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Sample records for 7-year study period

  1. Studying cumulative ozone exposures in Europe during a 7-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie; Brandt, JøRgen; Zlatev, Zahari; Uria, Ignacio

    1997-10-01

    Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants in the troposphere. High ozone concentrations can damage plants, animals and humans. The damaging effects depend on the magnitude of a critical level of a special parameter, the cumulative ozone exposure. This is why cumulative ozone exposures must be carefully studied. It is important to determine the relationships between relevant emissions (NOx emissions, human-made VOC emissions, and/or a combination of NOx emissions and human-made VOC emissions) and cumulative ozone exposures. All these issues are discussed in this paper. Meteorological data from seven consecutive years, from 1989 to 1995, have been used in the experiments with different scenarios for varying the emissions (the NOx emissions, the human-made VOC emissions, as well as both the NOx emissions and the human-made VOC emissions). The particular air pollution model used in this study is the Danish Eulerian Model. Several hundred runs with different input data (meteorological data and/or emission data) have been performed. Advanced visualization techniques are used to interpret the large amount of digital data collected in these runs and to show clearly different trends and relationships that are normally hidden behind millions and millions of numbers. The model results were compared with measurements taken at more than 80 stations located in different European countries. The experiments indicate that it is sufficient to carry out computations over 5 consecutive years in order to eliminate the influence of extreme meteorological conditions (very warm or very cold summer months) on the cumulative ozone exposures, while this effect is clearly seen if less than 5 years are used in the experiments. It is shown that the relationship between the emissions (NOx and/or human-made VOC emissions) and the cumulative ozone exposures is in general nonlinear. Finally, it is illustrated that the critical values for ozone exposures are exceeded in most of Europe (in many

  2. The Comparative Study of Body Mass Index Distribution Among Preschool Children in a 7 Years Period in North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamreza, Veghari; Mohsen, Saeedi

    The main objective of this study is the comparison of Body Mass Index distribution among preschool children between 1997 and 2004. Using cluster and simple sampling chose 20 villages and 20 persons completed the questionnaires and measured their weight and height. The sample size was 3154 (stage 1 = 1585 cases and stage 2 = 1569 cases). Data of two stages was added to the file and was analyzed by spss.win soft-war. NCHS standard was used for comparison. The BMI percentiles by NCHS standard were used to classify subjects as follows: under weight, < 5th BMI percentiles; healthy weight, 5th-84th BMI percentiles; overweight, 85th-94th BMI percentiles; or obese, 95th = BMI percentiles. Gorgan a capital city and located in north of Iran and south east of Caspian Sea. In spite of boy=s weight increased about 0.1 kg, but height increased about 3.4 cm in second stage and t-test is significant between two stage by height (p< 0.001). Girl=s weight didn=t have any change, but height increased about 2.7 cm. t-test is significant between two stages by height (p< 0.001). The prevalence of obesity and overweight declined 17.36 and 4.7% respectively after 7 years. There is a statistical significant between two stages by obesity index (p< 0.05). The most outstanding results of this study is unvarying of weight and dramatically improving of height. The prevalence of obesity and overweight significantly declined after 7 years. Some health strategy that carried out by health managers in this area can caused this situation. Other studies are necessary for following the physical growth pattern in future.

  3. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem. PMID:24189631

  4. Duplication 3q13.11q23: Longitudinal study in a patient over a period of more than 7 years and refinements of the breakpoints

    PubMed Central

    Eggermann, Thomas; Spengler, Sabrina; Gamerdinger, Ulrike; Denecke, Bernd; Grimm, Silke; Grimm, Manfred; Schubert, Regine; Schwanitz, Gesa

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, we reported the first case with a pure duplication of proximal 3q. In these rare aberrations, detailed clinical and developmental investigations at different ages are required to provide sufficient phenotypic documentation. Clinical and psychological differences were therefore regularly documented in our case. Supplemental genetic investigations comprised conventional karyotyping, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, and microsatellite typing. Thus, the exact position and extension of the duplication (3q13.11q23), the size (35.6 Mb), and the paternal origin could be determined. The development of our patient was followed up in detail over a period of 7.5 yr and thus enabled specific characterization of the phenotype of the patient.

  5. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  6. Giant left atrial myxoma in an elderly patient: natural history over a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Bajraktari, Gani; Emini, Merita; Berisha, Venera; Gashi, Fitnete; Beqiri, Arton; Zahiti, Bedri; Selmani, Hamza; Shatri, Faik; Manaj, Rexhep

    2006-01-01

    We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with a 7-year history of a giant left atrial myxoma. The myxoma was attached to the atrial septum and occupied almost the entire left atrial cavity. The patient was hospitalized 4 times because of dyspnea on exertion, palpitations, fatigue, general asthenia, and weight loss. During prior hospitalizations, the patient had refused cardiac surgery. She developed several complications, including atrial fibrillation, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, mesenteric embolism, pulmonary edema, and thrombotic stroke. We herein describe the natural history of left atrial myxoma in an elderly patient over a 7-year period. PMID:17024671

  7. Contact sensitization in 1094 children undergoing patch testing over a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, Stefania; Giusti, Francesca; Pepe, Patrizia; Mantovani, Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Contact sensitization in children is frequent. However, because exposure to sensitizing agents varies rapidly, it is of utmost importance to perform a periodic evaluation of patch test results. Our purpose was to compare our data on contact sensitization in children during the past 7 years to our previous 1988-1994 findings, in order to identify emerging allergens and update our pediatric series. From 1995 to 2001, 1094 consecutive children were examined. Of these, 997 patients were patch tested with our pediatric series, which includes 30 allergens, whereas 97 underwent patch testing with 46 allergens. A total of 570 children proved allergic (52.1%). The highest sensitization rate was observed in children under 3 years of age. No differences between atopic dermatitis patients and nonatopic ones were observed in the sensitization rate. Neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, and ammoniated mercury gave most of the positive responses. With respect to 1988-1995 data, allergy to substances such as neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, ammoniated mercury, propolis, potassium dichromate, and thiuram mix proved more frequent. In conclusion, as sensitization rates to different allergens show great variations over time, periodic evaluations of patch test results in children is necessary in order to update the test trays. PMID:15660887

  8. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  9. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  10. Risk factors during the prenatal period and the first year of life associated with overweight in 7-year-old low-income Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Rios-Castillo, Israel; Cerezo, Sheila; Corvalán, Camila; Martínez, Mario; Kain, Juliana

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify in low-income Chilean children with normal birthweight which factors occurring during the prenatal period and the first year are associated with overweight (OW)/obesity at 7 years. The sample included 652 7-year-olds from a larger cohort study. We collected anthropometric data at 0, 12 and 84 months, maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy characteristics, early feeding practices, number of siblings, birth order, breastfeeding, and timing of solid introduction information. We determined the residuals for z-scores for body mass index (BMI) (BAZ), weight/age and height/age0-12 months , run univariate analysis (X(2) or t-test) and multivariate logistic analyses (stepwise approach); P < 0.05 was considered significant. We evaluated the goodness of fit of the model using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and checked for overdispersion using the Pearson's X(2) . The odds of children being OW at 7 years increased if their mothers were OW before pregnancy, if born with a higher BAZ (increase of 18-74% per each additional unit of BAZ) and if their BAZ growth during the first year was higher (62-239% per each unit over the predicted BAZ increase). Higher birth order was protective (6-68% less risk for 2nd birth compared with 1st and 10-73% less for ≥3rd child). All other variables, including gender, were non-significant (P > 0.1). In low-income Chilean children with normal birth, four factors during the prenatal period and the first year were associated with OW at 7 years: pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI at birth, BMI gain between 0 and 12 months, and birth order. PMID:23241511

  11. Dementia and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease from India: a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Jaya; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra

    2014-11-01

    Depression and cognitive impairment are frequent manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although a few longitudinal studies have reported on depression and dementia in PD, there is a yet a lack of such studies in India. This 7-year longitudinal study is a hospital-based prospective case (n = 250)-control (n = 280) study. In all, 36.8% had PD with no cognitive impairment (PD-Normal), 27.2% of the patients with PD were affected by dementia (PDD), and 36% of the remaining patients with PD had mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) at baseline. After 7 years of evaluation, 32 new patients, 12 patients from the PD-MCI group and 9 patients from the PD-Normal group, were diagnosed with dementia. The 7-year prevalence rate for dementia was estimated to be 49.28%. In the Indian population, an early onset of dementia is noted among patients with PD, with the age of onset being less than 55 years. Patients with early-onset PDD showed depression symptoms that differed significantly from the controls of the same age-group. There was a major difference in verbal fluency, word list recall, constructional praxis and recall, word list recognition, abridged Boston Naming Test, word list memory with repetition, and Mini-Mental State Examination between PD-MCI and PDD groups. Hallucinations before baseline (odds ratio [OR] = 4.427, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.122-9.373), akinetic/tremor dominancy (OR = 0.380, 95%CI = 0.149-0.953), and asymmetrical disease onset (OR = 0.3285, 95%CI = 0.1576-0.685) can be considered as risk factors for patients with dementia. Patients with early-onset PD might be more prone to complex depression and dementia. As the disease progresses, akinetic-dominant PD, early hallucinations, and asymmetrical disease onset are the potential risk factors for the development of dementia in patients with PD. PMID:24771763

  12. Hypnotic intervention in a 7-year-old thumbsucker: a case study.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David N

    2012-01-01

    Thumbsucking is a common habit among younger children. Usually, the child outgrows this habit by age 6. When a child over the age of 6 continues to suck his or her thumb, it can be a cause of potential harm due to peer pressure, ridicule, and shunning. It can also lead to malocclusions requiring eventual orthodontic interventions. In this case study, the author demonstrates a hypnotic intervention in a 7-year-old girl. Validation of her habit and imaging a role model sucking her thumb were employed in trance. Using this approach, the child was able to end her dependence on thumbsucking in 1 session. PMID:22443022

  13. Lead exposure and intelligence in 7-year-old children: the Yugoslavia Prospective Study.

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Lolacono, N J; Factor-Litvak, P; Kline, J K; Popovac, D; Morina, N; Musabegovic, A; Vrenezi, N; Capuni-Paracka, S; Lekic, V; Preteni-Redjepi, E; Hadzialjevic, S; Slavkovich, V; Graziano, J H

    1997-01-01

    For a prospective study of lead exposure and early development, we recruited pregnant women from a lead smelter town and from an unexposed town in Yugoslavia and followed their children through 7 years of age. In this paper we consider associations between lifetime lead exposure, estimated by the area under the blood lead (BPb) versus time curve (AUC7), and intelligence, with particular concern for identifying lead's behavioral signature. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Version III (WISC-III) was administered to 309 7-year-old children, 261 of whom had complete data on intelligence, blood lead, and relevant sociodemographic covariates (i.e., Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME), birth weight, gender, sibship size, and maternal age, ethnicity, intelligence, and education). These showed anticipated associations with 7-year intelligence, explaining 41-4% of the variance in Full Scale, Performance, and Verbal IQ. Before covariate adjustment, AUC7 was unrelated to intelligence; after adjustment, AUC7 explained a significant 2.8%-4.2% of the variance in IQ. After adjustment, a change in lifetime BPb from 10 to 30 micro/dl related to an estimated decrease of 4.3 Full Scale IQ points; estimated decreases for Verbal and Performance IQ were 3.4 and 4.5 points, respectively. AUC7 was significantly and negatively related to three WISC-III factor scores: Freedom from Distractibility, Perceptual Organization, and Verbal Comprehension; the association with Perceptual Organization was the strongest. Consistent with previous studies, the IQ/lead association is small relative to more powerful social factors. Findings offer support for lead's behavioral signature; perceptual-motor skills are significantly more sensitive to lead exposure than are the language-related aspects of intelligence. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 2. PMID:9410739

  14. Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Inflammation Across 7-Years in Racially Diverse Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Danielle L; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Brown, Charlotte

    2014-06-01

    Self-reported discrimination has emerged as a predictor of negative psychological and physical health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. The goals of this study were to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was independently predicted by everyday discrimination or whether race or body mass index (BMI) modified this association over a 7-year period among 2,490 women from racially diverse backgrounds. At baseline, the 10-item Williams' measure of everyday discrimination was administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess these associations. Descriptive results showed that Black and Chinese women reported greater discrimination than White, Japanese, and Hispanic women, while Black and Hispanic women had the highest levels of CRP over the 7-year period. There was no main effect of everyday discrimination (B = .003, SE = .005, p = .58) and this association did not differ as a function of race (p's > .05). The everyday discrimination × BMI interaction term significantly predicted higher CRP levels over time in the full sample of women (p = .03). Specifically, in non-obese women (BMI less than 30), higher perceived everyday discrimination was associated with higher CRP levels over the 7-year period. These findings were independent of demographic, negative affect, biomedical, and behavioral factors. The results demonstrate that greater everyday discrimination is associated with increased inflammation over time in non-obese women. These findings highlight the implications of interpersonal sources of social stress for long-term physical health via their impact on intermediary biological pathways, specifically inflammation. Greater emphasis on such linkages is warranted as we work towards ameliorating health disparities exacerbated by individual-level factors. PMID:25342861

  15. Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Inflammation Across 7-Years in Racially Diverse Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Danielle L.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Brown, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination has emerged as a predictor of negative psychological and physical health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. The goals of this study were to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was independently predicted by everyday discrimination or whether race or body mass index (BMI) modified this association over a 7-year period among 2,490 women from racially diverse backgrounds. At baseline, the 10-item Williams' measure of everyday discrimination was administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess these associations. Descriptive results showed that Black and Chinese women reported greater discrimination than White, Japanese, and Hispanic women, while Black and Hispanic women had the highest levels of CRP over the 7-year period. There was no main effect of everyday discrimination (B = .003, SE = .005, p = .58) and this association did not differ as a function of race (p's > .05). The everyday discrimination × BMI interaction term significantly predicted higher CRP levels over time in the full sample of women (p = .03). Specifically, in non-obese women (BMI less than 30), higher perceived everyday discrimination was associated with higher CRP levels over the 7-year period. These findings were independent of demographic, negative affect, biomedical, and behavioral factors. The results demonstrate that greater everyday discrimination is associated with increased inflammation over time in non-obese women. These findings highlight the implications of interpersonal sources of social stress for long-term physical health via their impact on intermediary biological pathways, specifically inflammation. Greater emphasis on such linkages is warranted as we work towards ameliorating health disparities exacerbated by individual-level factors. PMID:25342861

  16. Time Trends of Cannabis Use Among Treatment-seeking Individuals at Government De-addiction Centers Across India Over a Period of 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mishra, Ashwani; Sethi, Hem; Singh, Shalini; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number) across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013) period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001) of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4%) tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%). Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country.

  17. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  18. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  19. Application of Moran’s Test with an Empirical Bayesian Rate to Leading Health Care Problems in Taiwan in a 7-Year Period (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pui-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on using Moran’s tests and logistic regression to detect changes in spatial clustering for females and males. Methods: For spatial distribution analysis, an average morbidity rate for a 7-year period was calculated. Medical cases from Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) were used as the numerator, and the denominator was the average mid-year population. Spatial analysis techniques, with a morbidity-smoothing coefficient estimate based on the empirical Bayesian method, were incorporated and applied to global and local Moran tests. In addition, we used a logistic regression model to test the characteristics of similarity and dissimilarity between males and females and to formulate the common spatial risk. Results: The mean found by local spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to identify spatial cluster patterns. There is great interest in discovering the relationship between leading health care problems and spatial risk factors. For example, in Taiwan, the geographic distribution of clusters where neoplasms were prevalent was found to closely correspond to the locations in the arseniasis-endemic areas of Southwestern and Northeastern Taiwan, as well as to locations in the Tainan urban area (for females) and clusters in Changhua County and Yunlin County (for males). The high-density populations in urban areas showed carcinogen clusters in Taiwan’s 3 main urban centers (i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung) for female neoplasms. Conclusion: Cluster mapping helped clarify issues such as the spatial aspects of both the internal and external correlations for leading health care events. This information greatly assists in assessing spatial risk factors, which facilitates the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies, as well as the implementation of effective health care services. PMID:22980379

  20. In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Body Mass at Age 7 Years: The CHAMACOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic flame retardants that bioaccumulate in humans. Child serum PBDE concentrations in California are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs may be associated with obesity by disrupting endocrine systems. Objective In this study, we examined whether pre- and postnatal exposure to the components of pentaBDE mixture was associated with childhood obesity in a population of Latino children participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California. Methods We measured PBDEs in serum collected from 224 mothers during pregnancy and their children at 7 years of age, and examined associations with body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. Results Maternal PBDE serum levels during pregnancy were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys (BMI z-score βadjusted = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.19, 0.72) but lower scores in girls (BMI z-score βadjusted = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.87, –0.05) at 7 years of age (pinteraction = 0.04). In addition, child’s serum BDE-153 concentration (log10), but not other pentaBDE congeners, demonstrated inverse associations with BMI at age 7 years (BMI z-score βadjusted = –1.15; 95% CI: –1.53, –0.77), but there was no interaction by sex. Conclusions We estimated sex-specific associations with maternal PBDE levels during pregnancy and BMI at 7 years of age, finding positive associations in boys and negative associations in girls. Children’s serum BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI at 7 years with no difference by sex. Future studies should examine the longitudinal trends in obesity with PBDE exposure and changes in hormonal environment as children transition through puberty, as well as evaluate the potential for reverse causality. Citation Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. 2015. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environ

  1. Sperm donation and its application in China: a 7-year multicenter retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Ping; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Zong; Li, Yu-Shan; Wang, Quan-Xian; Cao, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Yong; Dai, Hui-Li; Huang, Yi-Ran; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Sperm donation in China is different from that in other countries due to cultural, social and political factors. This research presents the current status of sperm donation in Mainland China and highlights some problems. Between January 2003 and December 2009, 19 471 sperm donors were screened totally and 6467 donors (33.2%) were recruited. The primary reasons for non-recruitment were either inadequate semen parameters (55.0%) or positive results for sexually transmitted diseases (7.9%). There were 327 (1.7%) qualified donors who withdrew from the program because of frustration related to failed semen parameters, participation merely for free medical tests or job transfer. A questionnaire investigating donor intention, as well as other concerns associated with sperm donation, was distributed to 516 potential donors. All potential donors indicated their primary motivation as altruism, while 90.9% mentioned monetary reward as a second motivating factor. Approximately 93.4% of donors expressed some apprehension about the risk of consanguineous mating and the protection of their identity. Over the past 7 years, 488 389 vials of donors' semen have been cryopreserved. In 36 438 artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID) cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 23.9% and the live birth rate was 16.6%. In 7148 in vitro fertilization cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 45.8% and the live birth rate was 35.2%. Human sperm banks have been strictly monitored to ensure that each sperm donor can only impregnate five women nationwide. There is still a large gap between the supply and demand for sperm donation which may be solved by updated guidelines. PMID:21623386

  2. Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes in children, but findings with regard to behavioral problems are inconsistent. Objective We investigated whether residential road traffic noise exposure is associated with behavioral problems in 7-year-old children. Methods We identified 46,940 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete information on behavioral problems at 7 years of age and complete address history from conception to 7 years of age. Road traffic noise (Lden) was modeled at all present and historical addresses. Behavioral problems were assessed by the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between pregnancy and childhood exposure to noise and behavioral problems were analyzed by multinomial or logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders. Results A 10-dB increase in average time-weighted road traffic noise exposure from birth to 7 years of age was associated with a 7% increase (95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) in abnormal versus normal total difficulties scores; 5% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and 9% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) increases in borderline and abnormal hyperactivity/inattention subscale scores, respectively; and 5% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.14) and 6% (95% CI: 0.99, 1.12) increases in abnormal conduct problem and peer relationship problem subscale scores, respectively. Exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy was not associated with child behavioral problems at 7 years of age. Conclusions Residential road traffic noise in early childhood may be associated with behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Citation Hjortebjerg D, Andersen AM, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sunyer J, Julvez J, Forns J, Sørensen M. 2016. Exposure to road traffic noise and behavioral problems in 7-year-old children: a cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:228–234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409430 PMID

  3. Computer Competency: A 7-Year Study to Identify Gaps in Student Computer Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, George F.; Pearl, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Computer competency is crucial to student success in higher education. Assessment of student knowledge related to specific computer competencies can provide faculty with important information about the strengths and weaknesses of their students' computer competency skills. The purpose of this study was to identify the competency level of two…

  4. Coexistence of Two Congeneric Praying Mantids: A 7-Year Field Study of Reproductive Success and Failure.

    PubMed

    Rose, Robert K; Hurd, Lawrence E

    2016-02-01

    Two species of Asian praying mantids, Tenodera angustipennis (Saussure) and Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Saussure), which have become common to old fields in the northeastern United States, share a common resource base that raises the question of how they can coexist in the same habitat. We studied the reproductive output measured by numbers of oothecae of naturally established populations of these two species in an old field during 7 yr (2009–2015) of secondary succession. During the initial herbaceous vegetation-dominated stage, T. angustipennis oothecae were more abundant than those of its congener, but numbers steadily declined, until it had nearly disappeared by 2014. In contrast, numbers of T. a. sinensis oothecae increased from 2007 until 2014, and then sharply declined in 2015. The steady increase in abundance of this species throughout most of the successional development during the study may be owing to greater diversity of plant species used for oviposition. We believe that the most likely reasons for the continuous decline in T. angustipennis were a combination of intraguild predation by the larger T. a. sinensis, and egg parasitism by the wasp Podagrion mantis, which is not able to parasitize oothecae of T. a. sinensis. The later decline in T. a. sinensis may reflect the fact that the site had become dominated by trees, and neither of these species is typically found in forest habitats. PMID:26582050

  5. Tuberculosis among healthcare workers in southeastern China: A retrospective study of 7-year surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhong, Jiemin; Chen, Songhua; Wu, Beibei; Yeh, Hui-Chi; Jiang, Zhenggang; Wang, Zhengting; Gu, Hua; Jiang, Jianmin

    2014-11-01

    The baseline prevalence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) among general healthcare workers (HCWs) in southeastern China remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective study based on the TB surveillance data in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2011, which were extracted from the national Tuberculosis Information Management System (TIMS). We calculated and compared annual notification rates of different occupational groups and analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The annual TB notification rates among general HCWs declined steadily from 2005 to 2011. On average, HCWs showed annual TB notification rates lower than the general population but higher than teachers. Recorded HCW TB patients averaged 35.5 years of age, with females outnumbering males (58.0% > 42.0%). The proportion of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was higher among male than in the female patients (88.5% > 83.4%, P = 0.031). Our study suggested that general HCWs run a higher occupational risk than teachers although the two groups are socioeconomically comparable and that the priority should be given to the young female HCWs for TB prevention in healthcare institutions. PMID:25419877

  6. Human factors in aircraft incidents - Results of a 7-year study (Andre Allard Memorial Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Reynard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that nearly all fatal aircraft accidents are preventable, and that most such accidents are due to human error. The present discussion is concerned with the results of a seven-year study of the data collected by the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The Aviation Safety Reporting System was designed to stimulate as large a flow as possible of information regarding errors and operational problems in the conduct of air operations. It was implemented in April, 1976. In the following 7.5 years, 35,000 reports have been received from pilots, controllers, and the armed forces. Human errors are found in more than 80 percent of these reports. Attention is given to the types of events reported, possible causal factors in incidents, the relationship of incidents and accidents, and sources of error in the data. ASRS reports include sufficient detail to permit authorities to institute changes in the national aviation system designed to minimize the likelihood of human error, and to insulate the system against the effects of errors.

  7. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  8. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes. PMID:24312035

  9. Effect of Compost and Manure Soil Amendments on Nematodes and on Yields of Potato and Barley: A 7-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimpinski, J.; Gallant, C. E.; Henry, R.; Macleod, J. A.; Sanderson, J. B.; Sturz, A. V.

    2003-01-01

    A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels. PMID:19262763

  10. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  11. A Developmental Study of Timing Behavior in 4 1/2- and 7-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouthas, Viviane; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne

    1987-01-01

    Investigates effects of age and instructions on temporal regulations of behavior in two experiments. Results of two experiments suggest that for 4 1/2- and 7-year-olds trained with DRL (differential reinforcement of low rates), age and timing performance are related, and that instructions to wait between operant responses enhance DRL performance…

  12. A Study of Teacher Confidence in Teaching Music within the Context of the Introduction of the Foundation Phase (3-7 Years) Statutory Education Programme in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lara; Beauchamp, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher confidence in teaching music within the context of the introduction of a Foundation Phase "curriculum" in Wales for pupils aged 3-7 years. This involved a move away from music as a single subject to being part of creative development. The findings are based on a small-scale study of 12 teachers from four…

  13. Women’s higher likelihood of disability pension: the role of health, family and work. A 5–7 years follow-up of the Hordaland Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women’s higher risk of disability pension compared with men is found in countries with high female work participation and universal welfare schemes. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which self-perceived health, family situation and work factors explain women’s higher risk of disability pension. We also explored how these factors influenced the gender difference across educational strata. Methods The population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) was conducted in 1997–99 and included inhabitants born in 1953–57 in Hordaland County, Norway. The current study included 5,959 men and 6,306 women in paid work with valid information on education and self-perceived health. Follow-up data on disability pension, for a period of 5–7 years, was obtained by linking the health survey to a national registry of disability pension. Cox regression analyses were employed. Results During the follow-up period 99 (1.7%) men and 230 (3.6%) women were awarded disability pension, giving a twofold risk of disability pension for women compared with men. Except for a moderate impact of self-perceived health, adjustment for family situation and work factors did not influence the gender difference in risk. Repeating the analyses in strata of education, the gender difference in risk of disability pension among the highly educated was fully explained by self-perceived health and work factors. In the lower strata of education there remained a substantial unexplained gender difference in risk. Conclusions In a Norwegian cohort of middle-aged men and women, self-perceived health, family situation and work factors could not explain women’s higher likelihood of disability pension. However, analyses stratified by educational level indicate that mechanisms behind the gender gap in disability pension differ by educational levels. Recognizing the heterogeneity within gender may contribute to a deeper understanding of women’s higher risk of disability pension. PMID

  14. Dasatinib in imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic-phase, chronic myeloid leukemia patients: 7-year follow-up of study CA180-034.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neil P; Rousselot, Philippe; Schiffer, Charles; Rea, Delphine; Cortes, Jorge E; Milone, Jorge; Mohamed, Hesham; Healey, Diane; Kantarjian, Hagop; Hochhaus, Andreas; Saglio, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Dasatinib was approved at 100 mg once daily for imatinib-resistant or -intolerant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase, based on results of the phase 3 CA180-034 (NCT00123474) study. Here we present the final 7-year analysis of this pivotal study, the longest follow-up to date of any second-generation BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Patients (n = 670) with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML in chronic phase received dasatinib. Nineteen percent of patients continued on study treatment, with a greater proportion in the 100 mg once daily arm remaining on therapy. Seven-year rates for major molecular response (MMR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were similar across doses; MMR, PFS, and OS results were 46, 42, and 65% at 100 mg once daily, respectively. Improved PFS and OS rates were reported in patients who achieved BCR-ABL1 ≤10% at 3 and 6 months. No new safety signals were identified. The incidence of drug-related pleural effusion was 28% at 100 mg once daily and 35% at the other three dose groups. Incidence of drug-related pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension remained low (≤3% across all doses). Arterial ischemic events occurred in ≤4% of patients across all doses. These data support the long-term efficacy and well-established safety profile of dasatinib for patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML in chronic phase. Am. J. Hematol. 91:869-874, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27192969

  15. Initial vs Recurrent Training for Skilled Trades in Israel--Results of a 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziderman, Adrian

    1987-01-01

    The earnings of former trainees for the skilled trades in Israel were monitored over a seven-year period. While no significant differences were found between graduates of one-year adult training courses and similar programs for teenagers, postponement of training until the 20's is not a paying proposition. Contains one figure, two tables, and 15…

  16. Injuries in men's international ice hockey: a 7-year study of the International Ice Hockey Federation Adult World Championship Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games

    PubMed Central

    Tuominen, Markku; Stuart, Michael J; Aubry, Mark; Kannus, Pekka; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Background Information on ice hockey injuries at the international level is very limited. The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence, type, mechanism and severity of ice hockey injuries in men's international ice hockey tournaments. Methods All the injuries in men's International Ice Hockey Federation World Championship tournaments over a 7-year period were analysed using a strict definition of injury, standardised reporting strategies and an injury diagnosis made by a team physician. Results 528 injuries were recorded in games resulting in an injury rate of 14.2 per 1000 player-games (52.1/1000 player-game hours). Additionally, 27 injuries occurred during practice. For WC A-pool Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games (OWG) the injury rate was 16.3/1000 player-games (59.6/1000 player-game hours). Body checking, and stick and puck contact caused 60.7% of the injuries. The most common types of injuries were lacerations, sprains, contusions and fractures. A laceration was the most common facial injury and was typically caused by a stick. The knee was the most frequently injured part of the lower body and the shoulder was the most common site of an upper body injury. Arenas with flexible boards and glass reduced the risk of injury by 29% (IRR 0.71, (95% CI 0.56 to 0.91)). Conclusions The incidence of injury during international ice hockey competition is relatively high. Arena characteristics, such as flexible boards and glass, appeared to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:25293341

  17. Application of Multimedia Technology to Study the Ordinal Competences of Children from 3 to 7 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Pedro; Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present an ongoing research study on the evolution of pre-numerical and pre-inductive levels of ordinal thought in students from three to seven years old. Our methodology is based on multimedia technology, an automatic and objective record of the data and minimal interaction between students and researcher. A…

  18. The Relationship Between Father Involvement and Child Problem Behaviour in Intact Families: A 7-Year Cross-Lagged Study.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Narayanan, Martina K

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the cross-lagged relationship between father involvement and child problem behaviour across early-to-middle childhood, and tested whether temperament modulated any cross-lagged child behaviour effects on father involvement. It used data from the first four waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, when children (50.3 % male) were aged 9 months, and 3, 5 and 7 years. The sample was 8302 families where both biological parents were co-resident across the four waves. Father involvement (participation in play and physical and educational activities with the child) was measured at ages 3, 5 and 7, as was child problem behaviour (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Key child and family covariates related to father involvement and child problem behaviour were controlled. Little evidence was found that more father involvement predicted less child problem behaviour two years later, with the exception of father involvement at child's age 5 having a significant, but small, effect on peer problems at age 7. There were two child effects. More hyperactive children at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5, and children with more conduct problems at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5. Child temperament did not moderate any child behaviour effects on father involvement. Thus, in young, intact UK families, child adjustment appears to predict, rather than be predicted by, father involvement in early childhood. When children showed more problematic behaviours, fathers did not become less involved. In fact, early hyperactivity and conduct problems in children seemed to elicit more involvement from fathers. At school age, father involvement appeared to affect children's social adjustment rather than vice versa. PMID:26349744

  19. Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Jaen, Javier; Vazquez, Gonzalo; Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura; De Las Heras, Manuel; Perez-Regadera, Jose F.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical

  20. Epidemiology, risk factor, species distribution, antifungal resistance and outcome of Candidemia at a single French hospital: a 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Tadec, Laurent; Talarmin, Jean-Philippe; Gastinne, Thomas; Bretonnière, Cédric; Miegeville, Michel; Le Pape, Patrice; Morio, Florent

    2016-05-01

    Candidemia remains a major cause of disease worldwide and is associated with a high mortality rate. We conducted a retrospective study of candidemia at Nantes Hospital, France, between 2004 and 2010. A total of 191 episodes (n = 188 patients) were reviewed. Incidence, demographics, risk factors, antifungal management, species identification, in vitro susceptibility and 12 weeks survival were analysed. Global incidence of candidemia was 0.37‰ admissions. Higher incidences were observed in haematology (6.65‰) and intensive care units (2‰). Central venous catheter and antibiotic exposure were the most frequent risk factors (77% and 76% respectively). Candida albicans was the predominant species (51.8%) followed by C. parapsilosis (14.5%), C. glabrata (9.8%), C. tropicalis (9.8%) and C. krusei (4.1%). However, species distribution differed significantly between medical units with frequency of C. tropicalis being higher in haematology compared to other medical units. Fluconazole and caspofungin were the main antifungals given as first-line therapy. Although not significant, 12 weeks mortality rate was 30.9%, being higher for C. tropicalis (44.4%) than for C. parapsilosis (16%). Acquired azole or echinocandin resistance was noted in some isolates, underlining the need for systematic antifungal susceptibility testing in patients with candidemia. These epidemiological findings will be of interest for antifungal stewardship at our hospital. PMID:26806101

  1. [Metal/metal--a new (old) hip bearing system in clinical evaluation. Prospective 7-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Jessen, N; Nickel, A; Schikora, K; Büttner-Janz, K

    2004-05-01

    The problems of wear debris of bearing systems containing polyethylene used in hip arthroplasty have led to an increased trend to hard on hard bearing surfaces. Based on our own good experiences with the cementless Zweymüller-Alloclassic system, we implanted the same system with metal-on-metal bearing surfaces (Metasul) in 100 cases between October 1993 and November 1994. In order to record potential side effects, specific questioning and a clinical and radiological survey were carried out before surgery and in regular intervals thereafter. Up to date almost all of the patients have had good and excellent results with an average of more than 90 points in the Harris hip score (47.8 before surgery). There were no cases of revision surgery as a result of aseptic loosening. Two revisions were performed for other reasons (change of the insert, deep infection). No disadvantageous phenomena related to Metasul in the surrounding tissue were found on macroscopic and histologic investigation. The radiological examination did not show any specific signs pertaining to the use of a metal-on-metal bearing system. We also have no grounds to suppose that there are systemic reactions due to chromium or cobalt ions. Up to now, the new metal-on-metal bearing system in connection with a proven hip arthroplasty system has lived up to clinical expectations. With regard to less wear debris, it is justified to implant it in younger patients as well. Other open questions, in particular the possibly improved long-term results, have to be answered by continuation of the study. PMID:15118821

  2. Prediction of 7-year psychopathology from mother-infant joint attention behaviours: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether later diagnosis of psychiatric disorder can be predicted from analysis of mother-infant joint attention (JA) behaviours in social-communicative interaction at 12 months. Method Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined 159 videos of a mother-infant interaction for joint attention behaviour when children were aged one year, sampled from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Fifty-three of the videos involved infants who were later considered to have a psychiatric disorder at seven years and 106 were same aged controls. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, pervasive development disorder, anxiety and depressive disorders. Psychiatric diagnoses were obtained using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment when the children were seven years old. Results None of the three JA behaviours (shared look rate, shared attention rate and shared attention intensity) showed a significant association with the primary outcome of case–control status. Only shared look rate predicted any of the exploratory sub-diagnosis outcomes and was found to be positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders (OR [95% CI]: 1.5 [1.0, 2.3]; p = 0.041). Conclusions JA behaviours did not, in general, predict later psychopathology. However, shared look was positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders. This suggests that some features of JA may be early markers of later psychopathology. Further investigation will be required to determine whether any JA behaviours can be used to screen for families in need of intervention. PMID:24063312

  3. Occurrence of the - -(SEA), - -(THAI) and - -(FIL) α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers from a 7-Year Study at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongjantharasatien, Kobkorn; Banyatsuppasin, Wansa; Pounsawat, Sonnarong; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-08-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most common genetic diseases in Thailand. Homozygosity of α-thal-1 (- -/- -) and compound heterozygosity of α-thal-1/α-thal-2 (- -/-α) leads to Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis and Hb H (β4) disease, respectively. In order to better control and provide prevention of α-thal disease, the prevalence of α-thal-1 carriers and the types of genotypes in the Thai population should be known. A 7-year retrospective study, employing multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) of 31,632 blood samples from Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, revealed an α-thal-1 carrier rate of 14.40% with the - -(SEA) (NG_000006.1: g.26264_45564del19301), - -(THAI) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del33501) and - -(FIL) (NG_000006.1: g.11684_43534del31851) genotypes, constituting frequencies of 14.21, 0.18 and 0.01%, respectively. Although the - -(FIL) genotype is rare in the Thailand, its detection should be included in future α-thal screening programs. PMID:27492767

  4. Acculturation and associated effects on abused immigrant women's safety and mental functioning: results of entry data for a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nava, Angeles; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence has negative effects on women's safety and wellbeing. When immigrant women are victimized the danger and poor health may intensify. The purpose was to determine the impact of acculturation on severity of violence, danger for murder, mental health functioning, and safety behaviors of abused immigrant women. Entry data of a 7-year prospective study of 106 abused immigrant women who were first time users of safe shelter or justice services is presented. The interview included the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, Danger Assessment, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Safety Behavior Checklist, and Acculturation for Hispanics instruments. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between acculturation and safety behaviors and BSI scores was established. Higher acculturation scores were associated with significantly more practiced safety behaviors and higher levels of depression. Understanding the specific needs of abuse immigrant women associated with acculturation is imperative to develop interventions to interrupt abuse and promote safety and mental well-being. PMID:23546616

  5. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  6. Caries experience in the primary dentition and presence of plaque in 7-year-old Chinese children: A 4-year time-lag study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xuan; Fan, Mingwen; Mulder, Jan; Frencken, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dental caries prevalence and caries experience in primary dentitions has increased over 4 years and to compare the presence of plaque on permanent teeth in child cohorts over 4 years. Materials and Methods: A time-lag study design was used comprising two cohorts of children aged 7 years from the same five primary schools in Wuhan examined in 2007 and 2011. Two calibrated examiners visually assessed plaque accumulation according to the Greene and Vermillion Index and the dentitions according to the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) caries criteria. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), logistic regression, and Chi-square test were used to test for differences between dependent and independent variables. Results: The 2007 sample consisted of 817 children and the 2011 sample consisted of 1010 children. The prevalence of dental caries (d3mft) was 68.2% in 2007 and 67.7% in 2011, while that of d2mft was 78.5% in 2007 and 71.4% in 2011 (P < 0.0006). The mean d3mft score was 2.8 in 2007 and 3.1 in 2011 (P = 0.046), while the mean d3mfs score was 4.9 in 2007 and 7.3 in 2011 (P < 0.0001). The d3-component of the d3mft index was 73% in 2007 and 69% in 2011, while the f-component was 22% in 2007 and 26% in 2011. The hypothesis was not accepted. The proportion of children with plaque code 3 (extensive coverage) was higher in 2011 (21.8%) than in age mates in 2007 (5.7%). Conclusions: There were no obvious signs that dental caries prevalence had been increased in primary dentitions of this child population between 2007 and 2011. But as the mean caries experience scores at the surface level were higher in 2011 than in 2007, monitoring caries prevalence remains essential, but should start at an earlier age than that covered by this study. Health and educational authorities should collaborate in setting up programs aimed at ensuring good oral health for school children. PMID:26236680

  7. Protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic stress: a comparative study of 4 communities after 7 years of continuous rocket fire.

    PubMed

    Gelkopf, Marc; Berger, Rony; Bleich, Avraham; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2012-03-01

    Many communities across the world are chronically exposed to extreme violence. Responses of residents from a city and rural community in Southern Israel, both exposed to 7 years of daily mortar fire, were compared to residents from demographically, socio-economically and geographically comparable non-exposed control samples to examine protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic war-related attacks. Samples from a highly exposed city (Sderot) and a highly exposed rural community region (Otef Aza), along with a demographically comparable comparison non-exposed city (Ofakim) and non-exposed rural community region (Hevel Lachish), were obtained in 2007 using Random Digit Dialing. In total, 740 individuals (81.8% participation rate) were interviewed about trauma exposure, mental health, functioning and health care utilization. In the highly exposed city of Sderot, 97.8% of residents had been in close proximity to falling rockets; in the highly exposed rural community region of Otef Aza, 95.5% were similarly exposed. Despite exposure to chronic rocket attacks, residents of Otef Aza evidenced little symptomatology: only one person (1.5%) reported symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functioning levels did not differ from those of non-exposed communities. In contrast, posttraumatic stress (PTS), distress, functional impairment and health care utilization were substantially higher in the highly exposed city of Sderot than the other three communities. Lack of resources was associated with increased vulnerability among city residents; predictors of PTS across all samples included being female, older, directly exposed to rockets, history of trauma, suffering economic loss, and lacking social support. Increased community solidarity, sense of belonging and confidence in authorities may have served a protective function for residents of rural communities, despite the chronic attacks to which they were exposed. PMID:22316441

  8. 38 CFR 3.212 - Unexplained absence for 7 years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... years. 3.212 Section 3.212 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Unexplained absence for 7 years. (a) If satisfactory evidence is produced establishing the fact of the continued and unexplained absence of any individual from his or her home and family for a period of 7...

  9. Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6-7 Years: A National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…

  10. Intellectual and Emotional Development and School Adjustment in Preterm Children at 6 and 7 Years of Age. Continuation of a Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria

    1984-01-01

    Continues a previous five-year follow-up of preterm and full-term children by studying the continuity in their intellectual and emotional development. Prematurity was predictive for school adjustment at ages six and seven only when regression was performed on the preterm group, but failed to be predictive when mixed groups of preterm and full-term…

  11. Transitioning to and Sustaining District-Wide Inclusive Services: A 7-Year Study of a District's Ongoing Journey and Its Accompanying Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryndak, Diane Lea; Reardon, Ric; Benner, Susan R.; Ward, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    This case study describes the journey of one school district as it focused for 5 years on affecting district-wide systemic change related to inclusive education for all students with disabilities, including those with severe disabilities. Information is provided about the district's efforts across 5 years, and data are provided across those 5 and…

  12. Patterns of Physical Activity and Overweight among 7-13-Year-Old Russian Children: A 7-Year Nationally Representative Monitoring Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Popkin, B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This is a repeated cross-sectional study of overweight and physical activity (PA) and inactivity patterns of successive samples of 7-13-year-old Russian children who were surveyed six times between 1995 and 2002 as part of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. This analysis focused on moderate/vigorous (MOD/VIG) PA (e.g., active commuting to…

  13. A Study on the Development of the Concept of Rhythm in 5 to 7-Year-Old with Profound Hearing Loss Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilir, Sule; And Others

    This study explored the development of rhythm among eight kindergarten children with profound hearing loss in Ankara, Turkey. Musical instruments were used whose frequency ranges matched those the children were capable of hearing. After a pretest, students spent 5 half-days per week in training over the course of 2 months. Training included…

  14. Cognitive Skills Used to Solve Mathematical Word Problems and Numerical Operations: A Study of 6- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Isabel Maria; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between skills that underpin mathematical word problems and those that underpin numerical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Sixty children aged 6-7 years were tested on measures of mathematical ability, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, verbal intelligence and…

  15. Reinduction with Certolizumab Pegol in Patients with Crohn's Disease Experiencing Disease Exacerbation: 7-Year Data from the PRECiSE 4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David T.; Sandborn, William J.; Randall, Charles; Younes, Ziad; Schreiber, Stefan; Schwartz, David A.; Burakoff, Robert; Binion, David; Dassopoulos, Themos; Arsenescu, Razvan; Gutierrez, Alexandra; Scherl, Ellen; Kayhan, Cem; Hasan, Iram; Kosutic, Gordana; Spearman, Marshall; Sen, David; Coarse, Jason; Hanauer, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with Crohn's disease in whom tumor necrosis factor antagonist therapy fails have limited treatment options, and the benefit of reintroducing the same therapy remains unclear. Here, we report results from PRECiSE 4 (NCT00160706), an open-label extension study of certolizumab pegol in patients who withdrew from the placebo-controlled studies PRECiSE 1 or 2. Methods: Patients eligible for PRECiSE 4 had Crohn's disease exacerbation on placebo or primary or secondary failure to certolizumab pegol in PRECiSE 1 or 2, and received 400 mg certolizumab pegol subcutaneously at weeks 0, 2, and 4 and every 4 weeks thereafter up to 360 weeks. We assessed safety (adverse events) and efficacy (clinical remission) of extended certolizumab pegol therapy. Results: Patients enrolled in PRECiSE 4 (N = 310; mean age, 37 yr; 58% female; 95% white) had a mean Crohn's disease duration of 8.5 years before entering the qualifying studies. At weeks 52, 104, and 156, remission rates were 28.5%, 17.5%, and 12.6% by nonremitter imputation, and 63.8%, 60.0%, and 63.5% by observed cases, with 47.4%, 31.9%, and 23.2% of patients, respectively, remaining on therapy. By study end (7.5 yr), 92.3% of patients discontinued therapy, 49% on account of adverse events. No new safety signals emerged. Incidence rate (new cases)/100 patient-years was 6.11 for serious infections and 1.29 for malignancies. Conclusions: Certolizumab pegol was effective in many patients who previously discontinued certolizumab pegol for lack or loss of response. Thus, discontinuation of therapy may not always be necessary. Safety was consistent with previous findings. PMID:27400222

  16. A 7-year follow-up retrospective, international, multicenter study of insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Ho, Josephine; Cardona-Hernandez, Roque; Suarez-Ortega, Larisa; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the long-term glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for at least 5 years in three diabetes centers from three different countries: Canada, Italy and Spain. This was an observational retrospective multicenter cohort study. Subjects were included if they were followed at one of the participating centers, had type 1 diabetes, age 5-20 years at time of data collection and used CSII for more than 5 years. Data collected included gender, age, disease duration, age at CSII initiation, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin requirement and serious adverse events (SAE) at baseline and every 12 months during follow-up. One hundred fifteen patients were included in the study (55% males), aged 5-20 years (mean: 13.5 ± 3.8 years), with mean diabetes duration of 6.3 ± 3.4 years, using CSII for mean of 6.9 ± 1.2 years (range 5-12 years.). HbA1c significantly improved after 1 year of CSII treatment and during follow-up (p = 0.02). When HbA1c was compared between countries, a difference was observed, with slightly lower values in Italy than in Canada and Spain (p = 0.04). When evaluated by gender, HbA1c was similar at baseline, but significantly improved only in males during all follow-up (p = 0.004). No significant differences were observed for BMI, insulin requirement or SAE. Insulin pump therapy is safe and effective in the pediatric population, although in this study, the major benefit in HbA1c was seen in males. The use of advanced pump features was associated with greater improvement in HbA1c. PMID:23681558

  17. Persistence of histoplasma in adrenals 7 years after antifungal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Deepak; Chopra, Shweta; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Ajmani, Ajay K.; Kulshreshtha, Bindu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal histoplasmosis is an uncommon cause for adrenal insufficiency. The duration of treatment for adrenal histoplasmosis is not clear. Existing treatment regimens advocate antifungals given for periods ranging from 6 months to 2 years. We report here a rare case who showed persistence of histoplasma in adrenal biopsy 7 years after being initially treated with itraconazole for 9 months. This calls for a prolonged therapy with regular review of adrenal morphology and histology in these patients. PMID:23869317

  18. A 7-year survey of superficial and cutaneous mycoses in a public hospital in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Nicácia Barbosa; de Sousa Júnior, Francisco Canindé; Diniz, Mariana Guimarães; Fernandes, Ana Cristina Santos; Cardoso, Fernando José Ramos; Zaror, Luiz Conrado; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the frequency of superficial and cutaneous mycoses and their etiologic agents during a 7-year period (2002–2008) in Natal, Brazil. A total of 1,717 specimens of skin, nail, and hair were collected from 1,382 patients with suspected mycoses lesions and were then subjected to direct microscopy and culture. PMID:24031755

  19. Determinants of change in oral health-related quality of life over 7 years among older Japanese.

    PubMed

    Enoki, K; Ikebe, K; Matsuda, K-I; Yoshida, M; Maeda, Y; Thomson, W M

    2013-04-01

    Because there are more elderly people than ever before and because they are living for longer periods of time, it is essential to understand the determinants of healthy ageing. This study examined changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among Japanese elderly over a 7-year period. A sample of independently living individuals (aged 60+ years) underwent a questionnaire and dental examination at baseline and 7 years afterwards. The Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was used to assess the impact of oral conditions. Occlusal force and salivary flow were also assessed. Of the 411 participants assessed at baseline, 130 (31·6%) accepted to participate after 7 years. There were no significant differences between those lost to follow-up and those assessed at 7 years, except that a higher proportion of the latter rated their baseline general health as good. Among the latter, the overall mean GOHAI score did not change significantly (11·8 at baseline and 11·1 at follow-up; P = 0·16). However, after controlling for age, gender and baseline GOHAI score, participants who had lost teeth or experienced a decline in occlusal force after 7 years had higher follow-up GOHAI scores (indicating poorer OHRQoL). Unfavourable changes in clinical oral status over time are reflected in poorer self-rated oral health. PMID:23356574

  20. Atypical brain lateralisation in the auditory cortex and language performance in 3- to 7-year-old children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a child-customised magnetoencephalography (MEG) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. In young children, however, the simultaneous quantification of the bilateral auditory-evoked response during binaural hearing is difficult using conventional adult-sized MEG systems. Recently, a child-customised MEG device has facilitated the acquisition of bi-hemispheric recordings, even in young children. Using the child-customised MEG device, we previously reported that language-related performance was reflected in the strength of the early component (P50m) of the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF) in typically developing (TD) young children (2 to 5 years old) [Eur J Neurosci 2012, 35:644–650]. The aim of this study was to investigate how this neurophysiological index in each hemisphere is correlated with language performance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and TD children. Methods We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. We investigated the P50m that is evoked by voice stimuli (/ne/) bilaterally in 33 young children (3 to 7 years old) with ASD and in 30 young children who were typically developing (TD). The children were matched according to their age (in months) and gender. Most of the children with ASD were high-functioning subjects. Results The results showed that the children with ASD exhibited significantly less leftward lateralisation in their P50m intensity compared with the TD children. Furthermore, the results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that a shorter P50m latency in both hemispheres was specifically correlated with higher language-related performance in the TD children, whereas this latency was not correlated with non-verbal cognitive performance or chronological age. The children with ASD did not show any correlation between P50m latency and language-related performance; instead, increasing

  1. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  2. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Preterm-Born 7-Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of preterm-born children (<37 weeks’ gestation) have demonstrated decrements in lung function, exercise capacity, and increased respiratory symptoms compared to their term-born peers. However, it is unclear if these children have decreased levels of physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary behavior as a consequence of this increased respiratory morbidity. We therefore compared objectively measured PA in 7-year old preterm-born children with those born at term. Methods Children in the Millennium Cohort Study underwent assessment of PA at 7 years of age using accelerometry. 6422/12781 (50%) provided valid accelerometry and had gestational age data. A series of general linear models adjusted for confounders investigated the association between gestational age and levels of Total PA (average accelerometer counts per minute over the period of the recording), Moderate-to-Vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Mediation analysis was performed to specifically investigate whether the observed association of gestational age on PA was mediated by respiratory symptoms. Results PA data were available for 79, 119, 275 and 5949 children born at 25–32, 33–34, 35–36 and 37–43 weeks’ gestation respectively. Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation had modest but statistically significant reductions in MVPA when compared to term controls. This equated to a reduction of 9 minutes per day. No differences were found for Total PA or sedentary behavior. The association between gestational age and MVPA was not mediated by respiratory symptoms. In females, there was no association between gestational age and any measure of PA or sedentary behavior. Conclusions Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation took part in less MVPA than their term-born peers at 7 years of age. The differences were modest, but equated to a reduction of over 1 hour per week. Since PA levels have been shown to decline during childhood and adolescence, this vulnerable group

  3. Object exploration in 3- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sniegulska, Magdalena; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze free exploration of an unfamiliar, novel object in a semi-natural environment in 189 preschool children aged 3 to 7 years. The study used a purpose-built, novel, and complex stimulus object. Each child was shown the complex object lying on the floor and asked to explore it for 15 minutes. The child's behavior was video recorded. Age-dependent differences were found in the children's exploratory activity. No sex differences were found. Cluster analysis showed four main behavioral patterns that differed in their qualitative and quantitative parameters. Cluster membership was mainly age-dependent and not sex-specific. The results showed individual and developmental differences among the preschoolers with respect to their exploratory activity. This should be taken into account by school psychologists and teachers when designing the educational tasks and play situations. PMID:24597446

  4. "Generalist Genes" and Mathematics in 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Y.; Harlaar, N.; Petrill, S. A.; Plomin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics performance at 7 years as assessed by teachers using UK national curriculum criteria has been found to be highly heritable. For almost 3000 pairs of 7-year-old same-sex twins, we used multivariate genetic analysis to investigate the extent to which these genetic effects on mathematics performance overlap with genetic effects on reading…

  5. Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-07-01

    Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status. PMID:21512889

  6. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  7. A Periodical Use Study at Children's Hospital of Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan M. B.

    A periodicals use study was conducted in the Medical Library of Children's Hospital, a pediatric teaching hospital, during the six month period from September 1, 1967 to February 29, 1968. Results of the study showed that the three kinds of periodical use--circulation, reading room use, and interlibrary loan--have similar but not identical…

  8. Gait strategy in genetically obese patients: a 7-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, V; Vismara, L; Galli, M; Grugni, G; Cau, N; Capodaglio, P

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the change in gait and body weight in the long term in patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Eight adults with PWS were evaluated at baseline and after 7 years. During this period patient participated an in- and out-patient rehabilitation programs including nutritional and adapted physical activity interventions. Two different control groups were included: the first group included 14 non-genetically obese patients (OCG: obese control group) and the second group included 10 age-matched healthy individuals (HCG: healthy control group). All groups were quantitatively assessed during walking with 3D-GA. The results at the 7-year follow-up revealed significant weight loss in the PWS group and spatial-temporal changes in gait parameters (velocity, step length and cadence). With regard to the hip joint, there were significant changes in terms of hip position, which is less flexed. Knee flexion-extension showed a reduction of flexion in swing phase and of its excursion. No changes of the ankle position were evident. As for ankle kinetics, we observed in the second session higher values for the peak of ankle power in terminal stance in comparison to the first session. No changes were found in terms of ankle kinetics. The findings demonstrated improvements associated to long-term weight loss, especially in terms of spatial-temporal parameters and at hip level. Our results back the call for early weight loss interventions during childhood, which would allow the development of motor patterns under normal body weight conditions. PMID:24763375

  9. Functional neuroimaging study of performances on a Go/No-go task in 6- to 7-year-old preterm children: Impact of intrauterine growth restriction☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Réveillon, Morgane; Urben, Sébastien; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Hüppi, Petra S.; Lazeyras, François

    2013-01-01

    Children born preterm, and more specifically those with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), are prone to exhibit scholastic difficulties and behavioral problems later in development. Neuropsychological studies showed that their deficits in response inhibition and attention could be at the heart of these difficulties. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using a Go/No-go task in preterm adolescents and adults suggest their use of an alternative neuronal pathway to compensate for a possible delayed development. However, little is known about the impact of IUGR at a functional neural network level. This study used fMRI to explore brain regions activated during a Go/No-go task in 20 preterm children aged 6–7 years, 10 of which were born with IUGR. Results showed that preterm children without IUGR preferentially activated fronto-temporal regions including the inferior frontal cortex, region known to be involved in successful response inhibition. In contrast, IUGR preterm children exhibited greater activation in the putamen, in the medial frontal cortex and parietal regions, specifically involved in attention demanding tasks, some being part of the default-mode network. These findings suggest that IUGR preterm children use different brain regions and a more diffuse network to perform the task, which interfere with goal-directed activity and may reflect inefficient attentional control. The differences observed in IUGR preterm children might relate to their higher risk for neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders. PMID:24273725

  10. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring. PMID:26319413

  11. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  12. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  13. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

  14. Indications and outcome for obstetric patients' admission to intensive care unit: a 7-year review.

    PubMed

    Lataifeh, I; Amarin, Z; Zayed, F; Al-Mehaisen, L; Alchalabi, H; Khader, Y

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the indications, interventions and clinical outcome of pregnant and newly delivered women admitted to the multidisciplinary intensive care unit at the King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan over a 7-year period from January 2002 to December 2008. The collected data included demographic characteristics of the patients, mode of delivery, pre-existing medical conditions, reason for admission, specific intervention, length of stay and maternal outcome. A total of 43 women required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), which represented 0.37% of all deliveries. The majority (95.3%) of patients were admitted to the ICU postpartum. The most common reasons for admissions were (pre)eclampsia (48.8%) and obstetric haemorrhage (37.2). The remainder included adult respiratory distress syndrome (6.9%), pulmonary embolism (2.3%) and neurological disorders (4.6%). Mechanical ventilation was required to support 18.6% of patients and transfusion of red blood cells was needed for 48.8% of patients. There were three maternal deaths (6.9%). A multidisciplinary team approach is essential to improve the management of hypertensive disorders and postpartum haemorrhage to achieve significant improvements in maternal outcome. A large, prospective study to know which women are at high risk of admission to the intensive care units and to prevent serious maternal morbidity and mortality is warranted. PMID:20455722

  15. Skill-Related Uncertainty and Expected Value in 5- to 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Schlottmann, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Studies using an Information Integration approach have shown that children from four years have a good intuitive understanding of probability and expected value. Experience of skill-related uncertainty may provide one naturalistic opportunity to develop this intuitive understanding. To test the viability of this view, 16 5- and 16 7-year-olds…

  16. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  17. Electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions in 6-7 year olds with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Coppes, L; Kenemans, J L; Schutter, D J L G; Matthys, W

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expressions was recorded in twenty 6-7 year old children with ASD and twenty-seven typically developing children. Even though results did not show differences in facial mimicry between children with ASD and typically developing children, impairment in social responsiveness was significantly associated with reduced fear mimicry in children with ASD. These findings demonstrate normal mimicry in children with ASD as compared to healthy controls, but that in children with ASD the degree of impairments in social responsiveness may be associated with reduced sensitivity to distress signals. PMID:23888357

  18. Study for elevator cage position during the braking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, M.; Crăciun, I.; Bănică, M.; Dăscălescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    An important problem in order to study an elevator cage position for its braking period is to establish a correlation between the studies in the fields of mechanics and electric. The classical approaches to establish the elevator kinematic parameters are position, velocity and acceleration, but the last studies performed in order to determine the positioning performed by introducing supplementary another parameter - the jerk- which is derived with respect to time of acceleration. Thus we get a precise method for cage motion control for third-order trajectory planning.

  19. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  20. Geodetic reference systems for long period studies in earth physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A simple system of reference axes is defined for possible use in high precision geodetic studies over long periods of time for programs in earth physics. The proposed system is based on the gravitational and dynamic characteristics of the axis of rotation and the earth's center of mass as defined instantaneously at a given epoch. Techniques are outlined for its continuous representation over time intervals of significance for studies in earth physics. The relationship between the proposed system and the representation of extra-terrestrial objects using the celestial sphere concept is also discussed.

  1. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly. PMID:25015666

  2. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  3. Studies of the Lower Ionosphere using Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Egerev, Mikhael N.; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Vyakhirev, Valeriy D.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) created in the ionosphere plasma are used for the iono-sphere diagnostics. We present a new applications of API technique for experimental studies of the electron density in the lower ionosphere, atmospheric waves and sporadic E-layers. The applications are based on the new so-called two-frequency method of the API creation. The main results of the ionosphere studies carried out in 2006-2009 by the API technique using SURA heating facility are presented. API are formed in the field of a powerful standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one by the ionosphere (V.V. Belikovich, E.A. Benediktov, N.V. Bakhmet'eva, A.V. Tolmacheva, Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities-Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Λ or the one-half the powerful wavelength λ/2. Ionosphere diagnostics is carried out in the API relaxation (or decay) stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. The two frequency method bases upon the API creation and the scattering of the probe waves from API at two different frequencies i.e., having different spatial periods of the quasi periodic struc-ture. In the E -region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the ionosphere plasma in the field of the powerful wave. Relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The API relaxation time is τ = (K 2 Da )-1 where K = 2π/Λ and Da is the ambipolar diffusion rate. It means that API having different spatial scales destroys with different time scales τ . The API spatial scale depends on the refractive in-dex n that is determined by the electron density N. It is shown the ratio of API relaxation times θ at two frequencies f1 and f2 , measured at the same heights, is connected with the frequencies ratio and the

  4. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  5. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  6. [The paternal constellation: a pilot study in prenatal period.].

    PubMed

    Cupa, D; Riazuelo-Deschamps, H

    2001-01-01

    In a research where the authors had argued that some maternal prenatal representations concerning the infant had a decisive impact on precocious interactions (Cupa et al., 1992), they have asked in parallel, what was the weight on these very same interactions of paternal representations during pregnancy, knowing that in this specific period psychic reorganization of the father are profound (Bouchard-Godard, 1976; Cupa et al., 1997). If, in the intertwining of the two theoretical fields where the authors situate their work, being that of psychoanalysis and developmental psychology, there is a an important literature on the father, results and contribution allow to appreciate the impact of studies on the father during pregnancy and present theoretical points of reference of the authors' hypotheses. The presentation of the following study is that of a comparative longitudinal research carried out from the 7th month of pregnancy to 9 months after birth. It appeared indeed to the authors that in order to explore simultaneously the two representational universes and to observe the effects on the triadic interactions, this type of methodology was the most relevant. The results proposed in the last part, only concern the analysis of paternal representations. PMID:18253593

  7. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  8. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-01

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials. PMID:24730675

  9. Acute diarrhoeal disease in children under 7 years of age in a peri-urban slum of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Araya, M.; Figueroa, G.; Espinoza, J.; Montesinos, N.; Spencer, E.; Brunser, O.

    1985-01-01

    A group of 168 families who lived in a peri-urban slum in Santiago were surveyed for 9 months. All of them had a child under 7 years of age. Medical activities and data collection were carried out at a Field Station and by means of twice-weekly visits to each home, at which time cases of diarrhoea were recorded and investigated. Faecal samples for bacteriological, parasitological and rotavirus studies were obtained during each episode. The characteristics of clinical course, hygienic practices in the family, and monthly anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers were also recorded. The mean monthly incidence of diarrhoea was 7.1 episodes per 100 children. Of the episodes, 44.2% were associated with pathogenic bacteria, 14.4% with rotavirus, 38.4% with parasites and in 27.9% no enteropathogens were identified. It was found that adequate hygienic habits were not associated with a decreased risk of developing diarrhoea and that about 60% of children did not have diarrhoea throughout the study period. The nutritional status was adequate in most cases: weight-for-age was below the 5th percentile in 11.5% of subjects and the height-for-age was normal in all. No moderate or severe cases of malnutrition were detected. PMID:4067299

  10. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  11. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  12. Home Environment and Cognitive Ability of 7-Year-Old Children in the Colorado Adoption Project: Genetic and Environmental Etiologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Hilary; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study results indicate that correlations between measures of the home environment and children's intelligence quotient at 7 years of age are often mediated genetically. Among 153 adoptive and 136 nonadoptive families, such correlations were generally lower in adoptive families than in nonadoptive families. (RH)

  13. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  14. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  15. CCD photometric study and period investigation of V508 Oph

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, new CCD photometric observations of V508 Oph obtained in 2009 and 2010 at the Xinglong Observatory are presented. From the new observations, six new times of minimum light were derived. The light curves were analyzed by using the 2003 version of the Wilson–Devinney program. It is found that the asymmetric light curves can be modeled by a hot spot on the secondary component. The degree of overcontact is 15.4%, implying that the system is a shallow-contact binary. Combining the new times of minimum light with the photoelectric and CCD data compiled from the database, we investigate its orbital period. The results show that the orbital period may be undergoing multiple changes: a long-term decrease at a rate of dP/dt=−(1.502±0.063)×10{sup −7} days year{sup −1}, and a small periodic variation with a period of 24.27(±0.34) years. Since V508 Oph is an overcontact system and both components are late-type stars, we discuss the possible connection between the mass transfer, magnetic activity, the third body, and the orbital period changes.

  16. a Comparative Study of Sfxts and Long-Period Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasano, Makoto; Enoto, Teruaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Yamada, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Super-giant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs), composed of super-giant stars and highly magnetized neutron stars, are characterized by a rather low luminosity in quiescence and very drastic flares. However, these features are also observed, at least to some extent, from other types of HMXBs, including in particular binary pulsars with long pulse periods (>1000 sec). Through wide-band spectroscopy with Suzaku, we aim at a comparison between SFXTs and long-period pulsars, with particular emphasis on the possibility that both have strong magnetic fields. So far, several SFXTs were observed with Suzaku, including IGR J16195-4945 in particular. We re-analyze the archival Suzaku data of this object, obtained on 2006 September 20 for 39 ksec. As reported by Morris et al. (2009), a prominent flare lasting for 10 ksec was recorded in the XIS (1- 10 keV) and HXD (12 - 40 keV) data. We found that the absorbing column density remained the same within ~10 % during the flare. Moreover, the flare was accompanied by weakening or broadening of the fluorescent Fe-K line. These results are inconsistent with the popular SFXT scenario that clumpy stellar winds occur flares. Instead, they prefer an alternative scenario of ``magnetic gating", which assumes the neutron star like magnetars Using Suzaku, we also analyzed the long-period pulsar 4U0114+65 on 2011 July 11 for 100 ksec. The XIS and the HXD detected clear flaring behavior. the known period of ˜10,000 sec which is indicative of strong magnetic field like magnetars was observed. We obtained spectra, with a clear fluorescent Fe-K line, over a very broad (1-100 keV) band From these results, we compare properties of SFXTs and long period pulsars, and discuss their possible relations to magnetars.

  17. Optical Studies of 20 Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, John R.; Peters, Christopher S.; Skinner, Julie N.

    2010-11-01

    We obtained time-series radial-velocity spectroscopy of 20 cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods Porb. All of the stars reported here prove to have Porb > 3.5 h. For 16 of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133 + 51), we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncrasies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133 + 51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 days) V344 Ori (0.234 days) VZ Sex (0.149 days) NSVS 1057 + 09 (0.376 days) V478 Her (0.629 days) V1059 Sgr (0.286 days) V1082 Sgr (0.868 days) FO Aql (0.217 days) V587 Lyr (0.275 days) V792 Cyg (0.297 days) V795 Cyg (0.181 days) V811 Cyg (0.157 days) V542 Cyg (0.182 days) PQ Aql (0.247 days) V516 Cyg (0.171 days) and VZ Aqr (0.161 days). Noteworthy results on individual stars are as follows. We see no indication of the underlying white dwarf star in V709 Cas, as has been previously claimed; based on the nondetection of the secondary star, we argue that the system is farther away that had been thought and the white dwarf contribution is probably negligible. V478 Her had been classified as an SU UMa-type dwarf nova, but this is incompatible with the long orbital period we find. We report the first secondary-star velocity curve for V1062 Tau. In V542 Cyg, we find a late-type contribution that remains stationary in radial velocity, yet the system is unresolved in a direct image, suggesting that it is a hierarchical triple system. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory, operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia

  18. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A single fiber electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, D; Fiaschi, A; Tomelleri, G; Orrico, D

    1978-06-01

    The neurophysiological findings obtained with standard electromyography (EMG) and single fiber EMG (SFEMG) in a case of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HoPP) are reported. During the period between paralytic attacks the only abnormalities consisted of scanty fibrillation potentials and, with SFEMG, a fiber density increase. In the first stage of an induced paralytic attack the most striking feature was decrease in fiber density, slight increase in jitter with several blocks. These results indicate a failure of the membrane surface to propagate an action potential. In some fibers the block is likely to be permanent, thus explaining the decrease in fiber density. The jitter increase is due to a slight abnormality at the synaptic site or to a variation in the propagation velocity of the muscle fiber. PMID:690662

  19. ANALYSIS OF WMAP 7 YEAR TEMPERATURE DATA: ASTROPHYSICS OF THE GALACTIC HAZE

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrobon, Davide; Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Bartlett, James; Colombo, Loris P. L.; Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Pagano, Luca; Rocha, Graca; Lawrence, Charles R.; Banday, A. J.; Dobler, Gregory; Hildebrandt, Sergi R.; Eriksen, Hans Kristian; Saha, Rajib

    2012-08-10

    We perform a joint analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and Galactic emission from the WMAP 7 year temperature data. Using the Commander code, based on Gibbs sampling, we simultaneously derive the CMB and Galactic components on scales larger than 1 Degree-Sign with improved sensitivity over previous work. We conduct a detailed study of the low-frequency Galactic foreground, focusing on the 'microwave haze' emission around the Galactic center. We demonstrate improved performance in quantifying the diffuse Galactic emission when including Haslam 408 MHz data and when jointly modeling the spinning and thermal dust emission. We examine whether the hypothetical Galactic haze can be explained by a spatial variation of the synchrotron spectral index, and find that the excess of emission around the Galactic center is stable with respect to variations of the foreground model. Our results demonstrate that the new Galactic foreground component-the microwave haze-is indeed present.

  20. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  1. INCIDENCE OF, AND RISK FACTORS FOR, MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 5-7 YEARS IN SOUTH INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary. PMID:26440753

  2. Levers for Language Growth: Characteristics and Predictors of Language Trajectories between 4 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Cristina; Eadie, Patricia; Bavin, Edith L.; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence is required as to when and where to focus resources to achieve the greatest gains for children’s language development. Key to these decisions is the understanding of individual differences in children’s language trajectories and the predictors of those differences. To determine optimal timing we must understand if and when children’s relative language abilities become fixed. To determine where to focus effort we must identify mutable factors, that is those with the potential to be changed through interventions, which are associated with significant differences in children’s language scores and rate of progress. Methods Uniquely this study examined individual differences in language growth trajectories in a population sample of children between 4 and 7 years using the multilevel model for change. The influence of predictors, grouped with respect to their mutability and their proximity to the child (least-mutable, mutable-distal, mutable-proximal), were estimated. Results A significant degree of variability in rate of progress between 4 and 7 years was evident, much of which was systematically associated with mutable-proximal factors, that is, those factors with evidence that they are modifiable through interventions with the child or family, such as shared book reading, TV viewing and number of books in the home. Mutable-distal factors, such as family income, family literacy and neighbourhood disadvantage, hypothesised to be modifiable through social policy, were important predictors of language abilities at 4 years. Conclusions Potential levers for language interventions lie in the child’s home learning environment from birth to age 4. However, the role of a family’s material and cultural capital must not be ignored, nor should the potential for growth into the school years. Early Years services should acknowledge the effects of multiple, cascading and cumulative risks and seek to promote child language development through the

  3. The Prevalence of Malocclusion and Oral Habits among 5–7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kasparaviciene, Kristina; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Zasciurinskiene, Egle; Vasiliauskas, Arunas; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Sidlauskas, Mantas; Marmaite, Ugne

    2014-01-01

    Background Digit sucking, tongue thrust swallowing, and mouth breathing are potential risk factors for development of malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of different occlusal traits among 5–7-year-old children and assess their relationship with oral habits. Material/Methods The study included 503 pre-school children (260 boys and 243 girls) with a mean age of 5.95 years. Different occlusal traits were verified by intraoral examination. Oral habits were diagnosed using data gathered from clinical examination of occlusion and extra-oral assessment of the face, combined with a questionnaire for parents. Results The study demonstrated that 71.4% of the children presented with 1 or more attributes of malocclusion and 16.9% had oral habits. The vertical and sagittal malrelation of incisors, as well as spacing, were the predominant features. This study showed that digit suckers have higher incidence of anterior open bite (P=0.013) and posterior crossbite (P=0.005). The infantile type of swallowing demonstrated strong association (P=0.001) with anterior open bite. Conclusions Non-nutritive sucking habits and tongue thrust swallowing are significant risk factors for the development of anterior open bite and posterior crossbite in pre-school children. PMID:25344319

  4. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus compared with ciclosporin-A in renal transplantation: 7-year observational results.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Bernhard K; Montagnino, Giuseppe; Krüger, Bernd; Margreiter, Raimund; Olbricht, Christoph J; Marcen, Roberto; Sester, Urban; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Dietl, Karl-Heinz; Rigotti, Paolo; Ronco, Claudio; Hörsch, Silke; Banas, Bernhard; Mühlbacher, Ferdinand; Arias, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The European Tacrolimus versus Ciclosporin-A Microemulsion (CsA-ME) Renal Transplantation Study demonstrated that tacrolimus decreased acute rejection rates at 6 months. Primary endpoints of this investigator-initiated, observational 7-year follow-up study were acute rejection rates, patient and graft survival rates, and a composite endpoint (BPAR, graft loss, and patient death). We analyzed data from the original intent-to-treat population (n = 557; 286 tacrolimus, 271 CsA-ME). A total of 237 tacrolimus and 208 CsA-ME patients provided data. At 7 years, Kaplan-Meier estimated rates of patients free from BPAR were 77.1% in the tacrolimus arm and 59.9% in the CsA-ME arm, graft survival rates amounted to 82.6% and 80.6%, and patient survival rates to 89.9% and 88.1%. Estimated combined endpoint-free survival rates were 60.2% in the tacrolimus arm and 47.0% in the CsA-ME arm (P = <0.0001). A higher number of patients from the CsA-ME arm crossed over to tacrolimus during 7 year follow-up: 19.7% vs. 7.9% (P = <0.002). More patients in the tacrolimus group stopped steroids and received immunosuppressive monotherapy. Significantly, more CsA-ME patients received lipid-lowering medication and experienced cosmetic and cardiovascular adverse events. Tacrolimus-treated renal transplant recipients had significantly higher combined endpoint-free survival rates mainly driven by lower acute rejection rates despite less immunosuppressive medication at 7 years. PMID:26565071

  5. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = −2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = −4.33, −1.05) and b = −2.69 (95% CI = −4.22, −1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

  6. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A in an Urban Minority Birth Cohort in New York City, Prenatal Through Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hoepner, Lori A.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Just, Allan C.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing concern over potential health effects associated with exposures to the endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA), insufficient information is available on determinants of BPA concentrations among minority populations in the US. Objectives To describe concentrations and predictors of BPA in an inner-city longitudinal birth cohort. Methods We analyzed spot urines for total BPA collected during pregnancy and child ages 3, 5, and 7 years from African Americans and Dominicans (n=568) enrolled in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health birth cohort and residing in Northern Manhattan and the South Bronx. Adjusting for specific gravity, generalized estimating equations were used to compare BPA concentrations across paired samples and linear regression analyses were used to determine relationships between BPA, season of sample collection, socio-demographic variables and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites. Results BPA was detected in > 94% of samples. Prenatal concentrations were significantly lower than postnatal concentrations. Geometric means were higher among African Americans compared to Dominicans in prenatal (p=0.008), 5 year (p<0.001) and 7 year (p=0.017) samples. Geometric means at 5 and 7 years were higher (p=0.021, p=0.041 respectively) for children of mothers never married compared to mothers ever married at enrollment. BPA concentrations were correlated with phthalate metabolite concentrations at prenatal, 3, 5 and 7 years (p-values <0.05). Postnatal BPA concentrations were higher in samples collected during the summer. Conclusions This study shows widespread BPA exposure in an inner-city minority population. BPA concentration variations were associated with socio-demographic characteristics and other xenobiotics. PMID:23312110

  7. New times of minimum and a period study for GO Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Louth, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Times of minimum derived from photometry obtained in 1963, 1967, 1978, and 1979 are presented. With these and previously published times, the period is studied. A constant period increase (quadratic ephemeris) represents most of the times but there was a period decrease in 1934 and possibly in 1984. A 50-year magnetic cycle is discussed.

  8. A Study of Periodical Literature Searching at an Urban Research Library: Problems and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    Patron use of periodical indexes at an urban academic research library was studied over a 7-week period in the summer of 1982. A total of 98 patrons were interviewed on a random basis as they used various periodical and newspaper indexes. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on citation elements, the methods patrons use to locate…

  9. Soil respiration under mature deciduous forest trees after 7 years of CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Martin; Körner, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The anthropogenic rise in atmospheric CO2 is expected to impact carbon fluxes not only at ecosystem level but also at the global scale by altering carbon cycle processes in soils. At the Swiss Canopy Crane (SCC), we examined how 7 years of free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) affected soil CO2 dynamics in a c. 100-year-old mixed deciduous forest. The use of 13C-depleted CO2 for canopy enrichment allowed us to trace the flow of recently fixed carbon (C). In the seventh year of growth at ~550 ppm CO2, soil respiratory CO2 consisted of 39% labelled C. During the growing season, soil air CO2 concentration was significantly enhanced under CO2-exposed trees. However, elevated CO2 failed to stimulate cumulative soil respiration (Rs) over the growing season. We found periodic reductions as well as increases in instantaneous rates of Rs in response to elevated CO2, depending on soil temperature and soil volumetric water content (VWC; significant 3-way interaction). During wet periods, soil water savings under CO2-enriched trees led to excessive VWC (>45%) that suppressed Rs. Elevated CO2 stimulated Rs only when VWC was ≤40% and concurrent soil temperature was high (>15 °C). Seasonal Q10 estimates of Rs were significantly lower under elevated (Q10 = 3.30) compared to ambient CO2 (Q10 = 3.97). However, this effect disappeared when 3 consecutive sampling dates of extremely high VWC were disregarded. This suggests that elevated CO2 affected Q10 mainly indirectly through changes in VWC. Fine root respiration did not differ significantly between treatments but soil microbial biomass (Cmic) increased by 14% under elevated CO2 (marginally significant). Our findings do not indicate enhanced soil C emissions in such stands under future atmospheric CO2. It remains to be shown whether C losses via leaching of dissolved organic or inorganic C (DOC, DIC) help to balance the carbon budget in this forest.

  10. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  11. 7 years of MacGyver sessions at EGU and AGU: what happened?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; Selker, John; Weijs, Steven; Luxemburg, Wim; Wickert, Andy; Blume, Theresa; Bamburger, Jan; Stoof, Cathelijne; Tauro, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    The session that this poster is in, the: "Self-made sensors and unintended use of measurement equipment", also known as the "MacGyver-session" has had 7 years of scientists contributing their self made devices, hacks and solutions with the hydrological community. In 2009, the first session was held at the AGU fall meeting and since 2011 a session is also organised at the EGU General Assembly. On this poster, and in the accompanying review paper, we will present an overview of the work presented in the last 7 years, cataloging the work of the inventive scientists who have contributed to these successful, and above all: fun, sessions.

  12. Period Studies of 79 Eccentric Eclipsing Binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, K.; Kang, Y. W.; Lee, C.-U.

    2014-08-01

    We present period studies for seventy-nine eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud. New times of minimum light were derived from the data obtained by the EROS, OGLE-II and OGLE-III surveys. Nineteen stars of the seventy-nine stars show period variation were confirmed. All of the systems were studied by means of an O-C diagram analyses. Nine systems show apsidal motion, six systems show parabola, and four systems show sinusoidal period variations, respectively.

  13. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  14. Duodenal intussusception secondary to web presenting as recurrent pancreatitis in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Tu, Long H; Villalona, Gustavo A; Cowles, Robert A; Silva, Cicero T

    2016-03-01

    Duodenal intussusception is a rare entity in children, with 32 cases reported in the English literature to our knowledge. Most reported cases are associated with endoluminal tubes or polyps, and the presenting symptoms are chronic and nonspecific. We report a case of duodenal intussusception in a 7-year-old girl secondary to a duodenal web and review the imaging findings. PMID:26553449

  15. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  16. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie tellers from…

  17. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  18. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  19. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  20. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders. PMID:23327502

  1. Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals during Pregnancy and Weight at 7 Years of Age: A Multi-pollutant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Martinez, David; Valvi, Damaskini; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may induce weight gain and obesity in children, but the obesogenic effects of mixtures have not been studied. Objective We evaluated the associations between pre- and perinatal biomarker concentrations of 27 EDCs and child weight status at 7 years of age. Methods In pregnant women enrolled in a Spanish birth cohort study between 2004 and 2006, we measured the concentrations of 10 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, cadmium, arsenic, and lead in two maternal pregnancy urine samples; 6 organochlorine compounds in maternal pregnancy serum; mercury in cord blood; and 6 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in colostrum. Among 470 children at 7 years, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated, and overweight was defined as BMI > 85th percentile. We estimated associations with EDCs in single-pollutant models and applied principal-component analysis (PCA) on the 27 pollutant concentrations. Results In single-pollutant models, HCB (hexachlorobenzene), βHCH (β-hexachlorocyclohexane), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138 and 180 were associated with increased child BMI z-scores; and HCB, βHCH, PCB-138, and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) with overweight risk. PCA generated four factors that accounted for 43.4% of the total variance. The organochlorine factor was positively associated with BMI z-scores and with overweight (adjusted RR, tertile 3 vs. 1: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.19, 5.63), and these associations were robust to adjustment for other EDCs. Exposure in the second tertile of the phthalate factor was inversely associated with overweight. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to organochlorines was positively associated with overweight at age 7 years in our study population. Other EDCs exposures did not confound this association. Citation Agay-Shay K, Martinez D, Valvi D, Garcia-Esteban R, Basagaña X, Robinson O, Casas M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2015. Exposure to endocrine

  2. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  3. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  4. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  5. Stent thrombosis with an aneurysm 7 years after a drug eluting stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pritam; Sethi, Arvind; Kaul, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of very late stent thrombosis 7 years post sirolimus eluting stent implantation presenting as ST elevation MI while on dual antiplatelet therapy. Angiography revealed an aneurysm at the proximal end of the stent. The patient was managed successfully by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with adjunct thrombus aspiration and intracoronary abciximab administration followed by deploying a mesh-covered stent MGuard. This very late complication is a rare presentation after a drug illuting stent (DES). PMID:24814120

  6. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  7. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors. PMID:26585526

  8. Utility of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in Children Ages 4–7 Years with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather; Kirk, John Woodard; Mahone, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that assessment for non-credible performance is a necessary component of pediatric neuropsychological examination. The current study examined the utility and validity of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in children ages 4–7 years with and without Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-six children (30 controls, 36 ADHD) completed all three TOMM trials. There were no significant group differences in total score on any trial, or passing rate for Trial 2 or Retention. Four-year-olds with ADHD achieved “passing” score on Trial 1 less often than controls. Across groups, performance on Trial 2 and Retention improved with age, such that 85% of the sample achieved passing score. Four-year olds had greater difficulty and achieved passing score significantly less often than children 5–7 years. Moreover, half of the 4-year olds performed worse on Retention than Trial 2, calling into question the utility of the Retention trial at this age. Performance was associated with IQ only within the ADHD group on the Retention trial. Results suggest that the TOMM can be used with confidence in clinical groups as young as 5 years. Among 4-year olds, performance appears dependent on severity of ADHD or disruptive behaviors, and may be associated with factors other than effort. PMID:25247460

  9. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  10. The Role of the Working Memory and Language Skills in the Prediction of Word Problem Solving in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttälä, Minna; Aunio, Pirjo; Lepola, Janne; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory (WM) and language skills (vocabulary, listening comprehension) in predicting preschool and kindergarten-aged children's ability to solve mathematical word problems presented orally. The participants were 116 Finnish-speaking children aged 4-7?years. The…

  11. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  12. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of Study and request for comments for the Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait (75 FR 68568... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment...: In the Bering Strait. In this action, USCG is providing notice that the public comment period...

  13. Pore-network study of the characteristic periods in the drying of porous materials.

    PubMed

    Yiotis, Andreas G; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Yortsos, Yannis C

    2006-05-15

    We study the periods that develop in the drying of capillary porous media, particularly the constant rate (CRP) and the falling rate (FRP) periods. Drying is simulated with a 3-D pore-network model that accounts for the effect of capillarity and buoyancy at the liquid-gas interface and for diffusion through the porous material and through a boundary layer over the external surface of the material. We focus on the stabilizing or destabilizing effects of gravity on the shape of the drying curve and the relative extent of the various drying periods. The extents of CRP and FRP are directly associated with various transition points of the percolation theory, such as the breakthrough point and the main liquid cluster disconnection point. Our study demonstrates that when an external diffusive layer is present, the constant rate period is longer. PMID:16359693

  14. Darier's disease - Oral, general and histopathological features in a 7 year old child.

    PubMed

    Dharman, Sreedevi; Arvind, Muthukrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Darier's disease, also known as keratosis follicularis, is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, manifesting clinically as hyperkeratotic, firm papule that predominates in the seborrheic areas and flexures with accompanying nail abnormalities. Heat, sweating, sunlight, and stress are exacerbating factors of the lesion. The oral lesions are asymptomatic and comprise multiple white papules in the buccal mucosa and hard palate, giving a cobblestone appearance, and it is characterized histologically by loss of desmosomal adhesion and abnormal keratinization resulting in mucocutaneous abnormalities. Pruritus, recurrent infections, and malodor can decrease the quality of life. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with clinical and histological features of Darier's disease. PMID:27080970

  15. A 7-year-old boy with acute onset of breathing difficulty.

    PubMed

    Salas, Ariel A

    2010-02-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a major bacterial pathogen affecting children globally. Approximately 15% of school-age children experience a symptomatic episode of GAS culture-positive pharyngitis each year. Although the incidence of invasive GAS disease under these circumstances is low (0.5%-2%), an increasing number of invasive GAS cases have been reported over the last 2 decades. This report describes a 7-year-old boy who, after being treated for GAS pharyngitis, developed a fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. PMID:20145509

  16. Widespread Recurrence 7 Years after Radical Abdominal Trachelectomy for Early Cervical Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salman, M. Coskun; Ozgul, Nejat; Yuce, Kunter

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide and the use of routine screening resulted in earlier stage and younger age at diagnosis. Fertility preservation via radical trachelectomy comes up as an option in such patients. Recent literature reviews confirm the safety of this operation with excellent oncologic outcomes in appropriately chosen patients. However, recurrent disease is likely and a strict follow-up is recommended to detect recurrences at an early stage following radical trachelectomy. In this report, a case who underwent radical trachelectomy and developed widespread recurrences 7 years after initial surgery possibly due to the lack of oncologic follow-up is discussed. PMID:25918655

  17. [Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelids. Review of 7 years of experience of the adult ophthalmology service of the Casablanca university medical center].

    PubMed

    Khtibari, Z; El Belhadji, M; Benhmidoune, L; Berrada, S; Rqibate, S; Amraoui, A

    2015-02-01

    Malignant eyelid tumors generate considerable functional and aesthetic complications. Squamous cell carcinoma or squamous cell epithelioma (SCE) of the eyelids represents about 9% of all peri-ocular skin tumors. It is potentially lethal by orbital invasion or metastasis and characterized by clinical polymorphism and its ability to mimic other benign lesions of the eyelids, thus requiring early diagnosis and management. The goal of our work is to establish the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and prognosis of SCE of the eyelids. This retrospective study was performed over a period of 7 years on 25 cases of SCE of the eyelids. The mean age was 62 years. The gender ratio was 1.77 with a male predominance. Twelve patients had precancerous lesions. Biopsy revealed squamous epithelioma SCE in 24 cases and a mixed carcinoma in one case. Surgical treatment was performed in 23 cases. Eyelid reconstruction was immediate in all cases. Radiation therapy (RTH) was carried out for additional 5 patients. The mean follow-up was 15 months. We noted 2 cases of recurrence; revision surgery was necessary in one case and radiotherapy in the other case. SCE is often diagnosed at advanced stages in our context because of the limited access to health care and the extreme clinic polymorphism. This explains the need for histological examination of any suspicious lesion. Prevention through photoprotection is essential. PMID:25675868

  18. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  19. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089

  20. Femoral Perforation after Hemiarthroplasty – Life goes on for 7 years!

    PubMed Central

    josm, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Femoral perforation after hemiarthroplasty is a known complication. In cases with cemented hemiarthroplasty the recommendation is to leave the implant till it requires revision while for uncemented hemiarthroplasty early revision is recommended. Case Report: We present a case of perforation of lateral femoral cortex after Autin Moore hemiarthroplasty.. The patient reported a swelling at lateral aspect of thigh immediately after hemiarthroplasty surgery done for failed osteosysnthesis 7 years back. However he was able to continue his activities of daily living for 7 years. He visited us with complains of some pain around the swelling since last 3 months. Radiograph revealed a malposiitioned Austin Moore prosthesis with lateral perforation of the femur. An implant removal and revision total hip arthropllassty is advised but patient declined it and went along with his ‘functioning’ Hip. Conclusion: This is a case of lateral perforation of Austin Moore prosthesis where the patient was able to carry out his daily activities for seven years. Although revision is advised, patient is reluctant and is quite comfortable with his situation.

  1. Nature, Nurture and Academic Achievement: A Twin Study of Teacher Assessments of 7-year-olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Spinath, Frank M.; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: Twin research has consistently shown substantial genetic influence on individual differences in cognitive ability; however, much less is known about the genetic and environmental aetiologies of school achievement. Aims: Our goal is to test the hypotheses that teacher-assessed achievement in the early school years shows substantial…

  2. Emergency management communication on university Web sites: A 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kelly L; Holguin, Gina; Scott, Tara Halbrook

    2016-01-01

    In the last several years, disasters-both manmade and natural-have taken their toll on college campuses. Extant research shows that college campuses have greatly increased their emergency management efforts. One area in which colleges and universities have made strides is emergency management communication. There has been some research examining emergency management communication across campuses, but there is still much to learn. This research fills a gap in this area by investigating the use of university Web sites to disseminate emergency management information to the university stakeholders. Data were gathered in 2007 and 2014 from the Web sites of public, 4-year universities in Indiana. The results show that universities are using the Internet to communicate emergency management information to their stakeholders. Among the most common categories of information available on the Web sites are links to other agencies, university response information, and threat levels. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27575641

  3. New Light Curves and Period Studies of V502 OPH W UMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Nabil S.

    NEW LIGHT CURVES AND PERIOD STUDIES OF V502 OPH W UMa SYSTEM N.S.Awadalla National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics( NRIAG ) Helwan Cairo EGYPT New BVR photoelectric observations of the W UMa eclipsing binary system V502 Oph have been presented and analyzed. The geometric and physical elements of the system have been obtained and compared to the previous results. The classification of the system concerning the sub-type of the W UMa binary has been studied as well as its evolution stage. Its period variation in a view of the light time effect has been examin

  4. Microbiological evaluation of salivary Streptococcus mutans from children of age 5-7 years, pre- and post-atraumatic restorative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, N. M.; Shigli, Anand L.; Deshpande, Shobha D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective: The objective of the study was to monitor Streptococcus mutans (SM) counts in saliva of children aged 5-7 years old over a period of 6 months with the subsequent use of Fuji IX, glass ionomer cement in atraumatic restorative technique (ART). Materials and Methods: One hundred children were selected to receive ART using Fuji IX glass ionomer cement. Caries status was recorded using DMFT index (WHO 1997) and revaluated after 6 months using DMFS index (WHO 1979). Saliva was collected for microbiological assessment of SM count on four occasions, baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months after ART approach. The results of the microbiological tests were statistically analyzed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney rank test. Results: The results showed a significant reduction of SM levels in saliva immediately 1 week following the ART approach with mean SM counts of 1.5763 (106 CFU/ml) and 1.1286 (105 CFU/ml) pre- and 1 week post–ART, respectively. Reduction in the SM count was seen in 89.47% of children after 1 week of ART treatment. The mean SM count after 1 month and 6 months post-ART was 1.4814 (106 CFU/ml) and 1.4722(106 CFU/ml), respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results that the ART technique was successful in reducing the SM counts in saliva significantly for a period of 1 week post treatment. Although the mean SM counts remained less than the baseline after 6 month evaluation, a trend toward re-establishment of SM to the baseline count was noticed. PMID:22114391

  5. Sleep, daily activity rhythms and postpartum mood: A longitudinal study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Simpson, William; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Women with a diagnosis of bipolar and major depressive disorders are at higher risk to develop postpartum depression. The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether daily activity rhythms and sleep parameters differ between women with and without a history of a mood disorder across the perinatal period. A secondary objective was to determine whether changes in these parameters were associated with postpartum mood. In total, 33 women were included in this study, 15 of which had a history of a mood disorder (high-risk group) and 18 who did not (low-risk group). Sleep and daily rhythms were assessed subjectively and objectively during the third trimester (≥26 weeks gestation) and again at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Mood was also assessed at both time points. Women in the high-risk group showed greater subjective daily rhythms and sleep disturbances across the perinatal period. Objective sleep efficiency was worse in the high-risk group in the postpartum period. Changes in both subjective daily rhythms and objective sleep efficiency were predictive of changes in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. These findings encourage the development of preventative therapeutics to ensure circadian rhythm and sleep stability throughout the perinatal period. PMID:27097327

  6. U.S. Virtual School Trial Period and Course Completion Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Abigail; Barbour, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in policies virtual schools use to calculate course completion and retention rates impacts the comparability of these quality metrics. This study surveyed 159 U.S. virtual schools examining the variability in trial period and course completion policies--two policies that affect course completion rates. Of the 86 respondents, almost 70%…

  7. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  8. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--TIME-ACTIVITY DIARY QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 428 time-activity diaries. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Time Diary and Activity Questionnaire was used for collecting data on detailed (daily) time and location inform...

  9. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 444 follow-up questionnaires. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) ac...

  10. Quasiperiodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, J.; Demekhov, A. G.; Titova, E. E.; Kozlovsky, A. E.; Pasmanik, D. L.

    2014-05-01

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on 24 December 2011 during the VLF campaign in northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1-10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 h we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6-9 s for frequencies 1.2-4 kHz, respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers. In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with shorter periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and quasi-linear effects related to the modification of the energetic electron distribution function. It allows us to observe the transition from purely linear to quasi-linear regime of wave

  11. Driving under the influence in Greece: a 7-year survey (1998-2004).

    PubMed

    Papadodima, Stavroula A; Athanaselis, Sotiris A; Stefanidou, Mania E; Dona, Artemis A; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Maravelias, Costantine P; Spiliopoulou, Chara A

    2008-01-30

    Alcohol is one of the main causes of traffic accidents worldwide. Its use decreases significantly the driving ability of an individual increasing in this way the possibilities of their involvement in motor-vehicle accidents. The above possibilities are increased when a psychoactive substance has been taken in combination with alcohol due to their synergistic effect. The Laboratory of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology of the University of Athens is authorized to perform the toxicological investigation of traffic accidents that happen in the southern part of Greece. The objective of the present study was to identify the prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances among drivers involved in road traffic accidents in Greece during the period 1998-2004. Alcohol was detected in the blood of about 37% of the drivers involved in traffic accident during the years 1998-2000. The detection of alcohol was lower (29%) in the years 2001-2004. Cannabis, benzodiazepines, opiates, and cocaine were found in 4%, 4%, 4% and 1% of the total number of cases, respectively. The above values were compared with those of a previous study concerning the period 1995-1997 and the reasons for the reduction of the number of alcohol-related traffic accidents during the last years are discussed. PMID:17467214

  12. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  13. Delayed retropneumoperitoneum following vaginal laceration in a 7-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Im, Hyesook; Lee, Sanghoon; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae-Yun; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of delayed retropneumoperitoneum caused by a deep vaginal laceration as a result trauma from a water jet in a fountain. A 7-year-old premenarcheal girl presented to the emergency department after experiencing an injury from a water jet at a fountain park. Initially, the patient's vital sign and perineum were within normal range. Because the patient's vital signs became unstable 12 hours after vaginal injury, we carried out abdomino-pelvic computed tomography resulting in retropneumoperitoneum. Arterial bleeding from vaginal lateral wall was founded and controlled by electrocoagulation. No damage to the rectum was laparoscopically confirmed. A diagnostic laparoscopy, not laparotomy, should be considered in cases of retropneumoperitoneum with an ambiguous cause first. PMID:27200319

  14. Delayed retropneumoperitoneum following vaginal laceration in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Im, Hyesook; Lee, Sanghoon; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae-Yun; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo

    2016-05-01

    We describe an unusual case of delayed retropneumoperitoneum caused by a deep vaginal laceration as a result trauma from a water jet in a fountain. A 7-year-old premenarcheal girl presented to the emergency department after experiencing an injury from a water jet at a fountain park. Initially, the patient's vital sign and perineum were within normal range. Because the patient's vital signs became unstable 12 hours after vaginal injury, we carried out abdomino-pelvic computed tomography resulting in retropneumoperitoneum. Arterial bleeding from vaginal lateral wall was founded and controlled by electrocoagulation. No damage to the rectum was laparoscopically confirmed. A diagnostic laparoscopy, not laparotomy, should be considered in cases of retropneumoperitoneum with an ambiguous cause first. PMID:27200319

  15. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  16. Rhabdoid Myomelanocytic Tumor (PEComa) of the Ovary: A Clinically Benign Case Followed for 7 Years.

    PubMed

    Rampisela, Debby; Grossmann, Petr; Donner, Ludvik R

    2016-08-01

    A 3.0 × 2.5 cm rhabdoid myomelanocytic tumor was incidentally found in the left ovary of a 43-year-old black woman. The tumor cells were cytologically bland with minimal proliferation rate, multifocally weakly or moderately expressed TFE3, strongly expressed smooth muscle markers and SMARCB1/INI1, and focally expressed HMB45. They contained numerous paranuclear whorls of intermediate filaments that were verified by ultrastructure. No other lines of differentiation were detected within the tumor. Neither translocation nor increased number of copies of the TFE3 gene at Xp11.22 was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The patient remains well, free of tumor, 7 years after surgery. A rhabdoid variant of myomelanocytic tumor is a rarity, with only a single case described previously. PMID:26944064

  17. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  18. A SEARCH FOR CONCENTRIC CIRCLES IN THE 7 YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE TEMPERATURE SKY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wehus, I. K.; Eriksen, H. K.

    2011-06-01

    In this Letter, we search for concentric circles with low variance in cosmic microwave background sky maps. The detection of such circles would hint at new physics beyond the current cosmological concordance model, which states that the universe is isotropic and homogeneous, and filled with Gaussian fluctuations. We first describe a set of methods designed to detect such circles, based on matched filters and {chi}{sup 2} statistics, and then apply these methods to the best current publicly available data, the 7 year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) temperature sky maps. We compare the observations with an ensemble of 1000 Gaussian {Lambda}CDM simulations. Based on these tests, we conclude that the WMAP sky maps are fully compatible with the Gaussian and isotropic hypothesis as measured by low-variance ring statistics.

  19. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6–7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6–7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods Evaluations at 6–7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. Results In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0–3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0–3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Conclusions Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration. PMID:23896791

  20. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  1. Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Boeke, Caroline E; Gillman, Matthew W; Hughes, Michael D; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-06-15

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002 to 2008-2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  2. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  3. Subalpine grassland carbon balance during 7 years of increased atmospheric N deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Matthias; Enderle, Jan; Bassin, Seraina

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution agents interact when affecting biological sinks for atmospheric CO2, e.g., the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of grassland ecosystems. Factors favoring plant productivity, like atmospheric N deposition, are usually considered to favor SOC storage. In a 7-year experiment in subalpine grassland under N- and O3-deposition treatment, we examined C fluxes and pools. Total N deposition was 4, 9, 14, 29 and 54 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N4, N9, etc.); annual mean phytotoxic O3 dose was 49, 65 and 89 mmol m-2 projected leaf area. We hypothesized that between years SOC of this mature ecosystem would not change in control treatments and that effects of air pollutants are similar for plant yield, net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and SOC content, leading to SOC content increasing with N deposition. Cumulative plant yield showed a significant N and N × N effect (+38 % in N54) but no O3 effect. In the control treatment SOC increased significantly by 9 % in 7 years. Cumulative NEP did show a strong, hump-shaped response pattern to N deposition with a +62 % increase in N14 and only +39 % increase in N54 (N effect statistically not significant, N × N interaction not testable). SOC had a similar but not significant response to N, with highest C gains at intermediate N deposition rates, suggesting a unimodal response with a marginal (P = 0.09) N × N interaction. We assume the strong, pollutant-independent soil C sink developed as a consequence of the management change from grazing to cutting. The non-parallel response of SOC and NEP compared to plant yield under N deposition is likely the result of increased respiratory SOC losses, following mitigated microbial N-limitation or priming effects, and a shift in plant C allocation leading to smaller C input from roots.

  4. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  5. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  6. A study of a plume induced separation shock wave, including effects of periodic plume unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to study the flow field in which separation is caused by an expanding plume, with emphasis on effects associated with periodic unsteadiness in the plume. The separation shock was photographed with high speed motion pictures, from which mean shock position and excursion data were reported. Pressure fluctuations were measured beneath the separation shock. A response of the separation shock to plume periodic unsteadiness was identified, and the magnitude of a corresponding transfer function was defined. Small harmonic effects in plume response to periodic unsteadiness were noted. The stabilizing effect of a lateral surface protuberance near the separation shock wave was investigated. The protuberance configuration was a lateral circular cylinder, and various diameters, all less than the boundary layer thickness, were employed.

  7. Do periodic arm movements during sleep exist in healthy subjects? A polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Wenning, Gregor K.; Frauscher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite several polysomnographic studies on periodic leg movements (PLM) in healthy sleep, data on the prevalence and characteristics of periodic arm movements (PAM) in normal subjects are lacking. We aimed to investigate PAM and their association with PLM during wakefulness and sleep in healthy subjects. Methods Ninety-one participants underwent video-polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2007 criteria. In addition to standard electromyographic registration, data for both flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were recorded. Results Sixty-two subjects (68.1%) had a PAM index during wakefulness >5/h (median PAM index during wakefulness, 8.8/h; range, 0–77). Seven subjects (7.7%) had a PAM index >5/h during sleep (median PAM index during sleep, 0.7/h; range, 0–47.4). In 14% of cases, PAM during wakefulness were coincident with PLM during wakefulness. During sleep, this coincidence was not evident. The correlation between PAM and PLM was weak to moderate (during wakefulness: Spearman's ρ = 0.576, P < 0.001; during sleep: Spearman's ρ = 0.222, P = 0.036). Conclusion In healthy subjects, PAM occur predominantly during wakefulness with no apparent true periodicity. In contrast to classical PLM, some PAM may not present a true periodic phenomenon, but rather random voluntary movements meeting the wide range of periodicity criteria for PLM. PMID:25037838

  8. A study on the effect of exclusion period on the suicidal risk among the insured.

    PubMed

    Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    An exclusion period (usually from 12 months to 2 years) is usually found in life insurance policies as a precautionary measure to prohibit people from insuring their lives with the intent to kill themselves shortly thereafter. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of exclusion periods on the risk of suicide among the insured in the US and Australia. However, while Hong Kong has experienced an increase in the number of suicides among the insured, little is known about the dynamic between the exclusion period and suicide in Asia. Here we make use of death claims data from one of the major life insurance companies in Hong Kong to ascertain the impact of a 12-month exclusion period on suicide risk. We also use utility functions derived from economic theory to better understand individual choices regarding suicide among the insured. More specifically, we sought to determine whether there is a greater risk of suicide immediately following the 12-month exclusion period. We also examined whether the risk of suicide claims was higher than that of other non-suicidal claims. The study period for this investigation was from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011, during which time there were 1935 claims based on 1243 deaths. Of these, 197 were suicide-related claims for 106 suicide deaths. The mean number of life policies held by suicidal claimants and non-suicidal claimants was 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. The average/median size of the claims (total payment made on all policies held by the insured life) was HK$665,800/426,600 and HK$497,700/276,200 for suicidal and non-suicidal deaths, respectively. The policy lifetime of the claims, or the number of days from policy issuance to suicide occurrence, ranged from 38 to 7561 days, with a mean of 2209 days, a median of 1941 days, and a standard deviation of 1544 days. The peak density of suicide claims occurred on day 1039 of the policy. Our results revealed that suicide claims tend to occur earlier than other

  9. Study of modeling aspects of long period fiber grating using three-layer fiber geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The author studied and demonstrated the various modeling aspects of long period fiber grating (LPFG) such as the core effective index, cladding effective index, coupling coefficient, coupled mode theory, and transmission spectrum of the LPFG using three-layer fiber geometry. Actually, there are two different techniques used for theoretical modeling of the long period fiber grating. The first technique was used by Vengsarkar et al who described the phenomenon of long-period fiber gratings, and the second technique was reported by Erdogan who revealed the inaccuracies and shortcomings of the original method, thereby providing an accurate and updated alternative. The main difference between these two different approaches lies in their fiber geometry. Venserkar et al used two-layer fiber geometry which is simple but employs weakly guided approximation, whereas Erdogan used three-layer fiber geometry which is complex but also the most accurate technique for theoretical study of the LPFG. The author further discussed about the behavior of the transmission spectrum by altering different grating parameters such as the grating length, ultraviolet (UV) induced-index change, and grating period to achieve the desired flexibility. The author simulated the various results with the help of MATLAB.

  10. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  11. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  12. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  13. A Study of the Shortest-period Planets Found with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; El Mellah, Ileyk

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R ⊕, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  14. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  15. Developmental Trajectories in Siblings of Children with Autism: Cognition and Language from 4 Months to 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamliel, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit; Jaffe, Dena H.; Manor, Orly; Sigman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    We compared the cognitive and language development at 4, 14, 24, 36, 54 months, and 7 years of siblings of children with autism (SIBS-A) to that of siblings of children with typical development (SIBS-TD) using growth curve analyses. At 7 years, 40% of the SIBS-A, compared to 16% of SIBS-TD, were identified with cognitive, language and/or academic…

  16. Self-consistent simulation studies of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Jameson, R. A.

    1995-09-01

    A self-consistent two-dimensional model is used to investigate intense charged-particle beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing channel, particularly in the regime in which there is a mismatch between the beam and the focusing channel. The present self-consistent studies confirm that mismatched beams exhibit nonlinear resonances and chaotic behavior in the envelope evolution, as predicted by an earlier envelope analysis [C. Chen and R. C. Davidson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2195 (1994)]. Transient effects due to emittance growth are studied, and halo formation is investigated. The halo size is estimated. The halo characteristics for a periodic focusing channel are found to be qualitatively the same as those for a uniform focusing channel. A threshold condition is obtained numerically for halo formation in mismatched beams in a uniform focusing channel, which indicates that relative envelope mismatch must be kept well below 20% to prevent space-charge-dominated beams from developing halos.

  17. A study on characteristics of Methane emission from a periodically irrigated paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakikuromaru, N.; Iwata, T.; Yagi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is generated by organic matter decomposition in the anaerobic soil. Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia. It is said that about 10% of CH4sources is paddy fields (IPCC AR4, 2007). In this study, methane emission from a single-rice crop field was estimated by long-term micrometeorological measurements. Methane emission was calculated by the aerodynamic gradient technique from January 2011 to August 2014. Intermittent water management was carried out during cultivation period at the observational site, HCH, located in Okayama, Japan. 3-days flood and 4-days drained condition were regularly repeated from late-June to early October. Seasonal variations of CH4flux for irrigation term from 2011 to 2013 were shown in Fig.1. Remarkably large fluxes were shown at early stage of irrigation term in 2011.It seemed to be caused by the relatively longer flooded condition that the first flooded period was 20 days. Flux in 2012 was smaller than in other year through the entire irrigation period. Rapid rise in flux for early August and gradual decrease between late August and September were shown in 2013. Fluxes under drained condition showed larger emission than under flooded condition. Cumulative CH4 emissions during cultivated period from 2011 to 2013 were estimated 15.7, 8.6, and 12.9 gC/m2, respectively.

  18. Stable aquaculture of the Japanese lancelet Branchiostoma japonicum for 7 years.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kinya; Igawa, Takeshi; Kaji, Takao; Henmi, Yasuhisa

    2013-12-01

    Despite advances in the study on animal evolution in the last two decades, paucity of experimental data on cephalochordates comparable to those on the other chordates hinders an integrative understanding of chordate evolutionary history. To obtain lancelet data under well-controlled experiments, laboratory cultures of lancelets have been performed at several institutions. In a mass culture started in 2005, we have obtained up to three consecutive generations of Branchiostoma japonicum. Using sand substratum, survival rates of laboratory lancelets until maturation have improved to greater than 30%, much higher than compared to previously, and for adults the annual average survival rate was 82.3%. The high survival rate allows maintaining animals at least 6 years and potentially longer. Water temperatures lower than 23°C obviously reduced the frequency of spawning even after the onset of spawning period, and 1-2 days after changing the temperature at 25°C animals became spawned well. We also observed obvious sex reversal from male to female in individuals that had been cultured for 3 years or more. Our continuous culture has provided sufficient materials for vital experiments on early development and for studying metamorphosis, as well as for the conservation of wild populations. The subculture of successive laboratory generations will provide a valuable resource for genetic studies. PMID:24006276

  19. The study of periodic changes in altitude of the satellite permanent stations of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiy, Lyubov; Tretyak, Kornyliy; Smirnova, Olha; Kulchyckiy, Andriy

    2013-04-01

    The following investigations were implemented in order to study the period of harmonic oscillations of time series of permanent GNSS stations, which are caused by various geophysical factors. A database of daily time series had been created for 111 permanent stations, there observations were running for at least 3 years. Permanent stations cover the latitudinal zone within +600 to -600. Algorithm and program for processing time series and determination of the optimal harmonic functions were developed. Kinematics model of the satellite station is described by the following equation h = at+b+c*cos(t-t0-n*p)+s*sin(t-t0-n*p), where a,b - coefficients of regression equation of linear displacement of station; c,s - harmonic coefficients, t-t0 - time observations at the station, n - number of periods of oscillation p, which fit in the interval t-t0. Presented equation was calculated at each epoch of observations for each station and coefficients a, b, c, s were determined by the method of least squares. On database 60 stations were selected for the study. The criterion for selection was the availability of clearly specified minimum of function of standard deviation of approximate curve from measurement results depending on the duration of the period of oscillations. From the analysis of created database it can be argued that harmonic oscillations of permanent stations depend on geographic station location and location of satellite receivers. According to results of processing it was defined that amplitude of periodical oscillations is changing in the bounds from 2.0 mm till 10.2 mm; period - from 348.9 days till 392,7 days. The largest amplitudes of function of harmonic oscillations are on the permanent stations that are in the heart of the continent, and the smallest amplitudes are on the stations placed along the coastline and on the islands, which apparently due to the capacity of the Earth's crust. It should be noted that the maximums of oscillation amplitudes of

  20. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  1. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family. PMID:25937802

  2. DETECTION OF NEW POINT SOURCES IN WMAP 7 YEAR DATA USING INTERNAL TEMPLATES AND NEEDLETS

    SciTech Connect

    Scodeller, Sandro; Hansen, Frode K.; Marinucci, Domenico E-mail: frodekh@astro.uio.no

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a new needlet-based method to detect point sources in cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps and have applied it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7 year data. We use both the individual frequency channels as well as internal templates, the latter being the difference between pairs of frequency channels and hence having the advantage that the CMB component is eliminated. Using the area of the sky outside the Kq85 galactic mask, we detect a total of 2102 point sources at the 5{sigma} level in either the frequency maps or the internal templates. Of these, 1116 are detected either at 5{sigma} directly in the frequency channels or at 5{sigma} in the internal templates and {>=}3{sigma} at the corresponding position in the frequency channels. Of the 1116 sources, 603 are detections that have not been reported so far in WMAP data. We have made a catalog of these sources available with position and flux estimated in the WMAP channels where they are seen. In total, we identified 1029 of the 1116 sources with counterparts at 5 GHz and 69 at other frequencies.

  3. Neurofibromatous sensory neuropathy of the thigh in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Gautam M; Murari, Ashok Shyam; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok Hyun; Yang, Jae Hyuk

    2008-10-01

    Neuropathy is considered to be an unusual complication of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Neurofibromatous neuropathy is extremely rare in the setting of paediatric age group, pure sensory mononeuropathy and NF1. The following is a description of a 7-year-old boy who presented with complains of discomfort and parasthesia on the anterior aspect of his left thigh which is an unusual mode of presentation and site of involvement. Clinical examination and imaging revealed an isolated sensory neuropathy of the left anterior femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh secondary to plexiform neurofibromatosis involving the L1-L4 nerve roots and the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve of thigh. The main abnormality in this patient was segmental hypertrophy of the left lower limb and dilatation of left lumbar neural foramens. Subtotal excision of the neurofibromas of the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve was performed and the patient was asymptomatic at the end of 27 months (2.25 years) of followup. Although the result of treatment in this case was good, long-term followup is necessary in view of greater risk of malignant transformation and development of spinal deformity and overall long-term poor prognosis in this particular patient subgroup of NF1. PMID:17929043

  4. A 7 years old girl with abdominal lump and per-vaginal bleeding of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Nahar, K; Begum, B; Sarker, U K; Akter, F; Roy, J; Chakrabarty, R

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is suggested from the clinical and laboratory findings. Here we present a case report on this disease with rare presentation of abdominal lump and pervaginal bleeding in childhood. A 7 years old girl admitted in a tertiary level hospital with abdominal lump and irregular per vaginal bleeding. Abdominal swelling was gradually increasing in size & associated with lower abdominal pain for last 5 months. On examination the girl was moderately anaemic, mildly oedematous, distended lower abdomen and a mass in left iliac region. Her thyroid function test, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Prolactin was done and high FSH, LH, Prolactin levels were found. Ultrasonography of lower abdomen revealed bulky uterus and bilateral ovarian cysts. MRI of Brain showed feature of pituitary microadenoma. Finally the patient was diagnosed as primary hypothyroidism and bilateral follicular ovarian cyst with pituitary adenoma developed as its consequence. The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience. PMID:25725684

  5. Marital Satisfaction and Life Circumstances of Grown Children With Autism Across 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child’s autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent–child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers’ marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother–child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers’ marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child’s departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents’ marital relationship. PMID:22866933

  6. First hip arthroplasty register in Italy: 55,000 cases and 7 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, B.; De Clerico, M.; Petropulacos, K.; Toni, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Register for Orthopaedic Prosthetic Implantation (RIPO) has been prospectively collecting data on hip prostheses performed in all the orthopaedic units in the region Emilia-Romagna since January 2000. The register aims to determine the characteristics of patients, evaluate the effectiveness of prostheses, and allow internal audit. Adherence to the register is compulsory (93% capture). By 31 December 2006 the register contained data on 35,041 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), 14,613 hemiarthoplasties, and 5,878 revisions. All prosthetic components are registered on an individual basis. Survival analysis is done following the Kaplan Meier method. Cumulative survival rate at 7 years is 96.8% (95% CI: 96.4–97.1%) for THA and 97.6% (97.0–98.3%) for hemiarthroplasties. Multivariate analysis verified that survival of the THA is affected by pathology, where the worst conditions are rheumatoid arthritis, femoral neck fracture, and sequelae of coxitis or Paget’s disease. Results are comparable to other major registers of Northern Europe and Australia. PMID:17987290

  7. Statistical study on magnetotail lobe waves with period 40 - 600 s observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Tielong; Volwerk, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Ultra low frequency (ULF) waves play an important role in energy transport and dissipation in the magnetosphere. In this paper, 263 waves with period 40 - 150 s and 161 waves with period 150 - 600 s in the Earth's magnetotail lobe have been studied by using Cluster data from years 2001 to 2009. Our findings are as follows: (1) 90% of the wave amplitudes with period 40 - 150 s are below ~0.25 nT for transverse components, and ~0.16 nT for compressional component; The amplitudes of longer period waves are somewhat larger; For waves with period 150 - 600 s, 90% of the wave amplitudes are below ~0.36 nT and ~0.39 nT for transverse and compressional components, respectively. (2) Waves within 40 - 150 s prefer to occur in the lobe region close to the plasma sheet, while waves within 150 - 600 s can be observed throughout the lobe region; (3) The amplitudes of lobe waves and AE index are weakly correlated; However, we find that amplitudes tend to be larger when the AE index is larger; (4) Amplitudes also tend to be larger when the solar wind velocity, the solar wind dynamic pressure or its variations (∆PSW) is larger; The correlation coefficient between amplitudes of waves within 150 - 600 s and ∆PSW is up to ~0.58. We suggest that both dynamic pressure in the plasma sheet boundary layer or plasma sheet (inner source) and solar wind conditions (outer source) can contribute to the generation of lobe ULF waves; Waves within 40 - 150 s are effected more by inner source; ∆PSW is more associated with compressional waves within 150 - 600 s than that within 40 - 150 s.

  8. Spatial Vulnerability to Dengue in a Brazilian Urban Area During a 7-Year Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Assunção, Renato Martins; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2007-01-01

    This study considers the vulnerability of the urban area of the City of Belo Horizonte to dengue. A total number of 89,607 cases registered in the surveillance system from 1996 to 2002 were analyzed. Seven epidemic waves were identified during this period. Cases were grouped into 2,563 census areas, and three risk categories were proposed based on how many times each area reached a threshold established for each epidemic wave. The association between the risk categories and the socioeconomic, demographic and urban-infrastructure characteristics was evaluated. Analysis included Kruskal–Wallis test variance comparisons and multivariate regression using multinomial models. Incidence rates differed significantly among the three risk categories in most of the epidemic waves. The factors that best characterized the areas were low educational level (≤4 years of schooling), low income of the head of the family (≤2 minimum wages per household), household density, and proportion of children and elderly women. Information related to basic sanitation was not enough to discriminate levels of susceptibility to dengue, and study of population density and concentration of establishments considered vulnerable to vector infestation yielded questionable results. It is important to consider different levels of exposure of the population to explain the heterogeneous pattern of distribution of dengue cases in an urban setting. Understanding the dynamics of dengue fever is essential for surveillance purposes, to improve control measures and to avoid epidemics of this disease. PMID:17243024

  9. Extended interval dosing of natalizumab: a two-center, 7-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Pawate, Siddharama

    2014-01-01

    Background: The enthusiasm for natalizumab, a highly efficacious agent in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), has been tempered by the risks of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with its use, and strategies to minimize those risks are of great interest. Extended interval dosing (EID) has been proposed as a way to maintain the efficacy of natalizumab while reducing exposure to it. We reviewed a cohort of patients who received natalizumab at 6–8-week intervals instead of the typical infusions every 4 weeks with the goal to assess if patients on EID had an increase in clinical relapses. Methods: This is a retrospective review of all patients with MS treated with natalizumab at two MS centers where patients were offered the opportunity to switch to an EID every 6 or 8 weeks. Results: A total of 361 patients received natalizumab for 22 ± 13 months (minimum duration 6 months). Of these, 96 patients received EID natalizumab at some point for 20 ± 11 months (minimum duration 6 months). Over the study period, there was no significant difference between the relapse rate in the monthly dosing (13%) and the EID (13%) groups of patients. Conclusion: Natalizumab is effective in controlling MS as very few clinical relapses were observed in our dataset. We found that EID did not compromise the treatment effect as measured by relapse rate and no significant breakthrough disease activity was observed. EID is an optional regimen for maintenance natalizumab therapy, but prospective studies are warranted to determine its efficacy. PMID:25342976

  10. Placebo-Controlled Trial of Valproic Acid Versus Risperidone in Children 3–7 Years of Age with Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Russell E.; Monroe, Erin; Delgado, Sergio; Altaye, Mekibib; Lagory, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of valproic acid versus risperidone in children, 3–7 years of age, with bipolar I disorder (BPD), during a mixed or manic episode. Methods: Forty-six children with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of bipolar disorder, manic, hypomanic, or mixed episode, were recruited over a 6 year period from two academic outpatient programs for a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in which subjects were randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to risperidone solution, valproic acid, or placebo. Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, the least-mean Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total scores change, adjusted for baseline YMRS scores, from baseline by treatment group was: Valproic acid 10.0±2.46 (p=0.50); risperidone 18.82±1.55 (p=0.008); and placebo 4.29±3.56 (F=3.93, p=0.02). The mixed models for repeated measure (MMRM) analysis found a significant difference for risperidone-treated subjects versus placebo treated subjects (p=0.008) but not for valproic acid-treated subjects versus placebo-treated subjects (p=0.50). Treatment with risperidone over 6 weeks led to increased prolactin levels, liver functions, metabolic measures, and weight/body mass index (BMI). Treatment with valproic acid led to increases in weight/BMI and decreases in total red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Conclusions: In this small sample of preschool children with BPD, risperidone demonstrated clear efficacy versus placebo, whereas valproic acid did not. The laboratory and weight findings suggest that younger children with BPD are more sensitive to the effects of both of these psychotropics, and that, therefore, frequent laboratory and weight monitoring are warranted. PMID:25978742

  11. A Study of Heliospheric Modulation and Periodicities of Galactic Cosmic Rays During Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Kudela, K.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2016-02-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are energetic, charged particles coming from outside the solar system. These particles encounter an outward-moving turbulent solar wind with cyclic magnetic-field fluctuations when entering the heliosphere. This causes convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. The GCR counts detected by the ground-based neutron-monitor stations show intensity changes with a fluctuation of ˜ 11 years and are anti-correlated with the sunspot numbers with some time lags. GCRs experience various types of modulation from different solar activity features and are important components of space weather. The previous solar cycle, Cycle 23, has shown anomalous behavior with a prolonged deep minimum, which was characterized by a record-setting high Galactic cosmic-ray flux observed at Earth. Solar Cycle 24 started much later than expected and progressed sluggishly toward its maxima. In this paper, we study the heliospheric modulation and intermediate-term periodicities of GCRs during the ascending phase of Cycle 24. We utilize simultaneous solar, interplanetary plasma, magnetic field, and geomagnetic activity data including the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet, and we study their relation with GCRs. The wavelet power spectrum of GCRs exhibits the presence of a variety of prominent short- and mid-term periodicities including the well-known Rieger and quasi-biennial periodicities. Possible explanations of the observed results are discussed in the light of numerical models.

  12. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  13. Study of Ocean Response to Periodic and Constant Volcanic Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogar, M.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that volcanic radiative impacts could produce long-term perturbations of the ocean heat content. In this study we systematically compare the effect of periodic volcanic forcing with an equivalent time-average radiative cooling. One could expect that a sporadic strong cooling should initiate more vigorous vertical mixing of the upper ocean layer and therefore cools the ocean more effectively than a uniform radiative forcing. However, the long-term simulations show that on average the ocean heat content responses to periodic and constant forcings are almost identical. To better understand this controversy we conducted two sets of parallel simulations, the first one with uniform volcanic forcing and the second one with periodic volcanic forcing with 10 and 50 years repeating cycle using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model CM2.1. We found that average perturbations of surface temperature, precipitation, ocean heat content, and sea level rise in both sets of simulations are similar but responses of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation are significantly different, which explains the differences in the relaxation processes. These findings could be important for ocean initialization in long-tern climate studies and for geoengineering applications.

  14. Studies of short-period comets on the eve of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Cometas-Obs Team

    2015-05-01

    We present an extended study of the dust environment of a sample of short-period comets and their dynamical history. With this aim, we characterized the dust tails when the comets are active, and we make a statistical study to determine their dynamical evolution. The targets selected were 22P/Kopff, 30P/Reinmuth 1, 78P/Gehrels 2, 81P/Wild 2, 103P/Hartley 2, 115P/Maury, 118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4, 123P/West-Hartley, 157P/Tritton, 185P/Petriew, P/2011 W2 (Rinner).

  15. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on pressure loss for periodic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, Ondřej; Nováková, Ludmila; Adamec, Josef

    2016-03-01

    A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risk for people. In the last work, experimental investigation of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape for steady flow were performed. In this work, experimental investigation of pressure loss for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape under periodic flow were performed. Four models of different geometry were studied, two models are axisymmetric stenoses and two models are eccentric stenoses. All models were stenosis of 75% area reduction. The periodic flow, generated by a controllable pump, has sinus shape in an inlet. The measuring range of medium Reynolds number was from 500 to 1500, range of ratio between an amplitude and medium flow rate was from 0.2 to 0.6 and range of frequency was from 0.2 to 1 Hz. The pressure loss for each conditions was quantified by mean value, amplitude and phase shift against flow rate.

  16. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America. PMID:23856041

  17. Use of PIXE analysis technique for the study of Beirut amphora production in the Roman period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumié, M.; Waksman, S. Y.; Nsouli, B.; Reynolds, P.; Lemaı̂tre, S.

    2004-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis techniques were developed and utilized for applications in the domain of archeology at the accelerator laboratory of the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission. The characterization of Beirut kiln materials, mainly amphorae ceramics from the Roman period, was done using PIXE technique. In two runs with 1 and 3 MeV protons, we measured 20 major and trace elements. Consequently, a classification based on the elemental composition and on multivariate statistical techniques of some 70 ceramic objects was obtained providing the first step of a Lebanese database for future studies. Furthermore, the analysis of carrot amphorae found in Gaul (south of France) showed that some of them were of Beirut products and hence emphasized the role of Beirut city in the Mediterranean trade in the Roman period.

  18. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  19. Serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the management of perennial and periodic asthma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Purohit, A; Stenger, R; Gries, P; Hamberger, C; David, B; Frossard, N; Pauli, G

    1998-03-01

    We performed a prospective study in order: 1) to determine whether a correlation could be found between serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels and clinical and functional status in perennial asthmatics during a 5 month prospective study; and 2) to evaluate the relationship between allergic exposure and ECP levels in periodic asthmatics. Two groups of asthmatic patients were selected: a group of acutely ill perennial asthmatics and a group of periodic asthmatics. The acutely ill perennial asthmatics (n=22, mean age=39.4 yrs) were included on the basis of hospitalization for acute asthma. At the end of the hospitalization, there was a 5 month follow-up of clinical, functional and medication scores, as well as eosinophil counts and ECP levels. The periodic asthmatic group was composed of asthmatics sensitized to birch and tree pollens (n=10, mean age=33.8 yrs). The same measurement were performed on this group, before, during and after the pollen season. Under corticosteroid treatment in the acutely ill patients, there was a significant decrease in serum ECP levels between the first day of hospitalization and the day of discharge (mean: 23.2 microg x L(-1) and 9.5 microg x L(-1), respectively; p=0.006). No correlation was found between the clinical status, functional status and serum ECP levels during the 5 month follow-up. A significant increase in ECP levels was found in periodic asthmatics during the pollen season. Our results suggest that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a useful marker of allergen exposure and of acute asthma treatment. This could be of importance in the prevention and follow-up of allergic asthma; the value of serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the day-to-day management of adult asthmatics needs to be further clarified. PMID:9596108

  20. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  1. The transfer of comets from parabolic orbits to short-period orbits: Numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J. A.; Gallardo, T.

    1994-01-01

    The transfer process of long-period (LP) comets from parabolic orbits to short-period (SP) orbits is studied numerically for small perihelion distances (q less than 2 AU) and for perihelia in the Jupiter's zone (4 less than q less than 5.2 AU). Two different numerical approaches are used. For q less than 2 AU, it is shown that the inclination distribution of a population of LP comets with initial random orientations of their orbital planes (i.e. a sinusoidal distribution of i) evolves toward a flatter distribution by the combination of two dynamical effects. When the number of passages is limited by physical causes, less comets in retrograde orbits are found to reach evolved states owing to their slower evolution. This can explain the depletion of retrograde comets among the observed old LP comets (200 less than P less than 1000 yr) and intermediate-period (IP) comets (20 less than P less than 200 yr) with q less than 2 AU, which suggests average physical lifetimes of about 300-500 revolutions for comets moving through the LP path. For q less than 2 AU the probability of capture of a LP comet into an IP orbit is found to be about 0.01 when an upper limit of 400 revolutions is considered. This gives a steady-state population of intermediate-period comets of the Halley type with q less than 2 AU of approximately equal 300 members. Long-period comets evolving in the Jupiter's zone (4 less than q less than 5.2 AU) from an initial population of randomly oriented, parabolic comets reach the intermediate-period stage with an inclination distribution already biased toward direct orbits without considering physical losses. This is due to the stronger dependence of the typical energy change on the inclination, which results in a much lower transfer probability for retrograde orbits. Randomly-oriented LP comets captured in SP orbits, either from the small-q zone or from the Jupiter's zone, show dynamical properties that do not match the observed ones. There are also serious

  2. An up to 7-Year Retrospective Analysis of Biologic and Technical Complication With the All-on-4 Concept.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Marco; Canullo, Luigi; Pisano, Milena; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Meloni, Silvio Mario

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively biologic and technical complications as well as clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients treated with 4 implants according to the All-on-4 protocol and followed up to 7 years of function. Data from 56 consecutive patients presenting complete edentulous jaw, aged 18 years or older, treated between January 2008 and December 2013, were evaluated. The outcomes were implant and prosthetic survival and success rates, any complications, and marginal bone loss (MBL). Two-hundred twenty-four implants were placed in 56 patients. During the entire follow-up, 1 maxillary implant but no prosthesis failed during the healing process. Fourteen patients experienced 1 complication each (10 technical, 4 biologic). The overall implant and prosthetic success rate was 98.2% and 82.1%, respectively. All complications were considered as minor and successfully resolved chairside. A mean MBL of 1.30 ± 0.63 mm was observed at the last follow-up. Statistically significant difference was found for postextractive implants (0.79 ± 0.26) vs implants placed in healed sites (1.03 ± 0.46; P = 0.024). Within the limits of the present study, the All-on-4 concept may be a valuable surgical and prosthetic option for the treatment of complete edentulous jaws. However, minor technical and biologic complications can occur. Further long-term prospective data with primary outcomes focused on success rates are needed. PMID:26652901

  3. Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether measures of short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschool children predict later proficiency in academic achievement at 7 years of age (third year of primary school). Children were tested in preschool (M age = 4 years, 6 months) on a battery of cognitive measures, and mathematics and reading outcomes (from standardized, norm-referenced school-based assessments) were taken on entry to primary school, and at the end of the first and third year of primary school. Growth curve analyses examined predictors of math and reading achievement across the duration of the study and revealed that better digit span and executive function skills provided children with an immediate head start in math and reading that they maintained throughout the first three years of primary school. Visual-spatial short-term memory span was found to be a predictor specifically of math ability. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that visual short-term and working memory were found to specifically predict math achievement at each time point, while executive function skills predicted learning in general rather than learning in one specific domain. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to further understanding the role of cognitive skills in different mathematical tasks, and in relation to the impact of limited cognitive skills in the classroom environment. PMID:18473197

  4. Mortality among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Bullman, T A

    2001-09-01

    To assess the long-term health consequences of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the authors compared cause-specific mortality rates of 621,902 Gulf War veterans with those of 746,248 non-Gulf veterans, by gender, with adjustment for age, race, marital status, branch of service, and type of unit. Vital status follow-up began with the date of exit from the Persian Gulf theater (Gulf veterans) or May 1, 1991 (control veterans). Follow-up for both groups ended on the date of death or December 31, 1997, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the multivariate analysis. For Gulf veterans, mortality risk was also assessed relative to the likelihood of exposure to nerve gas at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Among Gulf veterans, the significant excess of deaths due to motor vehicle accidents that was observed during the earlier postwar years had decreased steadily to levels found in non-Gulf veterans. The risk of death from natural causes remained lower among Gulf veterans compared with non-Gulf veterans. This was mainly accounted for by the relatively higher number of deaths related to human immunodeficiency virus infection among non-Gulf veterans. There was no statistically significant difference in cause-specific mortality among Gulf veterans relative to potential nerve gas exposure. The risk of death for both Gulf veterans and non-Gulf veterans stayed less than half of that expected in their civilian counterparts. The authors conclude that the excess risk of mortality from motor vehicle accidents that was associated with Gulf War service has dissipated after 7 years of follow-up. PMID:11532780

  5. Searching for hidden mirror symmetries in CMB fluctuations from WMAP 7 year maps

    SciTech Connect

    Finelli, Fabio; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Starobinsky, Alexey A. E-mail: gruppuso@iasfbo.inaf.it E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru

    2012-07-01

    We search for hidden mirror symmetries at large angular scales in the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination map of CMB temperature anisotropies using global pixel based estimators introduced for this aim. Two different axes are found for which the CMB intensity pattern is anomalously symmetric (or anti-symmetric) under reflection with respect to orthogonal planes at the 99.84(99.96)% CL (confidence level), if compared to a result for an arbitrary axis in simulations without the symmetry. We have verified that our results are robust to the introduction of the galactic mask. The direction of such axes is close to the CMB kinematic dipole and nearly orthogonal to the ecliptic plane, respectively. If instead the real data are compared to those in simulations taken with respect to planes for which the maximal mirror symmetry is generated by chance, the confidence level decreases to 92.39(76.65)%. But when the effect in question translates into the anomalous alignment between normals to planes of maximal mirror (anti)-symmetry and these natural axes mentioned. We also introduce the representation of the above estimators in the harmonic domain, confirming the results obtained in the pixel one. The symmetry anomaly is shown to be almost entirely due to low multipoles, so it may have a cosmological and even primordial origin. Contrary, the anti-symmetry one is mainly due to intermediate multipoles that probably suggests its non-fundamental nature. We have demonstrated that these anomalies are not connected to the known issue of the low variance in WMAP observations and we have checked that axially symmetric parts of these anomalies are small, so that the axes are not the symmetry ones.

  6. Applying Data-mining techniques to study drought periods in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, F.; Penades, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    Data-mining is a technique that it can be used to interact with large databases and to help in the discovery relations between parameters by extracting information from massive and multiple data archives. Drought affects many economic and social sectors, from agricultural to transportation, going through urban water deficit and the development of modern industries. With these problems and drought geographical and temporal distribution it's difficult to find a single definition of drought. Improving the understanding of the knowledge of climatic index is necessary to reduce the impacts of drought and to facilitate quick decisions regarding this problem. The main objective is to analyze drought periods from 1950 to 2009 in Spain. We use several kinds of information, different formats, sources and transmission mode. We use satellite-based Vegetation Index, dryness index for several temporal periods. We use daily and monthly precipitation and temperature data and soil moisture data from numerical weather model. We calculate mainly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) that it has been used amply in the bibliography. We use OLAP-Mining techniques to discovery of association rules between remote-sensing, numerical weather model and climatic index. Time series Data- Mining techniques organize data as a sequence of events, with each event having a time of recurrence, to cluster the data into groups of records or cluster with similar characteristics. Prior climatological classification is necessary if we want to study drought periods over all Spain.

  7. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  8. Vector method for studying the second-harmonic-generation light derived from complex periodic ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihong; Yang, Xiangbo; Wang, Zhenyu

    2010-05-01

    In this Letter, in order to overcome the disadvantages of controlling the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) light derived from the traditional one-dimensional (1D) periodic ferroelectric domains we propose a kind of so-called complex periodic ferroelectric structure (CPFS), which unit cell is composed of even layers of positive and negative domains arranged alternatively following aperiodic sequence. It is found that comparing with the traditional periodic structure, CPFS cannot offer more reciprocal vector compensations for the mismatching phase, but CPFS may provide larger effective nonlinear coefficients (ENCs) in high-order quasi-phase-matching (QPM) and possesses advantages of the amplitude modulation for SHG peaks. In this Letter we study CPFS by use of vector method (VM), where the contribution to ENC for each domain or each unit cell will be treated as a vector and the QPM condition for CPFS and the modulation effect of aperiodic unit cells have been obtained. Without any Fourier transformation VM treats the grating function in real space and will be very convenient and intuitive. Both VM and CPFS would possess potential applications in the field of SHG investigations.

  9. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  10. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    PubMed

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  11. Physicians' views of periodic abstinence methods: a study in four countries.

    PubMed

    Snowden, R; Kennedy, K I; Leon, F; Orense, V C; Perera, H W; Phillips, R; Askew, I; Flynn, A; Severy, L J

    1988-01-01

    A study of the knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions of physicians regarding periodic abstinence (PA) methods was undertaken in Mauritius, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Most respondents considered PA to be useful, although even the PA providers prescribed mainly non-PA methods. Detailed knowledge of PA methods was not evident, but most physicians were willing to initiate general discussion about PA with patients. Physicians favored methods perceived as "scientific" and "modern," which primarily prevent pregnancy and secondarily avoid other health risks. When carefully presented as "scientific" and "modern," methods presented to medical audiences may find acceptance and be more likely to result in referral. PMID:3176094

  12. A study of periodicities and recurrences in solar activity and cosmic ray modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attolini, M. R.; Cecchini, S.; Galli, M.

    1985-01-01

    The 154d periodicity was found in the cosmic ray intensity (RE) vs Flares, and some other peaks of coherency in the RC vs aa sub I, that when interpreted as aliased values, might correspond to recurring interplanetary magnetic field structures and solar wind streams. It cannot be excluded, however, that some of the correspondence with aa are of terrestrial origin. This study cannot be considered exhaustive due to the fact that other solar variables, such as polar hole size, are possibly correlated to cosmic ray intensities. However, the number of observations is small so that the interpretation of the results is very difficult.

  13. Studying Jupiter-Family Comets and Long Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, E. A.; Fernandez, Y.; Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A.; Walker, R. G.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Lisse, C.; Meech, K. J.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Tholen, D. J.; Wright, E.

    2011-10-01

    The WISE mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands from Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2011. By covering the entire sky, WISE serendipitously observed a large number of active comets. We will present preliminary results from the analysis of several Jupiter-family comets and long period comets (listed in Table 1). The analysis will characterize various properties of each body, including dust production rate, grain properties, nucleus size estimates, albedo constraints, and constraints of the CO/CO2 gas emission. Several of these objects were also observed as part of the Spitzer SEPPCoN program, allowing comparisons to be made between these two studies.

  14. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  15. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  16. Gender differences in 7 years trends in cholesterol lipoproteins and lipids in India: Insights from a hospital database

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajeev; Sharma, Madhawi; Goyal, Neeraj Krishna; Bansal, Preeti; Lodha, Sailesh; Sharma, Krishna Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine gender differences and secular trends in total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high DL (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides using a large hospital database in India. Methods: All blood lipid tests evaluated from July 2007 to December 2014 were analyzed. Details of gender and age were available. Statin therapy was obtained at two separate periods. Trends were calculated using linear regression and Mantel-Haenszel X2. Results: Data of 67395 subjects (men 49,904, women 17,491) aged 51 ± 12 years were analyzed. Mean levels (mg/dl) were total cholesterol 174.7 ± 45, LDL cholesterol 110.7 ± 38, non-HDL cholesterol 132.1 ± 44.8, HDL cholesterol 44.1 ± 10, triglycerides 140.8 ± 99, and total: HDL cholesterol 4.44 ± 1.5. Various dyslipidemias in men/women were total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl 25.4/36.4%, LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dl 28.1/35.0% and ≥100 mg/dl 54.4/66.4%, non-HDL cholesterol ≥160 mg/dl 25.5/29.6%, HDL cholesterol <40/50 mg/dl 54.4/64.4%, and triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl 34.0/26.8%. Cholesterol lipoproteins declined over 7 years with greater decline in men versus women for cholesterol (Blinearregression = −0.82 vs. −0.33, LDL cholesterol (−1.01 vs. −0.65), non-HDL cholesterol (−0.88 vs. −0.52), and total: HDL cholesterol (−0.02 vs. −0.01). In men versus women there was greater decline in prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (X2trend 74.5 vs. 1.60), LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dl (X2trend 415.5 vs. 25.0) and ≥100 mg/dl (X2trend 501.5 vs. 237.4), non-HDL cholesterol (X2trend 77.4 vs. 6.85), total: HDL cholesterol (X2trend 212.7 vs. 10.5) and high triglycerides (X2trend 10.8 vs. 6.15) (P < 0.01). Use of statins was in 2.6% (36/1405) in 2008 and 9.0% (228/2527) in 2014 (P < 0.01). Statin use was significantly lower in women (5.8%) than men (10.3%). Conclusions: In a large hospital - database we observed greater hypercholesterolemia and low HDL cholesterol in women. Mean levels and prevalence of high total, LDL, non

  17. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition. PMID:23011657

  18. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  19. Study on the Period of the Use of Datong-li in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young-Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lim, Young-Ryan

    2010-03-01

    It has been generally known that Datong-li (a Chinese calendar in the Ming dynasty)was first introduced into Korea in the nineteenth reign of King Gongmin (1370) of the Goryeo dynasty and lasted to the third reign of King Hyeojong (1652) of the Joseon dynasty. This understanding is based on the records of Goryeo-sa (History of the Goryeo dynasty) and of Seoungwan-ji (Official book of Seoungwan)/ Jeungbomunheon bigo (Explanatory Notes of Library ocument). To verify the period of the use of Datong-li in Korea, we develop a Fortran code to calculate the calendar day by Datong-li and also investigate historical literatures and extant almanacs. As a result, we find the possibility that Datong-li had been in use since 1389 at least. However,we cannot confirm whether Datong-li was first enforced in 1370 or not. On the other hand, we confirm that Datong-li was used until 1653 and reintroduced during the period from 1667 to 1669. Also, we find that previous studies had some errors in the sexagenary cycle of the real first day of a month. We think that this study will contribute to understanding the calendrical history of the Joseon dynasty.

  20. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  1. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  2. Modeling the Canadian southern Atlantic region oxidants: A study of a Canadian EMEFS-1 hyperintensive period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wanmin; Lin, Xiude; MéNard, Sylvain; Pellerin, Pierre; Benoit, Robert

    1999-08-01

    The roles and mechanisms of transport and chemical transformation affecting surface ozone in the Canadian southern Atlantic region (SAR) are investigated using a three-dimensional Eulerian comprehensive modeling system. The investigation is focused a regional ozone episode over the eastern North America during the first week of August 1988. The model performance is evaluated with available observations during this period. The model is shown to reproduce the general features of this regional episode, with better performance for the sites with clear local photochemical activities than for those strongly influenced by complex coastal flow. It is shown from the reconstructed time history of various processes along the backward trajectories originating from a site in Nova Scotia that the elevated ground-level ozone in the SAR during the study period was associated with transport at low levels, under a strong southwesterly flow. The high ozone brought to the site was mostly produced within the stable marine boundary layer from precursors picked up earlier over the emission area on the east coast of the United States. A second transport situation was also simulated and shown to be associated with transport aloft that was never mixed to the surface. This study also shows that differential advection, due to stable stratification and vertical shear of horizontal wind, can deform surface-based plumes to produce elevated layers of pollutants over the Gulf of Maine.

  3. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  4. A comparative study of four significance measures for periodicity detection in astronomical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne P.; Eyer, Laurent; Cuypers, Jan; Holl, Berry; Lecoeur-Taïbi, Isabelle; Mowlavi, Nami; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Blanco, Diego Ordóñez; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Ruiz, Idoia

    2015-06-01

    We study the problem of periodicity detection in massive data sets of photometric or radial velocity time series, as presented by ESA's Gaia mission. Periodicity detection hinges on the estimation of the false alarm probability of the extremum of the periodogram of the time series. We consider the problem of its estimation with two main issues in mind. First, for a given number of observations and signal-to-noise ratio, the rate of correct periodicity detections should be constant for all realized cadences of observations regardless of the observational time patterns, in order to avoid sky biases that are difficult to assess. Secondly, the computational loads should be kept feasible even for millions of time series. Using the Gaia case, we compare the FM method of Paltani and Schwarzenberg-Czerny, the Baluev method and the GEV method of Süveges, as well as a method for the direct estimation of a threshold. Three methods involve some unknown parameters, which are obtained by fitting a regression-type predictive model using easily obtainable covariates derived from observational time series. We conclude that the GEV and the Baluev methods both provide good solutions to the issues posed by a large-scale processing. The first of these yields the best scientific quality at the price of some moderately costly pre-processing. When this pre-processing is impossible for some reason (e.g. the computational costs are prohibitive or good regression models cannot be constructed), the Baluev method provides a computationally inexpensive alternative with slight biases in regions where time samplings exhibit strong aliases.

  5. Case-control study of the PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and colorectal adenoma formation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Melannie; Burch, James B; Steck, Susan E; Chen, Chin-Fu; Hurley, Thomas G; Cavicchia, Philip; Ray, Meredith; Shivappa, Nitin; Guess, Jaclyn; Zhang, Hongmei; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Creek, Kim E; Lloyd, Stephen; Yang, Xiaoming; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Clock genes are expressed in a self-perpetuating, circadian pattern in virtually every tissue including the human gastrointestinal tract. They coordinate cellular processes critical for tumor development, including cell proliferation, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer and other cancers. This mechanism has not been elucidated, yet may involve dysregulation of the 'period' (PER) clock genes, which have tumor suppressor properties. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been associated with sleep disorders, differences in diurnal hormone secretion, and increased premenopausal breast cancer risk. Susceptibility related to PER3 has not been examined in conjunction with adenomatous polyps. This exploratory case-control study was the first to test the hypothesis that the 5-repeat PER3 VNTR sequence is associated with increased odds of adenoma formation. Information on demographics, medical history, occupation and lifestyle was collected prior to colonoscopy. Cases (n=49) were individuals with at least one histopathologically confirmed adenoma. Controls (n=97) included patients with normal findings or hyperplastic polyps not requiring enhanced surveillance. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjusting for potential confounding. Adenomas were detected in 34% of participants. Cases were more likely to possess the 5-repeat PER3 genotype relative to controls (4/5 OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9-4.8; 5/5 OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4-18.1; 4/5+5/5 OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7-5.4). Examination of the Oncomine microarray database indicated lower PERIOD gene expression in adenomas relative to adjacent normal tissue. Results suggest a need for follow-up in a larger sample. PMID:25501848

  6. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  7. Orbital Period Variation and Morphological Light Curve Studies for the W UMa Binary BB Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Magdy A.; Awadalla, Nabil S.

    2011-06-01

    The photometric light curves of the W-type W UMa eclipsing contact binary system BB Pegasi have been found to be extremely asymmetric over all the observed 63 years in all wavelengths UBVR. The light curves have been characterized by occultation primary minima. So, the morphology of these light curves has been studied in view of these different asymmetric degrees. The system shows a distinct O'Connell effect as well as depth variation. A 22.96 years cycle, of dark spots group, has been determined for the system combined with about the same cycling for the depth variations (22.78 yr). Also, an analysis of the measurements of mid-eclipse times of BB Peg has been presented. The analysis indicates a period decrease of 5.62× 10-8 d/yr, which can be interpreted in terms of mass transfer of rate -4.38 × 10-8 M_⊙/yr, from the more to the less massive component. The O-C diagram shows a damping sine wave covering two different cycles of 17.0 yr and 12.87 yr with amplitudes equal to 0.0071 and 0.0013 day, respectively. These unequal durations show a non periodicity which may be explained as a result of magnetic activity cycling variations due to star spots. The obtained characteristics are consistent when applying Applegate's (1992) mechanism.

  8. Nanoscale periodic domain patterns in tetragonal ferroelectrics: A phase-field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuka Balakrishna, A.; Huber, J. E.; Münch, I.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectrics form domain patterns that minimize their energy subject to imposed boundary conditions. In a linear, constrained theory, that neglects domain-wall energy, periodic domain patterns in the form of multirank laminates can be identified as minimum-energy states. However, when these laminates (formed in a macroscopic crystal) comprise domains that are a few nanometers in size, the domain-wall energy becomes significant, and the behavior of laminate patterns at this scale is not known. Here, a phase-field model, which accounts for gradient energy and strain energy contributions, is employed to explore the stability and evolution of the nanoscale multirank laminates. The stress, electric field, and domain-wall energies in the laminates are computed. The effect of scaling is also discussed. In the absence of external loading, stripe domain patterns are found to be lower-energy states than the more complex, multirank laminates, which mostly collapse into simpler patterns. However, complex laminates can be stabilized by imposing external loads such as electric field, average strain, and polarization. The study provides insight into the domain patterns that may form on a macroscopic single crystal but comprising nanoscale periodic patterns, and on the effect of external loads on these patterns.

  9. Refractory period modulates the spatiotemporal evolution of cortical spreading depression: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Chen, Shangbin; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a pathophysiological phenomenon, which underlies some neurological disorders, such as migraine and stroke, but its mechanisms are still not completely understood. One of the striking facts is that the spatiotemporal evolution of CSD wave is varying. Observations in experiments reveal that a CSD wave may propagate through the entire cortex, or just bypass some areas of the cortex. In this paper, we have applied a 2D reaction-diffusion equation with recovery term to study the spatiotemporal evolution of CSD. By modulating the recovery rate from CSD in the modeled cortex, CSD waves with different spatiotemporal evolutions, either bypassing some areas or propagating slowly in these areas, were present. Moreover, spiral CSD waves could also be induced in case of the transiently altered recovery rate, i.e. block release from the absolute refractory period. These results suggest that the refractory period contributes to the different propagation patterns of CSD, which may help to interpret the mechanisms of CSD propagation. PMID:24400104

  10. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused disasters around the world. To prevent losses by floods, levees have often been constructed in inundation-prone areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao First Levee in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered: the slope sliding failure of the levee and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variability of the in situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the change of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee could fail with slope sliding for all values of the water level difference. The results of levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could aid engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  11. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused damages around the world. To prevent damages by floods, levees have often been constructed in prone-to-inundation areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao 1st Levee located in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in-situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered, including the slope sliding failure of the levee, and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variabilities of the in-situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety (FS) for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the variability of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee can undergo slope sliding failure for all values of the water level difference. The results for levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could assist engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  12. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  13. Altered brain connectivity in 3-to 7-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Ueno, Sanae; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Munesue, Toshio; Nakatani, Hideo; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Oi, Manabu; Niida, Yo; Remijn, Gerard B.; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often described as a disorder of aberrant neural connectivity and/or aberrant hemispheric lateralization. Although it is important to study the pathophysiology of the developing ASD cortex, the physiological connectivity of the brain in young children with ASD under conscious conditions has not yet been described. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive brain imaging technique that is practical for use in young children. MEG produces a reference-free signal and is, therefore, an ideal tool for computing the coherence between two distant cortical rhythms. Using a custom child-sized MEG, we recently reported that 5- to 7-year-old children with ASD (n = 26) have inherently different neural pathways than typically developing (TD) children that contribute to their relatively preserved performance of visual tasks. In this study, we performed non-invasive measurements of the brain activity of 70 young children (3–7 years old, of which 18 were aged 3-4 years), a sample consisting of 35 ASD children and 35 TD children. Physiological connectivity and the laterality of physiological connectivity were assessed using intrahemispheric coherence for 9 frequency bands. As a result, significant rightward connectivity between the parietotemporal areas, via gamma band oscillations, was found in the ASD group. As we obtained the non-invasive measurements using a custom child-sized MEG, this is the first study to demonstrate a rightward-lateralized neurophysiological network in conscious young children (including children aged 3–4 years) with ASD. PMID:24179793

  14. Dynamic Characteristics of Serum Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Chinese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving 7 Years of Entecavir Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia-Xia; Li, Min-Ran; Xi, Hong-Li; Cao, Ying; Zhang, Ren-Wen; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xiao-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ultimate goal of hepatitis B treatment is hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance. Several factors have been suggested to be associated with the rate of HBsAg reduction in antiviral-naive or lamivudine therapy cohorts. However, there are few studies evaluating the factors during long-term entecavir (ETV) therapy. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the factors to predict the outcome of ETV therapy for 7 years. Methods: A total of 47 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with ETV monotherapy were included in this study. Liver biochemistry, hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers, serum HBV DNA, and HBsAg titers were tested at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly from 1 to 7. The associations between factors and HBsAg reduction were assessed using multivariate tests with repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: At baseline, serum HBsAg levels showed a positive correlation with baseline HBV DNA levels (r = 0.625, P < 0.001). The mean HBsAg titers after ETV treatment were significantly lower than the baseline titers (P ranges from 0.025 to 0.000,000,6). The HBsAg reduction rate during the 1st year was greater compared to after 1 year of treatment (P < 0.05). Multivariate test showed that hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroclearance and/or HBsAg reduction ≥0.5 log10 IU/ml at 6 months had a high negative predictive value (96.77%) for HBsAg seroclearance (P = 0.002, P = 0.012, respectively). Conclusions: The HBsAg reduction rate during the 1st year was greater than that after 1 year of treatment. Further, HBeAg status and HBsAg levels at month 6 are the optimal factors for the early prediction of HBsAg seroclearance after long-term ETV therapy in CHB patients. PMID:27064037

  15. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  16. Period Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors of Hypertension in Rural Maharashtra: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Todkar, Sampatti Sambhaji; Gujarathi, Venktesh V; Tapare, Vinay S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is most common cardiovascular disease and it account for large proportion of all cardiovascular deaths and disability worldwide. Research Questions: What is the level of prevalence of hypertension in rural area? What are the soociodemographic factors associated with hypertension? Objectives: To find out prevalence of hypertension in rural area. Study Design: A community-based cross-sectional study setting: Rural Health Training Centre Paithan, field practice area of govt. medical college Aurangabad, Maharashtra. Participants: 1297 persons aged 19 years and above. Study Period: June 2005 to December 2006. Materials and Methods: A house-to-house survey was conducted by the author himself, interviewed the participants by systematic random sampling method, using pretested structured standard questionnaire. Two independent blood pressure (BP) readings were taken in sitting position by visiting each participant at their home. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP more than or equal to 140 mm of Hg or diastolic BP more than or equal to 90 mm of Hg or those individuals currently taking antihypertensive treatment. Statistical Tests: Percentiles, Chi Square test, Chi-Square for linear trend, multiple logistic regression analysis on SPSS software Version 10. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the study subjects was 7.24%. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified various factors significantly associated with hypertension were age, sex, BMI, additional salt intake, smoking, DM, alcohol consumption, and higher socioeconomic status. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of hypertension in study subjects was 7.24%. PMID:20049292

  17. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  18. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  19. A Retrospective Study of Marjolin's Ulcer Over an Eleven Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Vasu Reddy; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Ashwatha Reddy, Madhusudana Bommasandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Marjolin's ulcer is a rare aggressive cutaneous malignancy occurring in previously occurred wounds. The most common aetiology is a burn wound involving extremities and squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analyses of medical records of patients treated in a single unit with a diagnosis of Marjolin's ulcer was performed. Results: During the study period, 14 patients were treated. Four patients had lymph node metastases and one had pulmonary metastases at the time of presentation. Seven patients underwent wide excision with reconstruction and seven underwent amputation or disarticulation because of advanced malignancy. During the follow up two patients developed local recurrence and one developed pulmonary metastases. Both the patients with pulmonary metastases had Marjolin's ulcer of trunk. Conclusion: Marjolin's ulcer occurs more commonly in the extremities. Distant metastases occur commonly in patients with ulcers on the of trunk. PMID:25538436

  20. Density functional periodic study of the dehydrogenation of methane on Pd (1 1 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Li, Lu; Xu, Jie; Fang, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption and dehydrogenation mechanism of CH4 on Pd (1 1 1) surface was studied using density functional theory (DFT) together with periodic slab models. According to the optimized structural and energetic properties, it was found that CH3 prefers to adsorb on the top sites of the Pd metal surface. Whereas CH2, CH, and H prefer to adsorb on the fcc sites, and C prefers to adsorb on the hcp sites. In addition, this work identified the optimum configurations for the stable co-adsorption configurations of CHx and H. Finally, four transition states were found for analyzing the mechanism of dehydrogenation of CH4. The results show that the dehydrogenation of CH moiety is relatively difficult and the dehydrogenation of CH3 is the rate-determining step in the overall reaction.

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  2. Association Between Gestational and Environmental Events and Central Nervous System Function in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drorbaugh, James E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The prevalence of variables frequently associated with low birthweight was compared in samples of 100 low-birthweight (LBW) infants and 100 normal birthweight infants, and the association with central nervous system function at 7 years was examined in LBW Ss. (Author/CL)

  3. Lymphedema in a 7-year-old boy infected with Wuchereria bancrofti in Sierra Leone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dome, Mackenzie; Ansumana, Rashid; Covington, Andrea L; Rebollo, Maria P; Sesay, Santigie; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; de Souza, Dziedzom K; Koudou, Benjamin G; Michael, Edwin; Bockarie, Moses J

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of congenital lymphedema in a 7-year-old boy in Sierra Leone with active filarial infection and penile edema. The genital edema with onset at 6 months of age may have been due to a congenital abnormality in lymphatic drainage. Other possible causes of childhood lymphedema, including Milroy's disease, are discussed. PMID:24561072

  4. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  5. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  6. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  7. Mission Performance of the GLAS Thermal Control System - 7 Years In Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    ICESat (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite) was launched in 2003 carrying a single science instrument - the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Its primary mission was to measure polar ice thickness. The GLAS thermal control architecture utilized propylene Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) technology to provide selectable and stable temperature control for the lasers and other electronics over a widely varying mission thermal environment. To minimize expected degradation of the radiators, Optical Solar Reflectors (OSRs) were used for both LHP radiators to minimize degradation caused by UV exposure in the various spacecraft attitudes necessary throughout the mission. Developed as a Class C mission, with selective redundancy, the thermal architecture was single st ring, except for temperature sensors used for heater control during normal operations. Although originally planned for continuous laser operations over the nominal three year science mission, laser anomalies limited operations to discrete measurement campaigns repeated throughout the year. For trending of the science data, these periods were selected to occur at approximately the same time each year, which resulted in operations during similar attitudes and beta angles. Despite the laser life issues, the LHPs have operated nearly continuously over this time, being non-operational for only brief periods. Using mission telemetry, this paper looks at the performance of the thermal subsystem during these periods and provides an assessment of radiator degradation over the mission lifetime.

  8. [Permanent endocardiac electrostimulation. Considerations on 511 implantations and reimplantations in 7 years of practice].

    PubMed

    Mangiameli, S; Circo, A; Vanaria, D; Lombardo, D; Scalisi, A; Genovese, G; Galassi, A

    1977-06-30

    Permanent pacemakers were implanted and reimplanted in a total of 511 patients (mostly men) during a period of about 7 yr. Mean age was 67.9 yr. The cephalic route was used in nearly every case, with subclavicular implantation of the generator. Mean hospital stay was 7.6 days. Ventricular inhibition pacemakers were used in over 84% and fixed-frequency models in 7%. Mean pacemaker life was 24.1 months, with longer periods in the last months of the period of observation. The evaluation of battery run-down and recent and long-term complications is discussed, together with a particular type of decubitus of electrolytic origin. Hospital mortality was 2%. Survival was 91% at 1 yr and 54% at 6 yr. Emphasis is placed on the fact that subjects continue to be heart patients. Their well-being depends on psychological and general medical care, together with help from their, families and society, quite apart from cardiological attention. PMID:876509

  9. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  10. Is There a Critical Period for Amblyopia Therapy? Results of a Study on Older Anisometropic Amblyopes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Amblyopia, a common cause of low vision, is rarely treated in adults. Improvement in vision has been seen beyond the critical period at times. Hence, this study was taken up to study the effect of minimal occlusion therapy (2-4 hours/day) in anisometropic amblyopic patients in the age group of 12-30 years. Materials and Methods The study is a prospective, randomized case series of anisometropic amblyopia patients aged 12-30 years who reported in the outpatient department of Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Thorough ocular examination and cycloplegic refraction was done to rule out other ocular disease. Anisometropic Amblyopia was diagnosed only after four weeks of spectacle wear. The selected patients were then advised occlusion therapy of 2-4 hours per day of better eye with stress on near visual task. Videogames, computers, mobile phone gaming and colouring in especially designed patterns were used as vision training aids. The outcome measure selected was best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) achieved that remained stable for three consecutive months of occlusion. Results Sixty one patients of anisometropic amblyopia were included in the study (32 males and 29 females) aged 12-30 years (mean age 17 years). Mean BCVA at the start of treatment was 20/125 (0.8 log MAR units) and 20/32 (0.2 log MAR units) at the end of the treatment. Thirty three patients (54%) out of 61 had BCVA of 20/20, while 58 patients (95%) had ≥ 20/40 BCVA, 01(1.6%) had 20/50 and 02 (3.27%) had 20/80 BCVA at the end of therapy. The results were statistically significant (p- value <0.0001) with a 95% confidence interval. Conclusion This study clearly proves that there is no critical period for the treatment in older (12-30 years) anisometropic amblyope. Even 2-4 hours per day of occlusion of better eye with vision training thorough near visual task of amblyopic eye is effective. However, counseling and patient compliance is

  11. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  12. A search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year WMAP temperature maps using a fast convolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewicz, P.; Wandelt, B. D.; Banday, A. J.

    2013-02-01

    We present a method for the computation of the variance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps on azimuthally symmetric patches using a fast convolution approach. As an example of the application of the method, we show results for the search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We re-analyse claims concerning the unusual variance profile of rings centred at two locations on the sky that have recently drawn special attention in the context of the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario proposed by Penrose. We extend this analysis to rings with larger radii and centred on other points of the sky. Using the fast convolution technique enables us to perform this search with higher resolution and a wider range of radii than in previous studies. We show that for one of the two special points rings with radii larger than 10° have systematically lower variance in comparison to the concordance Λ cold dark matter model predictions. However, we show that this deviation is caused by the multipoles up to order ℓ = 7. Therefore, the deficit of power for concentric rings with larger radii is yet another manifestation of the well-known anomalous CMB distribution on large angular scales. Furthermore, low-variance rings can be easily found centred on other points in the sky. In addition, we show also the results of a search for extremely high-variance rings. As for the low-variance rings, some anomalies seem to be related to the anomalous distribution of the low-order multipoles of the WMAP CMB maps. As such our results are not consistent with the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario.

  13. Medical trainees’ experiences and perceptions towards elective period; a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nyongesa, Henry; Mokua, Winstar; Adegu, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical electives make significant contribution in the training of medical students on healthcare outside their affiliated academic institutions. During this period, learners get exposed to different healthcare systems, diagnostic, medical and surgical techniques as well as appreciate existing challenges. Objective To assess experiences encountered by medical students during their electives. Methods A cross sectional study was commissioned among level 5 medical students of University of Nairobi in July 2013. A random sample of 125 students was invited to fill in self structured questionnaires after obtaining informed consent. The questionnaire which had initially been pretested on 25 nursing students comprised bio data, place, duration, funding, experiences and challenges of electives. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 20 and computed in terms of frequencies and percentages. Results There were 76 (60.8% response rate) respondents with majority being males and staying in university hostel. Most of them had undertaken electives in Africa which were organized by themselves and funded mostly by their parents. There was overall positive attitude towards electives with majority (80.3%) claiming it to provide all rounded training. However, financial, transport and language barrier were identified as the main challenges (41.1%, 18.8% and 14.3%, respectively). There was a call by more than 80% of respondents for the university to collaborate with host institutions and provide stipend to cover living expenses mostly. Conclusion The acquisition of practical skills involved in the treatment of patients forms the basis for high expectation of electives among medical trainees. It is evident that most of the participants would desire the scaling up of entire elective period through institutional collaborations and logistical support. PMID:25328586

  14. Enterobius vermicularis: an unusual cause of recurrent urinary tract infestation in a 7-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupeshwari; Sharma, Tanya; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Dhingra Bhan, Bhavna

    2015-04-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, the pinworm, is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. Ectopic infestations in the genital or urinary tracts rarely occur and chronic enterobiasis of the urinary tract has rarely been reported. Here we present such a case in a 7-year-old girl presenting with fever, pain in the abdomen, vomiting and burning micturition. Ultrasonography and micturating cystourethrogram (MCU) studies were normal. The ova were demonstrated from both the patient's urine and stool specimen. This child was treated successfully with Albendazole and Ivermectin. PMID:25586573

  15. Admission to psychiatric hospital in the early and late postpartum periods: Scottish national linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Langan Martin, Julie; McLean, Gary; Cantwell, Roch; Smith, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe weekly admission rates for affective and non-affective psychosis, major depression and other psychiatric disorders in the early and late postpartum periods. To assess the impact of socioeconomic status, age and parity on admission rates. Methods Scottish maternity records were linked to psychiatric hospital admissions. 3290 pregnancy-related psychiatric admissions were assessed. Weekly admission rates were calculated for the pregnancy period, early postpartum period (6 weeks after birth) and late postpartum period (up to 2 years after birth), and compared with pre-pregnancy rates (up to 2 years before pregnancy). Admission rates were generated by calculating the total number of admissions for each time period divided by the number of weeks in the period. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were generated for each time period, using deprivation, age, parity and record of previous psychiatric hospital care-adjusted Poisson regression models. Results Women from more deprived social quintiles accounted for the largest proportion of admissions across all time periods. Compared with pre-pregnancy period, admission rates fell during pregnancy, increased markedly during the early postpartum period, and remained elevated for 2 years after childbirth. Within the most affluent quintile, admission IRRs were higher in the early postpartum period (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.59) than in the late postpartum period (IRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98). For the late postpartum period, there was a positive association between higher maternal age and admission IRRs (ages 20–35 years, IRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.54 and age>40 years IRR=1.72, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.09). Conclusions Rates of psychiatric admission fell during pregnancy and increased in the early postpartum period (particularly during the first 2 weeks after birth), and remained elevated above baseline during the 2-year late postpartum period. An understanding of how social deprivation, age and parity

  16. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  17. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  18. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  19. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  20. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  1. Depression in Men in the Postnatal Period and Later Child Psychology: A Population Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Heron, Jon; Murray, Lynne; Evans, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The factors responsible for depression in men following childbirth and the association between their depression in the postnatal period and later psychiatric disorders in their children are assessed. Findings show that depression in fathers in their postnatal period is associated with later psychiatric disorders in their children, independent of…

  2. Periodical Usage in a Small Liberal Arts Library: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossi, Kathy J.

    The information needs of a small liberal arts library whose curriculum does not support a science or technology research program will differ from the information needs of a major research institution. Likewise, periodical usage will also differ with the two types of libraries. This investigation examines the patterns of periodical usage identified…

  3. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (MONITORING PERIOD 1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 follow-up questionnaires collected during the first week-long monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) activities during the sampling period to explain ...

  4. [Observational study of black carbon aerosol during straw-burning period].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-xia; Wei, Qing-nong; Wei, Jian-li; Liu, Shi-sheng; Feng, Wei-wei

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon aerosol (BC) has been measured at three sites in Hefei City during May and June, 2007. Analyzing these real-time BC data, the concentration characters and the sources of black carbon aerosol can be found. The average concentrations of BC in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.85 microg/m3 and 8.38 microg/m3, respectively. The significant difference shows that the straw-burning is one of the main sources. The correlation coefficients between daily average concentration of BC and PM10 is 0.74, while the values of BC/PM10 in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.7% and 7.9%, respectively. Through comparing to the BC concentration during straw-burning period in 2004, the results indicated that pollution of BC has reduced after straw-burning was forbidden by the government. PMID:19256359

  5. A 7-Year Retrospective Multisource Analysis on the Incidence of Anesthesia Awareness With Recall in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Mehrabmi-Kermani, Farrokh; Muzio, Maria Rosaria; Forte, Cira Antonietta; De Falco, Francesco; Barberio, Daniela; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although randomized controlled studies reported an incidence of anesthesia awareness with recall ∼1 to 2 per 1000 (0.1–0.2%), recent data from the NAP5 study showed an incidence of only 1:19,600. Although in a prospective study many tools for anesthesia awareness detection can be used, a retrospective analysis requires a careful collection of information. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of anesthesia awareness with recall in a cohort of cancer patients through a multisource retrospective analysis, and the clinical description, including the psychological outcome, of the cases detected. We also tested whether our retrospective analysis would be improved by a routinely psycho-oncological assessment. As secondary endpoints we evaluated the use of depth of anesthesia monitoring over a large cohort of patients, and the correlation between the brain monitoring and the incidence of awareness. We have carried out a 7-year retrospective analysis in a large cohort of cancer patients on the incidence of awareness with recall during general anesthesia. Of 35,595 patients assessed for eligibility, 21,099 were studied. We analyzed all data from the operative rooms’ database, the anesthesia records, and from the database of the surgical divisions. In addition we examined reports from psychologists and spontaneous reports to the quality team of the hospital. Two certain cases of awareness were detected, with an incidence of 1:10,550 (0.0095%). They occurred during elective surgery, in female patients without other risk factors. One case came from the report of a psychologist. In both episodes, brain monitoring was not applied and no long-term psychological sequelae were reported. Despite the limitations, our investigation suggests that the incidence of anesthesia awareness is very low, also in a specific cohort of patients, such as the cancer patients, and even when the depth of anesthesia monitoring is rarely used. The limitations caused by both

  6. Good clinical outcomes from a 7-year holistic programme of fistula repair in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Delamou, Alexandre; Diallo, Moustapha; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Delvaux, Thérèse; Millimono, Sita; Kourouma, Mamady; Beattie, Karen; Barone, Mark; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Khogali, Mohamed; Edginton, Mary; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Ruminjo, Joseph; Zhang, Wei-Hong; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Female genital fistula remains a public health concern in developing countries. From January 2007 to September 2013, the Fistula Care project, managed by EngenderHealth in partnership with the Ministry of Health and supported by USAID, integrated fistula repair services in the maternity wards of general hospitals in Guinea. The objective of this article was to present and discuss the clinical outcomes of 7 years of work involving 2116 women repaired in three hospitals across the country. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using data abstracted from medical records for fistula repairs conducted from 2007 to 2013. The study data were reviewed during the period April to August 2014. Results The majority of the 2116 women who underwent surgical repair had vesicovaginal fistula (n = 2045, 97%) and 3% had rectovaginal fistula or a combination of both. Overall 1748 (83%) had a closed fistula and were continent of urine immediately after surgery. At discharge, 1795 women (85%) had a closed fistula and 1680 (79%) were dry, meaning they no longer leaked urine and/or faeces. One hundred and fifteen (5%) remained with residual incontinence despite fistula closure. Follow-up at 3 months was completed by 1663 (79%) women of whom 1405 (84.5%) had their fistula closed and 80% were continent. Twenty-one per cent were lost to follow-up. Conclusion Routine programmatic repair for obstetric fistula in low resources settings can yield good outcomes. However, more efforts are needed to address loss to follow-up, sustain the results and prevent the occurrence and/or recurrence of fistula. Objectifs La fistule génitale féminine reste un problème de santé publique dans les pays en développement. De janvier 2007 à septembre 2013, le projet Fistula Care, géré par Engender Health en partenariat avec le Ministère de la Santé et soutenu par l’USAID, a intégré les services de réparation de fistules dans les maternités des hôpitaux généraux en Guin

  7. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    PubMed

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices. PMID:25703006

  8. Climate and prevalence of atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old school children in Spain. ISAAC PhASE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; García-Marcos Alvarez, Luís; Kogan, Michael D.; González, Agustín Llopis; Gimeno, Antonio Martínez; Ontoso, Inés Aguinaga; Díaz, Carlos González; Pena, Alberto Arnedo; Aurrecoechea, Begoña Domínguez; Monge, Rosa María Busquets; Quiros, Alfredo Blanco; Garrido, José Batlles; Canflanca, Iñaqui Miner; Varela, Ángel López-Silvarrey

    2008-11-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic skin disease. Recent reports indicate that the worldwide prevalence of AE is increasing and that various environmental factors are implicated in its aetiology. Climatic conditions have been related with AE prevalence, and Spain has varying climatic conditions. The aim of this study is to document the possible climatic influence on the prevalence of AE in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in three different climatic regions in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of 28,394 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 10 Spanish centres in three different climatic regions. The mean participation rate was 76.5%. AE prevalence was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Spanish Academy of Dermatology criteria used in Spain to diagnose AE. The data, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the annual number of sunny hours per climatic region, were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Meteorology. Different AE prevalences were found in all three climatic regions studied: Atlantic, 32.9; Mediterranean 28.3; and Continental 31.2 per 100 children studied ( p < 0.005). AE was positively associated with precipitation and humidity, and was negatively associated with temperature and the number of sunny hours. The results show that AE is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions.

  9. Experimental study of periodic linear internal waves transform at the shelf edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkina, Olga; Litvin, Alexander; Vladimirova, Eleonora; Ivanov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Vladlen

    2010-05-01

    The report contains results of the experimental study of the fine structure of hydrophysical processes of internal waves transform in the shelf zone observed within a thin thermocline. A series of experiments was performed in the stratified tank with its overall dimensions L*B*H = 2.15*0.15*0.35 m where the model of the shelf has been installed. The shadowgraph IAB-455 as well as the multidot spatial system of 40 thermocouples were used for distance and contact measurements. Methods of a digital video fixation of shadow pictures of currents in the thermally stratified liquid, as well as methods of the statistical analysis of non-stationary hydrodynamic processes were applied. As a result of the series of experiments it was revealed that interaction of internal waves in the pycnocline with the shelf model leads to transformation of the internal waves, formation of currents of vortical and turbulent character and water mass mixture. The observations concern a case of creation of a package of five periodic internal waves made in the pycnocline by a submerged wave-maker. Acknowledgement: this work is supported through NWO-RFBR Project (Code: 047.017.2006.003).

  10. Unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on low coordinated Pd surface: A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli, Patricia G.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption of several unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules on a stepped Pd(4 2 2) surface was studied. Using a periodic method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism, different adsorption geometries for ethylene, three butene isomers ( cis/ trans-2-butene and 1-butene), acetylene and 2-butyne were investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for a free defect surface as Pd(1 1 1). The 1-butene is more stable on the free defect surface than on Pd(4 2 2). On the stepped surface, the olefins adsorb tilted towards the step and increases, in almost all the cases, the magnitude of the adsorption energy. Conversely, the 3-fold site is the most stable for the alkynes adsorption on the stepped surface, as it was found on Pd(1 1 1). The analysis of the dipole moment change indicate a charge transfer from the double bond of the olefin to the metallic surface, being higher for the Pd(1 1 1) surface. In case of the alkynes, an important back-donation is produced. Except the alkynes and the 1-butene molecule, the results show the preference of ethylene and cis/ trans-2-butene to be adsorbed on the stepped surface. These observations are related with experimental catalytic results.

  11. Butanethiol adsorption and dissociation on Ag (111): A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aixiao; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Richardi, Johannes; Calatayud, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The molecular and dissociative adsorption of butanethiol (C4H9SH) on regular Ag (111) surfaces has been studied by means of periodic ab initio density functional techniques. In molecular form, butanethiol is bound to the surface only by weak polarization-induced forces with the C-S axis tilted by 38° relative to the normal surface. The S atom occupies a position between a hollow fcc and a bridge site. In the dissociative adsorption process, the S-H bond breaks leading to butanethiolate. The S atom of the thiolate also occupies a threefold position, slightly displaced to a hollow fcc site compared to the thiol adsorption case. The C-S axis of the thiolate is tilted by about 37°. The calculated adsorption energies show that the butanethiol and butanethiolate have similar adsorption ability. The computed reaction pathway for the S-H dissociation gives an activation energy of 0.98 eV indicating that the thiolate formation from thiol, although not spontaneous at room temperature, might be feasible on silver surfaces. The dissociation process induces both adsorbate and surface polarization with a significant charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate.

  12. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation change during the Younger Dryas cold period: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renssen, Hans

    2016-04-01

    In Northwest Europe, proxy-based reconstructions have suggested that the Younger Dryas cold period may be sub-divided in a relatively cold and humid first part and a warmer and drier second part. In Scandinavia, the later part of the Younger Dryas climate was characterized by a notable increase in variability. These changes in climatic conditions during the Younger Dryas event have been linked to a northward shift of both the winter sea-ice margin in the North Atlantic Ocean and the main storm track. Recently, we performed transient simulations of the Younger Dryas climate, performed with a global climate model. In this study, we perform a spatiotemporal analysis of these model results to see to what extent our model has been capable to reproduce the reconstructed changes in precipitation. In our Younger Dryas simulation, the main storm track is located at 55°N, resulting in relatively high precipitation rates in mid-latitude Europe. In contrast, our model suggests dry conditions in Northern and Southern Europe.

  13. Particle-core study of halo dynamics in periodic-focusing channels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tai-Sen F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to investigate the dynamics of halo particles in mismatched charged-particle beams propagating through periodic-focusing channels using the particle-core model. The proposed method employs canonical transformations to minimize, in new phase-space variables, the flutter due to the periodic focusing to allow making stroboscopic plots. Applying this method, we find that in periodic-focusing systems, certain particles initially not in the halo region can be brought into resonance with the core oscillation to become halo particles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Scholastic Adaptation and Socio-Cognitive Abilities of Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillain, Andre; Pry, Rene

    Building on the assumption that there is cognitive organization to social abilities, two studies analyzed stability and change of this organization in children. The first study focused on children who attended the first year and second year of nursery school, and the first year of elementary school. The second study focused on those children who…

  15. Developing appreciation for ambivalence: the understanding of concurrent conflicting desires in 4- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-06-01

    The current experiment examined the development of children's ability to comprehend concurrent conflicting desires (i.e., both wanting and not wanting something at the same time). Participants were 4- to 7-year-old children and a group of undergraduate students (N = 20 in each age group). Results showed that the 6- and 7-year-old children understood concurrent conflicting desires at levels that were well above chance. There was evidence that even some of the 5-year-olds exhibited an emerging comprehension of conflicting desires. However, the 4-year-old children showed little ability to appreciate conflicting desire states. As such, children showed appreciation for conflicting desires at younger ages than suggested by previous research. In addition, significant relationships were observed between children's concurrent conflicting desire understanding and their theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) skills, even after controlling for chronological and verbal age. PMID:24708406

  16. Periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test forpatients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy:a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Hitomi; Genno, Hirokazu; Shiba, Naoko; Nakamura, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify if a periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound could be used to evaluate physical endurance more precisely than the conventional 6-minute walk test. [Subjects] The subjects were healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [Methods] The subjects initially walked for 1 minute to a long-interval metronome sound, and the walking distance was measured. The sound interval was then gradually shortened, and the subjects walked for 1 minute for each of the intervals. The best periodic sound was considered to be the periodic sound used when the subject walked the longest distance in 1 minute, and the process of determining it was referred to as the period shortening walk test. This study administered the 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound to twenty healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and compared the walking distance. [Results] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test distances in both the healthy subjects and the patients were significantly longer than the conventional 6-minute walk test distances. [Conclusion] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test provided a better indication of ambulatory potential in an evaluation of physical endurance than the conventional 6-minute walk test. PMID:26696721

  17. [Comparative field study of litter moisture and footpad alterations during the rearing period of fattening turkeys].

    PubMed

    Hübel, Jens; Bergmann, Shana; Ziegler, Nina; Willig, Rainer; Truyen, Uwe; Erhard, Michael H; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    In the course of a nationwide performed field study from 2010 to 2012, the footpad health of conventionally kept fattening turkeys and their rearing conditions were studied and compared to results from litter moisture measurements. In each case two rearing periods from 24 rearing farms were chosen and visited 3 to 5 days after delivery of the poults (examination 1) and again during the days 22 to 35 (examination 2). In the course of each flock inspection 60 randomly chosen turkeys were examined by adspection and palpation. Litter samples from drinking, feeding and resting areas were taken using the Darr procedure to measure moisture. Data regarding rearing conditions was collected from the farmer using standardized questionnaires. The litter moisture was 10% (6-20%) before the birds' entered the barn. At the time of examination 1 litter moisture of 43% (14-67%) in the drinking zone, 28% (12-66%) in the feeding zone, and 13% (8-31%) in the resting area were measured. At the time of examination 2 the litter moisture measurements showed 51% (32-72%) in the drinking zone, 27% (13-56% in the feeding zone and 28% (16-53%) in the resting area. At the time of examination 127.3% of the poults had footpad alterations, during examination 2 that number increased to 63.3% with 12.1% showing epithelial necrosis. The young turkeys on the three most commonly used litter substrates showed the following results at the time of examination 2: when held on straw pellets 58%, on wood shavings 29%, and on straw 17% showed unaltered footpads. Regarding the housing conditions the examinations showed specifically differences in stocking rate, drinking system and litter management. PMID:25080820

  18. A longitudinal study of skin barrier function in pregnancy and the postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, Jonathan O’B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Khashan, Ali S

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether skin’s barrier function changes in pregnancy. Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) refers to the total amount of water loss through the skin and TEWL can be measured non-invasively as an index of skin barrier function. We measured TEWL during and after pregnancy to evaluate pregnancy-related skin barrier function. Methods This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 52 low-risk, first-time pregnant women nested within the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) Ireland study. TEWL (gwater/m2/h) was measured three times during pregnancy: 19–21 weeks, 27–32 weeks and 36 weeks; and three times postnatally: 2–4 days, 2 months and 6 months post-delivery. Data were analysed using SPSS 18.0 and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A rise in TEWL was seen between each visit with the highest readings, exceeding the normal range of 0–20 gwater/m2/h, recorded at two months post-delivery. Forty women attended at two months post-delivery of whom 22 women had an average reading between 0 and 20 gwater/m2/h; 10 women had an average reading between 21 and 40 gwater/m2/h and 8 women had an average reading between 41 and 75 gwater/m2/h. Readings had returned to an average of 0–20 gwater/m2/h at six months postnatally. Conclusion TEWL increases slightly in pregnancy and the postnatal period. The clinical significance of this is unclear and requires further investigation.

  19. Experimental study of flow in a channel with a periodically heated wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Ayumu; Taneda, Keinosuke; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2015-11-01

    Flows in a channel with spatially periodic wall heating are examined experimentally at the Reynolds numbers below Re = 20 and at the Rayleigh number based on the amplitude of the periodic heating and the channel half width Rap = 3500, to realize the super-thermohydrophobic effect leading to a significant drag reduction (Floryan, 2012). The periodic heating is applied at the lower wall while the temperature of the upper wall is uniform and controlled. The results show that steady separation bubbles are created by periodic heating, which separate the main stream from the wall and, thus, the net friction drag is reduced. It is also found that the separation bubbles are strengthened when the average temperature of the lower wall exceeds that of the upper wall. Comparisons between the experiments and the theoretical results are presented.

  20. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  1. Parent-Infant Vocalisations at 12 Months Predict Psychopathology at 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allely, C. S.; Purves, D.; McConnachie, A.; Marwick, H.; Johnson, P.; Doolin, O.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant…

  2. Study of Quasi-Periodic Variations in Drag of Artificial Satellite during 23-24 Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendant, V. H.; Ryabov, M. I.; Sukharev, A. L.

    Apply of the method of time-frequency analysis allows to reveal the detailed structure of the manifestations of the influence of the state space weather on the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Sensitive indicators of such changes are low-orbit satellites. The dynamics of drag of nineteen low-orbit satellites was viewed. The study period includes phases of declining and a long minimum of 23rd solar cycle, phases of rise and maximum of 24th solar cycle. In dynamic of inhibition of all the analyzed satellite pronounced regular inhibition effects with extended periods of 2 - 6 years and short-period effects with periods less than one year. In the satellites: 00063, 00165, 25064, 00932 and 00746 - detected periods with trend from 25 - 28 days to 1 - 1.7 months.

  3. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  4. A study of coronal X-ray emission from short-period Algol binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; White, N. E.

    1995-01-01

    A study of X-ray emission from five short-period Algol-type binaries based on observations with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and ROSAT is presented. We have observed RZ Cas with both satellites, and beta Per, U Cep, delta Lib, and TW Dra with ROSAT. Significant intensity variations are seen in the X-ray emission from RZ Cas, U Cep, TW Dra, and delta Lib. These variations seem unrelated to the eclipsing behavior of these systems and are probably due to either rotational modulation of compact active regions on the surfaces of the chromospherically active secondary components or to flaring activity in the systems. The spectra of all but one of the systems require the presence of at least two discrete plasma components with different temperatures (0.6 - 0.7 keV, and approximately 2 keV) and the abundances of the medium-Z elements 20% - 50% of the solar photospheric values. The high resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the ASCA spectra allow us to individually constrain the coronal abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe in RZ Cas. We demonstrate that, if we use the elemental abundances and temperatures obtained from the analysis of their ASCA spectra as (fixed) inputs, to fit the ROSAT PSPC spectra well requires the presence of a third component (kT approximately 0.2 - 0.3 keV) in RZ Cas and beta Per. A continuous emission measure model of the power-law type (EM(T) variesas (T/T(sub max)(sup alpha)) generally gives a poor fit to the ASCA and ROSAT data on most sources. Circumstellar or circumbinary absorbing matter seems to be present in some of these systems, as indicated by the variable total column density needed to fit their X-ray spectra.

  5. Predicting the Timeline to the Final Menstrual Period: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shinya; Huang, Mei-Hua; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Predicting the final menstrual period (FMP) would help women know when their menopause transition will be completed. Additionally, biological changes, such as accelerated bone loss, precede the FMP by at least 1 year. Objective: Our objective was to assess whether FSH, estradiol, or urinary N-telopeptide predict where an individual is on her timeline to FMP. Methods: The sample was 554 women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. We modeled the probability of having crossed specified landmarks: 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP. We also modeled the probability of being in narrower intervals: 2 to1 year before FMP, 2 years before FMP and FMP, or 1 year before FMP and FMP. We determined the candidate markers that best predicted having crossed each landmark, with the optimum defined as the greatest area under the receiver-operator curve; created formulas for the probability of having crossed each landmark; and calculated sensitivity and specificity. Results: Final models included current estradiol and FSH (each as a fraction of 1 previous reference measure), age, menopause transition stage, race/ethnicity, and whether serum was collected during the early follicular phase. Areas under the receiver-operator curves of final models that predicted the probability of a woman having crossed 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP itself were 0.902, 0.926, and 0.945, respectively. If we classified women as having crossed the 2 years before the FMP landmark when predicted probability exceeded 0.3, sensitivity was 85% and specificity 77%. Conclusion: This model could help patients and researchers estimate the time to FMP. PMID:23533245

  6. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  7. Case studies of quasi-periodic VLF emissions and related ULF fluctuations of the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayosh, M.; Santolik, O.; Nemec, F.; Parrot, M.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-periodic (QP) VLF emissions are observed in the inner magnetosphere mostly on the day-side. These waves exhibit a periodic time modulation of the wave intensity that is possibly a result of the whistler-mode wave growth being periodically modulated by compressional ULF magnetic field pulsations. We have analyzed 50 QP events measured by the DEMETER satellite at altitudes of about 700 km to verify their generation mechanism. The analyzed events have a modulation period between 15 s and 80 s, and they were observed during quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp<3). Magnetometers of the CARISMA system were used for monitoring the ULF magnetic field pulsations in a wide spatial range. We have found that ULF magnetic field pulsations in the Pc3 - Pc5 range are well correlated with the occurrence of the QP emissions with modulation periods between about 40 and 80 s. At the same time, increased fluxes of high-energy electrons (E > 30 keV) were observed by DEMETER and by the NOAA-17 satellite. We analyze possible links between these electrons, QP emissions, and ULF magnetic field pulsations.

  8. A comparative study of zone axis pattern maps from decagonal phases with varying periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ranganathan, S. . Dept of Materials Science and Metallurgy Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore . Dept. of Metallurgy); Singh, A. . Dept. of Metallurgy); Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Weatherly, G.C. . Dept. of Metallurgy)

    1994-02-01

    The discovery in 1985 of the decagonal phase with periodicity in one direction and quasiperiodicity in the other two directions has excited considerable interest. This was followed by the observation that the periodicity perpendicular to the quasiperiodicity plane can assume multiple values on n = [1,2,3,4]x0.4 nm. The mapping of reciprocal spaces of these phases, labelled t[sub 2n], by electron diffraction is important in the context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] [Al-Co], T[sub 6][Al-Mn] and T[sub 8] [Al-Fe], [Al-Pd], the recent complete determination of zone axis pattern maps [ZAPM] and Kikuchi maps of T[sub 6] [Al-Mn] with 1.24 nm periodicity and T[sub 4][Al-Cu-Co-Si] with 0.8 nm periodicity is a tour de force by Kelton and his co-workers. These papers coupled with the complete mapping of the HOLZ line and Kikuchi line patterns of the T[sub 2][Al-Co-Ni] with 0.4 nm periodicity permit the authors to put in perspective the ZAPM of all the four decagonal phases and in addition predict patterns for the T[sub 8] phase for which a complete experimental determination is still lacking.

  9. ESD practice through global approach -7-year practices of developing science lessen modules and fostering integrated decision making ability-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiyama, Kosei

    2016-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) has devised and carried out overseas exchange programs on ESD issues for 7 years. These programs have been carried out as a part of a government-aided project called SSH (Super Science High School) *1. To start with, we had cooperative study program with a school in Germany in 2009, and next year with a school in Korea, and then gradually have expanded the cooperative schools. Since 2013, we have worked with schools in four countries; Korea, Thailand, Czech and Germany. Science lesson modules here refers to an assembly of a set of lessons, newly developed and improved for the project. These modules characteristically require the students to make decisions by themselves on given problems. In the course of the decision making, students learn what kind of data or facts should be presented as evidence and how they can make their decisions known to others. Among several modules we have designed, the one introduced here deals with the use of solar energy, which we carried out with a school in Korea in 2014-2015. It also includes lessons of the fuel cells using energy from hydrogen gas generated by solar cells. It aims to develop global human resources through carefully planned activities. First, the students of both schools make mixed groups and conduct experiments in physics, chemistry or biology on a given problem related to solar energy. Then they discuss in groups using data obtained from the experiments and through the Internet as evidence. After the thorough discussion, each group gives a presentation on their decision. The analysis of the presentations and the questionnaire to the students revealed the following points: 1) Students have come to have multidimensional perspectives on the utilization of solar energy. 2) Students have come to combine the results of different experiments when making decisions. 3) Students have developed flexible attitudes toward other cultures. 4) Students have developed communication skills in

  10. Orbital period variation study of massive Beta-Lyrae eclipsing binary IU Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilan, Erkan; Bulut, İbrahim

    2016-07-01

    The system IU Aur is a semi-detached close binary system with an orbital period of 1.81 days, containing a massive star. The O-C diagram of this binary was analyzed with the least-squares method by using all available times of minima. We have found a periodic change of orbital period of IU Aur. This change has been explained by the gravitational effects of a third companion on the binay star. The orbit Parameters of the third body have been derived from the analysis of the O-C curve. The analysis indicates that the eclipsing binary revolves around a third-body with a mass of about M_{3}>10M_{⊙} in a highly eccentric orbit.

  11. Studies of Extreme Carbon Stars. 2; Periods From Optical Spectral Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Hitchon, Keith; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rocket and satellite IR sky surveys have revealed vast populations of extreme AGB stars with substantial circumstellar dust shells. It is normally assumed that these shells permit essentially no light to escape. However, using the Lick 3 meter reflector we have been able to secure and analyze a large number of spectra of a well-defined sample of these extreme evolved stars. From this archive we have determined that these objects are all long period Mira variables and have estimated their periods, correlated these with IR photometric variations, and deduced distances to the stars. The data reveal a population of disk carbon-giants, typically of 1-2 yr periods, mostly within 2 kpc of the sun. We have also been able to quantify the thickness of their dust shells.

  12. A study on periodic solutions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F. B.; Zhang, W. E-mail: gaofabao@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    For the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in the inertial frame, we interpret the fact that there is no non-trivial 2π-periodic solution of the problem's homogeneous system. Furthermore, based on Reissig's theory, the existence of periodic solutions for the CR3BP is proved rigorously by using the above fact in conjunction with an a priori estimate. It is significant that the existence of periodic solutions of the CR3BP is mainly influenced by factors such as initial values, primary masses, and selection of the problem's control function. In addition, it is notable that the analytic proof of Poincaré's first class solutions is addressed for all values of the mass parameter in the interval (0, 1), the value of which must be sufficiently small according to previously published literature.

  13. High Prevalence of Refractive Errors in 7 Year Old Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    HASHEMI, Hassan; YEKTA, Abbasali; JAFARZADEHPUR, Ebrahim; OSTADIMOGHADDAM, Hadi; ETEMAD, Koorosh; ASHARLOUS, Amir; NABOVATI, Payam; KHABAZKHOOB, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The latest WHO report indicates that refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in 7 yr old children in Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 2013 with multistage cluster sampling, first graders were randomly selected from 8 cities in Iran. All children were tested by an optometrist for uncorrected and corrected vision, and non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction. Refractive errors in this study were determined based on spherical equivalent (SE) cyloplegic refraction. Results: From 4614 selected children, 89.0% participated in the study, and 4072 were eligible. The prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were 3.04% (95% CI: 2.30–3.78), 6.20% (95% CI: 5.27–7.14), and 17.43% (95% CI: 15.39–19.46), respectively. Prevalence of myopia (P=0.925) and astigmatism (P=0.056) were not statistically significantly different between the two genders, but the odds of hyperopia were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.01–2.05) times higher in girls (P=0.011). The prevalence of with-the-rule astigmatism was 12.59%, against-the-rule was 2.07%, and oblique 2.65%. Overall, 22.8% (95% CI: 19.7–24.9) of the schoolchildren in this study had at least one type of refractive error. Conclusion: One out of every 5 schoolchildren had some refractive error. Conducting multicenter studies throughout the Middle East can be very helpful in understanding the current distribution patterns and etiology of refractive errors compared to the previous decade. PMID:27114984

  14. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  15. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Long-Period Grating Refractive Index Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidhi; Kaler, R. S.; Kapur, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical and experimental investigation of the response of long-period gratings as a refractive index sensor. Cladding modes are calculated, and results are compared with Optigrating 4.2.2 (Optiwave Systems Inc., Ottawa, Canada). The response has been checked for refractive indices ranging from 1 to 1.458. Theoretically simulated results are in accordance with the experimental results. It was found that the software package calculated values correctly up to the seventh decimal point. The ambient refractive index response of a long-period grating over a much wider index range has been modeled for values both less and more than the cladding refractive index.

  17. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  18. A study of the light curve periodic behavior of quasar 3C 345.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong; Xie, Guangzhong; Bai, Jinming

    All the data for the B band of the quasar 3C 345, presented in twenty-one publications and dating back to 1896, have been compiled to be a light curve. Altogether 1642 values are available. Using Jurkevich's method, the authors have found a period of 10.1±0.8 years (or 21.8±1.5 years) for the outbursts in 3C 345. Based on this period, one can predict that the next outburst should be at its maximum around January 2002.

  19. Evidence for Substantial Genetic Risk for Psychopathy in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viding, Essi; Blair, R. James R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with early warning signs of life-long psychopathy, callous-unemotional traits (CU) and high levels of antisocial behaviour (AB) can be identified in childhood. We report here the first twin study of high levels of psychopathic tendencies in young children. Methods: At the end of the first school year, teachers provided…

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of 5- and 7-Year-Old Children's Self-Reports of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseneault, Louise; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    Past research suggests that young children are incapable of reporting information about their own behavior problems. To test this, we examined the validity and the usefulness of children's self-reports in the E-Risk Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of 2,232 children. We used the Berkeley Puppet Interview to obtain children's…

  1. Development of Inferencing Skills in 5 to 7 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne, V.; Ramasamy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of inferencing in five to seven year old children. The subjects consisted of thirty typically developing children of five, six and seven years, distributed into three groups of ten. Four sets of material were prepared and for each two types of questions were constructed. The questions being of literal…

  2. Development of the Updating Executive Function: From 7-Year-Olds to Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R.; Herrero, Laura; Rucián, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Updating information in working memory (WM) is a critical executive function responsible both for continuously replacing outdated information with new relevant data and to suppress or inhibit content that is no longer relevant according to task demands. The goal of the present research is twofold: First, we aimed to study updating development in…

  3. First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, the authors examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, at age 4.5, and in first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as…

  4. Modality Switching Cost during Property Verification by 7 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosi, Solene; Kalenine, Solene; Blaye, Agnes; Bonthoux, Francoise

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies in neuroimagery and cognitive psychology support the view of sensory-motor based knowledge: when processing an object concept, neural systems would re-enact previous experiences with this object. In this experiment, a conceptual switching cost paradigm derived from Pecher, Zeelenberg, and Barsalou (2003, 2004) was used to…

  5. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. A Case Study of Periodical Use by Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of information in the literature about the sources used for research by modern Master of Library and Information Science students in the United States, and so the objective of this project is to understand the use of periodical articles by these students. Specifically: do articles play a major role in student research, how current…

  7. Reexamining the Critical Period Hypothesis: A Case Study of Successful Adult SLA in a Naturalistic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioup, Elizabeth; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The nativelike linguistic competence of an adult second-language learner of Egyptian Arabic who was first exposed to the target language after the close of the critical period is examined to determine what factors differentiate her from less successful naturalistic adult acquirers. The role of internalized grammar is discussed. (Contains 43…

  8. Comparative Study of Periodical Literature Indexing: Print versus Electronic Access. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    This 2-year project at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing online periodical indexing to the journal holdings of the UTA libraries by demonstrating an extended use of the libraries' NOTIS Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) to provide better access to local resources. Three approaches…

  9. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  10. Vaginismus in Iran: A Single Center Report of 7 Years Experience

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan-Taghavi, Mohammad Hossein; Asghari-Moghaddam, Mohammad Ali; Froutan, Seyed Kazem; Jadid-Milani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vaginismus is a sexual disorder that can cause painful intercourse. Although several studies have shown a relationship between higher education and socio-economic level of women with vaginismus, the relationship between demographic characteristics and other variables remains unclear. Objectives: The present study was conducted to determine the demographic characteristics of women with vaginismus, coming to family health clinic, between 2007 and 2013. Patients and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study that was conducted on 115 clinical records, from early 2007 until the end of 2013, that have received a diagnosis of vaginismus. In these clinical records, the data on female and male age, education and employment, duration of marriage, type of marriage (traditional, virtual, etc.), being a virgin, erectile dysfunction of husband, information of families, sexual satisfaction, marital satisfaction, residential, non-medical types of medical treatment and hymenectomy were derived. Results: The results showed that the average age of women was 29 ± 5 years and the average age of the spouses was 33 ± 6 years. Undergraduate education most prominent among women (52%) and spouses (42%). In terms of employment status, most women were housewives (54%) and the majority of male were employees (54%). The most frequent form of marriage was traditional (80%). The maximum elapsed time of marriage was between 1 - 3 years (43%). In most women, the first attempt for intercourse was from the second day of marriage to the end of the first week (73%). Hymenectomy was done by 9% of women. Totally, 45% of the men, the wives of whom were suffering from vaginismus, experienced erectile dysfunction. In 37% of couples, their sexual life was satisfactory. The most referred specialist for treatment was the urologist (17%). In 27% of women with vaginismus, numerous references to a variety of medical specialists and psychologists were also recorded. Of the total, 7% of couples

  11. PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE VERY SHORT PERIOD SHALLOW CONTACT BINARY DD COMAE BERENICES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Diethelm, R. E-mail: mikulas@physics.muni.c

    2010-07-15

    The first photometric solutions of the very short period (VSP) close binary DD Comae Berenices (P = 0fd26920811) based on our new complete (IR){sub C} light curves are derived by the 2003 version Wilson-Van Hamme code. They show that the system belongs to shallow contact W-type W UMa systems with a degree of overcontact of 8.7%. The observed light curve distortions are explained by employing the spots model due to the late-type nature of both components. We have collected all available photometric data about the system with emphasis on the individual observational data, which we treated simultaneously using our own method based on the usage of computed model light curves as templates. We recalculated published times of light minimum and added new ones of our own to construct an O - C diagram that spans over 70 years. Using a least squares method orthogonal quadratic model function, we found that the orbital period of DD Com is continuously increasing with P-dot =0.00401(22) s yr{sup -1}. The period increase may be caused by the mass transfer from the less-massive component to the more-massive one. With the period increase, the binary is evolving from the present shallow contact phase to the broken stage predicted by the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) theory. Compared with other VSP systems, DD Com is a rare system that lies on the expanding phase of the TRO cycle. Until now, only four such systems including DD Com are found in this stage. Thus, this target is another good observational proof of the TRO theory in a very short period region.

  12. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  13. Parent-infant vocalisations at 12 months predict psychopathology at 7 years.

    PubMed

    Allely, C S; Purves, D; McConnachie, A; Marwick, H; Johnson, P; Doolin, O; Puckering, C; Golding, J; Gillberg, C; Wilson, P

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant interactions when infants were one year old. Cases were infants who had been subsequently diagnosed aged seven years, with at least one psychiatric diagnostic categorisation using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, pervasive development disorder, and emotional disorders. Associations between infant and parent vocalisations and later psychiatric diagnoses were investigated. Low frequencies of maternal vocalisation predicted later development of infant psychopathology. A reduction of five vocalisations per minute predicted a 44% (95%CI: 11-94%; p-value=0.006) increase in the odds of an infant being a case. No association was observed between infant vocalisations and overall case status. In sum, altered vocalisation frequency in mother-infant interactions at one year is a potential risk marker for later diagnosis of a range of child psychopathologies. PMID:23291516

  14. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  15. Analysis of a 7 year tropospheric ozone vertical distribution at the Observatoire de Haute Provence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Ancellet, Gerard; Megie, Gerard

    1994-01-01

    A seven year (1984-90) climatology of tropospheric vertical ozone soundings, performed by electrochemical sondes at the OHP (44 deg N, 6 deg E, 700 m ASL) in Southern France, is presented. Its seasonal variation shows a broad spring/summer maximum in the troposphere. The contribution of photochemical ozone production and transport from the stratosphere to this seasonal variation are studied by a correlative analysis of ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, with emphasis on potential vorticity. This analysis shows the impact of dynamical and photochemical processes on the spatial and temporal ozone variability. In particular, a positive correlation (r = 04.0, significance greater than 99.9 percent) of ozone with potential vorticity is observed in the middle troposphere, reflecting the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the vertical ozone distribution.

  16. Predictors of VO2Peak in children age 6- to 7-years-old.

    PubMed

    Dencker, Magnus; Hermansen, Bianca; Bugge, Anna; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars B

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the predictors of aerobic fitness (VO2PEAK) in young children on a population-base. Participants were 436 children (229 boys and 207 girls) aged 6.7 ± 0.4 yrs. VO2PEAK was measured during a maximal treadmill exercise test. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers. Total body fat and total fat free mass were estimated from skinfold measurements. Regression analyses indicated that significant predictors for VO2PEAK per kilogram body mass were total body fat, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 4-7%. Further analyses showed the main contributing factors for absolute values of VO2PEAK were fat free mass, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 3-6%. PMID:21467593

  17. Vesicoscopic Treatment of Symptomatic Congenital Bladder Diverticula in Children: A 7-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Marte, Antonio; Cavaiuolo, Silvia; Esposito, Maria; Pintozzi, Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to report on the use of vesicoscopy in the treatment of symptomatic congenital bladder diverticula (CBD) in children. Material and Methods In this study, 16 males, aged 4 to 12 years (median age, 6.25 years), were treated for symptomatic CBD; 3 patients presented double diverticulum and 13 presented single diverticulum. The presenting symptoms were recurrent urinary tract infection, hematuria, lower abdominal pain, and voiding dysfunctions as urgency, frequency alone, or in association. A first midline 5-mm trocar was introduced for a 0-degree telescope at the dome of the bladder, and two left and right 3- or 5-mm trocars were inserted through the anterolateral wall. The bladder was then insufflated with carbon dioxide to 10 to 12 mm Hg pressure. The diverticula were inverted into the bladder and the mucosa around the neck was circumcised by using scissors and hook. The defect was sutured and the bladder was drained. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of third grade or higher was treated endoscopically. Results Mean operative time was 90 minutes for procedures. At 6-month follow-up, ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) showed the disappearance of the diverticulum in 15 out of the 16 patients. The patient, with huge double diverticulum and fourth grade right VUR, presented recurrence of a small left diverticulum. Patients with voiding disorders presented a gradual improvement of their urgency. VUR disappeared at VCUG in all patients. Conclusion Vesicoscopic diverticulectomy resulted a safe and effective procedure and can be considered a valid alternative to the open or laparoscopic procedures. In our opinion, routine use of vesicoscopy could become the gold standard for the treatment of CBD in children. PMID:25988747

  18. 7-year of surface ozone in a coastal city of central Italy: Observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancofiore, Fabio; Verdecchia, Marco; Di Carlo, Piero; Tomassetti, Barbara; Aruffo, Eleonora; Busilacchio, Marcella; Bianco, Sebastiano; Di Tommaso, Sinibaldo; Colangeli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Hourly concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been measured for seven years, from 1998 to 2005, in a seaside town in the central Italy. Seasonal trends of O3 and NO2 recorded in the considered years are studied. Furthermore, we have focused our attention on data collected during the 2005, analyzing them using two different methods: a regression model and a neural network model. Both models are used to simulate the hourly ozone concentration, using several sets of input. In order to evaluate the performance of the model four statistical criteria are used: correlation coefficient (R), fractional bias (FB), normalized mean squared error (NMSE) e factor of two (FA2). All the criteria show that the neural network has better results compared to the regression model in all the simulations. In addiction we have tested some improvements of the neural network model, results of these tests are discussed. Finally, we have used the neural network to forecast the ozone hourly concentrations a day ahead and 1, 3, 6, 12 hour ahead. Performances of the model in predicting ozone levels are discussed.

  19. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Scanavini, Marco A.; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3–4 mm), until a ‘super class I’ molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1–T2, T2–T3, and T1–T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. CONCLUSIONS Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes. PMID:23736378

  20. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  1. Development of the updating executive function: From 7-year-olds to young adults.

    PubMed

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R; Herrero, Laura; Rucián, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Updating information in working memory (WM) is a critical executive function responsible both for continuously replacing outdated information with new relevant data and to suppress or inhibit content that is no longer relevant according to task demands. The goal of the present research is twofold: First, we aimed to study updating development in 548 participants of 4 different age ranges-7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and young adults-using the updating task devised by R. De Beni and P. Palladino (2004), which allows differentiating maintenance and inhibition processes. Second, we attempted to determine the relation between these processes across development as well as the differentiation among different types of inhibition processes tapped by this task. Results showed that there was an improvement of memory performance with age along with an upgrading of inhibitory efficiency. However, whereas in memory performance, a progressive increase was observed until the age of 15 years followed by stabilization, in inhibition, a continuous progressive increase was observed until young adulthood. Importantly, results showed that development of the different inhibitory mechanisms does not progress equally. All the groups committed more errors related to inefficient suppression mechanisms in WM than errors related to control of long-term memory interference. Principal component analysis showed that updating implies different subprocesses: active maintenance/suppression of information in WM and control of proactive interference. Developmental trajectories showed that the maintenance/suppression of information in the WM component continues to develop far beyond adolescence but that proactive interference control is responsible for variations in updating across development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882119

  2. Field-induced periodic distortions in a nematic liquid crystal: deuterium NMR study and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, A; Zakharov, A V

    2011-08-01

    The peculiarities in the dynamic of the director reorientation in a liquid crystal (LC) film under the influence of the electric E field directed at an angle α to the magnetic B field have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Time-resolved deuterium NMR spectroscopy is employed to investigate the field-induced director dynamics. Analysis of the experimental results, based on the predictions of hydrodynamic theory including both the director motion and fluid flow, provides an evidence for the appearance of the spatially periodic patterns in 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl LC film, at the angles α>60∘, in response to the suddenly applied E. These periodic distortions produce a lower effective rotational viscosity. This gives a faster response of the director rotation than for a uniform mode, as observed in our NMR experiment. PMID:21929001

  3. Indoor radon periodicities and their physical constraints: a study in the Coimbra region (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neves, L J P F; Barbosa, S M; Pereira, A J S C

    2009-10-01

    Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic red sandstones. A low average activity of radon was observed (36 Bq m(-3)), however showing a very well marked daily periodicity (10+/-5 Bq m(-3)), with maximum values occurring more frequently between 9 and 10 a.m. Daily variations are shown to have no relation with earth tides, and their amplitudes exhibit a significant correlation with outdoor temperature; no dependence on barometric pressure was found. Rainfall disturbs the observed daily radon cycles through a strong reduction of their amplitude, but has no effect on the long-term variability of the gas concentration. PMID:19632749

  4. A Comparison of Two CD-ROM Periodical Indexes for Use in the Middle School. A Scholarly Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrash, Beverly M.

    This purpose of this study was to determine which periodical index--InfoTrac or EBSCO Magazine Article Summaries--is the most appropriate for use by middle school students preparing required research projects. The study population consisted of randomly selected sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students (N=50) in a Cobb County (Georgia) middle…

  5. Optimizing LINAC-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanomas: 7 years' clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, Karin . E-mail: Karin.Dieckmann@akhwien.at; Georg, Dietmar; Bogner, Joachim; Zehetmayer, Martin; Petersch, Bernhard; Chorvat, Martin; Weitmann, Hajo; Poetter, Richard

    2006-11-15

    uveal melanomas provides good local control. The new prototype system improves the quality of treatment and offers the possibility of movement-gated treatments. In an ongoing study, treatment-related side effects are correlated with dose levels. Such correlations can be used to further optimize linac-based SRT of uveal melanoma.

  6. The ILAN sprite campaigns in Israel: results from 7 years of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Mezuman, Keren; Price, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The ILAN (Imaging of Lightning And Nocturnal flashes, http://ilanteam.com/) campaigns have been conducted since 2004 from Israel, observing winter thunderstorms in the eastern Mediterranean. We searched for transient luminous events using the standard commercial CCD cameras (Watec N100, 902H2 Ultimate) and the UFO-capture software for event detection, commonly used by other TLE- research groups in Europe and Japan. Winter thunderstorms mostly occur in conjunction with the passage of cold fronts in Cyprus lows, and thus TLEs are best observed when the storms are 200-300 km west of the Israeli coastline, above the Mediterranean Sea. We present statistical analysis of 505 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (above 40% of events) between 00:30-02:50 LST (Local Standard Time, UT+2). This distribution is very different from that of lightning in the region, which peaks ~ 05:00 LST over the sea (Altaratz et al., 2001), hinting at the different temporal behavior of +CG flashes, known to be the major producers of sprites. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites is dominated by column sprites (49.3%) with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan (Matsudo et al., 2007). Other shapes (trees, wishbones, etc.; Bór, 2013) appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.8% of observations, with 83.2% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogenous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). In some rare cases we observed 12-23 elements in a single sprite. The number of elements and the temporal distribution of different sprite types will be presented and compared with the properties of the parent thunderstorms. Altaratz, O., Levin Z. and Y. Yair, 2001: Winter thunderstorms in Israel - a study with lightning location systems and weather radar. Month. Weath. Rev

  7. Lung Function in Rescue Workers at the World Trade Center after 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Thomas K.; Gustave, Jackson; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Webber, Mayris P.; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Cosenza, Kaitlyn; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Glass, Lara; Al-Othman, Fairouz; Weiden, Michael D.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, exposed thousands of Fire Department of New York City (FDNY) rescue workers to dust, leading to substantial declines in lung function in the first year. We sought to determine the longer-term effects of exposure. Methods Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of both active and retired FDNY rescue workers on the basis of spirometry routinely performed at intervals of 12 to 18 months from March 12, 2000, to September 11, 2008. Results Of the 13,954 FDNY workers who were present at the World Trade Center between September 11, 2001, and September 24, 2001, a total of 12,781 (91.6%) participated in this study, contributing 61,746 quality-screened spirometric measurements. The median follow-up was 6.1 years for firefighters and 6.4 years for emergency-medical-services (EMS) workers. In the first year, the mean FEV1 decreased significantly for all workers, more for firefighters who had never smoked (a reduction of 439 ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 408 to 471) than for EMS workers who had never smoked (a reduction of 267 ml; 95% CI, 263 to 271) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). There was little or no recovery in FEV1 during the subsequent 6 years, with a mean annualized reduction in FEV1 of 25 ml per year for firefighters and 40 ml per year for EMS workers. The proportion of workers who had never smoked and who had an FEV1 below the lower limit of the normal range increased during the first year, from 3% to 18% for firefighters and from 12% to 22% for EMS workers, stabilizing at about 13% for firefighters and 22% for EMS workers during the subsequent 6 years. Conclusions Exposure to World Trade Center dust led to large declines in FEV1 for FDNY rescue workers during the first year. Overall, these declines were persistent, without recovery over the next 6 years, leaving a substantial proportion of workers with abnormal lung function. PMID

  8. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  9. Natural convection in an enclosure under time periodic heating: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Antohe, B.V.; Lage, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of the heating period on the heat transfer across a water filled rectangular enclosure is examined experimentally. The enclosure is designed such that periodic heat by Joule effect is delivered at one wall while the opposite wall is maintained at an approximately constant temperature. All other surfaces are insulated. Several heating power levels are chosen with equivalent time averaged heat-flux based Rayleigh number varying from 2.5 {times} 10{sup 8} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}. The heating period varies from 32 seconds to 1600 seconds. For the highest Rayleigh number, Ra = 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}, the oscillatory heating process leads to a cycle averaged heat transfer coefficient 20 percent higher than obtained with steady averaged-heat flux heating. Results, presented in terms of temperature time series, phase-plane portrait, and time evolution of cooling and heating wall temperatures, indicate that for low heating frequencies the heat transfer across the enclosure is hindered, with the time averaged heat transfer coefficient decreasing by as much as 13 percent of the equivalent steady heating value. A plausible explanation for the phenomenon is offered and discussed. The instantaneous and cycle averaged heat transfer coefficients, and the corresponding Nusselt numbers, are also presented for various heating frequencies.

  10. A period study and revised photometric model for the eclipsing binary ZZ Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuangui; Zhang, Liyun; Dai, Haifeng; Li, Huali

    2015-05-01

    We present new photometry of the eclipsing binary ZZ Cyg. From all accumulated eclipsing times, we constructed the (O-C) curve, which can be described by a downward parabola with a possible light-time orbit. The period decrease rate is dP / dt = - 5.73 (± 0.18) dyr-1 . The modulated period, semi-amplitude and eccentricity for the light-time orbit are Pmod = 71.4 (± 1.1)yr , A = 0.0071 (± 0.0005)day and e = 0.420 (± 0.053) , respectively. After removing effects of the magnetic activity, this kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to light-time effect via an additional companion. By using the W-D code, the photometric model was updated, which identified that ZZ Cyg is a near-contact binary. We find that a hot spot may occur on the primary that explains the asymmetric light curve. The secular period decrease may possibly cause the fill-out factor of the primary to increase. Finally it will finally fill its Roche lobe. This kind of binary, ZZ Cyg, may evolve into contact binary star.

  11. Period and light-curve study of the contact eclipsing binary V523 Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Mahya; Abedi, Abbas; Riazi, Nematollah

    2016-04-01

    CCD photometry of the eclipsing W Uma binary system V523 Cas in U, B, V and RC filters was carried out during eight nights in 2012. The physical and geometrical parameters of this system are obtained. A possible pulsation period of one of the components is obtained by analyzing the residuals of the ephemeris light curve. Our observations contain 16 times of minimum light. We combined these with all available published times of minimum. By fitting a quadratic curve to the O-C values, a new ephemeris of the system is calculated. By attributing the period change to mass transfer, we find a mass transfer rate of 4 ×10-12 M⊙/yr. Also, Period (80.58 yr) and the minimum mass (0.3 M⊙) of a possible third body is estimated. In addition, the possible existence of a fourth body with a mass of order 0.15 M⊙ is discussed. These third and fourth bodies could be low-mass main-sequence stars (red dwarfs).

  12. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy. PMID:25053471

  13. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  14. [Acute leukemia in childhood: present status of 100 cases after 7 years of complete remission (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schaison, G; Jacquillat, C; Lemercier, N; Weil, M; Alby, N; Auclerc, M F; Boiron, M; Bernard, J

    1980-01-01

    Amongst 1,200 leukemie children treated between 1958 and 1971, 60 are in complete remission for more than 10 years and 100 for more than 7 years. There were 96 acute lymphoid and 4 acute myeloid leukemias. Ten patients who have relapsed in the past have not done so lately. The F/M sex ratio is 1.5. Poor prognostic features were initially absent in 2/3 of cases. In 1/3 there was associated hyperleucocytosis and/or tumours. 93 children are in remission, their treatment having been stopped for 1 to 12 years. Five children relapsed and 4 are in a second remission for more than 2 years. Two children died in remission: one from a hepatocarcinoma and one from cardiac failure. These patients have been shown to have the following: 1) normal growth; 2) normal puberty: 8 patients have been able to reproduce, giving 10 children, one with multiple malformations; 3) school achievement and later socioprofessional behaviour has been normal. The patients have often sought a medical or paramedical career. Sequelae are minimal, psychological problems being minimal in the child. With the protocols used, mean remission curve shows a plateau after 9 years and complete definitive care is achieved in 92 per cent of patients surviving at 7 years. The very distant future outlook is not known. No other malignant haematological disease has occurred but one child died from a carcinoma. PMID:6931627

  15. A numerical study of transition control by periodic suction-blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three dimensional amplitudes, a two dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

  16. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  17. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Fought, Rick L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals. PMID:25031560

  18. Photoluminescence Studies of Lateral Composition Modulated Short-Period AlAs/InAs Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrenkiel, S.P.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Jones, E.D.; Lee, S.R.; Mascarenhas, A.; Mirecki Millunchick, J.; Norman, A.G.; Reno, J.L.; Twesten, R.D.; Zhang, Y.

    1999-01-04

    We present low temperature photoluminescence data for a series of spontaneous lateral composition modulation in (AlAs){sub m}/(InAs){sub n} short period superlattices on InP with differing average lattice constants, i.e., varying global strain. The low temperature photoluminescence peak energies were found to be much lower than the corresponding energy expected for the equivalent In{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}As alloy. The bandgap energy reductions are found to approach 500 meV and this reduction is found to correlated with the strength of the composition modulation wave amplitude.

  19. A numerical study of the pseudotime transformation for drawdown in the infinite-acting period

    SciTech Connect

    Yue-lu, Y.; Finjord, J.

    1989-06-01

    Drawdown with a constant-surface-conditions gas rate into a single well, starting at homogeneous pressure conditions in a cylindrical gas reservoir, is simulated numerically. For radii much larger than the wellbore radius, the pseudopressure solution in the infinite-acting period can be plotted uniquely as a function of a Boltzmann variable s=r/sup 2//sub D//4t/sub rhoD/, where r/sub D/ and t/sub rhoD/ are dimensionless radius and pseudotime. The nonlinear correction terms in the pseudotime diffusion equation, far from being negligible for drawdown, can become dominant in the infinite-acting period. This confirms an analytical result obtained previously. The correction terms are shown by simulation to be functions of s only for radii much larger than the wellbore radius. Plotted vs. In s, the pseudopressure shows an approximately linear behavior with a slope slightly larger than the usual constant-diffusivity slope. This was predicted by an explicit analytical solution.

  20. X-ray diffraction study of short-period AlN/GaN superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kyutt, R. N. Shcheglov, M. P.; Ratnikov, V. V.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Rozhavskaya, M. M.; Zavarin, E. E.; Lundin, V. V.

    2013-12-15

    The structure of short-period hexagonal GaN/AlN superlattices (SLs) has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. The samples have been grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in a horizontal reactor at a temperature of 1050°C on (0001)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates using GaN and AlN buffer layers. The SL period changes from 2 to 6 nm, and the thickness of the structure varies in a range from 0.3 to 1 μm. The complex of X-ray diffraction techniques includes a measurement of θ-2θ rocking curves of symmetric Bragg reflection, the construction of intensity maps for asymmetric reflections, a measurement and analysis of peak broadenings in different diffraction geometries, a precise measurement of lattice parameters, and the determination of radii of curvature. The thickness and strain of separate SL layers are determined by measuring the θ-2θ rocking curves subsequent simulation. It is shown that most SL samples are completely relaxed as a whole. At the same time, relaxation is absent between sublayers, which is why strains in the AlN and GaN sublayers (on the order of 1.2 × 10{sup −2}) have different signs. An analysis of diffraction peak half-widths allows us to determine the densities of individual sets of dislocations and observe their change from buffer layers to SLs.

  1. A study of the equatorial signatures of long period transient events (600 - 7200 s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Dutra, S.; Trivedi, N.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.; Schuch, N.

    Transient variations in the H magnetic field component of magnetograms at high latitude are a common feature. They are associated with energy transference from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Abrupt changes in the solar wind generate Alfvén and fast mode waves through the magnetosphere. The Alfvén wave doesn't propagate in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, so equatorial signatures are probably caused by fast mode waves. On the other hand, complicated signatures observed at high latitudes represent a composition of Alfvén and fast mode waves. A second suggested propagation mechanism to low latitudes is the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In this work, geomagnetic data from the Brazilian magnetic stations at Belém (BLM), Eusébio (EUS), Ji-Paraná (JIP), São luis (SLZ) and São Martinho da Serra (SMS), all located near the geomagnetic equator, are used to look for equatorial signatures of transient events with periods of 600 - 7200s. This period range includes two special types of transient variations named Traveling convection vortices (TCV) and DP2 fluctuations. We try to identify their morphological characteristics and compare with the high latitude phenomena's characteristics. Satellite data (WIND, ACE and GOES) are used to see magnetosphere signatures and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during the events. The main objective is try to find the contribution of each propagation mechanism of these transient events arriving at the equatorial latitudes.

  2. Theoretical study of InN/GaN short period superlattices to mimic disordered alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, M. Marques, M.

    2014-06-14

    We carried out ab initio calculations of the (InN){sub n}∕(GaN){sub m} short period superlattices using the LDA-1/2 method in order to obtain approximate quasiparticle electronic structures. We performed calculations for several short period superlattices respecting the concentrations of 33%, 50%, 66%, and 80% of InN, considering different straining possibilities due to lattice mismatches. For the majority of configurations, we find relevant changes on the valence and conduction profiles around bandgap with position plane-by-plane along the superlattices growth direction, with the presence of intrinsic electric fields in the materials, in the case, when strain is applied. Our results show that for small numbers n and m of layers, the band edge states extend over the entire superlattice. For larger n and/or m, the edge states tend to localise on particular subtype layers (InN or GaN). For the former cases, the bandgaps are very close to the random alloys with the same concentrations, providing potential good materials for optoelectronic devices based on nitrides.

  3. Environmental Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure at Home, Mobile and Cordless Phone Use, and Sleep Problems in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Anke; van Eijsden, Manon; Guxens, Monica; Beekhuizen, Johan; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vrijkotte, Tania; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years. Methods This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations was assessed with a geospatial model (NISMap) and from indoor sources (cordless phone/WiFi) using parental self-reports. Parents also reported their children’s use of mobile or cordless phones. When children were seven years old, we evaluated sleep quality as measured with the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) filled in by parents. Of eight CSHQ subscales, we evaluated sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness with logistic or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for child’s age and sex and indicators of socio-economic position of the parents. We evaluated the remaining three subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep disordered breathing) as unrelated outcomes (negative control) because these were a priori hypothesised not to be associated with RF-EMF. Results Sleep onset delay, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness were not associated with residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations. Sleep duration scores were associated with RF-EMF levels from base stations. Higher use mobile phones was associated with less favourable sleep duration, night wakenings and parasomnias, and also with bedtime resistance. Cordless phone use was not related to any of the sleeping scores. Conclusion Given the different results across the evaluated RF-EMF exposure sources and the observed association between mobile phone use and the negative control sleep scale, our study does not support the hypothesis that it is the exposure to RF-EMF that is detrimental to sleep quality in 7-year old children, but potentially other factors that are related to mobile phone

  4. IUE observations of long period eclipsing binaries - A study of accretion onto non-degenerate stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations made in 1978-1979 recorded a whole class of interacting long-period binaries similar to beta Lyrae, which includes RX Cas, SX Cas, V 367 Cyg, W Cru, beta Lyr, and W Ser, called the W Serpentis stars. These mass-transferring binaries with relatively high mass transfer rate show two prominent features in the far ultraviolet: a continuum with a color temperature higher than the one observed in the optical region (about 12,000 K), and a strong emission line spectrum with the N V doublet at 1240 A, C IV doublet at 1550 A and lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, Fe III, AI III, etc. These phenomena are discussed on the assumption that they are due to accretion onto non-degenerate stars.

  5. Study of periodic surface profile on improving the window capacity at single and repetitive pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, X. W.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Shao, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, W. Y.; Ke, C. F.; Chen, C. H.; Liang, Y. Q.; Wu, X. L.; Guo, L. T.; Chang, C.

    2015-09-15

    The surface breakdown of dielectric windows seriously limits the transmission of high power microwaves (HPM), and has blocked the development of microwave technology in recent decades. In this paper, X-band HPM experiments of window breakdown at the vacuum/dielectric interface and the atmosphere/dielectric interface at single and repetitive pulses were conducted. The cross-linked polystyrene (CLPS) dielectric window with a periodic surface profile can significantly improve the breakdown threshold at single and repetitive pulses. Furthermore, the flat surface layer of CLPS was discovered to be carbonized to a depth of several millimeters and filled with electrical trees at repetitive pulses. Theoretical models were built to understand the underlying physics behind the phenomena in experiments. With the analysis of the electron resonance process breaking the molecular bond and the temperature rise caused by the traversing current in the dielectric material, a microscopic explanation for the carbonization of the dielectric window was introduced.

  6. Microscopy and microRaman study of periodically poled domains in deeply thinned lithium niobate wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullen, P. S.; Huang, H.-C.; Yang, H.; Dadap, J. I.; Kymissis, I.; Osgood, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    The domain structure of poled deeply thinned lithium niobate is investigated as a function of sample thickness. Free-standing samples of thickness from 25 to 500 μm are prepared by a multiple-cycle polish and annealing procedure and then periodically poled. Using these samples and employing micro-Raman scattering and scanning electron, atomic force, and optical microscopy together, the domain broadening and poling voltage are found to vary in a regular and significant manner. The poled domains show a reduction in width spreading of 38% as the sample thickness is reduced from 500 to 25 μm. Micro-Raman probe measurements verify the quality and the uniformity of the poled domains and provide insight into their thickness-dependent poling contrast.

  7. Photometric Study and Period Analysis of the Contact Binary XZ Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chang Qing; Zhang, Xiao Bin; Deng, Licai; Wang, Kun; Luo, Yangping

    2015-09-01

    We present multi-color CCD photometry of the neglected contact binary XZ Leo. Completely covered VRI band light curves and four times of minimum light were obtained. Combining the photometric and previously published radial-velocity data, a revised photometric analysis was carried out for the binary system by applying the Wilson-Devinney code. With a hot spot placed on the massive primary component near the neck region of the common envelope, the light curves were satisfactorily modeled. The photometric solution combined with the radial-velocity solution reveals that XZ Leo is an A-type contact binary with a degree of contact of 24(±1)%. The absolute parameters of the components were determined to be M1 = 1.74(±0.06)M⊙, M2 = 0.61(±0.02)M⊙, R1 = 1.69(±0.01)R⊙, R2 = 1.07(±0.01)R⊙, L1 = 6.73(±0.08) L⊙, and L2 = 2.40(±0.04)L⊙. Based on all the available data, the long-term orbital period behavior of the system was investigated. It indicates that the binary system was undergoing a continuous orbital period increase in the past three decades with a rate of {dP}/{dt} =+6.12× {10}-8 {days} {{yr}}-1, which suggests a probable mass transfer from the secondary to the primary component at a rate of {dM}/{dt}=3.92× {10}-8{M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The binary system is expected to evolve into the broken-contact stage in 1.56× {10}6 years. This could be evidence supporting the thermal relaxation oscillation theory.

  8. [Experimental study of the root supply system with periodic water return designed for space greenhouses].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Smolianina, S O; Krivobok, N M

    2000-01-01

    To improve reliability of plant's moistening and aeration control in microgravity, an original root supply system with a periodic return water flow has been designed and tested in laboratory. For 30 days crops of Pekinese cabbage (Brassica pekinesis (Lour Rupr), Khibini sort) were raised in the test bench which allowed adjustment of water potential in the root zone within a preset range. A three-step water potential control algorithm included water injection with a pump-dispenser, a pause, and water sucking back to a desired value of water potential. The following parameters of the control cycle were selected in a series of two experiments: time of water injection (2.5 hr) and return (1.5 hr), and a pause of 8 and 20 hr, respectively. Magnitude of water potential about the root module axis was controlled in the range from -1.3 kPa to -3.0 kPa in both experiments and maintained at -1.3 kPa in the control. The root modules consisted of porous metaloceramic tubes wrapped in fibrous ion exchanging cloth and a light-proof film with planting slots on top. In the first experiment, plant characteristics were comparable to the control. The developed procedure and technology can be used to provide favourable moisture-air conditions in the root zone. By and large, the system of root nutrition with a periodic water return has demonstrated high capacity during the ground-based cultivation of plants. To use this system in space greenhouse, it is necessary to specify operational parameters for the microgravity environment. PMID:10826063

  9. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a patient with a 7-year history of being diagnosed as schizophrenia: complexities in diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chaohua; Kang, Yukun; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bin; Qiu, Changjian; Liu, Shanming; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Yanchun; Liu, Xiehe; Li, Tao; Guo, Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a form of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against the NR1 subunits of NMDARs. Although new-onset acute prominent psychotic syndromes in patients with NMDAR encephalitis have been well documented, there is a lack of case studies on differential diagnosis and treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis after a long-term diagnostic history of functional psychotic disorders. The present study reports an unusual case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The patient had been diagnosed with schizophrenia 7 years earlier, and was currently hospitalized for acute-onset psychiatric symptoms. The diagnosis became unclear when the initial psychosis was confounded with considerations of other neurotoxicities (such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome). Finally, identification of specific immunoglobulin G NR1 autoantibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and greater effectiveness of immunotherapy over antipsychotics alone (which has been well documented in anti-NMDAR encephalitis) indicated the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in this case. Based on the available evidence, however, the relationship between the newly diagnosed anti-NMDAR encephalitis and the seemingly clear, long-term history of schizophrenia in the preceding 7 years is uncertain. This case report illustrates that psychiatrists should consider anti-NMDAR encephalitis and order tests for specific immunoglobulin G NR1 autoantibodies in patients presenting with disorientation, disturbance of consciousness, cognitive deficit, dyskinesia, autonomic disturbance, or rapid deterioration, even with a seemingly clear history of a psychiatric disorder and no specific findings on routine neuroimaging, electroencephalography, or cerebrospinal fluid tests in the early stage of the illness. PMID:26089673

  10. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  11. Effect of fluvoxamine on the pharmokinetics of zolpidem: a two-treatment period study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Achim, Marcela; Leucuţa, Sorin Emilian

    2012-01-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine in healthy volunteers. 2. The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem; and Period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 100 mg fluvoxamine. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 6 days with a single daily dose of 100 mg fluvoxamine. 3. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem given in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and the data from two periods were compared to determine statistically significant differences. 4. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 56.4 ± 25.6 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 67.3 ± 25.8 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with fluvoxamine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.83 ± 0.44 and 1.26 ± 0.74 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 200.9 ± 116.8 and 512.0 ± 354.6 ng h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.24 ± 0.81 h when given alone and 4.99 ± 2.92 h after pretreatment with fluvoxamine. 5. Fluvoxamine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and increases its exposure by approximately 150%. The experimental data showed the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine, and suggest that the observed interaction might be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed. PMID:21985609

  12. Stimulation of Mojave Desert net ecosystem CO2 uptake after winter precipitation with the opposite effect after summer rains based on 7 years of flux data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasoni, Richard; Arnone, John; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in the Mojave Desert (Jasoni et al. 2005-Global Change Biology 11:749-756; Wohlfahrt et al. 2008-Global Change Biology 14:1475-1487), and in other deserts of the world (e.g., Hastings et al. 2005- Global Change Biology 14:927-939, indicate greater rates of net CO2 uptake (more negative NEE values) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) than would have been expected for deserts (as high as -120 g C m-2 year-1). We continue to observe high rates of NEE and NEP and seek explanations for these findings at interannual, seasonal, and sub-seasonal time scales. Because moisture availability most strongly constrains biological activity in deserts, responses to rains probably play a significant role in defining components of NEE-namely net primary productivity (NPP, or roughly net photosynthesis by vascular and non-vascular plants) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh, mainly by soil microorganisms). Most precipitation in the Mojave Desert falls from October through April and periodically in the summer as convective storms. The main objective of this study was to quantify the extent to which NEE and the net flux of CO2 from/to biological soil crust (BSC) covered soil surfaces respond to rain pulses occurring during cool/cold and warm/hot times of the year. Flux data from 7 years (2005-2011) of measurements at our shub land desert site (average 150 mm rain per year) located 120 km northwest of Las Vegas showed a range in NEP from -111±34 to -47±28 g C m-2 year-1. Cool season rains usually stimulated NEE (more negative NEE values or net CO2 uptake) while warm season rains reversed this effect and led to positive NEE values (net ecosystem CO2 efflux. Cool season stimulation of NEE often occurred in the absence of green leaves on vascular plants, suggesting that photosynthesis of BSCs (up to 70% of soil surface covered by cyanobacteria, mosses, and lichens) were responsible for this net uptake. At other times during

  13. Periodontal treatment in a generalized severe chronic periodontitis patient: A case report with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction. PMID:26038666

  14. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. A 7-year old boy with rapid growth and pubic hair].

    PubMed

    Berents-Oosterhof, M Y; Noordam, C; Otten, B J

    2000-12-16

    A 7-year-old boy was tall, with a developing penis and initial growth of pubic hair. Due to the accelerated growth there was no premature adrenarche and due to the increased testicular volume there must have been a central cause for the production of androgens. Further specific investigations revealed an astrocytoma of the hypothalamus. After radiotherapy, the tumour exhibited no growth. The pubertal development was inhibited and the growth later stimulated by means of medication. In the case of pubertas praecox the growth chart and pubertal stages including testicular volume can help to differentiate between central and peripheral precocious puberty, narrow the diagnostic evaluation and reduce the time of the initial therapy. PMID:11151653

  15. Large ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in a 7-year-old girl with analysis of 108 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kirjavainen, Antti; Tuovinen, Veikko; Sándor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) are rare conditions in children and are often asymptomatic. AFOs are found by routine clinical and radiological examination or when they cause obvious intra- or extra-oral swelling. Materials and Methods: A case of an AFO in a 7-year-old girl is described, and 107 cases from the literature and this report are analyzed. Results: The total of 108 cases revealed the average age at presentation of AFO to be 6.3 years in boys and 9.6 years in girls. There was a slight male predilection and AFO lesions most often occurred in the posterior mandible. AFO was almost always associated with an unerupted tooth or teeth. Conclusions: While the recurrence rate of AFO was found to be 5.5%, long-term postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up is advised to ensure no future signs of aggressive recurrence.

  16. The Maudsley Early Onset Schizophrenia Study: Cognitive Function Over a 4-Year Follow-Up Period

    PubMed Central

    Frangou, Sophia; Hadjulis, Michael; Vourdas, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Generalized cognitive deficits have been consistently reported in adolescents with early onset schizophrenia (EOS; defined as onset before the age of 17 years). The impact on cognition of potential interactions between disease pathology and brain maturation remains unclear. We therefore compared cognitive function between 20 EOS patients and 20 healthy controls matched on age, gender, and parental socioeconomic status at 2 time points, when aged 15.58 (2.27) and after a mean interval of 4 ± 1.08 years when aged 19.46 (2.21) years. Repeated measures analyses revealed no differences between patients and controls in the degree of change over this time period in general intellectual function and planning ability as measured by the Tower of London. There was deterioration in the verbal memory and attentional control index scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised but relative improvement in Part A of the Trail Making Test. Patients’ level of symptomatology as well as the type and dose of medication were comparable at both time points. We conclude that most aspects of cognitive function remain relatively stable in EOS patients during adolescence; there is evidence for deterioration in immediate verbal memory and attention while speed of information processing may show improvement. PMID:18024468

  17. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  18. ''Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Periodic Density Functional Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Structures''

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Hudson

    2004-10-27

    This project is directed at a fundamental understanding of hydrogen bonding, the primary reversible interaction leading to defined geometries, networks and supramolecular aggregates formed by organic molecules. Hydrogen bonding is still not sufficiently well understood that the geometry of such supramolecular aggregates can be predicted. In the approach taken existing quantum chemical methods capable of treating periodic solids have been applied to hydrogen bonded systems of known structure. The equilibrium geometry for the given space group and packing arrangement were computed and compared to that observed. The second derivatives and normal modes of vibration will then be computed and from this inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra were computed using the normal mode eigenvectors to compute spectral intensities. Appropriate inclusion of spectrometer line width and shape was made in the simulation and overtones, combinations and phonon wings were be included. These computed spectra were then compared with experimental results obtained for low-temperature polycrystalline samples at INS spectrometers at several facilities. This procedure validates the computational methodology for describing these systems including both static and dynamic aspects of the material. The resulting description can be used to evaluate the relative free energies of two or more proposed structures and so ultimately to be able to predict which structure will be most stable for a given building block.

  19. Analytic Study of Periodic Chaos. II ---Recursion Relations for the Power Spectra---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.

    1985-02-01

    On the basis of the analytic formulas for the correlation functions of nonperiodic orbits, the recursion relations are obtained which fully characterize the spectral structure of periodic chaos generated by continuous one-dimensional maps with a single maximum. The power spectrum at the mth band-splitting point consists of two parts, a line spectrum and a continuous spectrum, and each part is determined from the corresponding part at the (m-1)th band-splitting point through its own recursion relations, and thus the spectra near the chaotic critical point are completely determined. Moreover, it is shown that there exist the intrinsic relations between the intensities of the line and continuous spectra. The scaling law for the particlular orbits decisive of the correlation functions plays an essential role in deriving the recursion relations. The tent map has the exact recursion relations with the two rescaling factors dependent on m. The corresponding relations hold for the logistic map to an excellent approximation with the two rescaling factors replaced by α2 and -α, where α is Feigenbaum's rescaling factor. Universal aspects of the recursion relations are also discussed.

  20. An experimental and theoretical study of the mixing characteristics of a periodically reoriented irrotational flow.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Guy; Lester, Daniel; Ord, Alison; Kulkarni, Pandurang; Rudman, Murray; Trefry, Mike; Hobbs, Bruce; Regenaur-Lieb, Klaus; Morris, Jeffery

    2010-05-13

    The minimum-energy method to generate chaotic advection should be to use an irrotational flow. However, irrotational flows have no saddle connections to perturb in order to generate chaotic orbits. To the early work of Jones & Aref (Jones & Aref 1988 Phys. Fluids 31, 469-485 (doi:10.1063/1.866828)) on potential flow chaos, we add periodic reorientation to generate chaotic advection with irrotational experimental flows. Our experimental irrotational flow is a dipole potential flow in a disc-shaped Hele-Shaw cell called the rotated potential mixing flow; it leads to chaotic advection and transport in the disc. We derive an analytical map for the flow. This is a partially open flow, in which parts of the flow remain in the cell forever, and parts of it pass through with residence-time and exit-time distributions that have self-similar features in the control parameter space of the stirring. The theory compares well with the experiment. PMID:20368238

  1. Laboratory study of nitrification, denitrification and anammox processes in membrane bioreactors considering periodic aeration.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Rouzbeh; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar; Huang, Shan; Jaffé, Peter R

    2014-09-01

    The possibility of using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in simultaneous nitrification-anammox-denitrification (SNAD) by considering periodic aeration cycles was investigated. Two separate reactors were operated to investigate the effect of different anammox biomass in the presence of nitrifying and denitrifying biomass on the final nitrogen removal efficiency. The results illustrated that the reactor with higher anammox biomass was more robust to oxygen cycling. Around 98% Total Nitrogen (TN) and 83% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies were observed by applying one hour aeration over a four-hour cycle. Decreasing the aeration time to 30, 15, and 2 min during a four-hour cycle affected the final TN removal efficiencies. However, the effect of decreasing aeration on the TN removal efficiencies in the reactor with higher anammox biomass was much lower compared to the regular reactor. The nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was a function of aeration as well, and was lower in the reactor with higher anammox biomass. The results of q-PCR analysis confirmed the simultaneous co-existence of nitrifiers, anammox, and denitrifiers in both of the reactors. To simulate the TN removal in these reactors as a function of the aeration time, a new model, based on first order reaction kinetics for both denitrification and anammox was developed and yielded a good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:24814548

  2. Dust aerosol optical depth and altitude retrieved from 7 years of infrared sounders observations (AIRS, IASI) and comparison with other aerosol datasets (MODIS, CALIOP, PARASOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyridieu, Sophie; Chédin, Alain; Tanré, Didier; Capelle, Virginie; Pierangelo, Clémence; Lamquin, Nicolas; Armante, Raymond

    2010-05-01

    Remote sensing of aerosol properties in the visible domain has been widely used for a better characterization of these particles and of their effect on solar radiation. On the opposite, remote sensing of aerosols in the thermal infrared domain still remains marginal. However, knowledge of the effect of aerosols on terrestrial radiation is needed for the evaluation of their total radiative forcing. A key point of infrared remote sensing is its ability to retrieve aerosol optical depth as well as mean dust layer altitude, a variable required for measuring their impact on climate. Moreover, observations are possible night and day, over ocean and over land. Our algorithm is specifically designed to retrieve simultaneously coarse mode dust aerosol 10 µm optical depth (AOD) and mean layer altitude from high spectral resolution infrared sounders observations. Thanks to IASI higher spectral resolution, the selection of finer channels for aerosol detection allows an even more accurate determination of aerosol properties. In this context, results obtained from 7 years (2003-2010) of AIRS/Aqua and more than 2 years (2007-2010) of IASI/Metop observations have been compared to other aerosol sensors. Compared to MODIS/Aqua optical depth product, 10 µm dust optical depth shows a very good agreement, particularly for tropical Atlantic regions downwind of the Sahara during the dust season. Comparisons with PARASOL non-spherical coarse mode product allows explaining small differences observed far from the sources. Time series of the mean aerosol layer altitude are compared to the CALIOP Level-2 products starting June 2006. For regions located downwind of the Sahara, the comparison again shows a good agreement with a mean standard deviation between the two products of about 400 m over the period processed, demonstrating that our algorithm effectively allows retrieving accurate mean dust layer altitude. A 7-year global climatology of the aerosol 10 µm dust optical depth and of the

  3. Aerosol Indirect Effect Studies at Southern Great Plains During the May 2003 Intensive Operations Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feingold, Graham; Furrer, Reinhard; Pilewskie, Peter; Remer, Lorraine A.; Min, Qilong; Jonsson, Haflidi

    2006-01-01

    During May 2003 the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program conducted an Intensive Operations Period (IOP) to measure the radiative effects of aerosol and clouds. A suite of both in situ and remote sensing measurements were available to measure aerosol and cloud parameters. This paper has three main goals: First, it focuses on comparison between in situ retrievals of the radiatively important drop effective radius r(sub e) and various satellite, airborne, and surface remote sensing retrievals of the same parameter. On 17 May 2003, there was a fortuitous, near-simultaneous sampling of a stratus cloud by five different methods. The retrievals of r(sub e) agree with one another to within approx.20%, which is approximately the error estimate for most methods. Second, a methodology for deriving a best estimate of r(sub e) from these different instruments, with their different physical properties and sampling volumes, is proposed and applied to the 17 May event. Third, the paper examines the response of r(sub e) to changes in aerosol on 3 days during the experiment and examines the consistency of remote sensing and in situ measurements of the effect of aerosol on r(sub e). It is shown that in spite of the generally good agreement in derived r(sub e), the magnitude of the response of r(sub e), to changes in aerosol is quite sensitive to the method of retrieving r(sub e) and to the aerosol proxy for cloud condensation nuclei. Nonphysical responses are sometimes noted, and it is suggested that further work needs to be done to refine these techniques.

  4. Experimental study of outdoor propagation of spherically speading periodic acoustic waves of finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The outdoor propagation of spherically spreading sound waves of finite amplitude was investigated. The main purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent to which the outdoor environment, mainly random inhomogeneity of the medium, affects finite amplitude propagation. Periodic sources with fundamental frequencies in the range 6 to 8 kHz and source levels SPLlm from 140 to 149 dB were used. The sources were an array of 7 to 10 horn drivers and a siren. The propagation path was vertical and parallel to an 85 m tower, whose elevator carried the traveling microphone. The general conclusions drawn from the experimental results were as follows. The inhomogeneities caused significant fluctuations in the instantaneous acoustic signal, but with sufficient time averaging of the measured harmonic levels, the results were comparable to results expected for propagation in a quiet medium. Propagation data for the fundamental of the siren approached within 1 dB of the weak shock saturation levels. Extra attenuation on the order of 8 dB was observed. The measurements generally confirmed the predictions of several theoretical models. The maximum propagation distance was 36 m. The narrowbeam arrays were much weaker sources. Nonlinear propagation distortion was produced, but the maximum value of extra attenuation measured was 1.5 dB. The maximum propagation distance was 76 m. The behavior of the asymetric waveforms received in one experiment qualitatively suggested that beam type diffraction effects were present. The role of diffraction of high intensity sound waves in radiation from a single horn was briefly investigated.

  5. Work Sampling Study of an Engineering Professor during a Regular Contract Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; McDonald, Dale B.

    2015-01-01

    Work sampling is a technique that has been employed in industry and fields such as healthcare for some time. It is a powerful technique, and an alternative to conventional stop watch time studies, used by industrial engineers to focus upon random work sampling observations. This study applies work sampling to the duties performed by an individual…

  6. Paleointensity during periods of rapid reversal: A Case Study from the Middle Jurassic Shamrock Batholith, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprain, C. J.; Feinberg, J. M.; Geissman, J. W.; Strauss, B.; Brown, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Paleointensity is one of the least determined parameters in geomagnetism, yet this information has the potential to address many fundamental geophysical problems that bear on the evolution of the Earth's core and lower mantle. Here we further test the inverse relationship between geomagnetic polarity reversal rate and paleointensity, as proposed by Tauxe and Staudigel (2004) and Tarduno & Cottrell (2005). We report paleointensity results determined using both the modified Coe method (Coe, 1967) and IZZI protocol (Tauxe and Staudigel, 2004) on medium grained, hornblende-biotite granite of the Shamrock batholith in the southern Singatse Range, near Yerington, Nevada. This batholith was emplaced at ca.165.8+/- 0.4 Ma (zircon U-Pb, Dilles & Wright, 1988) during a period of unusually high reversal frequency (~10/Myr) in the Middle Jurassic. Remanence in the Shamrock batholith is held primarily by exsolved submicron magnetite inclusions in plagioclase; the laboratory unblocking temperature range for the very well-defined TRM is narrow, between about 540 and 575°C. Two sets of quality control criteria were used to assess the data. The first set yielded a 87% success rate and required MAD <10°, β <15%, DRATS <22%, MD checks <15% and fvds >30%, while the second set was more stringent (20% success rate) with MAD <5°, β <10%, DRATS <10%, MD checks <10% and fvds >40%. Mean paleointensity values for the Shamrock batholith using the 'loose' and 'strict' quality criteria are 31.4 ± 4.2 μT (N = 13) and 29.7 ± 3.1 μT (N = 3), respectively. After correction for both remanence anisotropy and cooling rate the mean values are15.9 ± 1.7 μT and 14.8 ± 0.3 μT, respectively. The uncorrected and corrected paleointensity values for the 'strict' estimates yield mean virtual dipole moments of 56.1 ± 5.9 ZAm2 and 27.9 ± 0.6 ZAm2, respectively. The uncorrected value is consistent with the VDM results reported by Tarduno & Cottrell (2005) for plagioclase grains isolated from ca

  7. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1]. PMID:27054190

  8. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  9. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  10. Single cell contractility studies based on compact moiré system over periodic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Surks, Howard; Zhang, Xin

    2010-05-01

    Abnormal vascular cell contractile performance is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. Conventional cell force measurement technique requires individually tracking the sensing units and complex computation efforts for further studying cell contractility. We developed instead a robust and simple compact optical moiré system that measures phase changes encoded in carrier moiré patterns generated from two layers of gratings. Cell mechanics study including cell contractile forces and stress and strain distributions during normal and abnormal cell contractions can thus be conveniently analyzed. The distinct signals from moiré patterns in longitudinal and transverse directions revealed abnormal cell mechanical contractility linked to cardiovascular disease.

  11. Structure formation during the crystallization induction period of a short chain-molecule system: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hisao

    1998-10-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed for a short chain-molecule system to study structure formation during the crystallization induction period. A model simulating n-alkane having 20 methylene units was used for the short-chain molecule. A model system containing either 250 or 2000 chains was quenched from a high temperature, and the structure formation was examined at constant temperature and pressure. The model system containing 250 chains eventually forms an ordered phase after the induction period, during which macroscopic quantities, such as volume, remain almost constant. In spite of these small changes in the macroscopic quantities, development of local parallel order is significant during the induction period. We also found that the development of local parallel order causes density fluctuations which appear as a weak small-angle peak in the structure factor. A characteristic length scale corresponding to the density fluctuations becomes larger as time elapses in the induction period. These features are qualitatively in accord with recent experimental findings on a different polymer system [M. Imai et al., Phys. Rev. B 52, 12 696 (1995)].

  12. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  13. Ethical Practices in Journal Publishing: A Study of Library and Information Science Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serebnick, Judith; Harter, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that examined generally accepted ethical norms in library and information science journals regarding practices such as the multiple publication of the same article, plagiarism, and cronyism. The responses of editors to action scenarios focused on ethical behavior are discussed and conclusions are drawn about the ethical…

  14. From Consciousness to Technology: The Implications of Wave Periodicity Research for Communication Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Attempting to introduce a new viewpoint to communication studies, this speculative and philosophical paper posits technology as an "echo of consciousness." Section one examines technology as a manifestation of attitude, presenting the premise that technologies, consciousness, and systems are not separate components, but products of interacting…

  15. A Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies. Periodic Report: 1968-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center for Environmental Communications and Education Studies.

    This report summarizes the role of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies (CECES) in helping to foster teaching, research, and public service programs. Included in the first section are program highlights (1968-1982), Center organization, and lists of Center personnel (executive…

  16. Studying Changes in Organizational Design and Effectiveness: Retrospective Event Histories and Periodic Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, William H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes assumptions, rationale, and trade-offs involved in designing the research methodology used in a longitudinal study of organizational change. Data were obtained from over 100 organizations through 4 interviews spaced 6 months apart with top managers. (53 references) (MLF)

  17. Evaluation and developmental studies of possible active seismic experiments during the post-Apollo period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic velocity studies pertinent to the lunar crust and mantle are briefly summarized. The compressional and shear wave velocities in loose aggregates are discussed along with the effects of temperature on seismic velocity in compacted powders. Abstracts of papers concerning the lunar structure are included.

  18. A Study of Interaction in Distance Learning. Interim Technical Report for Period June-August 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Robert G.; Riise, Eric

    A more comprehensive definition of the variable "interaction" is needed to answer the numerous questions concerning interaction effects in distance learning. This study attempts to qualify the concept of interaction by applying various dimensions such as amount, timeliness, method, spontaneity, and quality. In turn, these dimensions of interaction…

  19. A periodic analysis of longitudinal binary responses: a case study of clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-mei; Gianola, Daniel; Heringstad, Bjørg; Klemetsdal, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure for analyzing longitudinal binary responses using a periodic cosine function was developed. It was assumed that, after adjustment for "seasonal" effects, the oscillation of the underlying latent variables for longitudinal binary responses was a stationary series. Based on this assumption, a single dimension sinusoidal analysis of longitudinal binary responses using the Gibbs sampling and Metropolis algorithms was implemented in a study of clinical mastitis records of Norwegian Red cows taken over five lactations. PMID:17433240

  20. Lidar/photometry studies at Sao Paulo in the 2003-2005 period, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Sawamura, Patricia; Uehara, Sandro T.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Torres, Ani S.; Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Matos, Caio A.; de Jesus, Wellington C.

    2007-09-01

    A lidar system has been operational at Sao Paulo, Brazil (23° S, 46° W) since 2001 and colocated is a sunphotometer belonging to AERONET . During this last years aerosol properties has been extracted from both systems and seasonal trends have been observed specially when long range transport takes place bringing plumes with biomass burning aerosol which can distinctively be extracted from a heavy loaded atmosphere as SÃ#o Paulo. These events trigger poor air quality conditions which can be easily correlated. The parameters for studying these patterns are Aerosol Optical Depth, Angström Exponent and Lidar Ratio. We show here some case studies belonging to years 2003, 2004 and 2005.

  1. Studies of molecular properties of polymeric materials. Final report, period ending 31 August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harries, W.L.; Long, S.A.T.; Long, E.R. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    Aerospace environment effects (high energy electrons, thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and aircraft fluids) on polymeric and composite materials considered for structural use in spacecraft and advanced aircraft are examined. These materials include Mylar, Ultem, and Kapton. In addition to providing information on the behavior of the materials, attempts are made to relate the measurements to the molecular processes occurring in the material. A summary and overview of the technical aspects are given along with a list of the papers that resulted from the studies. The actual papers are included in the appendices and a glossary of technical terms and definitions is included in the front matter.

  2. Letterer-Siwe disease: a study of thirteen cases over a 21 - year period.

    PubMed

    Bingham, E A; Bridges, J M; Kelly, A M; Burrows, D; Nevin, N C

    1982-02-01

    In Northern Ireland, with a population of 1.5 million, thirteen cases of Letterer-Siwe disease have been diagnosed over the past 21 years. The average age of onset was 10.5 months. There was a 69% mortality with an average survival time from diagnosis to death of 3.3 months. Four children survived with no morbidity. All deaths were from pulmonary complications, but two cases with pulmonary infiltration responded to treatment with quadruple chemotherapy. There were no familial cases in this study. PMID:7059511

  3. Delayed recognition of profound hearing loss in a 7-year-old girl with a neurological condition.

    PubMed

    Tang, Brian G; Feldman, Heidi M; Padden, Carol; Israeli, Nili; Stein, Martin T

    2009-08-01

    Kelly is a 7-year-old girl with a complex medical history including asthma, mild spastic diplegia, and seizure disorder that is controlled with carbamazepine. She had a significant receptive and expressive language impairment and milder delays in gross and fine motor skills. Kelly is currently repeating first grade in a self-contained classroom; she receives speech, occupational, and physical therapy. At the 7-year-old well child visit, her mother is worried about Kelly's poor progress in school, and she expresses concern about her daughter's hearing. Her pediatrician observes that Kelly is withdrawn, uses minimal language, and is fearful of the examination.Kelly was born full-term by Cesarean section because of placental abruption. She was in the neonatal intensive care nursery for 2 weeks with metabolic acidosis because of acute tubular necrosis. One day after arriving home, she had a cardiopulmonary arrest followed by emergency open-heart surgery for critical pulmonary hypertension. Her postoperative course was significant for renal failure, extracorporal membrane oxygenation, ventilator dependency, tracheostomy, and gastrostomy. By 3 years of age her medical condition stabilized, and the tracheostomy and gastrostomy tubes were removed.A review of Kelly's previous audiological tests revealed a failed otoacoustic emission test at 5 months. An auditory brain stem response test at 8 months recorded normal hearing in the right ear. At 4 years, behavioral audiometry was attempted but not completed because Kelly cried throughout the session. At 5 years, testing with ear inserts showed normal hearing bilaterally.Because of the concerns raised by Kelly's mother at the pediatric visit, she was referred to audiology for a reevaluation. Testing at this time revealed moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both the ears, which was confirmed on subsequent examinations. Kelly was promptly fitted for hearing aids. Her individual education plan was changed to reflect

  4. A study of periodically driven stochastic systems using the method of moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstigneev, Mykhaylo

    A white-noise driven non-linear stochastic system subject to harmonic external forcing is considered. A general technique to compute the system's first- and higher-harmonic response to such a driving of arbitrary amplitude is elaborated, and its linear response version is derived. In addition, a novel method of computing the rate of escape of a stochastic system from a given region of its state space is proposed. These developments are applied to study the response of a stochastic oscillator in a bistable quartic potential V(x) = -(x2/2) + (x 4/4) to harmonic driving, as well as the rate of escape from one of its potential minima. Two cases are separately considered, namely, the overdamped (Smoluchowski) limit, and a more general case of arbitrary damping constant. Calculation of the probability of escape from a potential minimum per unit time as a function of noise intensity, T, and damping constant is performed. The results are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with the Kramers-Arrhenius formula in the region of its validity, i.e., at low noise intensities. A subsequent increase of the escape rate with noise intensity in proportion to T is predicted. A detailed study of the susceptibility of the average coordinate to external forcing is carried out, and the effect of driving frequency, noise intensity, and damping on the system's driven probability distribution and response is investigated in the context of stochastic resonance (SR). In the overdamped limit, two types of processes contribute to the system's susceptibility, namely, intrawell and interwell relaxation. It is shown that even in the overdamped limit, both of these processes result in stochastic resonant enhancement of the system's sensitivity to driving with respect to noise strength. Other types of SR appear in the case of small damping, when noise can be used to tune the system to the interwell and/or intrawell vibrational state characterized by the frequency matching that of external

  5. Periodic Peritoneal Dialysis in End Stage Renal Disease: Is it Still Relevant? A Single Center Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, K; Prasad, D; Malhotra, V; Agrawal, D; Beniwal, P; Mathur, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: High cost of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in India has made renal replacement therapy out of reach of many patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Repeated puncture PD although inferior to HD biochemically, is easily and freely available across Rajasthan, India, and is simple to perform, and does not require sophisticated machines, thus making it an attractive option for dialysis for ESRD. Aim: To analyze the outcomes of periodic PD in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis support. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study analyzing the data of patients who underwent PD between August 2010 and January 2013 in Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, India was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time period between first and second session of PD. Detailed demographic and clinical data during the study period were collected along with PD related complications. The main outcome studied was technique survival 1 year post initiation of PD. Results: 234 patients received an initial session of PD, of which 174 had a good response and were included in the study. 19 patients received the second PD within 7 days of first (Group 1), 45 patients within 8–14 days (Group 2) and 110 patients within 15–21 days (Group 3). The overall 1 year technique survival was 68.4% (91/133), with a rate of 50% (5/10), 56.8% (21/37), and 75.6% (65/86) for Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. The time duration between first and second PD proved to be reliable indicator of the subsequent response, with a technique survival rate significantly lower in Group 1 patients compared to Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.04). Median dialysis free days were 11, 16 and 21 days in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Peritonitis rate observed was 2.1% (49/2261) during the study period. Conclusion: Periodic PD is a simple, safe and cheap procedure, which can be considered as used as a palliative measure in

  6. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Kaaret, P.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of accreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond x-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the x-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform x-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to include imaging of X-ray jets from binaries and the study of extragalactic X-ray binaries. Significant progress was made over the past year.

  7. Maternal recall versus medical records of metabolic conditions from the prenatal period: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Methods Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Results Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73% to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57% to 77% and specificity from 93% to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC=0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κwt=0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κwt=0.85 and κwt=0.84, respectively; P=0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. Conclusions For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  8. Maternal Recall Versus Medical Records of Metabolic Conditions from the Prenatal Period: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K; Tancredi, Daniel J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-09-01

    To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73 to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57 to 77% and specificity from 93 to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC = 0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κ(wt) = 0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κ(wt) = 0.85 and κ(wt) = 0.84, respectively; P = 0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  9. Animal Welfare in Studies on Murine Tuberculosis: Assessing Progress over a 12-Year Period and the Need for Further Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Nuno Henrique; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Olsson, I. Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern over the welfare of animals used in research, in particular when these animals develop pathology. The present study aims to identify the main sources of animal distress and to assess the possible implementation of refinement measures in experimental infection research, using mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) as a case study. This choice is based on the historical relevance of mouse studies in understanding the disease and the present and long-standing impact of TB on a global scale. Literature published between 1997 and 2009 was analysed, focusing on the welfare impact on the animals used and the implementation of refinement measures to reduce this impact. In this 12-year period, we observed a rise in reports of ethical approval of experiments. The proportion of studies classified into the most severe category did however not change significantly over the studied period. Information on important research parameters, such as method for euthanasia or sex of the animals, were absent in a substantial number of papers. Overall, this study shows that progress has been made in the application of humane endpoints in TB research, but that a considerable potential for improvement remains. PMID:23110093

  10. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species. PMID:26745511

  11. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Filho, F. E.; da Silva, J. H.; Saraiva, G. D.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Barros, O. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 108 years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  12. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  13. Study on light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes having periodically corrugated enhancement structures with different duty cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Hao Ming; Wang, Huei Tsz; Huang, Chen Yang; Pan, Huang Wei; Chao, Shiuh

    2016-02-01

    The duty cycle effect on the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes having different periodically corrugated enhancement structures placed opposite to the emission surface was studied. The experimental results were compared with numerical simulation results. The numerical simulation was performed using a rigorous-coupled-wave-analysis method. In the case of common structures such as a patterned-sapphire structure, we found that, in general, extraction efficiency increased drastically when duty cycle was increased from zero, and then it varied relatively slowly as the duty cycle was increased further; after that, the extraction efficiency dropped drastically as the duty cycle approached 100%. However, for a structure that was composed of autocloned-photonic crystals super-imposing on the periodical corrugation, the efficiency increased monotonically with the duty cycle and reached 83.4% (corresponding to 589% enhancement efficiency) when the duty cycle approached 100%. A method for the fabrication of such high-efficiency structures was proposed.

  14. Low-altitude quasi-periodic echoes studied using a large database of Gadanki radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara Rao, N.; Patra, A. K.; Rao, S. V. B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present studies on low-altitude quasiperiodic (LQP) echoes based on a large database of Gadanki radar observations. LQP echoes have been observed 33% of the time during daytime and 39% during nighttime. Their occurrence is found to be maximum in the summer (daytime, 58% nighttime, 57%), followed by the September equinox (daytime, 32% nighttime, 48%), the March equinox (daytime, 26% nighttime, 36%), and minimum in the winter (daytime, 25% nighttime, 26%). Height-time occurrence of LQP echoes shows two local time maxima: one in the morning (0700-1100 LT) and another in the evening (1900-0000 LT). The most significant results not reported earlier are the large occurrence rate of LQP echoes and the height-time occurrence maps showing a descending pattern with close resemblance to tidal wind behavior. The Doppler velocities are upward-northward (downward-southward) for positive- (negative-) sloped LQP echoes. Also, we find the Doppler spread as high as 200 m s-1 at times underlining the presence of strong plasma turbulence in the collision-dominated lower E region. These results are discussed in the light of the current understanding of the LQP echoes.

  15. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Kaaret, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of accreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations of accreting compact objects. include imaging of X-ray jets from binaries and the study of extragalactic X-ray binaries. past year. Nine papers were accepted and/or published, as listed below. Seven of these are new since our previous annual report. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to Significant progress was made over the The presentation of several talks and posters at astronomical meetings were supported by this grant. The PI was the lead organizer of "X-Ray Timing 2003: Rossi and Beyond", a major conference held in Cambridge, MA, in November, 2003. A t the conference we reviewed the accomplishments of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and developed the scientific motivation for a future X-ray timing mission. This conference was well attended and generated a significant amount of interest.

  16. Visual search is postponed during the period of the AB: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lagroix, Hayley E P; Grubert, Anna; Spalek, Thomas M; Di Lollo, Vincent; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In the phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB), perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). Studies in which T2 consisted of a pop-out search array provided evidence suggesting that visual search is postponed during the AB. In the present work, we used behavioral and electrophysiological measures to test this postponement hypothesis. The behavioral measure was reaction time (RT) to T2; the electrophysiological measure was the onset latency of an ERP index of attentional selection, known as the N2pc. Consistent with the postponement hypothesis, both measures were delayed during the AB. The delay in N2pc was substantially shorter than that in RT, pointing to multiple sources of delay in the chain of processing events, as distinct from the single source postulated in current theories of the AB. Finally, the finding that the N2pc was delayed during the AB strongly suggests that attention is involved in the processing of pop-out search arrays. PMID:25871502

  17. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  18. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio) is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human. PMID:22348507

  19. Anomalous parity asymmetry of WMAP 7-year power spectrum data at low multipoles: Is it cosmological or systematics?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-09-15

    It is natural to assume a parity-neutral Universe and accordingly no particular parity preference in the cosmic microwave background sky. However, our investigation based on the WMAP 7-year power spectrum shows there exists a large-scale odd-parity preference with high statistical significance. We also find that the odd-parity preference in WMAP7 data is slightly higher than earlier releases. We have investigated possible origins, and ruled out various noncosmological origins. We also find that the primordial origin requires |Re[{Phi}(k)]|<<|Im[{Phi}(k)]| for k < or approx. 22/{eta}{sub 0}, where {eta}{sub 0} is the present conformal time. In other words, it requires translational invariance in the primordial Universe to be violated on scales larger than 4 Gpc. The Planck surveyor, which possesses wide frequency coverage and systematics distinct from the WMAP, may allow us to resolve the mystery of the anomalous odd-parity preference. Furthermore, polarization maps of large-sky coverage will reduce degeneracy in cosmological origins.

  20. A signature of transience in bedrock river incision rates over timescales of 10(4)-10(7) years.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Noah J; Schumer, Rina; Finnegan, Seth

    2014-01-16

    Measured rates of river incision into bedrock are commonly interpreted as proxies for rates of rock uplift (see refs 1 and 2, for example) and indices of the strength of climatic forcing of erosion over time (see refs 3 and 4, for example). This approach implicitly assumes that river incision rates are in equilibrium with external forcings over a wide range of timescales. Here we directly test this assumption by examining the temporal scaling of bedrock river incision from 155 independent measurements of river incision compiled from 14 sites. Of these sites, 11 exhibit a negative power-law dependence of bedrock river incision rate on measurement interval, a relationship that is apparent over timescales of 10(4)-10(7) years and is independent of tectonic and geomorphic setting. Thus, like rates of sediment accumulation, rates of river incision into bedrock exhibit non-steady-state behaviour even over very long measurement intervals. Non-steady-state behaviour can be explained by episodic hiatuses in river incision triggered by alluvial deposition, if such hiatuses have a heavy-tailed length distribution. Regardless of its cause, the dependence of incision rate on measurement interval complicates efforts to infer tectonic or climatic forcing from changes in rates of river incision over time or from comparison of rates computed over different timescales. PMID:24429636

  1. Mathematics and reading difficulty subtypes: minor phonological influences on mathematics for 5-7-years-old.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Julie A; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic influences in mathematics have previously been explored through subtyping methodology and by taking advantage of the componential nature of mathematics and variations in language requirements that exist across tasks. The present longitudinal investigation aimed to examine the language requirements of mathematical tasks in young children aged 5-7 years. Initially, 256 children were screened for mathematics and reading difficulties (RDs) using standardized measures. Those scoring at or below the 35th percentile on either dimension were classified as having difficulty. From this screening, 115 children were allocated to each of the mathematical difficulty (MD; n = 26), MDRD (n = 32), RD (n = 22) and typically achieving (n = 35) subtypes. These children were tested at four time points, separated by 6 monthly intervals, on a battery of seven mathematical tasks. Growth curve analysis indicated that, in contrast to previous research on older children, young children with MD and MDRD had very similar patterns of development on all mathematical tasks. Overall, the subtype comparisons suggested that language played only a minor mediating role in most tasks, and this was secondary in importance to non-verbal skills. Correlational evidence suggested that children from the different subtypes could have been using different mixes of verbal and non-verbal strategies to solve the mathematical problems. PMID:25798118

  2. Highly accurate prediction of emotions surrounding the attacks of September 11, 2001 over 1-, 2-, and 7-year prediction intervals.

    PubMed

    Doré, Bruce P; Meksin, Robert; Mather, Mara; Hirst, William; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2016-06-01

    In the aftermath of a national tragedy, important decisions are predicated on judgments of the emotional significance of the tragedy in the present and future. Research in affective forecasting has largely focused on ways in which people fail to make accurate predictions about the nature and duration of feelings experienced in the aftermath of an event. Here we ask a related but understudied question: can people forecast how they will feel in the future about a tragic event that has already occurred? We found that people were strikingly accurate when predicting how they would feel about the September 11 attacks over 1-, 2-, and 7-year prediction intervals. Although people slightly under- or overestimated their future feelings at times, they nonetheless showed high accuracy in forecasting (a) the overall intensity of their future negative emotion, and (b) the relative degree of different types of negative emotion (i.e., sadness, fear, or anger). Using a path model, we found that the relationship between forecasted and actual future emotion was partially mediated by current emotion and remembered emotion. These results extend theories of affective forecasting by showing that emotional responses to an event of ongoing national significance can be predicted with high accuracy, and by identifying current and remembered feelings as independent sources of this accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100309

  3. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  4. Alectinib induced CNS radiation necrosis in an ALK+NSCLC patient with a remote (7 years) history of brain radiation.

    PubMed

    Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Weitz, Michael; Jalas, John R; Kelly, Daniel F; Wong, Vanessa; Azada, Michele C; Quines, Oliver; Klempner, Samuel J

    2016-06-01

    Alectinib is a second generation ALK inhibitor that has significant clinical activity in central nervous system (CNS) metastases in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pseudoprogression (PsP) due to radiation necrosis during alecitnib treatment of central nervous system (CNS) metastases from ALK-rearranged NSCLC as been reported. Hence, distinguishing radiation-related PsP from alectinib-induced radiographic changes is important to avoid erroneous early trial discontinuation and abandonment of an effective treatment. However, it remains difficult to assess casuality of radiation necrosis is related to recent direct radiation or induced by alectinib treatment or both. It is also unknown how long from previous radiation can alectinib still induce radiation necrosis. Here we reported a crizotinib-refractory ALK-positive NSCLC patient who develop radiation necrosis in one of his metastatic CNS lesions after approximately 12 months of alectinib treatment who otherwise had on-going CNS response on alectinib. His most recent radiation to his CNS metastases was 7 years prior to the start of alectinib. This case illustrates that in the setting of pror CNS radiation, given the significant clinical activity of alectinib in CNS metastases in ALK-positive NSCLC patients the risk of CNS radiation necrosis remains long after previous radiation to the CNS metastases has been completed and can occur after durable response of treatment. PMID:27133743

  5. Mathematics and reading difficulty subtypes: minor phonological influences on mathematics for 5–7-years-old

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Julie A.; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic influences in mathematics have previously been explored through subtyping methodology and by taking advantage of the componential nature of mathematics and variations in language requirements that exist across tasks. The present longitudinal investigation aimed to examine the language requirements of mathematical tasks in young children aged 5–7 years. Initially, 256 children were screened for mathematics and reading difficulties (RDs) using standardized measures. Those scoring at or below the 35th percentile on either dimension were classified as having difficulty. From this screening, 115 children were allocated to each of the mathematical difficulty (MD; n = 26), MDRD (n = 32), RD (n = 22) and typically achieving (n = 35) subtypes. These children were tested at four time points, separated by 6 monthly intervals, on a battery of seven mathematical tasks. Growth curve analysis indicated that, in contrast to previous research on older children, young children with MD and MDRD had very similar patterns of development on all mathematical tasks. Overall, the subtype comparisons suggested that language played only a minor mediating role in most tasks, and this was secondary in importance to non-verbal skills. Correlational evidence suggested that children from the different subtypes could have been using different mixes of verbal and non-verbal strategies to solve the mathematical problems. PMID:25798118

  6. First multi-colour photometric study of the short period K-type contact binary NSVS 2701634

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignoni, M.; Acerbi, F.; Barani, C.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first CCD sets of complete light curves for the W Ursae Majoris W-type system NSVS 2701634. The observations were performed in the B, V and Ic bands using the 0.25 m telescope of the "Stazione Astronomica Betelgeuse" Italy, during 8 nights in April 2015. From our observations we were able to confirm and revise the short-period (0.24 days) variation found by Shaw and collaborators in their online list Using our 12 times of minimum light, the orbital period variations of NSVS 2701634 are studied for the first time. The general trend of the (O-C) curve reveals that its period is varying by a downward parabola that means that period is decreasing, this fact could be explained by a mass transfer between the components of the system. The light curves were modelled using the Wilson-Devinney code and the elements obtained from this analysis are used to compute the physical parameters of the system in order to study its evolutionary status. A reasonable fit of the synthetic light curves of the data indicated that NSVS 2701634 is an late-type (K3 -K4+K6) contact binary system of W-Subtype of the W Ursae Majoris systems, with a mass ratio of q = 2.60, a degree of contact factor f = 15.3% and inclination i = 72°. The light curves show asymmetries at the maxima that are fitted adding an hot spot on the surface of the more massive star, known as inverse O'Connell effect. From an estimation of the absolute dimensions of the system and from the logM-logL diagram, it is seen that both components of NSVS 2701634 follow the general pattern of the W subtype W Ursae Majoris systems.

  7. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  8. Study of the Correlations Between Long-Periodic Terrestrial Tides and Occurrence of Earthquakes in the Vrancea Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souchay, J.; Stavinschi, M.

    1997-04-01

    Following studies already performed by various authors concerning specific tectonic faults we analyse statistically the possibility that earthquakes in the very active seismological zone of Vrancea (Roumania) may be triggered by the vertical luni-solar tidal oscillations when retaining only the components other than diurnal and semi-diurnal. Our conclusion is that for three of the four leading tides, with periods 18.6 y, 182.62 d, and 13.66 d, the earthquakes occur preferentially during the ascending part of each of the sine oscillation. This property is especially visible for the leading 13.66 d fortnightly wave, and for the 18.6 y wave, for which results are very similar to that of Kilston and Knopoff (1983), who analyzed data related to the San Andreas fault in Southern California. As a complement, we carried out an analysis of earthquake periodicities w.r.t. the variation rate of each of the tides above, given by the half-period sine oscillation, which also leads to interesting possible correlations.

  9. A Study of the X-ray Periodicities in the Remarkable Transient Source Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Falcone, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Swift J1644+57 was discovered when it exhibited bright X-ray activity that was believed to be triggered from the infall of a tidally disrupted star near a massive black hole. The observation of a tidal disruption event (TDE) can provide clues to the geometry and physics near the black hole. If a jet forms, as we think happened with Swift J1644+57, it can provide data to study jet creation and the density of matter in a possible accretion disc. We have analyzed Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of Swift J1644+57 from initial onset to 502 days after TDE onset. We used a Z-transform Discrete Correlation Function (ZDCF) to search for periodicities in the Swift X-ray light curve. We analyzed the X-ray light curve in five time regions, including 0 to 4.5 days after TDE onset, 4.5 to 55 days after TDE onset, 55 to 104 days after TDE onset, 104 to 145 days after TDE onset, and 145 to 502 days after TDE onset. After implementing red and white noise reduction modeling to our ZDCF analysis, we found plausible detections of periodicities. We briefly discuss implications of these periods on the geometry and feeding of the tidal disruption event.

  10. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period Solar Type Near-Contact W UMa Binary, FF Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Van Hamme, Walter V.

    2016-01-01

    High precision BVRcIc light curves of FF Vul were observed during the Fall, 2015 season at the Dark Sky Observatory 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University, and the SARA North 0.91-m reflector at KPNO. It is an eclipsing binary with a period of only 0.444983 (2) d. This is the shortest period of our recently studied Pre Contact W UMa Binary (PCWB's), V2421 Cyg, V1043 Cas, ZZ Eri, V500 Peg, and Mis V1287. Our Binary Maker fits and our Wilson-Devinney solution show that the binary is a near-contact, semidetached binary, i.e., a V1010 Oph type configuration (the more massive component has filled its critical lobe while the secondary component is under-filling). Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457285.7262 ±0.0002, 2457306.6425 ±0.0002, 2457310.6469 ±0.0002HJD II = 2457279.7222 ±0.0006, 2457280.6124 ±0.0017.The following quadratic ephemerides was determined from all available times of minimum light:JDHelMinI=2457310.6473±0.0007d + 0.4449758±0.0000002 X E -0.00000000006± 0.00000000001 X E2The continuous 20 year period study reveals a period decrease in the orbital period at about the 6 sigma level. Our modeling shows a near-equatorial hot spot on the following side of the secondary component. This is probably due to a matter transfer onto the secondary component. The light curve has a large difference in primary and secondary amplitudes and the light curve solution gives a component temperature difference of more than 1500 K. The solution shows a total secondary eclipse of 23 minutes duration. As expected in binaries of this type, it has a cool spot region on its primary component.

  11. Study of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip GaN-based LEDs with different periodic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinlian; Kong, Fanmin; Li, Kang; Ding, Qingan; Zhang, Mingyu; Li, Wei

    2014-03-01

    To improve light extraction efficiency (LEE) of the GaN-based LEDs, it has become a practical technique to form 2D periodic micro/nanostructure arrays in an n- or p-GaN layer. However, the fabrication of micro/nanostructure arrays in the thinner p-GaN layer can deteriorate the electrical characteristics, sometimes even damage the QWs active region. In this study, numerical simulations based on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method were carried out to investigate the influence of the different periodic arrays in the thicker n-GaN layer on the LEE of the LEDs. To find the optimal structure, the study was divided into three parts. Firstly, the parametrical influence of the different periodic arrays on the LEE was numerically simulated. The results showed that micro-cone arrays can effectively enhance the LEE and the maximum LEE can be obtained as the bottom of each cone pattern was in contact with adjacent cones. Secondly, by comparing micro-cone arrays with micro-pyramid arrays, the micro-cone arrays were superior to micro-pyramid arrays in terms of enhancing LEE. Lastly, the truncated cone arrays and truncated cone hole arrays with different upper radius were studied. The results indicated that the truncated cone arrays in top radius of less than 0.4 µm showed a certain enhancement of the LEE and about 3 times LEE improvement was obtained as R=0.2μm and h=1.0μm, compared with the planar flip-chip LEDs. Our results will provide important theoretical implications in development of high-power and high-brightness LEDs.

  12. Multidisciplinary experiment on studying short-period variability of the sedimentary process in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Novigatskii, A. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The principal aim of this work is to reveal the regularities of short-period synoptic variability of vertical flows and the composition of settling sedimentary material, to obtain information on the quantitative characteristics of the processes that influence sound-scattering layers in the water layer above the continental slope behind the shelf edge in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The results were obtained due to improvement of the equipment and the procedures for performing sea experiments on studying physicogeological, biological, and hydrophysical processes in the upper illuminated layer of phytoplankton development.

  13. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  14. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  15. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2012-05-01

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ≈ oyster ≥ mud shrimp ≈ eelgrass > sand ≈ ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

  16. A Pilot Study to Compare Oxidative Status between Organically and Conventionally Managed Dairy Cattle During the Transition Period.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the redox balance of organically managed dairy cattle (OMC; n = 40) during the transition period and to compare this with conventionally managed cattle (CMC; n = 22). Serum samples of dairy cows from two organic and one conventional farm were taken. Markers of oxidants production [reactive oxygen species] and total serum antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) far-off dry (2 to 1 months before calving; 44 samples in CMC and 48 in OMC); (ii) close-up dry (1 month until 3 days before calving; 44 CMC; 54 OMC); (iii) fresh (3 days to +1 month after calving; 44 CMC; 49 OMC); and (iv) peak of lactation (+1 to +3 months; 71 CMC; 78 OMC). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (4th-5th month of pregnancy; 40 CMC; 30 OMC). Our results indicated that throughout the periparturient period, OMC had lower concentrations of reactive oxygen species, but also a lower antioxidant capacity than CMC. Indeed, when the two components of the redox balance were assessed together through the Oxidative Stress index, the values of this parameter were higher for OMC than for CMC, thereby implying a higher risk of oxidative stress. Therefore, further larger studies are needed to confirm the current observations, as organically reared animals might be exposed to a lack of antioxidants supply. PMID:25845278

  17. A prospective study in a southern Indian hospital on the prescription of medication during the lying in period following childbirth.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M; Jairaj, P; Mathew, L G

    1994-01-01

    The awareness of the inherent risks attached to medication use during pregnancy is increasing. There is, however, a paucity of available following childbirth. We have conducted a prospective study in women who gave birth in hospital with the objective of analysing the use of medication in this lying in period. The results show that, in addition to the vitamins and minerals routinely prescribed for every young mother and the antipyretics administered as required, the following medicaments were most often used: analgesics (by approx. 9%), anti-inflammatory agents (49%) and antibiotics (38%). The antibiotics were either used prophylactically or, in cases of proven infection, administered therapeutically. The use of antibiotics appears more intensive compared to western countries, presumably due to the greater risk of infection in this group in India. On the other hand, the use of sleep inducing medication and tranquillizers during the lying in period appears, in comparison to other studies, almost negligible. The majority of the women were unaware of the potential side-effects of medication during breastfeeding. PMID:7871897

  18. The prosocial personality and its facets: genetic and environmental architecture of mother-reported behavior of 7-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Uzefovsky, Florina; Israel, Salomon; Davidov, Maayan; Zahn-Waxler, Caroyln

    2015-01-01

    Children vary markedly in their tendency to behave prosocially, and recent research has implicated both genetic and environmental factors in this variability. Yet, little is known about the extent to which different aspects of prosociality constitute a single dimension (the prosocial personality), and to the extent they are intercorrelated, whether these aspects share their genetic and environmental origins. As part of the Longitudinal Israeli Study of Twins (LIST), mothers of 183 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) 7-year-old twin pairs (51.6% male) reported regarding their children's prosociality using questionnaires. Five prosociality facets (sharing, social concern, kindness, helping, and empathic concern) were identified. All five facets intercorrelated positively (r > 0.39) suggesting a single-factor structure to the data, consistent with the theoretical idea of a single prosociality trait. Higher MZ than DZ twin correlations indicated genetic contributions to each prosociality facet. A common-factor-common-pathway multivariate model estimated high (69%) heritability for the common prosociality factor, with the non-shared environment and error accounting for the remaining variance. For each facet, unique genetic and environmental contributions were identified as well. The results point to the presence of a broad prosociality phenotype, largely affected by genetics; whereas additional genetic and environmental factors contribute to different aspects of prosociality, such as helping and sharing. PMID:25762952

  19. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children. PMID:17258351

  20. Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer in India: Role of PERIOD3 Clock Gene Length Polymorphism and Chronotype

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael D.; Burch, James B.; Hébert, James R.; Kowtal, Pradnya; Kapoor, Aparna; Steck, Susan E.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Sarin, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined a PERIOD3 (PER3) gene variable number tandem repeat polymorphism and chronotype as potential BrCA risk factors among Indian women. Methods This case-control study included sporadic, histologically confirmed BrCA cases (n=255) and controls (n=249) from India with data collection from 2010–2012. Results Women with the 4/5 or 5/5 PER3 genotype had a non-statistically significant 33% increased odds of BrCA. BrCA cases were more likely to have a morning (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.23–4.81) or evening (OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.19–5.47) chronotype. Conclusions Findings are consistent with the possibility that extremes in chronotype may elicit circadian desynchronization, resulting in adverse health outcomes. PMID:24903750

  1. Design study of an advanced gas generator. [which can be ignited during start-up period of turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Trinh, H. P.

    1993-01-01

    A gas generator which can be ignited reliably during the initial start-up period and offers fairly uniform gas temperature at the exit was studied numerically. Various sizes and shapes of the mixing enhancement devices and their positions were examined to evaluate the uniformity of the exit gas temperature and the change of internal pressure drop incurred by introducing the mixing enhancement devices. By introducing a turbulence ring and a splash plate with an appropriate size and position, it was possible to obtain fairly uniform gas temperature distributions and a maximum gas temperature that is within the design limit temperature of 1600 R at the generator exit. However, with the geometry studied, the pressure drop across the generator was great, approximately 1150 psi, to satisfy the assigned design limit temperature. If the design limit temperature is increased to 1650 R, the pressure drop across the generator could be lowered by as much as 350 psi.

  2. Brownian dynamics studies on DNA gel electrophoresis. I. Numerical method and ``periodic'' behavior of elongation-contraction motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Ryuzo; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-10-01

    The dynamics of a DNA molecule which is undergoing constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) is studied by a Brownian dynamics simulation method we have developed. In the method a DNA molecule is modeled as a chain of spherical electrolyte beads and the gel as a three-dimensional array of immobile beads. With the constraint for the separation of each pair of bonded beads to be less than a certain fixed value, as well as with the excluded volume effect, the simultaneous Langevin equations of motion for the beads are solved by means of the Lagrangian multiplier method. The resultant mobilities μ as a function of electric field coincide satisfactorily with the corresponding experimental results, once the time, the length, and the field of the simulation are properly scaled. In relatively strong fields "periodic" behavior is found in the chain dynamics and is examined through the time evolution of the radius of the longer principal axis, Rl(t). It is found that the mean width of a peak in Rl(t), or a period of one elongation-contraction process of the chain, is proportional to the number of beads in the chain, M, while the mean period between two such adjacent peaks is independent of M for large M. These results, combined with the observation that the chain moves to the field direction by the distance proportional to M in each elongation-contraction motion, yield the saturation of mobility for large M. This explains the reason that CFGE cannot separate DNA according to their size L(∝M) for large L.

  3. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  4. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  5. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  6. Period studies of five neglected Algol-type binaries: RW Cet, BO Gem, DG Lac, SW Oph and WY Per

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Doğru, S. S.; Soydugan, F.; Çiçek, C.; Demircan, O.

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the orbital period variations of five neglected Algol-type eclipsing binaries (RW Cet, BO Gem, DG Lac, SW Oph and WY Per) in this study. Their O- C diagrams display tilted sinusoidal variations superimposed on upward parabolic forms. The parabolic variations, which correspond to secular period increases, were interpreted in terms of the combined effect of mass transfer and loss. Then, the mass transfer rates from the less massive secondary components to more massive primaries for non-conservative cases were calculated to be ˜10-7M⊙/yr for RW Cet, DG Lac and SW Oph and ˜10-8M⊙/yr for BO Gem and WY Per. The tilted (eccentric) sinusoidal representations of the O- C variations were interpreted in terms of the light-time effect due to unseen components in the systems. The possible third bodies in four Algol binaries (excluding RW Cet) would have masses larger than one solar mass. If these hypothetical large massive third bodies were normal stars, they should be detectable. Therefore, new astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic observations of these systems and careful analyses of the resulting data are required.

  7. Histochemical study of retinal photoreceptors development during pre- and postnatal period and their association with retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Vahid; Vojoudi, Elham; Fazel, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh-bideskan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate distribution and changes of glycoconjugates of retinal photoreceptors during both pre- and postnatal development. Materials and Methods: Tissue sections from days 15 to 20 of Wistar rat embryos and 1 to 12 postnatal days of rat newborns including developing eye were prepared for lectinhistochemistry technique. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled lectins including Vicia villosa (VVA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-ІІ) were used. Alcian blue (pH 2.5) was used for counterstaining. Results: Interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) plays a crucial role in photoreceptors differentiation and acts as a mediator in interactions between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Specific cell surface glycoconjugates secreted from cone cells could help us to distinguish these cells from rod photoreceptors. Our results for the first time revealed the strong reaction of cone photoreceptors with the cone-specific lectin (PNA) at postnatal day 12 (P12). Postnatal day 12 can be determined as the final differentiation of cone photoreceptors. Conclusion: According to our findings, we suggest that the generation of the eye photoreceptors begins from pre- natal period and their final differentiations will continue to postnatal period. Glycoconjugates including (β-D-Gal [1-3]-D-GalNac) and (β-D-Gal) terminal sugars play a critical role in the pre- and postnatal development and differentiation of retinal photoreceptors. PMID:25429338

  8. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact eclipsing binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei

    2016-05-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of - 5.1(± 0.4) × 10-7 days/year. We assume this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm / dt = 7.06 ×10-7M⊙ /year . By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. In the future, its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  9. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact Eclipsing Binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Hongpeng, Lu; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of -5.1(±0.4)×10-7 days/year. We believe this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm/dt = 7.06×10-7M⊙/year. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. Its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  10. Medical care costs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis during the prebiologics period in Japan: a large prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Inoue, Eisuke; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Bennett, Mihoko; Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Momohara, Shigeki; Hara, Masako; Singh, Gurkirpal; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2010-02-01

    Our objective was to describe outpatient medical care costs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the prebiologics period in Japan. The outpatient costs of 6,771 RA patients (17,666 patient years) who were enrolled in an observational cohort study at the Institute of Rheumatology, Rheumatoid Arthritis (IORRA), in Tokyo, Japan, were calculated from the billing records dated from 2000 to 2004. Associations between outpatient costs and variables such as age, RA duration, RA disease activities, and disability levels were assessed. The average outpatient cost gradually increased (+7.7% in 4 years) from 271,498 JPY per year in 2000 to 292,417 JPY per year in 2004. Medications accounted for approximately 50% of total outpatient costs, which increased 29.6% during the 4 years. The outpatient costs increased in association with aging, longer RA duration, higher Disease Activity Score of 28 Joints (DAS28), and higher Japanese version of Health Assessment Questionnaire (J-HAQ) score. Generalized linear regression analysis revealed that both DAS28 and J-HAQ scores were the most significant factors associated with outpatient costs (p < 0.001). Outpatient costs for patients with RA increased year after year over the 4-year period under observation in Japan. Medical costs were higher with increasing RA disease activity and disability levels. PMID:19821162

  11. Bone mineral density in children treated with daily or periodical inhaled budesonide: the Helsinki Early Intervention Childhood Asthma study.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Markku; Pelkonen, Anna S; Nikander, Kurt; Sorva, Ritva; Selroos, Olof; Juntunen-Backman, Kaisu; Haahtela, Tari

    2010-08-01

    In a double-blind, randomized study, 136 children, 5-10-y-old, with newly detected persistent asthma received budesonide (BUD) 400 microg twice daily for 1 mo and thereafter 200 microg twice daily for 5 mo. Thereafter, 50 children were treated with BUD 100 microg twice daily, whereas 44 children used BUD as needed for 1 y; an additional 42 children received disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Asthma exacerbations were treated with BUD for 2 wk in a dose of 400 microg twice daily in all groups. In this secondary analysis, bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae was measured before and after the 18-mo treatment. Compared with DSCG, regular BUD treatment resulted in a significantly smaller increase in BMD (0.023 versus 0.034 g/cm; p = 0.023) and height (7.75 versus 8.80 cm; p = 0.001). Periodic treatment did not affect BMD. No intergroup differences were observed when BMD data were adjusted for changes in height. Daily BUD treatment in prepubertal children may slow down the increment in BMD and standing height. This was not observed in children receiving BUD periodically after the initial regular BUD treatment. The correlation between height and BMD suggests that following children's height might afford an estimation of inhaled corticosteroid effects on bone. PMID:20485203

  12. A prospective study of hospitalization with gallstone disease among women: role of dietary factors, fasting period, and dieting.

    PubMed Central

    Sichieri, R; Everhart, J E; Roth, H

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary risk factors for the development of gallstones have not been clearly established. We analyzed data from a population-based prospective study to determine dietary risk factors for hospitalization with gallstone disease. METHODS: We evaluated the role of dietary constituents, fasting, and dieting on subsequent hospitalization with gallstone disease among 4,730 women, ages 25 to 74 years, who participated in the first follow-up of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline dietary variables were established through a 24-hour dietary recall and a medical history. Proportional hazards models were used to calculate the effects of dietary variables while controlling for baseline risk factors. RESULTS: After an average of 10 years follow-up, gallstone disease was confirmed by hospital records among 216 women who denied gallstone disease at the baseline examination. The hazard rate of hospitalization with gallstone disease increased with increasing overnight fasting period and with dieting. Intake of fiber showed a small protective effect. The effect of energy intake was significant only among women younger than age 50 years at baseline. Results were not affected by adjustment for known risk factors for gallstone disease or other dietary factors. CONCLUSION: A long overnight fasting period, dieting, and low fiber intake may increase the risk of hospitalization with gallstone disease. PMID:1647144

  13. Reduction of the risk of rhabdomyolysis after bariatric surgery with lower fluid administration in the perioperative period: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matłok, Maciej; Major, Piotr; Małczak, Piotr; Wysocki, Michał; Hynnekleiv, Leif; Nowak, Mateusz; Karcz, Konrad; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2016-04-13

    INTRODUCTION    Obesity is a growing worldwide problem. One of the most effective treatments is a bariatric procedure; however, surgery is associated with the risk of complications, such as staple line leakage, suture line bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis (RML). OBJECTIVES    The objective of our study was to assess the risk of RML after bariatric surgery related to intravenous fluid administration in the perioperative period. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study involved 194 patients who underwent a bariatric surgery (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic gastric bypass). We studied an association between the development of RML and sex, age, weight, duration of surgery, type of surgery, and the volume of intravenously administered fluids during the perioperative period. RESULTS    The median duration of surgery was 132.5 minutes. The median volume of administered fluids was 3150 ml from the introduction of anesthesia to 24 hours after surgery. Biochemical RML (creatine phosphokinase >1000 U/l) was observed in 30 patients (15.46%). RML with clinical manifestations developed in 6 patients. Multivariate logistic regression revealed an increase in the odds ratio of biochemical RML with an increase of weight on the day of surgery, operative time, and volume of intravenous fluids. A multiple regression model showed that every 500 ml of transfused fluid over the median volume increases creatine phosphokinase concentrations in the first postoperative day by 241.77 U/l over the median level, with the operative time and patient's weight remaining at median values. CONCLUSIONS    We observed an association between the administration of lower fluid volumes and a lower risk of RML. We postulate that decreasing intravenous fluid administration may reduce the risk of RML after bariatric surgery. PMID:27074693

  14. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  15. Periodic Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Uranyl Ion Sorption on Three Mineral Surfaces: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Roques, Jérôme; Veilly, Edouard; Simoni, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Canister integrity and radionuclides retention is of prime importance for assessing the long term safety of nuclear waste stored in engineered geologic depositories. A comparative investigation of the interaction of uranyl ion with three different mineral surfaces has thus been undertaken in order to point out the influence of surface composition on the adsorption mechanism(s). Periodic DFT calculations using plane waves basis sets with the GGA formalism were performed on the TiO2(110), Al(OH)3(001) and Ni(111) surfaces. This study has clearly shown that three parameters play an important role in the uranyl adsorption mechanism: the solvent (H2O) distribution at the interface, the nature of the adsorption site and finally, the surface atoms’ protonation state. PMID:19582222

  16. GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    SHENOY, A.S.

    2003-05-01

    A271 GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003. Petten advised GA the start of the HFR-EU2 irradiation is being delayed until late July 2004. HFR-EU1 (pebble fuel) is also delayed until February/March 2004. The reason for the delays was implementation of new financial regulations at Petten that delayed the contracts for capsule fabrication. Review of the MHR-2 Fuel Product Specification was completed. Revision of the specification to incorporate the review results is in progress. Detailed test matrices have been drafted for capsule irradiation tests and for post-irradiation heating tests proposed for development and qualification of advanced coated-particle fuels capable of meeting anticipated VHTR fuel performance requirements.

  17. Stratospheric dynamical signal propagating through TTL : a case study of SSW period using a global non-hydrostatic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Kodera, K.; Nasuno, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have reported an enhancement of tropical convection and abrupt change of tropical circulation during the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) events by mainly the observational data [Eguchi and Kodera, GRL, 2007; Eguchi and Kodera, SOLA, 2010; Kodera et al., JMSJ, 2011]. These results suggest that the stratospheric meridional circulation impacts on the tropical convection. Investigation of the vertical velocity and the diabatic heating rate in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) region are crucial to understand the responsible process. However, these quantities cannot be measured directly. The present study used the data from numerical simulation using a global nonhydrostatic model, NICAM (Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model) [Satoh, et al 2008], which does not make use of the cumulus parameterization. The model integration was initiated from the observed field from 20 December 2009. The horizontal grid size of 14 km and vertically stretched 40-layers (z= 0 - 38 km) are used. There are five layers in the TTL (14-20 km). The daily mean gridded data (1 degree box) derived from three hourly (hourly) outputs for 3D (2D) variables are analyzed in the present study. In the NICAM simulation, a sudden warming event is reproduced around 15 January 2010, although the date of the onset was approximately one week earlier than that in the real atmosphere. The latitude of active convection moved to southward, and the temperature at the lower stratosphere and the TTL region became cooler after the onset of SSW, similar to the observation. The increase of the upward velocity occurred in the TTL at the southern tropics simultaneous to an increase in diabatic heating rate (DH) associated with cloud formation. From the time-pressure section at the equatorial southern hemisphere (SH), the anomalies of vertical wind, temperature and diabatic heating rate gradually penetrated from the lower stratosphere to the upper troposphere during the period 16-20 January, defined as the

  18. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6). The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk) travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51), with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo). All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them. PMID:17897449

  19. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P

    2008-11-27

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46-63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  20. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  1. [Epidemiology of alveolar hydatid disease (AHD) and estimation of infected period of AHD in Rebun Island, Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Doi, R; Nakao, M; Nihei, N; Kutsumi, H

    2000-02-01

    An epidemiological study was performed of endemic alveolar hydatid disease (AHD, multilocular echinococcosis), Rebun Island, Hokkaido and the period of AHD infection of patients was estimated. Death certificates of the residents of the island were analyzed, and 74 deaths (43 males and 31 females) by AHD were found out of the 3,126 deaths that occurred during the period from 1948 to 1990. The red fox population of the island was estimated on the basis of past researchs. The deaths due to AHD distributed around a major peak (n = 67) between 1948-1975 and there were 7 sporadic cases between 1976-90. The red fox population on the island had been estimated to be largest in 1935. The mean infection period from initial AHD infection to death was estimated to be 26 +/- 7 years (x +/- SD) on the basis of the period between the year in which the peak red fox population was observed (1935) and the major peak of patient death (1962). The mean symptomatic period was 5 +/- 5 years, and the mean latent period from infection to the onset of AHD was 21 +/- 7 years. Sex ratio (M/F = 28/13 = 2.15) was higher (P < 0.05) at the age groups below 10 and 26-45 years than the other age groups (15/18 = 0.83), and playing outdoors during childhood and working outdoors in the prime of life were assumed to be the causes of infection. PMID:10734729

  2. Application of teleseismic long-period surface waves from ambient noise in regional surface wave tomography: a case study in western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingjie

    2014-09-01

    Since the emerging of ambient noise tomography (ANT) in 2005, it has become a routine method to image the structures of crust and uppermost mantle because of its exclusive capability to extract short-period surface waves. Most of previous ANT studies focus on surface waves at periods shorter than 40/50 s. There are only a few studies of long-period surface wave tomography from ambient noise (longer than 50 s) in global scale. No tomography studies have been performed using teleseismic long-period surface waves from ambient noise in a regional scale, probably due to the two reasons that (1) energy of long-period ambient noise is weaker and it is harder to retrieve good signal-to-noise ratio long-period surface waves from portable stations with several years of ambient noise data and (2) long-period dispersion measurements from ambient noise may have larger uncertainties than those at shorter periods (<40/50 s). In this study, I investigate the feasibility of using teleseismic long-period surface waves from ambient noise in regional surface wave tomography and also evaluate the accuracy of long-period dispersion measurements at periods up to 150 s. About 300 USArray/Transportable Array (TA) stations located in the Colorado Plateau and surrounding areas and 400 teleseismic stations relative to the TA stations are selected. Clear, strong, and coherent long-period teleseismic surface waves at periods much longer than 50 s are observed in the teleseismic cross-correlations between the TA stations and the teleseismic stations. Using long-period dispersion curves from ambient noise, I generate phase velocity maps at 50-150 s periods and then compare them with phase velocity maps from teleseismic earthquake data. The results show that phase velocity maps from ambient noise data and earthquake data are similar at the 50-150 s period range, verifying the validity of using long-period surface wave from ambient noise in regional surface wave tomography.

  3. Joyful and serious intentions in the work of hospital clowns: a meta-analysis based on a 7-year research project conducted in three parts.

    PubMed

    Linge, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    The present meta-analysis focuses on a 7-year research project entitled "Hospital clowns-in encounters with ailing children" and funded by the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. The aim of the meta-analysis, which is based on the project's three studies, was to attempt to achieve a deeper psychological and more nuanced understanding of the unique encounters taking place between the hospital clowns and ailing children in the study. The methodological procedures were qualitative and included 51 interviews with four informant groups: the clowns, staff, children, and their parents. The meta-analysis revealed the unique aspects of hospital clowns' work with respect to: a) a quality of care that transcends boundaries, that is, a magical safe area where demands and adjustment were temporarily set aside and where the lighter side of life took precedence; b) a non-demanding quality of care, where joy could be experienced without requiring something in return, where the child's terms mattered and where the child perspective was clearly in focus; and c) a defusing quality of care, which is expressed as a positive counterweight that was otherwise lacking in medical care, where the hospital clowns used different solutions that bypassed regular hospital routines by temporarily distracting and making things easier for the children, parents, and staff in various care situations. Finally, the aim of the theoretical framework, in its synthesizing form, was to promote further psychological understanding of the area of humor that exists between fantasy and reality-an intermediate or transitional area that the hospital clowns created together with the children. In this transitional area, the hospital clowns' unique contribution can be interpreted, in psychological terms, as being available as a vicarious therapeutic clown figure in a magical world that parallels reality. PMID:23336988

  4. Joyful and serious intentions in the work of hospital clowns: A meta-analysis based on a 7-year research project conducted in three parts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The present meta-analysis focuses on a 7-year research project entitled “Hospital clowns—in encounters with ailing children” and funded by the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. The aim of the meta-analysis, which is based on the project's three studies, was to attempt to achieve a deeper psychological and more nuanced understanding of the unique encounters taking place between the hospital clowns and ailing children in the study. The methodological procedures were qualitative and included 51 interviews with four informant groups: the clowns, staff, children, and their parents. The meta-analysis revealed the unique aspects of hospital clowns’ work with respect to: a) a quality of care that transcends boundaries, that is, a magical safe area where demands and adjustment were temporarily set aside and where the lighter side of life took precedence; b) a non-demanding quality of care, where joy could be experienced without requiring something in return, where the child's terms mattered and where the child perspective was clearly in focus; and c) a defusing quality of care, which is expressed as a positive counterweight that was otherwise lacking in medical care, where the hospital clowns used different solutions that bypassed regular hospital routines by temporarily distracting and making things easier for the children, parents, and staff in various care situations. Finally, the aim of the theoretical framework, in its synthesizing form, was to promote further psychological understanding of the area of humor that exists between fantasy and reality—an intermediate or transitional area that the hospital clowns created together with the children. In this transitional area, the hospital clowns’ unique contribution can be interpreted, in psychological terms, as being available as a vicarious therapeutic clown figure in a magical world that parallels reality. PMID:23336988

  5. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico. PMID:25992997

  6. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico. PMID:25992997

  7. An electron localization function study of the geometry of d(0) molecules of the period 4 metals Ca to Mn.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Ronald J; Noury, Stéphane; Pilmé, Julien; Silvi, Bernard

    2004-05-17

    We have studied the geometry of the formally d(0) MX(n)() (X = F, H, CH(3) and O; n = 2-6) molecules of the period 4 metals from Ca to Mn by studying the topology of the electron localization function (ELF) in order to try to understand why many of these molecules have non-VSEPR geometries. The quantitative analysis of the core basin population shows that it is always larger than its conventional value (18) because, in the LCAO-MO scheme, the 3d basis functions centered on the metal noticeably contribute to the electron density within the core region associated with the M shell. Therefore, the density available to form the bonds is less than Z(M) - 18, the value adopted in electron counts. Under the influence of the ligands, these electrons cause the core to lose its spherical symmetry by the formation of opposite-spin pair localization basins, which in turn influence the geometry of the ligands if the interaction of the ligands with the core is sufficiently strong. All of the ligands considered in this study, except F, interact with the core sufficiently strongly to give non-VSEPR geometries, which we have rationalized on the basis of the ELF topology. PMID:15132634

  8. KEPLER STUDIES OF LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES. I. PARAMETERS OF THE LONG-PERIOD BINARY KIC 6131659

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Gideon; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Windmiller, Gur; Gregg, Trevor Ames; Fetherolf, Tara; Wade, Richard A.; Quinn, Samuel N.

    2012-12-20

    KIC 6131659 is a long-period (17.5 days) eclipsing binary discovered by the Kepler mission. We analyzed six quarters of Kepler data along with supporting ground-based photometric and spectroscopic data to obtain accurate values for the mass and radius of both stars, namely, M{sub 1} = 0.922 {+-} 0.007 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 1} = 0.8800 {+-} 0.0028 R{sub Sun }, and M{sub 2} = 0.685 {+-} 0.005 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 2} = 0.6395 {+-} 0.0061 R{sub Sun }. There is a well-known issue with low-mass (M {approx}< 0.8 M{sub Sun }) stars (in cases where the mass and radius measurement uncertainties are smaller than 2% or 3%) where the measured radii are almost always 5% to 15% larger than expected from evolutionary models, i.e., the measured radii are all above the model isochrones in a mass-radius plane. In contrast, the two stars in KIC 6131659 were found to sit on the same theoretical isochrone in the mass-radius plane. Until recently, all of the well-studied eclipsing binaries with low-mass stars had periods of less than about three days. The stars in such systems may have been inflated by high levels of stellar activity induced by tidal effects in these close binaries. KIC 6131659 shows essentially no evidence of enhanced stellar activity, and our measurements support the hypothesis that the unusual mass-radius relationship observed in most low-mass stars is influenced by strong magnetic activity created by the rapid rotation of the stars in tidally locked, short-period systems. Finally, using short cadence data, we show that KIC 6131657 has one of the smallest measured non-zero eccentricities of a binary with two main-sequence stars, where ecos {omega} (4.57 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}.

  9. BVRI Photometric Study of the Totally Eclipsing Short Period Solar Type, Near-Contact W UMA Binary, NSVS 5066754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Faulkner, Danny R.

    2016-06-01

    found in the secondary eclipse. Since the period study would indicate that the binary may be coalescing, both solutions fit that scenario. The system may have just come into contact or is approaching contact. The first model is more probable.

  10. The Relations between Cluster Indexes of Risk and Promotion and the Problem Behaviors of 6- and 7-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Schoff, Kristen; Levinson, Karen; Youngstrom, Eric; Izard, Carroll E.

    1999-01-01

    Examined relations between alternative representations of poverty cofactors and promotion processes, and problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from disadvantaged families. Found that single-index risk representations and promotion variables predicted aggression but not anxiety/depression. An additive model of individual risk indicators performed…

  11. Lightning fatalities on the South African Highveld: a retrospective descriptive study for the period 1997 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Ryan

    2005-03-01

    A review of the Southern Africa medical literature shows a paucity of published data regarding lightning fatalities. The South African Highveld has a lightning ground flash density of 6 to 9 flashes/km/year, with a high incidence of thunderstorm days per year (some 40-70). The Highveld has a largely urban population, many of whom have low socioeconomic status and poor education, housing, and other infrastructures and hence (possibly) are at greater exposure risk. Thirty-eight victims of lightning-related death were identified from the records of the 6 large medicolegal mortuaries on the South African Highveld, serving a population of approximately 7 million, for the period 1997 to 2000. Analysis of the records revealed that 95% of all victims were black, 79% were male, and the average age was 36 years. Lightning strikes occurred from September through to April (normal summer rainfall period), and the most strikes took place in the late afternoon (3:00 pm to 6:00 pm). All except 1 case occurred outdoors. In the autopsy reports, mention was made of singeing of hair in 68% of cases, and mention of damage to clothing was made in 26% of cases. Cutaneous thermal injuries were noted in 34 of the 38 cases, with apparent electrothermal injuries of the feet noted in 4 cases. Fifty-two percent of victims sustained some form of associated blunt-force injury (including abrasions, contusions, etc). Specific keraunopathologic injuries were described in only 2 of the cases. Twenty-one cases had some form of internal organ injury. This study serves to illustrate the relatively high incidence of lightning strikes in the region and calls for a more systematic and detailed investigative protocol in lightning-related deaths. PMID:15725779

  12. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  13. Superintendent Communication Strategies and Experiences That Promote Trust and Positive Relationships with the School Board during the Entry Period: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Superintendents have vast demands placed upon them by their school boards and via the political pipeline. The purpose of the study was to identify strategies/behaviors that successful superintendents used to build strong relationships and trust with their school boards within their entry period. It is during the entry period that determines…

  14. Label-free IgG/anti-IgG biosensing based on long period fiber gratings: a comprehensive feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavaioli, F.; Trono, C.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Jana, S.; Bera, S.; Mallick, A.; Baldini, F.

    2015-03-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPGs) have recently been proposed as label-free biosensors. A biochemical interaction occurring along the grating region can be evaluated as a refractive index (RI) change, which modifies the transmission spectrum of the fiber. This is an emergent, alternative choice with respect to other label-free optical systems, such as surface plasmon resonance, interferometric and in-fiber configurations, and resonating structures. In this work, various types of not-coated LPGs, in which the coupling occurs with increasing cladding mode orders, were manufactured for increasing the RI sensitivity of these sensors. After the functionalization of the fiber surface using Eudragit L100 copolymer, a label-free IgG/anti-IgG bioassay was realized for analyzing the antigen/antibody interaction following the same model assay. A comprehensive feasibility study was carried out among the different LPGs in order to assess and compare the biosensor performance, highlighting the advantages and the disadvantages of each type. Experimental results proved an improvement in the RI sensitivity and in the biosensor performance in the case of high-order cladding mode LPGs, with values of detection limit lower than 50 ng mL-1 (330 pM). The performance enhancement can be explained with the increase in the penetration depth of the evanescent field due to the increase of the cladding mode order. The sensor response was also studied using complex matrices made up of human serum.

  15. Periodic density functional theory studies of the VOx/TiO2 (anatase) catalysts: Structure and stability of monomeric species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yu-Jue; Li, Zhen Hua; Fan, Kang-Nian

    2012-06-01

    Periodic density functional theory has been utilized to investigate the structure and stability of monomeric HVOx species on anatase support. The three most stable surfaces of anatase were investigated, namely the (001), (100) and (101) surfaces. Unlike previous theoretical studies it was found that on the (001) surface vanadia species with five-coordinated vanadium atom are more stable than those with tetrahedrally coordinated vanadium atom. On the other hand, on the (100) and (101) surfaces, the vanadium atom in the vanadia species is still tetrahedrally coordinated. The stability of different VOx/TiO2 structures which are not fully dehydrated has been systematically studied and the results show that the vanadia species on the three surfaces follow an order of TiO2 (001) > TiO2 (100) > TiO2 (101). This can be understood from the acidity and basicity of the three anatase surfaces. The results suggest that monomeric VOx species may be better stabilized if the support exposes more (001) surfaces. Our analyses on electronic structure of the most stable VOx/TiO2 structure (D001) suggest that its bridging V-O-Ti oxygen atoms may have higher reactivity than the terminal vanadyl oxygen atoms.

  16. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  17. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  18. Synovial chondromatosis of the right side temporomandibular joint extending to the middle cranial fossa: A case report with 7-year postoperative follow up and expression of a biomarker of cell proliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitake, Hiroyuki; Kayamori, Kou; Wake, So; Sato, Fumiaki; Kino, Koji; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with cranial extension is rare. Here, we report 7-year follow-up of a case with immunohistochemical examination of cell proliferative activity. Presentation of case The patient was a 72-year-old man. Severe bone resorption of the glenoid fossa was apparent on CT images. Pathological findings by biopsy led to diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis of the right side TMJ. Extirpation of the tumor was performed via temporopreauricular incision under general anesthesia. PCNA expression was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The lesion had penetrated into the middle cranial fossa, but the cranial dura mater was intact. Expression of PCNA was confirmed. Discussion The PCNA expression suggested that growth activity caused expansion of the lesion to the skull base. Conclusion We were able to follow up this case for a long period without recurrence postoperatively. PMID:26855075

  19. The surface mass and energy balance of Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard: 7 years of in situ observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijm-Reijmer, Carleen; Pohjola, Veijo; Van Pelt, Ward; Pettersson, Rickard

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2006 a climate monitoring program on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard, was initiated, which is still on going. The program focuses on the dynamics and mass budget of the glacier, and includes mass balance (stake and sonic height ranger) and automatic weather station (AWS) observations. The annual mass balance observations show large variability and no trend over the observational period (2006-2013). The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) during this period is located at about 610 m a.s.l. This is in line with the average ELA over the period 1989-2010 of 631 m a.s.l. based on output of a distributed energy balance model (EBM), and slightly higher than presented in literature for this area. At the AWS site (±600 m a.s.l.) the average annual temperature is about -8.5°C. Annual mean wind speed is about 4.5 m/s and is predominantly directed down glacier with a directional constancy of about 0.65, a predominant katabatic wind. Throughout the year the sensible heat flux is positive due to a constant surface based temperature inversion. From May to September this temperature inversion is caused by cooling of the surface by long wave radiation while in the summer months the surface temperature is limited by 0°C, the temperature of a melting surface. At the AWS site the amount of melt energy available in the summer months corresponds to about 0.82 m w.e. snow and ice melt. This is less than derived from the observations (1.1 m w.e. of which 0.7 m w.e. is ice melt). This is due to problems with the temperature observations in the summer months resulting in an underestimation of the sensible heat flux towards the surface and consequently an underestimation of the melt flux.

  20. Bioequivalence of Generic and Brand Name Clozapine in Korean Schizophrenic Patients: A Randomized, Two-Period, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Hun; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clozapine is the treatment of choice for refractory schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the brand name (Clozaril) formulation and a generic formulation (Clzapine) of clozapine in Korean schizophrenic patients. Methods A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles of Clozaril and Clzapine. Schizophrenic patients were randomized to receive either the brand name or generic formulation (100 mg twice daily) for 10 days, followed by the other formulation for 10 days. Plasma samples were collected on the last day of each treatment period. Results Twenty-two of 28 patients (78.6%) completed the study. The mean Cmax,ss values for Clzapine and Clozaril were 524.62 and 551.18 ng/mL, and the mean AUC0-12 values were 4479.90 hr·ng/mL and 4724.56 hr·ng/mL, respectively. The 90% CI values for the natural logarithmically transformed Cmax,ss and AUC0-12 ratios (Clzapine to Clozaril) after a single oral dose (100 mg) were 0.934 (0.849-1.028) and 0.936 (0.869-1.008), respectively. Five patients (20.8%) among 24 patients who took Clzapine reported 11 adverse events and six adverse events were reported by four patients (15.4%) among 26 who took Clozaril; there were no significant differences on physical examination or in vital signs, ECG, and laboratory tests between groups. Conclusion Generic clozapine (Clzapine) appears to be bioequivalent to brand name clozapine (Clozaril). PMID:26207129

  1. Spin crossover transition of Fe(phen)2(NCS)2: periodic dispersion-corrected density-functional study.

    PubMed

    Bučko, Tomáš; Hafner, Jürgen; Lebègue, Sébastien; Ángyán, János G

    2012-04-28

    Periodic dispersion corrected DFT calculations have been performed to study the spin-crossover transition of Fe(phen)(2)(NCS)(2) in the molecular and in the crystalline state. We show that London dispersion interactions play a crucial role in the cohesion of the crystals. Based on calculations of vibrational eigenstates of the isolated molecule and of the crystalline phase in both the low- and high-spin states, the transition entropies and enthalpies have been calculated. We demonstrate that, due to the stabilization of the low-spin state by intermolecular dispersion forces, the transition enthalpy at the transition temperature is larger for the crystalline phase in comparison with an isolated molecule. The effective coordination number of the nitrogen atoms of the ligands around the iron atom has been identified as the order parameter driving the quasi-reversible low-spin to high-spin transition in the crystal. Finally, using constrained geometry relaxations at fixed values of the coordination number, we computed the energy barrier of the LS to HS transition and found it to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:22415338

  2. Periodic DFT study of the structural and electronic properties of bulk CoAl2O4 spinel.

    PubMed

    Tielens, F; Calatayud, M; Franco, R; Recio, J M; Pérez-Ramírez, J; Minot, C

    2006-01-19

    In this study, structural and electronic properties of CoAl2O4 spinel are investigated for the first time by means of quantum chemical computational tools. Coupling supercell periodic calculations under the density functional theory formalism with a nonempirical quasi-harmonic Debye model, we examine the influence of temperature on the relative stability of several cation distributions of Co2+ and Al3+ over tetrahedral and octahedral interstices of the oxygen sublattice. Our simulations are able to reproduce the experimentally observed trend: (i) the normal spinel is calculated to be the stable structure at static and low-temperature conditions, and (ii) as the temperature increases, the preference of structures with Al3+ at tetrahedral sites (and Co2+ at octahedral sites) is found to progress following an asymptotic conduct. The effects of the cation distributions on geometrical variations of electronic and magnetic properties of CoAl2O4 can be interpreted as dominated by the local behavior of Co2+ at octahedral sites. PMID:16471633

  3. Combining the Fluctuating Charge Method, Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions and Meta-Dynamics: Aqua Ions as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giordano; Brancato, Giuseppe; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status of development of our code for performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations exploiting a polarizable force field based on the Fluctuating Charge (FQ) method and non-Periodic Boundary Conditions (NPBC). Continuing on the path set in a previous work, we increased the capabilities of the code by implementing a number of new features, including: a non-iterative algorithm for rigid trigonal molecule simulations; two additional temperature coupling schemes; a meta-dynamics based approach for effective free energy evaluations. Although these are well known algorithms, each present in one or more widely used MD packages, they have now been tested, for the first time, in the context of the FQ model coupled with NPBC. As case studies, we considered three aqueous ions of increasing charge, namely Na+, Ca2+ and La3+, at infinite dilution. In particular, by exploiting a computational approach recently proposed by our group and based on the metadynamics technique, we focused on the important role played by solvent polarization on ionic hydration structures, also investigating the free energy landscapes of ion coordination and the water exchange rates. Such an approach, previously tested with standard non-polarizable models, was applied here to evaluate the effects of explicit polarization on water exchange barriers between different solvent coordination structures. Moreover, we have analyzed and discussed in some detail non-linear electrostatic effects arising from solvent polarization while going from a mono- to a di- and trivalent ion. PMID:26543440

  4. Disposal of oil cuttings by downhole periodic fracturing injections, Valhall, North Sea: Case study and modeling concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Moschovidis, Z.A.; Gardner, D.C.; Sund, G.V.; Veatch, R.W. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study for the injection of cuttings at great depth [8,094 ft total vertical depth (TVD)] in paleocene/Eocene shale by periodic fracturing injections in two wells in the Valhall field in the North Sea. Injection is necessary to meet environmental requirements (< 1 vol% of oil in the cuttings disposed in the sea) that went into effect Jan. 1, 1993. Valhall is an Upper Cretaceous chalk oil reservoir [approx] 180 miles offshore southern Norway. Amoco operates the field for Amerada Hess Norge A/S, Elf Petroleum Norge A/S, and Enterprise Oil Norge Ltd. Simulations were performed with a new conceptual model for disposal of cuttings (called the disposal domain). The actual pressure response during cuttings injections supports the model predictions. The cuttings are contained within a limited region of the formation (the disposal domain) where a system of hydraulic fractures have been created. The same model then was used to estimate the capacity of the formation to contain cuttings without increasing the treating pressure (and the closure stress) beyond the capacity of the tubulars.

  5. Kinetics studies of the reactions of main fourth-period monocations (Ga+, Ge+, As+, and Se+) with methyl fluoride.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Carmen; Rayón, Víctor Manuel; Largo, Antonio; Sordo, José Ángel; Redondo, Pilar

    2013-08-22

    Thermodynamics and kinetics theoretical studies on the gas-phase reactions of fluoromethane with main fourth-period monocations (Ga(+), Ge(+), As(+), and Se(+)) have been carried out. Density functional theory (in particular mPW1K functional) was employed in the description of the potential energy surfaces, and refinement of the energies were done at the CCSD(T) level. The reaction rate constants were estimated using variational/conventional microcanonical transition state theory. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, the fluorine abstraction product is predicted for Ga(+) and Ge(+), whereas for As(+) and Se(+) the elimination product, MCH2(+) (M = As, Se) + HF, is the preferred one. Nevertheless, the most favorable channel for the reactions of CH3F with Ga(+) and Se(+) cations present a net activation barrier. In the case of Ga(+), the reaction proceeds via an addition channel forming the adduct complex, CH3FGa(+), whereas for Se(+) no reaction is found, in agreement with the experiments. The predicted reaction rate constants are in reasonable good agreement with the experimental values available. Apart from the harpoon-like mechanism, our results suggest that an oxidative addition mechanism seems to play a relevant role. PMID:23859563

  6. The study of nonlinear almost periodic differential equations without recourse to the H-classes of these equations

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusarchuk, V. E. E-mail: V.Ye.Slyusarchuk@NUWM.rv.ua

    2014-06-01

    The well-known theorems of Favard and Amerio on the existence of almost periodic solutions to linear and nonlinear almost periodic differential equations depend to a large extent on the H-classes and the requirement that the bounded solutions of these equations be separated. The present paper provides different conditions for the existence of almost periodic solutions. These conditions, which do not depend on the H-classes of the equations, are formulated in terms of a special functional on the set of bounded solutions of the equations under consideration. This functional is used, in particular, to test whether solutions are separated. Bibliography: 24 titles. (paper)

  7. Periodic variation of stress field in the Koyna-Warna reservoir triggered seismic zone inferred from focal mechanism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Purnachandra; Shashidhar, D.

    2016-06-01

    The Koyna-Warna region in western India is globally recognized as the premier site of reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS) associated with the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. The region is characterized by continuous seismic activity observed since several decades, including the world's largest triggered earthquake of M6.3 which occurred in Koyna in 1967. While the role of reservoirs in triggering earthquakes has been widely discussed, the actual tectonic mechanism controlling earthquake genesis in this region is hardly understood. The Koyna-Warna region is exclusively governed by earthquakes of strike-slip and normal fault mechanism distinct from the thrust faulting seen in other active zones in the Indian region. In the present study, a comprehensive catalog of 50 focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes that occurred during the last 45 years in the Koyna-Warna region is developed, both from previous literature and from moment tensor inversion studies by the authors using broadband data from a local seismic network operating since 2005. The seismicity and fault plane data have enabled precise delineation of trends of the major causative faults, which are further accentuated using the double-difference technique. Stress inversion of the focal mechanism data has provided the best fitting principal compressive and tensile stress field of the region, which in conjunction with the deciphered fault zones provides a feasible model of seismogenesis in this region. Based on the observed temporal variation of faulting mechanism a model of alternating cycles of predominantly strike-slip and normal faulting is proposed, which is attributed to a periodic peaking and relaxation respectively of the horizontal compressive stress field in this region due to the Indian plate collision with Eurasia.

  8. Analytical study of envelope modes for a fully depressed beam in solenoidal and quadrupole periodic transport channels

    SciTech Connect

    Bukh, Boris; Lund, Steven M.

    2003-05-01

    We present an analysis of envelope perturbations evolving in the limit of a fully space-charge depressed (zero emittance) beam in periodic, thin-lens focusing channels. Both periodic solenoidal and FODO quadrupole focusing channels are analyzed. The phase advance and growth rate of normal mode perturbations are analytically calculated as a function of the undepressed particle phase advance to characterize the evolution of envelope perturbations.

  9. Experimental and simulation study of undesirable short-period deformation in piezoelectric deformable x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Hiroki; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Imai, Shota; Kimura, Takashi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2012-05-01

    To construct adaptive x-ray focusing optics whose optical parameters can be varied while performing wavefront correction, ultraprecise piezoelectric deformable mirrors have been developed. We computationally and experimentally investigated undesirable short-period deformation caused by piezoelectric actuators adhered to the substrate during mirror deformation. Based on the results of finite element method analysis, shape measurements, and the observation of x-ray reflection images, a guideline is developed for designing deformable mirrors that do not have short-period deformation errors.

  10. Does Effectiveness of Adolescent Smoking-Cessation Intervention Endure Into Young Adulthood? 7-Year Follow-Up Results from a Group-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Arthur V.; Marek, Patrick M.; Kealey, Kathleen A.; Bricker, Jonathan B.; Ludman, Evette J.; Heffner, Jaimee L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Hutchinson Study of High School Smoking was the first randomized trial to show effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention on 6-months prolonged smoking abstinence at one year post-intervention in a large population-based sample of adolescent smokers. An important question remains: Do the positive effects from teen smoking cessation interventions seen at up to 12 months post-intervention endure into young adulthood? This study examines for the first time whether such positive early effects from teen smoking cessation intervention can endure into young adulthood in the absence of additional intervention. Methods High school smokers (n = 2,151) were proactively recruited into the trial from fifty randomly selected Washington State high schools randomized to the experimental (Motivational Interviewing + Cognitive Behavioral Skills Training telephone counseling intervention) or control (no intervention) condition. These smokers were followed to 7 years post high school to ascertain rates of six-year prolonged smoking abstinence in young adulthood. All statistical tests are two-sided. Results No evidence of intervention impact at seven years post high school was observed for the main endpoint of six-year prolonged abstinence, neither among all smokers (14.2% in the experimental condition vs. 13.1% in the control condition, difference = +1.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.4 to 5.8, p = .61), nor among the subgroups of daily smokers and less-than-daily smokers, nor among other a priori subgroups. But, observed among males was some evidence of an intervention impact on two endpoints related to progress towards quitting: reduction in number of days smoked in the past month, and increase in the length of the longest quit attempt in the past year. Conclusions There was no evidence from this trial among adolescent smokers that positive effectiveness of the proactive telephone intervention for smoking abstinence, observed previously at one year post

  11. Bobble-head doll syndrome associated with the III ventricular cyst. Three cases in children 7 years after CVP or CVA shunting.

    PubMed

    Parízek, J; Nĕmecková, J; Sercl, M

    1989-08-01

    Thirty-nine cases of the bobble-head doll syndrome have been operated upon and are described in the literature. The authors re-evaluate three cases of III ventricle cysts treated with cystoventriculoperitoneal (CVP) or cystoventriculoatrial (CVA) shunting 7 years ago. In the first case (a 4.5-year-old girl), the CVP shunt was removed after 16 months due to suppuration around the device after trauma of the scalp. Nevertheless, the communication between the ventricle and cyst continued and the bobbing never returned. In the second case (a 10-year-old girl), after 4.5 years a pseudocyst at the end of the peritoneal catheter was accidentally found. It was evacuated and, as in the third case (a 17-year-old boy) follow-up for 7 years showed excellent results from the clinical point of view and CT scans. PMID:2676164

  12. The influence of the rearing period on intramammary infections in Swiss dairy heifers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Klocke, P; Berezowski, J A; Bodmer, M; Vidondo, B

    2016-07-01

    Healthy replacement heifers are one of the foundations of a healthy dairy herd. Farm management and rearing systems in Switzerland provide a wide variety of factors that could potentially be associated with intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactating dairy heifers. In this study, IMI with minor mastitis pathogens such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), contagious pathogens, and environmental major pathogens were identified. Fifty-four dairy farms were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect herd level data on housing, management and welfare of young stock during farm visits and interviews with the farmers. Cow-level data such as breed, age at first calving, udder condition and swelling, and calving ease were also recorded. Data was also collected about young stock that spent a period of at least 3 months on an external rearing farm or on a seasonal alpine farm. At the quarter level, teat conditions such as teat lesions, teat dysfunction, presence of a papilloma and teat length were recorded. Within 24h after parturition, samples of colostral milk from 1564 quarters (391 heifers) were collected aseptically for bacterial culture. Positive bacteriological culture results were found in 49% of quarter samples. Potential risk factors for IMI were identified at the quarter, animal and herd level using multivariable and multilevel logistic regression analysis. At the herd level tie-stalls, and at cow-level the breed category "Brown cattle" were risk factors for IMI caused by contagious major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). At the quarter-level, teat swelling and teat lesions were highly associated with IMI caused by environmental major pathogens. At the herd level heifer rearing at external farms was associated with less IMI caused by major environmental pathogens. Keeping pregnant heifers in a separate group was negatively associated with IMI caused by CNS. The odds of IMI with coagulase-negative staphylococci increased

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis--the study on the pig model.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated. PMID:25240502

  14. Neuropsychological Decline in Schizophrenia from the Premorbid to Post-Onset Period: Evidence from a Population-Representative Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Reichenberg, Abraham; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Fisher, Helen; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite widespread belief that neuropsychological decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the premorbid to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few longitudinal studies have examined change in neuropsychological functioning from before to after the onset of schizophrenia. We addressed the following unresolved questions: Is neuropsychological decline generalized versus confined to particular mental functions? Is neuropsychological decline unique to schizophrenia? Do individuals with schizophrenia also have cognitive problems in everyday life? Method Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand between 1972-73 and followed prospectively to age 38, with 95% retention. Assessment of IQ and other specific neuropsychological functions was conducted at ages 7-13, before the onset of schizophrenia, and again at age 38. Informants also reported on cognitive problems at age 38. Results Individuals with schizophrenia showed decline in IQ as well as a range of different mental functions, particularly those tapping processing speed, learning, executive functioning, and motor functioning. There was little evidence of decline in verbal abilities or delayed memory, however, and the developmental progression of deficits in schizophrenia differed across mental functions. Processing speed deficits increased gradually from childhood to beyond the early teen years, whereas verbal deficits emerged early but remained static through midlife. Neuropsychological decline was specific to schizophrenia, as no evidence of decline was apparent among individuals with persistent depression, children with mild cognitive impairment, individuals matched on childhood risk factors for schizophrenia, and psychiatrically healthy individuals. Informants also reported cognitive problems for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Conclusion There is substantial neuropsychological decline in schizophrenia from the premorbid to

  15. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures. PMID:25468146

  16. Developmental toxicity study in rats exposed dermally to clarified slurry oil for a limited period of gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.

    1996-10-11

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO, CAS number 64741-62-4), a refinery stream produced by processing crude oil, is a developmental toxicant when administered dermally throughout gestation to pregnant rats. The manifestations of developmental toxicity observed included embryolethlity and growth retardation; evidence of teratogenicity was limited, and not conclusive. The present study was undertaken to further explore the teratogenic potential of CSO. In an attempt to limit emnbryolethality and thereby promote detection of terata, CSO was administered once daily for a limited period of gestation i[gestation days (GD) 9-12], via dermal application, to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg. All animals were sacrificed on GD 20. Detailed examination of the dams was performed. Due to the screening nature of this investigation, fetal evaluations were limited to body weight measurements, external examinations, and evaluation of select visceral endpoints. In the dams exposed to CSO, significant decreases in body weight [absolute and gain (GD 9-13, GD 0-20)] and in the amount of food consumed were observed at 100 and 1000 mg/kg. Additional evidence of maternal toxicity observed at 1000 mg/kg included decreased absolute and relative thymus weights, increased absolute and relative liver weights, and aberrant serum chemistry. Ingestion of the test material was evident at the high dose. Developmental toxicity was observed at 1000 mg/kg and included increased embryolethality, decreased body weight, and anomalous development (cleft palate, brachydactyly, edema). Although a low incidence of abnormal fetal development was observed at 100 mg/kg, it was not conclusive that the alterations were due to CSO exposure. It is likely that three- to seven-ring polycyclic aromatic compounds present in CSO were responsible for the toxic effects observed. 33 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Effect of periodic number of [Si/Sb80Te20]x multilayer film on its laser-induced crystallization studied by coherent phonon spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The periodic number dependence of the femtosecond laser-induced crystallization threshold of [Si(5nm)/Sb80Te20(5nm)]x nanocomposite multilayer films has been investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy. Coherent optical phonon spectra show that femtosecond laser-irradiated crystallization threshold of the multilayer films relies obviously on the periodic number of the multilayer films and decreases with the increasing periodic number. The mechanism of the periodic number dependence is also studied. Possible mechanisms of reflectivity and thermal conductivity losses as well as the effect of the glass substrate are ruled out, while the remaining superlattice structure effect is ascribed to be responsible for the periodic number dependence. The sheet resistance of multilayer films versus a lattice temperature is measured and shows a similar periodic number dependence with one of the laser irradiation crystallization power threshold. In addition, the periodic number dependence of the crystallization temperature can be fitted well with an experiential formula obtained by considering coupling exchange interactions between adjacent layers in a superlattice. Those results provide us with the evidence to support our viewpoint. Our results show that the periodic number of multilayer films may become another controllable parameter in the design and parameter optimization of multilayer phase change films. PMID:23173850

  18. Comparison of 7 years of satellite-borne and ground-based tropospheric NO2 measurements around Milan, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OrdóñEz, C.; Richter, A.; Steinbacher, M.; Zellweger, C.; Nüß, H.; Burrows, J. P.; PréVôT, A. S. H.

    2006-03-01

    Tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) over the Lombardy region were retrieved from measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer for the period 1996-2002 using a differential optical absorption method. This data set was compared with in situ measurements of NO2 at around 100 ground stations in the Lombardy region, northern Italy. The tropospheric NO2 VCDs are reasonably well correlated with the near-surface measurements under cloud-free conditions. However, the slope of the tropospheric VCDs versus ground measurements is higher in autumn-winter than in spring-summer. This effect is clearly reduced when the peroxyacetyl nitrate and nitric acid (HNO3) interferences of conventional NOx analyzers are taken into account. For a more quantitative comparison, the NO2 ground measurements were scaled to tropospheric VCDs using a seasonal NO2 vertical profile over northern Italy calculated by the Model of Ozone and Related Tracers 2 (MOZART-2). The tropospheric VCDs retrieved from satellite and those determined from ground measurements agree well, with a correlation coefficient R = 0.78 and a slope close to 1 for slightly polluted stations. GOME cannot reproduce the high NO2 amounts over the most polluted stations, mainly because of the large spatial variability in the distribution of pollution within the GOME footprint. The yearly and weekly cycles of the tropospheric NO2 VCDs are similar for both data sets, with significantly lower values in the summer months and on Sundays, respectively. Considering the pollution level and high aerosol concentrations of this region, the agreement is very good. Furthermore, uncertainties in the ground-based measurements, including the extrapolation to NO2 VCDs, might be as important as those of the NO2 satellite retrieval itself.

  19. Multiwavelength study of RX J2015.6+3711: a magnetic cataclysmic variable with a 2-h spin period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coti Zelati, F.; Rea, N.; Campana, S.; de Martino, D.; Papitto, A.; Safi-Harb, S.; Torres, D. F.

    2016-02-01

    The X-ray source RX J2015.6+3711 was discovered by ROSAT in 1996 and recently proposed to be a cataclysmic variable (CV). Here, we report on an XMM-Newton observation of RX J2015.6+3711 performed in 2014, where we detected a coherent X-ray modulation at a period of 7196 ± 11 s and discovered other significant (>6σ) small-amplitude periodicities which we interpret as the CV spin period and the sidebands of a possible ˜12-h periodicity, respectively. The 0.3-10 keV spectrum can be described by a power law (Γ = 1.15 ± 0.04) with a complex absorption pattern, a broad emission feature at 6.60 ± 0.01 keV, and an unabsorbed flux of (3.16 ± 0.05) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. We observed a significant spectral variability along the spin phase, which can be ascribed mainly to changes in the density of a partial absorber and the power law normalization. Archival X-ray observations carried out by the Chandra satellite, and two simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical pointings with Swift, revealed a gradual fading of the source in the soft X-rays over the last 13 yr, and a rather stable X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (FX/FV ≈ 1.4-1.7). Based on all these properties, we identify this source with a magnetic CV, most probably of the intermediate polar type. The 2-h spin period makes RX J2015.6+3711, the second slowest rotator of the class, after RX J0524+4244 (`Paloma'; Pspin ˜ 2.3 h). Although we cannot unambiguously establish the true orbital period with these observations, RX J2015.6+3711 appears to be a key system in the evolution of magnetic CVs.

  20. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period. PMID:25558954

  1. Comparing The Efficacy of Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff and Fluorescent Periodic Acid Schiff-Acriflavine Techniques for Demonstration of Basement Membrane in Oral Lichen Planus: A Histochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pujar, Ashwini; Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basement membrane (BM) is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and fluorescent periodic acid–acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. Materials and Methods: A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 – Normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 30 – oral lichen planus (OLP) were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid–acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Results: Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. Conclusion: The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain. PMID:26538690

  2. The Kepler Cluster Study: rotation period measurements for cool stars in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Soren; Barnes, Sydney A.; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Latham, David W.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Kepler Science Team, Kepler Science Operations Center

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Cluster Study (KeCS) is a program to measure stellar rotation periods and search for planets around members of open star clusters within the field of view of NASA's Kepler mission. We present here the latest results from KeCS - measurements of stellar rotation periods in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819 - and discuss their implications for a technique (gyrochronology) to determine stellar ages from stellar rotation.

  3. Immigration and Emigration of Professional and Skilled Manpower During the Post-War Period. Special Study No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parai, Louis

    The impact of immigration and emigration on Canada's stock of professional and skilled manpower was analyzed for the period 1946-1963. Although the number of immigrants is recorded by Canadian authorities there is no complete record of emigration from Canada; however, a reasonably reliable picture was obtained from emigration data of other…

  4. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  5. Short-course R-CHOP followed by 90Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan in previously untreated high-risk elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients: 7-year long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Stefoni, V; Casadei, B; Bottelli, C; Gaidano, G; Ciochetto, C; Cabras, M G; Ansuinelli, M; Argnani, L; Broccoli, A; Gandolfi, L; Pellegrini, C; Zinzani, P L

    2016-01-01

    An update at 7 years was conceived for our multicenter phase II study in which 55 elderly high-risk untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients were treated with 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan after a short course of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) as long-term follow-up analyses of this combined therapeutic modality are lacking. The overall response rate to the entire regimen was 80%, including 73% (40/55) of complete response (CR) rate and 7% (4/55) of partial response rate. At the time of writing, 24/55 (43.6%) patients experienced a progression disease and 20 of 40 (50%) patients who obtained a CR are still alive in continuous CR. With a median follow-up of 7 years, the disease-free survival was 43.3% and the progression-free survival was 36.1%. The overall survival at 7.9 years was 38.9% (27 deaths mainly because of lymphoma). Two patients developed secondary hematological malignancies, an acute myeloid leukemia and a myelodysplastic syndrome, at 4 and 3 years from radioimmunotherapy, respectively. Our data confirm the feasibility, efficacy and safety of four cycles of R-CHOP followed by radioimmunotherapy consolidation even in the long term: this combination allows dispensing less chemotherapy in a frail group of patients without invalidating response quality and duration. PMID:27176801

  6. Long-Term Observation of Coexistence of Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy, Resultant High Myopia and Nonkeratoconic Developing Corneal Astigmatism: A Case Report of 7-Year Tracking in a Chinese Boy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianqin; Chixin, Du; Gu, Yangshun

    2015-06-01

    Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is an extremely rare, bilateral, and inherited disorder, which affects the corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane. Few PPCD cases in Chinese patients have been published so far. As far as we know, there are few studies which focused on the associations between PPCD and high myopia either. Here we report a rare case of coexistence of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, resultant high myopia and with-the-rule developing corneal astigmatism in a young Chinese boy. A 6-year-old boy was first referred to our department 7 years ago, complaining of bilateral poor vision. Examinations of both eyes including ophthalmologic examination, cycloplegic refraction examination, confocal microscopy findings, and corneal topography were performed. Bilateral small aggregates of vesicular lesions and patchy hyperreflectivity were observed at the level of the Descemet's membrane on confocal microscopy, which is consistent with typical PPCD. Optometry and corneal topography examinations showed a resultant high myopia. Ocular examinations were performed annually to follow up with the patient in the past 7 years. The corneal lesions remained stable whereas an axial elongation and a sharp increase in both spherical and cylindrical equivalent power were observed. Close follow-ups including thorough scrutiny of the endothelium and systematic ocular ancillary examinations are essential for patients with PPCD. The pathological coexistence of PPCD and high myopia in our case is possibly due to a shared etiological pathway or genetic background. Advanced genetic analysis on similar cases is expected if more samples can be provided. PMID:26061314

  7. Short-course R-CHOP followed by (90)Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan in previously untreated high-risk elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients: 7-year long-term results.

    PubMed

    Stefoni, V; Casadei, B; Bottelli, C; Gaidano, G; Ciochetto, C; Cabras, M G; Ansuinelli, M; Argnani, L; Broccoli, A; Gandolfi, L; Pellegrini, C; Zinzani, P L

    2016-01-01

    An update at 7 years was conceived for our multicenter phase II study in which 55 elderly high-risk untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients were treated with (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan after a short course of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) as long-term follow-up analyses of this combined therapeutic modality are lacking. The overall response rate to the entire regimen was 80%, including 73% (40/55) of complete response (CR) rate and 7% (4/55) of partial response rate. At the time of writing, 24/55 (43.6%) patients experienced a progression disease and 20 of 40 (50%) patients who obtained a CR are still alive in continuous CR. With a median follow-up of 7 years, the disease-free survival was 43.3% and the progression-free survival was 36.1%. The overall survival at 7.9 years was 38.9% (27 deaths mainly because of lymphoma). Two patients developed secondary hematological malignancies, an acute myeloid leukemia and a myelodysplastic syndrome, at 4 and 3 years from radioimmunotherapy, respectively. Our data confirm the feasibility, efficacy and safety of four cycles of R-CHOP followed by radioimmunotherapy consolidation even in the long term: this combination allows dispensing less chemotherapy in a frail group of patients without invalidating response quality and duration. PMID:27176801

  8. Developmental Trajectory for Production of Prosody: Lexical Stress Contrastivity in Children Ages 3 to 7 Years and in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Kirrie J.; Djaja, Danica; Arciuli, Joanne; James, Deborah G. H.; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate production of lexical stress within English polysyllabic words is critical for intelligibility and is affected in many speech-language disorders. However, models of speech production remain underspecified with regard to lexical stress. In this study, the authors report a large-scale acoustic investigation of lexical stress…

  9. Awareness and Reactions of Young Stuttering Children Aged 2-7 Years Old towards Their Speech Disfluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boey, Ronny A.; Van de Heyning, Paul H.; Wuyts, Floris L.; Heylen, Louis; Stoop, Reinhard; De Bodt, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    Awareness has been an important factor in theories of onset and development of stuttering. So far it has been suggested that even young children might be aware of their speech difficulty. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (a) the number of stuttering children aware of their speech difficulty, (b) the description of reported…

  10. Empathy and Empathy Induced Prosocial Behavior in 6- and 7-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Peter K. H.; Been, Marieke; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess empathy and prosocial behavior in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Results showed, first, lower levels of parent- and teacher-rated cognitive empathy, and similar levels of affective empathy in children with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) children. Second, emotion recognition…

  11. Trace metal ion partitioning at polymer film-metal oxide interfaces: long-period X-ray standing wave study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae Hyun; Trainor, Thomas P; Eng, Peter J; Bargar, John R; Brown, Gordon E

    2005-05-10

    The distributions of Pb(II) and As(V)O4(3-) ions in the interfacial region between thin poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coatings and aalpha-A12O3(0001), alpha-Al2O3(1-102), and alpha-Fe2O3(0001) single-crystal substrates were studied using long-period X-ray standing wave fluorescent yield (XSW-FY) and X-ray reflectivity techniques. The PAA film serves as a simplified analogue of natural organic matter (NOM) coatings on mineral surfaces. Such coatings are often assumed to play an important role in the partitioning and speciation of trace heavy metals in soils and aquatic systems. On the alpha-Al2O3(1-102) surface, Pb(II) ions were found to preferentially bind to the PAA coating, even at sub-micromolar Pb(II) concentrations, and to partition increasingly onto the metal oxide surface as the Pb(II) concentration was increased ([Pb(II)] = 5 x 10(-8) to 2 x 10(-5) M, pH = 4.5; 0.01 M NaCl background electrolyte). This observation suggests that the binding sites in the PAA coating outcompete those on the alpha-Al2O3(1-102) surface for Pb(II) under these conditions. The As(V)O4(3-) oxoanion partitions preferentially to the L-Al2O3(1-102) surface for the As(V)O4(3-) concentrations examined (1 x 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-7) M, pH = 4.5; 0.01 M NaCl background electrolyte). Partitioning of Pb(II) (at 1 x 10(-7) M and pH 4.5) was also examined at PAA/alpha-Al2O3(0001), and PAA/alpha-Fe2O3(0001) interfaces using XSW-FY measurements. Our results show that the PAA coating was the dominant sink for Pb(II) in all three samples; however, the relative order of reactivity of these metal oxide surfaces with respect to Pb(II) sorption is alpha-Fe2O3(0001) > alpha-Al2O3(1-102) > alpha-Al2O3(0001). This order is consistent with that found in previous studies of the PAA-free surfaces. These XSW results strongly suggest that the characteristics of the organic film (i.e., binding affinity, type, and density of binding sites) as well as metal oxide substrate reactivity are key factors determining the

  12. [Study of analgesic efficacy of propacetamol in the postoperative period using a double blind placebo controlled method].

    PubMed

    Nikoda, V V; Maiachkin, R B

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency and safety of postoperative use of propacetamol was estimated in 30 patients by means of double blind placebo controlled method. The first group consisted of 15 patients to whom propacetamol was introduced intravenously in single dose of 2 g along with patient controlled anesthesia with promedol. Placebo in combination with patient control anesthesia were used in 15 patients from the 2nd group. Intravenous introducing of propacetamol in dose of 2 g in 15 minutes provides relief of pain intensity in postoperative period. So it permits to consider propacetamol as basic non-opioid analgesic. In early postoperative period combination of propacetamol and opioid analgesic (promedol) reduces demands in the latter by 44%. PMID:12462772

  13. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-01

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  14. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  15. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study.

    PubMed

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems. PMID:25903899

  16. A Numerical Study of the Effect of Periodic Nutrient Supply on Pathways of Carbon in a Coastal Upwelling Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1998-01-01

    A size-based ecosystem model was modified to include periodic upwelling events and used to evaluate the effect of episodic nutrient supply on the standing stock, carbon uptake, and carbon flow into mesozooplankton grazing and sinking flux in a coastal upwelling regime. Two ecosystem configurations were compared: a single food chain made up of net phytoplankton and mesozooplankton (one autotroph and one heterotroph, A1H1), and three interconnected food chains plus bacteria (three autotrophs and four heterotrophs, A3H4). The carbon pathways in the A1H1 simulations were under stronger physical control than those of the A3H4 runs, where the small size classes are not affected by frequent upwelling events. In the more complex food web simulations, the microbial pathway determines the total carbon uptake and grazing rates, and regenerated nitrogen accounts for more than half of the total primary production for periods of 20 days or longer between events. By contrast, new production, export of carbon through sinking and mesozooplankton grazing are more important in the A1H1 simulations. In the A3H4 simulations, the turnover time scale of the autotroph biomass increases as the period between upwelling events increases, because of the larger contribution of slow-growing net phytoplankton. The upwelling period was characterized for three upwelling sites from the alongshore wind speed measured by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and the corresponding model output compared with literature data. This validation exercise for three upwelling sites and a downstream embayment suggests that standing stock, carbon uptake and size fractionation were best supported by the A3H4 simulations, while the simulated sinking fluxes are not distinguishable in the two configurations.

  17. Analgesic efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl during the period of highest analgesic demand after cesarean section: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Weigl, Wojciech; Bierylo, Andrzej; Wielgus, Monika; Krzemień-Wiczyńska, Swietlana; Szymusik, Iwona; Kolacz, Marcin; Dabrowski, Michal J

    2016-06-01

    Cesarean section (CS) is one of the most common surgical procedures in female patients. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl during the period of greatest postoperative analgesic demand after CS. This period was defined by detailed analysis of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) usage.This double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized trial included 60 parturients who were scheduled for elective CS. Participants received spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine supplemented with normal saline (control group) or with fentanyl 25 μg (fentanyl group). To evaluate primary endpoints, we measured total pethidine consumption over the period of greatest PCA pethidine requirement. For verification of secondary endpoints, we recorded intravenous PCA requirement in other time windows, duration of effective analgesia, pain scores assessed by visual analog scale, opioid side effects, hemodynamic changes, neonatal Apgar scores, and intraoperative pain.Detailed analysis of hour-by-hour PCA opioid requirements showed that the greatest demand for analgesics among patients in the control group occurred during the first 12 hours after surgery. Patients in the fentanyl group had significantly reduced opioid consumption compared with the controls during this period and had a prolonged duration of effective analgesia. The groups were similar in visual analog scale, incidence of analgesia-related side effects (nausea/vomiting, pruritus, oversedation, and respiratory depression), and neonatal Apgar scores. Mild respiratory depression occurred in 1 patient in each group. Fewer patients experienced intraoperative pain in the fentanyl group (3% vs 23%; relative risk 6.8, 95% confidence interval 0.9-51.6).The requirement for postoperative analgesics is greatest during the first 12 hours after induction of anesthesia in patients undergoing CS. The addition of intrathecal fentanyl to spinal anesthesia is effective for intraoperative

  18. Study of Periodic Forcing with a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device for the Control of Flow Separation on a NACA 0012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Joseph P.

    The continued high global demand for passenger and freight air traffic as well as increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), in spite of rising fuel costs and several tragic cases involving loss-of-control events, has resulted in researchers examining alternative technologies, which would result in safer, more reliable, and superior performing aircraft. Aerodynamic flow control may be the most promising approach to this problem having already proven its ability to enable higher flow efficiency while also simultaneously improving overall flow control. Recent research in the area of aerodynamic control is transitioning from traditional mechanical flow control devices such as slats and flaps to plasma actuators. Plasma actuators offer an inexpensive and energy efficient method of flow control. In addition, plasma actuator technology has the potential of application to a host of other aircraft performance parameters including applications in radar mitigation and in situ wing deicing. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), one of the most widely studied forms of plasma actuation, employs an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) device, which uses dominant electric fields and the respective electrically related body forces for actuation. Unlike momentum jets or other traditional flow control methods used on wings and tail surfaces, a DBD device operates without moving components or injecting any mass into the flow stream. Work performed focuses on qualitatively investigating experimentally the use of DBD devices for flow separation control on a NACA 0012-based 2D wing model. Flow visualization techniques illuminated flow seed particles around the model to determine the state of the flow (i.e., attached or separated) for various actuator cases. The DBD was operated in a steady-on mode as well as for three different pulsing frequencies (only for low power testing) based on the Strouhal frequency for each flight condition and compared to the clean (i.e., plasma off) case. Some of

  19. Scoring of the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT-CPI): Analysis of 7 Years of Use

    PubMed Central

    Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina P.; McQuarrie, Arlis M.; Sheppard, M. Suzanne; Scudds, Rhonda J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The aims of this study were to (1) describe the completion rates of the 24 performance criteria (PCs) from the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT-CPI) by clinical instructors; (2) evaluate change in PC visual analogue scores (VAS) with students' clinical experience; and (3) evaluate scoring patterns over time. Methods: Final VAS scores for 208 physiotherapy (PT) students (seven cohorts) from 1,039 clinical placements between 2001 and 2008 were analyzed. Completion rates were calculated for each PC. Kruskal-Wallis tests evaluated differences in VAS scores between cohorts. Friedman's tests were used to compare VAS scores for each PC over time. Results: Completion rates were above 90% for 18 PCs. Data from the seven cohorts were combined. All PC scores showed significant change from 10 to 15 weeks and from 15 to 20 weeks of clinical experience (p≤0.001). Although differences in scores decreased over time, 19 PCs showed significant differences between 20 and 25 weeks, and 11 PCs showed significant differences between 25 and 31 weeks of clinical experience (p<0.01). Conclusions: Certain PCs had lower completion rates. The PT-CPI was used consistently by clinical instructors to evaluate student performance over time. A continual progression in acquisition of clinical competencies was illustrated by PT-CPI scoring patterns as students advanced through their PT education programme. PMID:21359047

  20. Put on a happy face! Inhibitory control and socioemotional knowledge predict emotion regulation in 5- to 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Amanda; Jacques, Sophie

    2014-07-01

    Children's developing capacity to regulate emotions may depend on individual characteristics and other abilities, including age, sex, inhibitory control, theory of mind, and emotion and display rule knowledge. In the current study, we examined the relations between these variables and children's (N=107) regulation of emotion in a disappointing gift paradigm as well as their relations with the amount of effort to control emotion children exhibited after receiving the disappointing gift. Regression analyses were also conducted to identify unique predictors. Children's understanding of others' emotions and emotion display rules, as well as their inhibitory control skills, emerged as significant correlates of emotion regulation and predicted children's responses to the disappointing gift even after controlling for other relevant variables. Age and inhibitory control significantly predicted the amount of overt effort that went into regulating emotions, as did emotion knowledge (albeit only marginally). Together, findings suggest that effectively regulating emotions requires (a) knowledge of context-appropriate emotions along with (b) inhibitory skills to implement that knowledge. PMID:24691036