joy could be experienced without requiring something in return, where the child's terms mattered and where the child perspective was clearly in focus; and c) a defusing quality of care, which is expressed as a positive counterweight that was otherwise lacking in medical care, where the hospital clowns used different solutions that bypassed regular hospital routines by temporarily distracting and making things easier for the children, parents, and staff in various care situations. Finally, the aim of the theoretical framework, in its synthesizing form, was to promote further psychological understanding of the area of humor that exists between fantasy and reality-an intermediate or transitional area that the hospital clowns created together with the children. In this transitional area, the hospital clowns' unique contribution can be interpreted, in psychological terms, as being available as a vicarious therapeutic clown figure in a magical world that parallels reality.

  17. Periodic density functional theory investigation of the uranyl ion sorption on three mineral surfaces: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Roques, Jérôme; Veilly, Edouard; Simoni, Eric

    2009-06-04

    Canister integrity and radionuclides retention is of prime importance for assessing the long term safety of nuclear waste stored in engineered geologic depositories. A comparative investigation of the interaction of uranyl ion with three different mineral surfaces has thus been undertaken in order to point out the influence of surface composition on the adsorption mechanism(s). Periodic DFT calculations using plane waves basis sets with the GGA formalism were performed on the TiO(2)(110), Al(OH)(3)(001) and Ni(111) surfaces. This study has clearly shown that three parameters play an important role in the uranyl adsorption mechanism: the solvent (H(2)O) distribution at the interface, the nature of the adsorption site and finally, the surface atoms' protonation state.

  18. Numerical study of the tight-binding approach to overdamped Brownian motion on a tilted periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the tight-binding approach to overdamped Brownian motion on a tilted periodic potential. In the tight-binding method the probability density is expanded on a basis of Wannier states to transform the Smoluchowski equation to a discrete master equation that can be interpreted in terms of thermal hopping between potential minima. We calculate the Wannier states and hopping rates for a variety of potentials, including tilted cosine and ratchet potentials. For deep potential minima the Wannier states are well localized and the hopping rates between nearest-neighbor states are qualitatively well described by Kramers' escape rate. The next-nearest-neighbor hopping rates are negative and must be negligible compared to the nearest-neighbor rates for the discrete master equation treatment to be valid. We find that the validity of the master equation extends beyond the quantitative applicability of Kramers' escape rate.

  19. Deep Long-period Seismicity Beneath the Executive Committee Range, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, Studied Using Subspace Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aster, R. C.; McMahon, N. D.; Myers, E. K.; Lough, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Lough et al. (2014) first detected deep sub-icecap magmatic events beneath the Executive Committee Range volcanoes of Marie Byrd Land. Here, we extend the identification and analysis of these events in space and time utilizing subspace detection. Subspace detectors provide a highly effective methodology for studying events within seismic swarms that have similar moment tensor and Green's function characteristics and are particularly effective for identifying low signal-to-noise events. Marie Byrd Land (MBL) is an extremely remote continental region that is nearly completely covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The southern extent of Marie Byrd Land lies within the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), which includes the volcanic Executive Committee Range (ECR). The ECR shows north-to-south progression of volcanism across the WARS during the Holocene. In 2013, the POLENET/ANET seismic data identified two swarms of seismic activity in 2010 and 2011. These events have been interpreted as deep, long-period (DLP) earthquakes based on depth (25-40 km) and low frequency content. The DLP events in MBL lie beneath an inferred sub-WAIS volcanic edifice imaged with ice penetrating radar and have been interpreted as a present location of magmatic intrusion. The magmatic swarm activity in MBL provides a promising target for advanced subspace detection and temporal, spatial, and event size analysis of an extensive deep long period earthquake swarm using a remote seismographic network. We utilized a catalog of 1,370 traditionally identified DLP events to construct subspace detectors for the six nearest stations and analyzed two years of data spanning 2010-2011. Association of these detections into events resulted in an approximate ten-fold increase in number of locatable earthquakes. In addition to the two previously identified swarms during early 2010 and early 2011, we find sustained activity throughout the two years of study that includes several previously

  20. Effect of red chili consumption on postoperative symptoms during the post-hemorrhoidectomy period: randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there was any relation between consumption of chilies and postoperative symptoms after hemorrhoidectomy in patients with grade III or IV hemorrhoidal disease. A total of 60 patients were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics and analgesics alone (control patients) or daily consumption of 3 g of chili powder along with identical antibiotics and analgesics (chili group). The evaluation of symptoms-pain, anal burning, pruritus, bleeding-during the postoperative period was assessed by means of patients' self-questionnaires. A global score for evaluating each postoperative symptom was compared between the two groups at the 1-week follow-up. No significant difference in age, sex distribution, or grade of disease was noted between the two groups at baseline. The incidence of post-hemorrhoidectomy symptoms was higher in the group consuming chilies during the first postoperative week. The global score for postoperative pain (14.60 for the chili group vs. 7.97 for the control group, p < 0.001) and for anal burning (12.90 for the chili group vs. 7.82 for the control group, p < 0.0001) were significant. Although bleeding (6.95 in the control group and 7.57 in the chili group, p < 0.81) and pruritus (8.06 in the control group and 8.75 in the chili group, p < 0.69) were more common in the chili group, the difference did not achieve statistical significance. This study shows that consumption of 3 g of red chilies per day during the postoperative period after hemorrhoidectomy increases the intensity of typical postoperative symptoms, stool frequency, and the consumption of analgesics.

  1. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6). The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk) travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51), with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo). All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them. PMID:17897449

  2. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  3. Study of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms with solar wind parameters during the period 1998-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharayat, Hema; Prasad, Lalan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of solar wind parameters (solar wind speed V, plasma flow pressure, and plasma density) on cosmic ray intensity and on geomagnetic storms for the period 1998-2005 (solar cycle 23). A Chree analysis by the superposed epoch method has been done for the study. From the present study we have found that the solar wind speed is a highly effective parameter in producing cosmic ray intensity decreases and geomagnetic storms. No time lag is found between cosmic ray intensity decreases, geomagnetic storms, and peak value of solar wind speed. Further, we have found that the plasma flow pressure is effectively correlated with geomagnetic storms but it is weakly correlated with cosmic ray intensity. The cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms are found to be weakly correlated with plasma density. The decrease in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms takes place one day after the peak values of plasma flow pressure and plasma density. There is a time lag of one day between solar wind parameters (plasma flow pressure and plasma density) and cosmic ray intensity decrease, geomagnetic storms. Also, we have found a high correlation of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms with the product of interplanetary magnetic field B and solar wind speed V i.e. B\\cdot V. This study may be useful in predicting the space-weather phenomena.

  4. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Watson, Hunna J; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  5. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hunna J.; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H.; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating. PMID:27110061

  6. Clinical learning environments for student nurses: key indices from two studies compared over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Lewin, David

    2007-07-01

    In 1978, a longitudinal study commenced in England to illuminate criteria for the evaluation of hospital wards as clinical learning environments for student nurses. It derived measures to quantify the clinical learning experienced by 71 students in three cohorts in three training hospitals over their entire programme. In 2003, a second study, based in one English School of Health Studies, using clinical placements in three NHS trusts, employed a retrospective, cross-sectional, analytic survey design with anonymised, self-completion questionnaires, to map the clinical learning of 272 students as part of a quality assurance and enhancement initiative. This paper explores changes over time by comparing data based on five key indices, devised in the first study and revisited in the second. Concepts of clinical learning and supervision are reviewed as part of this changing context and background together with limitations implicit in the comparison. The findings suggest an average 20% improvement in the quality of hospital based clinical learning environments over a 25 year period, based mainly on trained staff personally supervising students more extensively, testing their theoretical knowledge more frequently and spending more time performing practical procedures with them. However, unacceptable variations in clinical learning opportunities persist for some students.

  7. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patricia; Price, Larry R.; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Nichols, Francine

    2017-01-01

    Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N = 33), within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9) in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N = 33) reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n = 25) reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed. PMID:28191350

  8. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  9. Synovial chondromatosis of the right side temporomandibular joint extending to the middle cranial fossa: A case report with 7-year postoperative follow up and expression of a biomarker of cell proliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitake, Hiroyuki; Kayamori, Kou; Wake, So; Sato, Fumiaki; Kino, Koji; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with cranial extension is rare. Here, we report 7-year follow-up of a case with immunohistochemical examination of cell proliferative activity. Presentation of case The patient was a 72-year-old man. Severe bone resorption of the glenoid fossa was apparent on CT images. Pathological findings by biopsy led to diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis of the right side TMJ. Extirpation of the tumor was performed via temporopreauricular incision under general anesthesia. PCNA expression was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The lesion had penetrated into the middle cranial fossa, but the cranial dura mater was intact. Expression of PCNA was confirmed. Discussion The PCNA expression suggested that growth activity caused expansion of the lesion to the skull base. Conclusion We were able to follow up this case for a long period without recurrence postoperatively. PMID:26855075

  10. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  11. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  12. Superintendent Communication Strategies and Experiences That Promote Trust and Positive Relationships with the School Board during the Entry Period: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Superintendents have vast demands placed upon them by their school boards and via the political pipeline. The purpose of the study was to identify strategies/behaviors that successful superintendents used to build strong relationships and trust with their school boards within their entry period. It is during the entry period that determines…

  13. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  14. Psychological Analysis of Oral Cancer Patients during Pre-operative Period in South Indian Population: A Prospective, Quantitative, Multicentre Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamatchinathan, Prabhusankar; Muthuraman, Varun; Antharaju, Yuvaraj; Kumar, Mahendra; Varadharajan, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral cancer is prevalent worldwide with high incidence of mortality and morbidity. It is associated with poor prognosis and low survival rate. Moreover, patients affected are more likely to develop psychological issues and thus, addressing psychological needs of such patients is crucial. Aim The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life of oral cancer patients in the pre-operative period, thereby providing them with the necessary psychological support. Materials and Methods A total of 206 patients, scheduled to undergo treatment for oral cancer were selected from various cancer centres in South India. After informed consent, 171 patients were finally analysed for their quality of life using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) version 4; and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Head and Neck (FACT-H&N), as a Quality of Life (QOL) survey. Result Most of the patients had poor quality of life and were found to be emotionally distressed pre-operatively as they did not have proper emotional support from society. Conclusion From the study it was observed that catering to the psychological needs of oral cancer patients is important and psychological counselling should be a part of a comprehensive treatment plan for such patients. PMID:27891463

  15. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  16. Label-free IgG/anti-IgG biosensing based on long period fiber gratings: a comprehensive feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavaioli, F.; Trono, C.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Jana, S.; Bera, S.; Mallick, A.; Baldini, F.

    2015-03-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPGs) have recently been proposed as label-free biosensors. A biochemical interaction occurring along the grating region can be evaluated as a refractive index (RI) change, which modifies the transmission spectrum of the fiber. This is an emergent, alternative choice with respect to other label-free optical systems, such as surface plasmon resonance, interferometric and in-fiber configurations, and resonating structures. In this work, various types of not-coated LPGs, in which the coupling occurs with increasing cladding mode orders, were manufactured for increasing the RI sensitivity of these sensors. After the functionalization of the fiber surface using Eudragit L100 copolymer, a label-free IgG/anti-IgG bioassay was realized for analyzing the antigen/antibody interaction following the same model assay. A comprehensive feasibility study was carried out among the different LPGs in order to assess and compare the biosensor performance, highlighting the advantages and the disadvantages of each type. Experimental results proved an improvement in the RI sensitivity and in the biosensor performance in the case of high-order cladding mode LPGs, with values of detection limit lower than 50 ng mL-1 (330 pM). The performance enhancement can be explained with the increase in the penetration depth of the evanescent field due to the increase of the cladding mode order. The sensor response was also studied using complex matrices made up of human serum.

  17. Study of Fe/Cr Magnetic Multilayers and Periodic Arrays of Submicron Magnetic Dots by Vector Network Analyzer Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Farkhad; Francisco Sierra, Juan; Awad, Ahmad; Pryadun, Vladimir; Kakazei, Gleb

    2008-03-01

    Vector network analyzer (VNA) technique up to 8.5 GHz was applied to measure in-plane dynamic response in Fe/Cr magnetic multilayers and for the in-plane magnetized periodic arrays of Permalloy circular magnetic dots. In the antiferromagnetically coupled [Fe/Cr]n multilayers (n=10,20,40) we have investigated field dependence of the acoustic resonance in a wide range of temperatures between 300K down to 2K both for the low magnetic fields and close to the saturation field. FMR studies of the array of FeNi dots with diameter of 1 micron, the aspect ratio L/R=0.1 and with centre to centre distance varying between 1.2 to 2.5 micron allowed to resolve multiple FMR resonances as a function of magnetic field. We have found the main FMR linewidth to be dependent on the magnetic history. For the magnetic fields below 300 Oe, where magnetic vortex state forms, we have observed the field dependence of the radial modes (fr > 6GHz) to show minima close to the zero magnetic field.

  18. [Tenth anniversary of smallpox eradication: Results of epidemiological and virological surveillance and studies in the post-eradication period].

    PubMed

    Marennikova, S S

    1989-06-01

    In accordance with recommendations of the Global Commission on the certification of smallpox eradication for the 10-year period after the eradication of this infection, all suspected cases of smallpox have been thoroughly checked up, and in none of them the diagnosis of smallpox has been confirmed. The study of monkeypox in humans has revealed that this zoonosis is spread over a wider area than supposed earlier and covers 7 countries of Equatorial Africa, occurring most frequently in Zaire. In about 70% of cases of monkeypox in human the disease is contracted from animals serving as natural virus carriers and in about one-third of such cases, from humans having monkeypox. The infectivity of humans with monkeypox for persons having close contacts with them is somewhat lower (12.3%) than in smallpox when this characteristic varies from 37% to 88%. Monkeypox in humans may take an asymptomatic course. Some species of tropical squirrels serve as natural virus carriers. These investigations have also resulted in essential corrections being made in understanding the ecology of cowpox virus, another orthopoxvirus pathogenic for man. At least 5 species of rodents have proved to be of interest as natural carriers of cowpox virus.

  19. Kinetics studies of the reactions of main fourth-period monocations (Ga+, Ge+, As+, and Se+) with methyl fluoride.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Carmen; Rayón, Víctor Manuel; Largo, Antonio; Sordo, José Ángel; Redondo, Pilar

    2013-08-22

    Thermodynamics and kinetics theoretical studies on the gas-phase reactions of fluoromethane with main fourth-period monocations (Ga(+), Ge(+), As(+), and Se(+)) have been carried out. Density functional theory (in particular mPW1K functional) was employed in the description of the potential energy surfaces, and refinement of the energies were done at the CCSD(T) level. The reaction rate constants were estimated using variational/conventional microcanonical transition state theory. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, the fluorine abstraction product is predicted for Ga(+) and Ge(+), whereas for As(+) and Se(+) the elimination product, MCH2(+) (M = As, Se) + HF, is the preferred one. Nevertheless, the most favorable channel for the reactions of CH3F with Ga(+) and Se(+) cations present a net activation barrier. In the case of Ga(+), the reaction proceeds via an addition channel forming the adduct complex, CH3FGa(+), whereas for Se(+) no reaction is found, in agreement with the experiments. The predicted reaction rate constants are in reasonable good agreement with the experimental values available. Apart from the harpoon-like mechanism, our results suggest that an oxidative addition mechanism seems to play a relevant role.

  20. A periodic DFT study of adsorption of water on sodium-montmorillonite (001) basal and (010) edge surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chenliang; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Water molecules can be easily adsorbed on the surface or in the interlayer space of clay minerals. This process is named hydration which plays an important role in various application fields. In order to find how water interacted with surface through minimizing the interaction among multiple waters, the adsorptions of single water molecule on external surfaces of sodium-montmorillonite (Na-MMT), including (001) basal and (010) edge surface, were theoretically investigated based on periodic density functional theory (DFT) method. The adsorption energies and geometries as well as electronic properties were studied in the work. It was found that water molecule was adsorbed on Na-MMT (001) basal surface mainly through electrostatic interaction between water molecule and Na+ cation, and was adsorbed on (010) edge surface through hydrogen bonding between water and surface sbnd OH or sbnd OH2 groups. The adsorption energy Eads value of water molecule on (010) edge surface was larger than that on (001) basal surface. After adsorption, a part of electron density was transferred from both Na-MMT (001) and (010) surfaces to water molecule. Based on the PDOS, there was the bonding between Na 3s and Ow 2p orbitals on (001) basal surface and between H 1s and O 2p orbitals for hydrogen bonds on (010) edge surface.

  1. Household Costs of Healthcare during Pregnancy, Delivery, and the Postpartum Period: A Case Study from Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sabina, Nazme; Blum, Lauren S.; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Ronsmans, Carine

    2006-01-01

    A household survey was undertaken in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, to estimate the costs incurred during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period for women delivering at home and in a health facility. Those interviewed included 121 women who delivered at home, 120 who delivered in an ICDDR,B basic obstetric care (BEOC) facility, 27 who delivered in a public comprehensive obstetric care (CEOC) hospital, and 58 who delivered in private hospitals. There was no significant difference in total costs incurred by those delivering at home and those delivering in a BEOC facility. Costs for those delivering in CEOC facilities were over nine times greater than for those delivering in BEOC facilities. Costs of care during delivery were predominant. Antenatal and postnatal care added between 7% and 30% to the total cost. Services were more equitable at home and in a BEOC facility compared to services provided at CEOC facilities. The study highlights the regressive nature of the financing of CEOC services and the need for a financing strategy that covers both the costs of referral and BEOC care for those in need. PMID:17591341

  2. Effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on the cutaneous silent period: a randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pujia, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano; Brienza, Marianna; Vestrini, Elisa; Valente, Gabriele Oreste; Coppola, Gianluca; Pierelli, Francesco

    2014-04-30

    The cutaneous silent period (CSP) involves a transient inhibition of the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the hand muscles induced by a painful electrical stimulation of the digital nerves. The neurotransmitters potentially involved in mediating the CSP have not been completely elucidated thus far. However, few studies suggest that the monoaminergic system may play a role in the CSP. We elicited CSPs in the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand before and 3h after administration of a single oral dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20mg) or placebo. The two experimental sessions (drug and placebo) were performed in a random order at ≥1-week intervals. All recordings were numbered anonymously and analysed offline in a blind manner by one investigator. A significant increase in the CSP duration was observed 3h after escitalopram administration (p=0.01), and no changes were observed in the reflex latency and subjective pain sensation (p>0.05). No significant changes were observed in the CSP duration in subjects who received the placebo (all, p>0.05). Our results indicate that escitalopram increases the central disposition of serotonin and increases the activity of the spinal inhibitory interneurons on the α-motoneurons of the hand muscles. Thus, our results indicate the involvement of the monoaminergic system in controlling the spinal pain mechanisms by supraspinal descending pathways originating from the brainstem neural structures.

  3. Combining the Fluctuating Charge Method, Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions and Meta-Dynamics: Aqua Ions as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giordano; Brancato, Giuseppe; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status of development of our code for performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations exploiting a polarizable force field based on the Fluctuating Charge (FQ) method and non-Periodic Boundary Conditions (NPBC). Continuing on the path set in a previous work, we increased the capabilities of the code by implementing a number of new features, including: a non-iterative algorithm for rigid trigonal molecule simulations; two additional temperature coupling schemes; a meta-dynamics based approach for effective free energy evaluations. Although these are well known algorithms, each present in one or more widely used MD packages, they have now been tested, for the first time, in the context of the FQ model coupled with NPBC. As case studies, we considered three aqueous ions of increasing charge, namely Na+, Ca2+ and La3+, at infinite dilution. In particular, by exploiting a computational approach recently proposed by our group and based on the metadynamics technique, we focused on the important role played by solvent polarization on ionic hydration structures, also investigating the free energy landscapes of ion coordination and the water exchange rates. Such an approach, previously tested with standard non-polarizable models, was applied here to evaluate the effects of explicit polarization on water exchange barriers between different solvent coordination structures. Moreover, we have analyzed and discussed in some detail non-linear electrostatic effects arising from solvent polarization while going from a mono- to a di- and trivalent ion. PMID:26543440

  4. The study of nonlinear almost periodic differential equations without recourse to the H-classes of these equations

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusarchuk, V. E. E-mail: V.Ye.Slyusarchuk@NUWM.rv.ua

    2014-06-01

    The well-known theorems of Favard and Amerio on the existence of almost periodic solutions to linear and nonlinear almost periodic differential equations depend to a large extent on the H-classes and the requirement that the bounded solutions of these equations be separated. The present paper provides different conditions for the existence of almost periodic solutions. These conditions, which do not depend on the H-classes of the equations, are formulated in terms of a special functional on the set of bounded solutions of the equations under consideration. This functional is used, in particular, to test whether solutions are separated. Bibliography: 24 titles. (paper)

  5. Clinical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysm in Germany: a nationwide observational study over a 5-year period (2005–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Walendy, Victor; Stang, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to provide nationwide age-standardised rates (ASR) on the usage of endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment in Germany. Setting Nationwide observational study using the Diagnosis-Related-Groups (DRG) statistics for the years 2005–2009 (overall 83 million hospitalisations). Participants From 2005 to 2009, overall 39 155 hospitalisations with a diagnosis of UIA occurred in Germany. Primary outcome measures Age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for UIA with the midyear population of Germany in 2007 as the standard. Results Of the 10 221 hospitalisations with UIA during the observation period, 6098 (59.7%) and 4123 (40.3%) included coiling and clipping, respectively. Overall hospitalisation rates for UIA increased by 39.5% (95% CI 24.7% to 56.0%) and 50.4% (95% CI 39.6% to 62.1%) among men and women, respectively. In 2005, the ASR per 100 000 person years for coiling was 0.7 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.78) for men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82) for women. In 2009, the ASR was 1.0 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.10) and 2.4 (95% CI 2.24 to 2.56), respectively. Similarly, the ASR for clipping in 2005 amounted to 0.6 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.68) for men and 1.1 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) for women. These rates increased in 2009 to 0.8 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82), respectively. We observed a marked geographical variation of ASR for coiling and less pronounced for clipping. For the federal state of Saarland, the ASR for coiling was 5.64 (95% CI 4.76 to 6.52) compared with 0.68 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.88; per 100 000 person years) in Saxony-Anhalt, whereas, ASR for clipping were highest in Rhineland-Palatinate (2.48, 95% CI 2.17 to 4.75) and lowest in Saxony-Anhalt (0.52, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.70). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we presented the first representative, nationwide analysis of the clinical management of UIA in Germany. The ASR increased markedly and showed

  6. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-07-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004. The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in all PM0.2-1 samples were ammonium sulphates with/without carbon and dark inclusion(s) (number proportion of particles 54-86%), carbon/sulphate mixture with dark inclusions(s) (4-10%), internally mixed soot/sulphate particles (2-22%), soot (0-12%) and K-rich particles with S and/or C (0-9%). During the pollution episode (PM1.6~18 μg m-3, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%, also fly ash particles), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period (PM1.6~2 μg m-3, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-. During the intermediate period (PM1.6~5 μg m-3, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest in the PM3.3-11 samples (0-81% and 0-22%, respectively). The origin of different particle types and the

  7. Does Effectiveness of Adolescent Smoking-Cessation Intervention Endure Into Young Adulthood? 7-Year Follow-Up Results from a Group-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Arthur V.; Marek, Patrick M.; Kealey, Kathleen A.; Bricker, Jonathan B.; Ludman, Evette J.; Heffner, Jaimee L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Hutchinson Study of High School Smoking was the first randomized trial to show effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention on 6-months prolonged smoking abstinence at one year post-intervention in a large population-based sample of adolescent smokers. An important question remains: Do the positive effects from teen smoking cessation interventions seen at up to 12 months post-intervention endure into young adulthood? This study examines for the first time whether such positive early effects from teen smoking cessation intervention can endure into young adulthood in the absence of additional intervention. Methods High school smokers (n = 2,151) were proactively recruited into the trial from fifty randomly selected Washington State high schools randomized to the experimental (Motivational Interviewing + Cognitive Behavioral Skills Training telephone counseling intervention) or control (no intervention) condition. These smokers were followed to 7 years post high school to ascertain rates of six-year prolonged smoking abstinence in young adulthood. All statistical tests are two-sided. Results No evidence of intervention impact at seven years post high school was observed for the main endpoint of six-year prolonged abstinence, neither among all smokers (14.2% in the experimental condition vs. 13.1% in the control condition, difference = +1.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.4 to 5.8, p = .61), nor among the subgroups of daily smokers and less-than-daily smokers, nor among other a priori subgroups. But, observed among males was some evidence of an intervention impact on two endpoints related to progress towards quitting: reduction in number of days smoked in the past month, and increase in the length of the longest quit attempt in the past year. Conclusions There was no evidence from this trial among adolescent smokers that positive effectiveness of the proactive telephone intervention for smoking abstinence, observed previously at one year post

  8. Wii eye injury: self-inflicted globe rupture and vision loss in a 7-year-old boy from a video game accident.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Hessom; Lam, Geoffrey

    2011-10-01

    The Nintendo Wii is a home video game console released in November 2006. It is distinguished by its Wii Remote, a wireless controller that can be used as a handheld pointing device. We report a self-inflicted penetrating eye injury, late retinal detachment, and vision loss in a 7-year-old boy resulting from the use of a Wii Remote. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe ocular trauma from use of a wireless game controller.

  9. Non-perturbative study of impurity effects on the Kubo conductivity in macroscopic periodic and quasiperiodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Vicenta; Ramírez, Carlos; Sánchez, Fernando; Wang, Chumin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of site and bond impurities on the electrical conductance of periodic and quasiperiodic systems with macroscopic length by means of a real-space renormalization plus a convolution method developed for the Kubo-Greenwood formula. All analyzed systems are connected to semi-infinite periodic leads. Analytical and numerical conductivity spectra are obtained for one and two site impurities in a periodic chain, where the separation between impurities determines the number of maximums in the spectra. We also found transparent states at the zero chemical potential in Fibonacci chains of every three generations with bond impurities, whose existence was confirmed by an analytical analysis within the Landauer formalism. For many impurities, the spectral average of the conductivity versus the system length reveals a power-law behavior, when the distance between impurities follows the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, we present an analysis of the conductance spectra of segmented periodic and Fibonacci chains and nanowires.

  10. A time period study on the efficiency of luminol in the detection of bloodstains concealed by paint on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nagesh, Deepthi; Ghosh, Shayani

    2017-02-11

    Forensic Science is the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. It is a science which relies on physical evidence; one of the important physical evidences being blood. The purpose of this research was to determine the efficacy of luminol reagent in detecting bloodstains on different surfaces, concealed by multiple layers of paint, over a period of time and also to compare the intensities of chemiluminescence exhibited by them. In this study, dry wall, wooden planks and metal surfaces were identified as commonly encountered surfaces at crime scenes and hence 25 of each surface were simulated and blood was spattered, which were then concealed by progressive layers of paint specific to each surface. Thereafter, each surface was critically observed for the intensity of chemiluminescence, following the application of luminol and the results were documented as photographs. The research was conducted for duration of 50 days, in order to study the effect of ageing of concealment upon detection of bloodstains using luminol. Varying intensities of chemiluminescence were displayed by all the three simulated surfaces deposited with paint over bloodstains up to three layers of concealment, depending on the nature of the surface which were captured using photography. The highest intensity of chemiluminescence was shown by concealed bloodstains on dry wall and metal surfaces, despite the number of layers of concealment. However, an increase in the number of layers of concealment produced a significant decrease in the intensity of chemiluminescenece displayed by the bloodstains concealed by paint upon reacting with luminol on metal sheets, which was not found to be uniform and consistent on the other surfaces. These findings highlight the fact that bloodstains concealed by paint could be effectively detected by luminol reagent, despite the nature and ageing of concealment and thereby provide a lead to

  11. Periodic variation of stress field in the Koyna-Warna reservoir triggered seismic zone inferred from focal mechanism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Purnachandra; Shashidhar, D.

    2016-06-01

    The Koyna-Warna region in western India is globally recognized as the premier site of reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS) associated with the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. The region is characterized by continuous seismic activity observed since several decades, including the world's largest triggered earthquake of M6.3 which occurred in Koyna in 1967. While the role of reservoirs in triggering earthquakes has been widely discussed, the actual tectonic mechanism controlling earthquake genesis in this region is hardly understood. The Koyna-Warna region is exclusively governed by earthquakes of strike-slip and normal fault mechanism distinct from the thrust faulting seen in other active zones in the Indian region. In the present study, a comprehensive catalog of 50 focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes that occurred during the last 45 years in the Koyna-Warna region is developed, both from previous literature and from moment tensor inversion studies by the authors using broadband data from a local seismic network operating since 2005. The seismicity and fault plane data have enabled precise delineation of trends of the major causative faults, which are further accentuated using the double-difference technique. Stress inversion of the focal mechanism data has provided the best fitting principal compressive and tensile stress field of the region, which in conjunction with the deciphered fault zones provides a feasible model of seismogenesis in this region. Based on the observed temporal variation of faulting mechanism a model of alternating cycles of predominantly strike-slip and normal faulting is proposed, which is attributed to a periodic peaking and relaxation respectively of the horizontal compressive stress field in this region due to the Indian plate collision with Eurasia.

  12. Comparison of 7 years of satellite-borne and ground-based tropospheric NO2 measurements around Milan, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OrdóñEz, C.; Richter, A.; Steinbacher, M.; Zellweger, C.; Nüß, H.; Burrows, J. P.; PréVôT, A. S. H.

    2006-03-01

    Tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) over the Lombardy region were retrieved from measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer for the period 1996-2002 using a differential optical absorption method. This data set was compared with in situ measurements of NO2 at around 100 ground stations in the Lombardy region, northern Italy. The tropospheric NO2 VCDs are reasonably well correlated with the near-surface measurements under cloud-free conditions. However, the slope of the tropospheric VCDs versus ground measurements is higher in autumn-winter than in spring-summer. This effect is clearly reduced when the peroxyacetyl nitrate and nitric acid (HNO3) interferences of conventional NOx analyzers are taken into account. For a more quantitative comparison, the NO2 ground measurements were scaled to tropospheric VCDs using a seasonal NO2 vertical profile over northern Italy calculated by the Model of Ozone and Related Tracers 2 (MOZART-2). The tropospheric VCDs retrieved from satellite and those determined from ground measurements agree well, with a correlation coefficient R = 0.78 and a slope close to 1 for slightly polluted stations. GOME cannot reproduce the high NO2 amounts over the most polluted stations, mainly because of the large spatial variability in the distribution of pollution within the GOME footprint. The yearly and weekly cycles of the tropospheric NO2 VCDs are similar for both data sets, with significantly lower values in the summer months and on Sundays, respectively. Considering the pollution level and high aerosol concentrations of this region, the agreement is very good. Furthermore, uncertainties in the ground-based measurements, including the extrapolation to NO2 VCDs, might be as important as those of the NO2 satellite retrieval itself.

  13. Protective determinants of sickness absence among employees with multisite pain-a 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Haukka, Eija; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Leino-Arjas, Päivi

    2017-02-01

    We identified factors protective of all-cause sickness absence (SA) among subjects with multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP). The nationally representative source sample comprised 3420 actively working Finns aged 30 to 55 in year 2000 and alive at follow-up. Pain in 18 body locations was combined into four sites (neck, low back, upper limbs, and lower limbs). The baseline prevalence of MSP (pain in ≥ 2 sites) was 32%. Baseline data on sociodemographic factors, work ability, work, health, and lifestyle were gathered by questionnaire, interview, and clinical examination and linked with national registers on all-cause SA (periods lasting ≥10 workdays) for 2002 to 2008. Based on trajectory analysis, 74% of those with MSP had a low and 26% a high probability of SA. In logistic regression analysis, younger age, male sex, and professional occupational group were inversely associated with SA. Allowing for these, good physician-assessed work ability, physically light work, possibility to adjust workday length, encouraging workplace atmosphere, no problems with working community or mental stress, normal weight, and no sleep disorders were predictive of lower SA rates (odds ratios between 0.47 and 0.70). In a final stepwise model adjusted for age, sex, and occupational group, no exposure to lifting (odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.85) and to repetitive hand movements (0.57, 0.39-0.83), possibility to adjust workday length (0.73, 0.53-0.99), and normal weight (0.59, 0.40-0.87) were inversely associated with SA. In conclusion, several modifiable factors related to work and lifestyle were found as predictive of lower rates of longer SA among occupationally active subjects with MSP.

  14. Fractional urinary fluoride excretion of 6-7-year-old children attending schools in low-fluoride and naturally fluoridated areas in the UK.

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F V; Walls, R; Teasdale, L; Landes, D; Steen, I N; Moynihan, P; Omid, N; Maguire, A

    2013-05-28

    F is an important trace element for bones and teeth. The protective effect of F against dental caries is well established. Urine is the prime vehicle for the excretion of F from the body; however, the relationship between F intake and excretion is complex: the derived fractional urinary F excretion (FUFE) aids understanding of this in different age groups. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between (1) total daily F intake (TDFI) and daily urinary F excretion (DUFE), and (2) TDFI and FUFE in 6-7-year-olds, recruited in low-F and naturally fluoridated (natural-F) areas in north-east England. TDFI from diet and toothbrushing and DUFE were assessed through F analysis of duplicate dietary plate, toothbrushing expectorate and urine samples using a F-ion-selective electrode. FUFE was calculated as the ratio between DUFE and TDFI. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between TDFI and FUFE. A group of thirty-three children completed the study; twenty-one receiving low-F water (0·30 mg F/l) and twelve receiving natural-F water (1·06 mg F/l) at school. The mean TDFI was 0·076 (SD 0·038) and 0·038 (SD 0·027) mg/kg per d for the natural-F and low-F groups, respectively. The mean DUFE was 0·017 (SD 0·007) and 0·012 (SD 0·006) mg/kg per d for the natural-F and low-F groups, respectively. FUFE was lower in the natural-F group (30 %) compared with the low-F group (40 %). Pearson's correlation coefficient for (1) TDFI and DUFE was +0·22 (P= 0·22) and for (2) TDFI and FUFE was − 0·63 (P< 0·001). In conclusion, there was no correlation between TDFI and DUFE. However, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between FUFE and TDFI.

  15. Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Filipozzi, Pierre; Ayav, Carole; Ngueyon Sime, Willy; Laurain, Emmanuelle; Kessler, Michèle; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Design Pharmacoepidemiological study. Setting In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. Participants A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT were prospectively included from December 2009 to May 2012 and followed-up for 2 years. Results We identified four distinct trajectory groups: ‘rapid PTH drop’ experiencing a rapid and sharp decrease (over weeks) in PTH level associated with decreasing phosphate level within normal range (n=34; 12.7%), ‘gradual PTH decrease’ experiencing a gradual and continuous decrease (over months) in PTH level and maintaining phosphate at a middle level throughout the study (n=98; 36.4%), ‘slow PTH decrease with high phosphate’ experiencing a slow decrease in PTH level associated with a relatively high phosphate level (n=105; 39.0%) and ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ with high levels of PTH and phosphate throughout the study (n=32; 11.9%). Patients in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ group were significantly (p<0.00001) younger than patients in other groups. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) targets for PTH, phosphate and calcium were reached simultaneously for 14.9% of patients at baseline and 16.7% at the end of the study. Patients were given cinacalcet more frequently at months 3 and 6 in the ‘rapid PTH drop’ and at month 24 in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ groups. Conclusions Over 2 years following a new SHPT diagnosis, a younger age and a higher rate of alkaline phosphatase were associated to a continuous uncontrolled SHPT. Patients with the

  16. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  17. The influence of the rearing period on intramammary infections in Swiss dairy heifers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Klocke, P; Berezowski, J A; Bodmer, M; Vidondo, B

    2016-07-01

    Healthy replacement heifers are one of the foundations of a healthy dairy herd. Farm management and rearing systems in Switzerland provide a wide variety of factors that could potentially be associated with intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactating dairy heifers. In this study, IMI with minor mastitis pathogens such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), contagious pathogens, and environmental major pathogens were identified. Fifty-four dairy farms were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect herd level data on housing, management and welfare of young stock during farm visits and interviews with the farmers. Cow-level data such as breed, age at first calving, udder condition and swelling, and calving ease were also recorded. Data was also collected about young stock that spent a period of at least 3 months on an external rearing farm or on a seasonal alpine farm. At the quarter level, teat conditions such as teat lesions, teat dysfunction, presence of a papilloma and teat length were recorded. Within 24h after parturition, samples of colostral milk from 1564 quarters (391 heifers) were collected aseptically for bacterial culture. Positive bacteriological culture results were found in 49% of quarter samples. Potential risk factors for IMI were identified at the quarter, animal and herd level using multivariable and multilevel logistic regression analysis. At the herd level tie-stalls, and at cow-level the breed category "Brown cattle" were risk factors for IMI caused by contagious major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). At the quarter-level, teat swelling and teat lesions were highly associated with IMI caused by environmental major pathogens. At the herd level heifer rearing at external farms was associated with less IMI caused by major environmental pathogens. Keeping pregnant heifers in a separate group was negatively associated with IMI caused by CNS. The odds of IMI with coagulase-negative staphylococci increased

  18. Hymenolepis diminuta: experimental studies on the antioxidant system with short and long term infection periods in the rats.

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, Michał; Majewska, Monika; Podsiad, Małgorzata; Czeczot, Hanna; Salamatin, Rusłan; Twarowska, Joanna; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Many helminths cause long-lasting infections, living for several years in mammalian hosts reflecting a well balanced coexistence between host and parasite. There are many possible explanations as to how they can survive for lengthy periods. One possibility is their antioxidant systems, which can serve as defence mechanisms against host-generated oxygen radicals. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to examine the antioxidant system in Hymenolepisdiminuta during short (1.5 months young tapeworms) and long (1.5 years old tapeworms) term infection in the rat small intestine. The strobilae of H. diminuta tapeworms (14 young and three old) were divided into three pieces: the anterior part, containing the genital primordiae in the immature segments; the medial part, containing the early uterus in the mature, hermaphroditic proglottids and the terminal part with the mature gravid uterus in the gravid segments. Supernatants of these fragments were used for determination of markers of oxidative stress: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) and of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GSHPxs), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). The results indicated changes in levels of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activity in both the young and old forms of H. diminuta. Relatively high activity of SOD (particularly in the anterior part of young tapeworms) was observed, as was increased activity of total GSHPx and a relatively high concentration of GSH in all parts of the tapeworms. These are caused by exposure to increased amount of ROS, which are produced during the inflammatory state. Due to the high activity of antioxidant enzymes, the anterior section of young and old tapeworms is equipped with a very effective antioxidant system. Old organisms also effectively resist oxidative stress due to

  19. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis--the study on the pig model.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated.

  1. A global study of type B quasi-periodic oscillation in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H. Q.; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Li; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Xiang; Li, Zi-Jian; Bu, Qing-Cui; Qu, JinLu

    2017-04-01

    We performed a global study on the timing and spectral properties of type-B quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the outbursts of black hole X-ray binaries. The sample is built based on the observations of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), via searching in the literature in RXTE era for all the identified type-B QPOs. To enlarge the sample, we also investigated some type-B QPOs that are reported but not yet fully identified. Regarding to the time lag and hard/soft flux ratio, we found that the sources with type-B QPOs behave in two subgroups. In one subgroup, type-B QPO shows a hard time lag that first decreases and then reverse into a soft time lag along with softening of the energy spectrum. In the other subgroup, type-B QPOs distribute only in a small region with hard time lag and relatively soft hardness. These findings may be understood with a diversity of the homogeneity showing up for the hot inner flow of different sources. We confirm the universality of a positive relation between the type-B QPO frequency and the hard component luminosity in different sources. We explain the results by considering that the type-B QPO photons are produced in the inner accretion flow around the central black hole, under a local Eddington limit. Using this relationship, we derived a mass estimation of 9.3-27.1 M⊙ for the black hole in H 1743-322.

  2. Anatomical and subjective success rates of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy over a seven-year period.

    PubMed

    Beshay, N; Ghabrial, R

    2016-11-01

    PurposeEndonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (END-DCR) is a relatively novel approach that has recently been shown in some studies to provide similar success rates to the more traditional external approach for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). However, a range of success rates using this approach are reported within the literature and the majority of oculoplastic surgeons are still favouring the external approach. The purpose of this study was to review the anatomical and subjective success rates of END-DCRs performed over a 7-year period.Patients and methodsWe provide a review of the success rates of 288 END-DCRs for the treatment of acquired NLDO performed over a 7-year period by a single oculoplastic surgeon in Sydney, Australia. We describe the operative technique used and define anatomical success as demonstrated patency of the nasolacrimal drainage system at 10 weeks postoperatively while subjective success is defined as complete resolution or significant improvement of symptoms as reported by patients at the same time point.ResultsIn our study, we were able to demonstrate that out of 288 END-DCRs, an average anatomical success rate of 89.6% and an average subjective success rate of 81.3% were achievable.ConclusionsWe conclude that the success rates using our endonasal approach remain similar to those obtained using the external approach, as reported within the literature, and may be considered as a primary treatment option for acquired NLDO.

  3. Origin of short-period signals following P-diffracted waves: A case study of the 1994 Bolivian deep earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tono, Yoko; Yomogida, Kiyoshi

    1997-10-01

    Seismograms of the June 9, 1994, Bolivian deep earthquake recorded at epicentral distances from 100° to 122° show a train of signals with predominant frequencies between 1 and 2 Hz after the arrivals of short-period diffracted P-waves (P diff). We investigate the origin of these signals following P diff by analyzing a total of 20 records from the IRIS broad-band network and the short-period network of New Zealand. The arrivals of late signals continue for over 100 s, that is two times longer than the estimated source duration of this event. Subsequent aftershocks, which cause the following signals, are not expected from the long-period records. These results indicate that the long continuation of short-period signals is not due to the source complexities. The signals following P diff have small incident angles, and their spectra show peaks at about the same frequencies. These characteristics of the following signals exclude the possibility that their origin is shallow structure such as the heterogeneities beneath the stations or upper mantle. P diff propagates a long distance within the heterogeneous region near the core-mantle boundary. We conclude that the short-period signals following the main P diff are scattered waves caused by small-scale heterogeneities near the core-mantle boundary.

  4. Control of oscillating glycolysis of yeast by stochastic, periodic, and steady source of substrate: a model and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Boiteux, A; Goldbeter, A; Hess, B

    1975-01-01

    Type and range of entrainment of glycolytic oscillations by a periodic source of substrate are determined experimentally in yeast extracts. Subharmonic entrainment proves the nonlinear nature of the glycolytic oscillator Random variation of the substrate input yields sustained oscillations of irregular waveform and stable period. The results agree with the predictions of an allosteric model for phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11; ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase), which is the enzyme responsible for periodic operation of glycolysis. A comparison between model and experiment in the case of a constant source of substrate further indicates that the oscillatory dynamics of the glycolytic system can satisfactorily be described by the phosphofructokinase model. PMID:172886

  5. Teachers' Reporting of Behavioural Problems and Cognitive-Academic Performances in Children Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannopulu, I.; Escolano, S.; Cusin, F.; Citeau, H.; Dellatolas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The behavioural and academic performance of young children with teachers' reported hyperactivity, conduct problems or inattention is under debate. Aim: This study investigates the associations between teachers' reported behavioural difficulties and academic and cognitive performances in two large samples of preschool and school…

  6. Empathy and Empathy Induced Prosocial Behavior in 6- and 7-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Peter K. H.; Been, Marieke; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess empathy and prosocial behavior in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Results showed, first, lower levels of parent- and teacher-rated cognitive empathy, and similar levels of affective empathy in children with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) children. Second, emotion recognition…

  7. Awareness and Reactions of Young Stuttering Children Aged 2-7 Years Old towards Their Speech Disfluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boey, Ronny A.; Van de Heyning, Paul H.; Wuyts, Floris L.; Heylen, Louis; Stoop, Reinhard; De Bodt, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    Awareness has been an important factor in theories of onset and development of stuttering. So far it has been suggested that even young children might be aware of their speech difficulty. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (a) the number of stuttering children aware of their speech difficulty, (b) the description of reported…

  8. Developmental Trajectory for Production of Prosody: Lexical Stress Contrastivity in Children Ages 3 to 7 Years and in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Kirrie J.; Djaja, Danica; Arciuli, Joanne; James, Deborah G. H.; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate production of lexical stress within English polysyllabic words is critical for intelligibility and is affected in many speech-language disorders. However, models of speech production remain underspecified with regard to lexical stress. In this study, the authors report a large-scale acoustic investigation of lexical stress…

  9. The Effect of Phonotactic Probability and Neighbourhood Density on Pseudoword Learning in 6- and 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kleij, Sanne W.; Rispens, Judith E.; Scheper, Annette R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability (PP) and neighbourhood density (ND) on pseudoword learning in 17 Dutch-speaking typically developing children (mean age 7;2). They were familiarized with 16 one-syllable pseudowords varying in PP (high vs low) and ND (high vs low) via a storytelling procedure. The…

  10. Multiwavelength study of RX J2015.6+3711: a magnetic cataclysmic variable with a 2-h spin period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coti Zelati, F.; Rea, N.; Campana, S.; de Martino, D.; Papitto, A.; Safi-Harb, S.; Torres, D. F.

    2016-02-01

    The X-ray source RX J2015.6+3711 was discovered by ROSAT in 1996 and recently proposed to be a cataclysmic variable (CV). Here, we report on an XMM-Newton observation of RX J2015.6+3711 performed in 2014, where we detected a coherent X-ray modulation at a period of 7196 ± 11 s and discovered other significant (>6σ) small-amplitude periodicities which we interpret as the CV spin period and the sidebands of a possible ˜12-h periodicity, respectively. The 0.3-10 keV spectrum can be described by a power law (Γ = 1.15 ± 0.04) with a complex absorption pattern, a broad emission feature at 6.60 ± 0.01 keV, and an unabsorbed flux of (3.16 ± 0.05) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. We observed a significant spectral variability along the spin phase, which can be ascribed mainly to changes in the density of a partial absorber and the power law normalization. Archival X-ray observations carried out by the Chandra satellite, and two simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical pointings with Swift, revealed a gradual fading of the source in the soft X-rays over the last 13 yr, and a rather stable X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (FX/FV ≈ 1.4-1.7). Based on all these properties, we identify this source with a magnetic CV, most probably of the intermediate polar type. The 2-h spin period makes RX J2015.6+3711, the second slowest rotator of the class, after RX J0524+4244 (`Paloma'; Pspin ˜ 2.3 h). Although we cannot unambiguously establish the true orbital period with these observations, RX J2015.6+3711 appears to be a key system in the evolution of magnetic CVs.

  11. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  12. Autonomic reactivity and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysregulation in spouses of Oklahoma City bombing survivors 7 years after the attack

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; North, Carol S.; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this exploratory pilot study was to examine autonomic reactivity and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysregulation in spouses of highly exposed survivors of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. Methods This study compared psychiatric diagnoses and biological stress markers (physiological reactivity and cortisol measures) in spouses of bombing survivors and matched community participants. Spouses were recruited through bombing survivors who participated in prior studies. Individuals with medical illnesses and those taking psychotropic medications that would confound biological stress measures were excluded. The final sample included 15 spouses and 15 community participants. The primary outcome measures were psychiatric diagnoses assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (DIS-IV). Biological stress markers were physiological reactivity and recovery in heart rate and blood pressure responses to a trauma interview and cortisol (morning, afternoon, and diurnal variation). Results Compared to the community participants, spouses evidenced greater reactivity in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure; delayed recovery in systolic blood pressure; and higher afternoon salivary cortisol. Conclusions The results support the need for further research in this area to clarify post-disaster effects on biological stress measures in the spouses of survivors and the potential significance of these effects and to address the needs of this important population which may be overlooked in recovery efforts. PMID:22520087

  13. Short-course R-CHOP followed by 90Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan in previously untreated high-risk elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients: 7-year long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Stefoni, V; Casadei, B; Bottelli, C; Gaidano, G; Ciochetto, C; Cabras, M G; Ansuinelli, M; Argnani, L; Broccoli, A; Gandolfi, L; Pellegrini, C; Zinzani, P L

    2016-01-01

    An update at 7 years was conceived for our multicenter phase II study in which 55 elderly high-risk untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients were treated with 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan after a short course of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) as long-term follow-up analyses of this combined therapeutic modality are lacking. The overall response rate to the entire regimen was 80%, including 73% (40/55) of complete response (CR) rate and 7% (4/55) of partial response rate. At the time of writing, 24/55 (43.6%) patients experienced a progression disease and 20 of 40 (50%) patients who obtained a CR are still alive in continuous CR. With a median follow-up of 7 years, the disease-free survival was 43.3% and the progression-free survival was 36.1%. The overall survival at 7.9 years was 38.9% (27 deaths mainly because of lymphoma). Two patients developed secondary hematological malignancies, an acute myeloid leukemia and a myelodysplastic syndrome, at 4 and 3 years from radioimmunotherapy, respectively. Our data confirm the feasibility, efficacy and safety of four cycles of R-CHOP followed by radioimmunotherapy consolidation even in the long term: this combination allows dispensing less chemotherapy in a frail group of patients without invalidating response quality and duration. PMID:27176801

  14. Random-effects linear modeling and sample size tables for two special crossover designs of average bioequivalence studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation and six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation designs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisco J; Berg, Michel J; Krebill, Ron; Welty, Timothy; Gidal, Barry E; Alloway, Rita; Privitera, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Due to concern and debate in the epilepsy medical community and to the current interest of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in revising approaches to the approval of generic drugs, the FDA is currently supporting ongoing bioequivalence studies of antiepileptic drugs, the EQUIGEN studies. During the design of these crossover studies, the researchers could not find commercial or non-commercial statistical software that quickly allowed computation of sample sizes for their designs, particularly software implementing the FDA requirement of using random-effects linear models for the analyses of bioequivalence studies. This article presents tables for sample-size evaluations of average bioequivalence studies based on the two crossover designs used in the EQUIGEN studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation design, and the six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation design. Sample-size computations assume that random-effects linear models are used in bioequivalence analyses with crossover designs. Random-effects linear models have been traditionally viewed by many pharmacologists and clinical researchers as just mathematical devices to analyze repeated-measures data. In contrast, a modern view of these models attributes an important mathematical role in theoretical formulations in personalized medicine to them, because these models not only have parameters that represent average patients, but also have parameters that represent individual patients. Moreover, the notation and language of random-effects linear models have evolved over the years. Thus, another goal of this article is to provide a presentation of the statistical modeling of data from bioequivalence studies that highlights the modern view of these models, with special emphasis on power analyses and sample-size computations.

  15. Low and Increasing Trajectories of Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence: 7-Year Associations with Suicidal Ideation, Weapons, and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Orpinas, Pamela; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Truszczynski, Natalia

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the interrelation among problem behaviors and their change over time is fundamental for prevention research. The Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study followed a cohort of adolescents from Grades 6-12. Prior research identified two distinct trajectories of perpetration of physical dating violence: Low and Increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents in these two trajectories differed longitudinally on other problem behaviors: (1) suicidal ideation and attempts, (2) weapon-carrying and threats with a weapon, and (3) substance use, particularly alcohol and marijuana. The sample consisted of 588 randomly-selected students (52% males; 49% White, 36% Black, 12% Latino). Students completed a self-reported, computer-based survey each spring from Grades 6-12. To examine significant differences by perpetration of physical dating violence trajectory, we used Chi-square test and generalized estimating equations modeling. Across most grades, significantly more students in Increasing than in the Low trajectory reported suicidal ideation and attempts, carried a weapon, and threatened someone with a weapon. Adolescents in the Increasing trajectory also had higher trajectories of alcohol use, being drunk, and marijuana use than those in the Low trajectory. All differences were already significant in Grade 6. The difference in the rate of change between groups was not significant. This longitudinal study highlights that problem behaviors-physical dating violence, suicidal ideation and attempts, weapon carrying and threats, marijuana and alcohol use-cluster together as early as sixth grade and the clustering persists over time. The combination of these behaviors poses a great public health concern and highlight the need for early interventions.

  16. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  17. Experimental study of angular and frequency spectra of laser pulse diffraction on a planar periodic nanostructure of gold V antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Balabas, M V; Efremova, E A; Ivanov, A Yu; Kantserov, A I; Krylov, I R; Pelyukhova, E B; Petrov, Yu V; Prokhorova, U V; Silaev, R V; Tretiak, O Yu; Shimko, A A

    2015-10-31

    Irradiation of a planar structure made of periodically spaced gold V antennas by a femtosecond pulsed laser has revealed several anomalously reflected and refracted waves, interpreted as diffraction maxima. Compression of the pulse spectrum in scattered light is observed. The degree of compression and wave polarisation are found to be determined by the scattering direction. (nanophotonics)

  18. SmartBAN with Periodic Monitoring Traffic: A Performance Study on Low-Delay and High Energy-Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Lihua; Dias, M Pubuduni Imali; Wong, Elaine

    2016-12-20

    The Smart Body Area Network (SmartBAN) is a recently proposed system for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Compared to conventional WBANs, it is designed to support lower system complexity and ultra-low power consumption. In a SmartBAN, the sensors' access is scheduled upon receiving a beacon on the data channel at the beginning of each working cycle, termed inter-beacon interval (IBI). As network performance including delay and energy consumption is highly dependent on the length of IBI, we present, in this paper, an Optimal IBI frame for SmartBAN. Our focus is on the delivery of uplink periodically-generated sensor data with low delay and high energy-efficiency. As periodic traffic is a common traffic pattern widely generated in e-health applications, for which most previously proposed Markov models for WBANs are inapplicable, a closed-form analytical delay model for periodic SmartBAN transmission is derived. Exploiting this model, a time-optimized framework that minimizes average uplink delay is formulated. An adaptive inter-beacon interval (A-IBI) algorithm is then proposed to determine the Optimal IBI during the network connection between hub and sensors. Finally, sleep mode in sensors and doze mode in the hub are introduced to reduce energy consumption under the proposed framework. With Optimal IBI, the percentage of energy-savings and channel efficiency are evaluated. Simulation and theoretical results show that by using the proposed time-optimized framework, both delay and energy consumption of periodic traffic are significantly reduced. Comparisons with the IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN show performance improvements in periodic uplink delay and energy consumption with our proposed time-optimized framework for SmartBANs.

  19. A VLT-ULTRACAM study of the fast optical quasi-periodic oscillations in the polar V834 Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, M.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Van Box Som, L.; Falize, E.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Breytenbach, H.; Ashley, R. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of a few seconds have been detected in some polars, the synchronised subclass of cataclysmic systems containing a strongly magnetised white dwarf which accretes matter from a red dwarf companion. The QPOs are thought to be related to instabilities of a shock formed in the accretion column, close to the white dwarf photosphere above the impact region. We present optical observations of the polar V834 Centauri performed with the fast ULTRACAM camera mounted on the ESO-VLT simultaneously in three filters (u', He ii λ4686, r') to study these oscillations and characterise their properties along the orbit when the column is seen at different viewing angles. Fast Fourier transforms and wavelet analysis have been performed and the mean frequency, rms amplitude, and coherence of the QPOs are derived; a detailed inspection of individual pulses has also been performed. The observations confirm the probable ubiquity of the QPOs for this source at all epochs when the source is in a high state, with observed mean amplitude of 2.1% (r'), 1.5% (He ii), and 0.6% (u'). The QPOs are present in the r' filter at all phases of the orbital cycle, with a higher relative amplitude around the maximum of the light curve. They are also detected in the He ii and u' filters but at a lower level. Trains of oscillations are clearly observed in the r' light curve and can be mimicked by a superposition of damped sinusoids with various parameters. The QPO energy distribution is comparable to that of the cyclotron flux, consistent for the r' and He ii filters but requiring a significant dilution in the u' filter. New 1D hydrodynamical simulations of shock instabilities, adapted to the physical parameters of V834 Cen, can account for the optical QPO amplitude and X-ray upper limit assuming a cross section of the accretion column in the range (4 - 5) × 1014 cm2. However, the predicted frequency is larger than the observed one by an order of magnitude. This

  20. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    PubMed

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising/internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.02, CI 1.00-1.05) than for late binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.21, CI 1.04-1.42). No associations were observed for any of the above cutoff outcomes. Exposure to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy is associated with elevated externalising scores, particularly so in late pregnancy. No increased risk for any of the above cutoff scale scores was observed.

  1. Benign monomelic amyotrophy in a 7-year-old girl with proximal upper limb involvement: case report.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Oznur; Alemdaroğlu, Ipek; Karaduman, Ayşe; Haliloğlu, Göknur; Topaloğlu, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy (MMA) is a benign motor neuron disease characterized by neurogenic amyotrophy, which usually affects one of the upper or lower extremities. Progression is slow and symptoms are clinically stable. Symptoms are seen in the second or third decades of life. In this study, we present a seven-year-old girl who was diagnosed and directed to the Physiotherapy Department at the age of 5 years and had unilateral proximal upper limb involvement. Family history of the case was recorded. Neurologic evaluation was performed. Range of joint motion, muscle shortness and strength, posture, extremity lengths, gait, timed performance, arm function, and motor and mental maturation were assessed. The physiotherapy program was designed progressively as strengthening and resistive exercises. Motor and mental developmental milestones were normal. There was no limitation in active or passive motion of all joints. She had more flexible joints, scapula alata, asymmetry between shoulder levels, and weakness on proximal muscles of the right upper extremity. In the follow-up assessment at eight months, there was no asymmetry between shoulder levels and scapular symmetry began to improve. Female gender and involvement restricted to one proximal upper limb are rare in the literature. This patient demonstrates the positive effects of physical therapy with early diagnosis of MMA. The rapid recovery of muscle weakness shows the importance of strengthening and resistive exercises applied to specific muscles in the treatment.

  2. Scoring of the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT-CPI): Analysis of 7 Years of Use

    PubMed Central

    Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina P.; McQuarrie, Arlis M.; Sheppard, M. Suzanne; Scudds, Rhonda J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The aims of this study were to (1) describe the completion rates of the 24 performance criteria (PCs) from the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT-CPI) by clinical instructors; (2) evaluate change in PC visual analogue scores (VAS) with students' clinical experience; and (3) evaluate scoring patterns over time. Methods: Final VAS scores for 208 physiotherapy (PT) students (seven cohorts) from 1,039 clinical placements between 2001 and 2008 were analyzed. Completion rates were calculated for each PC. Kruskal-Wallis tests evaluated differences in VAS scores between cohorts. Friedman's tests were used to compare VAS scores for each PC over time. Results: Completion rates were above 90% for 18 PCs. Data from the seven cohorts were combined. All PC scores showed significant change from 10 to 15 weeks and from 15 to 20 weeks of clinical experience (p≤0.001). Although differences in scores decreased over time, 19 PCs showed significant differences between 20 and 25 weeks, and 11 PCs showed significant differences between 25 and 3