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Sample records for 7-year wilkinson microwave

  1. A SEARCH FOR CONCENTRIC CIRCLES IN THE 7 YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE TEMPERATURE SKY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wehus, I. K.; Eriksen, H. K.

    2011-06-01

    In this Letter, we search for concentric circles with low variance in cosmic microwave background sky maps. The detection of such circles would hint at new physics beyond the current cosmological concordance model, which states that the universe is isotropic and homogeneous, and filled with Gaussian fluctuations. We first describe a set of methods designed to detect such circles, based on matched filters and {chi}{sup 2} statistics, and then apply these methods to the best current publicly available data, the 7 year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) temperature sky maps. We compare the observations with an ensemble of 1000 Gaussian {Lambda}CDM simulations. Based on these tests, we conclude that the WMAP sky maps are fully compatible with the Gaussian and isotropic hypothesis as measured by low-variance ring statistics.

  2. Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, E.; Bennett, Charles L.; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mapped the distribution of temperature and polarization over the entire sky in five microwave frequency bands. These full-sky maps were used to obtain measurements of temperature and polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background with the unprecedented accuracy and precision. The analysis of two-point correlation functions of temperature and polarization data gives determinations of the fundamental cosmological parameters such as the age and composition of the universe, as well as the key parameters describing the physics of inflation, which is further constrained by three-point correlation functions. WMAP observations alone reduced the flat ? cold dark matter (Lambda Cold Dark Matter) cosmological model (six) parameter volume by a factor of > 68, 000 compared with pre-WMAP measurements. The WMAP observations (sometimes in combination with other astrophysical probes) convincingly show the existence of non-baryonic dark matter, the cosmic neutrino background, flatness of spatial geometry of the universe, a deviation from a scale-invariant spectrum of initial scalar fluctuations, and that the current universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The WMAP observations provide the strongest ever support for inflation; namely, the structures we see in the universe originate from quantum fluctuations generated during inflation.

  3. Galactic Emission in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in five microwave frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz with sub-degree angular resolution. While the primary goal of the mission is to measure the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the data also provide a wealth of information about microwave emission from the Milky Way. We present full sky maps of the synchrotron, free-free, and dust emission obtained from the first-year data and comment on how these maps inform our understanding of the interstellar medium.

  4. Mapping the CMB with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and new full-sky maps of the polarization. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission results will be discussed and commented on.

  5. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and the curvature of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Kirchner, Ulrich; Ellis, George F. R.

    2003-10-01

    Inter alia, the high-precision Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data on cosmic background radiation marginally indicate that the Universe has positively curved (and hence spherical) spatial sections. In this Letter, we take this data seriously and consider some of the consequences for the background dynamics. In particular, we show that this implies a limit to the number of e-foldings that could have taken place in the inflationary epoch; however, this limit is consistent with some inflationary models that solve all the usual cosmological problems and that are consistent with standard structure formation theory.

  6. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Attitude Estimation Filter Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard R.

    2005-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) spacecraft was launched in June of 2001. The sensor complement of WMAP consists of two Autonomous Star Trackers (ASTs), two Fine Sun Sensors (FSSs), and a gyro package which contains redundancy about one of the WMAP body axes. The onboard attitude estimation filter consists of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) solving for attitude and gyro bias errors which are then resolved into a spacecraft attitude quaternion and gyro bias. A pseudo-linear Kalman filter has been developed which directly estimates the spacecraft attitude quaternion, rate, and gyro bias. In this paper, the performance of the two filters is compared for the two major control modes of WMAP: inertial mode and observation mode.

  7. The Attitude Control System for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Andrews, Stephen F.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Ward, David K.

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe mission produces a map of the cosmic microwave background radiation over the entire celestial sphere by executing a fast spin and a slow precession of its spin axis about the Sun line to obtain a highly interconnected set of measurements. The spacecraft attitude is sensed and controlled using an inertial reference unit, two star trackers, a digital sun sensor, twelve coarse sun sensors, three reaction wheel assemblies, and a propulsion system. Sufficient attitude knowledge is provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation (l sigma) of 1.3 arc-minutes per axis. In addition, the spacecraft acquires and holds the sunline at initial acquisition and in the event of a failure, and slews to the proper orbit adjust orientations and to the proper off-sunline attitude to start the compound spin. This paper presents an overview of the design of the attitude control system to carry out this mission and presents some early flight experience.

  8. Restoring Redundancy to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotrophy Probe Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Davis, Gary T.; Ward, David K.

    2004-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer. Attitude control system engineers discovered sixteen months before launch that configuration changes after the critical design review had resulted in a significant migration of the spacecraft's center of mass. As a result, the spacecraft no longer had a viable backup control mode in the event of a failure of the negative pitch-axis thruster. A tiger team was formed and identified potential solutions to this problem, such as adding thruster-plume shields to redirect thruster torque, adding or removing mass from the spacecraft, adding an additional thruster, moving thrusters, bending thruster nozzles or propellant tubing, or accepting the loss of redundancy. The project considered the impacts on mass, cost, fuel budget, and schedule for each solution, and decided to bend the propellant tubing of the two roll-control thrusters to allow the pair to be used for backup control in the negative pitch axis. This paper discusses the problem and the potential solutions, and documents the hardware and software changes and verification performed. Flight data are presented to show the on-orbit performance of the propulsion system and lessons learned are described.

  9. Mapping the CMB with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2007-01-01

    The data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and new full-sky maps of the polarization. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission results will be discussed and commented on. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30,200 1. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  10. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) First Year Observations: TE Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Spergel, D. N.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; hide

    2001-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters at frequencies 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz. We detect correlations between the temperature and polarization maps significant at more than 10 standard deviations. The correlations are inconsistent with instrument noise and are significantly larger than the upper limits established for potential systematic errors. The correlations are present in all WAMP frequency bands with similar amplitude from 23 to 94 GHz, and are consistent with a superposition of a CMB signal with a weak foreground. The fitted CMB component is robust against different data combinations and fitting techniques. On small angular scales (theta less than 5 deg), the WMAP data show the temperature-polarization correlation expected from adiabatic perturbations in the temperature power spectrum. The data for l greater than 20 agree well with the signal predicted solely from the temperature power spectra, with no additional free parameters. We detect excess power on large angular scales (theta greater than 10 deg) compared to predictions based on the temperature power spectra alone. The excess power is well described by reionization at redshift 11 is less than z(sub r) is less than 30 at 95% confidence, depending on the ionization history. A model-independent fit to reionization optical depth yields results consistent with the best-fit ACDM model, with best fit value t = 0.17 +/- 0.04 at 68% confidence, including systematic and foreground uncertainties. This value is larger than expected given the detection of a Gunn-Peterson trough in the absorption spectra of distant quasars, and implies that the universe has a complex ionization history: WMAP has detected the signal from an early epoch of reionization.

  11. Indication for primordial anisotropies in the neutrino background from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe and the Sloan digital sky survey.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Roberto; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2005-07-01

    We demonstrate that combining cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements from the 1st year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations with clustering data from the Sloan galaxy redshift survey yields an indication for primordial anisotropies in the cosmological neutrino background.

  12. Constraints on CPT violation from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three year polarization data: A wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph; Natoli, Paolo

    2007-12-15

    We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle {delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}3.0 ({delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}6.0) at the one (two) {sigma} level, consistent with a null detection.

  13. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Battery Operations Problem Resolution Team (PRT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Technical Discipline Fellow for Electrical Power, was requested to form a Problem Resolution Team (PRT) to help assess the health of the flight battery that is currently operating aboard NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and provide recommendations for battery operations to mitigate the risk of impacting science operations for the rest of the mission. This report contains the outcome of the PRT's assessment.

  14. First Results From the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The first findings from a year of WMAP satellite operations provide a detailed full sky map of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The observed temperature anisotropy, combined with the associated polarization information, encodes a wealth of cosmological information. The results have have implications for the history, content, and evolution of the universe, and its large scale properties. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed.

  15. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Wright, E. L.; Halpern, M.

    2003-01-01

    The WMAP mission has mapped the full sky to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the universe. Full sky maps are made in five microwave frequency bands to separate the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from foreground emission, including diffuse Galactic emission and Galactic and extragalactic point sources. We define masks that excise regions of high foreground emission, so CMB analyses can became out with minimal foreground contamination. We also present maps and spectra of the individual emission components, leading to an improved understanding of Galactic astrophysical processes. The effectiveness of template fits to remove foreground emission from the WMAP data is also examined. These efforts result in a CMB map with minimal contamination and a demonstration that the WMAP CMB power spectrum is insensitive to residual foreground emission. We use a Maximum Entropy Method to construct a model of the Galactic emission components. The observed total Galactic emission matches the model to less than 1% and the individual model components are accurate to a few percent. We find that the Milky Way resembles other normal spiral galaxies between 408 MHz and 23 GHz, with a synchrotron spectral index that is flattest (beta(sub s) approx. -2.5) near star-forming regions, especially in the plane, and steepest (beta(sub s) approx. -3) in the halo. This is consistent with a picture of relativistic cosmic ray electron generation in star-forming regions and diffusion and convection within the plane. The significant synchrotron index steepening out of the plane suggests a diffusion process in which the halo electrons are trapped in the Galactic potential long enough to suffer synchrotron and inverse Compton energy losses and hence a spectral steepening. The synchrotron index is steeper in the WMAP bands than in lower frequency radio surveys, with a spectral break near 20 GHz to beta(sub s) less than -3. The modeled thermal dust spectral

  16. ANOMALOUS PARITY ASYMMETRY OF THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE POWER SPECTRUM DATA AT LOW MULTIPOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-05-10

    We have investigated non-Gaussianity of our early universe by comparing the parity asymmetry of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) power spectrum with simulations. We find that odd-parity preference of the WMAP data (2 {<=} l {<=} 18) is anomalous at 4-in-1000 level. We find it likely that low quadrupole power is part of this parity asymmetry rather than an isolated anomaly. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of this anomaly is a cosmological or a systematic effect. The data from Planck Surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will help us to resolve the origin of the anomalous odd-parity preference.

  17. Cosmological Implications of the First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, L.

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team has recently analyzed and released the first-year data. We will review the implications for cosmology of these results. The highlight is that cosmology now has a standard cosmological model. With only 6 parameters the model fits not only WMAP data remarkably well, but also a host of other astronomical observations. We also present the results on neutrino mass limits and on dark energy properties from a joint likelihood analysis of WMAP data with small-scale CMB experiments and large-scale structure surveys. The data and supplementary information are publicly available and can be found on the experiment web site at .

  18. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Calibration with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Using Cross-Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajian, Amir; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, John R.; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Bertrand Doriese, W.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Moseley, Harvey; Wollack, Ed

    2011-01-01

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and mapmaking procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 < I < 1000, we determine the absolute calibration with an uncertainty of 2% in temperature. The precise measurement of the calibration error directly impacts the uncertainties in the cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  19. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: CALIBRATION WITH THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE USING CROSS-CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir; Bond, John R.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Amiri, Mandana; Battistelli, Elia S.; Burger, Bryce; Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Brown, Ben; Chervenak, Jay; Doriese, W. Bertrand

    2011-10-20

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and map-making procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 < l < 1000, we determine the absolute calibration with an uncertainty of 2% in temperature. The precise measurement of the calibration error directly impacts the uncertainties in the cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  20. Cosmological Implications of the First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, L.

    2004-02-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team has recently analyzed and released the first-year data. We will review the implications for cosmology of these results. The highlight is that cosmology now has a standard cosmological model. With only 6 parameters the model fits not only WMAP data remarkably well, but also a host of other astronomical observations. We also present the results on neutrino mass limits and on dark energy properties from a joint likelihood analysis of WMAP data with small-scale CMB experiments and large-scale structure surveys. The data and supplementary information are publicly available and can be found on the experiment web site at .

  1. Multiresolution internal template cleaning: an application to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-yr polarization data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Cobos, R.; Vielva, P.; Barreiro, R. B.; Martínez-González, E.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation data obtained by different experiments contain, besides the desired signal, a superposition of microwave sky contributions. Using a wavelet decomposition on the sphere, we present a fast and robust method to recover the CMB signal from microwave maps. We present an application to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) polarization data, which shows its good performance, particularly in very polluted regions of the sky. The applied wavelet has the advantages that it requires little computational time in its calculations, it is adapted to the HEALPIX pixelization scheme and it offers the possibility of multiresolution analysis. The decomposition is implemented as part of a fully internal template fitting method, minimizing the variance of the resulting map at each scale. Using a χ2 characterization of the noise, we find that the residuals of the cleaned maps are compatible with those expected from the instrumental noise. The maps are also comparable to those obtained from the WMAP team, but in our case we do not make use of external data sets. In addition, at low resolution, our cleaned maps present a lower level of noise. The E-mode power spectrum ? is computed at high and low resolutions, and a cross-power spectrum ? is also calculated from the foreground reduced maps of temperature given by WMAP and our cleaned maps of polarization at high resolution. These spectra are consistent with the power spectra supplied by the WMAP team. We detect the E-mode acoustic peak at ℓ˜ 400, as predicted by the standard ΛCDM model. The B-mode power spectrum ? is compatible with zero.

  2. THE EFFECT OF ASYMMETRIC BEAMS IN THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wehus, I. K.; Ackerman, L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Groeneboom, N. E. E-mail: lotty@caltech.ed E-mail: leuat@irio.co.u

    2009-12-10

    We generate simulations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature field as observed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite, taking into account the detailed shape of the asymmetric beams and scanning strategy of the experiment, and use these to re-estimate the WMAP beam transfer functions. This method avoids the need of artificially symmetrizing the beams, as done in the baseline WMAP approach, and instead measures the total convolution effect by direct simulation. We find only small differences with respect to the nominal transfer functions, typically less than 1% everywhere, and less than 0.5% at l < 400. The net effect on the CMB power spectrum is less than 0.6%. The effect on all considered cosmological parameters is negligible. For instance, we find that the spectral index of scalar perturbations after taking into account the beam asymmetries is n {sub s} = 0.964 +- 0.014, corresponding to a negative shift of -0.1sigma compared to the previously released WMAP results. Our CMB sky simulations are made publicly available and can be used for general studies of asymmetric beam effects in the WMAP data.

  3. First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Parameter Estimation Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, L.; Peiris, H. V.; Spergel, D. N.; Nolta, M. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2003-09-01

    We describe our methodology for comparing the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and other complementary data sets to theoretical models. The unprecedented quality of the WMAP data and the tight constraints on cosmological parameters that are derived require a rigorous analysis so that the approximations made in the modeling do not lead to significant biases. We describe our use of the likelihood function to characterize the statistical properties of the microwave background sky. We outline the use of the Monte Carlo Markov Chains to explore the likelihood of the data given a model to determine the best-fit cosmological parameters and their uncertainties. We add to the WMAP data the l>~700 Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) and Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (ACBAR) measurements of the CMB, the galaxy power spectrum at z~0 obtained from the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), and the matter power spectrum at z~3 as measured with the Lyα forest. These last two data sets complement the CMB measurements by probing the matter power spectrum of the nearby universe. Combining CMB and 2dFGRS requires that we include in our analysis a model for galaxy bias, redshift distortions, and the nonlinear growth of structure. We show how the statistical and systematic uncertainties in the model and the data are propagated through the full analysis. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  4. Inflation model constraints from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Riotto, Antonio; /CERN

    2006-05-01

    We extract parameters relevant for distinguishing among single-field inflation models from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year data set, and also from WMAP in combination with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy power spectrum. Our analysis leads to the following conclusions: (1) the Harrison-Zel'dovich model is consistent with both data sets at a 95% confidence level; (2) there is no strong evidence for running of the spectral index of scalar perturbations; (3) Potentials of the form V {infinity} {phi}{sup P} are consistent with the data for p = 2, and are marginally consistent with the WMAP data considered alone for p = 4, but ruled out by WMAP combined with SDSS. We perform a ''Monte Carlo reconstruction'' of the inflationary potential, and find that: (1) there is no evidence to support an observational lower bound on the amplitude of gravitational waves produced during inflation; (2) models such as simple hybrid potentials which evolve toward an inflationary late-time attractor in the space of flow parameters are strongly disfavored by the data, (3) models selected with even a weak slow-roll prior strongly cluster in the region favoring a ''red'' power spectrum and no running of the spectral index, consistent with simple single-field inflation models.

  5. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP) Observations: Data Processing Methods and Systematic Errors Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Greason, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the calibration and data processing methods used to generate full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first year of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations. Detailed limits on residual systematic errors are assigned based largely on analyses of the flight data supplemented, where necessary, with results from ground tests. The data are calibrated in flight using the dipole modulation of the CMB due to the observatory's motion around the Sun. This constitutes a full-beam calibration source. An iterative algorithm simultaneously fits the time-ordered data to obtain calibration parameters and pixelized sky map temperatures. The noise properties are determined by analyzing the time-ordered data with this sky signal estimate subtracted. Based on this, we apply a pre-whitening filter to the time-ordered data to remove a low level of l/f noise. We infer and correct for a small (approx. 1 %) transmission imbalance between the two sky inputs to each differential radiometer, and we subtract a small sidelobe correction from the 23 GHz (K band) map prior to further analysis. No other systematic error corrections are applied to the data. Calibration and baseline artifacts, including the response to environmental perturbations, are negligible. Systematic uncertainties are comparable to statistical uncertainties in the characterization of the beam response. Both are accounted for in the covariance matrix of the window function and are propagated to uncertainties in the final power spectrum. We characterize the combined upper limits to residual systematic uncertainties through the pixel covariance matrix.

  6. Correlated adiabatic and isocurvature cosmic microwave background fluctuations in the wake of the results from the wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe.

    PubMed

    Väliviita, Jussi; Muhonen, Vesa

    2003-09-26

    In general correlated models, in addition to the usual adiabatic component with a spectral index n(ad1) there is another adiabatic component with a spectral index n(ad2) generated by entropy perturbation during inflation. We extend the analysis of a correlated mixture of adiabatic and isocurvature cosmic microwave background fluctuations of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) group, who set the two adiabatic spectral indices equal. Allowing n(ad1) and n(ad2) to vary independently we find that the WMAP data favor models where the two adiabatic components have opposite spectral tilts. Using the WMAP data only, the 2sigma upper bound for the isocurvature fraction f(iso) of the initial power spectrum at k(0)=0.05 Mpc(-1) increases somewhat, e.g., from 0.76 of n(ad2)=n(ad1) models to 0.84 with a prior n(iso)<1.84 for the isocurvature spectral index.

  7. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP)Observations: The Angular Power Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Spergel, D. N.; Verde, L.; Hill, R. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the angular power spectrum derived from the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps. We study a variety of power spectrum estimation methods and data combinations and demonstrate that the results are robust. The data are modestly contaminated by diffuse Galactic foreground emission, but we show that a simple Galactic template model is sufficient to remove the signal. Point sources produce a modest contamination in the low frequency data. After masking approximately 700 known bright sources from the maps, we estimate residual sources contribute approximately 3500 mu sq Kappa at 41 GHz, and approximately 130 mu sq Kappa at 94 GHz, to the power spectrum [iota(iota + 1)C(sub iota)/2pi] at iota = 1000. Systematic errors are negligible compared to the (modest) level of foreground emission. Our best estimate of the power spectrum is derived from 28 cross-power spectra of statistically independent channels. The final spectrum is essentially independent of the noise properties of an individual radiometer. The resulting spectrum provides a definitive measurement of the CMB power spectrum, with uncertainties limited by cosmic variance, up to iota approximately 350. The spectrum clearly exhibits a first acoustic peak at iota = 220 and a second acoustic peak at iota approximately 540, and it provides strong support for adiabatic initial conditions. Researchers have analyzed the CT(sup Epsilon) power spectrum, and present evidence for a relatively high optical depth, and an early period of cosmic reionization. Among other things, this implies that the temperature power spectrum has been suppressed by approximately 30% on degree angular scales, due to secondary scattering.

  8. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six

  9. Nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jarosik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-10-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C -1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ΛCDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N eff = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t 0 = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H 0 = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s-1 Mpc-1. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (ns = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (\\Omega _k = -0.0027^{+ 0.0039}_{-0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ΛCDM model

  10. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter Lambda-CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities Omega(sub b)h(exp 2), Omega(sub c)h(exp 2)and Omega(sub Lambda), are each determined to a precision of approx. 1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5 sigma level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional Lambda-CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their Lambda-CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to Omega(sub kappa) = (0.0027 (sub +0.0039) (sup -0.0038;) the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Sigma M(sub nu) < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0+/-40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N(sub eff) and the primordial helium abundance, Y(sub He), agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental

  11. NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Jarosik, N.; Smith, K. M.; Gold, B.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; and others

    2013-10-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ΛCDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, Ω {sub b} h {sup 2}, Ω {sub c} h {sup 2}, and Ω{sub Λ}, are each determined to a precision of ∼1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5σ level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ΛCDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ΛCDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to Ω{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Σm {sub ν} < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N {sub eff} and the primordial helium abundance, Y {sub He}, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological

  12. NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: FINAL MAPS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Smith, K. M.; Gold, B.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; and others

    2013-10-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C {sup –1} weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ΛCDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t {sub 0} = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H {sub 0} = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n{sub s} = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Ω{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor

  13. DETECTION OF ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN THE PLEIADES REFLECTION NEBULA WITH WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE AND THE COSMOSOMAS EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Genova-Santos, R.; Rebolo, R.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Lopez-Caraballo, C. H.; Hildebrandt, S. R.

    2011-12-10

    We present evidence for anomalous microwave emission (AME) in the Pleiades reflection nebula, using data from the seven-year release of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and from the COSMOSOMAS (Cosmological Structures on Medium Angular Scales) experiment. The flux integrated in a 1 Degree-Sign radius around R.A. = 56.{sup 0}24, decl. = 23.{sup 0}78 (J2000) is 2.15 {+-} 0.12 Jy at 22.8 GHz, where AME is dominant. COSMOSOMAS data show no significant emission, but allow one to set upper limits of 0.94 and 1.58 Jy (99.7% confidence level), respectively, at 10.9 and 14.7 GHz, which are crucial to pin down the AME spectrum at these frequencies, and to discard any other emission mechanisms which could have an important contribution to the signal detected at 22.8 GHz. We estimate the expected level of free-free emission from an extinction-corrected H{alpha} template, while the thermal dust emission is characterized from infrared DIRBE data and extrapolated to microwave frequencies. When we deduct the contribution from these two components at 22.8 GHz, the residual flux, associated with AME, is 2.12 {+-} 0.12 Jy (17.7{sigma}). The spectral energy distribution from 10 to 60 GHz can be accurately fitted with a model of electric dipole emission from small spinning dust grains distributed in two separated phases of molecular and atomic gas, respectively. The dust emissivity, calculated by correlating the 22.8 GHz data with 100 {mu}m data, is found to be 4.36 {+-} 0.17 {mu}K (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1}, a value considerably lower than in typical AME clouds, which present emissivities of {approx}20 {mu}K (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1}, although higher than the 0.2 {mu}K (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1} of the translucent cloud LDN 1780, where AME has recently been claimed. The physical properties of the Pleiades nebula, in particular its low extinction A{sub V} {approx} 0.4, indicate that this is indeed a much less opaque object than those where AME has usually been studied. This fact

  14. Detection of Anomalous Microwave Emission in the Pleiades Reflection Nebula with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the COSMOSOMAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova-Santos, R.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; López-Caraballo, C. H.; Hildebrandt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present evidence for anomalous microwave emission (AME) in the Pleiades reflection nebula, using data from the seven-year release of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and from the COSMOSOMAS (Cosmological Structures on Medium Angular Scales) experiment. The flux integrated in a 1° radius around R.A. = 56fdg24, decl. = 23fdg78 (J2000) is 2.15 ± 0.12 Jy at 22.8 GHz, where AME is dominant. COSMOSOMAS data show no significant emission, but allow one to set upper limits of 0.94 and 1.58 Jy (99.7% confidence level), respectively, at 10.9 and 14.7 GHz, which are crucial to pin down the AME spectrum at these frequencies, and to discard any other emission mechanisms which could have an important contribution to the signal detected at 22.8 GHz. We estimate the expected level of free-free emission from an extinction-corrected Hα template, while the thermal dust emission is characterized from infrared DIRBE data and extrapolated to microwave frequencies. When we deduct the contribution from these two components at 22.8 GHz, the residual flux, associated with AME, is 2.12 ± 0.12 Jy (17.7σ). The spectral energy distribution from 10 to 60 GHz can be accurately fitted with a model of electric dipole emission from small spinning dust grains distributed in two separated phases of molecular and atomic gas, respectively. The dust emissivity, calculated by correlating the 22.8 GHz data with 100 μm data, is found to be 4.36 ± 0.17 μK (MJy sr-1)-1, a value considerably lower than in typical AME clouds, which present emissivities of ~20 μK (MJy sr-1)-1, although higher than the 0.2 μK (MJy sr-1)-1 of the translucent cloud LDN 1780, where AME has recently been claimed. The physical properties of the Pleiades nebula, in particular its low extinction A V ~ 0.4, indicate that this is indeed a much less opaque object than those where AME has usually been studied. This fact, together with the broad knowledge of the stellar content of this region, provides an excellent

  15. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Likelihoods and Parameters from the WMAP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkey, J.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M.R.; Spergel, D.N.; Larson, D.; Hinshaw, G.; Page, L.; Bennett, C.L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R.S.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), launched in 2001, has mapped out the Cosmic Microwave Background with unprecedented accuracy over the whole sky. Its observations have led to the establishment of a simple concordance cosmological model for the contents and evolution of the universe, consistent with virtually all other astronomical measurements. The WMAP first-year and three-year data have allowed us to place strong constraints on the parameters describing the ACDM model. a flat universe filled with baryons, cold dark matter, neutrinos. and a cosmological constant. with initial fluctuations described by nearly scale-invariant power law fluctuations, as well as placing limits on extensions to this simple model (Spergel et al. 2003. 2007). With all-sky measurements of the polarization anisotropy (Kogut et al. 2003; Page et al. 2007), two orders of magnitude smaller than the intensity fluctuations. WMAP has not only given us an additional picture of the universe as it transitioned from ionized to neutral at redshift z approx.1100. but also an observation of the later reionization of the universe by the first stars. In this paper we present cosmological constraints from WMAP alone. for both the ACDM model and a set of possible extensions. We also consider tlle consistency of WMAP constraints with other recent astronomical observations. This is one of seven five-year WMAP papers. Hinshaw et al. (2008) describe the data processing and basic results. Hill et al. (2008) present new beam models arid window functions, Gold et al. (2008) describe the emission from Galactic foregrounds, and Wright et al. (2008) the emission from extra-Galactic point sources. The angular power spectra are described in Nolta et al. (2008), and Komatsu et al. (2008) present and interpret cosmological constraints based on combining WMAP with other data. WMAP observations are used to produce full-sky maps of the CMB in five frequency bands centered at 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz

  16. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, J.L.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, 3.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Halpern, M.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) satellite aimed at elucidating cosmology through full-sky observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The WMAP full-sky maps of the temperature and polarization anisotropy in five frequency bands provide our most accurate view to date of conditions in the early universe. The multi-frequency data facilitate the separation of the CMB signal from foreground emission arising both from our Galaxy and from extragalactic sources. The CMB angular power spectrum derived from these maps exhibits a highly coherent acoustic peak structure which makes it possible to extract a wealth of information about the composition and history of the universe. as well as the processes that seeded the fluctuations. WMAP data have played a key role in establishing ACDM as the new standard model of cosmology (Bennett et al. 2003: Spergel et al. 2003; Hinshaw et al. 2007: Spergel et al. 2007): a flat universe dominated by dark energy, supplemented by dark matter and atoms with density fluctuations seeded by a Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant process. The basic properties of this universe are determined by five numbers: the density of matter, the density of atoms. the age of the universe (or equivalently, the Hubble constant today), the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, and their scale dependence. By accurately measuring the first few peaks in the angular power spectrum, WMAP data have enabled the following accomplishments: Showing the dark matter must be non-baryonic and interact only weakly with atoms and radiation. The WMAP measurement of the dark matter density puts important constraints on supersymmetric dark matter models and on the properties of other dark matter candidates. With five years of data and a better determination of our beam response, this measurement has been significantly improved. Precise determination of the density of atoms in the universe. The agreement between

  17. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: ARE THERE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANOMALIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Gold, B.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Komatsu, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Tucker, G. S.

    2011-02-01

    A simple six-parameter {Lambda}CDM model provides a successful fit to WMAP data. This holds both when the WMAP data are analyzed alone or in combination with other cosmological data. Even so, it is appropriate to examine the data carefully to search for hints of deviations from the now standard model of cosmology, which includes inflation, dark energy, dark matter, baryons, and neutrinos. The cosmological community has subjected the WMAP data to extensive and varied analyses. While there is widespread agreement as to the overall success of the six-parameter {Lambda}CDM model, various 'anomalies' have been reported relative to that model. In this paper we examine potential anomalies and present analyses and assessments of their significance. In most cases we find that claimed anomalies depend on posterior selection of some aspect or subset of the data. Compared with sky simulations based on the best-fit model, one can select for low probability features of the WMAP data. Low probability features are expected, but it is not usually straightforward to determine whether any particular low probability feature is the result of the a posteriori selection or non-standard cosmology. Hypothesis testing could, of course, always reveal an alternative model that is statistically favored, but there is currently no model that is more compelling. We find that two cold spots in the map are statistically consistent with random cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations. We also find that the amplitude of the quadrupole is well within the expected 95% confidence range and therefore is not anomalously low. We find no significant anomaly with a lack of large angular scale CMB power for the best-fit {Lambda}CDM model. We examine in detail the properties of the power spectrum data with respect to the {Lambda}CDM model and find no significant anomalies. The quadrupole and octupole components of the CMB sky are remarkably aligned, but we find that this is not due to any single map

  18. A narrow band-pass filter type Wilkinson power divider for I-Q demodulator in microwave interferometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; Ikezoe, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Imai, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Ma, Z.; Sakagami, I.; Mase, A.

    2015-11-01

    I-Q (In-phase Quadrature) demodulator is one of key components in microwave interferometer system application. Normally, I-Q demodulator consists of amplifiers, mixers, 90 degree phase shifter, power divider and band-pass filters, and it is widely used in various microwave communication systems and measurement systems. In this paper, power divider and band-pass filters are newly designed as one single passive component, therefore, I-Q demodulator topology becomes simplified. The novel narrow band-pass filter type Wilkinson power divider not only provides extremely miniaturized circuit size, but also maintains the band-pass filter performance and power division function as well. One experimental circuit shows good agreement with the theoretical simulation.

  19. Real space tests of the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmic microwave background data

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, Bartosz

    2008-08-15

    We introduce and analyze a method for testing statistical isotropy and Gaussianity and apply it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) cosmic microwave background (CMB) foreground reduced temperature maps. We also test cross-channel difference maps to constrain levels of residual foreground contamination and systematic uncertainties. We divide the sky into regions of varying size and shape and measure the first four moments of the one-point distribution within these regions, and using their simulated spatial distributions we test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity hypotheses. By randomly varying orientations of these regions, we sample the underlying CMB field in a new manner, that offers a richer exploration of the data content, and avoids possible biasing due to a single choice of sky division. In our analysis we account for all two-point correlations between different regions and also show the impact on the results when these correlations are neglected. The statistical significance is assessed via comparison with realistic Monte Carlo simulations. We find the three-year WMAP maps to agree well with the isotropic, Gaussian random field simulations as probed by regions corresponding to the angular scales ranging from 6 Degree-Sign to 30 Degree-Sign at 68% confidence level (CL). We report a strong, anomalous (99.8% CL) dipole 'excess' in the V band of the three-year WMAP data and also in the V band of the WMAP five-year data (99.3% CL). Using our statistics, we notice large scale hemispherical power asymmetry, and find that it is not highly statistically significant in the WMAP three-year data ( Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 97%) at scales l{<=}40. The significance is even smaller if multipoles up to l=1024 are considered ({approx}90% CL). We give constraints on the amplitude of the previously proposed CMB dipole modulation field parameter. We find some hints of foreground contamination in the form of a locally strong, anomalous kurtosis excess in

  20. STAR FORMATION IN MASSIVE CLUSTERS VIA THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE AND THE SPITZER GLIMPSE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Norman; Rahman, Mubdi E-mail: rahman@astro.utoronto.c

    2010-01-20

    We use the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) maximum entropy method foreground emission map combined with previously determined distances to giant H II regions to measure the free-free flux at Earth and the free-free luminosity of the Galaxy. We find a total flux f{sub n}u = 54, 211 Jy and a flux from 88 sources of f{sub n}u = 36, 043 Jy. The bulk of the sources are at least marginally resolved, with mean radii approx60 pc, electron density n{sub e} approx 9 cm{sup -3}, and filling factor PHI{sub H{sub I{sub I}}}approx0.005 (over the Galactic gas disk). The total dust-corrected ionizing photon luminosity is Q = 3.2 x 10{sup 53} +- 5.1 x 10{sup 52} photons s{sup -1}, in good agreement with previous estimates. We use GLIMPSE and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) 8 mum images to show that the bulk of the free-free luminosity is associated with bubbles having radii r approx 5-100 pc, with a mean of approx20 pc. These bubbles are leaky, so that ionizing photons emitted inside the bubble escape and excite free-free emission beyond the bubble walls, producing WMAP sources that are larger than the 8 mum bubbles. We suggest that the WMAP sources are the counterparts of the extended low density H II regions described by Mezger. The 18 most luminous WMAP sources emit half the total Galactic ionizing flux. These 18 sources have 4 x 10{sup 51} s{sup -1} approx< Q approx< 1.6 x 10{sup 52} s{sup -1}, corresponding to 6 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} approx< M{sub *} approx< 2 x 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}; half to two thirds of this will be in the central massive star cluster. We convert the measurement of Q to a Galactic star formation rate (SFR) M-dot{sub *}=1.3+-0.2 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, where the errors reflect only the error in free-free luminosity. We point out, however, that our inferred M-dot{sub *} is highly dependent on the exponent GAMMA approx 1.35 of the high-mass end of the stellar initial mass function. For 1.21 < GAMMA < 1.5, we find 0.9 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} < M

  1. Efficient degassing of dissolved oxygen in aqueous media by microwave irradiation and the effect of microwaves on a reaction catalyzed by Wilkinson's catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Shohei; Sakamoto, Shintaro; Serpone, Nick

    2014-04-01

    To the extent that some reactions are oxygen-sensitive, we herein examined the degassing of dissolved oxygen in water and in 2-propanol solvent by microwave heating with regard to the effects of the microwave frequency (2.45 GHz versus 915 MHz), and with regard to when samples are subjected to electric-field-rich and magnetic-field rich 2.45-GHz microwaves. Changes in the quantity of dissolved oxygen were ascertained by monitoring its concentration in such solvents when exposed to microwave and conventional heating using a polarographic technique and by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. The specific microwave (non-thermal) effect played a role in the degassing process on comparing results between microwave heating and conventional heating under identical temperature conditions. The 915-MHz microwaves were more effective, at least at 60 °C, owing to their greater penetration into the solutions. No significant differences were found when degassing was carried out on exposing the water sample to 2.45-GHz microwaves with the sample located within the waveguide at positions rich in either the electric field or the magnetic field (T=80 °C). Conversion of cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol via hydrogen transfer in the presence of Wilkinson's catalyst and 2-propanol solvent (hydrogen source) was also investigated to assess the effect(s) that microwaves might have on this oxygen-sensitive reaction with respect to product yields in contrast to conventional heating by the oil-bath method.

  2. CROSS-POWER SPECTRUM AND ITS APPLICATION ON WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2011-09-10

    The cross-power spectrum is a quadratic estimator between two maps that can provide unbiased estimate of the underlying power spectrum of the correlated signals, which is therefore used for extracting the power spectrum in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. In this paper, we discuss the limit of the cross-power spectrum and derive the residual from the uncorrelated signal, which is the source of error in power spectrum extraction. We employ the estimator to extract window functions by crossing pairs of extragalactic point sources. We demonstrate its usefulness in WMAP difference assembly maps where the window functions are measured via Jupiter and then extract the window functions of the five WMAP frequency band maps.

  3. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ACDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): OMEGA(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.02267(sup +0.00058)(sub -0.00059), OMEGA(sub c)h(sup 2) = 0.1131 plus or minus 0.0034, OMEGA(sub logical and) = 0.726 plus or minus 0.015, ns = .960 plus or minus 0.013, tau = 0.84 plus or minus 0.016, and DELTA(sup 2)(sub R) = (22.445 plus or minus 0.096) x 10(exp -9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(exp -1). From these we derive sigma(sub 8) = 0.812 plus or minus 0.026, H(sub 0) = 70.5 plus or minus 1.3 kilometers per second Mpc(exp -1), OMEGA(sub b) = 0.0456 plus or minus 0.0015, OMEGA(sub c) = .228 plus or minus

  4. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ACDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): OMEGA(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.02267(sup +0.00058)(sub -0.00059), OMEGA(sub c)h(sup 2) = 0.1131 plus or minus 0.0034, OMEGA(sub logical and) = 0.726 plus or minus 0.015, ns = .960 plus or minus 0.013, tau = 0.84 plus or minus 0.016, and DELTA(sup 2)(sub R) = (22.445 plus or minus 0.096) x 10(exp -9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(exp -1). From these we derive sigma(sub 8) = 0.812 plus or minus 0.026, H(sub 0) = 70.5 plus or minus 1.3 kilometers per second Mpc(exp -1), OMEGA(sub b) = 0.0456 plus or minus 0.0015, OMEGA(sub c) = .228 plus or minus

  5. Possible evidence for dark matter annihilations from the excess microwave emission around the center of the Galaxy seen by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Dobler, Gregory

    2007-10-15

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) experiment has revealed an excess of microwave emission from the region around the center of our Galaxy. It has been suggested that this signal, known as the 'WMAP haze', could be synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons and positrons generated in dark matter annihilations. In this article, we revisit this possibility. We find that the angular distribution of the WMAP haze matches the prediction for dark matter annihilations with a cusped density profile, {rho}(r){proportional_to}r{sup -1.2} in the inner kiloparsecs. Comparing the intensity in different WMAP frequency bands, we find that a wide range of possible weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation modes are consistent with the spectrum of the haze for a WIMP with a mass in the 100 GeV to multi-TeV range. Most interestingly, we find that to generate the observed intensity of the haze, the dark matter annihilation cross section is required to be approximately equal to the value needed for a thermal relic, {sigma}v{approx}3x10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}/s. No boost factors are required. If dark matter annihilations are in fact responsible for the WMAP haze, and the slope of the halo profile continues into the inner Galaxy, GLAST is expected to detect gamma rays from the dark matter annihilations in the galactic center if the WIMP mass is less than several hundred GeV.

  6. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Observations: Preliminary Maps and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present full sky microwave maps in five frequency bands (23 to 94 GHz) from the WMAP first year sky survey. Calibration errors are less than 0.5% and the low systematic error level is well specified. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is separated from the foregrounds using multifrequency data. The sky maps are consistent with the 7 in. full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) maps. We report more precise, but consistent, dipole and quadrupole values. The CMB anisotropy obeys Gaussian statistics with -58 less than f(sub NL) less than 134 (95% CL). The 2 less than or = l less than or = 900 anisotropy power spectrum is cosmic variance limited for l less than 354 with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 1 per mode to l = 658. The temperature-polarization cross-power spectrum reveals both acoustic features and a large angle correlation from reionization. The optical depth of reionization is tau = 0.17 +/- 0.04, which implies a reionization epoch of t(sub r) = 180(sup +220, sub -80) Myr (95% CL) after the Big Bang at a redshift of z(sub r) = 20(sup +10, sub -9) (95% CL) for a range of ionization scenarios. This early reionization is incompatible with the presence of a significant warm dark matter density. A best-fit cosmological model to the CMB and other measures of large scale structure works remarkably well with only a few parameters. The age of the best-fit universe is t(sub 0) = 13.7 +/- 0.2 Gyr old. Decoupling was t(sub dec) = 379(sup +8, sub -7)kyr after the Big Bang at a redshift of z(sub dec) = 1089 +/- 1. The thickness of the decoupling surface was Delta(sub z(sub dec)) = 195 +/- 2. The matter density of the universe is Omega(sub m)h(sup 2) = 0.135(sup +0.008, sub -0.009) the baryon density is Omega(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.0224 +/- 0.0009, and the total mass-energy of the universe is Omega(sub tot) = 1.02 +/- 0.02. There is progressively less fluctuation power on smaller scales, from WMAP to fine scale CMB measurements to galaxies

  7. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: PLANETS AND CELESTIAL CALIBRATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Greason, M. R.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1{sigma} of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% {+-} 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 {mu}m, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within {approx}2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at {approx}30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a

  8. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Galactic Foreground Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, B.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Kogut, A.; Bennett, C. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Chen, X.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    We present updated estimates of Galactic foreground emission using seven years of WMAP data. Using the power spectrum of differences between multi-frequency template-cleaned maps, we find no evidence for foreground contamination outside of the updated (KQ85y7) foreground mask. We place a 15 μK upper bound on rms foreground contamination in the cleaned maps used for cosmological analysis. Further, the cleaning process requires only three power-law foregrounds outside of the mask. We find no evidence for polarized foregrounds beyond those from soft (steep-spectrum) synchrotron and thermal dust emission; in particular we find no indication in the polarization data of an extra "haze" of hard synchrotron emission from energetic electrons near the Galactic center. We provide an updated map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the internal linear combination method, updated foreground masks, and updates to point source catalogs using two different techniques. With additional years of data, we now detect 471 point sources using a five-band technique and 417 sources using a three-band CMB-free technique. In total there are 62 newly detected point sources, a 12% increase over the five-year release. Also new are tests of the Markov chain Monte Carlo foreground fitting procedure against systematics in the time-stream data, and tests against the observed beam asymmetry. Within a few degrees of the Galactic plane, the behavior in total intensity of low-frequency foregrounds is complicated and not completely understood. WMAP data show a rapidly steepening spectrum from 20 to 40 GHz, which may be due to emission from spinning dust grains, steepening synchrotron, or other effects. Comparisons are made to a 1 deg 408 MHz map (Haslam et al.) and the 11 deg ARCADE 2 data (Singal et al.). We find that spinning dust or steepening synchrotron models fit the combination of WMAP and 408 MHz data equally well. ARCADE data appear inconsistent with the steepening synchrotron model

  9. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: SKY MAPS, SYSTEMATIC ERRORS, AND BASIC RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Greason, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.

    2011-02-01

    New full-sky temperature and polarization maps based on seven years of data from WMAP are presented. The new results are consistent with previous results, but have improved due to reduced noise from the additional integration time, improved knowledge of the instrument performance, and improved data analysis procedures. The improvements are described in detail. The seven-year data set is well fit by a minimal six-parameter flat {Lambda}CDM model. The parameters for this model, using the WMAP data in conjunction with baryon acoustic oscillation data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and priors on H{sub 0} from Hubble Space Telescope observations, are {Omega}{sub b} h {sup 2} = 0.02260 {+-} 0.00053, {Omega}{sub c} h {sup 2} = 0.1123 {+-} 0.0035, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.728{sup +0.015}{sub -0.016}, n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, {tau} = 0.087 {+-} 0.014, and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.809 {+-} 0.024 (68% CL uncertainties). The temperature power spectrum signal-to-noise ratio per multipole is greater that unity for multipoles l {approx}< 919, allowing a robust measurement of the third acoustic peak. This measurement results in improved constraints on the matter density, {Omega}{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.1334{sup +0.0056}{sub -0.0055}, and the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z{sub eq} = 3196{sup +134}{sub -133}, using WMAP data alone. The new WMAP data, when combined with smaller angular scale microwave background anisotropy data, result in a 3{sigma} detection of the abundance of primordial helium, Y{sub He} = 0.326 {+-} 0.075. When combined with additional external data sets, the WMAP data also yield better determinations of the total mass of neutrinos, {Sigma}M{sub {nu}} {<=} 0.58 eV(95%CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, N{sub eff} = 4.34{sup +0.86}{sub -0.88}. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is now determined to be n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, excluding the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum by >3{sigma}. These new WMAP measurements

  10. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Sky Maps, Systematic Errors, and Basic Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosik, N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Komatsu, E.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    New full-sky temperature and polarization maps based on seven years of data from WMAP are presented. The new results are consistent with previous results, but have improved due to reduced noise from the additional integration time, improved knowledge of the instrument performance, and improved data analysis procedures. The improvements are described in detail. The seven-year data set is well fit by a minimal six-parameter flat ΛCDM model. The parameters for this model, using the WMAP data in conjunction with baryon acoustic oscillation data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and priors on H 0 from Hubble Space Telescope observations, are Ω b h 2 = 0.02260 ± 0.00053, Ω c h 2 = 0.1123 ± 0.0035, ΩΛ = 0.728+0.015 -0.016, ns = 0.963 ± 0.012, τ = 0.087 ± 0.014, and σ8 = 0.809 ± 0.024 (68% CL uncertainties). The temperature power spectrum signal-to-noise ratio per multipole is greater that unity for multipoles ell <~ 919, allowing a robust measurement of the third acoustic peak. This measurement results in improved constraints on the matter density, Ω m h 2 = 0.1334+0.0056 -0.0055, and the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z eq = 3196+134 -133, using WMAP data alone. The new WMAP data, when combined with smaller angular scale microwave background anisotropy data, result in a 3σ detection of the abundance of primordial helium, Y He = 0.326 ± 0.075. When combined with additional external data sets, the WMAP data also yield better determinations of the total mass of neutrinos, ∑m ν <= 0.58 eV(95%CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, N eff = 4.34+0.86 -0.88. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is now determined to be ns = 0.963 ± 0.012, excluding the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum by >3σ. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science

  11. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Planets and Celestial Calibration Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Komatsu, E.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1σ of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% ± 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 μm, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within ~2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at ~30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a few percent for Tau A

  12. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Power Spectra and WMAP-derived Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    by a factor of 1.5 relative to the five-year volume, while the ΛCDM model that allows for tensor modes and a running scalar spectral index has a factor of three lower volume when fit to the seven-year data. We test the parameter recovery process for bias and find that the scalar spectral index, ns , is biased high, but only by 0.09σ, while the remaining parameters are biased by <0.15σ. The improvement in the third peak measurement leads to tighter lower limits from WMAP on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom (e.g., neutrinos) in the early universe: N eff>2.7(95%CL). Also, using WMAP data alone, the primordial helium mass fraction is found to be Y He = 0.28+0.14 -0.15, and with data from higher-resolution cosmic microwave background experiments included, we now establish the existence of pre-stellar helium at >3σ. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  13. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: POWER SPECTRA AND WMAP-DERIVED PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Dunkley, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.

    2011-02-01

    1170 degrees of freedom, with a probability to exceed of 9.6%. The allowable volume in the six-dimensional space of {Lambda}CDM parameters has been reduced by a factor of 1.5 relative to the five-year volume, while the {Lambda}CDM model that allows for tensor modes and a running scalar spectral index has a factor of three lower volume when fit to the seven-year data. We test the parameter recovery process for bias and find that the scalar spectral index, n{sub s} , is biased high, but only by 0.09{sigma}, while the remaining parameters are biased by <0.15{sigma}. The improvement in the third peak measurement leads to tighter lower limits from WMAP on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom (e.g., neutrinos) in the early universe: N{sub eff}>2.7(95%CL). Also, using WMAP data alone, the primordial helium mass fraction is found to be Y{sub He} = 0.28{sup +0.14}{sub -0.15}, and with data from higher-resolution cosmic microwave background experiments included, we now establish the existence of pre-stellar helium at >3{sigma}. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology.

  14. MICROWAVE EMISSION FROM THE EDGEWORTH-KUIPER BELT AND THE ASTEROID BELT CONSTRAINED FROM THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Fukugita, Masataka

    2011-08-01

    Objects in the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt and the main asteroid belt should emit microwaves that may give rise to extra anisotropy signals in the multipole of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment. Constraints are derived from the absence of positive detection of such anisotropies for l {approx}< 50, meaning the total mass of Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt objects is smaller than 0.2 M{sub +}. This limit is consistent with the mass extrapolated from the observable population with the size of a {approx}> 15 km, assuming that the small-object population follows the power law in size dN/da {approx} a{sup -q} with the canonical index expected for collisional equilibrium, q {approx_equal} 3.5, with which 23% of the mass is ascribed to objects smaller than are observationally accessible down to grains. A similar argument applied to the main asteroid belt indicates that the grain population should not increase more quickly than q {approx_equal} 3.6 toward smaller radii, if the grain population follows the power law that continues to observed asteroids with larger radii. Both cases are at or only slightly above the limit that can be physically significant, implying the importance of further tightening the CMB anisotropy limit, which may be attained with observation at higher radio frequencies.

  15. Stable indications of relic gravitational waves in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and forecasts for the Planck mission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-10-15

    The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. D 79, 023002 (2009)] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles l. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles l and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various 'optimistic', 'pessimistic', and 'dream case' scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.

  16. Stable indications of relic gravitational waves in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and forecasts for the Planck mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-10-01

    The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 023002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.023002] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles ℓ. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles ℓ and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various “optimistic,” “pessimistic,” and “dream case” scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.

  17. Detection of New Point Sources in WMAP 7 Year Data Using Internal Templates and Needlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodeller, Sandro; Hansen, Frode K.; Marinucci, Domenico

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a new needlet-based method to detect point sources in cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps and have applied it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7 year data. We use both the individual frequency channels as well as internal templates, the latter being the difference between pairs of frequency channels and hence having the advantage that the CMB component is eliminated. Using the area of the sky outside the Kq85 galactic mask, we detect a total of 2102 point sources at the 5σ level in either the frequency maps or the internal templates. Of these, 1116 are detected either at 5σ directly in the frequency channels or at 5σ in the internal templates and >=3σ at the corresponding position in the frequency channels. Of the 1116 sources, 603 are detections that have not been reported so far in WMAP data. We have made a catalog of these sources available with position and flux estimated in the WMAP channels where they are seen. In total, we identified 1029 of the 1116 sources with counterparts at 5 GHz and 69 at other frequencies.

  18. DETECTION OF NEW POINT SOURCES IN WMAP 7 YEAR DATA USING INTERNAL TEMPLATES AND NEEDLETS

    SciTech Connect

    Scodeller, Sandro; Hansen, Frode K.; Marinucci, Domenico E-mail: frodekh@astro.uio.no

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a new needlet-based method to detect point sources in cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps and have applied it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7 year data. We use both the individual frequency channels as well as internal templates, the latter being the difference between pairs of frequency channels and hence having the advantage that the CMB component is eliminated. Using the area of the sky outside the Kq85 galactic mask, we detect a total of 2102 point sources at the 5{sigma} level in either the frequency maps or the internal templates. Of these, 1116 are detected either at 5{sigma} directly in the frequency channels or at 5{sigma} in the internal templates and {>=}3{sigma} at the corresponding position in the frequency channels. Of the 1116 sources, 603 are detections that have not been reported so far in WMAP data. We have made a catalog of these sources available with position and flux estimated in the WMAP channels where they are seen. In total, we identified 1029 of the 1116 sources with counterparts at 5 GHz and 69 at other frequencies.

  19. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Source Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E.L.; Chen, X.; Odegard, N.; Bennett, C.L.; Hill, R.S.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M.R.; Page, L.; hide

    2008-01-01

    We present the list of point sources found in the WMAP 5-year maps. The technique used in the first-year and three-year analysis now finds 390 point sources, and the five-year source catalog is complete for regions of the sky away from the galactic plane to a 2 Jy limit, with SNR greater than 4.7 in all bands in the least covered parts of the sky. The noise at high frequencies is still mainly radiometer noise, but at low frequencies the CMB anisotropy is the largest uncertainty. A separate search of CMB-free V-W maps finds 99 sources of which all but one can be identified with known radio sources. The sources seen by WMAP are not strongly polarized. Many of the WMAP sources show significant variability from year to year, with more than a 2:l range between the minimum and maximum fluxes.

  20. GaAs monolithic Lange and Wilkinson couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterman, R. C., Jr.; Fabian, W.; Pucel, R. A.; Tajima, Y.; Vorhaus, J. L.

    1981-02-01

    A monolithic GaAs X-band three-port Wilkinson coupler and a monolithic GaAs X-band four-port interdigitated Lange coupler are examined with reference to their design, fabrication technology, and experimental performance data. It is shown that fabrication of these couplers is compatible with present MMIC technologies. Measured loss minus fixture contributions is 0.25 dB and 0.75 dB for the Wilkinson and the Lange couplers, respectively.

  1. On Strategic Management: A Conversation with George Wilkinson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ron

    1991-01-01

    George Wilkinson, who has managed planning for United Way of America since 1980, observes that local planners using strategic planning raise more money and solve more community problems than those without such a process. Marketing is identical to strategic planning; both involve looking at an organization, doing and analysis, examining the future,…

  2. A search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year WMAP temperature maps using a fast convolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewicz, P.; Wandelt, B. D.; Banday, A. J.

    2013-02-01

    We present a method for the computation of the variance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps on azimuthally symmetric patches using a fast convolution approach. As an example of the application of the method, we show results for the search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We re-analyse claims concerning the unusual variance profile of rings centred at two locations on the sky that have recently drawn special attention in the context of the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario proposed by Penrose. We extend this analysis to rings with larger radii and centred on other points of the sky. Using the fast convolution technique enables us to perform this search with higher resolution and a wider range of radii than in previous studies. We show that for one of the two special points rings with radii larger than 10° have systematically lower variance in comparison to the concordance Λ cold dark matter model predictions. However, we show that this deviation is caused by the multipoles up to order ℓ = 7. Therefore, the deficit of power for concentric rings with larger radii is yet another manifestation of the well-known anomalous CMB distribution on large angular scales. Furthermore, low-variance rings can be easily found centred on other points in the sky. In addition, we show also the results of a search for extremely high-variance rings. As for the low-variance rings, some anomalies seem to be related to the anomalous distribution of the low-order multipoles of the WMAP CMB maps. As such our results are not consistent with the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario.

  3. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.

    2009-12-20

    The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 +- 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 +- 0.00057 K.

  4. Oslo model, hyperuniformity, and the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassberger, Peter; Dhar, Deepak; Mohanty, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    We present simulations of the one-dimensional Oslo rice pile model in which the critical height at each site is randomly reset after each toppling. We use the fact that the stationary state of this sand-pile model is hyperuniform to reach system of sizes >107 . Most previous simulations were seriously flawed by important finite-size corrections. We find that all critical exponents have values consistent with simple rationals: ν =4/3 for the correlation length exponent, D =9/4 for the fractal dimension of avalanche clusters, and z =10/7 for the dynamical exponent. In addition, we relate the hyperuniformity exponent to the correlation length exponent ν . Finally, we discuss the relationship with the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model, where we find in particular that the local roughness exponent is αloc=1 .

  5. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND CONSTRAINTS OF DECAYING DARK MATTER PARTICLE PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, S.; Chan, M. H.; Chu, M.-C.

    2012-08-20

    If a component of cosmological dark matter is made up of massive particles-such as sterile neutrinos-that decay with cosmological lifetime to emit photons, the reionization history of the universe would be affected, and cosmic microwave background anisotropies can be used to constrain such a decaying particle model of dark matter. The optical depth depends rather sensitively on the decaying dark matter particle mass m{sub dm}, lifetime {tau}{sub dm}, and the mass fraction of cold dark matter f that they account for in this model. Assuming that there are no other sources of reionization and using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year data, we find that 250 eV {approx}< m{sub dm} {approx}< 1 MeV, whereas 2.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr {approx}< {tau}{sub dm}/f {approx}< 1.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} yr. The best-fit values for m{sub dm} and {tau}{sub dm}/f are 17.3 keV and 2.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} yr, respectively.

  6. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers.

    PubMed

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E; Fox, Anna E; Dresselhaus, Paul D; Schwall, Robert E; Benz, Samuel P

    2016-09-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors.

  7. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    PubMed Central

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  8. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP1) Observations: Galactic Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, B.; Bennett, C.L.; Larson, D.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, N.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Meyer, S.S.; Nolta, M.R.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new estimate of foreground emission in the WMAP data, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The new technique delivers maps of each foreground component for a variety of foreground models, error estimates of the uncertainty of each foreground component, and provides an overall goodness-of-fit measurement. The resulting foreground maps are in broad agreement with those from previous techniques used both within the collaboration and by other authors. We find that for WMAP data, a simple model with power-law synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust components fits 90% of the sky with a reduced X(sup 2) (sub v) of 1.14. However, the model does not work well inside the Galactic plane. The addition of either synchrotron steepening or a modified spinning dust model improves the fit. This component may account for up to 14% of the total flux at Ka-band (33 GHz). We find no evidence for foreground contamination of the CMB temperature map in the 85% of the sky used for cosmological analysis.

  9. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Observations: Beam Maps and Window Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R.S.; Weiland, J.L.; Odegard, N.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, D.N.; Limon, M.; Nolta, M.R.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmology and other scientific results from the WMAP mission require an accurate knowledge of the beam patterns in flight. While the degree of beam knowledge for the WMAP one-year and three-year results was unprecedented for a CMB experiment, we have significantly improved the beam determination as part of the five-year data release. Physical optics fits are done on both the A and the B sides for the first time. The cutoff scale of the fitted distortions on the primary mirror is reduced by a factor of approximately 2 from previous analyses. These changes enable an improvement in the hybridization of Jupiter data with beam models, which is optimized with respect to error in the main beam solid angle. An increase in main-beam solid angle of approximately 1% is found for the V2 and W1-W4 differencing assemblies. Although the five-year results are statistically consistent with previous ones, the errors in the five-year beam transfer functions are reduced by a factor of approximately 2 as compared to the three-year analysis. We present radiometry of the planet Jupiter as a test of the beam consistency and as a calibration standard; for an individual differencing assembly. errors in the measured disk temperature are approximately 0.5%.

  10. [Design of broadband power divider in microwave hyperthermia system].

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Jiang, Guotai; Lu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yi

    2010-10-01

    In clinical application of microwave hyperthermia, multi-applicators are often simultaneously required to irradiate the tumor because of its large volume or its deep location. Power divider separates the input microwave energy into equal, or unequal, energy to each applicator. In this paper, the design procedure for the three-section transmission-line transformer based one-to-two equal-split Wilkinson power divider is introduced. By impedance analysis on equivalent scheme, the design parameter of power divider is provided, and by simulation and optimization on Ansoft HFSS, a microstrip structure Wilkinson power divider operating frequency 2. 45 GHz is given. Measurement test results from network analyzer show that it has 25% bandwidth and good isolation in output with this structure. Besides, it is characterized by small size and easy processing. This power divider suits microwave hyperthermia.

  11. Global variations in health: evaluating Wilkinson's income inequality hypothesis using the World Values Survey.

    PubMed

    Jen, Min Hua; Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron

    2009-02-01

    This international comparative study analyses individual-level data derived from the World Values Survey to evaluate Wilkinson's [(1996). Unhealthy societies: The afflictions of inequality. London: Routledge; (1998). Mortality and distribution of income. Low relative income affects mortality [letter; comment]. British Medical Journal, 316, 1611-1612] income inequality hypothesis regarding variations in health status. Random-coefficient, multilevel modelling provides a direct test of Wilkinson's hypothesis using micro-data on individuals and macro-data on income inequalities analysed simultaneously. This overcomes the ecological fallacy that has troubled previous research into links between individual self-rated health, individual income, country income and income inequality data. Logic regression analysis reveals that there are substantial differences between countries in self-rated health after taking account of age and gender, and individual income has a clear effect in that poorer people report experiencing worse health. The Wilkinson hypothesis is not supported, however, since there is no significant relationship between health and income inequality when individual factors are taken into account. Substantial differences between countries remain even after taking account of micro- and macro-variables; in particular the former communist countries report high levels of poor health.

  12. Wilkinson Type Lumped Element Combiner-Splitter for Indigenous Amplifier Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Manoj; Jha, Akhil; Harikrishna, JVS; Trivedi, Rajesh; Mukherjee, Aparajita

    2017-04-01

    Development of wideband solid state power amplifier in ITER [1] ICH&CD frequency range is ongoing. A 12 kW/CW Solid State Power Amplifire (SSPA) is being developed in house. 1 × 16 wideband splitter/combiner will be used at input/output side. Study has been carried out on two options i.e. coaxial type & lumped element based Wilkinson splitter/combiner. Tentative power level of both input N-Type ports of combiner is ∼ 1 kW. Design and simulation for coaxial type Wilkinson combiner is done. Quarter wave length for centre frequency is ∼ 1500 mm. To reduce mechanical dimension of combiner, PTFE dielectric is used with sophisticated arrangement. Coaxial combiner required unique fabrication process. Alternate option is proposed as a lumped element based Wilkinson combiner with reduced size, cost & development time. Design and simulation was carried out. Required PCB design & fabrication was done accordingly. Same design will be implemented for splitter as well. Design scheme for the splitter/combiner will be finalized depending on the achieved performance of both the designs. In this paper, detailed design, simulation and test results are presented for both types of combiners. A detailed comparison of combiners is provided.

  13. Mars Global Surveyor: 7 Years in Orbit!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 September 2004 Today, 12 September 2004, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) team celebrates 7 Earth years orbiting Mars. MGS first reached the red planet and performed its critical orbit insertion burn on 12 September 1997. Over the past 7 years, MOC has returned over 170,000 images; its narrow angle camera has covered about 4.5% of the surface, and its wide angle cameras have viewed 100% of the planet nearly everyday.

    At this time, MOC is not acquiring data because Mars is on the other side of the Sun relative to Earth. This period, known as Solar Conjunction, occurs about once every 26 months. During Solar Conjunction, no radio communications from spacecraft that are orbiting or have landed on Mars can be received. MOC was turned off on 7 September and is expected to resume operations on 25 September 2004, when Mars re-emerges from behind the Sun.

    The rotating color image of Mars shown here was compiled from MOC red and blue wide angle daily global images acquired exactly 1 Mars year ago on 26 October 2002 (Ls 86.4o). In other words, Mars today (12 September 2004) should look about the same as the view provided here. Presently, Mars is in very late northern spring, and the north polar cap has retreated almost to its summer configuration. Water ice clouds form each afternoon at this time of year over the large volcanoes in the Tharsis and Elysium regions. A discontinuous belt of clouds forms over the martian equator; it is most prominent north of the Valles Marineris trough system. In the southern hemisphere, it is late autumn and the giant Hellas Basin floor is nearly white with seasonal frost cover. The south polar cap is not visible, it is enveloped in seasonal darkness. The northern summer and southern winter seasons will begin on 20 September 2004.

  14. Correlation between galactic HI and the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Land, Kate; Slosar, Anze

    2007-10-15

    We revisit the issue of a correlation between the atomic hydrogen gas in our local galaxy and the cosmic microwave background, a detection of which has been claimed in some literature. We cross correlate the 21-cm emission of galactic atomic hydrogen as traced by the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn Galactic Hi survey with the 3-year cosmic microwave background data from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe. We consider a number of angular scales, masks, and Hi velocity slices and find no statistically significant correlation.

  15. Correlation between galactic HI and the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Kate; Slosar, Anže

    2007-10-01

    We revisit the issue of a correlation between the atomic hydrogen gas in our local galaxy and the cosmic microwave background, a detection of which has been claimed in some literature. We cross correlate the 21-cm emission of galactic atomic hydrogen as traced by the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn Galactic Hi survey with the 3-year cosmic microwave background data from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe. We consider a number of angular scales, masks, and Hi velocity slices and find no statistically significant correlation.

  16. ANALYSIS OF WMAP 7 YEAR TEMPERATURE DATA: ASTROPHYSICS OF THE GALACTIC HAZE

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrobon, Davide; Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Bartlett, James; Colombo, Loris P. L.; Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Pagano, Luca; Rocha, Graca; Lawrence, Charles R.; Banday, A. J.; Dobler, Gregory; Hildebrandt, Sergi R.; Eriksen, Hans Kristian; Saha, Rajib

    2012-08-10

    We perform a joint analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and Galactic emission from the WMAP 7 year temperature data. Using the Commander code, based on Gibbs sampling, we simultaneously derive the CMB and Galactic components on scales larger than 1 Degree-Sign with improved sensitivity over previous work. We conduct a detailed study of the low-frequency Galactic foreground, focusing on the 'microwave haze' emission around the Galactic center. We demonstrate improved performance in quantifying the diffuse Galactic emission when including Haslam 408 MHz data and when jointly modeling the spinning and thermal dust emission. We examine whether the hypothetical Galactic haze can be explained by a spatial variation of the synchrotron spectral index, and find that the excess of emission around the Galactic center is stable with respect to variations of the foreground model. Our results demonstrate that the new Galactic foreground component-the microwave haze-is indeed present.

  17. Stability of Wilkinson's linear model of prism adaptation over time for various targets.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1977-01-01

    Prism adaptation as measured by negative aftereffects (NA), proprioceptive shifts (PS), and visual shifts (VS) was assessed as a function of amount of exposure time and target specificity, whether an exposure and a test target background were the same or different, to determine the validity of Wilkinson's linear model (NA = PS + VS). With few exceptions the model was found to hold well up to 40 min of prism viewing regardless of type of exposure background. In addition target specificity affected magnitude of the NA component of adapation but not the PS and the VS components.

  18. Zonal modes of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Jo; Coles, Peter

    2010-02-01

    All-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations are usually represented by a spherical harmonic decomposition, involving modes labelled by their degree l and order m (where -l <= m <= +l). The zonal modes (i.e. those with m = 0) are of particular interest because they vary only with galactic latitude; any anomalous behaviour in them might therefore be an indication of erroneous foreground substraction. We perform a simple statistical analysis of the modes with low l for sky maps derived via different cleaning procedures from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and show that the zonal modes provide a useful diagnostic of possible systematics.

  19. A Comparison of Equity Outcomes in Kentucky: Council for Better Education v. Wilkinson Plaintiff & Non-Plaintiff School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselton, W. Blake; Wells, William

    This report compares plaintiff and nonplaintiff school districts in "Council for Better Education v. Wilkinson" and "Rose v. Council for Better Education" as regards the equity and adequacy outcomes resulting from rulings of the Kentucky Supreme Court and subsequent implementation of the Kentucky Reform Act (KERA) of 1990.…

  20. Case Study: Orangeburg-Wilkinson High School [and] Orangeburg Consolidated Five Technology Center, Orangeburg, S.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When the new superintendent of Orangeburg School District Five was appointed in 1992, he found that Orangeburg-Wilkinson High School graduates did not have the skills to enter the workplace and postsecondary institutions that require high-level academic skills. He identified these three things that Orangeburg would need to do to improve academic…

  1. New detection method for hydrogen gas for screening hydrogen-producing microorganisms using water-soluble wilkinson's catalyst derivative.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Tomohisa; Ooshima, Hiroshi; Azuma, Masayuki; Kato, Jyoji

    2006-09-01

    A water-soluble color indicator was developed for the effective screening of hydrogen-producing microorganisms. This indicator consists of a coloring agent and a water-soluble derivative of Wilkinson's catalyst. Wilkinson's catalyst, Tris(triphenylphosphine) rhodium chloride, had been developed as a catalyst for the hydrogenation of olefins. We used a sulfonate of the catalyst for the hydrogenation of coloring agent in an aqueous medium. Several coloring agents, such as methyl orange, methyl red sodium, neutral red and Evan's blue, dissolved in water together with the sulfonated catalyst showed a change in color when hydrogen gas was fed into the solution by sparging at room temperature. We confirmed that methyl orange was decolorized by biologically produced hydrogen, when the photosynthetic bacterial strain Rhodobacter capsulatus ST-410 was grown in a medium containing 0.6 mM catalyst and 0.075 mM methyl orange in test tubes of 5 ml working volume.

  2. Extraction of Vud from superallowed Fermi β decay by the Wilkinson techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinyer, G. F.; Svensson, C. E.; Brown, B. A.

    2010-10-01

    The up-down element Vud of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark mixing matrix is derived from superallowed Fermi β decays between isospin T = 1 states using the semi-empirical techniques pioneered by D.H. Wilkinson. Rather than relying directly on the absolute magnitude of theoretical nuclear structure calculations to correct each decay for isospin symmetry breaking effects, these methods extrapolate the experimental ft values to the charge independent limit at Z≈0 where isospin-dependent effects are negligible. The value Vud = 0.97430(29) derived in this work agrees with the value Vud = 0.97425(22) obtained from the most recent shell-model calculations of isospin symmetry breaking that have expanded the shell-model spaces by including select core orbitals. These values are not in agreement with previous shell-model calculations in more restrictive model spaces or the values obtained from recent self-consistent relativistic Hartree and Hartree-Fock calculations based on the random-phase approximation that all underestimate the magnitude of isospin symmetry breaking.

  3. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  4. Sebaceous adenitis in a 7-year-old Arabian gelding

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 7-year-old Arabian gelding was presented with a 9-month history of progressive patches of nonpruritic scaling, crusting, alopecia, and leukoderma of the periocular areas and muzzle, becoming generalized over time. Sebaceous adenitis was diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Lesions resolved without treatment, coinciding with regression of a sarcoid on the neck. PMID:16808233

  5. 38 CFR 3.212 - Unexplained absence for 7 years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.212 Unexplained absence for 7 years. (a) If satisfactory evidence is produced establishing the fact of the... or more and that a diligent search disclosed no evidence of his or her existence after the date of...

  6. Cerebral Palsy and Growth Failure at 6 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bonnie E.; McDonald, Scott A.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Pappas, Athina; Hintz, Susan R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between severity of cerebral palsy (CP) and growth to 6 to 7 years of age among children with moderate to severe (Mod/Sev) hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). It was hypothesized that children with Mod/Sev CP would have poorer growth, lower cognitive scores, and increased rehospitalization rates compared with children with no CP (No CP). METHODS: Among 115 of 122 surviving children followed in the hypothermia trial for neonatal HIE, growth parameters and neurodevelopmental status at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years were available. Group comparisons (Mod/Sev CP and No CP) with unadjusted and adjusted analyses for growth <10th percentile and z scores by using Fisher’s exact tests and regression modeling were conducted. RESULTS: Children with Mod/Sev CP had high rates of slow growth and cognitive and motor impairment and rehospitalizations at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years. At 6 to 7 years of age, children with Mod/Sev CP had increased rates of growth parameters <10th percentile compared with those with No CP (weight, 57% vs 3%; height, 70% vs 2%; and head circumference, 82% vs 13%; P < .0001). Increasing severity of slow growth was associated with increasing age (P < .04 for weight, P < .001 for length, and P < .0001 for head circumference). Gastrostomy feeds were associated with better growth. CONCLUSIONS: Term children with HIE who develop Mod/Sev CP have high and increasing rates of growth <10th percentile by 6 to 7 years of age. These findings support the need for close medical and nutrition management of children with HIE who develop CP. PMID:24019415

  7. Cerebral palsy and growth failure at 6 to 7 years.

    PubMed

    Vohr, Betty R; Stephens, Bonnie E; McDonald, Scott A; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Hintz, Susan R; Shankaran, Seetha; Higgins, Rosemary D; Das, Abhik

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the association between severity of cerebral palsy (CP) and growth to 6 to 7 years of age among children with moderate to severe (Mod/Sev) hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). It was hypothesized that children with Mod/Sev CP would have poorer growth, lower cognitive scores, and increased rehospitalization rates compared with children with no CP (No CP). Among 115 of 122 surviving children followed in the hypothermia trial for neonatal HIE, growth parameters and neurodevelopmental status at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years were available. Group comparisons (Mod/Sev CP and No CP) with unadjusted and adjusted analyses for growth <10th percentile and z scores by using Fisher's exact tests and regression modeling were conducted. Children with Mod/Sev CP had high rates of slow growth and cognitive and motor impairment and rehospitalizations at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years. At 6 to 7 years of age, children with Mod/Sev CP had increased rates of growth parameters <10th percentile compared with those with No CP (weight, 57% vs 3%; height, 70% vs 2%; and head circumference, 82% vs 13%; P < .0001). Increasing severity of slow growth was associated with increasing age (P < .04 for weight, P < .001 for length, and P < .0001 for head circumference). Gastrostomy feeds were associated with better growth. Term children with HIE who develop Mod/Sev CP have high and increasing rates of growth <10th percentile by 6 to 7 years of age. These findings support the need for close medical and nutrition management of children with HIE who develop CP.

  8. The influence of surface layer salinity on wintertime convection in Wilkinson Basin, Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Maureen H.; Mountain, David G.

    2009-02-01

    Observations suggest that the interannual variability of wintertime convection in Wilkinson Basin (WB) during 1977-2005 is related to the variation in the surface layer salinity in the western Gulf of Maine (wGOM). When the winter convection is stronger (weaker), the resulting deep-layer temperatures in the wGOM are colder (warmer), and the likelihood of deep winter mixing is greater when the wGOM salinities are high. This hypothesis was tested using a one-dimensional mixed layer model to simulate the water column structure over the cooling period. Comparisons were made between the convection potential for the range of observed late-fall salinity values. Model results indicated that the mixed layer depth could deepen by as much as 50% when the surface layer salinities in the wGOM were high. Sensitivity tests revealed that the surface layer salinity variability, and its influence on the water column density structure, was a significant factor, along with local climate variability, in determining the observed time series trend in springtime bottom layer temperatures. Density distributions in the wGOM in high salinity years suggested that winter-cooled water from the adjacent shallow coastal areas could become sufficiently dense to cascade into the deeper layers of WB and enhanced the convective cooling. The interannual variation in wintertime convection and in the resulting density structure has important implications for biological processes. The associated variation in deeper layer temperatures has been shown to influence the spatial distribution, timing of spawning, and growth rates of many demersal and mid-water fishery populations.

  9. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Standards Industry Guidance Other Resources Description Microwave ovens heat food using microwaves, a form of electromagnetic radiation ... vibration results in friction between molecules, which produces heat that cooks the food. Risks/Benefits Microwaves are ...

  10. First observational tests of eternal inflation: Analysis methods and WMAP 7-year results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Johnson, Matthew C.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2011-08-01

    In the picture of eternal inflation, our observable universe resides inside a single bubble nucleated from an inflating false vacuum. Many of the theories giving rise to eternal inflation predict that we have causal access to collisions with other bubble universes, providing an opportunity to confront these theories with observation. We present the results from the first observational search for the effects of bubble collisions, using cosmic microwave background data from the WMAP satellite. Our search targets a generic set of properties associated with a bubble-collision spacetime, which we describe in detail. We use a modular algorithm that is designed to avoid a posteriori selection effects, automatically picking out the most promising signals, performing a search for causal boundaries, and conducting a full Bayesian parameter estimation and model selection analysis. We outline each component of this algorithm, describing its response to simulated CMB skies with and without bubble collisions. Comparing the results for simulated bubble collisions to the results from an analysis of the WMAP 7-year data, we rule out bubble collisions over a range of parameter space. Our model selection results based on WMAP 7-year data do not warrant augmenting ΛCDM with bubble collisions. Data from the Planck satellite can be used to more definitively test the bubble-collision hypothesis.

  11. Personality predicts cognitive function over 7 years in older persons.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J; Franks, Peter

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether Neuroticism as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination measured every 6 months for 7 years. Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function.

  12. FW: An R Package for Finlay-Wilkinson Regression that Incorporates Genomic/Pedigree Information and Covariance Structures Between Environments.

    PubMed

    Lian, Lian; de Los Campos, Gustavo

    2015-12-29

    The Finlay-Wilkinson regression (FW) is a popular method among plant breeders to describe genotype by environment interaction. The standard implementation is a two-step procedure that uses environment (sample) means as covariates in a within-line ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. This procedure can be suboptimal for at least four reasons: (1) in the first step environmental means are typically estimated without considering genetic-by-environment interactions, (2) in the second step uncertainty about the environmental means is ignored, (3) estimation is performed regarding lines and environment as fixed effects, and (4) the procedure does not incorporate genetic (either pedigree-derived or marker-derived) relationships. Su et al. proposed to address these problems using a Bayesian method that allows simultaneous estimation of environmental and genotype parameters, and allows incorporation of pedigree information. In this article we: (1) extend the model presented by Su et al. to allow integration of genomic information [e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] and covariance between environments, (2) present an R package (FW) that implements these methods, and (3) illustrate the use of the package using examples based on real data. The FW R package implements both the two-step OLS method and a full Bayesian approach for Finlay-Wilkinson regression with a very simple interface. Using a real wheat data set we demonstrate that the prediction accuracy of the Bayesian approach is consistently higher than the one achieved by the two-step OLS method. Copyright © 2016 Lian and Campos.

  13. 7 years of MAXI: monitoring X-ray transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serino, M.; Shidatsu, M.; Iwakiri, W.; Mihara, T.

    2017-03-01

    This workshop was held to celebrate the successful 7 years of observation with Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), a Japanese astrophysics payload on the International Space Station. Since the launch in 2009, MAXI has been monitoring the variable X-ray sky, and has discovered 17 new X-ray sources. Often with a help of multi-wavelength follow-up observations, one of them has been identified with the nuclear ignition of a massive nova, 6 with black-hole binaries, and 5 with those involving neutron stars. Nevertheless, 4 of them remain unidentified, and are considered to form a potentially new class of short soft transients. MAXI is also leading the time-domain astronomy, with its capability to issue alerts which triggers prompt follow-up observations in the optical and other wavelengths. So far, MAXI has detected about a hundred gamma-ray bursts, and performing unbiased watch for stellar flares. In addition, long-term X-ray variations of about a hundred of sources are continuously tracked with MAXI. This has enabled a variety of new astrophysics that cannot be achieved by snapshot observations. The recent detections of the gravitation wave events have significantly increased the importance of MAXI as a currently operating all-sky monitor, and as a member of multi-messenger astronomy which covers electromagnetic waves, neutrinos, and gravitational waves. In this symposium, the MAXI results obtained during the 7 years are reviewed, with a session assigned to those from Hitomi. The symposium also covers new prospects in the time-domain astronomy, to be developed with future X-ray missions/instruments.

  14. Primary headache disorders in children under 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ramdas, S; Prasad, M; Abu-Arafeh, I

    2013-02-01

    Research on headache disorders in young children is limited. This study aims to determine causes and clinical presentations of headache in young children attending a specialist clinic. All children attending the headache clinic over 9-year period were included. Data were collected prospectively on demography and clinical presentations of headache at every attendance. The diagnosis of headache disorders was based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II (2004). Of the 921 children (491 male) who attended the clinic, 73 children (8%) were under 7 years of age at presentation; 34 children had migraine, 11 had tension-type headache (4 chronic), 4 had mixed types of headache and 16 children had unclassified headaches. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, light intolerance and noise intolerance were common during migraine attacks and forehead was the most common site of maximal pain. Migraine is the most common headache disorder in young children attending a specialist clinic. Headache presentation is often atypical and in 20% of young children headache disorders are unclassified. Chronic tension-type headache, often considered a disease of adolescents and adults, is shown to present in early age.

  15. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  16. Evidence for dark energy from the cosmic microwave background alone using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope lensing measurements.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Blake D; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W; Bond, J Richard; Carvalho, C Sofia; Devlin, Mark J; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Visnjic, Katerina; Wollack, Ed

    2011-07-08

    For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Ω(Λ) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters, and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.

  17. Evidence for Dark Energy from the Cosmic Microwave Background Alone Using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Lensing Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwin, Blake D.; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W.; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joesph J.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D.; Wollack, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the "Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Omega(delta) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.

  18. Searching for Faraday rotation in cosmic microwave background polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Granados, B.; Battaner, E.; Florido, E.

    2016-08-01

    We use the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 9th-year foreground reduced data at 33, 41 and 61 GHz to derive a Faraday rotation at map and at angular power spectrum levels taking into account their observational errors. A processing mask provided by WMAP is used to avoid contamination from the disc of our Galaxy and local spurs. We have found a Faraday rotation component at both, map and power spectrum levels. The lack of correlation of the Faraday rotation with Galactic Faraday rotation, synchrotron and dust polarization from our Galaxy or with cosmic microwave background anisotropies or lensing suggests that it could be originated at reionization (ℓ ≲ 12). Even if the detected Faraday rotation signal is weak, the present study could contribute to establish magnetic fields strengths of B0 ˜ 10-8 G at reionization.

  19. Arcminute fluctuations in the microwave background from clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, M.; Blumenthal, G. R.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Suniaev, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    A method for computing arcmin microwave fluctuations produced by Compton scattering of the cosmic background photons by hot electrons in clusters of galaxies is described. Microwave images of the sky for a range of Omega and primordial fluctuation spectral index n are generated which are then 'observed' to determine Delta T/T in precisely the same manner as actual observations to determine if the cluster-induced fluctuations are consistent with the measured upper limit. The geometry used by Uson and Wilkinson (1984) in the NRAO experiment and Readhead et al. (1989) in the OVRO experiment are applied to the simulated images. The 95 percent confidence lower limit for Omega is found to be about 1/10 for n = -1 (which approximates the CDM mass spectrum for clusters), while for n = 0 it is 1/7; for n = +1 the limit is 1/5 if the gas density profile extends to five core radii.

  20. Robust Constraint on Cosmic Textures from the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Johnson, Matthew C.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2012-06-01

    Fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) contain information which has been pivotal in establishing the current cosmological model. These data can also be used to test well-motivated additions to this model, such as cosmic textures. Textures are a type of topological defect that can be produced during a cosmological phase transition in the early Universe, and which leave characteristic hot and cold spots in the CMB. We apply Bayesian methods to carry out a rigorous test of the texture hypothesis, using full-sky data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We conclude that current data do not warrant augmenting the standard cosmological model with textures. We rule out at 95% confidence models that predict more than 6 detectable cosmic textures on the full sky.

  1. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years.

    PubMed

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) proposed the Triple Aim, strategic organizing principles for health care organizations and geographic communities that seek, simultaneously, to improve the individual experience of care and the health of populations and to reduce the per capita costs of care for populations. In 2010, the Triple Aim became part of the US national strategy for tackling health care issues, especially in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Since that time, IHI and others have worked together to determine how the implementation of the Triple Aim has progressed. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on this endeavor: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously "improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations." IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and

  2. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  3. [Acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Experience of 7 years].

    PubMed

    Cejudo Carranza, E; Helguera Martínez, A; García Cáceres, E

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this clinical investigation was to evaluate the frequency, clinical presentation, evolution, and maternal-fetal morbimortality of Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (AFL). Over a period of 7 years from January 1990 to December 1996 the charts of patients with diagnosis of Gestational Acute Fatty Liver released from the Adult Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Luis Castelazo Ayala of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social were examined. The following information was retrieved: presenting symptoms, diagnosis on admission to the hospital and intensive care unit, evolution, laboratory, paraclinical, biopsy and serological findings, complications in mother and child, management and method of terminating pregnancy. Twelve cases of AFL of Pregnancy were detected. The disease was not suspected on hospital admission in the majority of the cases; all sought attention because of an obstetric complication requiring termination of pregnancy such as acute fetal distress or rupture of membranes. The average age of the patients was 25 years with an average gestational age of the fetuses of 36 weeks. Symptoms were presented one to seven days and consisted of jaundice in 100% of the cases, systemic hypertension in 75%, abdominal pain in 67%, nausea and vomiting in 50%, preeclampsia in 41% and consciousness disturbances in 17%. Outstanding laboratory findings included TGO 57 +/- 108 U/L, TGP 53 +/- 114 U/L, hypocholesterolemia 79 +/- 30 mg/dL, total bilirubin 15.6 +/- 7 mg/dL, coagulation times prolonged almost two fold, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia of 41,883 +/- 24,352 mm3, hypoglycemia of 51 +/- 16 mg/dL, and serum creatinine of 2.8 +/- 1.7 mg/dL. Ultrasound was performed in all patients but showed no specific alterations. CT scans on four patients demonstrated positive evidence in. Liver biopsies were performed on seven patients. The principal complications were DIC, hypoglycemia, acidosis, acute kidney failure, encephalopathy, three still births and one maternal

  4. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  5. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  6. The F/Ph rearrangement reaction of [(Ph3P)3RhF], the fluoride congener of Wilkinson's catalyst.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, Stuart A; Roe, D Christopher; Marshall, William J; Bloch, Karen M; Bakhmutov, Vladimir I; Grushin, Vladimir V

    2005-11-02

    The fluoride congener of Wilkinson's catalyst, [(Ph(3)P)(3)RhF] (1), has been synthesized and fully characterized. Unlike Wilkinson's catalyst, 1 easily activates the inert C-Cl bond of ArCl (Ar = Ph, p-tolyl) under mild conditions (3 h at 80 degrees C) to produce trans-[(Ph(3)P)(2)Rh(Ph(2)PF)(Cl)] (2) and ArPh as a result of C-Cl, Rh-F, and P-C bond cleavage and C-C, Rh-Cl, and P-F bond formation. In benzene (2-3 h at 80 degrees C), 1 decomposes to a 1:1 mixture of trans-[(Ph(3)P)(2)Rh(Ph(2)PF)(F)] (3) and the cyclometalated complex [(Ph(3)P)(2)Rh(Ph(2)PC(6)H(4))] (4). Both the chloroarene activation and the thermal decomposition reactions have been shown to occur via the facile and reversible F/Ph rearrangement reaction of 1 to cis-[(Ph(3)P)(2)Rh(Ph)(Ph(2)PF)] (5), which has been isolated and fully characterized. Kinetic studies of the F/Ph rearrangement, an intramolecular process not influenced by extra phosphine, have led to the determination of E(a) = 22.7 +/- 1.2 kcal mol(-)(1), DeltaH(++) = 22.0 +/- 1.2 kcal mol(-)(1), and DeltaS(++) = -10.0 +/- 3.7 eu. Theoretical studies of F/Ph exchange with the [(PH(3))(2)(PH(2)Ph)RhF] model system pointed to two possible mechanisms: (i) Ph transfer to Rh followed by F transfer to P (formally oxidative addition followed by reductive elimination, pathway 1) and (ii) F transfer to produce a metallophosphorane with subsequent Ph transfer to Rh (pathway 2). Although pathway 1 cannot be ruled out completely, the metallophosphorane mechanism finds more support from both our own and previously reported observations. Possible involvement of metallophosphorane intermediates in various P-F, P-O, and P-C bond-forming reactions at a metal center is discussed.

  7. A New Look at the Integrated Radio/Microwave Continuum Spectrum of Galactic Supernova Remnant IC 443

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onić, D.; Urošević, D.; Leahy, D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent observations of the microwave sky, by space telescopes such as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and Planck, have opened a new window into the analysis of continuum emission from supernova remnants (SNRs). In this paper, different emission models that can explain the characteristic shape of currently known integrated radio/microwave continuum spectrum of the Galactic SNR IC 443 are tested and discussed. In particular, the possibility is emphasized that the slight bump in the integrated continuum of this remnant around 20–70 GHz is genuine and that it can be explained by the contribution of an additional emission mechanism such as spinning dust. We find that adding a spinning dust component to the emission model improves the fit of the integrated spectrum of this SNR while at the same time preserving the physically probable parameter values. Finally, models that include the high-frequency synchrotron bending of the IC 443 radio to microwave continuum are favored.

  8. Bayesian Analysis of the Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The sky, when viewed in the microwave, is very uniform, with a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum at 2.7 degrees. Very small amplitude brightness fluctuations (to one part in a million!!) trace small density perturbations in the early universe (roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang), which later grow through gravitational instability to the large-scale structure seen in redshift surveys... In this talk, I will discuss a Bayesian formulation of this problem; discuss a Gibbs sampling approach to numerically sampling from the Bayesian posterior, and the application of this approach to the first-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. I will also comment on recent algorithmic developments for this approach to be tractable for the even more massive data set to be returned from the Planck satellite.

  9. Bayesian Analysis of the Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The sky, when viewed in the microwave, is very uniform, with a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum at 2.7 degrees. Very small amplitude brightness fluctuations (to one part in a million!!) trace small density perturbations in the early universe (roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang), which later grow through gravitational instability to the large-scale structure seen in redshift surveys... In this talk, I will discuss a Bayesian formulation of this problem; discuss a Gibbs sampling approach to numerically sampling from the Bayesian posterior, and the application of this approach to the first-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. I will also comment on recent algorithmic developments for this approach to be tractable for the even more massive data set to be returned from the Planck satellite.

  10. Microwave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1986-12-02

    A detector is described for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations, the detector comprising: a B-dot loop linking the magnetic field of the microwave pulse; a biased ferrite, that produces a magnetization field flux that links the B-dot loop. The ferrite is positioned within the B-dot loop so that the magnetic field of the microwave pulse interacts with the ferrite and thereby participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux; and high-frequency insensitive means for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop.

  11. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  12. Survival and growth of black walnut families after 7 years in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    G. W. Wendel; Donald E. Dorn; Donald E. Dorn

    1985-01-01

    Average survival, 7-year stem diameter, and stem diameter growth differed significantly among 34 black walnut families planted in West Virginia. Average total height, height growth, and diameter at breast height were not significantly different among families. Families were from seed collected in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The 7-year...

  13. Improved dark energy detection through the polarization-assisted cross correlation of the cosmic microwave background with radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guo-Chin; Ng, Kin-Wang; Pen, Ue-Li

    2011-03-15

    Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect can be estimated by cross-correlating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky with tracers of the local matter distribution. At late cosmic time, the dark energy-induced decay of gravitation potential generates a cross correlation signal on large angular scales. The dominant noise is the intrinsic CMB anisotropies from the inflationary epoch. In this paper we use CMB polarization to reduce this intrinsic noise. We cross-correlate the microwave sky observed by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) with the radio source catalog compiled by NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to study the efficiency of the noise suppression. We find that the error bars are reduced by about 4 to 14% and the statistical power in the signal is improved.

  14. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  15. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Peter

    2009-08-01

    With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics

  17. ISOTROPY IN THE TWO-POINT ANGULAR CORRELATION FUNCTION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sophie

    2012-04-01

    We study the directional dependence of the angular two-point correlation function in maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We propose two new statistics: one which measures the correlation of each point in the sky with a ring of points separated an angle {theta} away, and a second one that measures the missing angular correlation above 60 deg as a function of direction. Using these statistics, we find that most of the low power in cut-sky maps measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment comes from unusually low contributions from the directions of the lobes of the quadrupole and the octupole. These findings may aid a future explanation of why the CMB exhibits low power at large angular scales.

  18. Galactic Plane image sharpness as a check on cosmic microwave background mapmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukema, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    The largest uncollapsed inhomogeneity in the observable Universe is statistically represented in the quadrupole signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky maps as observed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The constant temporal offset of -25.6~ms between the timestamps of the spacecraft attitude and observational data records in the time-ordered data (TOD) of the WMAP observations was suspected to imply that previously derived all-sky CMB maps are erroneous, and that the quadrupole is in large part an artefact. The optimal focussing of bright objects in the Galactic Plane plays a key role in showing that no error occurred at the step of mapmaking from the calibrated TOD. Instead, the error had an effect when the uncalibrated TOD were calibrated. Estimates of the high-latitude quadrupole based on the wrongly calibrated WMAP maps are overestimated by about 15--60%.

  19. Searching for CPT violation with cosmic microwave background data from WMAP and BOOMERANG.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bo; Li, Mingzhe; Xia, Jun-Qing; Chen, Xuelei; Zhang, Xinmin

    2006-06-09

    We search for signatures of Lorentz and violations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies by using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the 2003 flight of BOOMERANG (B03) data. We note that if the Lorentz and symmetries are broken by a Chern-Simons term in the effective Lagrangian, which couples the dual electromagnetic field strength tensor to an external four-vector, the polarization vectors of propagating CMB photons will get rotated. Using the WMAP data alone, one could put an interesting constraint on the size of such a term. Combined with the B03 data, we found that a nonzero rotation angle of the photons is mildly favored: [Formula: See Text].

  20. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  1. A Study of Direct Digital Manufactured RF/Microwave Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, John W. I.

    Various facets of direct digital manufactured (DDM) microwave packages are studied. The rippled surface inherent in fused deposition modeling (FDM) fabricated geometries is modeled in Ansoft HFSS, and its effect on the performance of microstrip transmission lines is assessed via simulation and measurement. The thermal response of DDM microstrip transmission lines is analyzed over a range of RF input powers, and linearity is confirmed over that range. Two IC packages are embedded into DDM printed circuit boards, and their performance is analyzed. The first is a low power RF switch, and the second is an RF front end device that includes a low noise amplifier (LNA) and a power amplifier (PA). The RF switch is shown to perform well, as compared to a layout designed for a Rogers 4003C microwave laminate substrate. The LNA performs within datasheet specifications. The power amplifier generates substantial heat, so a thermal management attempt is described. Finally, a capacitively loaded 6dB Wilkinson power divider is designed and fabricated using DDM techniques and materials. Its performance is analyzed and compared to simulation. The device is shown to compare favorably to a similar device fabricated on a Rogers 4003C microwave laminate using traditional printed circuit board techniques.

  2. Phase correlations in cosmic microwave background temperature maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Peter; Dineen, Patrick; Earl, John; Wright, Dean

    2004-05-01

    We study the statistical properties of spherical harmonic modes of temperature maps of the cosmic microwave background. Unlike other studies, which focus mainly on properties of the amplitudes of these modes, we look instead at their phases. In particular, we present a simple measure of phase correlation that can be diagnostic of departures from the standard assumption that primordial density fluctuations constitute a statistically homogeneous and isotropic Gaussian random field, which should possess phases that are uniformly random on the unit circle. The method we discuss checks for the uniformity of the distribution of phase angles using a non-parametric descriptor based on the use of order statistics, which is known as Kuiper's statistic. The particular advantage of the method we present is that, when coupled to the judicious use of Monte Carlo simulations, it can deliver very interesting results from small data samples. In particular, it is useful for studying the properties of spherical harmonics at low l for which there are only a small number of independent values of m and which therefore furnish only a small number of phases for analysis. We apply the method to the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps, and find departures from uniformity in both. In the case of WMAP, our results probably reflect Galactic contamination or the known variation of signal-to-noise ratio across the sky rather than primordial non-Gaussianity.

  3. Finlay-Wilkinson's regression coefficient as a pre-screening criterion for yield responsiveness to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in crops.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Etsushi; Homma, Koki; Kuroda, Eiki; Shimono, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can increase crop productivity, but there are likely to be intraspecific variations in the response. To meet future world food demand, screening for genotypes with high [CO2 ] responsiveness will be a useful option, but there is no criterion for high [CO2 ] responsiveness. We hypothesized that the Finlay-Wilkinson regression coefficient (RC) (for the relationship between a genotype's yield versus the mean yield of all genotypes in a specific environment) could serve as a pre-screening criterion for identifying genotypes that respond strongly to elevated [CO2 ]. We collected datasets on the yield of 6 rice and 10 soybean genotypes along environmental gradients and compared their responsiveness to elevated [CO2 ] based on the regression coefficients (i.e. the increases of yield per 100 µmol mol(-1) [CO2 ]) identified in previous reports. We found significant positive correlations between the RCs and the responsiveness of yield to elevated [CO2 ] in both rice and soybean. This result raises the possibility that the coefficient of the Finlay-Wilkinson relationship could be used as a pre-screening criterion for [CO2 ] responsiveness. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Anomalous parity asymmetry of WMAP 7-year power spectrum data at low multipoles: Is it cosmological or systematics?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-09-15

    It is natural to assume a parity-neutral Universe and accordingly no particular parity preference in the cosmic microwave background sky. However, our investigation based on the WMAP 7-year power spectrum shows there exists a large-scale odd-parity preference with high statistical significance. We also find that the odd-parity preference in WMAP7 data is slightly higher than earlier releases. We have investigated possible origins, and ruled out various noncosmological origins. We also find that the primordial origin requires |Re[{Phi}(k)]|<<|Im[{Phi}(k)]| for k < or approx. 22/{eta}{sub 0}, where {eta}{sub 0} is the present conformal time. In other words, it requires translational invariance in the primordial Universe to be violated on scales larger than 4 Gpc. The Planck surveyor, which possesses wide frequency coverage and systematics distinct from the WMAP, may allow us to resolve the mystery of the anomalous odd-parity preference. Furthermore, polarization maps of large-sky coverage will reduce degeneracy in cosmological origins.

  5. Anomalous parity asymmetry of WMAP 7-year power spectrum data at low multipoles: Is it cosmological or systematics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-09-01

    It is natural to assume a parity-neutral Universe and accordingly no particular parity preference in the cosmic microwave background sky. However, our investigation based on the WMAP 7-year power spectrum shows there exists a large-scale odd-parity preference with high statistical significance. We also find that the odd-parity preference in WMAP7 data is slightly higher than earlier releases. We have investigated possible origins, and ruled out various noncosmological origins. We also find that the primordial origin requires |Re[Φ(k)]|≪|Im[Φ(k)]| for k≲22/η0, where η0 is the present conformal time. In other words, it requires translational invariance in the primordial Universe to be violated on scales larger than 4Gpc. The Planck surveyor, which possesses wide frequency coverage and systematics distinct from the WMAP, may allow us to resolve the mystery of the anomalous odd-parity preference. Furthermore, polarization maps of large-sky coverage will reduce degeneracy in cosmological origins.

  6. The Python Sky Model: software for simulating the Galactic microwave sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, B.; Dunkley, J.; Alonso, D.; Næss, S.

    2017-08-01

    We present a numerical code to simulate maps of Galactic emission in intensity and polarization at microwave frequencies, aiding in the design of cosmic microwave background experiments. This python code builds on existing efforts to simulate the sky by providing an easy-to-use interface and is based on publicly available data from the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) and Planck satellite missions. We simulate synchrotron, thermal dust, free-free and anomalous microwave emission over the whole sky, in addition to the cosmic microwave background, and include a set of alternative prescriptions for the frequency dependence of each component, for example, polarized dust with multiple temperatures and a decorrelation of the signals with frequency, which introduce complexity that is consistent with current data. We also present a new prescription for adding small-scale realizations of these components at resolutions greater than current all-sky measurements. The usefulness of the code is demonstrated by forecasting the impact of varying foreground complexity on the recovered tensor-to-scalar ratio for the LiteBIRD satellite. The code is available at: https://github.com/bthorne93/PySM_public.

  7. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  8. Participation in Aesthetic Sports and Girls’ Weight Concerns at Ages 5 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Method Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls’ weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Results Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Discussion Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. PMID:11920993

  9. Participation in aesthetic sports and girls' weight concerns at ages 5 and 7 years.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B; Birch, Leann L

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls' weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neonatal brain abnormalities and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term-born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey-matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function.

  11. A Program To Search For Transient Microwave Emission From GRBs And Other High-Energy Sources Using Archival WMAP Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, J. Gregory; Case, Gary L.; Hart, Daniel R.; Jackson, Peter D.; Winkler, Christoph

    2007-07-01

    We report on a new program to search the public time-ordered datasets acquired with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) for transient signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and other high-energy sources. This program is an extension of earlier work in which we established the first limits on prompt microwave emission from GRBs using archival datasets from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite. The increased sensitivity and angular resolution of the WMAP radiometers compared to the COBE/DMR lead to a factor of ~10,000 improvement in overall point-source sensitivity. Such limits approach the signal levels predicted in the microwave band for the peak prompt emission arising from reverse shocks in GRBs. In the first phase of our program we are verifying our analysis software and assessing sensitivity limits by searching for microwave transients or flaring signals from known blazars and similar sources that are detected in the cumulative WMAP data as ``foreground'' point sources of microwave emission.

  12. 7 years of MacGyver sessions at EGU and AGU: what happened?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; Selker, John; Weijs, Steven; Luxemburg, Wim; Wickert, Andy; Blume, Theresa; Bamburger, Jan; Stoof, Cathelijne; Tauro, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    The session that this poster is in, the: "Self-made sensors and unintended use of measurement equipment", also known as the "MacGyver-session" has had 7 years of scientists contributing their self made devices, hacks and solutions with the hydrological community. In 2009, the first session was held at the AGU fall meeting and since 2011 a session is also organised at the EGU General Assembly. On this poster, and in the accompanying review paper, we will present an overview of the work presented in the last 7 years, cataloging the work of the inventive scientists who have contributed to these successful, and above all: fun, sessions.

  13. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPIES IN THE WMAP DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2012-05-20

    The angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies is one of the most important characteristics in cosmology that can shed light on the properties of the universe such as its geometry and total density. Using flat sky approximation and Fourier analysis, we estimate the angular power spectrum from an ensemble of the least foreground-contaminated square patches from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe W and V frequency band map. This method circumvents the issue of foreground cleaning and that of breaking orthogonality in spherical harmonic analysis because we are able to mask out the bright Galactic plane region, thereby rendering a direct measurement of the angular power spectrum. We test and confirm the Gaussian statistical characteristic of the selected patches, from which the first and second acoustic peaks of the power spectrum are reproduced, and the third peak is clearly visible, albeit with some noise residual at the tail.

  14. Testing cosmic microwave background polarization data using position angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Michael; Battye, Richard A.

    2014-10-01

    We consider a novel null test for contamination which can be applied to cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data that involves analysis of the statistics of the polarization position angles. Specifically, we will concentrate on using histograms of the measured position angles to illustrate the idea. Such a test has been used to identify systematics in the NRAO-VLA Sky Survey point source catalogue with an amplitude well below the noise level. We explore the statistical properties of polarization angles in CMB maps. If the polarization angle is not correlated between pixels, then the errors follow a simple √{N_{pix}} law. However, this is typically not the case for CMB maps since these have correlations which result in an increase in the variance as the effective number of independent pixels is reduced. Then, we illustrate how certain classes of systematic errors can result in very obvious patterns in these histograms, and thus that these errors could possibly be identified using this method. We discuss how this idea might be applied in a realistic context, and make a preliminary analysis of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 data, finding evidence of a systematic error in the Q- and W- band data, consistent with a constant offset in Q and U.

  15. A framework for testing isotropy with the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadeh, Daniela; Feeney, Stephen M.; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; McEwen, Jason D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a new framework for testing the isotropy of the Universe using cosmic microwave background data, building on the nested-sampling ANICOSMO code. Uniquely, we are able to constrain the scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom alike; previous studies only considered the vector mode (linked to vorticity). We employ Bianchi type VIIh cosmologies to model the anisotropic Universe, from which other types may be obtained by taking suitable limits. In a separate development, we improve the statistical analysis by including the effect of Bianchi power in the high-ℓ, as well as the low-ℓ, likelihood. To understand the effect of all these changes, we apply our new techniques to Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. We find no evidence for anisotropy, constraining shear in the vector mode to (σV/H)0 < 1.7 × 10-10 (95 per cent confidence level). For the first time, we place limits on the tensor mode; unlike other modes, the tensor shear can grow from a near-isotropic early Universe. The limit on this type of shear is (σT, reg/H)0 < 2.4 × 10- 7 (95 per cent confidence level).

  16. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND LIKELIHOOD APPROXIMATION FOR BANDED PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gjerløw, E.; Mikkelsen, K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Næss, S. K.; Seljebotn, D. S.; Górski, K. M.; Huey, G.; Jewell, J. B.; Rocha, G.; Wehus, I. K.

    2013-11-10

    We investigate sets of random variables that can be arranged sequentially such that a given variable only depends conditionally on its immediate predecessor. For such sets, we show that the full joint probability distribution may be expressed exclusively in terms of uni- and bivariate marginals. Under the assumption that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum likelihood only exhibits correlations within a banded multipole range, Δl{sub C}, we apply this expression to two outstanding problems in CMB likelihood analysis. First, we derive a statistically well-defined hybrid likelihood estimator, merging two independent (e.g., low- and high-l) likelihoods into a single expression that properly accounts for correlations between the two. Applying this expression to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) likelihood, we verify that the effect of correlations on cosmological parameters in the transition region is negligible in terms of cosmological parameters for WMAP; the largest relative shift seen for any parameter is 0.06σ. However, because this may not hold for other experimental setups (e.g., for different instrumental noise properties or analysis masks), but must rather be verified on a case-by-case basis, we recommend our new hybridization scheme for future experiments for statistical self-consistency reasons. Second, we use the same expression to improve the convergence rate of the Blackwell-Rao likelihood estimator, reducing the required number of Monte Carlo samples by several orders of magnitude, and thereby extend it to high-l applications.

  17. OBSERVATIONAL SCAN-INDUCED ARTIFICIAL COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hao; Li Tipei E-mail: litp@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2011-05-10

    Reliably detecting the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is of great importance in understanding the birth and evolution of the universe. One of the difficulties in CMB experiments is the domination of measured CMB anisotropy maps by the Doppler dipole moment from the motion of the antenna relative to the CMB. For each measured temperature, the expected dipole component has to be calculated separately and then subtracted from the data. A small error in dipole direction, antenna pointing direction, sidelobe pickup contamination, and/or timing synchronism can introduce a significant deviation in the dipole-cleaned CMB temperature. After a full-sky observational scan, the accumulated deviations will be structured with a pattern closely correlated with the observation pattern with artificial anisotropies, including artificial quadrupole, octupole, etc., on large scales in the final CMB map. Such scan-induced anisotropies on large scales can be predicted by the true dipole moment and observational scan scheme. Indeed, the expected scan-induced quadrupole pattern of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission is perfectly in agreement with the published WMAP quadrupole. With the scan strategy of the Planck mission, we predict that scan-induced anisotropies will also produce an artificially aligned quadrupole. The scan-induced anisotropy is a common problem for all sweep missions and, like the foreground emissions, has to be removed from observed maps. Without doing so, CMB maps from COBE, WMAP, and Planck are not reliable for studying the CMB anisotropy.

  18. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

  19. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  20. Aboveground biomass equations for 7-year-old Acacia mangium Willd in Botucatu, Brazil

    Treesearch

    Ricardo A. A. Veiga; Maria A. M. Brasil; Carlos M. Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    The biomass of steins, leaves, and branches was determined for 152 sample trees of Acacia mangium Willd were in a 7-year-old experimental plantation in Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After felling, dimensional measurements were taken from each tree. Cross sections were collected in 125 sample trees at ground level (0 percent), 25 percent, 50...

  1. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie…

  2. Treatment of an extensive unicystic ameloblastoma in a 7-year-old child: the best approach?

    PubMed

    de Paulo, L F B; Oliveira, M T F; Rodrigues, Á R; Zanetta-Barbosa, D

    2015-03-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign, slow-growing neoplasm of the jaw that arises from odontogenic epithelium. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl with a unicystic ameloblastoma of the mandible, and describe our approach to treatment. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  4. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  5. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Arithmetical Development in Typically Achieving 5- to 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; Mulhern, Gerry; Wylie, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The arithmetical performance of typically achieving 5- to 7-year-olds (N=29) was measured at four 6-month intervals. The same seven tasks were used at each time point: exact calculation, story problems, approximate arithmetic, place value, calculation principles, forced retrieval, and written problems. Although group analysis showed mostly linear…

  6. Serous Retinal Detachment in Dome-shaped Macula with 7 Years Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Alakeely, Adel G.; Alrashaed, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) was first described by Gaucher et al. as a convex protrusion of macula within a staphyloma in highly myopic eyes that cause visual impairment associated with serous foveal detachment (SFD). We describe a patient with persistent SFD in DSM documented by serial spectral domain optical coherence tomography for 7 years with stable vision. PMID:27994399

  7. Educational Implications of Developmental Transitions: Revisiting the 5- to 7-Year Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold; McDonough, Susan C.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the 5- to 7-year shift is essential if educators are to help children adjust to elementary school. The timing and quality of this shift is influenced by child characteristics, home environment, cultural context, and previous group learning experience. Since child development depends on children's engagement in cultural…

  8. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  9. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  10. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  11. Nightguard vital bleaching removes brown discoloration for 7 years: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haywood, V B; Leonard, R H

    1998-07-01

    Nightguard vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide was used to remove a brown stain from the maxillary central incisor of a 13-year-old-boy. After 7 years, during which there was no touch-up treatment, the discoloration had not returned. This conservative technique should be considered before more invasive procedures for the treatment of discolored vital teeth in young patients.

  12. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  13. Eosinophilic keratitis and keratoconjunctivitis in a 7-year-old domestic shorthaired cat

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 7-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair was presented with a several-month history of an ulcerated right cornea with marked stromal edema and inflammation that was nonresponsive to therapy. A diagnosis of eosinophilic keratitis was made, based on cytologic examination of corneal scrapings. The lesion resolved after treatment with topical corticosteroids. PMID:16363332

  14. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  15. Sporotrichosis on the face of a 7-year-old boy following a bicycle accident.

    PubMed

    Williams, Blake A; Jennings, Thomas A; Rushing, Erica C; Wirges, Marla; Russell, Brian E

    2013-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy presented with an annular verrucous plaque on the chin of 5 weeks duration. The lesion occurred after a bicycle accident and was unresponsive to antibiotics. Fungal culture grew Sporothrix schenckii. Sporotrichosis should be considered and fungal culture obtained whenever a nodule or plaque fails to respond to initial treatment.

  16. The Acquisition Process of Finnish Morphology in 2-7-Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyytinen, Paula

    1982-01-01

    Some results of seven studies of children's native Finnish language acquisition from 1971-1980 are summarized, focusing on two aspects: the main features in the development of Finnish inflection forms in 2-7-year-old children, and selected information derived from children's errors at the various age levels. Subjects were 260 children attending…

  17. Melorheostosis of the hand in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Andrea; Voelker, Thomas; Scheer, Ianina; Roth, Johannes; Keitzer, Rolf; Amthauer, Holger; Stöver, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Melorheostosis of the hand is rare. We report a 7-year-old girl who presented with a contracture of the left hand. Diagnosis was made by conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy. MRI proved to be a very useful tool to visualize the soft-tissue changes. This is especially important when surgical repair is considered.

  18. Skill-Related Uncertainty and Expected Value in 5- to 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Schlottmann, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Studies using an Information Integration approach have shown that children from four years have a good intuitive understanding of probability and expected value. Experience of skill-related uncertainty may provide one naturalistic opportunity to develop this intuitive understanding. To test the viability of this view, 16 5- and 16 7-year-olds…

  19. Post-marketing surveillance of CustomBone Service implanted in children under 7 years old.

    PubMed

    Frassanito, Paolo; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Massimi, Luca; Di Rocco, Concezio; Nataloni, Angelo; Fabbri, Greta; Caldarelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The CustomBone Service is a bioceramic implant suitable for cranial repair in both adults and children, although there are no clinical data about its use in children under 7 years of age. This surveillance study investigates the outcome in this age group. Twenty-eight children under 7 years old (range, 2.5-6 years) received CustomBone Service from July 2006 to May 2013 in 16 international hospitals. Data of 23 children (12 males and 11 females), harboring 24 prosthesis, were available with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Sites of the cranial defect were frontal or parietal (20.8 % each), parieto-temporal (16.7 %), fronto-parietal or occipital (12.5 % each), fronto-parieto-temporal or fronto-temporal (8.3 % each). Initial diseases were trauma (54.2 %), malformation (37.5 %), or tumor of the bone/skin (8.3 %). Rupture of the implant occurred in a single case during the implant (1/26 surgeries, 3.8 %) and the cranial repair was achieved by means of the back-up prosthesis. Five adverse events were registered during the follow-up period consisting of three cases of fracture and two of exposure/infection of the prosthesis. All cases required the removal of the device (20.8 %). The failure rate of CustomBone Service under 7 years of age was higher than reported in adults and children over 7 years old (20.8 vs. 3.8 %), However, CustomBone Service may be considered a valid option under 7 years old since other materials are burdened by more significant rates of complications in the long-term period. Due to specific properties of this material, indication to CustomBone Service in toddlers should be carefully evaluated by the surgeon on a case-by-case basis.

  20. A new model of the microwave polarized sky for CMB experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervías-Caimapo, Carlos; Bonaldi, Anna; Brown, Michael L.

    2016-10-01

    We present a new model of the microwave sky in polarization that can be used to simulate data from cosmic microwave background polarization experiments. We exploit the most recent results from the Planck satellite to provide an accurate description of the diffuse polarized foreground synchrotron and thermal dust emission. Our model can include the two mentioned foregrounds, and also a constructed template of Anomalous Microwave Emission. Several options for the frequency dependence of the foregrounds can be easily selected, to reflect our uncertainties and to test the impact of different assumptions. Small angular scale features can be added to the foreground templates to simulate high-resolution observations. We present tests of the model outputs to show the excellent agreement with Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We determine the range within which the foreground spectral indices can be varied to be consistent with the current data. We also show forecasts for a high-sensitivity, high-resolution full-sky experiment such as the Cosmic ORigin Explorer. Our model is released as a PYTHON script that is quick and easy to use, available at http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/chervias.

  1. Prospective clinical study of press-ceramic overlap and full veneer restorations: 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Stampf, Susanne; Stappert, Christian F J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the long-term performance of all-ceramic veneers with overlap (OV) and full veneer (FV) preparation designs. Twenty-five patients were restored using 42 OV restorations (incisal/palatal butt-joint margin) and 24 FV restorations (palatal rounded shoulder margin). All restorations were leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic anterior veneers. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for FV restorations and 97.6% for OV restorations. The all-ceramic veneers revealed significant deterioration over time according to United States Public Health Service criteria, irrespective of the preparation design. Based on the 7-year results of this study, both preparation designs can be considered reliable treatment options for anterior teeth with extended deficits.

  2. Incidence of oral leucoplakias among 20,358 Indian villagers in a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Mehta, F S; Pindborg, J J; Bhonsle, R B; Sinor, P N

    1976-05-01

    A group of 20,358 villagers in two districts of India has been followed for 7 years to study the incidence of oral leucoplakia. The follow-up rate of the population in two districts ranged from 61% to 71%. In one of the districts (Bhavnagar) no new cases of leucoplakia were found among females in the 7-year period. Among males 105 cases developed (4-0/1000/year). The incidence was highest among hookli (clay pipe) smokers. In the Ernakulam district the incidence among males was 3-3/1000/year whereas among females it was 1-9/1000/year. The mixed habits group had the highest incidence of oral leucoplakias (7-2 and 9-9/1000/year among males and females respectively).

  3. Arthroscopic excision of acetabular osteoid osteoma in a 7-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Aşık, Mehmet; Erşen, Ali; Polat, Gökhan; Bilgili, Fuat; Tunalı, Onur

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the case report of a 7-year-old patient who was treated with hip arthroscopy for an acetabular osteoid osteoma. A 7-year-old patient was referred to our clinic with hip pain. In the assessment of the patient, an acetabular osteoid osteoma was detected in his right hip; it was adjacent to his triradiate cartilage. An arthroscopic surgery was planned as an alternative to open safe hip dislocation. The osteoid osteoma was completely removed with hip arthroscopy. Postoperative CT scanning and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Exposure of the acetabulum can be problematic in paediatric patients due to the potential risks of open safe dislocation. Hip arthroscopy can safely be used for benign hip lesions in paediatric patients. Level of evidence Case report, Level V.

  4. Early adiposity rebound is associated with metabolic risk in 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    González, L; Corvalán, C; Pereira, A; Kain, J; Garmendia, M L; Uauy, R

    2014-10-01

    Early adiposity rebound (AR <5 years) has been consistently associated with increased obesity risk, but its relationship with metabolic markers is less clear; in addition, the biologic mechanisms involved in these associations have not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the association between timing of AR and metabolic status at age 7 years, evaluating the potential role of adiposity, adipose functionality and skeletal maturation in this association. We estimated the age of AR from the body mass index (BMI) trajectories from 0 to 7 years in 910 children from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study (GOCS). At 7 years, we measured waist circumference (WC) and blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and constructed a metabolic risk score. We also measured percent fat mass (adiposity), plasma concentrations of leptin and adiponectin (adipose functionality) and bone age using wrist ultrasound (skeletal maturation). We found that 44% of the children had an AR <5 years. Earlier AR was associated with larger WC (β: 5.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.29-5.91)), higher glucose (β: 1.02 (1.00-1.03)), insulin resistance (β Homeostatic Model Assessment: 1.06 (1.03-1.09)), triglycerides (β: 10.37 (4.01-6.73)) and adverse metabolic score (β: 0.30 (0.02-0.37)). Associations decreased significantly if adiposity was added to the models (i.e. β WC: 0.85 (0.33-1.38)) and, to a lesser extent, when adipokines (i.e. β WC: 0.73 (0.14-1.32)) and skeletal maturation (i.e. β WC: 0.65 (0.10-1.20)) were added. In GOCS children, AR at a younger age predicts higher metabolic risk at 7 years; these associations are mostly explained by increased adiposity, but adipose dysfunction and accelerated skeletal maturation also have a role.

  5. Release of 7-year-old underplanted white pine using hexazinone applied with a spot gun

    Treesearch

    G. W. Wendel; J. N. Kochenderfer; J. N. Kochenderfer

    1988-01-01

    Hexazinone, Velpar-L?, applied at rates of 1 .O, 1.5, and 1.75 ml per spot, controlled competing hardwoods around 7-year-old underplanted white pine. Growth response was more pronounced when hexazinone was applied to release individual pines than when the entire area was treated on a 6 by 6- foot grid. In most cases, hexazinone killed white oak, chestnut oak, American...

  6. Reproduction 7 years after seed-tree harvest cutting in Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; G.R. Trimble

    1972-01-01

    This is a report on the potential of young even-aged hardwood stands, based on measurements made when the stands were 7 years old. It was designed to provide forest managers with data that can aid them in deciding whether or not to do early cultural work. As a basis for this appraisal, we determined for the stands: (1) the number, size, and distribution of stems; (2)...

  7. [Acute suppurative thyroiditis in 7 year-old girl with piriform sinus fistula].

    PubMed

    Asano, Takeshi; Uchikoba, Yoko; Zhi, Cai Ling; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Miho; Shimizu, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2002-12-01

    A 7 year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with high grade fever and redness, swelling and tenderness in left neck. CT scan revealed cyst formation (4.5x3 cm) in left lobe of thyroid with swelling of surrounding lymphonodes. We diagnosed her as acute suppurative thyroiditis and treated her with intravenous antibiotics infusion and incisional drainage. After the treatment, the clinical course was uneventful. Pharyngograph revealed left piriform sinus fistula.

  8. Elevated temperature and 6- to 7-year outcome of neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Laptook, Abbot R; McDonald, Scott A; Shankaran, Seetha; Stephens, Bonnie E; Vohr, Betty R; Guillet, Ronnie; Higgins, Rosemary D; Das, Abhik

    2013-04-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether higher temperature after hypoxia-ischemia is associated with death or intelligence quotient (IQ)<70 at 6 to 7 years among infants treated with intensive care without hypothermia. Control infants (noncooled, n=106) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network hypothermia trial had serial esophageal and skin temperatures over 72 hours. Each infant's temperature was ranked to derive an average of the upper and lower quartile, and median of each site. Temperatures were used in logistic regressions to determine adjusted associations with death or IQ<70 at 6 to 7 years. Secondary outcomes were death, IQ<70, and moderate/severe cerebral palsy (CP). IQ and motor function were assessed with Wechsler Scales for Children and Gross Motor Function Classification System. Results are odds ratio (OR; per degree Celsius increment within the quartile or median) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Primary outcome was available for 89 infants. At 6 to 7 years, death or IQ<70 occurred in 54 infants (37 deaths, 17 survivors with IQ<70) and moderate/severe CP in 15 infants. Death or IQ<70 was associated with the upper quartile average of esophageal (OR=7.3, 95% CI=2.0-26.3) and skin temperature (OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.2-10.4). CP was associated with the upper quartile average of esophageal (OR=12.5, 95% CI=1.02-155) and skin temperature (OR=10.3, 95% CI=1.3-80.2). Among noncooled infants of a randomized trial, elevated temperatures during the first postnatal days are associated with increased odds of a worse outcome at 6 to 7 years. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  9. PTA scale for children aged 4 to 7 years: Selecting developmentally valid and reliable items.

    PubMed

    Lah, Suncica; David, Pamela; Donohue, Hayley; Epps, Adrienne; Tate, Robyn; Brookes, Naomi

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to select developmentally valid and reliable items for inclusion in criterion-referenced (pass > 90%) posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) scale for children aged 4 to 7 years in a prospective cohort study. Fifty-two typically developing children (26 male/26 female) aged 4 to 7 years were administered a set of 10 items (5 orientation, 5 memory) over 3-4 days. The total score obtained on the set of 10 items had poor developmental validity and test-retest reliability. Nevertheless, individual item analysis identified five items (three orientation and two memory items) that were consistently passed by >90% of the children on each day of testing. For these five items the total scores did not differ significantly either between age groups or between days of testing. Test-retest was extremely high (close to 1). The five items had excellent developmental validity and test-retest reliability. This study identified 5 (3 orientation and 2 memory) items that met our selection criterion and form a new PTA scale, the Sydney PTA scale (SYPTAS), for children aged 4 to 7 years.

  10. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and child behavior at age 6-7 years.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica P; Tang, Deliang; Wang, Shuang; Vishnevetsky, Julia; Zhang, Bingzhi; Diaz, Diurka; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-06-01

    Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread urban air pollutants from fossil fuel burning and other combustion sources. We previously reported that a broad spectrum of combustion-related DNA adducts in cord blood was associated with attention problems at 6-7 years of age in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) longitudinal cohort study. We evaluated the relationship between behavioral problems and two different measures of prenatal exposure--both specific to PAH--in the same cohort. Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City (NYC) were followed from in utero to 6-7 years. Prenatal PAH exposure was estimated by personal air monitoring of the mothers during pregnancy as well as by the measurement of DNA adducts specific to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative PAH, in maternal and cord blood. At 6-7 years of age, child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (n = 253). Generalized linear models were used to test the association between prenatal PAH exposure and behavioral outcomes. In multivariate analyses, high prenatal PAH exposure, whether characterized by personal air monitoring (greater than the median of 2.27 ng/m³) or maternal and cord adducts (detectable or higher), was positively associated with symptoms of Anxious/Depressed and Attention Problems (p ≤ 0.05). These results provide additional evidence that environmental levels of PAH encountered in NYC air can adversely affect child behavior.

  11. Neonatal Brain Abnormalities and Memory and Learning Outcomes at 7 Years in Children Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children, especially global, white-matter, grey-matter and cerebellar abnormalities. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function. PMID:23805915

  12. The level of physical fitness in children aged 6-7years with low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Elżbieta; Zaręba, Monika; Kozieł, Sławomir

    2017-08-01

    Level of physical fitness is related to the functional status of most of the bodily functions and so it appears to be very important to identify perinatal factors influencing physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of birth weight on the level of physical fitness in children 6-7years of age. Physical fitness was assessed using EUROFIT tests in 28,623 children, aged 6-7years, from rural areas in Poland. Children below the 10th percentile for birth weight for gestational age were defined as small for gestational age (SGA). The influence of birth weight on parameters of fitness was assessed by means of covariance analysis. With the controls of age, sex and body size, children of low birth weight have shown significantly lower levels of body flexibility and running speed. The leg strength of children with SGA turned out to be significantly lower only in 7-year-old boys. This study has revealed the significant influence of birth weight on physical fitness. The results suggest the importance of early intervention and its possible benefits for developing and maintaining the proper level of physical fitness further in life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions in 6-7year olds: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutte, I; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W; Schutter, D J L G

    2012-08-01

    Preliminary studies have demonstrated that school-aged children (average age 9-10years) show mimicry responses to happy and angry facial expressions. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of using facial electromyography (EMG) as a method to study facial mimicry responses in younger children aged 6-7years to emotional facial expressions of other children. Facial EMG activity to the presentation of dynamic emotional faces was recorded from the corrugator, zygomaticus, frontalis and depressor muscle in sixty-one healthy participants aged 6-7years. Results showed that the presentation of angry faces was associated with corrugator activation and zygomaticus relaxation, happy faces with an increase in zygomaticus and a decrease in corrugator activation, fearful faces with frontalis activation, and sad faces with a combination of corrugator and frontalis activation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring facial EMG response to emotional facial expressions in 6-7year old children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Growing up with Down syndrome: Development from 6 months to 10.7 years.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Jan Pieter; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Houtzager, Bregje A; Rutgers van Rozenburg-Marres, Susanne L; Oostrom, Kim J; Grootenhuis, Martha A; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul

    2016-12-01

    We analysed developmental outcomes from a clinical trial early in life and its follow-up at 10.7 years in 123 children with Down syndrome. To determine 1) strengths and weaknesses in adaptive functioning and motor skills at 10.7 years, and 2) prognostic value of early-life characteristics (early developmental outcomes, parental and child characteristics, and comorbidity) for later intelligence, adaptive functioning and motor skills. We used standardized assessments of mental and motor development at ages 6, 12 and 24 months, and of intelligence, adaptive functioning and motor skills at 10.7 years. We compared strengths and weaknesses in adaptive functioning and motor skills by repeated-measures ANOVAs in the total group and in children scoring above-average versus below-average. The prognostic value of demographics, comorbidity and developmental outcomes was analysed by two-step regression. Socialisation was a stronger adaptive skill than Communication followed by Daily Living. Aiming and catching was a stronger motor skill than Manual dexterity, followed by Balance. Above-average and below-average scoring children showed different profiles of strengths and weaknesses. Gender, (the absence or presence of) infantile spasms and particularly 24-month mental functioning predicted later intelligence and adaptive functioning. Motor skills, however, appeared to be less well predicted by early life characteristics. These findings provide a reference for expected developmental levels and strengths and weaknesses in Down syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental overweight/obesity, social factors, and child overweight/obesity at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Dubois, Lise; Burnier, Daniel; Girard, Manon; Prud'homme, Denis

    2011-12-01

    This study used gender-based analyses to examine whether child overweight/obesity is related to parental overweight/obesity and sociodemographic factors, in a representative population-based cohort of 7-year-old children. Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 was used. Children (n= 1336) were randomly selected from each public health region of Québec. The study was based on face-to-face interviews and a set of questionnaires addressed to mothers and fathers. Compared to children with no overweight/obese parent, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of being overweight/obese with two overweight/obese parents was 5 for boys (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-10.85) and 5.87 for girls (95%CI: 2.63-13.12). Gender differences appeared when one parent was overweight/obese. For girls, having either an overweight/obese mother (OR, 3.10; 95%CI: 1.14-8.38) or father (OR, 3.64; 95%CI: 1.68-7.91) significantly increased the odds of being overweight/obese at 7 years. For boys, however, having only an overweight/obese father (OR, 2.05; 95%CI: 1.01-4.16) was related to overweight/obesity, but having only an overweight/obese mother was not related to overweight/obesity at 7 years for boys. In girls, but not in boys, having an immigrant mother also significantly related to overweight/obesity (OR, 2.71; 95%CI: 1.28-5.75) at 7 years, after controlling for other social factors. Gender differences in socialization may explain why at 7 years of age, girls' bodyweight is influenced by having even one overweight/obese parent (mother or father), while boys' bodyweight appears to be influenced only by father's overweight/obesity when only one parent is overweight/obese. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Early Life Characteristics Associated with Appetite-Related Eating Behaviors in 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Gabriela; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old. A 2-factor solution was identified: factor 1-appetite restraint and factor 2-appetite disinhibition. Associations were estimated through generalized linear models adjusted for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI) before birth, family structure, number of siblings, and child's sex (β regression coefficients and 95% CIs). Higher appetite restraint at 7 years old was associated with higher maternal age and educational level, families with both parents (1- vs 2-parent: β = -0.074, 95% CI -0.140, -0.007) and no siblings (≥2 vs 0: β = -0.152, 95% CI -0.224, -0.081), and more sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old. It was also associated with lower child and maternal BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. In contrast, higher appetite disinhibition was associated with lower maternal educational background, having a 1-parent family, more sedentary behaviors (≥120 vs <120 min/d of media: β = 0.055, 95% CI 0.018, 0.093), and higher BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. Higher maternal age and education, and a family with both parents at 4 years old seem to influence higher appetite restraint, but less appetite disinhibition at 7 years old. More sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old were associated with higher appetite restraint and appetite disinhibition scores later in childhood. These results can be useful for the development of prevention guidelines and educational strategies aimed at improving healthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Total microwave processing using microwave technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, P.J.; Kingston, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of total microwave processing of samples involves all processes after the collection of a sample up to but not including the analysis. These processes are often time consuming and a primary source of critical analytical errors. The use of microwave technology has been shown to improve sample digestion while also reducing contamination. However, microwave technology can also be used in the preparation of representative samples and matrix modifications; essentially total sample preparation. The concept of total microwave processing will be discussed as applied to the routine analysis of samples according to proposed Environmental Protection Agency Method 3052. This method requires microwave digestion and provides for several methods of post-digestion removal of hydrofluoric acid. Microwave technologies will be shown to efficiently dry, digest, and perform matrix modifications.

  18. MICROWAVE SOLID-STATE GENERATORS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADIOFREQUENCY GENERATORS , *SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES, *TRANSISTORS, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, X BAND, FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS, MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS, CIRCUITS, BROADBAND, NARROWBAND, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS.

  19. A LAST LOOK AT THE MICROWAVE HAZE/BUBBLES WITH WMAP

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Gregory

    2012-05-01

    The microwave 'haze' was first discovered with the initial release of the full sky data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). It is diffuse emission toward the center of our Galaxy with spectral behavior that makes it difficult to categorize as any of the previously known emission mechanisms at those wavelengths. With now seven years of WMAP data publicly available, we have learned much about the nature of the haze, and with the release of data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the discovery of the gamma-ray haze/bubbles, we have had a spectacular confirmation of its existence at other wavelengths. As the WMAP mission winds down and the Planck mission prepares to release data, I take a last look at what WMAP has to tell us about the origin of this unique Galactic feature. Much like the gamma rays, the microwave haze/bubbles is/are elongated in latitude with respect to longitude by a factor of roughly two, and at high latitudes, the microwave emission cuts off sharply above {approx}35 Degree-Sign (compared to {approx}50 Degree-Sign in the gammas). The hard spectrum of electrons required to generate the microwave synchrotron is consistent with that required to generate gamma-ray emission via inverse Compton scattering, though it is likely that these signals result from distinct regions of the spectrum ({approx}10 GeV for the microwaves and {approx}1 TeV for the gammas). While there is no evidence for significant haze polarization in the seven-year WMAP data, I demonstrate explicitly that it is unlikely such a signal would be detectable above the noise.

  20. Predicting autism diagnosis by 7 years of age using parent report of infant social communication skills.

    PubMed

    Veness, Carly; Prior, Margot; Eadie, Patricia; Bavin, Edith; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify social communication skills in infancy which predict autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis by 7 years as compared with children with other developmental difficulties or typical development from within a population sample. Children with an ASD (n = 41), developmental delay (n = 28), language impairment (n = 47) and typical development (n = 41) were drawn from a large, longitudinal community sample following children from 8 months to 7 years of age, the Early Language in Victoria Study. At 7 years of age, early social communication skills at 8, 12 and 24 months from the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Infant-Toddler Checklist and the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Gestures were compared between groups and used to predict ASD diagnosis. Significant predictors of ASD diagnosis were found from 8 months, predominantly focused on gesture use and communicative behaviours, such as requesting and joint attention. While comparisons between children with ASD and children with language impairment and typical development revealed differences from 8 months of age, the developmental delay group did not differ significantly from ASD on any measure until 24 months of age. At 24 months, children with ASD had lower Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Use of Communication scores as compared with all other groups. The capacity to identify early markers of ASD should facilitate awareness of the risk of an ASD as compared with other developmental problems and point to the need for further developmental assessment, monitoring and provision of early intervention if indicated. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Hand eczema—prognosis and consequences: a 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, A H; Johansen, J D; Hald, M

    2014-12-01

    Hand eczema is recognized as a long-lasting disease with personal and societal repercussions. Long-term studies are required to generate information on factors contributing to a poor outcome. The aims of this 7-year follow-up study were to evaluate the clinical course of patients with hand eczema, the occupational consequences and to identify risk factors associated with a poor prognosis. In all, 536 patients with hand eczema participated and were examined by a dermatologist. The clinical severity was assessed at baseline and 7 years later using a self-administrated photographic guide. Additional information was obtained from a questionnaire. Based on the photographic guide, 73% experienced a clinical improvement. Notably, 20% had moderate to very severe hand eczema at follow-up. Severe hand eczema or frequent eruptions at baseline and eczema in other body locations during the follow-up period were risk factors of a poor prognosis. The same factors, as well as being a woman, were associated with occupational consequences and low health-related quality of life. Of those with persistent hand eczema only 40% had visited a dermatologist during the follow-up period and 7% had oral treatment. The disease had improved 7 years later; nevertheless, many patients continued to have considerable symptoms. Patients with a greater risk of a poor outcome are characterized by frequent eruptions, severe hand eczema and more widespread eczema. It should be questioned if more aggressive therapy and closer medical follow-up would be beneficial. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Use of the Wilkinson catalyst for the ortho-C-H heteroarylation of aromatic amines: facile access to highly extended π-conjugated heteroacenes for organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumin; Wu, Di; Huang, Jingsheng; Guo, Qiang; Li, Juan; You, Jingsong

    2014-11-03

    An unprecedented catalytic system composed of the Wilkinson catalyst [Rh(PPh3)3Cl] and CF3COOH enabled the highly regioselective cross-coupling of aromatic amines with a variety of heteroarenes through dual C-H bond cleavage. This protocol provided a facile and rapid route from readily available substrates to (2-aminophenyl)heteroaryl compounds, which may be conveniently transformed into highly extended π-conjugated heteroacenes. The experimental studies and calculations showed that thianaphtheno[3,2-b]indoles have large HOMO-LUMO energy gaps and low-lying HOMO levels, and could therefore potentially be high-performance organic semiconductors. Herein we report the first use of a rhodium(I) catalyst for oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reactions. The current innovative catalyst system is much less expensive than [RhCp*Cl2]2/AgSbF6 and could open the door for the application of this approach to other types of C-H activation processes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A 7-year-old boy with acute onset of breathing difficulty.

    PubMed

    Salas, Ariel A

    2010-02-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a major bacterial pathogen affecting children globally. Approximately 15% of school-age children experience a symptomatic episode of GAS culture-positive pharyngitis each year. Although the incidence of invasive GAS disease under these circumstances is low (0.5%-2%), an increasing number of invasive GAS cases have been reported over the last 2 decades. This report describes a 7-year-old boy who, after being treated for GAS pharyngitis, developed a fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

  4. Deltoid contracture mimicking shoulder dislocation in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Lian, L Y; Zhang, L J; Zhao, Q

    2010-09-01

    Contracture of the deltoid muscle, a relatively uncommon disorder in children, can be caused by repeated intramuscular injection, trauma, or congenital disease. The typical clinical manifestations of deltoid contracture (i.e., a palpable fibrous cord within the deltoid muscle, abduction contracture of the shoulder, winged scapula, and skin dimpling over the fibrous bands), however, may be atypical or even lacking, thus, leading to misdiagnosis. The procedure going from misdiagnosis to recognition of the correct diagnosis is reviewed in a 7-year-old boy with deltoid contracture.

  5. Crescendo response to rituximab in oral pemphigus vulgaris: a case with 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, D T; Benton, E C; Groves, R W; Setterfield, J F

    2016-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease affecting the skin and mucous membranes. Rituximab, a CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody, has efficacy in PV management. We report a case of severe oral PV that showed a progressive response to repeated courses of rituximab, culminating in a rapid response within 4 weeks following severe relapse 4 years after initial therapy. It demonstrates the progressively shorter time to achieve partial or complete remission following rituximab infusions, combined with minimal adjuvant therapy over a 7-year follow-up period. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Background acetabular aneurysmal bone cyst in a 7 year-old: Presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Saus Milán, N; Pino Almero, L; Mínguez Rey, M F

    2016-01-01

    The bone cyst is a rare benign tumor that usually develops in childhood. There are several treatment options, however when it is located within the pelvis treatment is complex. A 7 year-old patient who presented with 3 months of right hip pain and limping. The initial radiograph showed a discrete periostic reaction and acetabulum effacement. The MRI and CT scans suggested the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst and was confirmed by open biopsy. Two serial embolizations were performed with good results, the patient was asymptomatic one year after.

  7. Widespread Recurrence 7 Years after Radical Abdominal Trachelectomy for Early Cervical Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salman, M. Coskun; Ozgul, Nejat; Yuce, Kunter

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide and the use of routine screening resulted in earlier stage and younger age at diagnosis. Fertility preservation via radical trachelectomy comes up as an option in such patients. Recent literature reviews confirm the safety of this operation with excellent oncologic outcomes in appropriately chosen patients. However, recurrent disease is likely and a strict follow-up is recommended to detect recurrences at an early stage following radical trachelectomy. In this report, a case who underwent radical trachelectomy and developed widespread recurrences 7 years after initial surgery possibly due to the lack of oncologic follow-up is discussed. PMID:25918655

  8. Association between urinary symptoms at 7 years old and previous urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Hellström, A; Hanson, E; Hansson, S; Hjälmås, K; Jodal, U

    1991-01-01

    The association between current micturition habits and previous urinary tract infection was analysed among 3553 school entrants aged 7 years by means of a questionnaire. A high incidence of urinary infection, confirmed by urine culture, was found (145 (8.4%) in the 1719 girls and 32 (1.7%) in the 1834 boys). There was a significant association between current symptoms that were suggestive of disturbed bladder function and previous urinary tract infection, but only among girls who were over 3 years of age at the time the first episode was diagnosed. PMID:2001110

  9. The incidence of monoclonal proteins during 7 years of screening in a District General Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R A; Smith, L; Pickering, P E

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of monoclonal proteins, during a 7-year period, in the population served by a typical District General Hospital. 183,300 sera were electrophoresed and 804 monoclonal proteins were detected. Various biochemical prognostic criteria, such as the concentration of monoclonal protein, incidence of Bence-Jones protein and the presence of reduced polyclonal immunoglobulins, were studied in an attempt to assess the benign or malignant nature of the monoclonal protein. In this study, 75% of the patients with monoclonal proteins fulfilled at least one of these criteria, demonstrating the importance of long-term monitoring. PMID:6698575

  10. Isolated ACTH deficiency. Metabolic and endocrine studies in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed Central

    Aynsley-Green, A; Moncrieff, M W; Ratter, S; Benedict, C R; Storrs, C N

    1978-01-01

    Metabolic and endocrine studies on a 7-year-old boy who presented with hypoglycaemic convulsions are reported in detail, proving the diagnosis of isolated ACTH deficiency--a rare cause of hypoglycaemia in childhood. Adrenaline secretion during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia was reduced. Low blood alanine levels occurred during starvation-induced hypoglycaemia, together with raised total blood ketone bodies; blood glucose did not increase adequately after oral alanine at this time. Hypoglycaemia in isolated ACTH deficiency appears to be due to a combination of impaired alanine mobilisation and a decreased rate of gluconeogenesis. PMID:210721

  11. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  12. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third…

  13. ARE THERE ECHOES FROM THE PRE-BIG-BANG UNIVERSE? A SEARCH FOR LOW-VARIANCE CIRCLES IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SKY

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir

    2011-10-20

    In a recent analysis of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year temperature maps, Gurzadyan and Penrose claim to find concentric circular patterns in the sky with anomalously low variances. These circles are presented as observational evidence for violent processes in a universe preceding our big bang as predicted by Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology. We reassess the statistical significance of the detection of the claimed concentric low-variance circles by comparing the WMAP data with Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky plus realistic modeling of WMAP's anisotropic noise. We find no anomaly in the variances compared with the {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. The observed variances in the data are consistent with a Gaussian CMB sky as predicted by the inflationary cosmology model at better than 3{sigma}.

  14. Malocclusions in children at 3 and 7 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor; Lennartsson, Bertil; Söderfeldt, Björn; Bondemark, Lars

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare the prevalence of malocclusion at ages 3 and 7 years in a sample of children, exploring the hypothesis that prevalence of malocclusion is higher at 3 than at 7 years of age and may be influenced by sucking habits. The study sample comprised 386 children (199 girls and 187 boys), aged 3 years at study start, sourced from three Public Dental Service clinics in Sweden. Malocclusion was diagnosed by clinical examination, using a specific protocol. Data on allergy, traumatic injuries, sucking habits, and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances were obtained by means of a questionnaire answered by child and parent in conjunction with the initial and final clinical examination. The overall prevalence of malocclusion decreased significantly, from 70 to 58% (P < 0.0001): predominantly anterior open bite, excessive overjet, and Class III malocclusion. Although high rates of spontaneous correction were also noted for deep bite, Class II malocclusion and posterior and anterior crossbites, new cases developed at almost the same rate; thus, the prevalence was unchanged at the end of the observation period. Anterior open bite and posterior crossbite were the only conditions showing significant associations with sucking habits. The results confirm the hypothesis of higher prevalence of malocclusion at 3 years of age and clearly support the strategy of deferring orthodontic correction of malocclusion until the mixed dentition stage.

  15. Muscular Strength and Power in 3-to 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew C; Irwin, Carol C; Nicoll, Justin X; Ferebee, David E

    2015-08-01

    To determine absolute and relative (adjusted for body mass) strength, mean power, and mean velocity for upper and lower body resistance exercises, forty-seven young boys and girls participated in maximal strength testing. Healthy young boys and girls, ages 3- to 7-years old, were tested for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength, and 70% of 1-RM to determine mean power and mean velocity on the chest press and leg press exercises. Adult weight machines were modified to accommodate the smaller size and lower strength levels of the children. A 2 × 4 (sex × age) ANOVA was used to determine age and sex differences in performance. No interaction or sex differences were observed for any variable at any age. 1-RM strength, mean power, and mean velocity significantly increased across ages (p ≤ .05). When adjusted for body mass, the changes were insignificant, with one exception. Relative mean power for the bench press increased with age. Data indicated children from 3-7 years of age are capable of performing strength and power tests, but may require more attempts at maximal loads compared with adults. It appears that muscular strength and velocity during this stage of development are primarily dependent on increasing body mass, whereas power is influenced by additional variable(s).

  16. Management and Family Burdens Endorsed by Parents of Youth <7 Years Old With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Kara R; Boyle, Claire T; Miller, Kellee M; Hilliard, Marisa E; Anderson, Barbara J; Van Name, Michelle; DiMeglio, Linda A; Laffel, Lori M

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated unique burdens experienced by parents of young children with type 1 diabetes in the context of contemporary diabetes management. Self-report surveys and medical record information from the T1D Exchange clinic registry were used. Parental burden and family impact scores were tabulated across demographic and clinical characteristics, overall and according to age group (<4, 4-<6, and 6-<7 years). The mean age of the 597 children was 5.2 ± 1.2 years (n = 111 <4 years, n = 291 4-<6 years, and n = 195 6-<7 years) and mean duration of diabetes was 2.4 ± 1.1 years. Mean hemoglobin A1c was 8.2% ± 1.1%. Approximately one-third (31%) reported their child was currently using CGM and over half (58%) reported using insulin pumps. The most frequently endorsed parent-reported burdens of diabetes were worrying about child having a low blood sugar (74%), about the future and possibility of serious complications (70%), and feeling upset when their child's diabetes management is "off track" (61%). Areas endorsed for negative family impact were diminished amount or quality of sleep for family members (59%) and need for flexible working arrangements to help care for their child (55%). Substantial burdens remain for parents of young children with type 1 diabetes, despite the availability of advanced technologies for diabetes management.

  17. Residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and IQ, attention and hyperactivity in 7-year old children.

    PubMed

    Gunier, Robert B; Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Holland, Nina T; Avery, Dylan; Harley, Kim G; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to examine the relationship between residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and neurodevelopment in 7-year old children. Participants were living in the agricultural Salinas Valley, California and enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children Of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th Edition) to assess cognition and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (2nd Edition) to assess behavior. We estimated agricultural fumigant use within 3, 5 and 8km of residences during pregnancy and from birth to age 7 using California's Pesticide Use Report data. We evaluated the association between prenatal (n = 285) and postnatal (n = 255) residential proximity to agricultural use of methyl bromide, chloropicrin, metam sodium and 1,3-dichloropropene with neurodevelopment. We observed decreases of 2.6 points (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -5.2, 0.0) and 2.4 points (95% CI: -4.7, -0.2) in Full-Scale intelligence quotient for each ten-fold increase in methyl bromide and chloropicrin use within 8km of the child's residences from birth to 7-years of age, respectively. There were no associations between residential proximity to use of other fumigants and cognition or proximity to use of any fumigant and hyperactivity or attention problems. These findings should be explored in larger studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Giant Epignathus Teratoma Discovered at Birth: A Case Report and 7-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Cyntia Helena Pereira de; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Elias, Cassandra Teixeira Valle; Matheus, Rita de Cassia Simões; Dias, Roberto Menezes Bezerra; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Pinto, Leão Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Teratomas are tumors composed by tissues derived from the three germ cell layers, and they are relatively uncommon in head and neck. The term epignathus has been applied to teratomas from the oropharynx. This paper reports the case of a giant epignathus teratoma discovered at birth, which was successfully managed and followed up for 7 years. A newborn boy presented a polypoid tumor mass exteriorizing through the mouth over a length of 9 cm, with some surface areas resembling skin and others exhibiting hair. Computed tomography showed that the mass arose deep from the left hemiface. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were high (316,000 ng/mL). Surgery was performed and microscopic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. Because of residual tumor and high AFP levels, the patient was submitted to chemotherapy, resulting in complete regression of the lesion and normalization of AFP levels. Surgical repair of a cleft palate was performed at 5 years of age. At 7 years of age, the patient was in good general health and showed no clinical signs of recurrence. Although epignathus is a rare condition, it should be diagnosed in the fetus as early as possible. Prenatal care provides unquestionable benefits, providing the early diagnosis of anomalies that can jeopardize the life of the fetus and contributing to the indication of cases that require treatment before birth.

  19. Physiological reactivity in children of Oklahoma City bombing survivors 7 years postdisaster: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; North, Carol S; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung

    2011-08-01

    Relatively few studies of children exposed to trauma have used objective indicators such as heart rate and blood pressure measurements to assess physiological reactivity. This pilot study examined physiological reactivity (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) and emotional indicators (posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms) in 17 children of directly exposed Oklahoma City bombing survivors and in 17 demographically matched community comparison children, 7 years after the incident. Despite generally low levels of subjectively reported posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms 7 years after the disaster, the children of survivors showed heightened objectively measured physiological reactivity relative to the comparison group. The extent to which this heightened physiological reactivity in the children of survivors was pathologic is unclear. Only 1 participant reported high levels of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms; this individual also demonstrated physiological reactivity. Results suggest children of disaster survivors may experience physiological reactivity despite absence of direct exposure to the trauma or acknowledgement of symptoms. These findings indicate the physiological effects of trauma may endure separate from subjective affect in the offspring of highly exposed disaster survivors. More research is needed to determine the potential consequences of persistent physiological reactivity.

  20. Analysis of pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services in community pharmacies over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Mitchell J; Frank, Jessica; Wehring, Heidi; Newland, Brand; VonMuenster, Shannon; Kumbera, Patty; Halterman, Tom; Perry, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Although community pharmacists have historically been paid primarily for drug distribution and dispensing services, medication therapy management (MTM) services evolved in the 1990s as a means for pharmacists and other providers to assist physicians and patients in managing clinical, service, and cost outcomes of drug therapy. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA 2003) and the subsequent implementation of Medicare Part D in January 2006 for the more than 20 million Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the Part D benefit formalized MTM services for a subset of high-cost patients. Although Medicare Part D has provided a new opportunity for defining the value of pharmacist-provided MTM services in the health care system, few publications exist which quantify changes in the provision of pharmacist-provided MTM services over time. To (a) describe the changes over a 7-year period in the primary types of MTM services provided by community pharmacies that have contracted with drug plan sponsors through an MTM administrative services company, and (b) quantify potential MTM-related cost savings based on pharmacists' self-assessments of the likely effects of their interventions on health care utilization. Medication therapy management claims from a multistate MTM administrative services company were analyzed over the 7-year period from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2006. Data extracted from each MTM claim included patient demographics (e.g., age and gender), the drug and type that triggered the intervention (e.g., drug therapeutic class and therapy type as either acute, intermittent, or chronic), and specific information about the service provided (e.g., Reason, Action, Result, and Estimated Cost Avoidance [ECA]). ECA values are derived from average national health care utilization costs, which are applied to pharmacist self-assessment of the "reasonable and foreseeable" outcome of the intervention. ECA values are updated

  1. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2008-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown university; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  2. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time.

  4. WMAP Microwave Emission Interpreted as Dark Matter Annihilation in the Inner Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkbeiner, D. P.

    2004-12-01

    Synchrotron emission from a population of ultra-relativistic electrons in the inner Galaxy has been observed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). After careful modeling of the microwave foreground signals from Galactic interstellar medium (free-free, "ordinary" synchrotron, thermal dust, and spinning dust) a residual microwave signal is present within 10-20 degrees of the Galactic center, uncorrelated with any known foreground template. The most likely explanation for this mysterious component is synchrotron emission from an unusually hot electron energy distribution. The source of these electrons is still uncertain, but the spatial distribution, inferred energy spectrum, and total number are consistent with their being positron-electron pairs produced by WIMP annihilation. I will review the evidence for this hot electron component, and show that it could be produced by dark matter particles, assuming masses and cross sections previously considered in the literature. I will also briefly discuss complementary observations that could confirm its interpretation as an indirect detection of WIMP annihilation.

  5. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  6. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  7. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time.

  8. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  9. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2008-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown university; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  10. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  11. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  12. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  13. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  14. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  15. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  16. A Search for Prompt Microwave Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts Using Archival COBE and WMAP Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbonye, M.; Stacy, J. G.; Jackson, P. D.; Winkler, C.

    2004-08-01

    We report on an extension of earlier work to search the archival database of the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite, and the more recent public time-ordered datasets acquired with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), for transient signals associated with cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Over the course of its 4-year mission the COBE/DMR serendipitously observed a number of GRBs and we previously established the first limits on prompt microwave emission from GRBs using a 9-month sample of data from the COBE/DMR instrument. We have been remotivated to extend our earlier search following the detection in recent years of a small number of bright optical and radio flares from GRBs. The prompt multiwavelength burst emission, presumed to arise from reverse shocks in the burst ejecta, provides insight into burst physics and the physical environments in which bursts occur. We present here the status of our extended search. We also describe how the increased sensitivity and angular resolution of the WMAP radiometers compared to the COBE/DMR lead to a factor of 10,000 improvement in overall point-source sensitivity. Such limits approach the signal levels predicted in the microwave band for the peak prompt emission arising from reverse shocks in GRBs. We acknowledge partial support for this work through NASA grant NAG5-10253.

  17. Delayed retropneumoperitoneum following vaginal laceration in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Im, Hyesook; Lee, Sanghoon; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae-Yun; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo

    2016-05-01

    We describe an unusual case of delayed retropneumoperitoneum caused by a deep vaginal laceration as a result trauma from a water jet in a fountain. A 7-year-old premenarcheal girl presented to the emergency department after experiencing an injury from a water jet at a fountain park. Initially, the patient's vital sign and perineum were within normal range. Because the patient's vital signs became unstable 12 hours after vaginal injury, we carried out abdomino-pelvic computed tomography resulting in retropneumoperitoneum. Arterial bleeding from vaginal lateral wall was founded and controlled by electrocoagulation. No damage to the rectum was laparoscopically confirmed. A diagnostic laparoscopy, not laparotomy, should be considered in cases of retropneumoperitoneum with an ambiguous cause first.

  18. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  19. A 7-year-old girl with multiple skin ulcers: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sobh, Eman; Bahour, Amira; Elsayed, Sahar; Amer, Wegdan

    2015-12-01

    There has been an increase in the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide, but TB of the skin remains rare. A case of 7-year-old girl with multiple ulcerating nodules who presented with four ulcers in the skin of the left elbow. The patient was unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment initially. Because of poor clinical response to conventional therapy, TB was suspected. Although tuberculin skin test was negative, positive QuantiFERON TB Gold test and clinical picture strongly indicated TB. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary to suspect TB of the skin. Positive culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ameloblastic fibroma: a rare case report with 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Melo, Leonardo de Araújo; Barros, Adna Conceição; Sardinha, Sandra de Cássia Santana; Cerqueira, Arlei; dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is a rare benign odontogenic tumor that usually occurs in the fi two decades of life. It affects adolescents and young adults and is found in the mandible and with a high frequency in the posterior region of this segment. There are rare case reports with a long-term follow-up. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with extensive ameloblastic fibroma in the man ble. Treatment consisted of enucleation and bone curettage, with the preservation of permanent teE adjacent to the tumor. Clinical and radiographic follow-up of the patient over a period of 7 years show no signs of recurrence or malignant transformation. Patients with AF should be under follow-up for prolonged periods of time, even in ca! exhibiting a low proliferation index, because of the potential for recurrence and malignant transformation of this tumor.

  1. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  2. Inferring sublexical correspondences from sight vocabulary: evidence from 6- and 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M; Masterson, J; Dixon, M; Quinlan, P

    1999-05-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate 6-to-7-year-old children's ability to acquire knowledge of sublexical correspondences between print and sound from their reading experience. A computer database containing the printed word vocabulary of children taking part in the experiment was compiled and used to devise stimuli controlled for grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) frequency and rime neighbourhood consistency according to the children's reading experience. Knowledge of GPC rules and rime units was compared by asking children to read aloud three types of nonword varying in regularity of GPC and consistency of rime pronunciation. Results supported the view that children can acquire knowledge of both GPC rules and rime units from their reading experience. GPC rule strength affects the likelihood of a GPC response; rime consistency affects the likelihood of a rime response.

  3. Cortical Structural Abnormalities in Very Preterm Children at 7 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuning; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J; Dierker, Donna L; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Anderson, Peter J; Van Essen, David C

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed long-lasting alterations in brain morphometry associated with preterm birth using volumetric and surface-based analyses applied to children at age 7 years. Comparison of 24 children born very preterm (VPT) to 24 healthy term-born children revealed reductions in total cortical grey matter volume, white matter volume, cortical surface area and gyrification index. Regional cortical shape abnormalities in VPT children included the following: shallower anterior superior temporal sulci, smaller relative surface area in the inferior sensori-motor cortex and posterior superior temporal cortex, larger relative surface area and a cingulate sulcus that was shorter or more interrupted in medial frontoparietal cortex. These findings indicate a complex pattern of regional vulnerabilities in brain development that may contribute to the diverse and long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences that can occur after very premature birth. PMID:25614973

  4. [7-year clinical experience with a spatial, bioactive copper intrauterine device (Spider Cu)].

    PubMed

    Krzaklewski, S; Reszczyński, A

    1981-03-01

    During the past 15 years, the Wroclaw Medical Academy Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology experimented on the construction of IUDs. The paper discusses the positive and negative points of those devices which were produced as compared with the Gravigard and the Copper T-200. There were 702 women observed for 7 years while wearing the Spider Cu IUD, designed in 1973. The Spider Cu is a spatial, bioactive device with copper added characterized by its blunt shape and elasticity which makes uterine trauma or perforation impossible. It is highly safe and effective and is protected by patents in several countries including Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, India, and the U.S. The paper postulates a broad introduction of this IUD in home pharmaceutical trade. (author's)

  5. Prenatal phenolic compounds exposure and neurobehavioral development at 2 and 7years of age.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Chien, Chun-Ju; Tsai, Meng-Shan; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2017-12-15

    Phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) are known as endocrine-disrupting compounds and are commonly used. Their impacts on the neurodevelopment of children are inconclusive. The current study aims to investigate the association between umbilical cord blood levels of BPA, NP, OP and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 and 7years of age. The study was based on the Taiwan Birth Panel Study, a prospective birth cohort. We collected cord blood plasma to measure phenolic compound levels using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the follow-up, 208 mother-child pairs with 2-year-old children and 148 mother-child pairs with 7-year-old children were recruited in this study. We used the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) for neurodevelopmental assessments at 2 and 7years of age, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used for statistical analysis. The detection rates of BPA, NP, and OP were 55.9%, 77.6%, and 68.3%, respectively. In this study, the median BPA, NP, and OP levels in 2-year-olds were 3.3, 72.6, and 3.3 (ng/ml), respectively. However, the median levels of BPA, NP, and OP were 3.2, 49.3, and 6.6 (ng/ml), respectively. The levels of phenolic compounds were log10-transformed for statistical analysis. Gender stratification was performed. In the WISC-IV neurocognitive assessment, we found both a significant negative association and a trend between cord blood plasma BPA levels and full-scale IQ (p for trend<0.01), the verbal comprehension index (p for trend<0.01), and the perceptual reasoning index (p for trend<0.01) in the study population. After stratification by sex, significant associations were found in full-scale IQ (p for trend=0.03) and the verbal comprehension (p for trend<0.01) index in boys. In girls, prenatal BPA exposure had adverse effects on full-scale IQ (p for trend=0

  6. Malnutrition and its risk factors among children 1-7 years old in rural Malaysian communities.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Noorhayati, M I; Mohammod, C G; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatimah, A; Fatmah, M S

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nutritional status of children aged 1-7 years in Malaysian rural communities and to identify its risk factors. In all, 221 children were assessed using anthropometric measurements, dietary questionnaires and other tools. Weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height were analysed. Based on the NCHS standards, the overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 46.2%, 18.1% and 30.3% respectively. Almost one-third of the 1-2 years old groups were malnourished. Univariate analysis identified household income £ MR750.00 as a significant risk factor of stunting and wasting.

  7. Vaginocutaneous fistula and buttock abscess formation 7 years after polypropylene transobturator tape insertion.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, A; Nisolle, M; de Landsheere, L

    2017-01-01

    Surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) using transobturator tape insertion is widely accepted. However, several postoperative complications were reported in the literature including infections, abscess and fistula formation. Here, we report a case of 57-year-old female who presented with abscess and left vaginocutaneous buttock fistula 7 years after transobturator polypropylene tape insertion. Treatment included abscess drainage with dissection of the fistulous tract and removal of the left arm of the transobturator tape along with antibiotic coverage. Sinus drainage stopped after 3 days. Stress urinary incontinence did not recur. Suspicion of fistula formation should rise in patients presenting with bothersome vaginal or cutaneous discharge after transobturator tape insertion. This case is particular since it describes a fistula complication with polypropylene tape, which is unusual with this type of tapes. Treatment of such complication should always consist of surgical removal of the mesh to allow closure of the fistulous tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 7-year-old Brazilian boy.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, C M B; Gueiros, L A M; Leon, J E; do Carmo Abreu e Lima, M; de Almeida, O P; Leão, J C

    2011-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are amongst the commonest malignancies in adults but in paediatric patients are exceptionally rare, particularly those involving the oral mucosa. The aim of the present report is to describe the features of a gingival well-differentiated SCC in a 7-year-old Brazilian boy. Immunostaining for p53, Ki-67 and Mcm2 showed increased cellular proliferation compared with normal epithelium. In situ hybridization failed to identify human papilloma virus infection. Correct diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous carcinoma can be difficult in children and differentiation from pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is essential to establish proper treatment. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a district general hospital: increased success over 7 years.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R D; Waites, J H; Hubbard, W N; Wicks, M

    1990-01-01

    In a 12-month prospective survey of CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation), 32 out of 192 patients (16.6%) survived to go home. This is a clear improvement compared with 7 years previously. This is attributed to better training in the use and management of CPR and more widespread availability of defibrillators. Certain patients could not be resuscitated--those with electromechanical dissociation, carcinoma, or multiple pathology. Age by itself was not a bar to resuscitation. There is still a high rate of inappropriate calls, often because of uncertainty by nurses about the use of CPR. This could be improved with clearer guidelines in hospitals about the value of CPR in selected patients. PMID:2152462

  10. Swyer-James Syndrome in a 7-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Mori, Jun; Kaneda, Daisuke; Fujiki, Atsushi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kotani, Tomoya; Ushijima, Yo

    2016-09-19

    Swyer-James syndrome is a rare syndrome that occurs as a result of repeated bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in childhood. Most cases are asymptomatic, and subsequent diagnosis may not occur until adulthood. We present the case of a 7-year-old female with Swyer-James syndrome, which was initially diagnosed and treated as asthma. The patient developed respiratory distress and atelectasis which were treated with biphasic cuirass ventilation. This case suggests that Swyer-James syndrome should be a concern in patients with chronic cough and wheezing, and highlights the importance of taking a careful history and appropriate radiological investigations for diagnosis. Once Swyer-James syndrome is diagnosed, prophylaxis and appropriate management of respiratory infections becomes important.

  11. Fetiform Teratoma in the Ovary of a 7-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Hanna R; Allen, Lisa; Kives, Sari

    2017-04-01

    Fetiform teratoma, a highly differentiated mature cystic teratoma resembling a fetus, is rare and typically found in the ovaries of women of reproductive age. In this report we describe, to our knowledge, the youngest case of ovarian fetiform teratoma. A 7-year-old girl presented with acute abdominal pain. Radiological examinations revealed a 5.2-cm ovarian complex cystic mass with fetal-like components in favor of fetus in fetu and teratoma. After surgical removal, the mass resembled a fetus consisting of a head, two eye slits, two small upper limb projections, and hair. Pathology indicated mature cystic teratoma supporting the diagnosis of fetiform teratoma. Although not commonly found in children, fetiform teratoma must be considered in the diagnosis of a child who presents with an adnexal mass resembling a fetus. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  13. Type 2 segmental manifestation of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Yayoi; Kawana, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    We report here a rare case of porokeratosis in which two different clinical types of porokeratosis (linear porokeratosis and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis) coexisted. A 7-year-old girl developed a centrifugal lesion on her left abdomen at the age of 2, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis on her face at the age of 3 after ultraviolet exposure, and linear porokeratosis on her left body at the age of 5. Histological findings corresponded with cornoid lamella. She was treated with topical maxacalcitol ointment and cryotherapy with considerable improvement. The combination of different types of porokeratosis in one individual is rare. We consider that this case may represent a type 2 segmental manifestation of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.

  14. Levers for Language Growth: Characteristics and Predictors of Language Trajectories between 4 and 7 Years.

    PubMed

    McKean, Cristina; Mensah, Fiona K; Eadie, Patricia; Bavin, Edith L; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is required as to when and where to focus resources to achieve the greatest gains for children's language development. Key to these decisions is the understanding of individual differences in children's language trajectories and the predictors of those differences. To determine optimal timing we must understand if and when children's relative language abilities become fixed. To determine where to focus effort we must identify mutable factors, that is those with the potential to be changed through interventions, which are associated with significant differences in children's language scores and rate of progress. Uniquely this study examined individual differences in language growth trajectories in a population sample of children between 4 and 7 years using the multilevel model for change. The influence of predictors, grouped with respect to their mutability and their proximity to the child (least-mutable, mutable-distal, mutable-proximal), were estimated. A significant degree of variability in rate of progress between 4 and 7 years was evident, much of which was systematically associated with mutable-proximal factors, that is, those factors with evidence that they are modifiable through interventions with the child or family, such as shared book reading, TV viewing and number of books in the home. Mutable-distal factors, such as family income, family literacy and neighbourhood disadvantage, hypothesised to be modifiable through social policy, were important predictors of language abilities at 4 years. Potential levers for language interventions lie in the child's home learning environment from birth to age 4. However, the role of a family's material and cultural capital must not be ignored, nor should the potential for growth into the school years. Early Years services should acknowledge the effects of multiple, cascading and cumulative risks and seek to promote child language development through the aggregation of marginal gains in the pre-school years and

  15. Subalpine grassland carbon balance during 7 years of increased atmospheric N deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Matthias; Enderle, Jan; Bassin, Seraina

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution agents interact when affecting biological sinks for atmospheric CO2, e.g., the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of grassland ecosystems. Factors favoring plant productivity, like atmospheric N deposition, are usually considered to favor SOC storage. In a 7-year experiment in subalpine grassland under N- and O3-deposition treatment, we examined C fluxes and pools. Total N deposition was 4, 9, 14, 29 and 54 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N4, N9, etc.); annual mean phytotoxic O3 dose was 49, 65 and 89 mmol m-2 projected leaf area. We hypothesized that between years SOC of this mature ecosystem would not change in control treatments and that effects of air pollutants are similar for plant yield, net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and SOC content, leading to SOC content increasing with N deposition. Cumulative plant yield showed a significant N and N × N effect (+38 % in N54) but no O3 effect. In the control treatment SOC increased significantly by 9 % in 7 years. Cumulative NEP did show a strong, hump-shaped response pattern to N deposition with a +62 % increase in N14 and only +39 % increase in N54 (N effect statistically not significant, N × N interaction not testable). SOC had a similar but not significant response to N, with highest C gains at intermediate N deposition rates, suggesting a unimodal response with a marginal (P = 0.09) N × N interaction. We assume the strong, pollutant-independent soil C sink developed as a consequence of the management change from grazing to cutting. The non-parallel response of SOC and NEP compared to plant yield under N deposition is likely the result of increased respiratory SOC losses, following mitigated microbial N-limitation or priming effects, and a shift in plant C allocation leading to smaller C input from roots.

  16. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  17. Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Use and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Gunier, Robert B; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-07-25

    Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use has been associated with neural tube defects and autism but more subtle outcomes like cognition have not been studied. Evaluate the relationship between prenatal residential proximity to agricultural use of potentially neurotoxic pesticides and neurodevelopment in 7-year old children. Participants included mothers and children (n=283) living in the agricultural Salinas Valley of California enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children Of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study. We estimated agricultural pesticide use within one km of maternal residences during pregnancy using a geographic information system, residential location, and California's comprehensive agricultural Pesticide Use Report data. We used regression models to evaluate prenatal residential proximity to agricultural use of five potentially neurotoxic pesticide groups (organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and manganese fungicides) and five individual organophosphates (acephate, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and oxydemeton-methyl) and cognition in 7-year old children. All models included prenatal urinary dialkyl phosphate metabolite concentrations. We observed a decrease of 2.2 points (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -3.9, -0.5) in Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and 2.9 points (95% CI: -4.4, -1.3) in verbal comprehension for each standard deviation increase in toxicity-weighted use of organophosphate pesticides. In separate models, we observed similar decrements in Full-Scale IQ with each standard deviation increase of use for two organophosphates (acephate and oxydemeton-methyl) and three neurotoxic pesticide groups (pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and manganese fungicides). This study identified potential relationships between maternal residential proximity to agricultural use of neurotoxic pesticides and poorer neurodevelopment in children.

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Maryse F.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Vedar, Michelle; Calderon, Norma; Trujillo, Celina; Johnson, Caroline; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Context: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic at high doses. Few studies have examined whether chronic exposure at lower levels could adversely affect children’s cognitive development. Objective: We examined associations between prenatal and postnatal exposure to OP pesticides and cognitive abilities in school-age children. Methods: We conducted a birth cohort study (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study) among predominantly Latino farmworker families from an agricultural community in California. We assessed exposure to OP pesticides by measuring dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine collected during pregnancy and from children at 6 months and 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, to 329 children 7 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education and intelligence, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score, and language of cognitive assessment. Results: Urinary DAP concentrations measured during the first and second half of pregnancy had similar relations to cognitive scores, so we used the average of concentrations measured during pregnancy in further analyses. Averaged maternal DAP concentrations were associated with poorer scores for Working Memory, Processing Speed, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Children in the highest quintile of maternal DAP concentrations had an average deficit of 7.0 IQ points compared with those in the lowest quintile. However, children’s urinary DAP concentrations were not consistently associated with cognitive scores. Conclusions: Prenatal but not postnatal urinary DAP concentrations were associated with poorer intellectual development in 7-year-old children. Maternal urinary DAP concentrations in the present study were higher but nonetheless within the range of levels measured in the general U.S. population. PMID:21507776

  19. Parental longevity and 7-year changes in blood pressures in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Zureik, Mahmoud; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine; Courbon, Dominique; Czernichow, Sébastien; Blacher, Jacques; Ducimetière, Pierre; Safar, Michel E; Hercberg, Serge

    2005-08-01

    In this report, we examined the cross-sectional and the 7-year longitudinal changes in blood pressures in adult offspring according to parental longevity. A population of volunteers free of symptomatic cardiovascular diseases who participated to the Supplementation en Vitamines et en Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX) Vascular Study (mean age 52.3 years; 48.3% women) were examined at baseline and 7 years later. Paternal (n=994) and maternal (n=896) longevity were analyzed separately. The prevalence of hypertension at baseline in subjects whose father died at <65 years of age, in those whose fathers were alive by age 65 but died by 80 years of age, and in those whose fathers were alive by age 80 was respectively 34.9%, 28.5%, and 20.2% (P<0.001). The means of systolic blood pressure in the 3 groups of paternal longevity were respectively 128.4 (+/-16.0), 125.3 (+/-14.2), and 123.6 (+/-14.4) mm Hg (P<0.001). During the follow-up, the mean systolic blood pressure increases in the 3 groups of paternal longevity were respectively 5.3 (+/-17.0), 4.2 (+/-14.0), and 1.6 (+/-13.2) mm Hg (P<0.001). In subjects without hypertension at baseline, hypertension occurred during the follow-up in 26.6%, 17.7%, and 15.3% (P<0.009), respectively. Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline or changes in cardiovascular risk factors did not modify these results. In contrast, there was no relationship between maternal longevity and blood pressure measurements in either cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. This study suggests that paternal premature death was associated with accelerated progression of systolic blood pressure and higher occurrence of hypertension in offspring. These results indicate that there are dynamic and continuous processes linking paternal longevity to blood pressure in adults.

  20. Factors related to being sunburnt in 7-year-old children in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rodvall, Ylva E; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Ullén, Henrik T; Wiklund, Kerstin E

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic research shows that being sunburnt as a child is an important risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The purpose of this study was to investigate sunburn in relation to tanning habits and complexion among 7-year-old children living at different latitudes in Sweden. Two municipalities were chosen at latitudes 65 degrees N and 68 degrees N in the north of Sweden and two at latitude 57 degrees N in the south. Children born in 1994 and registered in the municipalities were to be included (N=1676). A questionnaire was sent to their parents asking about their children's tanning habits, and the children were examined. The analysis set comprised 1360 children who participated in the examination and whose parents answered the questionnaire (81.1%). Twelve percent of all children had been sunburnt during the first 2 years of life compared to 44% between 2 and 4 years and 67% after 4. The children in the south at latitude 57 degrees N compared to Kiruna at latitude 68 degrees N and Piteå at 65 degrees N had a higher risk of ever being sunburnt during the first 2 years of life OR=1.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-3.14) and 1.66 (0.95-2.90), respectively. The differences diminished with age. Sunscreen was an independent risk factor of being sunburnt between 2 and 7 years of age (not or seldom using sun screen was protective). Photosensitive skin type was the main risk factor for sunburns. Swedish children are frequently sunburnt and children living in the south are more sunburnt than those in the north. Sunscreens that were seldom used or not used at all were found to be protective. These results support previous reports that photosensitive skin type is an important risk factor for suffering sunburn as a child and therefore increases the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  2. Outcomes at 7 years for babies who developed neonatal necrotising enterocolitis: the ORACLE Children Study.

    PubMed

    Pike, Katie; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Kenyon, Sarah; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David; Marlow, Neil

    2012-09-01

    Within the ORACLE Children Study Cohort, the authors have evaluated long-term consequences of the diagnosis of confirmed or suspected neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) at age of 7 years. Outcomes were assessed using a parental questionnaire, including the Health Utilities Index (HUI-3) to assess functional impairment, and specific medical and behavioural outcomes. Educational outcomes for children in England were explored using national standardised tests. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore independent associates of NEC within the cohort. The authors obtained data for 119 (77%) of 157 children following proven or suspected NEC and compared their outcomes with those of the remaining 6496 children. NEC was associated with an increase in risk of neonatal death (OR 14.6 (95% CI 10.4 to 20.6)). At 7 years, NEC conferred an increased risk of all grades of impairment. Adjusting for confounders, risks persisted for any HUI-3 defined functional impairment (adjusted OR 1.55 (1.05, 2.29)), particularly mild impairment (adjusted OR 1.61 (1.03, 2.53)) both in all NEC children and in those with proven NEC, which appeared to be independent. No behavioural or educational associations were confirmed. Following NEC, children were more likely to suffer bowel problems than non-NEC children (adjusted OR 3.96 (2.06, 7.61)). The ORACLE Children Study provided opportunity for the largest evaluation of school age outcome following neonatal NEC and demonstrates significant long-term consequences of both gut function (presence of stoma, admission for bowel problems and continuing medical care for gut-related problems) and motor, sensory and cognitive outcomes as measured using HUI-3.

  3. Past, present, and future: a 7-year update of Viagra (sildenafil citrate).

    PubMed

    Jackson, G; Gillies, H; Osterloh, I

    2005-06-01

    More than 30 million men are estimated to have erectile dysfunction (ED) in the United States. Worldwide, ED is estimated to affect more than 150 million men, and that number is expected to exceed 300 million men by the year 2025. The prevalence of ED ranges from 7% in men aged 18-29 years to 85% in men aged 76-85 years. In addition, a recent report showed that 68% of patients with ED aged 18 years and older have at least one comorbid diagnosis of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes or depression, and research suggests that ED may be an early indicator of systemic vascular disease. Viagra (sildenafil citrate), the first-in-class phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, was introduced in 1998 for the treatment of ED. In the 7 years since its market launch, more than 750,000 physicians have prescribed sildenafil to more than 23 million men, helping establish an excellent safety and efficacy record. Clinical studies have demonstrated that sildenafil successfully treats ED of varied organic, psychogenic or mixed aetiology, and is effective in men with ED and comorbidities such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes or depression. Sildenafil was a breakthrough medication that addressed a previously unfulfilled medical need. The impact of sildenafil has stimulated academic, clinical and industrial research to better understand the nature of sexual function and develop better treatment and management for sexual dysfunctions such as ED. With the advent of other erectogenic therapies for the treatment of ED, this 7-year update will focus on the unique history and development of sildenafil, its current use and applications and its future directions and indications. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of sildenafil on our understanding of sexual health and on the extensive safety and efficacy data that have been amassed from numerous clinical trials.

  4. Predictors of dental anxiety in Brazilian 5-7years old children.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fernanda Cunha; Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes; Colares, Viviane

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the predictors of dental anxiety in 5 to 7-year-old children in a two years follow-up. This is a longitudinal study conducted with 784 children with 5 to 7years old. A face-to-face interview was conducted with the parents. The Dental Anxiety Question (DAQ) answers were categorized as presence or absence of dental anxiety. The possible predictor factors analyzed were: related to the children (age, sex, parentage, childbirth, physical activity, body satisfaction, psychological well-being, physical well-being, dentist visit); and related to the parents or guardians (excessive alcohol consumption, smoke, family income, number of children). Forward stepwise logistic binary regression was performed for the multivariate analysis. The analysis was controlled by gender. The prevalence of dental anxiety was 17.4%. Children in lower family income had 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.0) greater chance to report high dental anxiety in comparison to children in higher family income. Similarly, children's parents who reported lower psychological well-being had 1.5 (95% CI: 1.0-3.0) greater chance to report high dental anxiety in comparison to children's parents with higher psychological well-being. The prevalence of dental anxiety was high, and the family income and psychological well-being were inversely associated to dental anxiety in children. Knowing the dental anxiety predictors could help the pediatric dentist to analyze and understand who is more susceptible to develop dental anxiety. An adequate approach, a trust relationship could be built, improving the oral health conditions and reducing the need of treatment in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred mares under Indian subtropical conditions: A retrospective survey over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumeet; Dhaliwal, G S; Dadarwal, Dinesh

    2010-02-01

    Service records of 253 mares (1181 mare-years) spanning over 7 consecutive years, from nine organized Thoroughbred stud farms, situated in the subtropical northwestern India were retrospectively analyzed to assess their reproductive performance. The overall per cycle pregnancy rate at Day 16 and overall foaling rates were 50.30% and 68.95%, respectively, and were significantly higher in mares aged 3-7 years than > or =18 years old mares. The late embryonic losses (9.86%) that occurred between Days 16 and 39 post-ovulation contributed more than 50% of the overall detected pregnancy losses (19.11%). The overall percent detected pregnancy losses were lower in mares at ages 3-7 years compared to those at ages > or =18 years (14.78% vs. 46.43%, respectively; P<0.0001). Chronic barren and habitual aborter mares tended to affect reproductive efficiency of mares. Fifty percent of the mares that experienced > or =2 consecutive abortions or barren years, again stayed aborted or barren in the next seasons, respectively. No effect of numbers of matings per oestrus was observed on overall fertility. Neither the induction of oestrus nor ovulation by exogenous hormonal treatment had any effect on most of the analyzed reproductive parameters. Regarding breeding month or years, the reproductive efficiency did not differ significantly. The incidence of multiple pregnancies was 5.40% and percent late embryonic loses were higher (P=0.0016) in twin (21.98%) than singleton (8.64%) pregnancies. In conclusion, comparatively lower fertility rates were recorded in Thoroughbred mares bred under Indian subtropical climatic conditions than those reported from temperate regions that might be due to difference in breeding management rather than prevailing environment.

  6. Effect of acupuncture in a patient with 7-year-history of Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chau Lai; Wong, Virginia C N

    2008-09-01

    To demonstrate the effect of acupuncture in a child with chronic Bell's palsy of 7 years duration. A 15-year-old girl had Bell's palsy for 7 years and did not respond to steroid treatment in the acute phase. On examination, her eyes were asymmetric, with the right eye smaller. Muscle contracture was noted around the right nasalis. She had synkinesis (i.e., when she blinked, there was involuntary twitching of her mouth at the right side). She showed marked facial distortion when puffing out cheeks, smiling, and raising her eyebrows. The tip of her tongue was swollen with red spikes. House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system (HBS) before treatment was grade 4. Patient was given 25 acupuncture treatment sessions in 2 months. Local acupuncture points used were: LI20, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST6, ST7, SI18, BL2, TE17, TE23, GB14, GV26, CV24, EX-HN5, and EX-HN16; distant points used were: LI11, ST36, ST40, SP6, SP10, HT8, SI3, BL67, PC8, TE5, and LR3. About 10 points were selected from the above set in each session with needles inserted to elicit the de qi response. The patient was asked to report any change in muscle strength or any differences noted after each acupuncture session. Photographs and videos were taken for blind assessors to comment on. The patient rated an overall improvement of 60-70%. Self-perceived muscle strength when smiling and puffing out cheeks increased from 20% of normal strength to 65%, and the strength when raising eyebrows increased from 10% to 70%. Synkinesis was attenuated. Photographs and videos showed improvement in facial asymmetry. HBS changed to grade 3 after treatment. Our study showed that acupuncture can be effective in improving functional and cosmetic outcome even for chronic Bell's palsy.

  7. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and child attention problems at 3–7 years

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, Whitney J.; Lederman, Sally A.; Sjödin, Andreas; Jones, Richard; Wang, Shuang; Perera, Frederica P.; Wang, Richard; Rauh, Virginia A.; Herbstman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) comprise a class of halogenated compounds used extensively as flame retardant chemicals in consumer products resulting in nearly ubiquitous human exposure. Mounting evidence suggests that PBDEs are developmental neurotoxicants; however, associations between early life exposure and child behavior have been largely limited to a single developmental time point. Methods The study population consists primarily of white, black and Chinese women who were pregnant on 11 September 2001 and delivered at 1 of 3 downtown New York City hospitals. Maternal–child pairs were followed through age 7 years. Cord blood was collected at delivery and PBDE plasma levels for 210 samples were analyzed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Child Behavior Checklist, a validated maternal-report instrument used for assessing child behavior, was administered annually between the ages of 3 and 7 years. We analyzed the association between natural log-transformed and dichotomized (low vs. high) PBDEs and attention problems using multivariable adjusted negative binomial regression. Results We detected 4 PBDE congeners in more than 50% of samples, with concentrations highest for BDE-47 (median ± IQR: 11.2 ± 19.6 ng/g). In adjusted analyses, we detected associations between BDE-47 (1.21, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.47), and BDE-153 (1.18, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.39) in cord plasma and increased attention problems among children at age 4 (n = 109) but not 6 (n = 107) years. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a positive trend between prenatal PBDE exposure and early childhood attention problems, and are consistent with previous research reporting associations between prenatal PBDE exposure and disrupted child behaviors. PMID:26344673

  8. Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Use and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Gunier, Robert B; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-05-25

    Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use has been associated with neural tube defects and autism, but more subtle outcomes such as cognition have not been studied. We evaluated the relationship between prenatal residential proximity to agricultural use of potentially neurotoxic pesticides and neurodevelopment in 7-year-old children. Participants included mothers and children (n=283) living in the agricultural Salinas Valley of California enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study. We estimated agricultural pesticide use within 1 km of maternal residences during pregnancy using a geographic information system, residential location, and California’s comprehensive agricultural Pesticide Use Report data. We used regression models to evaluate prenatal residential proximity to agricultural use of five potentially neurotoxic pesticide groups (organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and manganese fungicides) and five individual organophosphates (acephate, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, and oxydemeton-methyl) and cognition in 7-year-old children. All models included prenatal urinary dialkyl phosphate metabolite concentrations. We observed a decrease of 2.2 points [95% confidence interval (CI): −3.9, −0.5] in Full-Scale IQ and 2.9 points (95% CI: −4.4, −1.3) in Verbal Comprehension for each standard deviation increase in toxicity-weighted use of organophosphate pesticides. In separate models, we observed similar decrements in Full-Scale IQ with each standard deviation increase of use for two organophosphates (acephate and oxydemeton-methyl) and three neurotoxic pesticide groups (pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and manganese fungicides). This study identified potential relationships between maternal residential proximity to agricultural use of neurotoxic pesticides and poorer neurodevelopment in children. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP504.

  9. Levers for Language Growth: Characteristics and Predictors of Language Trajectories between 4 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Cristina; Eadie, Patricia; Bavin, Edith L.; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence is required as to when and where to focus resources to achieve the greatest gains for children’s language development. Key to these decisions is the understanding of individual differences in children’s language trajectories and the predictors of those differences. To determine optimal timing we must understand if and when children’s relative language abilities become fixed. To determine where to focus effort we must identify mutable factors, that is those with the potential to be changed through interventions, which are associated with significant differences in children’s language scores and rate of progress. Methods Uniquely this study examined individual differences in language growth trajectories in a population sample of children between 4 and 7 years using the multilevel model for change. The influence of predictors, grouped with respect to their mutability and their proximity to the child (least-mutable, mutable-distal, mutable-proximal), were estimated. Results A significant degree of variability in rate of progress between 4 and 7 years was evident, much of which was systematically associated with mutable-proximal factors, that is, those factors with evidence that they are modifiable through interventions with the child or family, such as shared book reading, TV viewing and number of books in the home. Mutable-distal factors, such as family income, family literacy and neighbourhood disadvantage, hypothesised to be modifiable through social policy, were important predictors of language abilities at 4 years. Conclusions Potential levers for language interventions lie in the child’s home learning environment from birth to age 4. However, the role of a family’s material and cultural capital must not be ignored, nor should the potential for growth into the school years. Early Years services should acknowledge the effects of multiple, cascading and cumulative risks and seek to promote child language development through the

  10. Butane Hash Oil Burns: A 7-Year Perspective on a Growing Problem.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Kathleen S; Barsun, Alura; Kwan, Peter; Teo, Esther H; Palmieri, Tina L; Sen, Soman; Maguina, Pirko; Greenhalgh, David G

    With the legalization of marijuana in four states, and decriminalization in many others, marijuana is becoming easier to obtain. The authors have experienced an increase in burn injuries related to the production of butane hash oil (BHO; a concentrated tetrahydrocannabinol product produced by the distillation of marijuana plant products with pressurized butane). This article updates our experience and highlights the increasing public health problem associated with these burns. Charts of patients who presented to the burn center with suspicion of BHO-related injuries between January 2007 and December 2014 were examined. Data collected included demographics, injury characteristics, treatment utilized, and outcomes. Charts of 101 patients were identified as having BHO-related burn injury. The mean age of these patients was 30.5 ± 10.6 years (mean ± standard deviation, range: 2-55 years) and 93.1% were male. Patients sustained a mean of 26.8 ± 24.1% TBSA burn with 14.3 ± 25.1% third degree burns. Three patients died as the result of their injuries. Patients required a mean of 12 ± 48.4 ventilator days, and 27.1 ± 59.4 days in the hospital. The number of patients presenting with these burns increased over the past 7 years. BHO burns occur most commonly in February (12 patients), on Wednesday (19 patients), and between 18:00 and 06:00 (58 patients). There has been a sharp increase in the number of patients presenting with burn-associated BHO production in the region over the past 7 years. The authors as burn care providers need to increase public awareness of this issue and aid in the development of legislation to help prevent these burns before it becomes a public health crisis.

  11. Clinical electromyography and electrodiagnosis course at Keio University Hospital--a 7-year experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meigen; Hase, Kimitaka; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Shin; Masakado, Yoshihisa; Kimura, Akio

    2005-12-01

    Although electromyography and electrodiagnosis (EMG-EDX) is one of the most fundamental skills in rehabilitation medicine, the number of residency programs that can provide comprehensive postgraduate EMG-EDX training is still limited in Japan. Under these circumstances, we started a 2-day primer course in EMG-EDX at Keio University Hospital in 1998. To review our 7-year experience with the course, we analyzed the number and specialty of the participants, their appraisal of the lectures and practical sessions, and the score distribution of the final examination. The number of participants totaled 288 during the past 7 years, and the mean number for each year was 41. The distribution by specialty for the whole period was 64.0% for rehabilitation medicine, 25.4% for orthopedic surgery, 5.1% for neurology, 1.0% for pediatrics, 0.5% for gerontology and 4.1% for physical therapists and occupational therapists. The difficulty levels of the lectures were judged as appropriate by 81 to 95.5% of the participants, and the presentation was judged as good by 34 to 67% of them. For the practice sessions, the difficulty levels were judged as appropriate by 88% of the participants, and the quality of the supervisors was judged as good by 64% of them. The mean score for the final examination was 56.0 (SD 15.2, median 60). In conclusion, our course has played an important role to promote EMG-EDX in our country by providing compact introductory exposure to EMG-EDX for beginners. A follow-up system for the course graduates is planned to support their EMG-EDX practice.

  12. Tooth wear in the deciduous dentition of 5-7-year-old children: risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gatou, Tarsitsa; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and severity of tooth wear in deciduous dentition and its relationship with possible risk factors. A stratified cluster sample of 243 5-7-year-old children was examined using the tooth wear index of Smith and Knight, and their exposure to intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors was retrospectively investigated through a structured questionnaire. The severity of wear was quantitatively estimated by the number of surfaces with affected dentine and by the cumulative score of the sextants, based on the Basic Erosive Wear Examination scoring system. Only 1.6% of the children were tooth wear free, whereas 45.6% had moderate to severe wear involving dentine. Maxillary canines were the most affected teeth (83.2%), and occlusal/incisal the most affected surfaces (52.7%). The likelihood of tooth wear involving dentine was greater in boys than girls (OR = 1.72), in immigrants than in Greeks (OR = 1.93), and in 6- and 7-year olds than in 5-year olds (OR = 2.78 to 2.93). After adjustment for age, gender, and nationality, exposure to several dietary factors and especially to soft drinks was found to significantly affect the prevalence (OR = 1.27) and the severity of tooth wear. Every additional serving/week of consumption of soft drinks increases the number of surfaces with dentine affected by 0.03 per year (p < 0.05) and the cumulative score of sextants by 0.04 (p < 0.05). The cluster of children with the higher prevalence and severity of tooth wear had an average exposure to soft drinks of 10 servings/week for a duration of 4 years. The cumulative score of sextants was better predicted by the assessed risk factors, in comparison with the number of surfaces with affected dentine. Tooth wear is a common condition in children, related both to the physiological process of aging of dentition and to the erosive effect of dietary factors. Strategies to reduce the intake of soft drinks in children are expected to have multiple

  13. The Cervical Microbiome over 7 Years and a Comparison of Methodologies for Its Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Benjamin C.; McAndrew, Thomas; Chen, Zigui; Harari, Ariana; Barris, David M.; Viswanathan, Shankar; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Castle, Phillip; Herrero, Rolando; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The rapidly expanding field of microbiome studies offers investigators a large choice of methods for each step in the process of determining the microorganisms in a sample. The human cervicovaginal microbiome affects female reproductive health, susceptibility to and natural history of many sexually transmitted infections, including human papillomavirus (HPV). At present, long-term behavior of the cervical microbiome in early sexual life is poorly understood. Methods The V6 and V6–V9 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were amplified from DNA isolated from exfoliated cervical cells. Specimens from 10 women participating in the Natural History Study of HPV in Guanacaste, Costa Rica were sampled successively over a period of 5–7 years. We sequenced amplicons using 3 different platforms (Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina HiSeq 2000) and analyzed sequences using pipelines based on 3 different classification algorithms (usearch, RDP Classifier, and pplacer). Results Usearch and pplacer provided consistent microbiome classifications for all sequencing methods, whereas RDP Classifier deviated significantly when characterizing Illumina reads. Comparing across sequencing platforms indicated 7%–41% of the reads were reclassified, while comparing across software pipelines reclassified up to 32% of the reads. Variability in classification was shown not to be due to a difference in read lengths. Six cervical microbiome community types were observed and are characterized by a predominance of either G. vaginalis or Lactobacillus spp. Over the 5–7 year period, subjects displayed fluctuation between community types. A PERMANOVA analysis on pairwise Kantorovich-Rubinstein distances between the microbiota of all samples yielded an F-test ratio of 2.86 (p<0.01), indicating a significant difference comparing within and between subjects’ microbiota. Conclusions Amplification and sequencing methods affected the characterization of the microbiome more than

  14. Programming of adiposity in offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Robert S; Nelson, Scott M; Walker, James D; Greene, Stephen A; Milne, Gillian; Sattar, Naveed; Pearson, Donald W

    2010-05-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the influence of maternal type 1 diabetes during pregnancy on offspring adiposity and glucose tolerance at age 7 years and to assess whether metabolic factors at birth (neonatal leptin and insulin) predict adverse outcomes. We examined 100 offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes (OT1DM) and 45 offspring of control mothers. Mothers had previously been recruited during pregnancy, and, where possible, birth weight, umbilical cord insulin, and leptin were measured. Children were classed as overweight and obese using age-specific reference ranges. OT1DM had similar height (control, 1.25 +/- 0. 06 m; OT1DM, 1.24 +/- 0.06 m; P = 0.81) but were heavier (control, 25.5 +/- 3.8 kg; OT1DM, 27.1 +/- 5.7 kg; P = 0.048) and had an increased BMI (control, 16.4 kg/m(2); OT1DM, 17.4 +/- 2.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.005). Waist circumference (control, 56.0 +/- 3.7 cm; OT1DM, 58 +/- 6.8 cm; P = 0.02) and sum of skinfolds were increased (control, 37.5 +/- 17.0 mm [n = 42]; OT1DM, 46.1 +/- 24.2 mm [n = 91]; P = 0.02), and there was a marked increase in the prevalence of overweight and obese children (OT1DM, 22% overweight and 12% obese; control, 0% overweight and 7% obese; chi(2) P = 0.001). Glucose tolerance was not different compared with that in control subjects. BMI at age 7 years correlated with cord leptin (OT1DM, r = 0.25; n = 61, P = 0.047), weakly with adjusted birth weight (r = 0.19; P = 0.06) and hematocrit (r = 0.25; n = 50, P = 0.07), but not cord insulin (OT1DM, r = -0.08; P = 0.54). OT1DM are at increased risk of overweight and obesity in childhood. This risk appears to relate, in part, to fetal leptin and hematocrit but not insulin.

  15. On the Nature of the Small-scale Structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background Observed by PLANCK and WMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, G. L.; Schmelz, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Small-scale features observed by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and PLANCK in the frequency range of 22-90 GHz show a nearly flat spectrum, which meets with expectations that they originate in the early universe. However, free-free emission from electrons in small angular scale galactic sources that suffer beam dilution very closely mimic the observed spectrum in this frequency range. Fitting such a model to the PLANCK and WMAP data shows that the angular size required to fit the data is comparable to the angular width of associated H i filaments found in the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array-H isurvey data. Also, the temperature of the electrons is found to be in the range of 100-300 K. The phenomenon revealed by these data may contribute to a more precise characterization of the foreground masks required to interpret the cosmological aspect of PLANCK and WMAP data.

  16. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  17. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  18. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type: a case report of 7-year natural course and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Ma, Pan-Pan; Wang, Qun-Ying; Chen, Chun-Xiao; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present our experience a vary case of Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas, nasal type (ENKL) who survived for 7 years, and review the recent advances on the differential diagnosis. PMID:26464728

  19. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis lagged behind the onset of rheumatoid arthritis by 7 years

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wen, Hong-yan; Wang, Li-hua; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The co-existence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), presenting either together or in succession, is very rare. A variety of histopathological features in the clinical renal disease may occur in RA. Only 8 studies have previously reported this poorly understood connection. Clinical findings/diagnoses: A case of a 54-year-old male with RA lasting for more than 7 years developed cheirarthritis as the first signs. Symmetric polyarthralgia and multiple swollen joints throughout the body were followed, accompanied with morning stiffness. Gradually, he suffered from albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia in 2014. The patient had the history of administering loxoprofen, celecoxib, leflunomide, and methotrexate. He was diagnosed as RA, nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy confirmed FSGS. Conclusion: Our case and the review of the literature indicate that FSGS is one of the causes of nephrotic syndrome in RA. It strongly suggested that RA patients with the abnormal kidney functions should be routinely screened for FSGS to guide the therapy, achieve both RA and FSGS remission, determine a prognosis, and avoid end-stage renal lesion. PMID:28072731

  20. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  1. The Prevalence of Malocclusion and Oral Habits among 5–7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kasparaviciene, Kristina; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Zasciurinskiene, Egle; Vasiliauskas, Arunas; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Sidlauskas, Mantas; Marmaite, Ugne

    2014-01-01

    Background Digit sucking, tongue thrust swallowing, and mouth breathing are potential risk factors for development of malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of different occlusal traits among 5–7-year-old children and assess their relationship with oral habits. Material/Methods The study included 503 pre-school children (260 boys and 243 girls) with a mean age of 5.95 years. Different occlusal traits were verified by intraoral examination. Oral habits were diagnosed using data gathered from clinical examination of occlusion and extra-oral assessment of the face, combined with a questionnaire for parents. Results The study demonstrated that 71.4% of the children presented with 1 or more attributes of malocclusion and 16.9% had oral habits. The vertical and sagittal malrelation of incisors, as well as spacing, were the predominant features. This study showed that digit suckers have higher incidence of anterior open bite (P=0.013) and posterior crossbite (P=0.005). The infantile type of swallowing demonstrated strong association (P=0.001) with anterior open bite. Conclusions Non-nutritive sucking habits and tongue thrust swallowing are significant risk factors for the development of anterior open bite and posterior crossbite in pre-school children. PMID:25344319

  2. Ménière's disease in children aged 4-7 years.

    PubMed

    Brantberg, Krister; Duan, Maoli; Falahat, Babak

    2012-05-01

    This is a retrospective review of clinical data and audiovestibular test results from four children in whom symptoms suggesting Ménière's disease started at 4-7 years of age. The four patients all had spontaneous recurrent attacks of (spinning) vertigo and fluctuating low frequency sensorineural hearing loss from an early age, suggesting a diagnosis of definite Ménière's disease. Presumably, due to age-related inability to communicate auditory symptoms, the children did not initially meet requirements for a diagnosis of Ménière's disease. However, by 8 years of age, all four children reported tinnitus and/or fullness in the affected ear and, thus, met the AAO criteria for Ménière's disease. Even if information on subjective auditory symptoms is missing, it is reasonable to consider young children with idiopathic spontaneous recurrent attacks of vertigo in whom audiograms reveals fluctuating low frequency hearing loss to have Ménière's disease. This report is a reminder that Ménière's disease may also occur in young children.

  3. Secondhand Smoke Exposure 7 Years After an Indoor Smoke-Free Law.

    PubMed

    St. Claire, Ann W; Amato, Michael S; Boyle, Raymond G; Rode, Peter; Kinney, Ann M

    2016-10-04

    To examine locations of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmokers, 7 years after a statewide smoke-free policy. Data collected via statewide, random digit dial telephone survey. Response rates were 64.7% for landline and 73.5% for cell phone. Minnesota, 2014. Representative sample of 7887 nonsmoking adults. Self-reported locations of SHS exposure and opinions on smoke-free restrictions. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression. A total of 35.5% of nonsmokers reported SHS exposure in the past 7 days. The greatest proportion of exposure occurred in community settings (31.7%) followed by cars (6.9%) and in the home (3.2%). Young adults were more likely to be exposed in a home or car than older adults. Nonsmokers living with a smoker were 39.6 (20.6-75.8) times more likely to be exposed to SHS in their home and 5.3 (4.1-6.8) times more likely to be exposed in a car, compared to those who did not live with a smoker. SHS exposure continues after comprehensive smoke-free policies restricted it from public places. Disparities in exposure rates exist for those who live with a smoker, are young, and have low incomes. Findings suggest the need for additional policies that will have the greatest public health benefit. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Social support, personality and depressive symptoms over 7 years: the Health and Lifestyle cohort.

    PubMed

    Grainge, M J; Brugha, T S; Spiers, N

    2000-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a negative relationship between social support and depression is stronger in extroverts. Data on social support and personality were obtained from an existing cohort of 9003 adults (the Health and Lifestyle Survey, UK), of whom 3594 respondents who were followed-up 7 years later contributed to the present analysis. Six depression items from the 30-item General Health Questionnaire, summed, were divided into five levels and a proportional odds analysis was performed. Information on social support was also obtained at follow-up. For females, there was a highly significant interaction between Time of Residence in Area and extroversion (P<0.001). For males, interactions involving Adults in Household and Living as Married reached borderline significance (0.050.10). It is unlikely that a lack of social support is more or less harmful for introverts, although the hypothesis should be re-tested in a study with a much shorter period of follow-up and higher response rate.

  5. Changing Strategies of the Retrograde Approach for Chronic Total Occlusion During the Past 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Toshiya; Tsukahara, Reiko; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ishimori, Hiroshi; Park, Seung-Jung; Winter, Robert; Shokry, Khaled; Wang, Lefeng; Chen, Jiyan; Wang, Haichang

    2013-01-01

    Objective We reviewed the technical changes and results achieved with the retrograde approach since we introduced it 7 years ago. Subjects and Methods The subjects were 1,268 patients who were treated for CTO between January 2004 and December 2010. They were investigated with respect to the success rate, the frequency of employing the retrograde approach and its outcome, and other factors. Results The retrograde approach was employed in ∼30% of chronic total occlusion (CTO) patients (n = 281) and the retrograde guidewire success rate was 81.1%. The kissing wire technique was substituted for the retrograde approach in 126 of the 281 patients, with antegrade crossing of a guidewire being successful in 88 of them (70%). The retrograde approach was combined with the CART and reverse controlled antegrade retrograde tracking (CART) techniques in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Among 83 patients treated with Corsair catheters, crossing of the CTO was achieved in 63. The overall procedural success rate was 79.7% (224 patients). Complications of the retrograde approach included collateral channel dissection (2.1%), channel perforation (1.7%), CTO perforation (1.7%), and donor artery occlusion (1.1%). Conclusion The success rate and safety of the retrograde approach are both satisfactory if the appropriate devices and techniques are selected. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22517670

  6. Neutrino cosmology after WMAP 7-year data and LHC first Z' bounds.

    PubMed

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo; Goldberg, Haim

    2012-02-24

    The gauge-extended U(1)(C)×SU(2)(L)×U(1)(I(R))×U(1)(L) model elevates the global symmetries of the standard model (baryon number B and lepton number L) to local gauge symmetries. The U(1)(L) symmetry leads to three superweakly interacting right-handed neutrinos. This also renders a B-L symmetry nonanomalous. The superweak interactions of these Dirac states permit ν(R) decoupling just above the QCD phase transition: 175 is < or approximately equal to T(ν(R))(dec)/MeV is < or approximately equal to 250. In this transitional region, the residual temperature ratio between ν(L) and ν(R) generates extra relativistic degrees of freedom at BBN and at the CMB epochs. Consistency with both WMAP 7-year data and recent estimates of the primordial 4He mass fraction is achieved for 3

  7. The health status of a village population, 7 years after a major Q fever outbreak.

    PubMed

    Morroy, G; Van Der Hoek, W; Nanver, Z D; Schneeberger, P M; Bleeker-Rovers, C P; Van Der Velden, J; Coutinho, R A

    2016-04-01

    From 2007 to 2010, The Netherlands experienced a major Q fever outbreak with more than 4000 notifications. Previous studies suggested that Q fever patients could suffer long-term post-infection health impairments, especially fatigue. Our objective was to assess the Coxiella burnetii antibody prevalence and health status including fatigue, and assess their interrelationship in Herpen, a high-incidence village, 7 years after the outbreak began. In 2014, we invited all 2161 adult inhabitants for a questionnaire and a C. burnetii indirect fluorescence antibody assay (IFA). The health status was measured with the Nijmegen Clinical Screening Instrument (NCSI), consisting of eight subdomains including fatigue. Of the 70·1% (1517/2161) participants, 33·8% (513/1517) were IFA positive. Of 147 participants who were IFA positive in 2007, 25 (17%) seroreverted and were now IFA negative. Not positive IFA status, but age <50 years, smoking and co-morbidity, were independent risk factors for fatigue. Notified participants reported significantly more often fatigue (31/49, 63%) than non-notified IFA-positive participants (150/451, 33%). Although fatigue is a common sequel after acute Q fever, in this community-based survey we found no difference in fatigue levels between participants with and without C. burnetii antibodies.

  8. Sentinel surveillance for human enterovirus 71 in Sarawak, Malaysia: lessons from the first 7 years

    PubMed Central

    Podin, Yuwana; Gias, Edna LM; Ong, Flora; Leong, Yee-Wei; Yee, Siew-Fung; Yusof, Mohd Apandi; Perera, David; Teo, Bibiana; Wee, Thian-Yew; Yao, Sik-Chi; Yao, Sik-King; Kiyu, Andrew; Arif, Mohd Taha; Cardosa, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    Background A major outbreak of human enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot and mouth disease in Sarawak in 1997 marked the beginning of a series of outbreaks in the Asia Pacific region. Some of these outbreaks had unusually high numbers of fatalities and this generated much fear and anxiety in the region. Methods We established a sentinel surveillance programme for hand, foot and mouth disease in Sarawak, Malaysia, in March 1998, and the observations of the first 7 years are described here. Virus isolation, serotyping and genotyping were performed on throat, rectal, vesicle and other swabs. Results During this period Sarawak had two outbreaks of human enterovirus 71, in 2000 and 2003. The predominant strains circulating in the outbreaks of 1997, 2000 and 2003 were all from genogroup B, but the strains isolated during each outbreak were genetically distinct from each other. Human enterovirus 71 outbreaks occurred in a cyclical pattern every three years and Coxsackievirus A16 co-circulated with human enterovirus 71. Although vesicles were most likely to yield an isolate, this sample was not generally available from most cases and obtaining throat swabs was thus found to be the most efficient way to obtain virological information. Conclusion Knowledge of the epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 transmission will allow public health personnel to predict when outbreaks might occur and to plan interventions in an effective manner in order to reduce the burden of disease. PMID:16827926

  9. Marital Satisfaction and Life Circumstances of Grown Children With Autism Across 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child’s autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent–child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers’ marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother–child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers’ marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child’s departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents’ marital relationship. PMID:22866933

  10. Atypical thymic carcinoid manifesting with nephrotic-range proteinuria in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Soltysiak, Jolanta; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Zaorska, Katarzyna; Sterzyńska, Karolina; Derwich, Katarzyna; Zachwieja, Jacek

    2017-08-01

    Nephrotic-range proteinuria as a paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) is an exceptional presentation, especially in children. It is usually associated with hematologic malignancies. Solid tumors are very rare causes of proteinuria. We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with an extremely rare atypical thymic carcinoid accompanied by nephrotic-range proteinuria as PNS. The kidney biopsy was consistent with minimal change disease (MCD). Tests for a neuroendocrine tumor were performed due to symptoms of hypercortisolemia and an elevated concentration of chromogranin A in the serum. The chest computed tomography revealed a tumor in the anterior mediastinum, which was diagnosed as an atypical thymic carcinoid. A complete resolution of the nephrotic-range proteinuria was observed within 1 week after the first thoracoscopic surgery, with almost complete reduction of the tumor mass. This extremely rare case shows that MCD can occur as a PNS even in children. Nephrotic-range proteinuria can be a symptom of malignant solid tumor. This case highlights the possibility of secondary causes of MCD in children.

  11. Facial Mimicry in 6–7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Aims To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6–7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. Results All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis) and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. Conclusion Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms. PMID:24416323

  12. Indications and outcome for obstetric patients' admission to intensive care unit: a 7-year review.

    PubMed

    Lataifeh, I; Amarin, Z; Zayed, F; Al-Mehaisen, L; Alchalabi, H; Khader, Y

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the indications, interventions and clinical outcome of pregnant and newly delivered women admitted to the multidisciplinary intensive care unit at the King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan over a 7-year period from January 2002 to December 2008. The collected data included demographic characteristics of the patients, mode of delivery, pre-existing medical conditions, reason for admission, specific intervention, length of stay and maternal outcome. A total of 43 women required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), which represented 0.37% of all deliveries. The majority (95.3%) of patients were admitted to the ICU postpartum. The most common reasons for admissions were (pre)eclampsia (48.8%) and obstetric haemorrhage (37.2). The remainder included adult respiratory distress syndrome (6.9%), pulmonary embolism (2.3%) and neurological disorders (4.6%). Mechanical ventilation was required to support 18.6% of patients and transfusion of red blood cells was needed for 48.8% of patients. There were three maternal deaths (6.9%). A multidisciplinary team approach is essential to improve the management of hypertensive disorders and postpartum haemorrhage to achieve significant improvements in maternal outcome. A large, prospective study to know which women are at high risk of admission to the intensive care units and to prevent serious maternal morbidity and mortality is warranted.

  13. WMAP 7 year constraints on CPT violation from large angle CMB anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Gruppuso, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Rosa, A. De; Finelli, F.; Paci, F. E-mail: paolo.natoli@gmail.com E-mail: derosa@iasfbo.inaf.it E-mail: fpaci@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2012-02-01

    We constrain the rotation angle α of the linear polarization of CMB photons using the large angular scale (up to ∼ 4°) signal in WMAP 7 year data. At these scales, the CMB polarization pattern probes mostly the reionization era. A genuine rotation may be interpreted as cosmological birefringence, which is a well known tracer of new physics, through the breakdown of fundamental symmetries. Our analysis provides α = −1.6°±1.7° (3.4°) at 68% (95%) C.L. for the multipoles range Δl = 2−47 not including an instrumental systematic uncertainty that the WMAP team estimates at ±1.5°. This improves the bound obtained by WMAP team (Komatsu et al., 2010). Moreover we show, for the first time at low multipoles, the angular power spectrum α{sub l} in search of a possible scale dependence of the birefringence effect. Our findings are compatible with no detection at all angular scales probed here. We finally forecast the capabilities of Planck in tightening the present constraints.

  14. Facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior disorder and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. Electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis) and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms.

  15. Caries experience in 3-7 year-old children in Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Tewari, S

    2001-06-01

    A study was carried out to know the prevalence of dental caries in 509 primary school children in the age group of 3-7 years. The mean prevalence of caries in all the age group from 3 to 6 year was 33.8% while the prevalence 6 years was 38.2%. It was seen that prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at the age of 6 years (dmft = 0.91 SD = 1.40) as compared to 3 years (dmft = 0.41 SD = 1.16). Deciduous molars were most affected by caries and prevalence of restored teeth was 1.2%. The difference between males and females was statistically significant and the mean dmft per child was found to be 0.73 and mean dmft per affected child was 2.37. Assessment regarding oral hygiene habits depicted that only 3% of children cleaned their teeth once a day with tooth brush and tooth paste.

  16. Carrier screening for beta-thalassemia during pregnancy in India: a 7-year evaluation.

    PubMed

    Colah, Roshan; Surve, Reema; Wadia, Marukh; Solanki, Prakash; Mayekar, Pramod; Thomas, Mariamma; Gorakshakar, Ajit; Dastur, Adi; Mohanty, Dipika

    2008-06-01

    Premarital screening for beta-thalassemia is not widely acceptable in India; hence, we evaluated the effectiveness of antenatal screening and counseling over 7 years. 61,935 pregnant women were screened using the single-tube osmotic fragility test during their first antenatal visit. Individuals who were positive were investigated further for diagnosis of beta-thalassemia and other abnormal hemoglobins. Spouses of carrier women were tested whenever available. Couples at risk were given the option of prenatal diagnosis. Only 19% of the women registered at the antenatal clinic in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 14% of the women were positive per the osmotic fragility test; 1020 beta-thalassemia heterozygotes and 213 women with other hemoglobinopathies were identified, majority being in the second and third trimesters. Seven hundred and thirteen (69%) of their husbands could be tested, and 37 couples at risk were identified. Only 15 couples had a prenatal diagnosis done. Four couples with affected fetuses opted for termination of pregnancy. The remaining couples either did not respond after counseling or the pregnancies were advanced for prenatal intervention. This first large study shows that antenatal screening is acceptable in India; however, awareness generation is still a primary requisite to make women register early at antenatal clinics and bring their spouses for screening when required.

  17. A 7-Year-Old Boy With Sudden Onset of Loud Snoring.

    PubMed

    DelRosso, Lourdes M

    2016-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy was referred for evaluation of loud nightly snoring. Snoring started suddenly 2 weeks prior to presentation and grew progressively worse. Currently, the parents witnessed breathing pauses and gasping at night. The parents moved the child to a recliner to be able to breathe better, but the snoring and apneas persisted. There was no sleepwalking, night terrors, or nocturnal enuresis. During the day, the boy did not endorse symptoms of excessive sleepiness. The review of systems was negative for fever, weight loss, night sweats, sore throat, dysphagia, nasal congestion, ear pain, chest pain, shortness of breath, stridor, and abdominal pain. The child did not complain of throat discomfort. The parents noticed a sudden change in the child's voice and described it as "muffled, like speaking with cotton balls in his mouth." His school performance did not change. He had had a viral illness 2 weeks prior to presentation that was diagnosed as viral pneumonia. He was not on medications. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family.

  19. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-07-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort.

  20. Marital satisfaction and life circumstances of grown children with autism across 7 years.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sigan L; Barker, Erin T; Baker, Jason K; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S

    2012-10-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child's autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent-child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers' marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother-child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers' marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child's departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents' marital relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Tomori, Yuji; Sudo, Yoshihiro; Iizawa, Norishige; Nanno, Mitsuhiko; Takai, Shinro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus is an extremely rare injury in children, especially in those under 8 years of age. To our best knowledge, there have been 55 reported cases of this fracture type in children in the English literature, 12 of which involved children under 8 years of age. Patient Concerns: We report a case of intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus in a7-year-old boy fell in a gymnasium, injuring his left elbow. Interventions: Closed reduction was initially attempted under fluoroscopic guidance, but anatomic reduction could not be achieved because the fragments were extremely unstable and irreducible. Considering the displacement and the failure of closed reduction, ORIF through a posterior approach was performed. Open reduction and double cross-pinning across the medial and lateral condylar fragments were performed through a posterior approach. Diagnoses: Plain radiographs showed a displaced intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus. Arthrography under general anesthesia showed a severely displaced intra-articular fracture, with rotational displacement of the lateral condyle. Outcomes: Thirteen months after surgery, there was no functional disturbance or radiographic evidence of avascular necrosis or epiphyseal growth arrest. Lessons: Open reduction and double cross-pinning through a posterior approach can be a reliable procedure for intercondylar fracture of the distal humerus in children. PMID:28178167

  2. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986–1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

  3. Management of Ruptured Occult Left Hydronephrotic Kidney in 7-Year - old Boy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    More, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Pre-existing, occult, congenital renal anomalies are often discovered during evaluation of children for blunt injury of the kidney and abdomen, presenting with or without haematuria. This is a report of 7-year-old boy; who presented with blunt injury abdomen with haematuria following fall from motorcycle. He had pallor, and features of hypovolumic shock and peritonitis. Skiagram of the abdomen showed haziness of the abdomen, without free gas under diaphragm. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed significant hemoperitoneum and gross hydronephrosis of the left kidney, which was undiagnosed previously. Exploratory laparotomy was done for peritonitis and the findings were hemoperitoneum, hematoma at the left mesocolon and left retroperitoneum. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen reported left hydronephrosis due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction with rupture of the renal pelvis. The ruptured hydronephrotic kidney was successfully managed by nephrostomy followed by delayed open dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. His postoperative recovery following pyeloplasty was uneventful and he was doing well at follow-up after a month of pyeloplasty. PMID:25478398

  4. Human African trypanosomiasis with 7-year incubation period: clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Wengert, Oliver; Kopp, Marcel; Siebert, Eberhard; Stenzel, Werner; Hegasy, Guido; Suttorp, Norbert; Stich, August; Zoller, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also referred to as "sleeping sickness", is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Diagnosing imported HAT outside endemic areas is difficult and diagnosis is often delayed. We report a case of imported human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an unusually long incubation period of at least 7 years. A 33 year old male African patient, a former resident of Cameroon, presented with a 4-month history of progressive personality changes. A few weeks before presentation the patient had first been admitted to a psychiatric ward and received antidepressant treatment, until a lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis and then antibiotic treatment for suspected neuroborreliosis was initiated. The patient continued to deteriorate during antibiotic treatment and became increasingly lethargic. Under antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory treatment, the condition of the patient gradually improved over the following months and he recovered completely after 24 months of follow-up. This well-documented case illustrates typical difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis outside endemic areas and provides an overview of typical clinical, neuropathological and neuroimaging findings in T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis, guiding the clinician in establishing the correct diagnosis in this rare disease.

  5. Eculizumab to treat antibody-mediated rejection in a 7-year-old kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Chehade, Hassib; Rotman, Samuel; Matter, Maurice; Girardin, Eric; Aubert, Vincent; Pascual, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    We report on successful early eculizumab administration to treat acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) in a highly sensitized kidney transplant recipient. The recipient is a 7-year-old boy who received, 6 months after a desensitization protocol with monthly intravenous immunoglobulin infusion, a second kidney transplant in the presence of low donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). Both pretransplant lymphocytotoxic and flow cytometric crossmatch were negative. Allograft function recovered promptly, with excellent initial function. On postoperative day (POD) 4, the child developed significant proteinuria with an acute rise in serum creatinine. Allograft biopsy showed severe acute ABMR. Intravenous eculizumab (600 mg), preceded by a single session of plasmapheresis, was administered on POD 5 and 12 along with a 4-day thymoglobulin course. After the first dose of eculizumab, a strikingly rapid normalization of allograft function with a decrease in proteinuria occurred. However, because circulating DSA levels remained elevated, the child received 3 doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (POD 15, 16, and 17), with a significant subsequent decrease in DSA levels. At 9 months after transplant, the child continues to maintain excellent allograft function with undetectable circulating DSA levels. This unique case highlights the potential efficacy of using early eculizumab to rapidly reverse severe ABMR in pediatric transplantation, and therefore it suggests a novel therapeutic approach to treat acute ABMR.

  6. Five- to 7-year-olds' finger gnosia and calculation abilities.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Robert; Humberstone, Judi

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the relationship between 65 5- to 7-year-olds' finger gnosia, visuo-spatial working memory, and finger-use in solving single-digit addition problems. Their non-verbal IQ and basic reaction time were also assessed. Previous research has found significant changes in children's representational abilities between 5 and 7 years. One aim of the research was to determine whether changes in finger representational abilities (finger gnosia) occur across these ages and whether they are associated with finger-use in computation. A second aim was to determine whether visuo-spatial working memory is associated with finger gnosia and computation abilities. We used latent class profile analysis to identify patterns of similarities and differences in finger gnosia and computation/finger-use abilities. The analysis yielded four finger gnosia subgroups that differed in finger representation ability. It also yielded four finger/computation subgroups that differed in the relationship between finger-use and computation success. Analysis revealed associations between computation finger-use/success subgroups, finger gnosia subgroups, and visuo-spatial working memory. A multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that finger gnosia subgroup membership and visuo-spatial working memory uniquely contribute to a model predicting finger-use in computation group membership. The results show that finger gnosia abilities change in the early school years, and that these changes are associated with the ability to use fingers to aid computation.

  7. Five- to 7-Year-Olds’ Finger Gnosia and Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Robert; Humberstone, Judi

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the relationship between 65 5- to 7-year-olds’ finger gnosia, visuo-spatial working memory, and finger-use in solving single-digit addition problems. Their non-verbal IQ and basic reaction time were also assessed. Previous research has found significant changes in children’s representational abilities between 5 and 7 years. One aim of the research was to determine whether changes in finger representational abilities (finger gnosia) occur across these ages and whether they are associated with finger-use in computation. A second aim was to determine whether visuo-spatial working memory is associated with finger gnosia and computation abilities. We used latent class profile analysis to identify patterns of similarities and differences in finger gnosia and computation/finger-use abilities. The analysis yielded four finger gnosia subgroups that differed in finger representation ability. It also yielded four finger/computation subgroups that differed in the relationship between finger-use and computation success. Analysis revealed associations between computation finger-use/success subgroups, finger gnosia subgroups, and visuo-spatial working memory. A multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that finger gnosia subgroup membership and visuo-spatial working memory uniquely contribute to a model predicting finger-use in computation group membership. The results show that finger gnosia abilities change in the early school years, and that these changes are associated with the ability to use fingers to aid computation. PMID:22171220

  8. First hip arthroplasty register in Italy: 55,000 cases and 7 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, B.; De Clerico, M.; Petropulacos, K.; Toni, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Register for Orthopaedic Prosthetic Implantation (RIPO) has been prospectively collecting data on hip prostheses performed in all the orthopaedic units in the region Emilia-Romagna since January 2000. The register aims to determine the characteristics of patients, evaluate the effectiveness of prostheses, and allow internal audit. Adherence to the register is compulsory (93% capture). By 31 December 2006 the register contained data on 35,041 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), 14,613 hemiarthoplasties, and 5,878 revisions. All prosthetic components are registered on an individual basis. Survival analysis is done following the Kaplan Meier method. Cumulative survival rate at 7 years is 96.8% (95% CI: 96.4–97.1%) for THA and 97.6% (97.0–98.3%) for hemiarthroplasties. Multivariate analysis verified that survival of the THA is affected by pathology, where the worst conditions are rheumatoid arthritis, femoral neck fracture, and sequelae of coxitis or Paget’s disease. Results are comparable to other major registers of Northern Europe and Australia. PMID:17987290

  9. Periosteal fasciitis in a 7-year old girl: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lääveri, M; Heikinheimo, K; Baumhoer, D; Slootweg, P J; Happonen, R-P

    2017-03-02

    Periosteal fasciitis, considered a subtype of nodular fasciitis, is a rare benign soft tissue mass often misdiagnosed as a malignant lesion due to its fast and infiltrative growth pattern and histological features. Nodular fasciitis is usually found in the upper extremities in adults and in the head and neck region in children. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to overtreatment, potentially causing disturbed orofacial development in growing children. A rapidly growing asymptomatic mass, initially suspected to be a malignant bone tumour, was found in the left angle area of the mandible in a healthy 7-year-old girl. Radiographic examination revealed an exophytic, expansile and destructive nodule arising from the periosteal region. A diagnosis of periosteal fasciitis was established based on histological findings in an open biopsy specimen and the lesion was subsequently enucleated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a USP6 gene rearrangement and confirmed the diagnosis molecularly. Due to the aggressive growth pattern without external trauma and the results of the gene rearrangement test, it is suggested that nodular fasciitis be regarded as a benign neoplasm rather than as a reactive process. The patient remains free of disease at 3 years after surgery.

  10. Lessons learned from teaching web-based courses: the 7-year itch.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cynthia G

    2005-01-01

    Lessons learned from teaching web-based courses: the 7-year itch. Increased sophisticated technological communications are rapidly changing the teaching and learning environment. Nursing educators must respond by developing new ways of teaching. Because of these changes, new ways of teaching, course delivery methods, and classroom environments are being discovered. The Internet and the cyberspace environment allow students from all over the nation to sit in the same virtual classroom and "attend lecture" with one instructor. This article describes lessons learned from seven years of teaching on the web on both undergraduate and graduate levels. The major challenges for faculty relate to the creation of a stimulated learning environment for communication and interaction among the students, course preparation, workload, time management. Additional challenges are the methods of classroom discussions, teaching methods, responding to students, and teaching a 2-unit clinical component on-line. For students, issues of learning styles, motivation, and class participation are discussed. Results of the students' responses to a 10-item Likert-type course evaluation tool as well as issues for future web educators are presented.

  11. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of about one degree. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array [16], Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) [61], and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) [78]. DASI was the first to detect the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum. In June 2001, NASA launched its second CMB mission (after COBE), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer (WMAP) [44], to make much more precise measurements of the CMB sky. WMAP measured the differences in the CMB temperature across the sky creating a full-sky map of the CMB in five different frequency bands. The mission also measured the CMB's E-mode and the foreground polarization. As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft has ended its mission after nine years of operation. Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB, it did not have the angular resolution to cover the smaller-scale fluctuations that had been observed by previous ground-based interferometers. A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor [1], was launched by ESA* in May 2009 to measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP, as well as making precise measurements of the polarization of CMB. Planck represents an advance over WMAP in several respects: it observes in higher resolution, hence allowing one to probe the CMB power spectrum to smaller scales; it has a higher sensitivity and observes in nine frequency bands rather than five, hence improving the astrophysical foreground models. The mission has a wide variety of scientific aims, including: (1) detecting the total intensity/polarization of the primordial CMB anisotropies; (2) creating a galaxy-cluster catalogue through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect [93]; (3) observing the

  12. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  13. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  14. Digital communications: Microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, K.

    Transmission concepts and techniques of digital systems are presented; and practical state-of-the-art implementation of digital communications systems by line-of-sight microwaves is described. Particular consideration is given to statistical methods in digital transmission systems analysis, digital modulation methods, microwave amplifiers, system gain, m-ary and QAM microwave systems, correlative techniques and applications to digital radio systems, hybrid systems, digital microwave systems design, diversity and protection switching techniques, measurement techniques, and research and development trends and unsolved problems.

  15. Developmental Trajectories in Siblings of Children with Autism: Cognition and Language from 4 Months to 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamliel, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit; Jaffe, Dena H.; Manor, Orly; Sigman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    We compared the cognitive and language development at 4, 14, 24, 36, 54 months, and 7 years of siblings of children with autism (SIBS-A) to that of siblings of children with typical development (SIBS-TD) using growth curve analyses. At 7 years, 40% of the SIBS-A, compared to 16% of SIBS-TD, were identified with cognitive, language and/or academic…

  16. Experience with alendronate treatment for 7 years among Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Uzawa, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the outcome of alendronate treatment for 7 years among Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures. Thirty-five Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures (mean age at baseline 58.2 years) who had been treated with alendronate for over 7 years in our outpatient clinic were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; the urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were monitored; the incidence of fractures during the 7-year treatment period was then assessed. The urinary NTX and serum ALP levels decreased (-46.1% at 3 months and -21.1% at 7 years, respectively) and the lumbar spine and total hip BMD increased (+14.2 and +10.1% at 7 years, respectively), compared with the baseline values. Four patients (11.4%) experienced vertebral fractures, and one patient (2.9%) experienced a nonvertebral fracture. No serious adverse events were observed, including osteonecrosis of the jaw or atypical femoral fractures. These results suggested that alendronate suppressed bone turnover and increased the lumbar spine and total hip BMD from the baseline values over the course of the 7-year treatment period without causing any severe adverse events in Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures.

  17. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, BANDPASS FILTERS, TUNED CIRCUITS, NETWORKS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , LOW PASS FILTERS, MULTIPLEXING, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, WAVEGUIDE FILTERS, WAVEGUIDE COUPLERS.

  18. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTRIC FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY), (*MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, ELECTRIC FILTERS), CIRCUITS, CAPACITORS, COILS, RESONATORS, STRIP TRANSMISSION LINES, WAVEGUIDES, TUNING DEVICES, PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIERS, FREQUENCY CONVERTERS .

  19. Place of death of pediatric cancer patients in a single institute during 7 years.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Tomoko; Hirase, Satoshi; Matsunoshita, Natsuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ninchoji, Takeshi; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Iijima, Kazumoto; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2012-06-27

    Place of death is an important issue at the end-of-life. It is poorly understood in pediatric cancer patients in Japan. This study aimed to clarify place of death of children with cancer as well as variables associated with place of death. Study population was pediatric cancer patients who died in the Department of Pediatrics at Kobe University Hospital during the last 7 years. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed regardless of cause of death to derive data relating to patients' characteristics and disease. 18 patients were included. Median age at death was 12.2 years old. 6 patients including 5 children in complete remission had hematological disease and 12 patients suffered from solid tumors. 4 patients (22.2%) died at home, whereas 14 patients (77.8%) died in the hospital including 6 ICU deaths. No one died in hospices. Preference of patients was unavailable due to the lack of inquiry. Factors influencing place of death (home, ICU, non-ICU) were disease (hematological disease vs. solid tumor, p=0.010, brain tumor vs. non-brain tumor, p=0.023), disease status (complete remission vs. non-complete remission, p=0.0014) and preference of families (p=0.029). Among 6 families who expressed preference, no disparity was observed between actual and preferred place of death. This is the first English publication of place of death of pediatric cancer patients in Japan. The low percentage of home death, factors influencing place of death and the lack of disparity between actual and preferred place of death were indicated. Further studies are required to better understand place of death.

  20. Social reasoning abilities in preterm and full-term children aged 5-7years.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Fleur; Réveillon, Morgane; Monnier, Maryline; Hüppi, Petra S; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-12-01

    Literature has evidenced behavioral and socio-emotional problems in preterm children, as well as long-term difficulties to establish and maintain social relationships in preterm population. Several studies have shown relations between behavior and social reasoning abilities in typically developing children and adults. The present study aimed to investigate the social understanding and social reasoning abilities in preterm children aged between 5 and 7years in comparison to their full-term peers. A social resolution task (SRT) was used to assess abilities to judge, identify and reason about others' behavior in relation to conventional and moral rules knowledge. 102 preterm children and 88 full-term children were included in the study. Compared with their full-term peers, preterm children exhibited difficulties to understand and reason about inappropriate social behavior, particularly for situations related to the transgression of conventional rules. They used more irrelevant information and exhibited less social awareness when reasoning about the transgression of social rules. The only significant predictor for global SRT and social reasoning scores was the mental processing composite of the K-ABC, but the part of the variance of the SRT that could be explained by the general cognitive abilities was relatively small. Preterm children demonstrated poorer social knowledge and social reasoning abilities compared with full-term children at early school age. Improving such abilities may reduce behavioral difficulties and peer relationship problems often described in the preterm population. These findings emphasize the need to early identify children at risk for impaired social development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. [French resident's performance on laparoscopic surgery box trainer: 7-year results of pelvitrainer contests].

    PubMed

    Madec, F-X; Dariane, C; Pradere, B; Amadane, N; Bergerat, S; Gryn, A; Lebacle, C; Matillon, X; Olivier, J; Nouhaud, F-X; Panayotopoulos, P; Peyronnet, B; Rizk, J; Sanson, S; Seisen, T; Salomon, L; Fiard, G

    2016-12-01

    The study objectives were to analyze the resident's laparoscopic surgery performance in order to build a self-assessment data set, to identify discriminatory exercises and to investigate the suturing time changes. From 2007 to 2014, the French Association of Urologist in Training (AFUF) organized 7 pelvitrainer contests. Participant scores on 11 laparoscopic surgery exercises were evaluated. Sixty-six residents participated to these contests and performed 11 exercises each. Twenty-two (33.3 %) participants were beginners, 26 (39.4 %) intermediates et 18 (27.3 %) experienced. The participant scores were gathered into a data set including the average time per exercise. We found a time scoring improvement related to the resident experience for all exercises. A significant decline in time was noted for exercise 8 and 9 between beginners and intermediates (139s [±71]), (173.9s [±118.3]) and between beginners and experienced (80.6s [±26.7]), (94,1s [±42.7]) with a P<0.05. The correlation coefficient for the exercise 11 duration (vesico-uretral anastomosis) was 0.04 over a 7-year period (P=0.44). The study provided a data set on 11 laparoscopic surgery tasks which can be consulted by all residents as a reference in a self-assessment process. Two exercises (8 and 9) discriminated beginners from intermediates and experienced groups and could be used as a benchmark ahead of an operating room procedure. The vesico-uretral anastomosis duration (exercise 11) did not improve significantly between 2006 and 2014. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The prevalence of amblyopia in 7-year-old schoolchildren in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Yekta, Abbasali; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Nirouzad, Fereidon; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Eshrati, Babak; Mohazzab-Torabi, Saman; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in schoolchildren aged 7 years in Iran, its relation with refractive errors, and its determinants. In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling was done from elementary school students in 7 cities in Iran. In all schools, an optometrist conducted all tests, including measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, and cover test. In this study, amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity 20/30 or less or a 2-line interocular optotype acuity difference with no pathology. Of the 4157 students selected for the study, 3675 participated and final analyses were done with data from 3547 children. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.88% (95% CI: 1.24-2.52) (n=63). The prevalence was 1.91% (95% CI: 0.85-2.97) in boys and 1.85% (95% CI: 1.12-2.58) in girls (p=0.92). Among these cases, 60.30% (n=38) were unilateral. Also, 61.9% were strabismic, 27.0% were anisometropic, 9.5% were isometropic, and one case (1.6%) was due to congenital cataracts. Amblyopic individuals were more hypermetropic and the mean cylinder error was significantly higher. Necessary attention should be paid to amblyopia, although its prevalence in Iran is mid-range when compared with other countries. Amblyopia is more common in hyperopic and astigmatic individuals and therefore it is important to pay more attention to this refractive error during childhood. Since strabismus is the most common cause of amblyopia in Iran, children need to be checked for strabismus before the age of 5 years.

  3. 7 Minutes of Totality in 7 Years: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Bell, S.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid succession, two chances to experience a total solar eclipse will soon occur over the middle of the United States. Usually, a total solar eclipse is, at most, a once in a lifetime event. However, the celebrated shadows will race over the Shawnee National Forest, near Makanda, Illinois, twice in less than 7 years. The centerlines of the 2017 August 21 and 2024 April 08 eclipses will cross at this convenient location. If you are planning a trip to that legendary heart of darkness, you should consider a site just northwest of Makanda for both events. The two eclipse centerlines are expected to intersect at 37º 38.2’ N and 89º 15.4’ W, in the Shawnee National Forest. In 2017, totality lasting about 2 min 45 sec is expected at this location, which is the maximum duration for that eclipse. In 2024, nearly 4 min 13 sec of darkness will occur at the crossover point, but the longest period of totality for this eclipse will be seen in Mexico. Historically, southern Illinois is mostly sunny in late August and early April. If rain or clouds mar your 2017 experience, you can hope for better weather when you return in 2024. A number of activities can enrich your outreach program: spotting planets and stars, locating shadow effects, monitoring climate changes, and watching wildlife responses. In addition, you will be able to compare and contrast your observations during the two eclipses there. Planning an expedition to this rare intersection reduces your flexibility in case of inclement weather--a small price for the novelty of multiple visits. Unless you are a dedicated eclipse chaser, 2017 may not seem imminent. However, your outreach program choices now may shape your plans for the eclipses to come. For additional information, visit the USNO Eclipse Portal at http://www.eclipse.org.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi

  4. Evolution of bovine brucellosis in Colombia over a 7-year period (2006-2012).

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Liliana; Melo, Oscar; Casal, Jordi

    2017-09-13

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Colombia, and is a mandatory notifiable disease, subjected to a control program based on four surveillance procedures: passive surveillance, test-and-remove, certification of disease-free farms, and animal movements. The objective of this study is to estimate the evolution of bovine brucellosis in Colombia over a 7-year period (2006-2012) using data from the official control program. A total of 58 epidemiologic variables were analyzed for each year at the department level. Univariate descriptive analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed to ascertain the behavior of the variables. These programs covered 3% of the census in 2006, increasing to 15% in 2012. The percentage of positive farms averaged 22% in 2006 and 23% in 2012. The highest proportion of positive farms was in the Orinoquía region (24.6 to 49.6%); the lowest was in the Amazon region, (17.9 to 32.7%). The percentage of positive animals presented certain differences between years but without any clear trend (4.7% in 2006 and 4.6% in 2012), indicating that the brucellosis control program had a low impact in Colombia in these years. The results for each surveillance procedure were 6.8% for passive surveillance, 5.9% for test-and-remove, and 4.4% both in disease-free farms and in animal movement tests. The results obtained by PCA led to finding three different clusters: geographic areas with low bovine production and low bovine brucellosis surveillance, areas with medium bovine production and medium surveillance for bovine brucellosis, and areas with a predominant bovine production, applying sanitary measures to control bovine brucellosis.

  5. The stability of sleep patterns in children 3 to 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Farmer, Victoria L; Taylor, Barry J

    2015-03-01

    To determine the reliability and stability of sleep (duration and quality) over time in young children using repeated accelerometer estimates of sleep. One hundred ninety-four children wore Actical accelerometers for 5-day periods (24-hour monitoring) at 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7 years of age. Sleep variables of interest (duration, onset, offset, latency, efficiency, and wake after sleep onset) were estimated using the Sadeh algorithm within a commercial data reduction program (ActiLife). Children were divided into various groups according to sleep stability, and demographic and behavioral differences were compared across groups by ANOVA. All measures of sleep quantity and quality required 4-7 days of accelerometry to obtain acceptable reliability estimates, except morning wake time (2-4 days), and sleep latency (11-21 days). Average year-to-year correlations were only moderate for most measures (r = 0.41-0.51), but considerably higher than those observed for sleep latency, efficiency, and wake after onset (r = 0.15-0.24). Only 29 children were classified as sleep-stable over the 4 years. These children were less likely to be from ethnic minority groups (P = .017) and had higher levels of day-time physical activity (P = .032). Sleep patterns in children are not particularly stable, showing considerable variation both within a week and across the years. Few children exhibit stable sleep patterns over time, yet characterization of these children might provide further information regarding how sleep benefits health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Searching for hidden mirror symmetries in CMB fluctuations from WMAP 7 year maps

    SciTech Connect

    Finelli, Fabio; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Starobinsky, Alexey A. E-mail: gruppuso@iasfbo.inaf.it E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru

    2012-07-01

    We search for hidden mirror symmetries at large angular scales in the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination map of CMB temperature anisotropies using global pixel based estimators introduced for this aim. Two different axes are found for which the CMB intensity pattern is anomalously symmetric (or anti-symmetric) under reflection with respect to orthogonal planes at the 99.84(99.96)% CL (confidence level), if compared to a result for an arbitrary axis in simulations without the symmetry. We have verified that our results are robust to the introduction of the galactic mask. The direction of such axes is close to the CMB kinematic dipole and nearly orthogonal to the ecliptic plane, respectively. If instead the real data are compared to those in simulations taken with respect to planes for which the maximal mirror symmetry is generated by chance, the confidence level decreases to 92.39(76.65)%. But when the effect in question translates into the anomalous alignment between normals to planes of maximal mirror (anti)-symmetry and these natural axes mentioned. We also introduce the representation of the above estimators in the harmonic domain, confirming the results obtained in the pixel one. The symmetry anomaly is shown to be almost entirely due to low multipoles, so it may have a cosmological and even primordial origin. Contrary, the anti-symmetry one is mainly due to intermediate multipoles that probably suggests its non-fundamental nature. We have demonstrated that these anomalies are not connected to the known issue of the low variance in WMAP observations and we have checked that axially symmetric parts of these anomalies are small, so that the axes are not the symmetry ones.

  7. Black carbon decomposition during 7 years and its transformation in soil estimated by 14C labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Y.; Bogomolova, I.; Glaser, B.

    2012-04-01

    Incomplete combustion of organics (vegetation or fossil fuel) led to accumulation of charred products in soils. Such charred products, frequently called black carbon (BC), may act as an important long-term carbon (C) sink because its microbial decomposition and chemical transformation is very slow. There are no studies with direct estimations of BC decomposition rates and its transformation in soil. We produced BC by charring 14C labeled residues of perennial ryegrass and incubated this 14C labeled BC in a Haplic Luvisol or in loess. The decomposition rates of BC were estimated based on 14CO2 sampled 55 times during the 7-years incubation period. The decomposition rates of BC calculated based on 14C in CO2 were similar in soil and in loess and were about 10-5 d-1 (=10-3 % d-1). This corresponds to a decomposition of about 0.3% BC a-1 under optimal conditions. Considering about 10 times slower decomposition of BC under natural conditions, the mean residence time of BC is about 2000 years. Three years after the incubation start, we traced the BC transformation in soil by 14C incorporation into microbial biomass, DOC, PLFA, sugars, neutral lipids, glycolipids, sugars and benzene polycarboxylic acids. The most 14C (>80%) remained in benzene polycarboxylic acids confirming very high stability of BC. Incorporation of BC-14C into microbial biomass, DOC and PLFA was less than 0.5%. We conclude that despite very high stability of BC and very slow process rates, the application of 14C labeling opens new ways for very sensitive tracing of BC transformation products in released CO2, microbial biomass, DOC, and SOM pools with various properties.

  8. Epidemiology of sarcoidosis in Afro-Caribbean people: a 7-year retrospective study in Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Coquart, Nolwenn; Cadelis, Gilbert; Tressières, Benoît; Cordel, Nadege

    2015-02-01

    There are no reliable epidemiological data on sarcoidosis in the French West Indies, although this disease is known to be more frequent and more severe in Black African-Americans and West Indians. This retrospective study aimed to assess the incidence and prevalence of sarcoidosis in Guadeloupe over a 7-year period and to determine its epidemiological, clinical, and evolutionary characteristics. Patients were identified through the computerized databases of the three pathology laboratories and two hospitals on the islands of Guadeloupe. Histologically proven cases of sarcoidosis were selected. All patients were recalled at a single study time-point. A total of 75 patients were identified. These included 44 women and 31 men (sex ratio: 1.4), with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 47 ± 14 years and Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI. The average incidence was 2.28 per 100,000 inhabitants per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-3.02). The prevalence of sarcoidosis in 2009 was 21.09 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 16.00-26.18). Most patients (61/71, 85.9%) exhibited multiple organ involvement; the mean ± SD number of organs involved was 2.6 ± 1.1. The initiation of systemic therapy was required in 75.7% of cases. Several lines of treatment were necessary in 41.5% of affected patients. At the study time-point, seven patients were found to have died. Four of these deaths were directly attributable to sarcoidosis (mortality rate: 5.3%). This epidemiological study on sarcoidosis in Guadeloupe reveals a low incidence of the disease and a high degree of severity as evidenced by the average number of affected organs, the high frequency of extrathoracic organ involvement, the frequent use of corticosteroids, and a mortality rate of 5.3%. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Decreased lung function in 7-year-old children with early-life organophosphate exposure.

    PubMed

    Raanan, Rachel; Balmes, John R; Harley, Kim G; Gunier, Robert B; Magzamen, Sheryl; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-02-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are heavily used in agriculture, and adverse associations with respiratory health in occupational settings have been reported. However, most of the evidence comes from studies where there were no biomarkers of exposure and no objective outcome measurement. Non-occupational chronic effects among residents living in agricultural communities are less well described. To evaluate associations between early-life organophosphate exposure and lung function of children living in an agricultural community. Participants were 279 children from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) longitudinal birth cohort. The area under the curve for organophosphate exposure was determined by urinary diethyl and dimethyl dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, which were measured five times during childhood (6-60 months). Spirometry was performed at age 7 years. Regression models controlled for maternal smoking during pregnancy, season of birth, particulate matter concentrations with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), breast feeding duration, mould and pets at home, distance of home from a highway, food insecurity, maternal education, season of spirometry, sex, height and technician. Childhood diethyl, dimethyl and total dialkylphosphate concentrations were associated with significant decreases in lung function at age 7. Specifically, we found lower FEV1, (L/s) (ß=-0.16, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.02, p=0.03) and FVC (L) (ß=-0.17, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.01, p=0.06) per 10-fold increase of total dialkylphosphate levels. Early-life organophosphate exposure as assessed by dialkylphosphate concentrations was adversely associated with 7-year-old children's lung function. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Sperm donation and its application in China: a 7-year multicenter retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Ping; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Zong; Li, Yu-Shan; Wang, Quan-Xian; Cao, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Yong; Dai, Hui-Li; Huang, Yi-Ran; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Sperm donation in China is different from that in other countries due to cultural, social and political factors. This research presents the current status of sperm donation in Mainland China and highlights some problems. Between January 2003 and December 2009, 19 471 sperm donors were screened totally and 6467 donors (33.2%) were recruited. The primary reasons for non-recruitment were either inadequate semen parameters (55.0%) or positive results for sexually transmitted diseases (7.9%). There were 327 (1.7%) qualified donors who withdrew from the program because of frustration related to failed semen parameters, participation merely for free medical tests or job transfer. A questionnaire investigating donor intention, as well as other concerns associated with sperm donation, was distributed to 516 potential donors. All potential donors indicated their primary motivation as altruism, while 90.9% mentioned monetary reward as a second motivating factor. Approximately 93.4% of donors expressed some apprehension about the risk of consanguineous mating and the protection of their identity. Over the past 7 years, 488 389 vials of donors' semen have been cryopreserved. In 36 438 artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID) cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 23.9% and the live birth rate was 16.6%. In 7148 in vitro fertilization cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 45.8% and the live birth rate was 35.2%. Human sperm banks have been strictly monitored to ensure that each sperm donor can only impregnate five women nationwide. There is still a large gap between the supply and demand for sperm donation which may be solved by updated guidelines. PMID:21623386

  11. Long-term trajectories of back pain: cohort study with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kate M; Campbell, Paul; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe long-term trajectories of back pain. Design Monthly data collection for 6 months at 7-year follow-up of participants in a prospective cohort study. Setting Primary care practices in Staffordshire, UK. Participants 228 people consulting their general practitioners with back pain, on whom information on 6-month back pain trajectories had been collected during 2001–2003, and who had valid consent and contact details in 2009–2010, were contacted. 155 participants (68% of those contacted) responded and provided sufficient data for primary analyses. Outcome measures Trajectories based on patients’ self-reports of back pain were identified using longitudinal latent class analysis. Trajectories were characterised using information on disability, psychological status and presence of other symptoms. Results Four clusters with different back pain trajectories at follow-up were identified: (1) no or occasional pain, (2) persistent mild pain, (3) fluctuating pain and (4) persistent severe pain. Trajectory clusters differed significantly from each other in terms of disability, psychological status and other symptoms. Most participants remained in a similar trajectory as 7 years previously (weighted κ 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.65). Conclusions Most people with back pain appear to follow a particular pain trajectory over long time periods, and do not have frequently recurring or widely fluctuating patterns. The results are limited by lack of information about the time between data collection periods and by loss to follow-up. However, findings do raise questions about standard divisions into acute and chronic back pain. A new framework for understanding the course of back pain is proposed. PMID:24334157

  12. Up to 7 Years of Sustained Weight Loss for Weight Loss Program Completers

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nia S.; Polsky, Sarit; Catenacci, Victoria A.; Furniss, Anna L.; Prochazka, Allan V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two issues remain elusive in weight management programs: significant, long-term weight loss maintenance and widely accessible programs that produce significant weight loss for reasonable costs. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term weight loss of participants who consecutively renew their annual membership in Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a national, nonprofit, low-cost, peer-led weight loss program. Methods This completers’ analysis was a retrospective cohort study of overweight and obese men and women who joined TOPS in 2005–2011 and consecutively renewed their annual membership at least once. Data were analyzed from June to October 2013. TOPS participants’ weights are sent to the national database when they join and at the time of their annual renewal, thus follow-up weight is only available for those who renew their membership. Among 207,469 individuals who joined during the study period, 74,629 (35.9%) had at least one consecutive annual renewal and were included in the study. Results Cumulative mean (95% CI) weight change as a percentage of initial weight ranged from −6.0% (−6.0%, −5.9%) for 74,629 participants who renewed at 1 year to −8.3% (−8.7%, −7.8%) for 2,289 participants with 7 years of consecutive annual renewal. Conclusions In the subset of individuals who choose to renew their program membership, TOPS can effectively promote maintenance of clinically significant weight loss for an extended period of time. RCTs are needed to further evaluate this low-cost, widely available program, which could be a viable option to treat overweight and obesity. PMID:26033350

  13. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.

  14. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  15. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  16. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

  17. Active microwave water equivalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyne, H. S.; Ellerbruch, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of water equivalence using an active FM-CW microwave system were conducted over the past three years at various sites in Colorado, Wyoming, and California. The measurement method is described. Measurements of water equivalence and stratigraphy are compared with ground truth. A comparison of microwave, federal sampler, and snow pillow measurements at three sites in Colorado is described.

  18. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  19. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  20. Microwave device investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, K. K. D.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwok, S. P.; Masnari, N. A.; Trew, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, devices and novel schemes for generation, amplification and detection of microwave and millimeter wave energy are studied. Considered are: (1) Schottky-barrier microwave devices; (2) intermodulation products in IMPATT diode amplifiers; and (3) harmonic generation using Read diode varactors.

  1. Coaxial microwave plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Gushchin, P. A.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kotelev, M. S.

    2011-11-15

    Physical principles underlying the operation of a pulsed coaxial microwave plasma source (micro-wave plasmatron) are considered. The design and parameters of the device are described, and results of experimental studies of the characteristics of the generated plasma are presented. The possibility of application of this type of plasmatron in gas-discharge physics is discussed.

  2. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  3. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  4. Microwave ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  5. THE LOCAL DUST FOREGROUNDS IN THE MICROWAVE SKY. I. THERMAL EMISSION SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Dikarev, Valeri; Preuss, Oliver; Solanki, Sami; Krueger, Harald; Krivov, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    Analyses of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation maps made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) have revealed anomalies not predicted by the standard inflationary cosmology. In particular, the power of the quadrupole moment of the CMB fluctuations is remarkably low, and the quadrupole and octopole moments are aligned mutually and with the geometry of the solar system. It has been suggested in the literature that microwave sky pollution by an unidentified dust cloud in the vicinity of the solar system may be the cause for these anomalies. In this paper, we simulate the thermal emission by clouds of spherical homogeneous particles of several materials. Spectral constraints from the WMAP multi-wavelength data and earlier infrared observations on the hypothetical dust cloud are used to determine the dust cloud's physical characteristics. In order for its emissivity to demonstrate a flat, CMB-like wavelength dependence over the WMAP wavelengths (3 through 14 mm), and to be invisible in the infrared light, its particles must be macroscopic. Silicate spheres of several millimeters in size and carbonaceous particles an order of magnitude smaller will suffice. According to our estimates of the abundance of such particles in the zodiacal cloud and trans-Neptunian belt, yielding the optical depths of the order of 10{sup -7} for each cloud, the solar system dust can well contribute 10 muK (within an order of magnitude) in the microwaves. This is not only intriguingly close to the magnitude of the anomalies (about 30 muK), but also alarmingly above the presently believed magnitude of systematic biases of the WMAP results (below 5 muK) and, to an even greater degree, of the future missions with higher sensitivities, e.g., Planck.

  6. Detection of trans-Planckian effects in the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneboom, Nicolaas E.; Elgarøy, Øystein

    2008-02-01

    Quantum gravity effects are expected to modify the primordial density fluctuations produced during inflation and leave their imprint on the cosmic microwave background observed today. We present a new analysis discussing whether these effects are detectable, considering both currently available data and simulated results from an optimal CMB experiment. We find that the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data show no evidence for the particular signature considered in this work but give an upper bound on the parameters of the model. However, a hypothetical experiment shows that with proper data, the trans-Planckian effects should be detectable through alternate sampling methods. This fuzzy conclusion is a result of the nature of the oscillations, since they give rise to a likelihood hypersurface riddled with local maxima. A simple Bayesian analysis shows no significant evidence for the simulated data to prefer a trans-Planckian model. Conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are not suitable for exploring this complicated landscape, but alternative methods are required to solve the problem. This, however, requires extremely high-precision data.

  7. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  8. Fast cosmological parameter estimation from microwave background temperature and polarization power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2004-07-01

    We improve the algorithm of Kosowsky, Milosavljevic, and Jimenez for computing power spectra of the cosmic microwave background. The present algorithm computes not only the temperature power spectrum but also the E- and B-mode polarization and the temperature-polarization cross power spectra, providing the accuracy required for current cosmological parameter estimation. Both unlensed and lensed (with non-linear evolution) power spectra are provided up to l=3000 for temperature and polarization signals. We refine the optimum set of cosmological parameters for computing the power spectra as perturbations around a fiducial model, leading to an accuracy better than 0.5% for the temperature power spectrum throughout the region of parameter space within the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropic Probe’s first-year 3σ confidence region. This accuracy is comparable to the difference between the widely used CMBFAST code of Seljak and Zaldarriaga and Boltzmann codes. Our algorithm (CMBWARP) makes possible a full exploration of the likelihood region for eight cosmological parameters in about one hour on a laptop computer. We provide the code to compute power spectra as well as the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for cosmological parameters estimation at http://www.physics.upenn.edu/˜raulj/CMBwarp.

  9. Microwave radiation hazards around large microwave antenna.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A.

    1973-01-01

    The microwave radiation hazards associated with the use of large antennas become increasingly more dangerous to personnel as the transmitters go to ever higher powers. The near-field area is of the greatest concern. It has spill over from subreflector and reflections from nearby objects. Centimeter waves meeting in phase will reinforce each other and create hot spots of microwave energy. This has been measured in front of and around several 26-meter antennas. Hot spots have been found and are going to be the determining factor in delineating safe areas for personnel to work. Better techniques and instruments to measure these fields are needed for the evaluation of hazard areas.

  10. ENSO-cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian; Hankin, Stuart; Roach, Regina; Markowska, Monika; McDonald, Janece

    2016-11-01

    Speleothems (cave deposits), used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O) variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE) Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform palaeorainfall reconstruction from

  11. Persistent Encopresis, Enuresis, and Anxiety in a 7-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Theodora; Chae, Heekyung; Anbar, Ran D; Stein, Martin T

    2017-09-19

    Sonia is a 7-year-old old girl who was referred to the Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic by the Pediatric Urology Clinic because of persistent wetting and soiling behaviors. Since age 3 years, she has had a history of encopresis (and wetting) for which she has seen gastroenterology and urology specialists. The mother reports that Sonia has accidents almost daily, and she is not upset when sitting in her urine or feces. She dislikes going into the bathroom or sitting on the toilet by herself. She participated in a behavior modification program associated with the pediatric urology clinic, which helps children learn healthy voiding habits and achieve continence.Sonia also has anxious behaviors. She bites her nails and chews on her hair or shirt. She is afraid of small spaces such as those between the bed and the wall and needs to have stuffed animals cover them. Other instances that trigger her anxious behaviors include loud noises, having a substitute teacher, being separated from her mother, and going to certain bathrooms or new places. She also has severe tantrums, which involve throwing and breaking objects, kicking, and hitting her head against doors.A cognitive behavioral therapy program was recommended to target anxiety symptoms, in addition to timed toileting after meals and polyethylene glycol. At a clinic visit several months later, symptoms of anxiety, encopresis, and enuresis persisted. Cognitive behavior therapy was continued and sertraline 25 mg was prescribed for anxiety. In addition, she was referred to a pediatrician who specializes in relaxation techniques and hypnotherapy.Sonia showed modest improvement with these interventions. There were fewer episodes of angry outbursts and a decrease in soiling and wetting, but at times, but she continued to have intermittent periods of wetting and soiling and fear of going to the bathroom by herself persisted.(This Challenging Case extends observations reviewed in a previous Challenging Case: J Dev

  12. A retrospective 7-years study of aluminum phosphide poisoning in Tehran: opportunities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Shadnia, S; Sasanian, G; Allami, P; Hosseini, A; Ranjbar, A; Amini-Shirazi, N; Abdollahi, M

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to survey aluminum phosphide (AIP) poisoning in a referral poisoning hospital in Tehran servicing an estimation of 10,000,000 populations. Records of all patients admitted and hospitalized during a period of 7 years from January 2000 to January 2007 were collected and analyzed according to gender, age, cause of intoxication, amount of AIP consumed, route of exposure, time between exposure and onset of treatment, signs and symptoms of intoxication at admission, therapeutic intervention, laboratory tests, and outcome. During the studied years, 471 patients were admitted to the hospital with AIP poisoning; 50% of them were men. The overall case fatality ratio was 31%. The mean age was 27.1 years, and most of the patients were between 20 and 40 years old. Self-poisoning was observed in 93% of cases. The average ingested dose was 5.1 g, and most of the patients (73%) consumed 1-3 tablets of AIP. A wide range of symptoms and signs was seen on admission, but the most common one was cardiovascular manifestations (78.12%). The majority (65%) of patients were from Tehran. Poisoning in spring and winter (34% and 24%, respectively) was more common than other seasons. Gastric decontamination with potassium permanganate, and administration of calcium gluconate, magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, and charcoal were considered for most of the patients. Mean arterial blood pH was 7.23 and bicarbonate concentration was 12.7 mEq/L. One-hundred percent of patients with blood pH <7 died and 100% of patients with blood pH >or= 7.35 survived. Electrocardiogram (EKG) abnormalities were noted in 65.6% of cases. There was a significant difference between survival and non-survival according to pH, HCO(3) concentration, and EKG abnormality. Even without an increase in resources, there appears to be significant opportunities for reducing mortality by better medical management and further restrictions on the AIP tablets usage. Arterial blood pH seems to be a

  13. Laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) hernia repair. A 7-year two-center experience in 3017patients.

    PubMed

    Kapiris, S A; Brough, W A; Royston, C M; O'Boyle, C; Sedman, P C

    2001-09-01

    This report reviews our experience with 3530 transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) hernia repairs in 3017 patients (513 bilateral) over the 7-year period from May 1992 to July 1999. We have continually audited our practice and modified the techniques in response. Unless contraindicated, laparoscopic TAPP repair is considered the procedure of choice at our institution for all reducible inguinal hernias. We initially stapled an 11 x 6 cm polypropylene mesh in the preperitoneal space but now place a 15 x 10 cm mesh in the preperitoneal space with sutured peritoneal closure. There have been a total of 22 recurrences, of which 17 were identified in the first 325 repairs (5%) using the 11 x 6 cm mesh. Five recurrences occurred in the later 3205 repairs (0.16%) (median follow up of 45 months). There was one 30-day death unrelated to the procedure. There have been seven conversions (four due to irreducibility, two due to extensive adhesions, one due to bleeding). Bladder perforations have occurred in seven cases, of which six were recognized immediately and treated laparoscopically without sequelae. There have been seven cases of small bowel obstruction from herniation through the peritoneal closure. Sutured repair of the peritoneum has reduced the incidence of this complication. Four patients had mesh infections, of whom three were treated conservatively. The incidence of postoperative seroma and hematoma was 8%. Median operation time remains at 40 min with a mean hospitalization of 0.9 nights. Sixty percent of TAPP hernia repairs are now performed on the Day Surgical Unit with a 3% admission rate. Median return to normal activities is 7 days. Forty percent of patients require no postoperative analgesia. These figures remain the same whether the hernia is primary, recurrent, unilateral, or bilateral. Consultants performed most operations early in the series, but latterly surgical trainees have performed the majority of these procedures under supervision. Laparoscopic TAPP

  14. Television Video Games in the Treatment of Amblyopia in Children Aged 4-7 Years.

    PubMed

    Dadeya, Subhash; Dangda, Sonal

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the role of television video games in childhood amblyopia treatment. This prospective, randomized, interventional study included 40 patients between 4-7 years of age, with unilateral amblyopia (visual acuity in amblyopic eye between 1-0.6 LogMAR equivalents) attending the squint clinic at a tertiary eye hospital. All patients were prescribed optimal spectacle correction and occlusion therapy, i.e. full time patching according to patient's age, was initiated after six weeks.; full-time patching according to patient's age was initiated after 6 weeks. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 20 each. Patients in the first group, Group A (control), were prescribed patching alone. Patients in the second group, Group B (study), were made to play action video games, with the help of a commercial television set, along with patching. They attended 12 half-hour sessions each, at weekly intervals. Follow-up assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (both distance and near) and stereoacuity measurements at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks. The mean age of patients was 6.03 ± 1.14 years. The distance BCVA in the amblyopic eye showed a significant improvement at final follow-up (12 weeks) in both groups: from 0.84 ± 0.19 to 0.55 ± 0.21 LogMAReq in Group A and 0.89 ± 0.16 to 0.46 ± 0.22 LogMAReq in Group B. However, improvement in BCVA was significantly better in group B at all visits (P=0.002, 12 weeks). The study group also had a significantly better outcome in terms near visual acuity improvement (P = 0.006, 12 weeks). There was also greater stereoacuity improvement in group B, with 7 patients improving to 100 secs of arc or better. Video games supplemental to occlusion may be considered favorable for visual development in amblyopic children, and the study encourages further research on this subject.

  15. Association of prenatal and early childhood stress with reduced lung function in 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison G; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu M; Rosa, Maria J; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Morgan, Wayne J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-08-01

    No prior study has examined associations between prenatal and early-life stress on childhood lung function or identified critical windows of exposure. To prospectively examine associations between prenatal and early-life stress and childhood lung function. Stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score ascertained during pregnancy and between 1 and 2 years post partum. Spirometry was performed when children were a mean (SD) of 6.99 (0.89) years old. Associations of prenatal and early postnatal stress with spirometry z scores were examined in 199 children using linear regression. Effect modification by child sex was explored. Most mothers were minorities (65% Hispanic, 21% African American), had 12 years or less of education (67%), and did not smoke prenatally (78%). The highest level of prenatal stress (≥5 NLEs) was associated with lower levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (z score = -0.53, P = .03), forced vital capacity (FVC) (z score = -0.49, P = .04), and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% (FEF25%-75%) (z score = -0.68, P = .01) after covariate adjustment; effects were similar for postnatal stress considered separately. In sex-stratified analyses, high postnatal stress (≥5 NLEs) was associated with lower FEV1 (z score = -0.76, P = .01), FVC (z score = -0.77, P = .01), and FEF25%-75% (z score = -0.67, P = .02) in boys but not girls, although the interaction term was not significant (P for interaction >.10). These are the first prospective data that link perinatal stress with reduced child lung function. High levels of stress in the prenatal and postnatal periods were associated with symmetric reductions in FEV1 and FVC consistent with impaired lung growth. Given that lung function growth patterns are established by 7 years of age, these findings have lifelong implications. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave bonding of MEMS component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bonding of MEMs materials is carried out using microwave. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin of the material. This causes heating in one place more than another. Thereby minimizing the effects of the bonding microwave energy.

  17. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington, II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  18. Microwave Power Beaming Infrastructure for Manned Lightcraft Operations: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    2008-04-28

    In the past {approx}7 years, microwave gyrotron technology has rapidly evolved to a critical threshold wherein ultra-energetic space launch missions based on beamed energy propulsion (BEP) now appear eminently feasible. Over the next 20 years, hundred megawatt-class microwave power-beaming stations could be prototyped on high deserts and 3- to 4 km mountain peaks before migrating into low Earth orbit, along with their passive microwave relay satellites. Described herein is a 20 GW rechargeable nuclear power satellite and microwave power-beaming infrastructure designed for manned space launch operations in the year 2025. The technological readiness of 2500 GJ superconducting magnetic energy storage 'batteries', 433-m ultralight space structures, 100 MW liquid droplet radiators, 1-6+ MW gyrotron sources, and mega-scale arrays (e.g., 3000 phase-locked units) is addressed. Microwave BEP is 'breakthrough' technology with the very real potential to radically reduce space access costs by factors of 100 to 1000 in the forseeable future.

  19. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  20. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  1. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  2. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  3. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  4. Microwave Comb Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Stable reference tones aid testing and calibration of microwave receivers. Signal generator puts out stable tones in frequency range of 2 to 10 GHz at all multiples of reference input frequency, at any frequency up to 1 MHz. Called "comb generator" because spectral plot resembles comb. DC reverse-bias current switched on and off at 1 MHz to generate sharp pulses in step-recovery diode. Microwave components mounted on back of special connector containing built-in attenuator. Used in testing microwave and spread-spectrum wide-band receivers.

  5. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  6. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  7. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  8. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  9. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  10. Language Outcomes of 7-Year-Old Children with or without a History of Late Language Emergence at 24 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the language outcomes of 7-year-old children with and without a history of late language emergence at 24 months. Method: One hundred twenty-eight children with a history of late language emergence (LLE) at 24 months and 109 children with a history of normal language emergence (NLE) at 24 months…

  11. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  12. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  13. Successful treatment of blastomycosis in a 7-year-old, female golden retriever dog on Manitoulin Island, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Needles, Rachael K

    2017-06-01

    A 7-year-old female golden retriever dog was presented with a 2-week history of coughing and inappetence. Examination, radiographs, and blood analysis showed classic evidence of blastomycosis, confirmed with the MVista EIA urine antigen test. A 2-month course of itraconazole and a course of mirtazapine, meloxicam, furosemide, and tetracycline resulted in a successful outcome.

  14. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  15. Telephone Testing and Teacher Assessment of Reading Skills in 7-Year-Olds: II. Strong Genetic Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In a companion paper, word recognition skills assessed by telephone using the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) were found to correlate highly with National Curriculum (NC) teacher-assessed reading ability in 7-year-old twins. This study examined the genetic and environmental origins of this high correlation. TOWRE and NC scores were both…

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  17. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  18. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  19. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  20. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  1. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  2. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  3. A 7-year survey of superficial and cutaneous mycoses in a public hospital in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Nicácia Barbosa; de Sousa Júnior, Francisco Canindé; Diniz, Mariana Guimarães; Fernandes, Ana Cristina Santos; Cardoso, Fernando José Ramos; Zaror, Luiz Conrado; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the frequency of superficial and cutaneous mycoses and their etiologic agents during a 7-year period (2002–2008) in Natal, Brazil. A total of 1,717 specimens of skin, nail, and hair were collected from 1,382 patients with suspected mycoses lesions and were then subjected to direct microscopy and culture. PMID:24031755

  4. The Development of L2 Oral Language Skills in Two L1 Groups: A 7-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Researching the longitudinal development of second language (L2) learners is essential to understanding influences on their success. This 7-year study of oral skills in adult immigrant learners of English as a second language evaluated comprehensibility, fluency, and accentedness in first-language (L1) Mandarin and Slavic language speakers. The…

  5. Response to crop-tree release by 7-year-old stems of yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Treesearch

    G.R. Jr. Trimble; G.R. Jr. Trimble

    1973-01-01

    Five years after crop-tree release of yellow-poplar and black cherry sterns in a 7-year-old stand of Appalachian hardwoods, measurements indicated that released trees were but slightly superior to control trees in height, diameter, and crown position. Sprout regrowth of cut tree stems and grapevines had largely nullified the effects of release. Indications are that for...

  6. In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Body Mass at Age 7 Years: The CHAMACOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic flame retardants that bioaccumulate in humans. Child serum PBDE concentrations in California are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs may be associated with obesity by disrupting endocrine systems. Objective In this study, we examined whether pre- and postnatal exposure to the components of pentaBDE mixture was associated with childhood obesity in a population of Latino children participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California. Methods We measured PBDEs in serum collected from 224 mothers during pregnancy and their children at 7 years of age, and examined associations with body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. Results Maternal PBDE serum levels during pregnancy were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys (BMI z-score βadjusted = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.19, 0.72) but lower scores in girls (BMI z-score βadjusted = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.87, –0.05) at 7 years of age (pinteraction = 0.04). In addition, child’s serum BDE-153 concentration (log10), but not other pentaBDE congeners, demonstrated inverse associations with BMI at age 7 years (BMI z-score βadjusted = –1.15; 95% CI: –1.53, –0.77), but there was no interaction by sex. Conclusions We estimated sex-specific associations with maternal PBDE levels during pregnancy and BMI at 7 years of age, finding positive associations in boys and negative associations in girls. Children’s serum BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI at 7 years with no difference by sex. Future studies should examine the longitudinal trends in obesity with PBDE exposure and changes in hormonal environment as children transition through puberty, as well as evaluate the potential for reverse causality. Citation Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. 2015. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environ

  7. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  8. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  9. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  10. Tunable Microwave Transversal Filters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AFOSR-TR. 84-0977 S4. TI TLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYP ?FE&T&PEO OEE U!NABLE MICROWAVE TRANSVERSAL FILTERS...this goal through magnetostatic waves MSW propagating at microwave frequency in magnetically biased, liquid phase epitaxial films of yttrium iron...garnet (YIG) grown on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG). This technology has a number of advantages; low loss (greater than 30db/usec at xband), tunable by

  11. Automatic Microwave Network Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A program and procedure are developed for the automatic measurement of microwave networks using a Hewlett-Packard network analyzer and programmable calculator . The program and procedure are used in the measurement of a simple microwave two port network. These measurements are evaluated by comparing with measurements on the same network using other techniques. The programs...in the programmable calculator are listed in Appendix 1. The step by step procedure used is listed in Appendix 2. (Author)

  12. Microwave sintering process model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hu; Tinga, W R; Sundararaj, U; Eadie, R L

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate and optimize the microwave sintering of a silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt toolbits process, a microwave sintering process model has been built. A cylindrical sintering furnace was used containing a heat insulating layer, a susceptor layer, and an alumina tube containing the green toolbit parts between parallel, electrically conductive, graphite plates. Dielectric and absorption properties of the silicon nitride green parts, the tungsten carbide/cobalt green parts, and an oxidizable susceptor material were measured using perturbation and waveguide transmission methods. Microwave absorption data were measured over a temperature range from 20 degrees C to 800 degrees C. These data were then used in the microwave process model which assumed plane wave propagation along the radial direction and included the microwave reflection at each interface between the materials and the microwave absorption in the bulk materials. Heat transfer between the components inside the cylindrical sintering furnace was also included in the model. The simulated heating process data for both silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt samples closely follow the experimental data. By varying the physical parameters of the sintering furnace model, such as the thickness of the susceptor layer, the thickness of the allumina tube wall, the sample load volume and the graphite plate mass, the model data predicts their effects which are helpful in optimizing those parameters in the industrial sintering process.

  13. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review. PMID:27698682

  14. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review.

  15. Predictors for asthma at age 7 years for low-income children enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Tamesis, Grace P; Covar, Ronina A; Strand, Matthew; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J; Klinnert, Mary D

    2013-03-01

    To identify the predictive factors of early childhood wheezing in children of low socioeconomic status. The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study enrolled 177 low-income children (9-24 months old) with frequent wheezing. At age 7 years, presence of asthma was assessed through caregiver reports of physician diagnosis of asthma (CRPDA) and corroborated by assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Lung function, inflammatory markers, and asthma symptom severity were compared for children with ±CRPDA, ±BHR, and asthma. Baseline predictors for CRPDA, BHR, and asthma at 7 years of age were examined. Maternal symptom report strongly differentiated children with +CRPDA (49%) despite comparable airflow measurements (P < .0001), and spirometric lung function measurements were different for +BHR (65%) versus -BHR (P < .005). Univariate analyses revealed different baseline predictors of +CRPDA and +BHR for children at age 7 years. Higher levels of maternal psychological resources were associated with +CRPDA, but not +BHR. Only 39% of children with a history of frequent wheezing met the conservative definition of asthma at age 7 years, with the following significant predictors found: low birth weight, baseline symptom severity, and maternal psychological resources. This low-income, multi-ethnic group of wheezing infants represents a unique population of children with distinct characteristics and risks for persistent asthma. Determination of asthma status at 7 years of age required objective measurement of BHR in addition to CRPDA. The association of maternal psychological resources with +CRPDA may represent a previously unrecognized factor in the determination of asthma status among low-income groups. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disease control and safety of belimumab plus standard therapy over 7 years in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Ginzler, Ellen M; Wallace, Daniel J; Merrill, Joan T; Furie, Richard A; Stohl, William; Chatham, W Winn; Weinstein, Arthur; McKay, James D; McCune, W Joseph; Zhong, Z John; Freimuth, William W; Petri, Michelle A

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy/safety of belimumab plus standard therapy in patients (n = 449) with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treated up to 7 years (n = 177 currently ongoing). Patients (n = 345) who completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 52-week study of belimumab 1, 4, or 10 mg/kg and 24-week extension of belimumab (placebo switched to 10 mg/kg; belimumab same dose or switched to 10 mg/kg) could receive belimumab 10 mg/kg in an open-label continuation study (n = 296). Disease activity was analyzed in patients with active SLE at baseline of the initial study. Biomarker and SLE medication changes were evaluated, and adverse events (AE) were monitored throughout the study. Total belimumab exposure over 7 years (double-blind and open-label periods): 1746 patient-years. SLE Responder Index (SRI) response rates at Week 52 in autoantibody-positive patients: placebo, 29%; belimumab, 46% (p < 0.05). In the continuation study, 57% of auto-antibody-positive patients had an SRI response by Year 2 and 65% by Year 7; severe flares occurred in 19% with placebo and 17% with belimumab during the first year, with the annual rate declining to 2%-9% during years 2-7. Anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in patients positive for them at baseline had a progressive decline of 40%-60% from baseline over 2-7 years with belimumab. Corticosteroid use decreased over time with ≥ 50-55% reduction in median dose during years 5-7. Serious and overall annual AE rates, including infections, were generally stable or decreased during 7-year treatment. Disease control and safety profile were maintained in patients with active SLE taking belimumab plus standard therapy for up to 7 years. [ClinicalTrials.gov numbers: NCT00071487 and NCT00583362].

  17. Predictors for Asthma at Age 7 Years for Low-Income Children Enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamesis, Grace P; Covar, Ronina A; Strand, Matthew; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J.; Klinnert, Mary D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the predictive factors of early childhood wheezing in children of low socioeconomic status. Study design The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) enrolled 177 low-income children (9–24 months old) with frequent wheezing. At age 7 years, presence of asthma was assessed through caregiver reports of physician diagnosis of asthma (CRPDA) and corroborated by assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Lung function, inflammatory markers, and asthma symptom severity were compared for children with ±CRPDA, ±BHR, and asthma. Baseline predictors for CRPDA, BHR and asthma at 7 years of age were examined. Results Maternal symptom report strongly differentiated children with +CRPDA (50%) despite comparable airflow measurements (p<0.0001), and spirometric lung function measurements were different for +BHR (65%) vs. −BHR (p<0.005). Univariate analyses revealed different baseline predictors of +CRPDA and +BHR for children at age 7 years. Higher levels of maternal psychological resources were associated with +CRPDA, but not +BHR. Only 39% of children with a history of frequent wheezing met the conservative definition of asthma at age 7 years, with the following significant predictors found: low birth weight, baseline symptom severity and maternal psychological resources. Conclusions This low-income, multi-ethnic group of wheezing infants represents a unique population of children with distinct characteristics and risks for persistent asthma. Determination of asthma status at 7 years of age required objective measurement of BHR in addition to CRPDA. The association of maternal psychological resources with +CRPDA may represent a previously unrecognized factor in determination of asthma status among low-income groups. PMID:23036483

  18. Disability in young people and adults after head injury: 5-7 year follow up of a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Whitnall, L; McMillan, T M; Murray, G D; Teasdale, G M

    2006-05-01

    Improvement 1-2 years after head injury is well established but the pattern thereafter is unclear. Past studies have not examined representative head injury populations and typically report findings in terms of functioning across social, psychological, neurobehavioural, or cognitive domains rather than global outcome. To determine the late outcome of a representative cohort of participants admitted to hospital after a head injury 5-7 years previously and to identify early and late factors correlating with persisting disability and change between one and 5-7 years. A representative cohort of head injured people whose outcome one year after injury was reported previously, were followed up 5-7 years after injury. Participants were assessed using structured and validated measures of global outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended), cognitive impairment, psychological wellbeing, health status, and social factors. Of 475 survivors studied at one year, 115 (24%) had died by seven years. In survivors at 5-7 years, disability remained frequent (53%); and the rate, similar to that found at one year (57%). Sixty three participants (29%) had improved but 55 (25%) deteriorated. The persistence of disability and its development after previous recovery each showed stronger associations with indices of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem than with initial severity of injury or persisting cognitive impairment. Admission to hospital after head injury is followed 5-7 years later by disability in a high proportion of survivors. Persistence of disability and development of new disability are strongly associated with psychosocial factors that may be open to remediation, even late after injury.

  19. Microwave radiation absorption: behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, J A

    1991-07-01

    The literature contains much evidence that absorption of microwave energy will lead to behavioral changes in man and laboratory animals. The changes include simple perturbations or outright stoppage of ongoing behavior. On one extreme, intense microwave absorption can result in seizures followed by death. On the other extreme, man and animals can hear microwave pulses at very low rates of absorption. Under certain conditions of exposure, animals will avoid microwaves, while under other conditions, they will actively work to obtain warmth produced by microwaves. Some research has shown behavioral effects during chronic exposure to low-level microwaves. The specific absorption rates that produce behavioral effects seem to depend on microwave frequency, but controversy exists over thresholds and mechanism of action. In all cases, however, the behavioral disruptions cease when chronic microwave exposure is terminated. Thermal changes in man and animals during microwave exposure appear to account for all reported behavioral effects.

  20. Is Two-Level Cervical Disc Replacement More Cost-Effective than Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion at 7 Years?

    PubMed

    Merrill, Robert K; McAnany, Steven J; Albert, Todd J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2017-08-14

    Cost-effectiveness analysis. Investigate the 7-year cost-effectiveness of two-level cervical disc replacement (CDR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). CDR and ACDF are both effective treatment strategies for managing degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. CDR has been shown to be a more-cost effective intervention in the short term, but the long-term cost-effectiveness has not been established. We analyzed 7-year follow-up data from the two-level Medtronic Prestige LP investigational device exemption study. Short-form 36 (SF-36) data were converted into health utility scores using the SF-6D algorithm. Costs were based on direct costs from the payer perspective, and effectiveness was measured as quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The willingness to pay (WTP) threshold was set to $50,000/QALY. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted via Monte Carlo simulation. Two-level CDR had a 7-year cost of $176,654.19, generated 4.65 QALYs, and had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $37,993.53/QALY. Two-level ACDF had a 7-year cost of $158,373.48, generated 4.44 QALYs, and had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $35,635.72. CDR was associated with an incremental cost of $18,280.71 and an incremental effectiveness of 0.21 QALYs, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $89,021.04, above the WTP threshold. Our Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated CDR would be chosen 46% of the time based on 10,000 simulations. Two-level CDR and ACDF are both cost-effective procedures at 7-year follow-up for treating degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. Based on an ICER of $89,021.04/QALY, we cannot conclude which treatment is the more cost-effective option at 7-years. CDR would be chosen 46% of the time based on 10,000 iterations of our Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis. 3.

  1. Design of a microwave calorimeter for the microwave tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M. )

    1988-10-07

    The initial design of a microwave calorimeter for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment is presented. The design is optimized to measure the refraction and absorption of millimeter rf microwaves as they traverse the toroidal plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Techniques utilized can be adapted for use in measuring high intensity pulsed output from a microwave device in an environment of ultra high vacuum, intense fields of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and intense magnetic fields. 16 refs.

  2. Clinical evaluation on porcelain laminate veneers bonded with light-cured composite: results up to 7 years.

    PubMed

    D'Arcangelo, Camillo; De Angelis, Francesco; Vadini, Mirco; D'Amario, Maurizio

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of laminate porcelain veneers bonded with a light-cured composite. Thirty patients were restored with 119 porcelain laminate veneers. The veneers were studied for an observation time of 7 years. Marginal adaptation, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, color match, and anatomic form were clinically examined following modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Each restoration was also examined for cracks, fractures, and debonding. Pulp vitality was verified. In addition, plaque and gingival indexes and increase in gingival recession were recorded. Survival rate evaluating absolute failures and success rate describing relative failures were statistically determined, using both restoration and patient-related analyses. On the basis of the criteria used, most of the veneers rated Alfa. After 7 years, the results of the clinical investigation regarding marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration revealed only 2.5% and 4.2% Bravo ratings, respectively, among the 119 initially placed veneers. Using the restoration as the statistical unit, the survival rate was 97.5%, with a high estimated success probability of 0.843 after 7 years. Using the patient as the statistical unit, the survival rate was 90.0% and the estimated success probability after 7 years was 0.824. Gingival response to the veneers was all in the satisfactory range. Porcelain laminate veneers offer a predictable and successful treatment modality giving a maximum preservation of sound tooth. The preparation, cementation, and finishing procedures adopted are considered key factors for the long-term success and aesthetical result of the veneer restorations.

  3. Serum vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of incident non-Alzheimer dementias: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Annweiler, C; Rolland, Y; Schott, A M; Blain, H; Vellas, B; Beauchet, O

    2011-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D has been cross-sectionally associated with dementia and stroke. The objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether serum vitamin D deficiency at baseline could predict the onset of non-Alzheimer dementias (NAD) within 7 years among older women. Forty high-functioning older women (78.4 years, 76.4/82.0; median, 25th/75th percentile) from the EPIDOS Toulouse study were divided into two groups based on vitamin D deficiency (i.e., serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <10 ng/ml) at baseline. At the end of the 7-year follow-up period, women matching the DSM-IV but not the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were diagnosed with NAD while those matching the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were considered to have Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subtle cognitive impairments at baseline, cardiovascular risk factors and Parkinson's disease were used as potential confounders. NAD was reported in 6 women (82.8 years, 80.6/86.0) after 7 years of follow-up. More NAD were observed in women with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.023). There was no between-group difference regarding the onset of AD (p = 0.332). We found an association between vitamin D deficiency at baseline and the onset of NAD (adjusted odds ratio = 19.57, p = 0.042). Conversely, vitamin D deficiency was not associated with AD (p = 0.222). Baseline vitamin D deficiency predicted the onset of NAD within 7 years among older women. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Growth and yield for a 7-year-old yellow-poplar plantation in northern West Virginia

    Treesearch

    John R. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Results for several major stand level variables from a 7-year-old yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) plantation established in a converted pasture in northern West Virginia were summarized based on initial planting densities of 1,517 trees/ac, 972 trees/ac, 765 trees/ac, and 602 trees/ac. Stand basal area/acre at age 7 was greatest (54.7 ft...

  5. A serious case of failed extubation: difficulty removing a laser resistant tracheal tube in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Batas, D; Park, C; Hermon-Taylor, A C

    2005-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl underwent laser ablation of tonsillar remnants. Following the procedure, which was surgically uncomplicated, the laser resistant tracheal tube used could not be removed; it was firmly lodged in the larynx, immediately below the glottic opening. This case highlights the importance of careful selection of laser resistant tracheal tubes for use in paediatric patients and challenges traditional concepts of paediatric upper airway anatomy.

  6. Designing Algebraic Tasks for 7-Year-Old Students--A Pilot Project Inspired by Davydov's "Learning Activity" Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Inger; Jansson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The issue of this article is to identify and discuss what conditions may be necessary to build into tasks to make it likely for students to be involved in an algebraic Learning Activity inspired by Davydov. Data from a pilot study was used in which a group of students (N = 28) in grade 1 (7-year-olds) were invited to participate in discussions and…

  7. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  8. Refinement of microwave vegetation indices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous investigations have established the basis for a new type of vegetation index based on passive microwave satellite observations. These microwave vegetation indices (MVIs) have been qualitatively evaluated by examining global spatial and seasonal temporal features. Limited quantitative studie...

  9. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  10. Change in maternal criticism and behavior problems in adolescents and adults with autism across a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jason K; Smith, Leann E; Greenberg, Jan S; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Taylor, Julie Lounds

    2011-05-01

    In a previous study, high levels of maternal criticism predicted increased behavior problems in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) over an 18-month period (Greenberg, Seltzer, Hong, & Orsmond, 2006). The current investigation followed these families over a period of 7 years to examine the longitudinal course of criticism and behavior problems, to assess the association between their trajectories, and to determine the degree to which change in each of these factors predicted levels of criticism and behavior problems at the end of the study period. A sample of 118 mothers coresiding with their adolescent and adult children with ASD provided open-ended narratives about their children and reported on the children's behavior problems at 4 waves. Maternal criticism was derived from expressed emotion ratings of the narratives. Criticism exhibited low but significant stability over the 7-year period, and behavior problems exhibited high stability. Through latent growth curve modeling, (a) criticism was found to have increased over time, but only for the group of families in which the sons or daughters transitioned from high school services during the study period; (b) individual changes in criticism and behavior problems were positively correlated over the 7-year period; and (c) changes in criticism predicted levels of behavior problems at the conclusion of the study. Changes in behavior problems were not predictive of end levels of criticism. Implications for intervention and prevention efforts are discussed.

  11. Adverse effects of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine in 6- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chao, Yen-Nan; Huang, Song-En; Lee, Tsuey-Feng; Chang, Luan-Yin

    2011-02-01

    Although the safety profile of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines in adolescents and adults has been documented, few data have reported about their adverse events in children. Healthy 6- to 7-year-old children who were immunized with Tdap vaccine were evaluated for adverse events on Days 1, 2, 4, and 7 postimmunization. Information of sex, body mass index (BMI), and previous diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) immunization history was obtained and evaluated for the association with the adverse events. A total of 243 6- to 7-year-old children were immunized with Tdap. Among the 243 children immunized, remarkable adverse events included redness more than or equal to 10 mm in 47 (19%) children, induration more than or equal to 10 mm in 57 (23%), tenderness in 130 (53%), and fever in 12 (5%). Redness and induration resolved in 7 days and fever resolved on Day 4. The adverse events were not associated with gender, BMI above the mean value, or the type of fourth DPT immunization. Adverse events after Tdap vaccination were mild and dissolved within 7 days in 6- to 7-year-old children. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Relevance of Piaget's cognitive principles among 4-7 years old children: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Sharath; Surendran, Sharmila; Asokan, Sureetha; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    According to Jean Piaget, children between 4 and 7 years of age are under the intuitive sub-stage of preoperational stage. Children possess specific characteristics based on their age. These characteristic cognitive principles have not been assessed in a dental setting. Research on the cognitive development of the child and its application to dental health care can enable pediatric dentists to better understand, approach and deliver improved quality of care to children. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of Piaget's cognitive principles among preoperational children. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 children, aged 4-7 years. Various characteristics, specific for this age group, such as egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using three tangible experiments and two interview questions. A comparison of the prevalence of each character was carried out among the children based on their age. The prevalence of egocentrism based on the three mountain experiment was 65% and the personal interview showed a prevalence of 58%. Centration was appreciated in 83% of the study sample. The beaker experiment and the interview question revealed a lack of conservation in 89% and 59% of the children, respectively. There was a gradual and uniform reduction in the prevalence of the characters with an increase in age. All the three features assessed were observed in most of the children between 4 and 7 years of age as described by Piaget and most of his principles still appear valid today.

  13. Body Dissatisfaction and Its Correlates in 5- to 7-Year-Old Girls: A Social Learning Experiment.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marisol; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Smith, Haylie; Sladek, Michael R

    2016-06-02

    There is limited research on cognitive risk factors for eating disorders among young girls despite accumulating evidence that body dissatisfaction and thin-ideal internalization can begin to occur between 3 and 5 years of age. To improve upon the existing literature and significantly contribute to the prevention and intervention literature, the current study examined body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, and self-objectification in girls between 5 and 7 years of age. The sample consisted of 151 mother-daughter dyads with 63 five-year-olds, 39 six-year-olds, and 49 seven-year-olds. Girls were interviewed about their body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal, and self-objectification. In addition, all mothers and daughters participated in an individual and joint mirror experiment. Levels of body dissatisfaction were consistent across 5- to 7-year-olds. Thin-ideal internalization was higher among 5-year-olds than 6- and 7-year-olds. In contrast, self-objectification was higher among 6- and 7-year-olds than 5-year-old girls. Mother's body dissatisfaction significantly and positively predicted daughter's body dissatisfaction during the joint mirror experiment. Similarly, mother's body satisfaction significantly and positively predicted daughter's body satisfaction. Results from this study suggest that girls model their mothers' self-body talk. In addition, girls will change their positive or negative body responses after being exposed to their mothers' response.

  14. Is sexuality a problem? A follow-up of patients with severe burns 6 months to 7 years after injury.

    PubMed

    Öster, C; Sveen, J

    2015-11-01

    This is the first study investigating sexuality from 6 months up to 7 years after burn. The aim was to examine sexuality in females and males by using the BSHS-B sexuality subscale and to examine possible contributing factors with regard to sociodemographics, burn characteristics, personality traits, and previous psychiatric disorders. A cohort of 107 patients consecutively admitted to a Swedish national burn center was followed up at 6, 12, and 24 months after burn, and 67 individuals were followed up at 2-7 years after burn. The present study utilized the BSHS-B sexuality subscale, and multiple regression analyses were used to examine possible contributing factors. Women were less satisfied than men, and sexuality mean scores improved over time, even up to 7 years after-burn, in both men and women. The strongest contributing factors for worse outcome regarding sexuality were a history of psychiatric morbidity, neuroticism and burn severity. As some patients experience sexual problems after burns, even many years later, it is important to identify these individuals. The BSHS-B sexuality subscale may be used as a screening tool, but more in-depth assessment might be needed to address all aspects of sexuality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical assessment as a predictor of mortality in people with Parkinson's disease: a study over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Gray, William K; Hildreth, Anthony; Bilclough, Julie A; Wood, Brian H; Baker, Katherine; Walker, Richard W

    2009-10-15

    The primary aim of this study was to ascertain whether a battery of physical function measures in a Parkinson's disease (PD) patient cohort predicted mortality status at 7-year follow-up. Secondary aims were establishing which specific tests were the most useful, and whether PD phenotype was a predictor. A retrospective correlation design was used in this study. A cohort of 109 PD patients underwent baseline physiotherapy assessment of gait, balance, posture, muscle strength, and ability to change postural set. We compared mortality status at 7-year follow-up and baseline physical assessment tests. Tinetti gait and balance scores, UPDRS score, 10-m walk test (time, velocity, and number of strides), posture in standing, lying to sitting, sitting to standing, getting up from floor assessments, and time to ascend and descend four steps were found to be statistically significant physical predictors of mortality at 7-year follow-up. In addition, age, sex, and mini-mental state examination were significant nonphysical predictors of mortality. Using Cox regression, a survival model was constructed with age, sex, and Tinetti gait score as independent predictors of mortality. The results of this study suggest that there is a link between reduced physical function and an increased mortality risk in PD populations.

  16. Disinfection of Wastewater by Microwaves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    temperature of the cells before treatment with microwaves nor the temperature of the diluent buffer showed any effect on the rate and extent of...suspension on the sur- vival of E. coli B cells subjected to microwave treatment. 11 2. Effect of the temperature of diluent upon the survival of microwave...the surface of the material to be heated by conduction, convection, and/or radiation. While microwave energy is recognized to have bactericidal ability

  17. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article reviews the current state of microwave ablation including technical and clinical considerations. PMID:24436518

  18. Uniform batch processing using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave oven and microwave heating method generates microwaves within a cavity in a predetermined mode such that there is a known region of uniform microwave field. Samples placed in the region will then be heated in a relatively identical manner. Where perturbations induced by the samples are significant, samples are arranged in a symmetrical distribution so that the cumulative perturbation at each sample location is the same.

  19. The Josephson Microwave Photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osberg, Brendan; Gambetta, Jay; Wilhelm, Frank

    2009-03-01

    The current lack of single microwave photon counters -as opposed to microwave amplifiers- has become a problematic omission in the toolkit of available circuit QED devices. Hence, we propose a microwave photo-multiplier based on a modified phase qubit. Such a system, trapped in the metastable state, can be activated over its potential energy barrier by an incoming photon, creating an avalanche effect analogous to current photo-diodes. Linear coupling of the junction flux with the radiation field, in the weak damping regime, permits photodetection from an arbitrary quantum source in the GHz range. We model this device theoretically and investigate its sensitivity, bandwidth, efficiency, and dark-count rate using the Langevine stochastic differential equations and a path integral approach.

  20. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  1. Physics of the Microwave Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  2. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  3. Physics of the Microwave Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  4. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  5. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  6. Microwave Frequency Polarizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Vien The; Mirel, Paul; Kogut, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on the analysis of the grids' wire heights, diameters, and spacing.

  7. Handbook of microwave testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverghetta, T. S.

    A description of microwave test equipment is presented, taking into account signal generators, signal detection/indicating devices, auxiliary testing devices, and microwave systems. Low power, medium power, high power, and peak power measurements are considered along with noise measurements, spectrum analyzer measurements, active testing, antenna measurements, and automatic testing. Attention is given to phase noise, Q measurements, the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurement, swept impedance, noise sources, noise meters, manual noise measurements, automatic noise figure measurements, gain, gain compression, intermodulation, the third order intercept, and questions of spectral purity.

  8. A CONSTRAINT ON THE INTEGRATED MASS POWER SPECTRUM OUT TO z = 1100 FROM LENSING OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Smidt, Joseph; Cooray, Asantha; Amblard, Alexandre; Joudaki, Shahab; Serra, Paolo; Munshi, Dipak; Santos, Mario G.

    2011-02-10

    The temperature fluctuations and polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are now a well-known probe of the universe at an infant age of 400,000 years. During the transit to us from the surface of last scattering, the CMB photons are expected to undergo modifications induced by the intervening large-scale structure. Among the expected secondary effects is the weak gravitational lensing of the CMB by the foreground dark matter distribution. We derive a quadratic estimator that uses the non-Gaussianities generated by the lensing effect at the four-point function level to extract the power spectrum of lensing potential fluctuations integrated out to z {approx} 1100 with peak contributions from potential fluctuations at z of 2-3. Using Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven-year temperature maps, we report the first direct constraints of this lensing potential power spectrum and find that it has an amplitude of A{sub L} = 0.96 {+-} 0.60, 1.06 {+-} 0.69, and 0.97 {+-} 0.47 using the W, V, and W + V bands, respectively.

  9. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION AND TEMPERATURE POWER SPECTRA ESTIMATION USING LINEAR COMBINATION OF WMAP 5 YEAR MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Samal, Pramoda Kumar; Jain, Pankaj; Saha, Rajib; Prunet, Simon; Souradeep, Tarun

    2010-05-01

    We estimate cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization and temperature power spectra using Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 5 year foreground contaminated maps. The power spectrum is estimated by using a model-independent method, which does not utilize directly the diffuse foreground templates nor the detector noise model. The method essentially consists of two steps: (1) removal of diffuse foregrounds contamination by making linear combination of individual maps in harmonic space and (2) cross-correlation of foreground cleaned maps to minimize detector noise bias. For the temperature power spectrum we also estimate and subtract residual unresolved point source contamination in the cross-power spectrum using the point source model provided by the WMAP science team. Our TT, TE, and EE power spectra are in good agreement with the published results of the WMAP science team. We perform detailed numerical simulations to test for bias in our procedure. We find that the bias is small in almost all cases. A negative bias at low l in TT power spectrum has been pointed out in an earlier publication. We find that the bias-corrected quadrupole power (l(l + 1)C{sub l} /2{pi}) is 532 {mu}K{sup 2}, approximately 2.5 times the estimate (213.4 {mu}K{sup 2}) made by the WMAP team.

  10. Dodecahedral space topology as an explanation for weak wide-angle temperature correlations in the cosmic microwave background.

    PubMed

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre; Weeks, Jeffrey R; Riazuelo, Alain; Lehoucq, Roland; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2003-10-09

    The current 'standard model' of cosmology posits an infinite flat universe forever expanding under the pressure of dark energy. First-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) confirm this model to spectacular precision on all but the largest scales. Temperature correlations across the microwave sky match expectations on angular scales narrower than 60 degrees but, contrary to predictions, vanish on scales wider than 60 degrees. Several explanations have been proposed. One natural approach questions the underlying geometry of space--namely, its curvature and topology. In an infinite flat space, waves from the Big Bang would fill the universe on all length scales. The observed lack of temperature correlations on scales beyond 60 degrees means that the broadest waves are missing, perhaps because space itself is not big enough to support them. Here we present a simple geometrical model of a finite space--the Poincaré dodecahedral space--which accounts for WMAP's observations with no fine-tuning required. The predicted density is Omega(0) approximately 1.013 > 1, and the model also predicts temperature correlations in matching circles on the sky.

  11. Angular power spectrum of the FASTICA cosmic microwave background component from Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, S.; Maino, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Childers, J.; Figueiredo, N.; Lubin, P. M.; Meinhold, P. R.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Seiffert, M. D.; Villela, T.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2006-06-01

    We present the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) component extracted with FASTICA from the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) data. BEAST is a 2.2-m off-axis telescope with a focal plane comprising eight elements at Q (38-45 GHz) and Ka (26-36 GHz) bands. It operates from the UC (University of California) White Mountain Research Station at an altitude of 3800 m. The BEAST CMB angular power spectrum has already been calculated by O'Dwyer et al. using only the Q-band data. With two input channels, FASTICA returns two possible independent components. We found that one of these two has an unphysical spectral behaviour, while the other is a reasonable CMB component. After a detailed calibration procedure based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we extracted the angular power spectrum for the identified CMB component and found a very good agreement with the already published BEAST CMB angular power spectrum and with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data.

  12. Non-military microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, Howard

    1990-04-01

    The nonmilitary applications of microwave technology in medicine, communications, and agriculture are discussed. Particular attention is given to a microwave multichannel multipoint video distribution system (a broadcasting system with up to 20 programs drawn from satellites, video tape libraries, and locally generated material); microwaves used in DBS distribution; satellite receivers for data communications; microwave thermography used for early cancer detection, brain temperature measurements, and appendicitis diagnosis; an experimental Doppler radar assembly for guiding robots walking on a factory floor; and an agricultural application where microwaves are used to break down slugs in soil and thus improve potato and grain crops. Schematic diagrams are included.

  13. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  14. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  15. Understanding Microwave Radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents principles of microwave receivers for observing planetary surfaces from space. Report is tutorial and explains operation of receivers in detail to enable reader to specify and qualify them for spaceborne operation. Gives many examples to illustrate practical design procedures.

  16. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  17. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  18. Overview of microwave concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of microwave beamed power concepts is given in outline form. Concepts such as power transmission to operational satellites, spacecraft propulsion, lunar/planetary outpost power and planetary rover propulsion are listed in chart form and characterized in columns titled power level, benefits, and comments.

  19. Electronically Tuned Microwave Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, Mysore

    1987-01-01

    Features include low phase noise and frequency stability. Bias-tuned, low-phase-noise microwave oscillator circuit based on npn bipolar transistor and dielectric resonator. Operating at frequency of about 8.4 GHz, oscillator adjusted to give low phase noise, relatively flat power output versus frequency, and nearly linear frequency versus bias voltage.

  20. Hybrid Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    2001-03-07

    A team associated with a Federal Laboratory, academia, and industry has been actively developing new microwave technology for treatment and remediation of a variety of potentially hazardous materials for almost a decade. This collaboration has resulted in unique equipment and processes with potential applicability to many fields, including disposition of electronic circuitry and components, medical wastes, radioactive materials and recycling of used tires.

  1. Microwave system performance summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Nalos, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the microwave system for the solar power satellite is described. Design modifications recommended include changes in phase control to the power module level, a reduction in allowable amplitude jitter, the use of metal matrix waveguides, and sequences for startup/shutdown procedures. Investigations into reshaping the beam pattern to improve overall rectenna collection efficiency and improve sidelobe control are surveyed.

  2. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  3. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  4. A 7 year prospective comparative study of three topical beta blockers in the management of primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Watson, P G; Barnett, M F; Parker, V; Haybittle, J

    2001-08-01

    To determine the long term efficacy of monotherapy with topically applied beta blocking agents and to determine whether selective beta blockers were able to preserve the visual field more effectively than non-selective agents. A prospective randomised, open, comparative study of three topically applied beta blockers-timolol, betaxolol, and carteolol-was carried out on 153 patients (280 eyes) with newly diagnosed open angle glaucoma. Those patients who were not withdrawn were followed by the same observers for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years, with clinical observations, Goldmann tonometry and 24.2 Humphrey visual field analysis. All three drugs lowered the IOP significantly from untreated levels but betaxolol took up to 12 months in some instances to reach the maximum pressure reduction. After 7 years only 43% of the eyes begun on timolol, 34% of those started on carteolol, and 29% of those on betaxolol were still being treated with these medications alone. Visual fields were analysed throughout the trial by CPSD and MD and at the end by linear regression analysis (PROGRESSOR). The visual fields remained the same without apparent improvement or deterioration throughout the period of follow up. Eight patients (11 eyes) were withdrawn because of continuing field loss in spite of reduction in IOP (six using carteolol and five using betaxolol). Analysis shows that less than half the eyes initially treated with topical beta blockers might be expected to still be being treated with their original medication after 5 years. The rest required either additional medication or trabeculectomy. There was no statistically significant improvement or deterioration in the visual fields over a 7 year period. On the evidence of this trial there are no particular advantages in using selective beta blockers.

  5. Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Inflammation Across 7-Years in Racially Diverse Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Danielle L.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Brown, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination has emerged as a predictor of negative psychological and physical health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. The goals of this study were to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was independently predicted by everyday discrimination or whether race or body mass index (BMI) modified this association over a 7-year period among 2,490 women from racially diverse backgrounds. At baseline, the 10-item Williams' measure of everyday discrimination was administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess these associations. Descriptive results showed that Black and Chinese women reported greater discrimination than White, Japanese, and Hispanic women, while Black and Hispanic women had the highest levels of CRP over the 7-year period. There was no main effect of everyday discrimination (B = .003, SE = .005, p = .58) and this association did not differ as a function of race (p's > .05). The everyday discrimination × BMI interaction term significantly predicted higher CRP levels over time in the full sample of women (p = .03). Specifically, in non-obese women (BMI less than 30), higher perceived everyday discrimination was associated with higher CRP levels over the 7-year period. These findings were independent of demographic, negative affect, biomedical, and behavioral factors. The results demonstrate that greater everyday discrimination is associated with increased inflammation over time in non-obese women. These findings highlight the implications of interpersonal sources of social stress for long-term physical health via their impact on intermediary biological pathways, specifically inflammation. Greater emphasis on such linkages is warranted as we work towards ameliorating health disparities exacerbated by individual-level factors. PMID:25342861

  6. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H S; Scanavini, Marco A; McNamara, James A

    2014-04-01

    To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3-4 mm), until a 'super class I' molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1-T2, T2-T3, and T1-T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes.

  7. Malnutrition, functional ability and mortality among older people aged ⩾ 60 years: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Naseer, M; Forssell, H; Fagerström, C

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 7-year mortality, controlling for functional ability, socio-demographics, lifestyle behavior and diseases, and investigate the interaction between risk of malnutrition and functional ability on the risk of mortality. A longitudinal study on home-living and special-housing residents aged ⩾ 60 years was conducted. Of 2312 randomly invited participants, 1402 responded and 1203 provided information on both nutritional status and functional ability. The risk of malnutrition was estimated by the occurrence of at least one anthropometric measure (BMI, MAC and CC) below cut-off in addition to the presence of at least one subjective measure (decreased food intake, weight loss and eating difficulty). At baseline, 8.6% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition and during the 7-year follow-up 34.6% subjects died. The risk of malnutrition was independently associated with 7-year mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-2.65). Additional independent predictors were dementia (HR 2.76, 95% CI 1.85-4.10), activity of daily living (ADL) dependence (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.62-2.67), heart disease (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16-1.78), diabetes (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.93) and older age (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.10). Moreover, the risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence in combination predicted the poorest survival rate (18.7%, P<0.001). The risk of malnutrition significantly increases the risk of mortality in older people. Moreover, risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence together explain a significantly poorer survival rate; however, the importance of this interaction decreased in the multivariable model and risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence independently explained a significant risk of mortality.

  8. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Scanavini, Marco A.; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3–4 mm), until a ‘super class I’ molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1–T2, T2–T3, and T1–T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. CONCLUSIONS Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes. PMID:23736378

  9. Modified CBT for treatment of OCD in a 7-year-old boy with ASD--a case report.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Sarah Jacqueline; Fitzsimons, Lin

    2014-08-01

    Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently experience obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended for OCD but may need modification in children and adolescents with ASD because of cognitive differences, but guidance for therapists planning CBT for OCD in young people with ASD is sparse. This report discusses syndromes of OCD and ASD and their overlapping clinical features and etiologies, difficulties in applying CBT in the ASD population, and relevant literature. We present a case report on CBT treatment of a 7-year-old boy with ASD and OCD and modifications to CBT that were helpful. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hypertensive encephalopathy as the initial manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Aleyadhy, Ayman A; Hassan, Gamal M

    2013-04-01

    We report a case involving a 7-year-old girl who initially presented with seizure and hypertensive encephalopathy, serious autonomic manifestations associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome, followed by subsequent bilateral ascending flaccid paralysis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed cytoalbuminous dissociation. Nerve conduction velocity tests showed features of demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. An immunofluorescence test of her serum was positive for mycoplasma immunoglobulin M antibody. The present case highlights the importance of considering the initial autonomic manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the differential diagnosis of unexplained acute hypertensive crisis.

  11. [Psychophysiological structure of verbal and nonverbal intellect in 6-7 year old children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Bezrukikh, M M; Loginova, E S

    2011-01-01

    Wechsler test revealed the peculiarities of intellectual development of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is shown that the psychophysiological structure of intelligence in 6-7 year old children without any signs of ADHD is characterized by a high level of development and close interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Their peers with ADHD demonstrate an insufficient level of development of visual-spatial perception, voluntary activity organization and regulation, and a lower level of interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Significant differences between verbal and nonverbal integral indices are the evidence of the deficit in voluntary attention and voluntary regulation and in the integrity of operational cognitive structures.

  12. Diphtheria in a 7-year-old child in north-eastern Nigeria - management in a resource-poor setting.

    PubMed

    Goni, Baba Waru; Gofama, Mustapha M; Lawan, Gana M; Haruna, Yusuph; Bukar, Bakki; Musa, Kida I

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 7-year-old unimmunized child who presented with a 2 week history of nasal quality speech, hoarseness of the voice, regurgitation of feeds, and unstable gait. He had a previous history of fever, severe sore throat and bloody nasal discharge. A throat swab was negative for Corynebacterium diphtheria; however, he had received antibiotics at a primary care clinic prior to presentation. A clinical diagnosis of diphtheria with neurologic complication was made and the child was started on oral erythromycin, nasogastric tube feeding and daily physiotherapy, following which he improved. We did not prescribe diphtheria anti-toxin because of its unavailability.

  13. Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals during Pregnancy and Weight at 7 Years of Age: A Multi-pollutant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Martinez, David; Valvi, Damaskini; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may induce weight gain and obesity in children, but the obesogenic effects of mixtures have not been studied. Objective We evaluated the associations between pre- and perinatal biomarker concentrations of 27 EDCs and child weight status at 7 years of age. Methods In pregnant women enrolled in a Spanish birth cohort study between 2004 and 2006, we measured the concentrations of 10 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, cadmium, arsenic, and lead in two maternal pregnancy urine samples; 6 organochlorine compounds in maternal pregnancy serum; mercury in cord blood; and 6 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in colostrum. Among 470 children at 7 years, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated, and overweight was defined as BMI > 85th percentile. We estimated associations with EDCs in single-pollutant models and applied principal-component analysis (PCA) on the 27 pollutant concentrations. Results In single-pollutant models, HCB (hexachlorobenzene), βHCH (β-hexachlorocyclohexane), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138 and 180 were associated with increased child BMI z-scores; and HCB, βHCH, PCB-138, and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) with overweight risk. PCA generated four factors that accounted for 43.4% of the total variance. The organochlorine factor was positively associated with BMI z-scores and with overweight (adjusted RR, tertile 3 vs. 1: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.19, 5.63), and these associations were robust to adjustment for other EDCs. Exposure in the second tertile of the phthalate factor was inversely associated with overweight. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to organochlorines was positively associated with overweight at age 7 years in our study population. Other EDCs exposures did not confound this association. Citation Agay-Shay K, Martinez D, Valvi D, Garcia-Esteban R, Basagaña X, Robinson O, Casas M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2015. Exposure to endocrine

  14. Dietary patterns at 4 years old: Association with appetite-related eating behaviours in 7 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Gabriela; Lopes, Carla; Durão, Catarina; Severo, Milton; Moreira, Pedro; Oliveira, Andreia

    2016-12-02

    A possible relationship between children's dietary intake and certain aspects of eating behaviours has been documented, but most studies are cross-sectional and do not consider the complexity of the diet. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between dietary patterns established at 4 years old and appetite-related eating behaviours identified at 7 years old. Participants are children from the Generation XXI population-based birth cohort. Trained interviewers collected data at birth, 4 and 7 years old on socio-demographics, health and lifestyles, and anthropometrics. At 4 years old, diet was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire and three dietary patterns were identified by Latent Class Analysis: 'Healthier', 'Snacking' and 'Energy Dense Foods' (EDF). A Portuguese version of the original Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was self-completed by mothers at 7 year-old. This version has previously shown good psychometric properties and the 8 CEBQ sub-domains were combined into two wider dimensions: Appetite Restraint and Appetite Disinhibition. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the associations after adjustment for maternal characteristics (n = 4358). Interaction effects were tested. Children belonging to the 'Snacking' (β = 0.329, 95%CI: 0.265; 0.393) and to the 'EDF' (β = 0.138, 95%CI: 0.098; 0.179) dietary patterns at 4 years old scored increasingly higher, respectively, on Appetite Restraint and Appetite Disinhibition dimensions at 7 years old, comparatively to children in the 'Healthier' dietary pattern. Maternal BMI before pregnancy modified the 'Snacking' pattern associations; they were stronger in children from underweight/normal weight mothers for Appetite Restraint and present only among overweight/obese mothers for Appetite Disinhibition. This study suggests that children following less healthy dietary patterns early in life have more often disordered eating behaviours in later childhood. Maternal

  15. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders.

  16. [Adenotonsillectomy: the evaluation of the long-term results after more than 7 years from the intervention].

    PubMed

    Esposito, E; Pucci, V; Mesolella, M; Motta, S

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out on 110 patients with various diseases related to chronic inflammation of the tonsils and to hypertrophic adenoids. Sixty-two of these patients underwent adenotonsillectomy, while the others were followed clinically and, where necessary, given medical treatment. At the first observation the patients were between the ages of 2 and 12 (mean age 6.1 years). At the start of the present study the patients ages ranged from 10 to 22 (mean age 17 years). Clinical follow-up was carried out on the patients 2 and 7 years after the first observation and/or adenotonsillectomy. The patients were divided into homogeneous groups according to the severity of symptoms. The A.A. evaluated changes of the following clinical parameters: annual frequency of inflammatory pharyngotonsillar episodes, nasal respiratory obstruction, sore throat, otologic pathology. Evaluations were carried out statistically in each group. After more than 7 years from surgery, the significant reduction of various diseases related to chronic inflammation of the tonsils and to hypertrophic adenoids, in accordance with the findings after 2 years from surgery, underline the effectiveness of adenotonsillectomy in correctly selected candidates.

  17. Violent Offending Among Juveniles: A 7-year Longitudinal Study of Recidivism, Desistance, and Associations With Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Hein, Sascha; Barbot, Baptiste; Square, Amanda; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine Foley; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2017-04-06

    Serious and violent offending among juveniles is a consistent concern of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, yet the development of violent offending remains poorly understood because of limited availability of relevant data, small sample sizes, and shortage of longitudinal data sets. This study analyzed developmental patterns of violent offending over 7 years in the complete population of court-referred youth in Connecticut between 2006 and 2012 (N = 58,678; mean age at first offense = 14.7 years). This unique dataset provided several key findings: First, results from a latent class growth analysis showed that violent crimes peaked at age 14-15, with high-rate adolescent offenders (3.7% of the sample) accounting for 31.9% of all violent offenses. Further, 74.2% of this group desisted from violent crimes in adulthood. Higher levels of self-reported anger/irritability slightly increased the odds of violent recidivism (odds ratio, OR = 1.09), where higher levels of depression/anxiety depressed the odds (OR = 0.89). The overrepresentation of males, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic youth among high-rate adolescence offenders were traceable through adolescence but not beyond the age of 18. Together, these finding may help to inform new delinquency interventions that target the needs of this proportionally small group of violent adolescent offenders accounting for a large amount of violent crimes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Left cheek bias for emotion perception, but not expression, is established in children aged 3-7 years.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Annukka K; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Aznar, Ana

    2017-01-01

    As the left hemiface is controlled by the emotion-dominant right hemisphere, emotion is expressed asymmetrically. Portraits showing a model's left cheek consequently appear more emotive. Though the left cheek bias is well established in adults, it has not been investigated in children. To determine whether the left cheek biases for emotion perception and expression are present and/or develop between the ages of 3 and 7 years, 145 children (71 male, 74 female; M age = 65.49 months) completed two experimental tasks: one assessing biases in emotion perception, and the other assessing biases in emotion expression. Regression analysis confirmed that children aged 3-7 years find left cheek portraits happier than right cheek portraits, and age does not predict the magnitude of the bias. In contrast when asked to pose for a photo expressing happiness children did not show a left cheek bias, with logistic regression confirming that age did not predict posing orientations. These findings indicate that though the left cheek bias for emotion perception is established by age 3, a similar bias for emotion expression is not evident by age 7. This implies that tacit knowledge of the left cheek's greater expressivity is not innate but develops in later childhood/adolescence.

  19. Climate and prevalence of atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old school children in Spain. ISAAC phase III.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; García-Marcos Alvarez, Luís; Kogan, Michael D; González, Agustín Llopis; Gimeno, Antonio Martínez; Aguinaga Ontoso, Inés; Díaz, Carlos González; Pena, Alberto Arnedo; Aurrecoechea, Begoña Domínguez; Monge, Rosa María Busquets; Quiros, Alfredo Blanco; Garrido, José Batlles; Canflanca, Iñaqui Miner; Varela, Angel López-Silvarrey

    2008-11-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic skin disease. Recent reports indicate that the worldwide prevalence of AE is increasing and that various environmental factors are implicated in its aetiology. Climatic conditions have been related with AE prevalence, and Spain has varying climatic conditions. The aim of this study is to document the possible climatic influence on the prevalence of AE in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in three different climatic regions in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of 28,394 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 10 Spanish centres in three different climatic regions. The mean participation rate was 76.5%. AE prevalence was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Spanish Academy of Dermatology criteria used in Spain to diagnose AE. The data, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the annual number of sunny hours per climatic region, were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Meteorology. Different AE prevalences were found in all three climatic regions studied: Atlantic, 32.9; Mediterranean 28.3; and Continental 31.2 per 100 children studied (p < 0.005). AE was positively associated with precipitation and humidity, and was negatively associated with temperature and the number of sunny hours. The results show that AE is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions.

  20. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors.

  1. Utility of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in Children Ages 4–7 Years with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather; Kirk, John Woodard; Mahone, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that assessment for non-credible performance is a necessary component of pediatric neuropsychological examination. The current study examined the utility and validity of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in children ages 4–7 years with and without Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-six children (30 controls, 36 ADHD) completed all three TOMM trials. There were no significant group differences in total score on any trial, or passing rate for Trial 2 or Retention. Four-year-olds with ADHD achieved “passing” score on Trial 1 less often than controls. Across groups, performance on Trial 2 and Retention improved with age, such that 85% of the sample achieved passing score. Four-year olds had greater difficulty and achieved passing score significantly less often than children 5–7 years. Moreover, half of the 4-year olds performed worse on Retention than Trial 2, calling into question the utility of the Retention trial at this age. Performance was associated with IQ only within the ADHD group on the Retention trial. Results suggest that the TOMM can be used with confidence in clinical groups as young as 5 years. Among 4-year olds, performance appears dependent on severity of ADHD or disruptive behaviors, and may be associated with factors other than effort. PMID:25247460

  2. Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Bresnahan, M; Begg, M D; Susser, E

    2001-08-11

    To examine the relation between birth weight and measured intelligence at age 7 years in children within the normal range of birth weight and in siblings. Cohort study of siblings of the same sex. 12 cities in the United States. 3484 children of 1683 mothers in a birth cohort study during the years 1959 through 1966. The sample was restricted to children born at >/=37 weeks gestation and with birth weights of 1500-3999 g. Full scale IQ at age 7 years. Mean IQ increased monotonically with birth weight in both sexes across the range of birth weight in a linear regression analysis of one randomly selected sibling per family (n= 1683) with adjustment for maternal age, race, education, socioeconomic status, and birth order. Within same sex sibling pairs, differences in birth weight were directly associated with differences in IQ in boys (812 pairs, predicted IQ difference per 100 g change in birth weight =0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.71) but not girls (871 pairs, 0.10, -0.09 to 0.30). The effect in boys remained after differences in birth order, maternal smoking, and head circumference were adjusted for and in an analysis restricted to children with birth weight >/= 2500 g. The increase in childhood IQ with birth weight continues well into the normal birth weight range. For boys this relation holds within same sex sibships and therefore cannot be explained by confounding from family social environment.

  3. A 7-year follow-up study on the mental health of North Korean defectors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Woo-Taek; Eom, Jin-Sup; Min, Sung Kil

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to describe the relationship of past trauma and current stress on the mental health of North Korean (NK) defectors living in South Korea 7 years after a baseline assessment. Of the 200 who participated in the initial study, 106 participated in follow-up. Previous data regarding past traumatic events experienced in North Korea and during defection, past posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their current stress levels were correlated with the participants' current mental health status including depression, anxiety, and PTSD. The rate of PTSD in the sample and the scores on the PTSD symptom scale decreased significantly from the baseline. The participants' current mental health was negatively related to previous traumatic experiences in North Korea and past symptoms of PTSD, but unrelated to previous trauma experienced during defection. In addition, although current mental health was negatively related to only current culture-related stress, it was unrelated to the level of current ordinary life stress. The results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms decreased during the 7 years between assessments, and that current culture-related stress is the most important variable related to the mental health of NK defectors living in South Korea. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Heat transfer in microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei

    Heat transfer is considered as one of the most critical issues for design and implement of large-scale microwave heating systems, in which improvement of the microwave absorption of materials and suppression of uneven temperature distribution are the two main objectives. The present work focuses on the analysis of heat transfer in microwave heating for achieving highly efficient microwave assisted steelmaking through the investigations on the following aspects: (1) characterization of microwave dissipation using the derived equations, (2) quantification of magnetic loss, (3) determination of microwave absorption properties of materials, (4) modeling of microwave propagation, (5) simulation of heat transfer, and (6) improvement of microwave absorption and heating uniformity. Microwave heating is attributed to the heat generation in materials, which depends on the microwave dissipation. To theoretically characterize microwave heating, simplified equations for determining the transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) power penetration depth, microwave field attenuation length, and half-power depth of microwaves in materials having both magnetic and dielectric responses were derived. It was followed by developing a simplified equation for quantifying magnetic loss in materials under microwave irradiation to demonstrate the importance of magnetic loss in microwave heating. The permittivity and permeability measurements of various materials, namely, hematite, magnetite concentrate, wüstite, and coal were performed. Microwave loss calculations for these materials were carried out. It is suggested that magnetic loss can play a major role in the heating of magnetic dielectrics. Microwave propagation in various media was predicted using the finite-difference time-domain method. For lossy magnetic dielectrics, the dissipation of microwaves in the medium is ascribed to the decay of both electric and magnetic fields. The heat transfer process in microwave heating of magnetite

  5. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  6. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  7. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-07-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results.

  8. Monolithic Microwave Switching Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Ch'en, Daniel R.; Petersen, Wendell C.

    1989-01-01

    Gallium arsenide integrated-circuit chip switches any of three microwave input signals to any of three output ports. Measuring 4.9 mm on side, chip contains nine field-effect transistor (FET) crosspoint switches. Housed in custom-designed package with standard connectors for easy integration into system. FET's on chip operated as passive switches and consume no static power and insignificant amounts of switching power. Chip module cascades with similar modules into large arrays handling as many as 100 inputs and 100 outputs. Applications include switching and routing vast amounts of data between computers at extremely high speed. On communications satellite, chip switches microwave signals to and from Earth stations and other satellites.

  9. Microwave superheaters for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.; Hoffman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-10-16

    The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat ..delta..T of 2000/sup 0/K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000/sup 0/K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D-/sup 3/He. 5 refs.

  10. [A survey on anemia among children under 7 years of age from 15 minority ethnic groups in Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-qin; Zou, Tuan-biao; Liu, Jin-tao; Quan, Xing; Chen, Qian; Yang, Fa-bin; Hu, Li-sha; Zhao, Zhong-ming; Wang, Xing-tian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the level and distribution characteristics of anemia of the minority ethnic group children in Yunnan. The cases with anemia were surveyed from 13 336 samples of 15 minority ethnic groups and Han children in Yunnan by Taking the method of random cluster sampling. The prevalence of anemia among the children under 7 years of age of 15 ethnic groups of minority in Yunnan was 13.6%. There are differences among the different ethnic groups (χ(2) = 716.33, P < 0.01), the highest was 26.6% in Jingpo, the lowest was 3.5% in Bai. There were differences among the different regions, the prevalence of anemia was high in the border regions City, the highest was 23.8% in Dehong; the prevalence of anemia was low in inland cities, the lowest was 2.7% in Fugong, and was higher in border areas. The prevalence of anemia was higher in boys (13.6%) than in girls (12.1%). There were differences among the different age in the different ethnic groups (6 months to 1 years old: χ(2) = 70.52, P < 0.01; 1 - 2 years old:χ(2) = 185.86, P < 0.01; 2 - 5 years old: χ(2) = 296.12, P < 0.01; 5 - 6 years old:χ(2) = 107.11, P < 0.01; 6 - 7 years old:χ(2) = 185.02, P < 0.01), the highest was 59.0% of Deang in 1 to 2 years old children. The trend of change was that the highest prevalence was seen in 6 months to 1 year old children, the prevalence gradually declined among older children, but rose again in children 6 years of age or older. The prevalence of anemia was 13.6% among the children of 15 ethnic minority under 7 years of age in Yunnan. There were differences among different ethnic groups of minority in different prefectures. There were differences among different ethnic groups of different age groups, but it was highest in 6 months to 1 year old children, it declined among older children, and rose in children 6 years of age or older. The prevalence of anemia was related to the ethnic and geographic factors.

  11. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status with bone mineral density in 0-7 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhenying; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Zi; Li, Yinfang; Liang, Guanyu; Lv, Heyun; Hong, Hong; Song, Yuan; Wei, Yarong; Yue, Hongni; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Guoqin; Ni, Yufei; Zhu, Mei; Wu, Aiping; Yan, Juhua; Ji, Chenbo; Guo, Xirong; Wen, Juan; Qin, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the status of serum 25-hydoxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and identify the relationship between 25(OH)D and bone mineral density (BMD). In an effort to explore the appropriate definition of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in 0–7 year old children. Results The median serum 25(OH)D concentrations was 62.9 nmol/L and 28.9% of the children had a low 25(OH)D (< 50 nmol/L). And a linear relation between 25(OH)D concentrations and BMD was surveyed (r = 0.144 , P < 0.001). After adjusting for the confounders, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with BMD (β = 172.0, 95%CI = 142.8–201.2, P < 0.001), and low 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L) had a high stake for low BMD (OR = 1.424, 95%CI = 1.145–1.769, P = 0.001). Additionally, there was a nonlinear relation between 25(OH)D and low BMD, and a critical value for 25(OH)D of 75 nmol/L appeared for low BMD. The prevalence of low BMD was 14.1% in children with 25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L, much lower than that of the concentrations between 50–75 nmol/L and < 50 nmol/L. Materials and Methods A total of 4,846 children 0–7 years old were recruited in Jiangsu Province, China. BMD and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were determined by quantitative ultrasound and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of 25(OH)D concentrations with BMD. Conclusions Serum 25(OH)D concentrations was related with BMD and 25(OH)D concentrations < 75 nmol/L might be a more appropriate definition of VD deficiency in 0–7 year old children. PMID:27821808

  12. Maternal occupational exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy and risk of asthma in 7-year-old children: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Skadhauge, Lars R; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Frydenberg, Morten; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy is associated with the development of asthma in 7-year-old Danish children, taking atopic status and sex into consideration. Design The study is a prospective follow-up of a birth cohort. Setting and participants A total of 41 724 women and their children from The Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy and 18 months after pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was parent-reported asthma among their 7-year-old children in an internet-based questionnaire. Secondary outcome was asthma among the same children with or without atopic dermatitis and among boys and girls, respectively. Results Prenatal exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) agents was borderline associated with asthma in children with OR 1.17 (0.95 to 1.44) for children with atopic dermatitis and 1.10 (0.98 to 1.22) for children without. Maternal postnatal exposure was associated with asthma (OR 1.15 (1.04 to 1.28). After mutual adjustment,postnatal exposure (OR 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) and the combined effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure (OR 1.34 (1.19 to 1.51)) seem to increase the risk of asthma in children. No significant associations were observed for other prenatal or postnatal exposures. The gender of the child did not modify the aforementioned associations. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposures during pregnancy do not seem to be a substantial risk factor for the development of asthma in 7-year-old children. Maternal prenatal and postnatal exposures to LMW agents may predispose the propensity of the children to develop asthma. Future studies should prioritise the characterisation of the timing of exposure in relation to the birth. PMID:23585388

  13. CONSTRAINTS ON PERTURBATIONS TO THE RECOMBINATION HISTORY FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DAMPING TAIL

    SciTech Connect

    Farhang, M.; Bond, J. R.; Chluba, J.; Switzer, E. R.

    2013-02-20

    The primordial cosmic microwave background at small angular scales is sensitive to the ionization and expansion history of the universe around the time of recombination. This dependence has been exploited to constrain the helium abundance and the effective number of relativistic species. Here we focus on allowed ionization fraction trajectories, x {sub e}(z), by constraining low-order principal components of perturbations to the standard recombination scenario (x {sub e}-eigenmodes) in the circa 2011 South Pole Telescope (SPT), Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven-year data (WMAP7). Although the trajectories are statistically consistent with the standard recombination, we find that there is a tension similar to that found by varying the helium fraction. As this paper was in press, final SPT and ACT datasets were released and we applied our framework to them: we find that the tension continues, with slightly higher significance, in the new 2012 SPT data, but find no tension with the standard model of recombination in the new 2012 ACT data. We find that the prior probabilities on the eigenamplitudes are substantially influenced by the requirement that x {sub e}-trajectories conserve electron number. We propose requiring a sufficient entropy decrease between posterior and prior marginalized distributions be used as an x {sub e}-mode selection criterion. We find that in the case of the 2011 SPT/ACT+WMAP7 data only two modes are constrainable, but upcoming ACTPol, Planck, and SPTPol data will be able to test more modes and more precisely address the current tension.

  14. HARMONIC IN-PAINTING OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SKY BY CONSTRAINED GAUSSIAN REALIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel; Mandolesi, Nazzareno

    2012-05-01

    The presence of astrophysical emissions between the last scattering surface and our vantage point requires us to apply a foreground mask on cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky maps, leading to large cuts around the Galactic equator and numerous holes. Since many CMB analysis, in particular on the largest angular scales, may be performed on a whole-sky map in a more straightforward and reliable manner, it is of utmost importance to develop an efficient method to fill in the masked pixels in a way compliant with the expected statistical properties and the unmasked pixels. In this Letter, we consider the Monte Carlo simulation of a constrained Gaussian field and derive it CMB anisotropy in harmonic space, where a feasible implementation is possible with good approximation. We applied our method to simulated data, which shows that our method produces a plausible whole-sky map, given the unmasked pixels, and a theoretical expectation. Subsequently, we applied our method to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe foreground-reduced maps and investigated the anomalous alignment between quadrupole and octupole components. From our investigation, we find that the alignment in the foreground-reduced maps is even higher than the Internal Linear Combination map. We also find that the V-band map has higher alignment than other bands, despite the expectation that the V-band map has less foreground contamination than other bands. Therefore, we find it hard to attribute the alignment to residual foregrounds. Our method will be complementary to other efforts on in-painting or reconstructing the masked CMB data, and of great use to Planck surveyor and future missions.

  15. Microwave Quantum Illumination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-29

    target detection than the optical, due to the naturally -occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-opto...technologically-driven information task. So far, QI has only been demonstrated at optical wave- lengths [9, 14, 15], for which naturally -occurring back...background. The QI communication protocol from [8, 9] deals with this ∗ stefano.pirandola@york.ac.uk problem in a natural way by purposefully injecting am

  16. Synthetic aperture microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, D. M.

    Realizing the full potential of microwave remote sensing from space requires putting relatively large antennas in orbit. Research is being conducted to develop synthetic aperture antennas to reduce the physical collecting area required of sensors in space, and to possibly open the door to new applications of microwave remote sensing. The technique under investigation involves using a correlation interferometer with multiple baselines. The Microwave Sensors and Data Collection Branch has been engaged in research to develop this technique for applications to remote sensing of soil moisture from space. Soil moisture is important for agricultural applications and for understanding the global hydrologic cycle. An aircraft prototype of an instrument suitable for making such measurements was developed. This is an L-band radiometer called ESTAR which is hoped will become part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). ESTAR is a hybrid instrument which uses both real aperture antennas (long sticks to obtain resolution in the along-track dimension) and aperture synthesis (correlation between sticks to obtain resolution in the cross track dimension). The hybrid was chosen as a compromise to increase the sensitivity (T) of the instrument.

  17. Microwave-Assisted Olefin Metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicks, François; Borguet, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Bicchielli, Dario; Delfosse, Sébastien; Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    Since the first reports on the use of microwave irradiation to accelerate organic chemical transformations, a plethora of papers have been published in this field. In most examples, microwave heating has been shown to dramatically reduce reaction times, increase product yields, and enhance product purity by reducing unwanted side reactions compared to conventional heating methods. The present contribution aims at illustrating the advantages of this technology in olefin metathesis and, when data are available, at comparing microwave-heated and conventionally heated experiments

  18. Introduction to Microwave Linear [Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, David H

    1999-01-04

    The elements of microwave linear accelerators are introduced starting with the principles of acceleration and accelerating structures. Considerations for microwave structure modeling and design are developed from an elementary point of view. Basic elements of microwave electronics are described for application to the accelerator circuit and instrumentation. Concepts of beam physics are explored together with examples of common beamline instruments. Charged particle optics and lattice diagnostics are introduced. Considerations for fixed-target and colliding-beam experimentation are summarized.

  19. Passive Microwave Power Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    wavelength by switching a reciprocal latching ferrite phase shifter in the stub, in response to termination of microwave power from one of the feed tubes....A standby microwave transmitter power amplifier tube is switched into a microwave power distribution system for a phased array in microseconds when...after the switching is completed, the switching being accomplished by changing electrical length of a quarter-wavelength waveguide stub to one-half

  20. Periodontal treatment in a generalized severe chronic periodontitis patient: A case report with 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction.

  1. Genetic analyses of maternal and teacher ratings on attention problems in 7-year-old Dutch twins.

    PubMed

    Derks, E M; Hudziak, J J; Van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Dolan, C V; Boomsma, D I

    2006-11-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine genetic and environmental influences on maternal and teacher ratings of Attention Problems (AP) in 7-year-old children. Teachers completed the Teacher Report Form (N=2259 pairs), and mothers the Child Behavior Checklist (N=2057 pairs). Higher correlations were found in twins rated by the same teacher than in twins rated by different teachers. This can be explained by rater bias or by a greater environmental sharing in twins, who are in the same classroom. We further found that 41% of the variation in maternal and teacher ratings is explained by a common factor. The heritability of this common factor is 78%. The heritabilities of the rater specific factors of mothers and teachers are 76% and 39%, respectively. Because Attention Problems that are persistent over situations may indicate more serious behavior problems than context dependent Attention Problems, we believe that gene finding strategies should focus on this common phenotype.

  2. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. A 7-year old boy with rapid growth and pubic hair].

    PubMed

    Berents-Oosterhof, M Y; Noordam, C; Otten, B J

    2000-12-16

    A 7-year-old boy was tall, with a developing penis and initial growth of pubic hair. Due to the accelerated growth there was no premature adrenarche and due to the increased testicular volume there must have been a central cause for the production of androgens. Further specific investigations revealed an astrocytoma of the hypothalamus. After radiotherapy, the tumour exhibited no growth. The pubertal development was inhibited and the growth later stimulated by means of medication. In the case of pubertas praecox the growth chart and pubertal stages including testicular volume can help to differentiate between central and peripheral precocious puberty, narrow the diagnostic evaluation and reduce the time of the initial therapy.

  3. A 7-year-old with indurated skin and unilateral progressive joint immobility: A case of stiff skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ogunmakin, Kehinde; Vangipuram, Ramya; Sturgeon, Ashley; Shimizu, Ikue

    2015-09-17

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare sclerotic condition that presents during infancy or early childhood. It has an insidious chronic course and may lead to significant co-morbidity and reduced quality of life. Often, affected individuals experience impaired ambulation and immobilization related to joint involvement. Clinically, it may resemble other sclerotic diseases, so histopathological evaluation is necessary to establish a diagnosis. As it is a condition with limited treatment options, prompt diagnosis and early initiation of physical therapy is crucial to prevent joint restriction and maintain quality of life. We describe a case of a 7-year-old with stiff skin syndrome, and review the literature to discuss the clinical presentation, histological findings, and management of this condition.

  4. [Imflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of nose and paranasal sinuses in a little girl of 7-year-old].

    PubMed

    Lawson, S L A; Azoumah, D K; Lawson-Evi, K; N'Timon, B; Savi de Tove, H-M; Yehouessi-Vignikin, B; Kpemissi, E

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMTs) are clinical and pathological distinct entities with controversial biological entities. IMTs have been described in the lungs, abdomen, retroperitoneum and extremities but rarely in the head and neck region. This case report corresponds to an IMT of the nose and the paranasal sinuses in a little girl of 7 years of age. The computed tomography scan showed an expanding tumoral process without skull destruction. First case report in the west African region, this observation describes the treatment instituted according to the possible care in our medical area, and the treatment when the patient was referred to a centre with efficient technical platform. This case underlines the aggressiveness of this type of tumour: an invasive tumour with local-regional extension and high recurrence potential. Currently, after 2 years, the tumoral process is considered cured after several radical surgical excisions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5–7 Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Key, Alexandra P.F.; Molfese, Dennis L.; O’Brien, Louise; Gozal, David

    2010-01-01

    Poor sleep in children is associated with lower neurocognitive functioning and increased maladaptive behaviors. The current study examined the impact of snoring (the most common manifestation of sleep-disordered breathing) on cognitive and brain functioning in a sample of 35 asymptomatic children ages 5–7 years identified in the community as having habitual snoring (SDB). All participants completed polysomnographic, neurocognitive (NEPSY) and psychophysiological (ERPs to speech sounds) assessments. The results indicated that sub-clinical levels of SDB may not necessarily lead to reduced performance on standardized behavioral measures of attention and memory. However, brain indices of speech perception and discrimination (N1/P2) are sensitive to individual differences in the quality of sleep. We postulate that addition of ERPs to the standard clinical measures of sleep problems could lead to early identification of children who may be more cognitively vulnerable because of chronic sleep disturbances. PMID:20183723

  6. Large ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in a 7-year-old girl with analysis of 108 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kirjavainen, Antti; Tuovinen, Veikko; Sándor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) are rare conditions in children and are often asymptomatic. AFOs are found by routine clinical and radiological examination or when they cause obvious intra- or extra-oral swelling. Materials and Methods: A case of an AFO in a 7-year-old girl is described, and 107 cases from the literature and this report are analyzed. Results: The total of 108 cases revealed the average age at presentation of AFO to be 6.3 years in boys and 9.6 years in girls. There was a slight male predilection and AFO lesions most often occurred in the posterior mandible. AFO was almost always associated with an unerupted tooth or teeth. Conclusions: While the recurrence rate of AFO was found to be 5.5%, long-term postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up is advised to ensure no future signs of aggressive recurrence. PMID:27563600

  7. Periodontal treatment in a generalized severe chronic periodontitis patient: A case report with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction. PMID:26038666

  8. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: an unusual cause of recurrent intussusception in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Sinan; Atıcı, Ahmet; Soyköse-Açıkalın, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by intestinal hamartomatous polyps in association with mucocutaneous pigmentations. Main symptoms of PJS in childhood are abdominal pain, obstruction, intussusception, and bleeding from hamartomatous polyps. PJS carries a high risk of gastrointestinal cancer with advancing years. Although, intussusception has been reported as a well-known complication of PJS, recurrent intussusception as an alarming finding in a patient with normal gastrointestinal endoscopy is uncommon. A 7-year-old boy who had recurrent intussusception episodes and diagnosed with PJS histopathological confirmation after surgical excision of involved bowel segments is presented to discuss the clinical features and treatment options of recurrent intussusception as a presenting finding of PJS.

  9. Early and late operation of cleft lip and intelligence quotient and psychosocial development in 3-7 years.

    PubMed

    Petráčková, Irena; Zach, Jiří; Borský, Jiří; Černý, Miloš; Hacklová, Renata; Tvrdek, Miroslav; Janota, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Early and late operations of the cleft lip represent exposure to general anesthesia during the first year of life. The early exposure to the anesthetics may influence long term neurological outcome. Timing of the operation may also influence the quality of life as babies with early repair might be accepted better by their families. The aim of the study was to compare outcomes between two groups of patients operated on for the cleft lip in the first year of life. Observational cohort study. Early repair group included patients operated on in the first eight days of life and late repair group those operated on between 3 and 10 months. Intelligence quotient (IQ) and psychosocial development of children who were operated on for cleft lip were compared at the age of 3-7 years. No differences were found between early (n=15) and late (n=17) repair group in terms of IQ. In both IQ was within the normal range: 100.00 (SD 13.867), 98.76 (SD 10.109), respectively. Significantly better results in physical functioning (P=0.042) and self-esteem (P=0.014) concepts in early repair group were found. We compared outcomes of two groups of patients operated on for cleft lip in the first year of life. The earlier anesthesia did not show a negative impact on intelligence quotient in 3-7 years compared to later anesthesia. The earlier repair of the cleft lip showed a significant positive impact on psychosocial development in 2 out of 13 concepts tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy for 4- to 7-year-old children with anxiety disorders: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were randomized to a parent-child CBT intervention (n = 34) or a 6-month wait-list condition (n = 30). Children were assessed by interviewers blind to treatment assignment, using structured diagnostic interviews with parents, laboratory assessments of behavioral inhibition, and parent questionnaires. Chi-square analyses of outcome rates and linear and ordinal regression of repeated measures, examining time by intervention interactions. The response rate (much or very much improved on the Clinical Global Impression Scale for Anxiety) among 57 completers was 69% versus 32% (CBT vs. controls), p < .01; intent-to-treat: 59% vs. 30%, p = .016. Treated children showed a significantly greater decrease in anxiety disorders (effect size [ES] = .55) and increase in parent-rated coping (ES = .69) than controls, as well as significantly better CGI improvement on social phobia/avoidant disorder (ES = .95), separation anxiety disorder (ES = .82), and specific phobia (ES = .78), but not on generalized anxiety disorder. Results on the Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing scale were not significant and were limited by low return rates. Treatment response was unrelated to age or parental anxiety but was negatively predicted by behavioral inhibition. Gains were maintained at 1-year follow-up. Results suggest that developmentally modified parent-child CBT may show promise in 4- to 7-year-old children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Periradicular regenerative surgery in a maxillary central incisor: 7-year results including cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kourkouta, Stella; Bailey, Graham C

    2014-07-01

    A case of a symptomatic maxillary central incisor that underwent periradicular regenerative surgery with a successful long-term clinical and radiographic outcome is presented. A 52-year old woman was referred to the Endodontology Clinic, UCL Eastman Dental Institute and Hospital, London, UK, in 2004 for swelling and discoloration of the maxillary right central incisor. There was a history of trauma 21 years previously. The tooth was endodontically treated 5 years before the referral. At presentation, there was diffuse facial swelling/erythema and a periodontal probing depth of 11 mm on the midfacial surface with bleeding on probing and purulent exudate. Endodontic retreatment was completed along with subgingival debridement. Reassessment at 6 weeks showed persistent purulent exudate and a probing depth up to 13 mm facially. Periradicular surgery was performed for the purposes of surgical exploration, apical resection and root-end filling with mineral trioxide aggregate, and guided tissue regeneration using a bone xenograft and collagen membrane. Histopathology confirmed the presence of a radicular cyst. Clinical and radiographic evaluation, including cone-beam computed tomographic imaging, at 7 years postoperatively showed a probing depth up to 3 mm and hard tissue formation apically, interproximally, and partly facially on the root surface. In this case of a combined endodontic-periodontic lesion in a maxillary central incisor, regenerative periradicular surgery led to the resolution of the defect, significant attachment gain, and a stable clinical and radiographic outcome after 7 years of follow-up. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of prenatal exposures on body fat patterns at 7 years: Intrauterine programming or birthweight effects?

    PubMed

    Santos, S; Severo, M; Gaillard, R; Santos, A C; Barros, H; Oliveira, A

    2016-11-01

    It remains unknown whether the effects of prenatal exposures on child's adiposity reflect entirely intrauterine programming. We aimed to assess the effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on the child's body fat patterns, disentangling the direct (through intrauterine programming) and indirect (through birthweight) effects. We included 4747 singleton 7-year-old children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal). At birth, maternal and newborn's characteristics were obtained. Anthropometrics were measured at age 7 years and body fat patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Path analysis was used to quantify direct, indirect and total effects of gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on body fat patterns. Pattern 1 was characterized by strong factor loadings with body mass index, fat mass index and waist-to-height ratio (fat quantity) and pattern 2 with waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-thigh ratio, and waist-to-weight ratio (fat distribution). The positive total effect of maternal gestational weight gain and diabetes on the child's fat quantity was mainly through a direct pathway, responsible for 91.7% and 83.7% of total effects, respectively (β = 0.022; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.017, 0.027; β = 0.041; 95% CI: -0.011, 0.093). No effects on fat distribution were found. Maternal prenatal smoking had a positive direct effect on patterns 1 and 2, explaining 94.9% and 76.1% of total effects, respectively. The effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on a child's fat quantity seem to be mainly through intrauterine programming. Maternal smoking also showed a positive direct effect on child's fat distribution. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6-7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2013-11-01

    To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6-7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Evaluations at 6-7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0-3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0-3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration.

  14. Closed-loop insulin therapy improves glycemic control in children aged <7 years: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Andrew; Corcia, Liat; Safer, Jason; Agus, Michael S D; Einis, Sara; Steil, Garry M

    2013-02-01

    To assess the possibility of improving nocturnal glycemic control as well as meal glycemic response using closed-loop therapy in children aged <7 years. This was a randomized controlled crossover trial comparing closed-loop with standard open-loop insulin pump therapy performed in an inpatient clinical research center. Ten subjects aged <7 years with type 1 diabetes for >6 months treated with insulin pump therapy were studied. Closed-loop therapy and standard open-loop therapy were compared from 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 p.m. on 2 consecutive days. The primary outcome was plasma glucose time in range (110-200 mg/dL) during the night (10:00 p.m.-8:00 a.m.). Secondary outcomes included peak postprandial glucose levels, incidence of hypoglycemia, degree of hyperglycemia, and prelunch glucose levels. A trend toward a higher mean nocturnal time within target range was noted for closed- versus open-loop therapy, although not reaching statistical significance (5.3 vs. 3.2 h, P = 0.12). There was no difference in peak postprandial glucose or number of episodes of hypoglycemia. There was significant improvement in time spent >300 mg/dL overnight with closed-loop therapy (0.18 vs. 1.3 h, P = 0.035) and the total area under the curve of glucose >200 mg/dL (P = 0.049). Closed-loop therapy returned prelunch blood glucose closer to target (189 vs. 273 mg/dL on open loop, P = 0.009). Closed-loop insulin delivery decreases the severity of overnight hyperglycemia without increasing the incidence of hypoglycemia. The therapy is better able to reestablish target glucose levels in advance of a subsequent meal. Younger children with type 1 diabetes may reap significant benefits from closed-loop therapy.

  15. Prevalence of Principles of Piaget's Theory Among 4-7-year-old Children and their Correlation with IQ.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Sugandha; Goswami, Mousumi; Vashist, Binny

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child's way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. To assess Piaget's principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ). Various characteristics as described by Jean Piaget specific for the age group of 4-7 years along with those of the previous (preconceptual stage of preoperational period) and successive periods (concrete operations) were analysed using various experiments in 300 children. These characteristics included the concepts of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism, centration and reversibility. IQ of the children was measured using Seguin form board test. Inferential statistics were performed using Chi-square test and Kruskal Wallis test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. The prevalence of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism was 10.7% and 31.7% based on the experiments and 33% based on the interview question. Centration was present in 96.3% of the children. About 99% children lacked the concept of reversibility according to the clay experiment while 97.7% possessed this concept according to the interview question. The mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was significantly higher than those who lacked these characteristics. Perceptual egocentrism had almost disappeared and prevalence of cognitive egocentrism decreased with increase in age. Centration and lack of reversibility were appreciated in most of the children. There was a gradual reduction in the prevalence of these characters with increasing age. Mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was

  16. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6–7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6–7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods Evaluations at 6–7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. Results In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0–3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0–3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Conclusions Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration. PMID:23896791

  17. Twelve-Step attendance trajectories over 7 years among adolescents entering substance use treatment in an integrated health plan.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Campbell, Cynthia I; Sterling, Stacy; Weisner, Constance

    2012-05-01

    This study examines 12-Step attendance trajectories over 7 years, factors associated with the trajectories, and relationships between the trajectories and long-term substance use outcomes among adolescents entering out-patient substance use treatment in a private, non-profit integrated managed-care health plan. Longitudinal observational study. Four Kaiser Permanente Northern California substance use treatment programs. A total of 391 adolescents entering treatment between 2000 and 2002 who completed at least one follow-up interview in year 1, and at least one during years 3-7, after treatment entry. Alcohol and drug use, 12-Step meeting attendance and activity involvement and post-treatment medical service utilization. Semiparametric group-based modeling identified three distinct 12-Step attendance trajectory groups over 7 years: low/no attendance (60%), early but not continued (26%) and continued (14%). There were lower proportions of males and of adolescents with prior substance use treatment experience in the low/no attendance group (P = 0.019 and P = 0.003, respectively). In addition, those in the low/no attendance group had lower perception on circumstances, motivation and readiness for treatment at baseline (P = 0.023). Multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation analyses found that those in the continued group were more likely to be abstinent from both alcohol and drugs during follow-ups than those in the low/no attendance group [odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, P = 0.003 and OR = 1.96, P = 0.026, respectively]. However, no differences in long-term outcomes were found between those in the other two groups. Robust connection with 12-Step groups appears to be associated with better long-term outcomes among adolescents with substance use disorders. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  19. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Sagripanti, J L; Swicord, M L; Davis, C C

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  20. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sagripanti, J.L.; Swicord, M.L.; Davis, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  1. Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Explore the interactive, virtual ... do Where to learn more About Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Microwave Oven. Microwave ovens ...

  2. Improved method for detecting local discontinuities in CMB data by finite differencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, Jude; Jaffe, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    An unexpected distribution of temperatures in the CMB could be a sign of new physics. In particular, the existence of cosmic defects could be indicated by temperature discontinuities via the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. In this paper, we show how performing finite differences on a CMB map, with the noise regularized in harmonic space, may expose such discontinuities, and we report the results of this process on the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data.

  3. Development of an 83.2 MHz, 3.2 kW solid-state RF amplifier using Wilkinson power divider and combiner for a 10 MeV cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Song, Ho Seung; Ghergherehchi, Mitra; Oh, Seyoung; Chai, Jong Seo

    2017-03-01

    We design a stripline-type Wilkinson power divider and combiner for a 3.2 kW solid-state radio frequency (RF) amplifier module and optimize this setup. A Teflon-based printed circuit board is used in the power combiner to transmit high RF power efficiently in the limited space. The reflection coefficient (S11) and insertion loss (S21) related to impedance matching are characterized to determine the optimization process. The resulting two-way divider reflection coefficient and insertion loss were -48.00 dB and -3.22 dB, respectively. The two-way power combiner reflection coefficient and insertion loss were -20 dB and -3.3 dB, respectively. Moreover, the 3.2 kW solid-state RF power test results demonstrate that the proposed power divider and combiner exhibit a maximum efficiency value of 71.3% (combiner loss 5%) at 48 V supply voltage.

  4. Development of an 83.2 MHz, 3.2 kW solid-state RF amplifier using Wilkinson power divider and combiner for a 10 MeV cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ho Seung; Ghergherehchi, Mitra; Oh, Seyoung; Chai, Jong Seo

    2017-03-01

    We design a stripline-type Wilkinson power divider and combiner for a 3.2 kW solid-state radio frequency (RF) amplifier module and optimize this setup. A Teflon-based printed circuit board is used in the power combiner to transmit high RF power efficiently in the limited space. The reflection coefficient (S11) and insertion loss (S21) related to impedance matching are characterized to determine the optimization process. The resulting two-way divider reflection coefficient and insertion loss were -48.00 dB and -3.22 dB, respectively. The two-way power combiner reflection coefficient and insertion loss were -20 dB and -3.3 dB, respectively. Moreover, the 3.2 kW solid-state RF power test results demonstrate that the proposed power divider and combiner exhibit a maximum efficiency value of 71.3% (combiner loss 5%) at 48 V supply voltage.

  5. Exposure to air pollution and respiratory symptoms during the first 7 years of life in an Italian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Ranzi, Andrea; Porta, Daniela; Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Lauriola, Paolo; Davoli, Marina; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air pollution has been consistently associated with exacerbation of respiratory diseases in schoolchildren, but the role of early exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the first occurrence of respiratory symptoms and asthma is not yet clear. We assessed the association between indexes of exposure to traffic-related air pollution during different periods of life and respiratory outcomes in a birth cohort of 672 newborns (Rome, Italy). Direct interviews of the mother were conducted at birth and at 6, 15 months, 4 and 7 years. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution was assessed for each residential address during the follow-up period using a Land-Use Regression model (LUR) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and a Geographic Information System (GIS) variable of proximity to high-traffic roads (HTR) (>10 000vehicles/day). We used age-specific NO2 levels to develop indices of exposure at birth, current, and lifetime time-weighted average. The association of NO2 and traffic proximity with respiratory disorders were evaluated using logistic regression in a longitudinal approach (Generalised Estimating Equation). The exposure indexes were used as continuous and categorical variables (cut-off points based on the 75th percentile for NO2 and the 25th percentile for distance from HTRs). The average NO2 exposure level at birth was 37.2 μg/m(3) (SD 7.2, 10-90th range 29.2-46.1). There were no statistical significant associations between the exposure indices and the respiratory outcomes in the longitudinal model. The odds ratios for a 10-µg/m(3) increase in time-weighted average NO2 exposure were: asthma incidence OR=1.09; 95 CI% 0.78 to 1.52, wheezing OR=1.07; 95 CI% 0.90 to 1.28, shortness of breath with wheezing OR=1.16; 95 CI% 0.94 to 1.43, cough or phlegm apart from cold OR=1.11; 95 CI% 0.92 to 1.33, and otitis OR=1.08; 95 CI% 0.89 to 1.32. Stronger but not significant associations were found considering the 75th percentile of the NO2 distribution as a cut

  6. High-Sensitivity Microwave Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, W. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a 3.33-cm wavelength (9 GHz) microwave system that achieves a high overall signal sensitivity and a well-collimated beam with moderate-size equipment. The system has been used to develop microwave versions of the Michelson interferometer, Bragg reflector, Brewster's law and total internal reflection, and Young's interference experiment.…

  7. GREENER SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave irradiation has been used for a variety of organic transformations wherein chemical reactions are expedited because of selective adsorption of microwave (MW) energy by polar molecules, non-polar molecules being inert to the MW dielectric loss. The MW application under s...

  8. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS & TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical account of the utility of microwaves in a variety of chemical synthesis applications will be presented, including a solvent-free strategy that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such...

  9. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS & TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical account of the utility of microwaves in a variety of chemical synthesis applications will be presented, including a solvent-free strategy that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such...

  10. Image formation in microwave holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribbs, R. W.; Lamb, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    Microwave holograms are made without offset reference beam, but it has been found that Van der Lugt filter can be used to produce image offset. Also, filter permits "decoding" of holograms in contrast with usual practice of reconstructing visible-light analogs of original micro-wave wave fronts.

  11. GREENER SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave irradiation has been used for a variety of organic transformations wherein chemical reactions are expedited because of selective adsorption of microwave (MW) energy by polar molecules, non-polar molecules being inert to the MW dielectric loss. The MW application under s...

  12. More Experiments with Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    Microwave ovens can be used to perform exciting demonstrations that illustrate a variety of physics topics. Experiments discussed here show superheating, visualize the inhomogeneous heating that takes place in a microwave and also show how to use a mobile phone to detect radiation leaking from the oven. Finally eggs can give some spectacular…

  13. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Rodger D.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  14. More Experiments with Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    Microwave ovens can be used to perform exciting demonstrations that illustrate a variety of physics topics. Experiments discussed here show superheating, visualize the inhomogeneous heating that takes place in a microwave and also show how to use a mobile phone to detect radiation leaking from the oven. Finally eggs can give some spectacular…

  15. Computer-Generated Microwave Holograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leming, Charles W.; Hastings, Orestes Patterson, III

    1980-01-01

    Described is the phasor method of superposition of waves. The intensity pattern from a system of microwave sources is calculated point by point on a plane corresponding to a film emulsion, and then printed and directly converted to a hologram for 3-cm microwaves. Calculations, construction, and viewing of holograms are included. (Author/DS)

  16. High-Sensitivity Microwave Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, W. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a 3.33-cm wavelength (9 GHz) microwave system that achieves a high overall signal sensitivity and a well-collimated beam with moderate-size equipment. The system has been used to develop microwave versions of the Michelson interferometer, Bragg reflector, Brewster's law and total internal reflection, and Young's interference experiment.…

  17. Microwave Sterilization in School Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Brian; Dixon, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Described are two investigations carried out in a high school biology department using a domestic microwave oven to compare the relative attributes of the autoclave and microwave oven in school use. Discussed are equipment, methods, and results of each investigation. (Author/CW)

  18. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  19. Microwave drying of wood strands

    Treesearch

    Guanben Du; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of microwave drying of wood strands with different initial moisture contents and geometries were investigated using a commercial small microwave oven under different power inputs. Temperature and moisture changes along with the drying efficiency were examined at different drying scenarios. Extractives were analyzed using gas chromatography=mass...

  20. Advanced components for microwave photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves; Gunnarsson, Ola; Popov, Mikhail; Margulis, Walter; Petermann, Ingemar; Berlemont, David; Carlsson, Fredrik

    2003-04-01

    This persentation gives an overveiw of the field of microwave photonics with an emphasis on new fiber based devices which we belive have a real practical potential. Microwave photonics can be considered as the fruitful meeting point bewteen optics and microwave engineering, where optoelectronic devices and systems are used both for processing at microwave rates and for signal handling in microwave systems. The use of specialty fibers, glass poling and naturally fiber Bragg gratings opens new perspectives for the realization of low-cost devices with appropriate functionality. The application field for optical microwave transmission and processing spans from radar technology to cable TV and mobile communications systems. Over the last few years very much attention has been directed towards radio-over-fiber systems for the next-generation mobile communications infrastructure as well as hybrid fiber radio for picocell systems at 60 GHz or above. As a matter of fact, the higher the microwave frequencies, the greater are the similarities with the optical carrier and the more there is to be gained by processing the microwave signal in the optical domain. Other important application examples are beamforming networks for phased array antennas and subcarrier processing for routing in optical networks.