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Sample records for 7-year wilkinson microwave

  1. A SEARCH FOR CONCENTRIC CIRCLES IN THE 7 YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE TEMPERATURE SKY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wehus, I. K.; Eriksen, H. K.

    2011-06-01

    In this Letter, we search for concentric circles with low variance in cosmic microwave background sky maps. The detection of such circles would hint at new physics beyond the current cosmological concordance model, which states that the universe is isotropic and homogeneous, and filled with Gaussian fluctuations. We first describe a set of methods designed to detect such circles, based on matched filters and {chi}{sup 2} statistics, and then apply these methods to the best current publicly available data, the 7 year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) temperature sky maps. We compare the observations with an ensemble of 1000 Gaussian {Lambda}CDM simulations. Based on these tests, we conclude that the WMAP sky maps are fully compatible with the Gaussian and isotropic hypothesis as measured by low-variance ring statistics.

  2. Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, E.; Bennett, Charles L.; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mapped the distribution of temperature and polarization over the entire sky in five microwave frequency bands. These full-sky maps were used to obtain measurements of temperature and polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background with the unprecedented accuracy and precision. The analysis of two-point correlation functions of temperature and polarization data gives determinations of the fundamental cosmological parameters such as the age and composition of the universe, as well as the key parameters describing the physics of inflation, which is further constrained by three-point correlation functions. WMAP observations alone reduced the flat ? cold dark matter (Lambda Cold Dark Matter) cosmological model (six) parameter volume by a factor of > 68, 000 compared with pre-WMAP measurements. The WMAP observations (sometimes in combination with other astrophysical probes) convincingly show the existence of non-baryonic dark matter, the cosmic neutrino background, flatness of spatial geometry of the universe, a deviation from a scale-invariant spectrum of initial scalar fluctuations, and that the current universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The WMAP observations provide the strongest ever support for inflation; namely, the structures we see in the universe originate from quantum fluctuations generated during inflation.

  3. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Attitude Estimation Filter Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard R.

    2005-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) spacecraft was launched in June of 2001. The sensor complement of WMAP consists of two Autonomous Star Trackers (ASTs), two Fine Sun Sensors (FSSs), and a gyro package which contains redundancy about one of the WMAP body axes. The onboard attitude estimation filter consists of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) solving for attitude and gyro bias errors which are then resolved into a spacecraft attitude quaternion and gyro bias. A pseudo-linear Kalman filter has been developed which directly estimates the spacecraft attitude quaternion, rate, and gyro bias. In this paper, the performance of the two filters is compared for the two major control modes of WMAP: inertial mode and observation mode.

  4. Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Eiichiro; Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Science Team

    2013-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the fossil light of the Big Bang, is the oldest light that one can ever hope to observe in our Universe. The CMB provides us with a direct image of the Universe when it was still an "infant" - 380,000 years old. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the microwave sky in five frequency bands for nine years since 2001, creating a full-sky CMB map with the unprecedented precision. The WMAP data have enabled us to obtain a wealth of cosmological information, such as the composition, age, geometry, and history of the Universe. Yet, can we go further and learn about the primordial universe, when it was much younger than 380,000 years old, perhaps as young as a tiny fraction of a second? If so, this gives us a hope to test competing theories about the origin of the Universe at ultra high energies. In this talk, we will review the physics of CMB and the WMAP mission, present the basic results from nine years of observations, and discuss their cosmological implications.

  5. Restoring Redundancy to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotrophy Probe Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Davis, Gary T.; Ward, David K.

    2004-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer. Attitude control system engineers discovered sixteen months before launch that configuration changes after the critical design review had resulted in a significant migration of the spacecraft's center of mass. As a result, the spacecraft no longer had a viable backup control mode in the event of a failure of the negative pitch-axis thruster. A tiger team was formed and identified potential solutions to this problem, such as adding thruster-plume shields to redirect thruster torque, adding or removing mass from the spacecraft, adding an additional thruster, moving thrusters, bending thruster nozzles or propellant tubing, or accepting the loss of redundancy. The project considered the impacts on mass, cost, fuel budget, and schedule for each solution, and decided to bend the propellant tubing of the two roll-control thrusters to allow the pair to be used for backup control in the negative pitch axis. This paper discusses the problem and the potential solutions, and documents the hardware and software changes and verification performed. Flight data are presented to show the on-orbit performance of the propulsion system and lessons learned are described.

  6. The Attitude Control System for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Andrews, Stephen F.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Ward, David K.

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe mission produces a map of the cosmic microwave background radiation over the entire celestial sphere by executing a fast spin and a slow precession of its spin axis about the Sun line to obtain a highly interconnected set of measurements. The spacecraft attitude is sensed and controlled using an inertial reference unit, two star trackers, a digital sun sensor, twelve coarse sun sensors, three reaction wheel assemblies, and a propulsion system. Sufficient attitude knowledge is provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation (l sigma) of 1.3 arc-minutes per axis. In addition, the spacecraft acquires and holds the sunline at initial acquisition and in the event of a failure, and slews to the proper orbit adjust orientations and to the proper off-sunline attitude to start the compound spin. This paper presents an overview of the design of the attitude control system to carry out this mission and presents some early flight experience.

  7. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) First Year Observations: TE Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Spergel, D. N.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters at frequencies 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz. We detect correlations between the temperature and polarization maps significant at more than 10 standard deviations. The correlations are inconsistent with instrument noise and are significantly larger than the upper limits established for potential systematic errors. The correlations are present in all WAMP frequency bands with similar amplitude from 23 to 94 GHz, and are consistent with a superposition of a CMB signal with a weak foreground. The fitted CMB component is robust against different data combinations and fitting techniques. On small angular scales (theta less than 5 deg), the WMAP data show the temperature-polarization correlation expected from adiabatic perturbations in the temperature power spectrum. The data for l greater than 20 agree well with the signal predicted solely from the temperature power spectra, with no additional free parameters. We detect excess power on large angular scales (theta greater than 10 deg) compared to predictions based on the temperature power spectra alone. The excess power is well described by reionization at redshift 11 is less than z(sub r) is less than 30 at 95% confidence, depending on the ionization history. A model-independent fit to reionization optical depth yields results consistent with the best-fit ACDM model, with best fit value t = 0.17 +/- 0.04 at 68% confidence, including systematic and foreground uncertainties. This value is larger than expected given the detection of a Gunn-Peterson trough in the absorption spectra of distant quasars, and implies that the universe has a complex ionization history: WMAP has detected the signal from an early epoch of reionization.

  8. EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM ACROSS WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA RELEASES: A NONPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Aghamousa, Amir; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: mihir@ncra.tifr.res.in

    2012-02-01

    Using a nonparametric function estimation methodology, we present a comparative analysis of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year data releases for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum with respect to the following key questions. (1) How well is the power spectrum determined by the data alone? (2) How well is the {Lambda}CDM model supported by a model-independent, data-driven analysis? (3) What are the realistic uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights? Our results show that the height of the power spectrum is well determined by data alone for multipole l approximately less than 546 (1-year), 667 (3-year), 804 (5-year), and 842 (7-year data). We show that parametric fits based on the {Lambda}CDM model are remarkably close to our nonparametric fits in l-regions where data are sufficiently precise. In contrast, the power spectrum for an H{Lambda}CDM model is progressively pushed away from our nonparametric fit as data quality improves with successive data realizations, suggesting incompatibility of this particular cosmological model with respect to the WMAP data sets. We present uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% (2{sigma}) level of confidence and show how these uncertainties translate into hyperbolic 'bands' on the acoustic scale (l{sub A} ) and peak shift ({phi}{sub m}) parameters. Based on the confidence set for the 7-year data, we argue that the low-l upturn in the CMB power spectrum cannot be ruled out at any confidence level in excess of about 10% ( Almost-Equal-To 0.12{sigma}). Additional outcomes of this work are a numerical formulation for minimization of a noise-weighted risk function subject to monotonicity constraints, a prescription for obtaining nonparametric fits that are closer to cosmological expectations on smoothness, and a method for sampling cosmologically meaningful power spectrum variations from the confidence set of a nonparametric fit.

  9. Constraints on CPT violation from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three year polarization data: A wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph; Natoli, Paolo

    2007-12-15

    We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle {delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}3.0 ({delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}6.0) at the one (two) {sigma} level, consistent with a null detection.

  10. Temperature of the inflaton and duration of inflation from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Mohanty, Subhendra; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2006-03-31

    If the initial state of the inflaton field is taken to have a thermal distribution instead of the conventional zero particle vacuum state then the curvature power spectrum gets modified by a temperature dependent factor such that the fluctuation spectrum of the microwave background radiation is enhanced at larger angles. We compare this modified cosmic microwave background spectrum with Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data to obtain an upper bound on the temperature of the inflaton at the time our current horizon crossed the horizon during inflation. We further conclude that there must be additional -foldings of inflation beyond what is needed to solve the horizon problem.

  11. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Battery Operations Problem Resolution Team (PRT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Technical Discipline Fellow for Electrical Power, was requested to form a Problem Resolution Team (PRT) to help assess the health of the flight battery that is currently operating aboard NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and provide recommendations for battery operations to mitigate the risk of impacting science operations for the rest of the mission. This report contains the outcome of the PRT's assessment.

  12. First Results From the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The first findings from a year of WMAP satellite operations provide a detailed full sky map of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The observed temperature anisotropy, combined with the associated polarization information, encodes a wealth of cosmological information. The results have have implications for the history, content, and evolution of the universe, and its large scale properties. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed.

  13. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Wright, E. L.; Halpern, M.

    2003-01-01

    The WMAP mission has mapped the full sky to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the universe. Full sky maps are made in five microwave frequency bands to separate the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from foreground emission, including diffuse Galactic emission and Galactic and extragalactic point sources. We define masks that excise regions of high foreground emission, so CMB analyses can became out with minimal foreground contamination. We also present maps and spectra of the individual emission components, leading to an improved understanding of Galactic astrophysical processes. The effectiveness of template fits to remove foreground emission from the WMAP data is also examined. These efforts result in a CMB map with minimal contamination and a demonstration that the WMAP CMB power spectrum is insensitive to residual foreground emission. We use a Maximum Entropy Method to construct a model of the Galactic emission components. The observed total Galactic emission matches the model to less than 1% and the individual model components are accurate to a few percent. We find that the Milky Way resembles other normal spiral galaxies between 408 MHz and 23 GHz, with a synchrotron spectral index that is flattest (beta(sub s) approx. -2.5) near star-forming regions, especially in the plane, and steepest (beta(sub s) approx. -3) in the halo. This is consistent with a picture of relativistic cosmic ray electron generation in star-forming regions and diffusion and convection within the plane. The significant synchrotron index steepening out of the plane suggests a diffusion process in which the halo electrons are trapped in the Galactic potential long enough to suffer synchrotron and inverse Compton energy losses and hence a spectral steepening. The synchrotron index is steeper in the WMAP bands than in lower frequency radio surveys, with a spectral break near 20 GHz to beta(sub s) less than -3. The modeled thermal dust spectral

  14. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: CALIBRATION WITH THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE USING CROSS-CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir; Bond, John R.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Amiri, Mandana; Battistelli, Elia S.; Burger, Bryce; Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Brown, Ben; Chervenak, Jay; Doriese, W. Bertrand

    2011-10-20

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and map-making procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 < l < 1000, we determine the absolute calibration with an uncertainty of 2% in temperature. The precise measurement of the calibration error directly impacts the uncertainties in the cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Calibration with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Using Cross-Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajian, Amir; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, John R.; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Bertrand Doriese, W.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Moseley, Harvey; Wollack, Ed

    2011-01-01

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and mapmaking procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 < I < 1000, we determine the absolute calibration with an uncertainty of 2% in temperature. The precise measurement of the calibration error directly impacts the uncertainties in the cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  16. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP) Observations: Data Processing Methods and Systematic Errors Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Greason, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the calibration and data processing methods used to generate full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first year of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations. Detailed limits on residual systematic errors are assigned based largely on analyses of the flight data supplemented, where necessary, with results from ground tests. The data are calibrated in flight using the dipole modulation of the CMB due to the observatory's motion around the Sun. This constitutes a full-beam calibration source. An iterative algorithm simultaneously fits the time-ordered data to obtain calibration parameters and pixelized sky map temperatures. The noise properties are determined by analyzing the time-ordered data with this sky signal estimate subtracted. Based on this, we apply a pre-whitening filter to the time-ordered data to remove a low level of l/f noise. We infer and correct for a small (approx. 1 %) transmission imbalance between the two sky inputs to each differential radiometer, and we subtract a small sidelobe correction from the 23 GHz (K band) map prior to further analysis. No other systematic error corrections are applied to the data. Calibration and baseline artifacts, including the response to environmental perturbations, are negligible. Systematic uncertainties are comparable to statistical uncertainties in the characterization of the beam response. Both are accounted for in the covariance matrix of the window function and are propagated to uncertainties in the final power spectrum. We characterize the combined upper limits to residual systematic uncertainties through the pixel covariance matrix.

  17. Foundations of observing dark energy dynamics with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Corasaniti, P.S.; Kunz, M.; Parkinson, D.; Copeland, E.J.; Bassett, B.A.

    2004-10-15

    Detecting dark energy dynamics is the main quest of current dark energy research. Addressing the issue demands a fully consistent analysis of cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure and SN-Ia data with multiparameter freedom valid for all redshifts. Here we undertake a ten parameter analysis of general dark energy confronted with the first year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, 2dF galaxy survey and latest SN-Ia data. Despite the huge freedom in dark energy dynamics there are no new degeneracies with standard cosmic parameters apart from a mild degeneracy between reionization and the redshift of acceleration, both of which effectively suppress small scale power. Breaking this degeneracy will help significantly in detecting dynamics, if it exists. Our best-fit model to the data has significant late-time evolution at z<1.5. Phantom models are also considered and we find that the best-fit crosses w=-1 which, if confirmed, would be a clear signal for radically new physics. Treatment of such rapidly varying models requires careful integration of the dark energy density usually not implemented in standard codes, leading to crucial errors of up to 5%. Nevertheless cosmic variance means that standard {lambda} cold dark matter models are still a very good fit to the data and evidence for dynamics is currently very weak. Independent tests of reionization or the epoch of acceleration (e.g., integrated Sachs-Wolfe-large scale structure correlations) or reduction of cosmic variance at large scales (e.g., cluster polarization at high redshift) may prove key in the hunt for dynamics.

  18. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP)Observations: The Angular Power Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Spergel, D. N.; Verde, L.; Hill, R. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the angular power spectrum derived from the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps. We study a variety of power spectrum estimation methods and data combinations and demonstrate that the results are robust. The data are modestly contaminated by diffuse Galactic foreground emission, but we show that a simple Galactic template model is sufficient to remove the signal. Point sources produce a modest contamination in the low frequency data. After masking approximately 700 known bright sources from the maps, we estimate residual sources contribute approximately 3500 mu sq Kappa at 41 GHz, and approximately 130 mu sq Kappa at 94 GHz, to the power spectrum [iota(iota + 1)C(sub iota)/2pi] at iota = 1000. Systematic errors are negligible compared to the (modest) level of foreground emission. Our best estimate of the power spectrum is derived from 28 cross-power spectra of statistically independent channels. The final spectrum is essentially independent of the noise properties of an individual radiometer. The resulting spectrum provides a definitive measurement of the CMB power spectrum, with uncertainties limited by cosmic variance, up to iota approximately 350. The spectrum clearly exhibits a first acoustic peak at iota = 220 and a second acoustic peak at iota approximately 540, and it provides strong support for adiabatic initial conditions. Researchers have analyzed the CT(sup Epsilon) power spectrum, and present evidence for a relatively high optical depth, and an early period of cosmic reionization. Among other things, this implies that the temperature power spectrum has been suppressed by approximately 30% on degree angular scales, due to secondary scattering.

  19. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-yr constraints on f_NL with a fast wavelet estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casaponsa, B.; Barreiro, R. B.; Curto, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva; P.

    2011-11-01

    A new method to constrain the local non-linear coupling parameter f_NL based on a fast wavelet decomposition is presented. Using a multiresolution wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization, we have developed a method that is ˜ 10^2 times faster than previous estimators based on isotropic wavelets and ˜ 10^3 faster than the KSW bispectrum estimator, at the resolution of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. The method has been applied to the WMAP 7-yr V+W combined map, imposing constraints on f_NL of -69 < f_NL < 65 at the 95 per cent CL. This result has been obtained after correcting for the contribution of the residual point sources which has been estimated to be Δ f_NL =7 ± 6. In addition, a Gaussianity analysis of the data has been carried out using the third order moments of the wavelet coefficients, finding consistency with Gaussianity. Although the constrainsts imposed on f_NL are less stringent than those found with optimal estimators, we believe that a very fast method, as the one proposed in this work, can be very useful, especially bearing in mind the large amount of data that will be provided by future experiments, such as the Planck satellite. Moreover, the localisation of wavelets allows one to carry out analyses on different regions of the sky. As an application, we have separately analysed the two hemispheres defined by the dipolar modulation proposed by Hoftuft et al. (2009, ApJ, 699, 985). We do not find any significant asymmetry regarding the estimated value of f_NL in those hemispheres.

  20. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter Lambda-CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities Omega(sub b)h(exp 2), Omega(sub c)h(exp 2)and Omega(sub Lambda), are each determined to a precision of approx. 1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5 sigma level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional Lambda-CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their Lambda-CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to Omega(sub kappa) = (0.0027 (sub +0.0039) (sup -0.0038;) the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Sigma M(sub nu) < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0+/-40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N(sub eff) and the primordial helium abundance, Y(sub He), agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental

  1. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon,, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six

  2. NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Jarosik, N.; Smith, K. M.; Gold, B.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; and others

    2013-10-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ΛCDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, Ω {sub b} h {sup 2}, Ω {sub c} h {sup 2}, and Ω{sub Λ}, are each determined to a precision of ∼1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5σ level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ΛCDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ΛCDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to Ω{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Σm {sub ν} < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N {sub eff} and the primordial helium abundance, Y {sub He}, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological

  3. DETECTION OF ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN THE PLEIADES REFLECTION NEBULA WITH WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE AND THE COSMOSOMAS EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Genova-Santos, R.; Rebolo, R.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Lopez-Caraballo, C. H.; Hildebrandt, S. R.

    2011-12-10

    We present evidence for anomalous microwave emission (AME) in the Pleiades reflection nebula, using data from the seven-year release of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and from the COSMOSOMAS (Cosmological Structures on Medium Angular Scales) experiment. The flux integrated in a 1 Degree-Sign radius around R.A. = 56.{sup 0}24, decl. = 23.{sup 0}78 (J2000) is 2.15 {+-} 0.12 Jy at 22.8 GHz, where AME is dominant. COSMOSOMAS data show no significant emission, but allow one to set upper limits of 0.94 and 1.58 Jy (99.7% confidence level), respectively, at 10.9 and 14.7 GHz, which are crucial to pin down the AME spectrum at these frequencies, and to discard any other emission mechanisms which could have an important contribution to the signal detected at 22.8 GHz. We estimate the expected level of free-free emission from an extinction-corrected H{alpha} template, while the thermal dust emission is characterized from infrared DIRBE data and extrapolated to microwave frequencies. When we deduct the contribution from these two components at 22.8 GHz, the residual flux, associated with AME, is 2.12 {+-} 0.12 Jy (17.7{sigma}). The spectral energy distribution from 10 to 60 GHz can be accurately fitted with a model of electric dipole emission from small spinning dust grains distributed in two separated phases of molecular and atomic gas, respectively. The dust emissivity, calculated by correlating the 22.8 GHz data with 100 {mu}m data, is found to be 4.36 {+-} 0.17 {mu}K (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1}, a value considerably lower than in typical AME clouds, which present emissivities of {approx}20 {mu}K (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1}, although higher than the 0.2 {mu}K (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1} of the translucent cloud LDN 1780, where AME has recently been claimed. The physical properties of the Pleiades nebula, in particular its low extinction A{sub V} {approx} 0.4, indicate that this is indeed a much less opaque object than those where AME has usually been studied. This fact

  4. Detection of Anomalous Microwave Emission in the Pleiades Reflection Nebula with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the COSMOSOMAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova-Santos, R.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; López-Caraballo, C. H.; Hildebrandt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present evidence for anomalous microwave emission (AME) in the Pleiades reflection nebula, using data from the seven-year release of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and from the COSMOSOMAS (Cosmological Structures on Medium Angular Scales) experiment. The flux integrated in a 1° radius around R.A. = 56fdg24, decl. = 23fdg78 (J2000) is 2.15 ± 0.12 Jy at 22.8 GHz, where AME is dominant. COSMOSOMAS data show no significant emission, but allow one to set upper limits of 0.94 and 1.58 Jy (99.7% confidence level), respectively, at 10.9 and 14.7 GHz, which are crucial to pin down the AME spectrum at these frequencies, and to discard any other emission mechanisms which could have an important contribution to the signal detected at 22.8 GHz. We estimate the expected level of free-free emission from an extinction-corrected Hα template, while the thermal dust emission is characterized from infrared DIRBE data and extrapolated to microwave frequencies. When we deduct the contribution from these two components at 22.8 GHz, the residual flux, associated with AME, is 2.12 ± 0.12 Jy (17.7σ). The spectral energy distribution from 10 to 60 GHz can be accurately fitted with a model of electric dipole emission from small spinning dust grains distributed in two separated phases of molecular and atomic gas, respectively. The dust emissivity, calculated by correlating the 22.8 GHz data with 100 μm data, is found to be 4.36 ± 0.17 μK (MJy sr-1)-1, a value considerably lower than in typical AME clouds, which present emissivities of ~20 μK (MJy sr-1)-1, although higher than the 0.2 μK (MJy sr-1)-1 of the translucent cloud LDN 1780, where AME has recently been claimed. The physical properties of the Pleiades nebula, in particular its low extinction A V ~ 0.4, indicate that this is indeed a much less opaque object than those where AME has usually been studied. This fact, together with the broad knowledge of the stellar content of this region, provides an excellent

  5. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Likelihoods and Parameters from the WMAP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkey, J.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M.R.; Spergel, D.N.; Larson, D.; Hinshaw, G.; Page, L.; Bennett, C.L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R.S.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), launched in 2001, has mapped out the Cosmic Microwave Background with unprecedented accuracy over the whole sky. Its observations have led to the establishment of a simple concordance cosmological model for the contents and evolution of the universe, consistent with virtually all other astronomical measurements. The WMAP first-year and three-year data have allowed us to place strong constraints on the parameters describing the ACDM model. a flat universe filled with baryons, cold dark matter, neutrinos. and a cosmological constant. with initial fluctuations described by nearly scale-invariant power law fluctuations, as well as placing limits on extensions to this simple model (Spergel et al. 2003. 2007). With all-sky measurements of the polarization anisotropy (Kogut et al. 2003; Page et al. 2007), two orders of magnitude smaller than the intensity fluctuations. WMAP has not only given us an additional picture of the universe as it transitioned from ionized to neutral at redshift z approx.1100. but also an observation of the later reionization of the universe by the first stars. In this paper we present cosmological constraints from WMAP alone. for both the ACDM model and a set of possible extensions. We also consider tlle consistency of WMAP constraints with other recent astronomical observations. This is one of seven five-year WMAP papers. Hinshaw et al. (2008) describe the data processing and basic results. Hill et al. (2008) present new beam models arid window functions, Gold et al. (2008) describe the emission from Galactic foregrounds, and Wright et al. (2008) the emission from extra-Galactic point sources. The angular power spectra are described in Nolta et al. (2008), and Komatsu et al. (2008) present and interpret cosmological constraints based on combining WMAP with other data. WMAP observations are used to produce full-sky maps of the CMB in five frequency bands centered at 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz

  6. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, J.L.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, 3.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Halpern, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) satellite aimed at elucidating cosmology through full-sky observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The WMAP full-sky maps of the temperature and polarization anisotropy in five frequency bands provide our most accurate view to date of conditions in the early universe. The multi-frequency data facilitate the separation of the CMB signal from foreground emission arising both from our Galaxy and from extragalactic sources. The CMB angular power spectrum derived from these maps exhibits a highly coherent acoustic peak structure which makes it possible to extract a wealth of information about the composition and history of the universe. as well as the processes that seeded the fluctuations. WMAP data have played a key role in establishing ACDM as the new standard model of cosmology (Bennett et al. 2003: Spergel et al. 2003; Hinshaw et al. 2007: Spergel et al. 2007): a flat universe dominated by dark energy, supplemented by dark matter and atoms with density fluctuations seeded by a Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant process. The basic properties of this universe are determined by five numbers: the density of matter, the density of atoms. the age of the universe (or equivalently, the Hubble constant today), the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, and their scale dependence. By accurately measuring the first few peaks in the angular power spectrum, WMAP data have enabled the following accomplishments: Showing the dark matter must be non-baryonic and interact only weakly with atoms and radiation. The WMAP measurement of the dark matter density puts important constraints on supersymmetric dark matter models and on the properties of other dark matter candidates. With five years of data and a better determination of our beam response, this measurement has been significantly improved. Precise determination of the density of atoms in the universe. The agreement between

  7. A narrow band-pass filter type Wilkinson power divider for I-Q demodulator in microwave interferometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; Ikezoe, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Imai, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Ma, Z.; Sakagami, I.; Mase, A.

    2015-11-01

    I-Q (In-phase Quadrature) demodulator is one of key components in microwave interferometer system application. Normally, I-Q demodulator consists of amplifiers, mixers, 90 degree phase shifter, power divider and band-pass filters, and it is widely used in various microwave communication systems and measurement systems. In this paper, power divider and band-pass filters are newly designed as one single passive component, therefore, I-Q demodulator topology becomes simplified. The novel narrow band-pass filter type Wilkinson power divider not only provides extremely miniaturized circuit size, but also maintains the band-pass filter performance and power division function as well. One experimental circuit shows good agreement with the theoretical simulation.

  8. Real space tests of the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmic microwave background data

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, Bartosz

    2008-08-15

    We introduce and analyze a method for testing statistical isotropy and Gaussianity and apply it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) cosmic microwave background (CMB) foreground reduced temperature maps. We also test cross-channel difference maps to constrain levels of residual foreground contamination and systematic uncertainties. We divide the sky into regions of varying size and shape and measure the first four moments of the one-point distribution within these regions, and using their simulated spatial distributions we test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity hypotheses. By randomly varying orientations of these regions, we sample the underlying CMB field in a new manner, that offers a richer exploration of the data content, and avoids possible biasing due to a single choice of sky division. In our analysis we account for all two-point correlations between different regions and also show the impact on the results when these correlations are neglected. The statistical significance is assessed via comparison with realistic Monte Carlo simulations. We find the three-year WMAP maps to agree well with the isotropic, Gaussian random field simulations as probed by regions corresponding to the angular scales ranging from 6 Degree-Sign to 30 Degree-Sign at 68% confidence level (CL). We report a strong, anomalous (99.8% CL) dipole 'excess' in the V band of the three-year WMAP data and also in the V band of the WMAP five-year data (99.3% CL). Using our statistics, we notice large scale hemispherical power asymmetry, and find that it is not highly statistically significant in the WMAP three-year data ( Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 97%) at scales l{<=}40. The significance is even smaller if multipoles up to l=1024 are considered ({approx}90% CL). We give constraints on the amplitude of the previously proposed CMB dipole modulation field parameter. We find some hints of foreground contamination in the form of a locally strong, anomalous kurtosis excess in

  9. Efficient degassing of dissolved oxygen in aqueous media by microwave irradiation and the effect of microwaves on a reaction catalyzed by Wilkinson's catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Shohei; Sakamoto, Shintaro; Serpone, Nick

    2014-04-01

    To the extent that some reactions are oxygen-sensitive, we herein examined the degassing of dissolved oxygen in water and in 2-propanol solvent by microwave heating with regard to the effects of the microwave frequency (2.45 GHz versus 915 MHz), and with regard to when samples are subjected to electric-field-rich and magnetic-field rich 2.45-GHz microwaves. Changes in the quantity of dissolved oxygen were ascertained by monitoring its concentration in such solvents when exposed to microwave and conventional heating using a polarographic technique and by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. The specific microwave (non-thermal) effect played a role in the degassing process on comparing results between microwave heating and conventional heating under identical temperature conditions. The 915-MHz microwaves were more effective, at least at 60 °C, owing to their greater penetration into the solutions. No significant differences were found when degassing was carried out on exposing the water sample to 2.45-GHz microwaves with the sample located within the waveguide at positions rich in either the electric field or the magnetic field (T=80 °C). Conversion of cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol via hydrogen transfer in the presence of Wilkinson's catalyst and 2-propanol solvent (hydrogen source) was also investigated to assess the effect(s) that microwaves might have on this oxygen-sensitive reaction with respect to product yields in contrast to conventional heating by the oil-bath method.

  10. CROSS-POWER SPECTRUM AND ITS APPLICATION ON WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2011-09-10

    The cross-power spectrum is a quadratic estimator between two maps that can provide unbiased estimate of the underlying power spectrum of the correlated signals, which is therefore used for extracting the power spectrum in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. In this paper, we discuss the limit of the cross-power spectrum and derive the residual from the uncorrelated signal, which is the source of error in power spectrum extraction. We employ the estimator to extract window functions by crossing pairs of extragalactic point sources. We demonstrate its usefulness in WMAP difference assembly maps where the window functions are measured via Jupiter and then extract the window functions of the five WMAP frequency band maps.

  11. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ACDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): OMEGA(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.02267(sup +0.00058)(sub -0.00059), OMEGA(sub c)h(sup 2) = 0.1131 plus or minus 0.0034, OMEGA(sub logical and) = 0.726 plus or minus 0.015, ns = .960 plus or minus 0.013, tau = 0.84 plus or minus 0.016, and DELTA(sup 2)(sub R) = (22.445 plus or minus 0.096) x 10(exp -9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(exp -1). From these we derive sigma(sub 8) = 0.812 plus or minus 0.026, H(sub 0) = 70.5 plus or minus 1.3 kilometers per second Mpc(exp -1), OMEGA(sub b) = 0.0456 plus or minus 0.0015, OMEGA(sub c) = .228 plus or minus

  12. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Observations: Preliminary Maps and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present full sky microwave maps in five frequency bands (23 to 94 GHz) from the WMAP first year sky survey. Calibration errors are less than 0.5% and the low systematic error level is well specified. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is separated from the foregrounds using multifrequency data. The sky maps are consistent with the 7 in. full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) maps. We report more precise, but consistent, dipole and quadrupole values. The CMB anisotropy obeys Gaussian statistics with -58 less than f(sub NL) less than 134 (95% CL). The 2 less than or = l less than or = 900 anisotropy power spectrum is cosmic variance limited for l less than 354 with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 1 per mode to l = 658. The temperature-polarization cross-power spectrum reveals both acoustic features and a large angle correlation from reionization. The optical depth of reionization is tau = 0.17 +/- 0.04, which implies a reionization epoch of t(sub r) = 180(sup +220, sub -80) Myr (95% CL) after the Big Bang at a redshift of z(sub r) = 20(sup +10, sub -9) (95% CL) for a range of ionization scenarios. This early reionization is incompatible with the presence of a significant warm dark matter density. A best-fit cosmological model to the CMB and other measures of large scale structure works remarkably well with only a few parameters. The age of the best-fit universe is t(sub 0) = 13.7 +/- 0.2 Gyr old. Decoupling was t(sub dec) = 379(sup +8, sub -7)kyr after the Big Bang at a redshift of z(sub dec) = 1089 +/- 1. The thickness of the decoupling surface was Delta(sub z(sub dec)) = 195 +/- 2. The matter density of the universe is Omega(sub m)h(sup 2) = 0.135(sup +0.008, sub -0.009) the baryon density is Omega(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.0224 +/- 0.0009, and the total mass-energy of the universe is Omega(sub tot) = 1.02 +/- 0.02. There is progressively less fluctuation power on smaller scales, from WMAP to fine scale CMB measurements to galaxies

  13. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: PLANETS AND CELESTIAL CALIBRATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Greason, M. R.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1{sigma} of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% {+-} 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 {mu}m, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within {approx}2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at {approx}30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a

  14. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Planets and Celestial Calibration Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Komatsu, E.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1σ of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% ± 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 μm, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within ~2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at ~30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a few percent for Tau A

  15. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Power Spectra and WMAP-derived Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    by a factor of 1.5 relative to the five-year volume, while the ΛCDM model that allows for tensor modes and a running scalar spectral index has a factor of three lower volume when fit to the seven-year data. We test the parameter recovery process for bias and find that the scalar spectral index, ns , is biased high, but only by 0.09σ, while the remaining parameters are biased by <0.15σ. The improvement in the third peak measurement leads to tighter lower limits from WMAP on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom (e.g., neutrinos) in the early universe: N eff>2.7(95%CL). Also, using WMAP data alone, the primordial helium mass fraction is found to be Y He = 0.28+0.14 -0.15, and with data from higher-resolution cosmic microwave background experiments included, we now establish the existence of pre-stellar helium at >3σ. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  16. MICROWAVE EMISSION FROM THE EDGEWORTH-KUIPER BELT AND THE ASTEROID BELT CONSTRAINED FROM THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Fukugita, Masataka

    2011-08-01

    Objects in the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt and the main asteroid belt should emit microwaves that may give rise to extra anisotropy signals in the multipole of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment. Constraints are derived from the absence of positive detection of such anisotropies for l {approx}< 50, meaning the total mass of Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt objects is smaller than 0.2 M{sub +}. This limit is consistent with the mass extrapolated from the observable population with the size of a {approx}> 15 km, assuming that the small-object population follows the power law in size dN/da {approx} a{sup -q} with the canonical index expected for collisional equilibrium, q {approx_equal} 3.5, with which 23% of the mass is ascribed to objects smaller than are observationally accessible down to grains. A similar argument applied to the main asteroid belt indicates that the grain population should not increase more quickly than q {approx_equal} 3.6 toward smaller radii, if the grain population follows the power law that continues to observed asteroids with larger radii. Both cases are at or only slightly above the limit that can be physically significant, implying the importance of further tightening the CMB anisotropy limit, which may be attained with observation at higher radio frequencies.

  17. SIGNIFICANT FOREGROUND UNRELATED NON-ACOUSTIC ANISOTROPY ON THE 1 DEGREE SCALE IN WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE 5-YEAR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Bizhu; Zhang Shuangnan; Lieu, Richard; Wakker, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The spectral variation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by WMAP was tested using foreground reduced WMAP5 data, by producing subtraction maps at the 1 deg. angular resolution between the two cosmological bands of V and W, for masked sky areas that avoid the Galactic disk. The resulting V - W map revealed a non-acoustic signal over and above the WMAP5 pixel noise, with two main properties. First, it possesses quadrupole power at the approx1 muK level which may be attributed to foreground residuals. Second, it fluctuates also at all values of l> 2, especially on the 1 deg. scale (200 approx< l approx< 300). The behavior is random and symmetrical about zero temperature with an rms approx7 muK, or 10% of the maximum CMB anisotropy, which would require a 'cosmic conspiracy' among the foreground components if it is a consequence of their existence. Both anomalies must be properly diagnosed and corrected if 'precision' cosmology is the claim. The second anomaly is, however, more interesting because it opens the question on whether the CMB anisotropy genuinely represents primordial density seeds.

  18. Stable indications of relic gravitational waves in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and forecasts for the Planck mission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-10-15

    The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. D 79, 023002 (2009)] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles l. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles l and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various 'optimistic', 'pessimistic', and 'dream case' scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.

  19. Stable indications of relic gravitational waves in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and forecasts for the Planck mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-10-01

    The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 023002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.023002] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles ℓ. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles ℓ and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various “optimistic,” “pessimistic,” and “dream case” scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.

  20. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Source Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E.L.; Chen, X.; Odegard, N.; Bennett, C.L.; Hill, R.S.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M.R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Weiland, J.L.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S.; Tucker, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present the list of point sources found in the WMAP 5-year maps. The technique used in the first-year and three-year analysis now finds 390 point sources, and the five-year source catalog is complete for regions of the sky away from the galactic plane to a 2 Jy limit, with SNR greater than 4.7 in all bands in the least covered parts of the sky. The noise at high frequencies is still mainly radiometer noise, but at low frequencies the CMB anisotropy is the largest uncertainty. A separate search of CMB-free V-W maps finds 99 sources of which all but one can be identified with known radio sources. The sources seen by WMAP are not strongly polarized. Many of the WMAP sources show significant variability from year to year, with more than a 2:l range between the minimum and maximum fluxes.

  1. A search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year WMAP temperature maps using a fast convolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewicz, P.; Wandelt, B. D.; Banday, A. J.

    2013-02-01

    We present a method for the computation of the variance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps on azimuthally symmetric patches using a fast convolution approach. As an example of the application of the method, we show results for the search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We re-analyse claims concerning the unusual variance profile of rings centred at two locations on the sky that have recently drawn special attention in the context of the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario proposed by Penrose. We extend this analysis to rings with larger radii and centred on other points of the sky. Using the fast convolution technique enables us to perform this search with higher resolution and a wider range of radii than in previous studies. We show that for one of the two special points rings with radii larger than 10° have systematically lower variance in comparison to the concordance Λ cold dark matter model predictions. However, we show that this deviation is caused by the multipoles up to order ℓ = 7. Therefore, the deficit of power for concentric rings with larger radii is yet another manifestation of the well-known anomalous CMB distribution on large angular scales. Furthermore, low-variance rings can be easily found centred on other points in the sky. In addition, we show also the results of a search for extremely high-variance rings. As for the low-variance rings, some anomalies seem to be related to the anomalous distribution of the low-order multipoles of the WMAP CMB maps. As such our results are not consistent with the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario.

  2. Modified Wilkinson Power Dividers For K And Ka Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsos, Dimitrios

    1995-01-01

    Modified configuration for Wilkinson power dividers devised for operating frequencies in K and Ka bands (18 to 27 and 27 to 40 GHz, respectively). Overcomes some difficulties associated with increasing frequency, making possible to design and accurately predict performances of unequal-split power dividers for frequencies above X-band.

  3. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.

    2009-12-20

    The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 +- 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 +- 0.00057 K.

  4. The Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixsen, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 ± 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 ± 0.00057 K.

  5. Effective Edwards-Wilkinson equation for single-file diffusion.

    PubMed

    Centres, P M; Bustingorry, S

    2010-06-01

    In this work, we present an effective discrete Edwards-Wilkinson equation aimed to describe the single-file diffusion process. The key physical properties of the system are captured defining an effective elasticity, which is proportional to the single particle diffusion coefficient and to the inverse squared mean separation between particles. The effective equation gives a description of single-file diffusion using the global roughness of the system of particles, which presents three characteristic regimes, namely, normal diffusion, subdiffusion, and saturation, separated by two crossover times. We show how these regimes scale with the parameters of the original system. Additional repulsive interaction terms are also considered and we analyze how the crossover times depend on the intensity of the additional terms. Finally, we show that the roughness distribution can be well characterized by the Edwards-Wilkinson universal form for the different single-file diffusion processes studied here.

  6. PVT Compensation for Wilkinson Single-Slope Measurement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr, Charles L; Ericson, Milton Nance; Blalock, Benjamin; Tham, Kevin; Ulaganathan, Chandradevi; Greenwell, Robert E; Holleman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    A pulse-width locked loop (PWLL) circuit is reported that compensates for process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations of a linear ramp generator within a 12-bit multi-channel Wilkinson (single-slope integrating) Analog-to-Digital (ADC). This PWLL was designed and fabricated in a 0.5- m Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process. Simulation and silicon measurement data are shown that demonstrate a large improvement in the accuracy of the PVT-compensated ADC over the uncompensated ADC.

  7. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND CONSTRAINTS OF DECAYING DARK MATTER PARTICLE PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, S.; Chan, M. H.; Chu, M.-C.

    2012-08-20

    If a component of cosmological dark matter is made up of massive particles-such as sterile neutrinos-that decay with cosmological lifetime to emit photons, the reionization history of the universe would be affected, and cosmic microwave background anisotropies can be used to constrain such a decaying particle model of dark matter. The optical depth depends rather sensitively on the decaying dark matter particle mass m{sub dm}, lifetime {tau}{sub dm}, and the mass fraction of cold dark matter f that they account for in this model. Assuming that there are no other sources of reionization and using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year data, we find that 250 eV {approx}< m{sub dm} {approx}< 1 MeV, whereas 2.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr {approx}< {tau}{sub dm}/f {approx}< 1.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} yr. The best-fit values for m{sub dm} and {tau}{sub dm}/f are 17.3 keV and 2.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} yr, respectively.

  8. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    PubMed Central

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  9. Income inequality, social cohesion, and class relations: a critique of Wilkinson's neo-Durkheimian research program.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, C; Lynch, J

    1999-01-01

    Wilkinson's "income inequality and social cohesion" model has emerged as a leading research program in social epidemiology. Public health scholars and activists working toward the elimination of social inequalities in health can find several appealing features in Wilkinson's research. In particular, it provides a sociological alternative to former models that emphasize poverty, health behaviors, or the cultural aspects of social relations as determinants of population health. Wilkinson's model calls for social explanations, avoids the subjectivist legacy of U.S. functionalist sociology that is evident in "status" approaches to understanding social inequalities in health, and calls for broad policies of income redistribution. Nevertheless, Wilkinson's research program has characteristics that limit its explanatory power and its ability to inform social policies directed toward reducing social inequalities in health. The model ignores class relations, an approach that might help explain how income inequalities are generated and account for both relative and absolute deprivation. Furthermore, Wilkinson's model implies that social cohesion rather than political change is the major determinant of population health. Historical evidence suggests that class formation could determine both reductions in social inequalities and increases in social cohesion. Drawing on recent examples, the authors argue that an emphasis on social cohesion can be used to render communities responsible for their mortality and morbidity rates: a community-level version of "blaming the victim." Such use of social cohesion is related to current policy initiatives in the United States and Britain under the New Democrat and New Labor governments.

  10. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Observations: Beam Maps and Window Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R.S.; Weiland, J.L.; Odegard, N.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, D.N.; Limon, M.; Nolta, M.R.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmology and other scientific results from the WMAP mission require an accurate knowledge of the beam patterns in flight. While the degree of beam knowledge for the WMAP one-year and three-year results was unprecedented for a CMB experiment, we have significantly improved the beam determination as part of the five-year data release. Physical optics fits are done on both the A and the B sides for the first time. The cutoff scale of the fitted distortions on the primary mirror is reduced by a factor of approximately 2 from previous analyses. These changes enable an improvement in the hybridization of Jupiter data with beam models, which is optimized with respect to error in the main beam solid angle. An increase in main-beam solid angle of approximately 1% is found for the V2 and W1-W4 differencing assemblies. Although the five-year results are statistically consistent with previous ones, the errors in the five-year beam transfer functions are reduced by a factor of approximately 2 as compared to the three-year analysis. We present radiometry of the planet Jupiter as a test of the beam consistency and as a calibration standard; for an individual differencing assembly. errors in the measured disk temperature are approximately 0.5%.

  11. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP1) Observations: Galactic Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, B.; Bennett, C.L.; Larson, D.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, N.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Meyer, S.S.; Nolta, M.R.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new estimate of foreground emission in the WMAP data, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The new technique delivers maps of each foreground component for a variety of foreground models, error estimates of the uncertainty of each foreground component, and provides an overall goodness-of-fit measurement. The resulting foreground maps are in broad agreement with those from previous techniques used both within the collaboration and by other authors. We find that for WMAP data, a simple model with power-law synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust components fits 90% of the sky with a reduced X(sup 2) (sub v) of 1.14. However, the model does not work well inside the Galactic plane. The addition of either synchrotron steepening or a modified spinning dust model improves the fit. This component may account for up to 14% of the total flux at Ka-band (33 GHz). We find no evidence for foreground contamination of the CMB temperature map in the 85% of the sky used for cosmological analysis.

  12. Virtual blood banking: a 7-year experience.

    PubMed

    Wong, K F; Kwan, Angela M Y

    2005-07-01

    The operating theater blood transaction system (OTBTS) is a virtual blood banking system that allows computer crossmatch-compatible blood ordering and delivery in the operating theater remote from the hospital blood bank. It was developed and implemented in our hospital in 1997 and was expanded in 2002 to include an unmatched blood module that allows ordering and issuing unmatched RBCs for intraoperative transfusion. During the past 7 years, the system has handled 6,333 crossmatch requests for intraoperative transfusion and issued 20,073 units of RBCs, including 100 units of unmatched RBCs (group O, 72 units; group-identical, 28 units). The OTBTS has proven to be efficient (with a turnaround time for blood ordering and issuing < 30 seconds), effective (with a reduced crossmatch/transfusion ratio and blood wastage), and error free (no delay or error in transfusion or postponement of operation). Furthermore, our experience with the unmatched blood module has attested to the safety and efficacy of computer-controlled, online ordering and real-time, on-site delivery of unmatched RBCs for emergency transfusion.

  13. Global variations in health: evaluating Wilkinson's income inequality hypothesis using the World Values Survey.

    PubMed

    Jen, Min Hua; Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron

    2009-02-01

    This international comparative study analyses individual-level data derived from the World Values Survey to evaluate Wilkinson's [(1996). Unhealthy societies: The afflictions of inequality. London: Routledge; (1998). Mortality and distribution of income. Low relative income affects mortality [letter; comment]. British Medical Journal, 316, 1611-1612] income inequality hypothesis regarding variations in health status. Random-coefficient, multilevel modelling provides a direct test of Wilkinson's hypothesis using micro-data on individuals and macro-data on income inequalities analysed simultaneously. This overcomes the ecological fallacy that has troubled previous research into links between individual self-rated health, individual income, country income and income inequality data. Logic regression analysis reveals that there are substantial differences between countries in self-rated health after taking account of age and gender, and individual income has a clear effect in that poorer people report experiencing worse health. The Wilkinson hypothesis is not supported, however, since there is no significant relationship between health and income inequality when individual factors are taken into account. Substantial differences between countries remain even after taking account of micro- and macro-variables; in particular the former communist countries report high levels of poor health.

  14. Cross-correlation of WISE galaxies with the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Szapudi, István.; Granett, Benjamin R.

    2012-05-01

    We estimated the cross-power spectra of a galaxy sample from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey with the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) temperature anisotropy maps. A conservatively selected galaxy sample covers ˜13 000 deg2 with a median redshift of z= 0.15. Cross-power spectra show correlations between the two data sets with no discernible dependence on the WMAPQ, V and W frequency bands. We interpret these results in terms of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect: for the |b| > 20° sample at l= 6-87, we measure the amplitude (normalized to be 1 for vanilla Λ cold dark matter expectation) of the signal to be 3.4 ± 1.1, i.e. 3.1σ detection. We discuss other possibilities, but at face value the detection of the linear ISW effect in a flat universe is caused by large-scale decaying potentials, a sign of accelerated expansion driven by dark energy.

  15. Sneddon-Wilkinson disease induced by sorafenib in a patient with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Kazuto; Nakajima, Takahiko; Kawai, Kengo; Minemura, Masami; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although it is known to cause a variety of dermatologic adverse events. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SCPD), also known as Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, is a rare skin eruption that accompanies various systemic disorders and may become chronically progressive. We herein describe the case of a patient who developed SCPD after sorafenib administration. The dermatologic reaction was improved by the cessation of sorafenib and worsened by its readministration. Clinicians treating HCC patients with sorafenib should be aware of the possibility of SCPD. PMID:25786448

  16. Sneddon-Wilkinson disease induced by sorafenib in a patient with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Kazuto; Nakajima, Takahiko; Kawai, Kengo; Minemura, Masami; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although it is known to cause a variety of dermatologic adverse events. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SCPD), also known as Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, is a rare skin eruption that accompanies various systemic disorders and may become chronically progressive. We herein describe the case of a patient who developed SCPD after sorafenib administration. The dermatologic reaction was improved by the cessation of sorafenib and worsened by its readministration. Clinicians treating HCC patients with sorafenib should be aware of the possibility of SCPD.

  17. "Generalist Genes" and Mathematics in 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Y.; Harlaar, N.; Petrill, S. A.; Plomin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics performance at 7 years as assessed by teachers using UK national curriculum criteria has been found to be highly heritable. For almost 3000 pairs of 7-year-old same-sex twins, we used multivariate genetic analysis to investigate the extent to which these genetic effects on mathematics performance overlap with genetic effects on reading…

  18. Long-range correlation in cosmic microwave background radiation.

    PubMed

    Movahed, M Sadegh; Ghasemi, F; Rahvar, Sohrab; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the statistical anisotropy and gaussianity of temperature fluctuations of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe survey, using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Rescaled Range, and Scaled Windowed Variance methods. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis shows that CMB fluctuations has a long-range correlation function with a multifractal behavior. By comparing the shuffled and surrogate series of CMB data, we conclude that the multifractality nature of the temperature fluctuation of CMB radiation is mainly due to the long-range correlations, and the map is consistent with a gaussian distribution.

  19. A Comparison of Equity Outcomes in Kentucky: Council for Better Education v. Wilkinson Plaintiff & Non-Plaintiff School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselton, W. Blake; Wells, William

    This report compares plaintiff and nonplaintiff school districts in "Council for Better Education v. Wilkinson" and "Rose v. Council for Better Education" as regards the equity and adequacy outcomes resulting from rulings of the Kentucky Supreme Court and subsequent implementation of the Kentucky Reform Act (KERA) of 1990. Descriptive statistics…

  20. Placental measurements associated with intelligence quotient at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Misra, D P; Salafia, C M; Charles, A K; Miller, R K

    2012-06-01

    We hypothesized that placental villous branching that is measured by disk chorionic plate expansion and disk thickness is correlated with factors also involved in regulation of branching growth of other fetal viscera (e.g. lung, kidney) including neuronal dendrites, and thus may be associated with variation in childhood intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ at age 7 years was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Placental measures [placental weight (g), thickness (mm), chorionic plate surface diameters (cm), area (cm2), shape, and cord length and cord eccentricity] were independent variables in regression analyses of age 7-year IQ in 12,926 singleton term live born infants with complete placental data. Analyses were stratified on gender with adjustment for socioeconomic status, race, parity, gestational age, exact age at testing and centered parental ages. After adjustment for covariates, placental measurements were independently associated with IQ at age 7 years but results varied by gender. Chorionic plate diameters were only associated with higher IQ in girls. Placental thickness was positively associated with higher IQ for boys and girls. We have previously shown that placental measures affect age 7-year body mass index and diastolic blood pressure. Here we demonstrate that specific measures, placental chorionic plate diameters in girls and disk thickness, independent of gender, are correlated with age 7-year IQ. Further exploration of the possible interaction of these factors on the placental villous arborization reflected by the chorionic plate expansion and placental thickness that correlate with age 7-year IQ, as well as other age 7 somatic features as previously addressed, is indicated.

  1. Anorexia nervosa in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bostic, J Q; Muriel, A C; Hack, S; Weinstein, S; Herzog, D

    1997-10-01

    We report on a 7-year-old girl with anorexia nervosa and consider factors contributing to this early emergency. Cognitive differences in younger children can alter their understanding of this illness, so we chronicled this girl's treatment because it diverged from practices used with older patients. Accordingly, effective interventions in very young anorexics might require modifications of treatments used in postpubertal populations.

  2. 38 CFR 3.212 - Unexplained absence for 7 years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... years. 3.212 Section 3.212 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Unexplained absence for 7 years. (a) If satisfactory evidence is produced establishing the fact of the continued and unexplained absence of any individual from his or her home and family for a period of 7...

  3. 38 CFR 3.212 - Unexplained absence for 7 years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.212 Unexplained absence for 7 years. (a) If satisfactory evidence is produced establishing the fact of the... or more and that a diligent search disclosed no evidence of his or her existence after the date...

  4. Optical scattering simulation of ice particles with surface roughness modeled using the Edwards-Wilkinson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianing; Bi, Lei; Liu, Jianping; Panetta, R. Lee; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.

    2016-07-01

    Constructing an appropriate particle morphology model is essential for realistic simulation of optical properties of atmospheric particles. This paper presents a model for generating surface roughness based on a combination of methods from discrete differential geometry combined with a stochastic partial differential equation for surface evolution introduced by Edwards and Wilkinson. Scattering of light by roughened particles is simulated using the Invariant Imbedding T-Matrix (II-TM) method. The effects of surface roughness on the single-scattering properties, namely, the phase matrix, asymmetry factor, and extinction efficiency, are investigated for a single wavelength in the visible range and for a range of size parameters up to x=50. Three different smooth shapes are considered: spherical, spheroidal, and hexagonal, the latter two in just the "compact particle" case of unit aspect ratio. It is shown that roughness has negligible effects on the optical scattering properties for size parameters less than 20. For size parameters ranging from 20 to 50, the phase matrix elements are more sensitive to the surface roughness than are two important integral optical properties, the extinction efficiency and asymmetry factor. As has been seen in studies using other forms of roughening, the phase function is progressively smoothed as roughness increases. The effect on extinction efficiency is to increase it, and on asymmetry factor is to decrease it. Each of these effects is relatively modest in the size range considered, but the trend of results suggests that greater effects will be seen for size parameters larger than ones considered here.

  5. Roughness Scaling for the Edwards-Wilkinson Model on Small-World Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma, B.; Hastings, M. B.; Korniss, G.

    2004-03-01

    We studied the generalization of the Edwards-Wilkinson model to substrates with small-world topology(B. Kozma, M.B. Hastings, and G. Korniss, cond-mat/0309196 (2003).). We considered two implementations of this topology, the ``hard'' version of the network, where each site has exactly one random link of strength p, and the ``soft'' one, where each site on average has p random links of unit strength. Both versions are embedded in one dimension. The research is motivated in part by a recent general criterion for mean-field behavior(M.B. Hastings, Physical Review Letters 91), 098701 (2003). predicting the model to exhibit anomalous scaling on the soft network, and also by synchronization problems in scalable parallel computing(G. Korniss et al., Science 299), 677 (2003). We used impurity averaged perturbation technique to calculate the width in both the weak- and sparse-coupling limits, for the hard and soft network, respectively. The width remains finite in both cases in the infinite system-size limit, but scales differently as p tends to zero. We verified our analytic results by comparing them to those of exact numerical diagonalization.

  6. Cosmic microwave background multipole alignments in slab topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, James G.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Riazuelo, Alain

    2006-02-01

    Several analyses of the microwave sky maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) have drawn attention to alignments amongst the low-order multipoles. Amongst the various possible explanations, an effect of cosmic topology has been invoked by several authors. We focus on an alignment of the first four multipoles (ℓ=2 to 5) found by Land and Magueijo (2005), and investigate the distribution of their alignment statistic for a set of simulated cosmic microwave background maps for cosmologies with slablike topology. We find that this topology does offer a modest increase in the probability of the observed value, but that even for the smallest topology considered the probability of the observed value remains below 1%.

  7. Global universe anisotropy probed by the alignment of structures in the cosmic microwave background.

    PubMed

    Wiaux, Y; Vielva, P; Martínez-González, E; Vandergheynst, P

    2006-04-21

    We question the global universe isotropy by probing the alignment of local structures in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The original method proposed relies on a steerable wavelet decomposition of the CMB signal on the sphere. The analysis of the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data identifies a mean preferred plane with a normal direction close to the CMB dipole axis, and a mean preferred direction in this plane, very close to the ecliptic poles axis. Previous statistical anisotropy results are thereby synthesized, but further analyses are still required to establish their origin.

  8. Enhanced polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation from thermal gravitational waves.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2006-12-22

    If inflation was preceded by a radiation era, then at the time of inflation there will exist a decoupled thermal distribution of gravitons. Gravitational waves generated during inflation will be amplified by the process of stimulated emission into the existing thermal distribution of gravitons. Consequently, the usual zero temperature scale invariant tensor spectrum is modified by a temperature dependent factor. This thermal correction factor amplifies the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation by an order of magnitude at large angles, which may now be in the range of observability of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe.

  9. Radio Source Contributions to the Microwave Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughn, S. P.; Partridge, R. B.

    2008-03-01

    Cross-correlations of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) full sky K-, Ka-, Q-, V-, and W-band maps with the 1.4 GHz NVSS source count map and the HEAO I A2 2-10 keV full sky X-ray flux map are used to constrain rms fluctuations due to unresolved microwave sources in the WMAP frequency range. In the Q band (40.7 GHz), a lower limit, taking account of only those fluctuations correlated with the 1.4 GHz radio source counts and X-ray flux, corresponds to an rms Rayleigh-Jeans temperature of ~2 μK for a solid angle of 1 deg2 assuming that the cross-correlations are dominated by clustering, and ~1 μK if dominated by Poisson fluctuations. The correlated fluctuations at the other bands are consistent with a β = -2.1 ± 0.4 frequency spectrum. If microwave sources are distributed similarly in redshift to the radio and X-ray sources and are similarly clustered, then the implied total rms microwave fluctuations correspond to ~5 μK. While this value should be considered no more than a plausible estimate, it is similar to that implied by the excess, small angular scale fluctuations observed in the Q band by WMAP and is consistent with estimates made by extrapolating low-frequency source counts.

  10. IDENTIFYING THE RADIO BUBBLE NATURE OF THE MICROWAVE HAZE

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Gregory

    2012-11-20

    Using seven-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, I identify a sharp 'edge' in the microwave haze at high southern Galactic latitude (-55 Degree-Sign < b < -35 Degree-Sign ) that is spatially coincident with the southern edge of the 'Fermi haze/bubbles'. This finding proves conclusively that the edge in the gamma rays is real (and not a processing artifact), demonstrates explicitly that the microwave haze and the gamma-ray bubbles are indeed the same structure observed at multiple wavelengths, and strongly supports the interpretation of the microwave haze as a separate component of Galactic synchrotron (likely generated by a transient event) as opposed to a simple variation of the spectral index of disk synchrotron. In addition, combining these data sets allows for the first determination of the magnetic field within a radio bubble using microwaves and gamma rays by taking advantage of the fact that the inverse Compton gamma rays are primarily generated by scattering of cosmic microwave background photons at these latitudes, thus minimizing uncertainty in the target radiation field. Assuming uniform volume emissivity, I find that the magnetic field within the southern Galactic microwave/gamma-ray bubble is {approx}5 {mu}G above 6 kpc off of the Galactic plane.

  11. Expressed emotion: relevance to rehospitalization in schizophrenia over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Marom, Sofi; Munitz, Hanan; Jones, Peter B; Weizman, Abraham; Hermesh, Haggai

    2005-07-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is an established factor in short-term relapse in schizophrenia. However, data on its long-term predictive ability are scarce. We extended our short-term investigation over 7 years' followup. The study population consisted of 108 patients, 93 with schizophrenia and 15 with schizoaffective disorder. EE of the key relatives was rated with the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS). Patient households were categorized by EE and its two components: criticism (CR) and emotional overinvolvement (EOI). High CR was associated with earlier first and second readmissions (Breslow p = 0.002 and 0.04, respectively). High CR was associated with a higher rate of readmissions (p = 0.01) and a longer hospital stay (p = 0.02) compared with low CR. Both compliance with pharmacotherapy and the interaction of high-CR x poor compliance were additional contributors to time to first readmission. This study is the first to demonstrate the prolonged predictive validity of EE. Our results support the value of CR as a prognostic indicator of the course of schizophrenia. The FMSS appears to have predictive power in respect to psychiatric hospitalization. Therapies aimed at lowering high EE seem warranted as a long-term preventive approach. PMID:16123528

  12. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  13. Evidence for dark energy from the cosmic microwave background alone using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope lensing measurements.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Blake D; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W; Bond, J Richard; Carvalho, C Sofia; Devlin, Mark J; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Visnjic, Katerina; Wollack, Ed

    2011-07-01

    For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Ω(Λ) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters, and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.

  14. Evidence for Dark Energy from the Cosmic Microwave Background Alone Using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Lensing Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwin, Blake D.; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W.; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joesph J.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D.; Wollack, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the "Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Omega(delta) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.

  15. Imprints of spherical nontrivial topologies on the cosmic microwave background.

    PubMed

    Niarchou, Anastasia; Jaffe, Andrew

    2007-08-24

    The apparent low power in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy power spectrum derived from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe motivated us to consider the possibility of a nontrivial topology. We focus on simple spherical multiconnected manifolds and discuss their implications for the CMB in terms of the power spectrum, maps, and the correlation matrix. We perform a Bayesian model comparison against the fiducial best-fit cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant based both on the power spectrum and the correlation matrix to assess their statistical significance. We find that the first-year power spectrum shows a slight preference for the truncated cube space, but the three-year data show no evidence for any of these spaces.

  16. Searching for Faraday rotation in cosmic microwave background polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Granados, B.; Battaner, E.; Florido, E.

    2016-08-01

    We use the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 9th-year foreground reduced data at 33, 41 and 61 GHz to derive a Faraday rotation at map and at angular power spectrum levels taking into account their observational errors. A processing mask provided by WMAP is used to avoid contamination from the disc of our Galaxy and local spurs. We have found a Faraday rotation component at both, map and power spectrum levels. The lack of correlation of the Faraday rotation with Galactic Faraday rotation, synchrotron and dust polarization from our Galaxy or with cosmic microwave background anisotropies or lensing suggests that it could be originated at reionization (ℓ ≲ 12). Even if the detected Faraday rotation signal is weak, the present study could contribute to establish magnetic fields strengths of B0 ˜ 10-8 G at reionization.

  17. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements for ... Microwave Ovens (PDF) (PDF - 2.5MB) FDA eSubmitter Industry Guidance - Documents of Interest Notifications to Industry (PDF ...

  18. MAGNETIC SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE NORTHERN FERMI BUBBLE REVEALED BY POLARIZED MICROWAVE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, David I.; Crocker, Roland M.; Aharonian, Felix A.; Reich, Wolfgang; Ott, Juergen

    2012-03-15

    We report a correspondence between giant, polarized microwave structures emerging north from the Galactic plane near the Galactic center and a number of GeV gamma-ray features, including the eastern edge of the recently discovered northern Fermi Bubble. The polarized microwave features also correspond to structures seen in the all-sky 408 MHz total intensity data, including the Galactic center Spur. The magnetic field structure revealed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe polarization data at 23 GHz suggests that neither the emission coincident with the Bubble edge nor the Galactic center Spur are likely to be features of the local interstellar medium. On the basis of the observed morphological correspondences, similar inferred spectra, and the similar energetics of all sources, we suggest a direct connection between the Galactic center Spur and the northern Fermi Bubble.

  19. Bayesian Analysis of the Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The sky, when viewed in the microwave, is very uniform, with a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum at 2.7 degrees. Very small amplitude brightness fluctuations (to one part in a million!!) trace small density perturbations in the early universe (roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang), which later grow through gravitational instability to the large-scale structure seen in redshift surveys... In this talk, I will discuss a Bayesian formulation of this problem; discuss a Gibbs sampling approach to numerically sampling from the Bayesian posterior, and the application of this approach to the first-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. I will also comment on recent algorithmic developments for this approach to be tractable for the even more massive data set to be returned from the Planck satellite.

  20. A novel microwave cancellation circuit for measuring nonlinear dielectric changes of polar solution under microwave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao-Ran; Huang, Ka-Ma

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an experimental set-up based on a novel microstrip cancellation circuit is presented for investigating the effects of external microwave fields on the dielectric properties of polar solution. The circuit consists of a 3 dB Wilkinson power combiner, a conventional 20 dB backward coupler, and a specially designed 20 dB single-sectioned forward coupler. Besides, in order to realize a uniform electric field in the tested solution, a nicked microstrip ring is designed in the circuit. An improvement of measurement sensitivity in the proposed circuit was obtained when compared to the conventional transmission lines method. We exploit interference cancellation processes to suppress the probing signal at the output port under the principle that two identical amplitude signals with 180° phase difference will completely cancel each other. The measurements are carried out at the frequency of 2.45 GHz, and the temperature effects caused by microwave heating are excluded by the flowing fluid. Experimental results show that the dielectric properties of DMSO-methanol/ethanol mixtures change at the electric field intensity of 105 V m  -  1 and present a distinctly nonlinear dielectric change with the electric fields. The study of the microwave-material interaction has expanded our insights into the high-power microwave’s industry application.

  1. Cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure constraints on a simple quintessential inflation model

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Rogerio; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2006-11-01

    We derive constraints on a simple quintessential inflation model, based on a spontaneously broken {Phi}{sup 4} theory, imposed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three-year data (WMAP3) and by galaxy clustering results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that the scale of symmetry breaking must be larger than about 3 Planck masses in order for inflation to generate acceptable values of the scalar spectral index and of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We also show that the resulting quintessence equation-of-state can evolve rapidly at recent times and hence can potentially be distinguished from a simple cosmological constant in this parameter regime.

  2. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  3. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  4. Compositional and contextual approaches to the study of health behaviour and outcomes: using multi-level modelling to evaluate Wilkinson's income inequality hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jen, Min Hua; Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron

    2009-03-01

    Much research into health behaviour and outcomes involves evaluating compositional and contextual hypotheses: the former suggest that behaviour/outcomes are a function of the individual's characteristics alone, whereas the latter argue for the importance of contextual/environmental influences. Wilkinson has presented a contextual argument relating inter-country variations in mortality rates to income inequalities; Gravelle has countered this arguing that Wilkinson's findings are a statistical artefact and that a compositional approach, relating mortality to individual income, is sufficient. Discriminating between these two cases requires a methodology combining the two approaches. Multi-level modelling is proposed and applied to two data sets. The results sustain Gravelle's case, emphasising the role of compositional rather than contextual variables in accounting for inter-country variations in health status.

  5. Cosmic microwave background and first molecules in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signore, Monique; Puy, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Besides the Hubble expansion of the universe, the main evidence in favor of the big-bang theory was the discovery, by Penzias and Wilson, of the cosmic microwave background (hereafter CMB) radiation. In 1990, the COBE satellite (Cosmic Background Explorer) revealed an accurate black-body behavior with a temperature around 2.7 K. Although the microwave background is very smooth, the COBE satellite did detect small variations—at the level of one part in 100 000—in the temperature of the CMB from place to place in the sky. These ripples are caused by acoustic oscillations in the primordial plasma. While COBE was only sensitive to long-wavelength waves, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)—with its much higher resolution—reveals that the CMB temperature variations follow the distinctive pattern predicted by cosmological theory. Moreover, the existence of the microwave background allows cosmologists to deduce the conditions present in the early stages of the big bang and, in particular, helps to account for the chemistry of the universe. This report summarizes the latest measurements and studies of the CMB with the new calculations about the formation of primordial molecules. The PLANCK mission—planned to be launched in 2009—is also presented.

  6. Microwave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1986-12-02

    A detector is described for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations, the detector comprising: a B-dot loop linking the magnetic field of the microwave pulse; a biased ferrite, that produces a magnetization field flux that links the B-dot loop. The ferrite is positioned within the B-dot loop so that the magnetic field of the microwave pulse interacts with the ferrite and thereby participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux; and high-frequency insensitive means for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop.

  7. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  8. Microwave annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yao-Jen; Cho, T.-C.; Chuang, S.-S.; Hsueh, F.-K.; Lu, Y.-L.; Sung, P.-J.; Chen, S.-J.; Lo, C.-H.; Lai, C.-H.; Current, Michael I.; Tseng, T.-Y.; Chao, T.-S.; Yang, F.-L.

    2012-11-01

    Microwave annealing of dopants in Si has been reported to produce highly activated junctions at temperatures far below those needed for comparable results using conventional thermal processes. However the details of the kinetics and mechanisms for microwave annealing are far from well understood. Comparisons between MWA and RTA of dopants in implanted Si has been investigated to produce highly activated junctions. First, As, 31P, and BF 2 implants in Si substrate were annealed by MWA at temperatures below 550 °C.

  9. An asymptomatic case of a single coronary artery in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Hisao; Kimura, Masato; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with a single coronary artery. The coronary artery passed between the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery, and an aberrant vessel ran anterior to the latter.

  10. Improved dark energy detection through the polarization-assisted cross correlation of the cosmic microwave background with radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guo-Chin; Ng, Kin-Wang; Pen, Ue-Li

    2011-03-15

    Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect can be estimated by cross-correlating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky with tracers of the local matter distribution. At late cosmic time, the dark energy-induced decay of gravitation potential generates a cross correlation signal on large angular scales. The dominant noise is the intrinsic CMB anisotropies from the inflationary epoch. In this paper we use CMB polarization to reduce this intrinsic noise. We cross-correlate the microwave sky observed by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) with the radio source catalog compiled by NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to study the efficiency of the noise suppression. We find that the error bars are reduced by about 4 to 14% and the statistical power in the signal is improved.

  11. Anomalous parity asymmetry of WMAP 7-year power spectrum data at low multipoles: Is it cosmological or systematics?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-09-15

    It is natural to assume a parity-neutral Universe and accordingly no particular parity preference in the cosmic microwave background sky. However, our investigation based on the WMAP 7-year power spectrum shows there exists a large-scale odd-parity preference with high statistical significance. We also find that the odd-parity preference in WMAP7 data is slightly higher than earlier releases. We have investigated possible origins, and ruled out various noncosmological origins. We also find that the primordial origin requires |Re[{Phi}(k)]|<<|Im[{Phi}(k)]| for k < or approx. 22/{eta}{sub 0}, where {eta}{sub 0} is the present conformal time. In other words, it requires translational invariance in the primordial Universe to be violated on scales larger than 4 Gpc. The Planck surveyor, which possesses wide frequency coverage and systematics distinct from the WMAP, may allow us to resolve the mystery of the anomalous odd-parity preference. Furthermore, polarization maps of large-sky coverage will reduce degeneracy in cosmological origins.

  12. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  13. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  14. ISOTROPY IN THE TWO-POINT ANGULAR CORRELATION FUNCTION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sophie

    2012-04-01

    We study the directional dependence of the angular two-point correlation function in maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We propose two new statistics: one which measures the correlation of each point in the sky with a ring of points separated an angle {theta} away, and a second one that measures the missing angular correlation above 60 deg as a function of direction. Using these statistics, we find that most of the low power in cut-sky maps measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment comes from unusually low contributions from the directions of the lobes of the quadrupole and the octupole. These findings may aid a future explanation of why the CMB exhibits low power at large angular scales.

  15. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  16. Neonatal brain abnormalities and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term-born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey-matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function.

  17. 7 years of MacGyver sessions at EGU and AGU: what happened?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; Selker, John; Weijs, Steven; Luxemburg, Wim; Wickert, Andy; Blume, Theresa; Bamburger, Jan; Stoof, Cathelijne; Tauro, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    The session that this poster is in, the: "Self-made sensors and unintended use of measurement equipment", also known as the "MacGyver-session" has had 7 years of scientists contributing their self made devices, hacks and solutions with the hydrological community. In 2009, the first session was held at the AGU fall meeting and since 2011 a session is also organised at the EGU General Assembly. On this poster, and in the accompanying review paper, we will present an overview of the work presented in the last 7 years, cataloging the work of the inventive scientists who have contributed to these successful, and above all: fun, sessions.

  18. Skill-Related Uncertainty and Expected Value in 5- to 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Schlottmann, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Studies using an Information Integration approach have shown that children from four years have a good intuitive understanding of probability and expected value. Experience of skill-related uncertainty may provide one naturalistic opportunity to develop this intuitive understanding. To test the viability of this view, 16 5- and 16 7-year-olds…

  19. Tetralogy of fallot with dextrocardia and situs inversus in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Dilorenzo, Michael; Weinstein, Samuel; Shenoy, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most frequently diagnosed congenital cardiac abnormalities; however, its association with dextrocardia and situs inversus is reported only rarely. We report a case of these findings in a 7-year-old boy, describe the patient's postoperative course, and review the medical literature relevant to these combined conditions.

  20. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  1. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  2. Subacute osteomyelitis of the femur due to Fusobacterium nucleatum in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Budd, Emily; Johnson, David S; Thomas, Eva; Sadarangani, Manish

    2015-03-01

    Subacute hematogenous osteomyelitis is an insidious infection, which commonly has a delayed diagnosis. We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy with subacute osteomyelitis, which was initially considered to be a bone tumor. Infection should be considered in all cases of bone pain, especially in children, even in the absence of typical systemic features of inflammation.

  3. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  4. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  5. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  6. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie tellers from…

  7. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

  8. Free Thyroxine Levels After Very Preterm Birth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Scratch, Shannon E.; Hunt, Rodney W.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Ahmadzai, Zohra M.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm infants commonly have transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity after birth, which has been associated with deficits in general intellectual functioning, memory, attention, and academic achievement. However, research has predominantly focused on thyroxine levels in the first 2 weeks of life and outcomes are limited to the preschool period. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between free thyroxine (fT4) levels over the first 6 weeks after very preterm (VPT) birth with cognitive functioning and brain development at age 7 years. METHODS: A total of 83 infants born VPT (<30 weeks’ gestation) had fT4 concentrations measured postnatally and 2- and 6-week area under the curve (AUC) summary measures were calculated. Follow-up at age 7 years included a neuropsychological assessment and brain MRI. Univariable and multivariable regression modeling was used where AUC for fT4 was the main predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at age 7 years. RESULTS: Multivariable modeling revealed that higher, not lower, postnatal fT4 levels (2-week AUC) were associated with poorer cognitive performances at age 7 years on tasks of verbal learning (P = .02), verbal memory (P = .03), and simple reaction time (P < .001). A similar pattern of results was found when the 6-week AUC was examined. No significant associations between postnatal fT4 levels and brain volumes at age 7 years were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results are contradictory to previous observations and suggest that after adjustment for confounders, higher postnatal fT4 levels in VPT infants, rather than lower levels, may be a marker of adverse neuropsychological development in childhood. PMID:24685955

  9. On the road to discovery of relic gravitational waves: The TE and BB correlations in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of primordial gravitational waves is one of the biggest challenges of the present time. The existing (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) observations are helpful in achieving this goal, and the forthcoming experiments (Planck) are likely to complete this mission. We show that the 5-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe TE data contain a hint of the presence of the gravitational wave contribution. In terms of the parameter R, which gives the ratio of contributions from gravitational waves and density perturbations to the temperature quadrupole, the best-fit model produced R=0.24. Because of large residual noises, the uncertainty of this determination is still large, and it easily includes the R=0 hypothesis. However, the uncertainty will be strongly reduced in the forthcoming observations which are more sensitive. We numerically simulated the Planck data and concluded that the relic gravitational waves with R=0.24 will be present at a better than 3σ level in the TE observational channel, and at a better than 2σ level in the “realistic” BB channel. The balloon-borne and ground-based observations may provide healthy competition for Planck in some parts of the lower-ℓ spectrum.

  10. Prospective clinical study of press-ceramic overlap and full veneer restorations: 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Stampf, Susanne; Stappert, Christian F J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the long-term performance of all-ceramic veneers with overlap (OV) and full veneer (FV) preparation designs. Twenty-five patients were restored using 42 OV restorations (incisal/palatal butt-joint margin) and 24 FV restorations (palatal rounded shoulder margin). All restorations were leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic anterior veneers. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for FV restorations and 97.6% for OV restorations. The all-ceramic veneers revealed significant deterioration over time according to United States Public Health Service criteria, irrespective of the preparation design. Based on the 7-year results of this study, both preparation designs can be considered reliable treatment options for anterior teeth with extended deficits.

  11. Electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions in 6-7 year olds with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Coppes, L; Kenemans, J L; Schutter, D J L G; Matthys, W

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expressions was recorded in twenty 6-7 year old children with ASD and twenty-seven typically developing children. Even though results did not show differences in facial mimicry between children with ASD and typically developing children, impairment in social responsiveness was significantly associated with reduced fear mimicry in children with ASD. These findings demonstrate normal mimicry in children with ASD as compared to healthy controls, but that in children with ASD the degree of impairments in social responsiveness may be associated with reduced sensitivity to distress signals.

  12. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  13. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPIES IN THE WMAP DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2012-05-20

    The angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies is one of the most important characteristics in cosmology that can shed light on the properties of the universe such as its geometry and total density. Using flat sky approximation and Fourier analysis, we estimate the angular power spectrum from an ensemble of the least foreground-contaminated square patches from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe W and V frequency band map. This method circumvents the issue of foreground cleaning and that of breaking orthogonality in spherical harmonic analysis because we are able to mask out the bright Galactic plane region, thereby rendering a direct measurement of the angular power spectrum. We test and confirm the Gaussian statistical characteristic of the selected patches, from which the first and second acoustic peaks of the power spectrum are reproduced, and the third peak is clearly visible, albeit with some noise residual at the tail.

  14. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND LIKELIHOOD APPROXIMATION FOR BANDED PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gjerløw, E.; Mikkelsen, K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Næss, S. K.; Seljebotn, D. S.; Górski, K. M.; Huey, G.; Jewell, J. B.; Rocha, G.; Wehus, I. K.

    2013-11-10

    We investigate sets of random variables that can be arranged sequentially such that a given variable only depends conditionally on its immediate predecessor. For such sets, we show that the full joint probability distribution may be expressed exclusively in terms of uni- and bivariate marginals. Under the assumption that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum likelihood only exhibits correlations within a banded multipole range, Δl{sub C}, we apply this expression to two outstanding problems in CMB likelihood analysis. First, we derive a statistically well-defined hybrid likelihood estimator, merging two independent (e.g., low- and high-l) likelihoods into a single expression that properly accounts for correlations between the two. Applying this expression to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) likelihood, we verify that the effect of correlations on cosmological parameters in the transition region is negligible in terms of cosmological parameters for WMAP; the largest relative shift seen for any parameter is 0.06σ. However, because this may not hold for other experimental setups (e.g., for different instrumental noise properties or analysis masks), but must rather be verified on a case-by-case basis, we recommend our new hybridization scheme for future experiments for statistical self-consistency reasons. Second, we use the same expression to improve the convergence rate of the Blackwell-Rao likelihood estimator, reducing the required number of Monte Carlo samples by several orders of magnitude, and thereby extend it to high-l applications.

  15. A framework for testing isotropy with the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadeh, Daniela; Feeney, Stephen M.; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; McEwen, Jason D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a new framework for testing the isotropy of the Universe using cosmic microwave background data, building on the nested-sampling ANICOSMO code. Uniquely, we are able to constrain the scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom alike; previous studies only considered the vector mode (linked to vorticity). We employ Bianchi type VIIh cosmologies to model the anisotropic Universe, from which other types may be obtained by taking suitable limits. In a separate development, we improve the statistical analysis by including the effect of Bianchi power in the high-ℓ, as well as the low-ℓ, likelihood. To understand the effect of all these changes, we apply our new techniques to Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. We find no evidence for anisotropy, constraining shear in the vector mode to (σV/H)0 < 1.7 × 10-10 (95 per cent confidence level). For the first time, we place limits on the tensor mode; unlike other modes, the tensor shear can grow from a near-isotropic early Universe. The limit on this type of shear is (σT, reg/H)0 < 2.4 × 10- 7 (95 per cent confidence level).

  16. A new model of the microwave polarized sky for CMB experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervías-Caimapo, Carlos; Bonaldi, Anna; Brown, Michael L.

    2016-10-01

    We present a new model of the microwave sky in polarization that can be used to simulate data from cosmic microwave background polarization experiments. We exploit the most recent results from the Planck satellite to provide an accurate description of the diffuse polarized foreground synchrotron and thermal dust emission. Our model can include the two mentioned foregrounds, and also a constructed template of Anomalous Microwave Emission. Several options for the frequency dependence of the foregrounds can be easily selected, to reflect our uncertainties and to test the impact of different assumptions. Small angular scale features can be added to the foreground templates to simulate high-resolution observations. We present tests of the model outputs to show the excellent agreement with Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We determine the range within which the foreground spectral indices can be varied to be consistent with the current data. We also show forecasts for a high-sensitivity, high-resolution full-sky experiment such as the Cosmic ORigin Explorer. Our model is released as a PYTHON script that is quick and easy to use, available at http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/chervias.

  17. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  18. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Preterm-Born 7-Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of preterm-born children (<37 weeks’ gestation) have demonstrated decrements in lung function, exercise capacity, and increased respiratory symptoms compared to their term-born peers. However, it is unclear if these children have decreased levels of physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary behavior as a consequence of this increased respiratory morbidity. We therefore compared objectively measured PA in 7-year old preterm-born children with those born at term. Methods Children in the Millennium Cohort Study underwent assessment of PA at 7 years of age using accelerometry. 6422/12781 (50%) provided valid accelerometry and had gestational age data. A series of general linear models adjusted for confounders investigated the association between gestational age and levels of Total PA (average accelerometer counts per minute over the period of the recording), Moderate-to-Vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Mediation analysis was performed to specifically investigate whether the observed association of gestational age on PA was mediated by respiratory symptoms. Results PA data were available for 79, 119, 275 and 5949 children born at 25–32, 33–34, 35–36 and 37–43 weeks’ gestation respectively. Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation had modest but statistically significant reductions in MVPA when compared to term controls. This equated to a reduction of 9 minutes per day. No differences were found for Total PA or sedentary behavior. The association between gestational age and MVPA was not mediated by respiratory symptoms. In females, there was no association between gestational age and any measure of PA or sedentary behavior. Conclusions Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation took part in less MVPA than their term-born peers at 7 years of age. The differences were modest, but equated to a reduction of over 1 hour per week. Since PA levels have been shown to decline during childhood and adolescence, this vulnerable group

  19. Crescendo response to rituximab in oral pemphigus vulgaris: a case with 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, D T; Benton, E C; Groves, R W; Setterfield, J F

    2016-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease affecting the skin and mucous membranes. Rituximab, a CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody, has efficacy in PV management. We report a case of severe oral PV that showed a progressive response to repeated courses of rituximab, culminating in a rapid response within 4 weeks following severe relapse 4 years after initial therapy. It demonstrates the progressively shorter time to achieve partial or complete remission following rituximab infusions, combined with minimal adjuvant therapy over a 7-year follow-up period.

  20. [Cerebral venous thrombosis and immune thrombocytopenia in a 7-year-old girl: a fortuitous association?].

    PubMed

    Cotillon, M; Lebas, A; Blanc, T; Schneider, P; Vannier, J-P; Buchbinder, N

    2014-12-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoantibody-mediated peripheral platelet destruction. It is rarely accompanied by thrombosis. Here, we describe a wide cerebral venous thrombosis that occurred at the onset of a primary ITP in a 7-year-old girl. ITP was confirmed by the presence of anti-platelet antibodies. Whether ITP is a risk factor for venous thrombosis is a matter of debate. The platelet microparticles released during the platelet destruction and the interaction between the autoantibodies and the platelet glycoproteins may contribute to platelet activation. Increased risk of thromboembolic events should be considered in all patients with ITP, including children. PMID:25445130

  1. Widespread Recurrence 7 Years after Radical Abdominal Trachelectomy for Early Cervical Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salman, M. Coskun; Ozgul, Nejat; Yuce, Kunter

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide and the use of routine screening resulted in earlier stage and younger age at diagnosis. Fertility preservation via radical trachelectomy comes up as an option in such patients. Recent literature reviews confirm the safety of this operation with excellent oncologic outcomes in appropriately chosen patients. However, recurrent disease is likely and a strict follow-up is recommended to detect recurrences at an early stage following radical trachelectomy. In this report, a case who underwent radical trachelectomy and developed widespread recurrences 7 years after initial surgery possibly due to the lack of oncologic follow-up is discussed. PMID:25918655

  2. Understanding marital conflict 7 years later from prenatal representations of marriage.

    PubMed

    Curran, Melissa; Ogolsky, Brian; Hazen, Nancy; Bosch, Leslie

    2011-06-01

    We examine how representations of marriage, assessed prenatally, predict different types of marital conflict (cooperation, avoidance/capitulation, stonewalling, and child involvement in parental conflict) at 7 years postpartum (N=132 individuals). We assessed representations of marriage prenatally by interviewing spouses about their own parents' marriage, and then rated the content and insightfulness of their memories. Results show that marital representations characterized by higher insight predict higher cooperation and lower child involvement in parental conflict, whereas content of marital representations was not a significant predictor of marital conflict. Further, individuals who remember negative memories from their parents' marriage with high insight were lowest on child involvement in parental conflict, whereas those who remember negative memories with low insight were highest on child involvement in parental conflict. Finally, women who remember negative content with high insight report the highest cooperation, whereas women who remember negative content with low insight report the lowest cooperation. For men, however, marital representations were less effective in predicting later cooperation. We conclude that marital representations, even when assessed prenatally, influence certain types of marital conflict 7 years later. Using such findings, therapists could help spouses gain insight into how the memories of their parents' marriage relate to the use of specific conflict strategies in their marriage.

  3. Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-07-01

    Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status.

  4. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  5. Outcomes analysis of a resident cosmetic clinic: safety and feasibility after 7 years.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Jeremy W; Angobaldo, Jeff O; Bryant, Allyson K; Marks, Malcolm W; David, Lisa R

    2010-03-01

    Cosmetic patients have many options when seeking out their surgeons. In midsize and larger cities, these options span not only different specialties but also different levels of experience. Because surgical experience can best be gained first hand, there exists a special and symbiotic relationship between a surgeon-in-training and his or her patient. Benefits stem from the opportunity for a surgeon to gain independent experience while offering cost effective benefits to patients who may or may not otherwise have access to cosmetic surgery. To meet the needs of both patients and the surgeons-in-training, the Wake Forest University Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Training Program has set up and maintained a chief resident run cosmetic surgery clinic for 17 years. Each chief resident serves as primary surgeon 1 day a week during the chief year. We present a 7-year retrospective outcome analysis of this experience. The authors performed an Institutional Review Board approved retrospective chart review of all patients who received major cosmetic procedures performed in the WFU chief resident clinic over a 7-year span from 2000 to 2007. A total of 210 charts were reviewed. Fourteen charts were excluded because of inadequate records or non esthetic procedures performed concomitantly. All procedures were viewed as independent events. A total of 196 patients underwent 272 procedures. All procedures were evaluated for major and minor complications and revisions. A total number of 272 initial cosmetic procedures were performed in a 7-year span. Adverse events were divided into major and minor complications. There were no major complications for any of the procedures. Overall minor complication rate was 8.0%. Overall revision rate was 14.4%. Procedures with greatest probability of revision were abdominoplasty and reduction mammaplasty. Chief resident clinics provide a unique experience wherein surgeons-in-training are allowed to hone previously developed surgical acumen

  6. Delayed retropneumoperitoneum following vaginal laceration in a 7-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Im, Hyesook; Lee, Sanghoon; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae-Yun; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of delayed retropneumoperitoneum caused by a deep vaginal laceration as a result trauma from a water jet in a fountain. A 7-year-old premenarcheal girl presented to the emergency department after experiencing an injury from a water jet at a fountain park. Initially, the patient's vital sign and perineum were within normal range. Because the patient's vital signs became unstable 12 hours after vaginal injury, we carried out abdomino-pelvic computed tomography resulting in retropneumoperitoneum. Arterial bleeding from vaginal lateral wall was founded and controlled by electrocoagulation. No damage to the rectum was laparoscopically confirmed. A diagnostic laparoscopy, not laparotomy, should be considered in cases of retropneumoperitoneum with an ambiguous cause first. PMID:27200319

  7. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  8. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  9. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  10. [Use of sodium cromoglycate in nebulizations for asthmatic children less than 7 years of age].

    PubMed

    Sienra Monge, J J; Baeza Bacab, M A; Casillas Miranda, R; Cavazos Galván, M; del Real Sánchez, H

    1990-01-01

    One of the new ways to treat the inter crisis of asthma, is the use of Cromolyn (SCG) in spray or in Rothaller and it's necessary that the patient help's in the cooperation to use this medication. Now with SCG in solution to nebulizer is easy to use this medication in young children. We studied 18 boys and girls in 5 different cities of the mexican Republic, all the patient were younger than 7 years old and had asthma, they received 20 mg. of SCG in nebulizer 4 time daily up to 12 weeks. At the end of the study we found that the symptoms and the use of symptomatic medication were reduce in important way with statistic significance. We conclude the use SCG in nebulizer is safety and efficacy to treat patient with chronic asthma. PMID:2114665

  11. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  12. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  13. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  14. Swyer-James Syndrome in a 7-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Jun; Kaneda, Daisuke; Fujiki, Atsushi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kotani, Tomoya; Ushijima, Yo

    2016-01-01

    Swyer-James syndrome is a rare syndrome that occurs as a result of repeated bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in childhood. Most cases are asymptomatic, and subsequent diagnosis may not occur until adulthood. We present the case of a 7-year-old female with Swyer-James syndrome, which was initially diagnosed and treated as asthma. The patient developed respiratory distress and atelectasis which were treated with biphasic cuirass ventilation. This case suggests that Swyer-James syndrome should be a concern in patients with chronic cough and wheezing, and highlights the importance of taking a careful history and appropriate radiological investigations for diagnosis. Once Swyer-James syndrome is diagnosed, prophylaxis and appropriate management of respiratory infections becomes important. PMID:27777706

  15. Cystic pilomyxoid astrocytoma on suprasellar region in 7-year-old girl: Treatment and strategy

    PubMed Central

    Tjahjadi, Mardjono; Arifin, M. Zafrullah; Sobana, Mirna; Avianti, Astri; Caropeboka, M. Sinatrya; Eka, Priandana Adya; Agustina, Hasrayati

    2015-01-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described entity with similar features to pilocytic astrocytoma but with a rare occurrence. As a new diagnosis, no treatment guideline of PMA has been established; but generally, as for any low-grade gliomas, radical resection is performed if the location is favorable. In this report, we wished to share our experience treating the PMA. The authors presented a case of a 7-year-old girl with bitemporal hemianopia. From the history, the patient had a 4-month history of headache, following with nausea and projectile vomiting 1 week before hospital admission. Past history of seizure, weakness of left extremities, and decreased consciousness were reported. Computed tomography (CT) scanning showed acute obstructive hydrocephalus and an isohypodense mass at suprasellar region with the cystic component. We performed ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt to reduce the acute hydrocephalus, followed by craniotomy tumor removal 2 weeks later. The patient underwent radiotherapy and medical rehabilitation. Diagnosis of PMA was made on the basis of pathologic anatomy result, which showed a myxoid background with pseudorosette. Postoperative CT showed a residual tumor at right parasellar area without hydrocephalus. After the surgery, the treatment was followed with radiotherapy for 20 times within 2 months. Postradiation CT performed 1-year later showed a significant reduction of the tumor mass. There were no new postoperative deficits. The patient had improvement of the visual field and motor strength. The authors reported a case of a 7-year-old girl with PMA. Surgical resection combined with radiotherapy was performed to control the growth of PMA. More observation and further studies are required to refine the treatment methods. PMID:25972955

  16. Retrospective clinical study and survival analysis on partial ceramic crowns: results up to 7 years.

    PubMed

    Felden, A; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K A

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine retrospectively the clinical performance of 42 all-ceramic partial crowns (PCCs) placed during the past 7 years. All patients (n = 25) with partial ceramic crowns (n = 49) placed by one experienced dentist between 1992 and 1999 were asked to take part in a clinical study, and 22 patients with 42 restorations agreed to do so. All partial ceramic crowns studied were fabricated using the IPS-Empress I all-ceramic system (Vivadent). The following luting composites were used for placing the restorations: 20 (47.6%) Variolink high viscosity (Vivadent), 3 (7.1%) Variolink ultra (Vivadent), 17 (40.5%) Dual Zement (Vivadent), and 2 (4.8%) Compolute (Espe). The partial ceramic crowns were examined clinically using the modified USPHS criteria. Of the 42 restorations, 40 (95.2%) were still in function without any need of replacement. One restoration (2.4%) had failed before starting the clinical study, and another one (2.4%) fractured during the study. Twenty-eight (66.7%) of the partial ceramic crowns evaluated were rated Alpha with respect to marginal adaptation. Twelve (28.6%) restorations were rated Bravo, no Charlie ratings were found and 2 (4.7%) restorations were rated Delta. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate the survival rate. The probability of survival (95% confidence interval) for 7 years was 81% (66-96%). These data indicate that partial ceramic crowns may provide successful esthetic restorations in posterior teeth.

  17. Gait strategy in genetically obese patients: a 7-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, V; Vismara, L; Galli, M; Grugni, G; Cau, N; Capodaglio, P

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the change in gait and body weight in the long term in patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Eight adults with PWS were evaluated at baseline and after 7 years. During this period patient participated an in- and out-patient rehabilitation programs including nutritional and adapted physical activity interventions. Two different control groups were included: the first group included 14 non-genetically obese patients (OCG: obese control group) and the second group included 10 age-matched healthy individuals (HCG: healthy control group). All groups were quantitatively assessed during walking with 3D-GA. The results at the 7-year follow-up revealed significant weight loss in the PWS group and spatial-temporal changes in gait parameters (velocity, step length and cadence). With regard to the hip joint, there were significant changes in terms of hip position, which is less flexed. Knee flexion-extension showed a reduction of flexion in swing phase and of its excursion. No changes of the ankle position were evident. As for ankle kinetics, we observed in the second session higher values for the peak of ankle power in terminal stance in comparison to the first session. No changes were found in terms of ankle kinetics. The findings demonstrated improvements associated to long-term weight loss, especially in terms of spatial-temporal parameters and at hip level. Our results back the call for early weight loss interventions during childhood, which would allow the development of motor patterns under normal body weight conditions. PMID:24763375

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Maryse F.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Vedar, Michelle; Calderon, Norma; Trujillo, Celina; Johnson, Caroline; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Context: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic at high doses. Few studies have examined whether chronic exposure at lower levels could adversely affect children’s cognitive development. Objective: We examined associations between prenatal and postnatal exposure to OP pesticides and cognitive abilities in school-age children. Methods: We conducted a birth cohort study (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study) among predominantly Latino farmworker families from an agricultural community in California. We assessed exposure to OP pesticides by measuring dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine collected during pregnancy and from children at 6 months and 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, to 329 children 7 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education and intelligence, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score, and language of cognitive assessment. Results: Urinary DAP concentrations measured during the first and second half of pregnancy had similar relations to cognitive scores, so we used the average of concentrations measured during pregnancy in further analyses. Averaged maternal DAP concentrations were associated with poorer scores for Working Memory, Processing Speed, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Children in the highest quintile of maternal DAP concentrations had an average deficit of 7.0 IQ points compared with those in the lowest quintile. However, children’s urinary DAP concentrations were not consistently associated with cognitive scores. Conclusions: Prenatal but not postnatal urinary DAP concentrations were associated with poorer intellectual development in 7-year-old children. Maternal urinary DAP concentrations in the present study were higher but nonetheless within the range of levels measured in the general U.S. population. PMID:21507776

  19. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  20. Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadriceps tendon autograft: clinical outcome in 4-7 years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hwa; Chuang, Tai-Yuan; Wang, Kun-Chuang; Chen, Wen-Jer; Shih, Chun-Hsiung

    2006-11-01

    Surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is indicated in the ACL-deficient knee with symptomatic instability and multiple ligaments injuries. In the present study, we describe the clinical results of quadriceps tendon-patellar bone autograft for ACL reconstruction. From 1996 to 1998, the graft has been used in 38 patients. Thirty-four patients with complete final follow-up for 4-7 years were analyzed. The average follow-up time was 62 (48-84) months. Thirty-two patients (94%) achieved good or excellent results by Lysholm knee rating. Twenty-six patients (76%) could return to moderate or strenuous activity after reconstruction. Twenty-eight patients (82%) had ligament laxity of less than 2 mm. Finally; 31 patients (91%) were assessed as normal or nearly normal rating by IKDC guideline. Twenty-five patients (73%) had less than 10 mm difference in thigh girth between their reconstructed and normal limbs. Thirty-two (94%) and 31 (91%) patients could achieve recovery of the extensor and flexor muscle strength in the reconstructed knee to 80% or more of normal knee strength, respectively. A statistically significant difference exists in thigh girth difference, extensor strength ratio, and flexor strength ratio before and after reconstruction. Tunnel expansion with more than 1 mm was identified in 2 (6%) tibial tunnels. Our study revealed satisfactory clinical subjective and objective results at 4-7 years follow-up. Quadriceps tendon autograft has the advantage of being self-available, relatively easier arthroscopic technique, and having a suitable size, making it an acceptable graft choice for ACL reconstruction. There is little quadriceps muscle strength loss after quadriceps harvest. A quadriceps tendon-patellar autograft is an adequate graft choice to ACL reconstruction.

  1. Subalpine grassland carbon balance during 7 years of increased atmospheric N deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Matthias; Enderle, Jan; Bassin, Seraina

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution agents interact when affecting biological sinks for atmospheric CO2, e.g., the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of grassland ecosystems. Factors favoring plant productivity, like atmospheric N deposition, are usually considered to favor SOC storage. In a 7-year experiment in subalpine grassland under N- and O3-deposition treatment, we examined C fluxes and pools. Total N deposition was 4, 9, 14, 29 and 54 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N4, N9, etc.); annual mean phytotoxic O3 dose was 49, 65 and 89 mmol m-2 projected leaf area. We hypothesized that between years SOC of this mature ecosystem would not change in control treatments and that effects of air pollutants are similar for plant yield, net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and SOC content, leading to SOC content increasing with N deposition. Cumulative plant yield showed a significant N and N × N effect (+38 % in N54) but no O3 effect. In the control treatment SOC increased significantly by 9 % in 7 years. Cumulative NEP did show a strong, hump-shaped response pattern to N deposition with a +62 % increase in N14 and only +39 % increase in N54 (N effect statistically not significant, N × N interaction not testable). SOC had a similar but not significant response to N, with highest C gains at intermediate N deposition rates, suggesting a unimodal response with a marginal (P = 0.09) N × N interaction. We assume the strong, pollutant-independent soil C sink developed as a consequence of the management change from grazing to cutting. The non-parallel response of SOC and NEP compared to plant yield under N deposition is likely the result of increased respiratory SOC losses, following mitigated microbial N-limitation or priming effects, and a shift in plant C allocation leading to smaller C input from roots.

  2. A LAST LOOK AT THE MICROWAVE HAZE/BUBBLES WITH WMAP

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Gregory

    2012-05-01

    The microwave 'haze' was first discovered with the initial release of the full sky data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). It is diffuse emission toward the center of our Galaxy with spectral behavior that makes it difficult to categorize as any of the previously known emission mechanisms at those wavelengths. With now seven years of WMAP data publicly available, we have learned much about the nature of the haze, and with the release of data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the discovery of the gamma-ray haze/bubbles, we have had a spectacular confirmation of its existence at other wavelengths. As the WMAP mission winds down and the Planck mission prepares to release data, I take a last look at what WMAP has to tell us about the origin of this unique Galactic feature. Much like the gamma rays, the microwave haze/bubbles is/are elongated in latitude with respect to longitude by a factor of roughly two, and at high latitudes, the microwave emission cuts off sharply above {approx}35 Degree-Sign (compared to {approx}50 Degree-Sign in the gammas). The hard spectrum of electrons required to generate the microwave synchrotron is consistent with that required to generate gamma-ray emission via inverse Compton scattering, though it is likely that these signals result from distinct regions of the spectrum ({approx}10 GeV for the microwaves and {approx}1 TeV for the gammas). While there is no evidence for significant haze polarization in the seven-year WMAP data, I demonstrate explicitly that it is unlikely such a signal would be detectable above the noise.

  3. ARE THERE ECHOES FROM THE PRE-BIG-BANG UNIVERSE? A SEARCH FOR LOW-VARIANCE CIRCLES IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SKY

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir

    2011-10-20

    In a recent analysis of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year temperature maps, Gurzadyan and Penrose claim to find concentric circular patterns in the sky with anomalously low variances. These circles are presented as observational evidence for violent processes in a universe preceding our big bang as predicted by Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology. We reassess the statistical significance of the detection of the claimed concentric low-variance circles by comparing the WMAP data with Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky plus realistic modeling of WMAP's anisotropic noise. We find no anomaly in the variances compared with the {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. The observed variances in the data are consistent with a Gaussian CMB sky as predicted by the inflationary cosmology model at better than 3{sigma}.

  4. Are there Echoes from the Pre-big-bang Universe? A Search for Low-variance Circles in the Cosmic Microwave Background Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajian, Amir

    2011-10-01

    In a recent analysis of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year temperature maps, Gurzadyan and Penrose claim to find concentric circular patterns in the sky with anomalously low variances. These circles are presented as observational evidence for violent processes in a universe preceding our big bang as predicted by Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology. We reassess the statistical significance of the detection of the claimed concentric low-variance circles by comparing the WMAP data with Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky plus realistic modeling of WMAP's anisotropic noise. We find no anomaly in the variances compared with the ΛCDM cosmological model. The observed variances in the data are consistent with a Gaussian CMB sky as predicted by the inflationary cosmology model at better than 3σ.

  5. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  6. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time.

  7. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2008-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown university; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  8. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  9. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  10. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third is a more…

  11. Tooth wear in the deciduous dentition of 5-7-year-old children: risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gatou, Tarsitsa; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and severity of tooth wear in deciduous dentition and its relationship with possible risk factors. A stratified cluster sample of 243 5-7-year-old children was examined using the tooth wear index of Smith and Knight, and their exposure to intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors was retrospectively investigated through a structured questionnaire. The severity of wear was quantitatively estimated by the number of surfaces with affected dentine and by the cumulative score of the sextants, based on the Basic Erosive Wear Examination scoring system. Only 1.6% of the children were tooth wear free, whereas 45.6% had moderate to severe wear involving dentine. Maxillary canines were the most affected teeth (83.2%), and occlusal/incisal the most affected surfaces (52.7%). The likelihood of tooth wear involving dentine was greater in boys than girls (OR = 1.72), in immigrants than in Greeks (OR = 1.93), and in 6- and 7-year olds than in 5-year olds (OR = 2.78 to 2.93). After adjustment for age, gender, and nationality, exposure to several dietary factors and especially to soft drinks was found to significantly affect the prevalence (OR = 1.27) and the severity of tooth wear. Every additional serving/week of consumption of soft drinks increases the number of surfaces with dentine affected by 0.03 per year (p < 0.05) and the cumulative score of sextants by 0.04 (p < 0.05). The cluster of children with the higher prevalence and severity of tooth wear had an average exposure to soft drinks of 10 servings/week for a duration of 4 years. The cumulative score of sextants was better predicted by the assessed risk factors, in comparison with the number of surfaces with affected dentine. Tooth wear is a common condition in children, related both to the physiological process of aging of dentition and to the erosive effect of dietary factors. Strategies to reduce the intake of soft drinks in children are expected to have multiple

  12. First hip arthroplasty register in Italy: 55,000 cases and 7 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, B.; De Clerico, M.; Petropulacos, K.; Toni, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Register for Orthopaedic Prosthetic Implantation (RIPO) has been prospectively collecting data on hip prostheses performed in all the orthopaedic units in the region Emilia-Romagna since January 2000. The register aims to determine the characteristics of patients, evaluate the effectiveness of prostheses, and allow internal audit. Adherence to the register is compulsory (93% capture). By 31 December 2006 the register contained data on 35,041 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), 14,613 hemiarthoplasties, and 5,878 revisions. All prosthetic components are registered on an individual basis. Survival analysis is done following the Kaplan Meier method. Cumulative survival rate at 7 years is 96.8% (95% CI: 96.4–97.1%) for THA and 97.6% (97.0–98.3%) for hemiarthroplasties. Multivariate analysis verified that survival of the THA is affected by pathology, where the worst conditions are rheumatoid arthritis, femoral neck fracture, and sequelae of coxitis or Paget’s disease. Results are comparable to other major registers of Northern Europe and Australia. PMID:17987290

  13. Five- to 7-Year-Olds’ Finger Gnosia and Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Robert; Humberstone, Judi

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the relationship between 65 5- to 7-year-olds’ finger gnosia, visuo-spatial working memory, and finger-use in solving single-digit addition problems. Their non-verbal IQ and basic reaction time were also assessed. Previous research has found significant changes in children’s representational abilities between 5 and 7 years. One aim of the research was to determine whether changes in finger representational abilities (finger gnosia) occur across these ages and whether they are associated with finger-use in computation. A second aim was to determine whether visuo-spatial working memory is associated with finger gnosia and computation abilities. We used latent class profile analysis to identify patterns of similarities and differences in finger gnosia and computation/finger-use abilities. The analysis yielded four finger gnosia subgroups that differed in finger representation ability. It also yielded four finger/computation subgroups that differed in the relationship between finger-use and computation success. Analysis revealed associations between computation finger-use/success subgroups, finger gnosia subgroups, and visuo-spatial working memory. A multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that finger gnosia subgroup membership and visuo-spatial working memory uniquely contribute to a model predicting finger-use in computation group membership. The results show that finger gnosia abilities change in the early school years, and that these changes are associated with the ability to use fingers to aid computation. PMID:22171220

  14. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  15. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  16. Human African trypanosomiasis with 7-year incubation period: clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Wengert, Oliver; Kopp, Marcel; Siebert, Eberhard; Stenzel, Werner; Hegasy, Guido; Suttorp, Norbert; Stich, August; Zoller, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also referred to as "sleeping sickness", is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Diagnosing imported HAT outside endemic areas is difficult and diagnosis is often delayed. We report a case of imported human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an unusually long incubation period of at least 7 years. A 33 year old male African patient, a former resident of Cameroon, presented with a 4-month history of progressive personality changes. A few weeks before presentation the patient had first been admitted to a psychiatric ward and received antidepressant treatment, until a lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis and then antibiotic treatment for suspected neuroborreliosis was initiated. The patient continued to deteriorate during antibiotic treatment and became increasingly lethargic. Under antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory treatment, the condition of the patient gradually improved over the following months and he recovered completely after 24 months of follow-up. This well-documented case illustrates typical difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis outside endemic areas and provides an overview of typical clinical, neuropathological and neuroimaging findings in T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis, guiding the clinician in establishing the correct diagnosis in this rare disease.

  17. Marital Satisfaction and Life Circumstances of Grown Children With Autism Across 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child’s autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent–child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers’ marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother–child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers’ marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child’s departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents’ marital relationship. PMID:22866933

  18. A 7 years old girl with abdominal lump and per-vaginal bleeding of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Nahar, K; Begum, B; Sarker, U K; Akter, F; Roy, J; Chakrabarty, R

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is suggested from the clinical and laboratory findings. Here we present a case report on this disease with rare presentation of abdominal lump and pervaginal bleeding in childhood. A 7 years old girl admitted in a tertiary level hospital with abdominal lump and irregular per vaginal bleeding. Abdominal swelling was gradually increasing in size & associated with lower abdominal pain for last 5 months. On examination the girl was moderately anaemic, mildly oedematous, distended lower abdomen and a mass in left iliac region. Her thyroid function test, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Prolactin was done and high FSH, LH, Prolactin levels were found. Ultrasonography of lower abdomen revealed bulky uterus and bilateral ovarian cysts. MRI of Brain showed feature of pituitary microadenoma. Finally the patient was diagnosed as primary hypothyroidism and bilateral follicular ovarian cyst with pituitary adenoma developed as its consequence. The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience. PMID:25725684

  19. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family. PMID:25937802

  20. Reflection of a 7-year patient care program: implementing and sustaining an integrative hospital program.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Lorraine S; Ferrer, Lynn

    2009-12-01

    Integrative alternative therapies, also known as holistic therapies, have many applications in hospitals and health centers. These may include relaxation therapies, meditation, massage, reflexology, and Reiki or healing touch. Patients today are looking for these services, and institutions continue to explore ways to provide them without affecting their bottom line. The Integrative Cardiac Wellness Program is such a service, and its growth and longevity comes out of the personal investment of the staff to the program and to their patients. The literature review on the permanence of caring practice shows that caring about your work with patients, not just the job, is critical in longevity (Graber & Mitcham, 2004). The holistic nurses' and staff 's commitment to their professional growth within their specialty and their personal spiritual practice as experts in the field forms the backbone of the Integrative Wellness Program's success. It has been in existence for 7 years, providing integrative healing therapies to more than 7,000 patients, making it one of the most experienced. The program now serves cardiac surgery patients, and patients who have been diagnosed with cancer.

  1. WMAP 7 year constraints on CPT violation from large angle CMB anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Gruppuso, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Rosa, A. De; Finelli, F.; Paci, F. E-mail: paolo.natoli@gmail.com E-mail: derosa@iasfbo.inaf.it E-mail: fpaci@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2012-02-01

    We constrain the rotation angle α of the linear polarization of CMB photons using the large angular scale (up to ∼ 4°) signal in WMAP 7 year data. At these scales, the CMB polarization pattern probes mostly the reionization era. A genuine rotation may be interpreted as cosmological birefringence, which is a well known tracer of new physics, through the breakdown of fundamental symmetries. Our analysis provides α = −1.6°±1.7° (3.4°) at 68% (95%) C.L. for the multipoles range Δl = 2−47 not including an instrumental systematic uncertainty that the WMAP team estimates at ±1.5°. This improves the bound obtained by WMAP team (Komatsu et al., 2010). Moreover we show, for the first time at low multipoles, the angular power spectrum α{sub l} in search of a possible scale dependence of the birefringence effect. Our findings are compatible with no detection at all angular scales probed here. We finally forecast the capabilities of Planck in tightening the present constraints.

  2. A 7 years old girl with abdominal lump and per-vaginal bleeding of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Nahar, K; Begum, B; Sarker, U K; Akter, F; Roy, J; Chakrabarty, R

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is suggested from the clinical and laboratory findings. Here we present a case report on this disease with rare presentation of abdominal lump and pervaginal bleeding in childhood. A 7 years old girl admitted in a tertiary level hospital with abdominal lump and irregular per vaginal bleeding. Abdominal swelling was gradually increasing in size & associated with lower abdominal pain for last 5 months. On examination the girl was moderately anaemic, mildly oedematous, distended lower abdomen and a mass in left iliac region. Her thyroid function test, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Prolactin was done and high FSH, LH, Prolactin levels were found. Ultrasonography of lower abdomen revealed bulky uterus and bilateral ovarian cysts. MRI of Brain showed feature of pituitary microadenoma. Finally the patient was diagnosed as primary hypothyroidism and bilateral follicular ovarian cyst with pituitary adenoma developed as its consequence. The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience.

  3. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family.

  4. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  5. Neutrino cosmology after WMAP 7-year data and LHC first Z' bounds.

    PubMed

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo; Goldberg, Haim

    2012-02-24

    The gauge-extended U(1)(C)×SU(2)(L)×U(1)(I(R))×U(1)(L) model elevates the global symmetries of the standard model (baryon number B and lepton number L) to local gauge symmetries. The U(1)(L) symmetry leads to three superweakly interacting right-handed neutrinos. This also renders a B-L symmetry nonanomalous. The superweak interactions of these Dirac states permit ν(R) decoupling just above the QCD phase transition: 175 is < or approximately equal to T(ν(R))(dec)/MeV is < or approximately equal to 250. In this transitional region, the residual temperature ratio between ν(L) and ν(R) generates extra relativistic degrees of freedom at BBN and at the CMB epochs. Consistency with both WMAP 7-year data and recent estimates of the primordial 4He mass fraction is achieved for 3

  6. Reflection of a 7-year patient care program: implementing and sustaining an integrative hospital program.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Lorraine S; Ferrer, Lynn

    2009-12-01

    Integrative alternative therapies, also known as holistic therapies, have many applications in hospitals and health centers. These may include relaxation therapies, meditation, massage, reflexology, and Reiki or healing touch. Patients today are looking for these services, and institutions continue to explore ways to provide them without affecting their bottom line. The Integrative Cardiac Wellness Program is such a service, and its growth and longevity comes out of the personal investment of the staff to the program and to their patients. The literature review on the permanence of caring practice shows that caring about your work with patients, not just the job, is critical in longevity (Graber & Mitcham, 2004). The holistic nurses' and staff 's commitment to their professional growth within their specialty and their personal spiritual practice as experts in the field forms the backbone of the Integrative Wellness Program's success. It has been in existence for 7 years, providing integrative healing therapies to more than 7,000 patients, making it one of the most experienced. The program now serves cardiac surgery patients, and patients who have been diagnosed with cancer. PMID:20009019

  7. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Janchevska, A; Tasic; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, HI

    2014-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family. PMID:25937802

  8. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  9. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  10. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  11. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  12. Smoking increases oral HPV persistence among men: 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kero, K; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Willberg, J; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2014-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the key event in the progression of HPV lesions, and more data are urgently needed on asymptomatic oral HPV infections in men. Asymptomatic fathers-to-be (n = 131, mean age 28.9 years) were enrolled in the cohort, sampled by serial oral scrapings at baseline and at 2-month, 6-month, 12-month, 24-month, 36-month, and 7-year follow-up visits to accomplish persistent and cleared HPV infections. HPV genotyping was performed using nested PCR and Multimetrix® assay. Covariates of persistent and cleared oral HPV infections were analysed using generalised estimating equation (GEE) and Poisson regression. Altogether, 17 HPV genotypes were detected in male oral mucosa point prevalence, varying from 15.1 % to 31.1 %. Genotype-specific HPV persistence was detected in 18/129 men the mean persistence time ranging from 6.0 to 30.7 months. History of genital warts decreased (p = 0.0001; OR = 0.41, 95 % CI 0.33-0.51) and smoking increased (p = 0.033, OR = 1.92, 95 % CI 1.05-3.50) the risk of persistent species 7/9 HPV infections. Of the 74 HPV-positive men, 71.6 % cleared their infection actuarial and crude clearance times, varying between 1.4 and 79.6 months. No independent predictors were identified for species 7/9 clearance. At the last follow-up-visit, 50.1 % of the fathers had oral mucosal changes, correlating only with smoking (p = 0.046). To conclude, most of the persisting oral infections in males were caused by HPV16. Smoking increased while previous genital warts decreased oral HR-HPV persistence. No predictors of HR-HPV clearance were disclosed.

  13. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  14. Up to 7 Years of Sustained Weight Loss for Weight Loss Program Completers

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nia S.; Polsky, Sarit; Catenacci, Victoria A.; Furniss, Anna L.; Prochazka, Allan V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two issues remain elusive in weight management programs: significant, long-term weight loss maintenance and widely accessible programs that produce significant weight loss for reasonable costs. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term weight loss of participants who consecutively renew their annual membership in Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a national, nonprofit, low-cost, peer-led weight loss program. Methods This completers’ analysis was a retrospective cohort study of overweight and obese men and women who joined TOPS in 2005–2011 and consecutively renewed their annual membership at least once. Data were analyzed from June to October 2013. TOPS participants’ weights are sent to the national database when they join and at the time of their annual renewal, thus follow-up weight is only available for those who renew their membership. Among 207,469 individuals who joined during the study period, 74,629 (35.9%) had at least one consecutive annual renewal and were included in the study. Results Cumulative mean (95% CI) weight change as a percentage of initial weight ranged from −6.0% (−6.0%, −5.9%) for 74,629 participants who renewed at 1 year to −8.3% (−8.7%, −7.8%) for 2,289 participants with 7 years of consecutive annual renewal. Conclusions In the subset of individuals who choose to renew their program membership, TOPS can effectively promote maintenance of clinically significant weight loss for an extended period of time. RCTs are needed to further evaluate this low-cost, widely available program, which could be a viable option to treat overweight and obesity. PMID:26033350

  15. Mortality among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Bullman, T A

    2001-09-01

    To assess the long-term health consequences of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the authors compared cause-specific mortality rates of 621,902 Gulf War veterans with those of 746,248 non-Gulf veterans, by gender, with adjustment for age, race, marital status, branch of service, and type of unit. Vital status follow-up began with the date of exit from the Persian Gulf theater (Gulf veterans) or May 1, 1991 (control veterans). Follow-up for both groups ended on the date of death or December 31, 1997, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the multivariate analysis. For Gulf veterans, mortality risk was also assessed relative to the likelihood of exposure to nerve gas at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Among Gulf veterans, the significant excess of deaths due to motor vehicle accidents that was observed during the earlier postwar years had decreased steadily to levels found in non-Gulf veterans. The risk of death from natural causes remained lower among Gulf veterans compared with non-Gulf veterans. This was mainly accounted for by the relatively higher number of deaths related to human immunodeficiency virus infection among non-Gulf veterans. There was no statistically significant difference in cause-specific mortality among Gulf veterans relative to potential nerve gas exposure. The risk of death for both Gulf veterans and non-Gulf veterans stayed less than half of that expected in their civilian counterparts. The authors conclude that the excess risk of mortality from motor vehicle accidents that was associated with Gulf War service has dissipated after 7 years of follow-up. PMID:11532780

  16. Low-level viremia persists for at least 7 years in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sarah; Maldarelli, Frank; Wiegand, Ann; Bernstein, Barry; Hanna, George J; Brun, Scott C; Kempf, Dale J; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M; King, Martin S

    2008-03-11

    Residual viremia can be detected in most HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy despite suppression of plasma RNA to <50 copies per ml, but the source and duration of this viremia is currently unknown. Therefore, we analyzed longitudinal plasma samples from 40 patients enrolled in the Abbott M97-720 trial at baseline (pretherapy) and weeks 60 to 384 by using an HIV-1 RNA assay with single-copy sensitivity. All patients were on therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir, stavudine, and lamivudine) with plasma HIV RNA <50 copies per ml by week 96 of the study and thereafter. Single-copy assay results revealed that 77% of the patient samples had detectable low-level viremia (>/=1 copy per ml), and all patients had at least one sample with detectable viremia. A nonlinear mixed effects model revealed a biphasic decline in plasma RNA levels occurring over weeks 60 to 384: an initial phase of decay with a half-life of 39 weeks and a subsequent phase with no perceptible decay. The level of pretherapy viremia extrapolated for each phase of decay was significantly correlated with total baseline viremia for each patient (R(2) = 0.27, P = 0.001 and R(2) = 0.19, P < 0.005, respectively), supporting a biological link between the extent of overall baseline viral infection and the infection of long-lived reservoirs. These data suggest that low-level persistent viremia appears to arise from at least two cell compartments, one in which viral production decays over time and a second in which viral production remains stable for at least 7 years. PMID:18332425

  17. Low-level viremia persists for at least 7 years in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Sarah; Maldarelli, Frank; Wiegand, Ann; Bernstein, Barry; Hanna, George J.; Brun, Scott C.; Kempf, Dale J.; Mellors, John W.; Coffin, John M.; King, Martin S.

    2008-01-01

    Residual viremia can be detected in most HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy despite suppression of plasma RNA to <50 copies per ml, but the source and duration of this viremia is currently unknown. Therefore, we analyzed longitudinal plasma samples from 40 patients enrolled in the Abbott M97-720 trial at baseline (pretherapy) and weeks 60 to 384 by using an HIV-1 RNA assay with single-copy sensitivity. All patients were on therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir, stavudine, and lamivudine) with plasma HIV RNA <50 copies per ml by week 96 of the study and thereafter. Single-copy assay results revealed that 77% of the patient samples had detectable low-level viremia (≥1 copy per ml), and all patients had at least one sample with detectable viremia. A nonlinear mixed effects model revealed a biphasic decline in plasma RNA levels occurring over weeks 60 to 384: an initial phase of decay with a half-life of 39 weeks and a subsequent phase with no perceptible decay. The level of pretherapy viremia extrapolated for each phase of decay was significantly correlated with total baseline viremia for each patient (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.001 and R2 = 0.19, P < 0.005, respectively), supporting a biological link between the extent of overall baseline viral infection and the infection of long-lived reservoirs. These data suggest that low-level persistent viremia appears to arise from at least two cell compartments, one in which viral production decays over time and a second in which viral production remains stable for at least 7 years. PMID:18332425

  18. Maternal Influences on 5- to 7-Year-Old Girls’ Intake of Multivitamin-Mineral Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonna; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine diet quality of girls who do or do not take multivitamin-mineral (MVM) supplements and to evaluate predictors of girls’ MVM use, including maternal eating behaviors, MVM use, beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions about child feeding, eating, and health. Design Participants were 192 mother and daughter pairs. Daughters were categorized as MVM supplement users or nonusers based on whether girls were consistently given MVM supplements at 5 and 7 years. Girls’ and mothers’ nutrient and food group intakes, maternal child-feeding practices, and maternal eating behavior were compared between the groups. Results Mothers who used MVM supplements were more likely to give MVM supplements to daughters. Excluding nutrients from MVM supplements, MVM users and nonusers did not differ in vitamin and mineral intake, either for girls or mothers, and patterns of food group intake were similar for users and nonusers. Mothers of MVM users reported the following: higher levels of pressuring their daughters to eat healthier diets, more monitoring of daughters’ food intake, more success in dieting for weight control, more positive evaluations of their success in eating healthy diets, and lower body mass indexes than mothers who did not give MVMs to daughters. Conclusions Daughters’ MVM supplement use was predicted by mothers’ beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and practices regarding mothers’ own eating and child feeding practices, rather than by daughters’ diet quality. For both MVM users and nonusers, daughters’ food group servings were below recommendations, whereas vitamin and mineral intakes exceeded recommendations, a pattern indicative of girls’ relatively high intakes of fortified foods. Mothers should be encouraged to foster healthier patterns of food intake in daughters, rather than providing MVM supplements. PMID:11875174

  19. 7 Minutes of Totality in 7 Years: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Bell, S.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid succession, two chances to experience a total solar eclipse will soon occur over the middle of the United States. Usually, a total solar eclipse is, at most, a once in a lifetime event. However, the celebrated shadows will race over the Shawnee National Forest, near Makanda, Illinois, twice in less than 7 years. The centerlines of the 2017 August 21 and 2024 April 08 eclipses will cross at this convenient location. If you are planning a trip to that legendary heart of darkness, you should consider a site just northwest of Makanda for both events. The two eclipse centerlines are expected to intersect at 37º 38.2’ N and 89º 15.4’ W, in the Shawnee National Forest. In 2017, totality lasting about 2 min 45 sec is expected at this location, which is the maximum duration for that eclipse. In 2024, nearly 4 min 13 sec of darkness will occur at the crossover point, but the longest period of totality for this eclipse will be seen in Mexico. Historically, southern Illinois is mostly sunny in late August and early April. If rain or clouds mar your 2017 experience, you can hope for better weather when you return in 2024. A number of activities can enrich your outreach program: spotting planets and stars, locating shadow effects, monitoring climate changes, and watching wildlife responses. In addition, you will be able to compare and contrast your observations during the two eclipses there. Planning an expedition to this rare intersection reduces your flexibility in case of inclement weather--a small price for the novelty of multiple visits. Unless you are a dedicated eclipse chaser, 2017 may not seem imminent. However, your outreach program choices now may shape your plans for the eclipses to come. For additional information, visit the USNO Eclipse Portal at http://www.eclipse.org.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi

  20. Evaluation of a sustained 7-year health education campaign on leprosy in Rufiji District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, J; O'Donoghue, J; Ishengoma, A; Masao, H; Mbega, M

    1998-03-01

    To assess the impact of a 7-year intensive health education campaign about leprosy delivered by workers of the Kindwitwi Leprosy Trust to schoolchildren and general public in Rufiji District. Knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards leprosy were measured in Rufiji and compared to neighbouring Kisarawe District as control. Lessons learned from this analysis may be useful for the planning and evaluating of health education campaigns. Interview of schoolchildren, general public, community leaders, traditional healers and medical staff in both districts. A stratified randomized sampling scheme was used, with stratification for urban and rural settings. A representative sample of schoolchildren, general public, community leaders, traditional healers and medical staff in Rufiji District and in the control area of Kisarawe District was interviewed. The interviews were partly structured and partly open. The results of the interviews were analysed in the context of epidemiological leprosy data from 1985 till 1995, and demographic data of both districts. Data entry and statistical analysis was done using FileMaker Pro, Stata and Excel computer packages. We did not observe positive effects of the health education campaign on the indicators regarding early diagnosis of leprosy with less disability. Leprosy case detection was declining in both districts. We found that the campaign had a favourable impact on the knowledge and the attitude of schoolchildren in Rufiji District. We could demonstrate a relationship between increased knowledge of leprosy and a positive, less stigmatizing attitude. Knowledge of leprosy was better in Rufiji as compared to Kisarawe, but only among schoolchildren. We found indications that low level of education, rural residence, older age, female gender and Moslem religion were associated with stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs towards leprosy. Knowledge about leprosy reactions among medical staff interviewed was not optimal. The exact outcome of the

  1. Growth and obesity in 7-year-old Croatian children: secular changes from 1991 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Bralić, Irena; Tahirović, Husref; Matanić, Dubravka

    2011-12-01

    The study analyses secular changes in body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in children in the Splitsko-dalmatinska County, Croatia, in the period from 1991 to 2008. The overweight/obesity trends from 1991 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2008 are assessed. The study included three cohorts of healthy 7-year-old children, measured during their regular medical examination before enrolment at school: 1991 (n = 514), 1999 (n = 428) and 2008 (n = 452), in a total of 1,394 children, 686 (49.21%) of whom were girls. Overweight/obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. From 1991 to 2008, there was a statistically significant rise in body weight and BMI in boys and girls (1.47 vs 1.50 kg; 0.55 vs 0.75 kg) and height in boys (1.4 cm). In 2008, the girls were 0.14 kg heavier and 0.39 cm taller than the girls of the same age measured in 1999, but their BMI was lower by 0.02 units. The frequency of obesity rose from 1991 to 2008 by 1.4 times in boys and 1.7 times in girls. The prevalence of obesity in girls rose from 1991 to 1999 (from 4.3% to 8.6%), but in 2008, it fell (7.1%). The prevalence of obesity in boys fell in 1999 (from 4.3% to 3.9%) but rose in 2008 (6.2%). The values of body weight, height and BMI in the observed population moved from 1991 to 2008 towards higher WHO standard values, which is descriptive of the problem of obesity and supports the need to consider the choice of cut-off points for obesity/overweight in local and national studies. In conclusion, the slowdown noticed in secular changes in body weight and BMI is encouraging and shows the importance of continuous paediatric health care for children, combined with an altered attitude in society towards obesity in children.

  2. Soil respiration under mature deciduous forest trees after 7 years of CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Martin; Körner, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The anthropogenic rise in atmospheric CO2 is expected to impact carbon fluxes not only at ecosystem level but also at the global scale by altering carbon cycle processes in soils. At the Swiss Canopy Crane (SCC), we examined how 7 years of free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) affected soil CO2 dynamics in a c. 100-year-old mixed deciduous forest. The use of 13C-depleted CO2 for canopy enrichment allowed us to trace the flow of recently fixed carbon (C). In the seventh year of growth at ~550 ppm CO2, soil respiratory CO2 consisted of 39% labelled C. During the growing season, soil air CO2 concentration was significantly enhanced under CO2-exposed trees. However, elevated CO2 failed to stimulate cumulative soil respiration (Rs) over the growing season. We found periodic reductions as well as increases in instantaneous rates of Rs in response to elevated CO2, depending on soil temperature and soil volumetric water content (VWC; significant 3-way interaction). During wet periods, soil water savings under CO2-enriched trees led to excessive VWC (>45%) that suppressed Rs. Elevated CO2 stimulated Rs only when VWC was ≤40% and concurrent soil temperature was high (>15 °C). Seasonal Q10 estimates of Rs were significantly lower under elevated (Q10 = 3.30) compared to ambient CO2 (Q10 = 3.97). However, this effect disappeared when 3 consecutive sampling dates of extremely high VWC were disregarded. This suggests that elevated CO2 affected Q10 mainly indirectly through changes in VWC. Fine root respiration did not differ significantly between treatments but soil microbial biomass (Cmic) increased by 14% under elevated CO2 (marginally significant). Our findings do not indicate enhanced soil C emissions in such stands under future atmospheric CO2. It remains to be shown whether C losses via leaching of dissolved organic or inorganic C (DOC, DIC) help to balance the carbon budget in this forest.

  3. Follow-up ?at II years of 46 children with severe unilateral hearing loss at 7 years.

    PubMed

    Peckham, C S; Sheridan, M D

    1976-01-01

    In the ongoing NCDS, 44 children of the 46 identified at 7 years as having a serious unilateral hearing loss were followed up at II years. Half of them had recovered normal bilateral hearing, the remainder still had serious deafness in one ear. Although at 7 years the 46 children as a group had shown backwardness in oral ability, speech and reading, at II years both the "recovered" and the "persistent" were similar to their age peers in scholastic attainment. Despite their original apparent difficulty it was encouraging to find that several children in both subgroups were noted as possessing outstanding academic ability. It is concluded that with prompt follow-up by an alerted school doctor, children with unilateral deafness at age 7 years are likely to progress satisfactorily in later childhood. PMID:954156

  4. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of about one degree. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array [16], Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) [61], and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) [78]. DASI was the first to detect the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum. In June 2001, NASA launched its second CMB mission (after COBE), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer (WMAP) [44], to make much more precise measurements of the CMB sky. WMAP measured the differences in the CMB temperature across the sky creating a full-sky map of the CMB in five different frequency bands. The mission also measured the CMB's E-mode and the foreground polarization. As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft has ended its mission after nine years of operation. Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB, it did not have the angular resolution to cover the smaller-scale fluctuations that had been observed by previous ground-based interferometers. A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor [1], was launched by ESA* in May 2009 to measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP, as well as making precise measurements of the polarization of CMB. Planck represents an advance over WMAP in several respects: it observes in higher resolution, hence allowing one to probe the CMB power spectrum to smaller scales; it has a higher sensitivity and observes in nine frequency bands rather than five, hence improving the astrophysical foreground models. The mission has a wide variety of scientific aims, including: (1) detecting the total intensity/polarization of the primordial CMB anisotropies; (2) creating a galaxy-cluster catalogue through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect [93]; (3) observing the

  5. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  6. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  7. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  8. Plasma enhanced microwave joining

    SciTech Connect

    Yiin, T.; Barmatz, M.; Sayir, A.

    1995-12-31

    A new method for plasma enhanced microwave joining of high purity (99.8%) alumina has been developed. The controlled application of a plasma between the adjoining surfaces of two rods initially heats the microwave-low-absorbing alumina rods to temperatures high enough for them to absorb microwave energy efficiently. With this technology, the adjacent surfaces of alumina rods can be melted and welded together in less than three minutes using approximately 400 watts of microwave energy. Four point bending tests measured fracture strengths of up to 130 MPa at the joined interface. Optical and SEM micrographs indicated that exaggerated grain growth prevailed for all joints studied.

  9. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  11. Lead exposure, IQ, and behavior in urban 5-7 year olds: Does lead affect behavior only by lowering IQ?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Cai, Bo; Dietrich, Kim N.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lead exposure in childhood lowers IQ scores, but its effect on children's behavior is less clear. Since IQ per se affects behavior, measuring lead's direct effect requires measuring and then adjusting for IQ. In addition, either peak blood lead concentration, usually at age 2 years, or the lower blood lead measured at school age may be the most relevant. Few studies have all this information. Objective To differentiate the direct effect of lead on behavior and the indirect effect through IQ, and to examine the strength of the association for peak and concurrent blood lead concentration. Methods Data come from a clinical trial of the chelating drug succimer to prevent cognitive impairment in 780 urban 12-33 month olds with blood lead concentration of 20-44 μg/dL. The children were followed from ages 2 to 7 years. The trial data were analyzed as a prospective observational study. Results Blood lead concentration at age 2 years was not associated with Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R) scores at age 5 years or Behavioral Assessment Systems for Children (BASC) scores at age 7 years. Blood lead at age 7 years had direct effects on the BASC Behavioral Symptoms Index, Externalizing, and School Problems at age 7. Conclusions Concurrent blood lead concentration was associated with Externalizing and School Problems scales at age 7 years, and the effect was not entirely mediated through lead's effect on IQ. PMID:17332184

  12. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  13. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  14. A Developmental Study of Timing Behavior in 4 1/2- and 7-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouthas, Viviane; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne

    1987-01-01

    Investigates effects of age and instructions on temporal regulations of behavior in two experiments. Results of two experiments suggest that for 4 1/2- and 7-year-olds trained with DRL (differential reinforcement of low rates), age and timing performance are related, and that instructions to wait between operant responses enhance DRL performance…

  15. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  16. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  17. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  18. Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of age. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on exposure to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of age. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of age. ECAT exposure during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of age. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: Exposure to the highest tertile of ECAT during the child’s first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the “at risk” range at 7 years of age, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT exposure during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education. PMID:23694812

  19. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  20. A FOREGROUND-CLEANED COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND MAP FROM NON-GAUSSIANITY MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Rajib

    2011-10-01

    In this Letter, we present a new method to estimate a foreground-cleaned cosmic microwave background (CMB) map at a resolution of 1{sup 0} by minimizing the non-Gaussian properties of the cleaned map which arise dominantly due to diffuse foreground emission components from the Milky Way. We employ simple kurtosis statistic as the measure of non-Gaussian properties and perform a linear combination of five frequency maps provided by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) in its seven-year data release in such a way that the cleaned map has a minimum kurtosis which leads to a non-Gaussianity-minimized, foreground-cleaned CMB map. We validate the method by performing Monte Carlo simulations. To minimize any residual foreground contamination from the cleaned map we flag out the region near the galactic plane based upon results from simulations. Outside the masked region our new estimate of the CMB map matches well with the WMAP's Internal Linear Combination (ILC) map. A simple pseudo-C{sub l} -based CMB TT power spectrum derived from the non-Gaussianity minimized map reproduces the earlier results of WMAP's power spectrum. An important advantage of the method is that it does not introduce any negative bias in angular power spectrum in the low multipole regime, unlike usual ILC method. Comparing our results with the previously published results we argue that CMB results are robust with respect to specific foreground removal algorithms employed.

  1. Contamination cannot explain the lack of large-scale power in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Emory F.; Bourdon, Austin

    2008-12-15

    Several anomalies appear to be present in the large-angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy maps of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. One of these is a lack of large-scale power. Because the data otherwise match standard models extremely well, it is natural to consider perturbations of the standard model as possible explanations. We show that, as long as the source of the perturbation is statistically independent of the source of the primary CMB anisotropy, no such model can explain this large-scale power deficit. On the contrary, any such perturbation always reduces the probability of obtaining any given low value of large-scale power. We rigorously prove this result when the lack of large-scale power is quantified with a quadratic statistic, such as the quadrupole moment. When a statistic based on the integrated square of the correlation function is used instead, we present strong numerical evidence in support of the result. The result applies to models in which the geometry of spacetime is perturbed (e.g., an ellipsoidal universe) as well as explanations involving local contaminants, undiagnosed foregrounds, or systematic errors. Because the large-scale power deficit is arguably the most significant of the observed anomalies, explanations that worsen this discrepancy should be regarded with great skepticism, even if they help in explaining other anomalies such as multipole alignments.

  2. Detection of trans-Planckian effects in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneboom, Nicolaas E.; Elgaroey, Oystein

    2008-02-15

    Quantum gravity effects are expected to modify the primordial density fluctuations produced during inflation and leave their imprint on the cosmic microwave background observed today. We present a new analysis discussing whether these effects are detectable, considering both currently available data and simulated results from an optimal CMB experiment. We find that the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data show no evidence for the particular signature considered in this work but give an upper bound on the parameters of the model. However, a hypothetical experiment shows that with proper data, the trans-Planckian effects should be detectable through alternate sampling methods. This fuzzy conclusion is a result of the nature of the oscillations, since they give rise to a likelihood hypersurface riddled with local maxima. A simple Bayesian analysis shows no significant evidence for the simulated data to prefer a trans-Planckian model. Conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are not suitable for exploring this complicated landscape, but alternative methods are required to solve the problem. This, however, requires extremely high-precision data.

  3. SIMPLE FOREGROUND CLEANING ALGORITHM FOR DETECTING PRIMORDIAL B-MODE POLARIZATION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Nobuhiko; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2011-08-20

    We reconsider the pixel-based, 'template' polarized foreground removal method within the context of a next-generation, low-noise, low-resolution (0.{sup 0}5 FWHM) space-borne experiment measuring the cosmological B-mode polarization signal in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This method was first applied to polarized data by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team and further studied by Efstathiou et al. We need at least three frequency channels: one is used for extracting the CMB signal, whereas the other two are used to estimate the spatial distribution of the polarized dust and synchrotron emission. No extra data from non-CMB experiments or models are used. We extract the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) from simulated sky maps outside the standard polarization mask (P06) of WMAP consisting of CMB, noise (2 {mu}K arcmin), and a foreground model, and find that, even for the simplest three-frequency configuration with 60, 100, and 240 GHz, the residual bias in r is as small as {Delta}r {approx} 0.002. This bias is dominated by the residual synchrotron emission due to spatial variations of the synchrotron spectral index. With an extended mask with f{sub sky} = 0.5, the bias is reduced further down to <0.001.

  4. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  5. Microwave device investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, K. K. D.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwok, S. P.; Masnari, N. A.; Trew, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, devices and novel schemes for generation, amplification and detection of microwave and millimeter wave energy are studied. Considered are: (1) Schottky-barrier microwave devices; (2) intermodulation products in IMPATT diode amplifiers; and (3) harmonic generation using Read diode varactors.

  6. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

  7. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  8. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  9. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  10. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  11. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  12. Microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  13. Microwave radiation hazards around large microwave antenna.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A.

    1973-01-01

    The microwave radiation hazards associated with the use of large antennas become increasingly more dangerous to personnel as the transmitters go to ever higher powers. The near-field area is of the greatest concern. It has spill over from subreflector and reflections from nearby objects. Centimeter waves meeting in phase will reinforce each other and create hot spots of microwave energy. This has been measured in front of and around several 26-meter antennas. Hot spots have been found and are going to be the determining factor in delineating safe areas for personnel to work. Better techniques and instruments to measure these fields are needed for the evaluation of hazard areas.

  14. Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes in children, but findings with regard to behavioral problems are inconsistent. Objective We investigated whether residential road traffic noise exposure is associated with behavioral problems in 7-year-old children. Methods We identified 46,940 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete information on behavioral problems at 7 years of age and complete address history from conception to 7 years of age. Road traffic noise (Lden) was modeled at all present and historical addresses. Behavioral problems were assessed by the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between pregnancy and childhood exposure to noise and behavioral problems were analyzed by multinomial or logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders. Results A 10-dB increase in average time-weighted road traffic noise exposure from birth to 7 years of age was associated with a 7% increase (95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) in abnormal versus normal total difficulties scores; 5% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and 9% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) increases in borderline and abnormal hyperactivity/inattention subscale scores, respectively; and 5% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.14) and 6% (95% CI: 0.99, 1.12) increases in abnormal conduct problem and peer relationship problem subscale scores, respectively. Exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy was not associated with child behavioral problems at 7 years of age. Conclusions Residential road traffic noise in early childhood may be associated with behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Citation Hjortebjerg D, Andersen AM, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sunyer J, Julvez J, Forns J, Sørensen M. 2016. Exposure to road traffic noise and behavioral problems in 7-year-old children: a cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:228–234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409430 PMID

  15. Microwave bonding of MEMS component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bonding of MEMs materials is carried out using microwave. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin of the material. This causes heating in one place more than another. Thereby minimizing the effects of the bonding microwave energy.

  16. Microwave drilling of bones.

    PubMed

    Eshet, Yael; Mann, Ronit Rachel; Anaton, Abby; Yacoby, Tomer; Gefen, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under approximately 200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of approximately 1 mm/s. The effect of microwave drilling on mechanical properties of whole ovine tibial and chicken femoral bones drilled in vitro was studied using three-point-bending strength and fatigue tests. Properties were compared to those of geometrically similar bones that were equivalently drilled using the currently accepted mechanical rotary drilling method. Strength of mid-shaft, elastic moduli, and cycles to failure in fatigue were statistically indistinguishable between specimen groups assigned for microwave and mechanical drilling. Carbonized margins around the microwave-drilled hole were approximately 15% the hole diameter. Optical and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the microwave drill produces substantially smoother holes in cortical bone than those produced by a mechanical drill. The hot spot produced by the microwave drill has the potential for overcoming two major problems presently associated with mechanical drilling in cortical and trabecular bone during orthopaedic surgeries: formation of debris and rupture of bone vasculature during drilling.

  17. Clinical evaluation on porcelain laminate veneers bonded with light-cured composite: results up to 7 years.

    PubMed

    D'Arcangelo, Camillo; De Angelis, Francesco; Vadini, Mirco; D'Amario, Maurizio

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of laminate porcelain veneers bonded with a light-cured composite. Thirty patients were restored with 119 porcelain laminate veneers. The veneers were studied for an observation time of 7 years. Marginal adaptation, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, color match, and anatomic form were clinically examined following modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Each restoration was also examined for cracks, fractures, and debonding. Pulp vitality was verified. In addition, plaque and gingival indexes and increase in gingival recession were recorded. Survival rate evaluating absolute failures and success rate describing relative failures were statistically determined, using both restoration and patient-related analyses. On the basis of the criteria used, most of the veneers rated Alfa. After 7 years, the results of the clinical investigation regarding marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration revealed only 2.5% and 4.2% Bravo ratings, respectively, among the 119 initially placed veneers. Using the restoration as the statistical unit, the survival rate was 97.5%, with a high estimated success probability of 0.843 after 7 years. Using the patient as the statistical unit, the survival rate was 90.0% and the estimated success probability after 7 years was 0.824. Gingival response to the veneers was all in the satisfactory range. Porcelain laminate veneers offer a predictable and successful treatment modality giving a maximum preservation of sound tooth. The preparation, cementation, and finishing procedures adopted are considered key factors for the long-term success and aesthetical result of the veneer restorations.

  18. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  19. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  20. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  1. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  2. Microwave sterilization of enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Anzanel, D; Salvatorelli, G

    1993-01-01

    A new method is described which makes it possible to treat metal materials with microwaves. In consequence scalpel blades as well as cover glasses contaminated with four species of bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were sterilized. With this method sterilization can be achieved quite rapidly (1.5-2 min). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a progressive alteration in the morphology of micro-organisms and this proved proportional to the microwave exposure time. Only in Proteus mirabilis were no modifications found, even after long periods of microwave exposure. PMID:8302204

  3. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  4. Adverse effects of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine in 6- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chao, Yen-Nan; Huang, Song-En; Lee, Tsuey-Feng; Chang, Luan-Yin

    2011-02-01

    Although the safety profile of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines in adolescents and adults has been documented, few data have reported about their adverse events in children. Healthy 6- to 7-year-old children who were immunized with Tdap vaccine were evaluated for adverse events on Days 1, 2, 4, and 7 postimmunization. Information of sex, body mass index (BMI), and previous diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) immunization history was obtained and evaluated for the association with the adverse events. A total of 243 6- to 7-year-old children were immunized with Tdap. Among the 243 children immunized, remarkable adverse events included redness more than or equal to 10 mm in 47 (19%) children, induration more than or equal to 10 mm in 57 (23%), tenderness in 130 (53%), and fever in 12 (5%). Redness and induration resolved in 7 days and fever resolved on Day 4. The adverse events were not associated with gender, BMI above the mean value, or the type of fourth DPT immunization. Adverse events after Tdap vaccination were mild and dissolved within 7 days in 6- to 7-year-old children.

  5. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  6. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  7. Microwave Radiation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

  8. Microwave sensing from orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritikos, H. N.; Shiue, J.

    1979-01-01

    Microwave sensors, used in conjunction with the traditional sensors of visible and infrared light to extend present capabilities of global weather forecasts and local storm watches, are discussed. The great advantage of these sensors is that they can penetrate or 'see' through cloud formations to monitor temperature, humidity and wind fields below the clouds. Other uses are that they can penetrate the earth deeper than optical and IR systems; they can control their own angle of incidence; they can detect oil spills; and they can enhance the studies of the upper atmosphere through measurement of temperature, water vapor and other gaseous species. Two types of microwave sensors, active and passive, are examined. Special attention is given to the study of the microwave radiometer and the corresponding temperature resolution as detected by the antenna. It is determined that not only will the microwave remote sensors save lives by allowing close monitoring of developing storms, but also save approximately $172 million/year.

  9. Microwave beam power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.

    1989-01-01

    Information on microwave beam power is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer proulsion applications, costs of delivering 100 kWe of usable power, and costs of delivering a 1 kg payload into orbit.

  10. The microwave drill.

    PubMed

    Jerby, E; Dikhtyar, V; Aktushev, O; Grosglick, U

    2002-10-18

    We present a drilling method that is based on the phenomenon of local hot spot generation by near-field microwave radiation. The microwave drill is implemented by a coaxial near-field radiator fed by a conventional microwave source. The near-field radiator induces the microwave energy into a small volume in the drilled material under its surface, and a hot spot evolves in a rapid thermal-runaway process. The center electrode of the coaxial radiator itself is then inserted into the softened material to form the hole. The method is applicable for drilling a variety of nonconductive materials. It does not require fast rotating parts, and its operation makes no dust or noise. PMID:12386331

  11. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  12. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  13. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  14. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  15. Spaceborne Microwave Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Monograph presents comprehensive overview of science and technology of spaceborne microwave-imaging systems. Microwave images used as versatile orbiting, remote-sensing systems to investigate atmospheres and surfaces of planets. Detect surface objects through canopies of clouds, measure distributions of raindrops in clouds that their views penetrate, find meandering rivers in rain forests and underground water in arid regions, and provide information on ocean currents, wakes, ice/water boundaries, aircraft, ships, buoys, and bridges.

  16. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy.

  17. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy. PMID:25768743

  18. Microwave interaction with air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, W. M.; Pershing, D.

    1985-06-01

    Microwave breakdown studies of gaseous elements have been carried out extensively over a wide range of pressures and for several microwave frequencies using CW and pulsed radiation sources. The main emphasis in these studies was on the determination of the breakdown power threshold and its dependence on the gas pressure and the microwave frequency. The coupling of mircowave energy into the breakdown plasma and neutral gas has not been studied in detail. The reason for this is that, until recently, no high-power microwave sources have been available to perform such studies. Most of the early work performed on breakdown thresholds was performed using high Q-cavities to obtain the necessary electric field to break down the gas. Once breakdown of the gas occurred, the Q of the cavity dropped and the interaction changed. Using the NRL high-power gyrotron facility, we have been able to eliminate the need for cavities and have performed experiments using a focused geometry to examine the coupling of microwave energy to nitrogen gas during breakdown. We have also modeled the experiments using a 1-D computer simulation code. Simulations were performed in a spherical geometry using a self-consistent, nitrogen chemistry, wave optics, microwave breakdown simulation code, MINI. The main emphasis of past work was on the ionization front created during nitrogen breakdown and its motion and plasma properties, as observed experimentally.

  19. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review. PMID:27698682

  20. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review.

  1. Behavioral effects of microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S.

    1980-01-01

    Microwaves can produce sensations of warmth and sound in humans. In other species, they also can serve as cues, they may be avoided, and they can disrupt ongoing behavior. These actions appear to be due to heat produced by energy absorption. The rate of absorption depends on the microwave parameters and the electrical and geometric properties of the subject. We therefore, cannot predict the human response to microwaves based on data from other animals without appropriate scaling considerations. At low levels of exposure, microwaves can produce changes in behavior without large, or even measureable, changes in body temperature. Thermoregulatory behavior may respond to those low levels of heat, and thereby affect other behavior occurring concurrently. There are no data that demonstrate that behavioral effects of microwaves depend on any mechanism other than reactions to heat. Our interpretation of whether a reported behavioral effect indicates that microwaves may be hazardous depends on our having a complete description of the experiment and on our criteria of behavioral toxicity.

  2. Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Inflammation Across 7-Years in Racially Diverse Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Danielle L.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Brown, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination has emerged as a predictor of negative psychological and physical health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. The goals of this study were to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was independently predicted by everyday discrimination or whether race or body mass index (BMI) modified this association over a 7-year period among 2,490 women from racially diverse backgrounds. At baseline, the 10-item Williams' measure of everyday discrimination was administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess these associations. Descriptive results showed that Black and Chinese women reported greater discrimination than White, Japanese, and Hispanic women, while Black and Hispanic women had the highest levels of CRP over the 7-year period. There was no main effect of everyday discrimination (B = .003, SE = .005, p = .58) and this association did not differ as a function of race (p's > .05). The everyday discrimination × BMI interaction term significantly predicted higher CRP levels over time in the full sample of women (p = .03). Specifically, in non-obese women (BMI less than 30), higher perceived everyday discrimination was associated with higher CRP levels over the 7-year period. These findings were independent of demographic, negative affect, biomedical, and behavioral factors. The results demonstrate that greater everyday discrimination is associated with increased inflammation over time in non-obese women. These findings highlight the implications of interpersonal sources of social stress for long-term physical health via their impact on intermediary biological pathways, specifically inflammation. Greater emphasis on such linkages is warranted as we work towards ameliorating health disparities exacerbated by individual-level factors. PMID:25342861

  3. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  4. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  5. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  6. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Scanavini, Marco A.; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3–4 mm), until a ‘super class I’ molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1–T2, T2–T3, and T1–T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. CONCLUSIONS Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes. PMID:23736378

  7. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders. PMID:23327502

  8. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders.

  9. Understanding and practice: a 7-year follow-up study on implementation of a cardiac rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Eva; Rosenqvist, Urban

    2002-05-01

    The authors explore the perspectives of managers, health care professionals, and patients on a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program. Using qualitative methodology, they compare and analyze results from individual interviews and two conceptual modeling seminars held 7 years apart. Professionals and managers understood their own tasks in a professional-centered way that did not include the client's perspective. Patients believed they were not seen in their whole context. Initially, health care organization was fragmented, lacking clear leadership, coordination, and communication between levels of care. However, lack of common understandings of structure, process, and outcome in cardiac rehabilitation services hampered the implementation of program changes. PMID:11993563

  10. Fatal hyponatremia in a 7-year-old girl with cloacal exstrophy after cystoscopy for a bladder stone.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marc R; Fuhr, Peter G; Koyle, Martin A

    2008-06-01

    A case of fatal hyponatremia in a 7-year-old girl following a percutaneous cystolithotomy is presented. Stone removal by percutaneous cystolithotomy is considered a safe and effective procedure, but this may depend on the type of solution used for irrigation. In this case less than 2L of sterile water was used as irrigation in an augmented bladder causing a drop in sodium to 120 mmol/L in 30 min. The result was a massive shift of water into the cerebral tissue, cerebral edema and death. PMID:18631933

  11. Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals during Pregnancy and Weight at 7 Years of Age: A Multi-pollutant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Martinez, David; Valvi, Damaskini; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may induce weight gain and obesity in children, but the obesogenic effects of mixtures have not been studied. Objective We evaluated the associations between pre- and perinatal biomarker concentrations of 27 EDCs and child weight status at 7 years of age. Methods In pregnant women enrolled in a Spanish birth cohort study between 2004 and 2006, we measured the concentrations of 10 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, cadmium, arsenic, and lead in two maternal pregnancy urine samples; 6 organochlorine compounds in maternal pregnancy serum; mercury in cord blood; and 6 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in colostrum. Among 470 children at 7 years, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated, and overweight was defined as BMI > 85th percentile. We estimated associations with EDCs in single-pollutant models and applied principal-component analysis (PCA) on the 27 pollutant concentrations. Results In single-pollutant models, HCB (hexachlorobenzene), βHCH (β-hexachlorocyclohexane), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138 and 180 were associated with increased child BMI z-scores; and HCB, βHCH, PCB-138, and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) with overweight risk. PCA generated four factors that accounted for 43.4% of the total variance. The organochlorine factor was positively associated with BMI z-scores and with overweight (adjusted RR, tertile 3 vs. 1: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.19, 5.63), and these associations were robust to adjustment for other EDCs. Exposure in the second tertile of the phthalate factor was inversely associated with overweight. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to organochlorines was positively associated with overweight at age 7 years in our study population. Other EDCs exposures did not confound this association. Citation Agay-Shay K, Martinez D, Valvi D, Garcia-Esteban R, Basagaña X, Robinson O, Casas M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2015. Exposure to endocrine

  12. A 7-year follow-up study on the mental health of North Korean defectors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Woo-Taek; Eom, Jin-Sup; Min, Sung Kil

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to describe the relationship of past trauma and current stress on the mental health of North Korean (NK) defectors living in South Korea 7 years after a baseline assessment. Of the 200 who participated in the initial study, 106 participated in follow-up. Previous data regarding past traumatic events experienced in North Korea and during defection, past posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their current stress levels were correlated with the participants' current mental health status including depression, anxiety, and PTSD. The rate of PTSD in the sample and the scores on the PTSD symptom scale decreased significantly from the baseline. The participants' current mental health was negatively related to previous traumatic experiences in North Korea and past symptoms of PTSD, but unrelated to previous trauma experienced during defection. In addition, although current mental health was negatively related to only current culture-related stress, it was unrelated to the level of current ordinary life stress. The results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms decreased during the 7 years between assessments, and that current culture-related stress is the most important variable related to the mental health of NK defectors living in South Korea.

  13. Effect of Rotational Component Alignment on Clinical Outcome 5 to 7 Years After TKA With the Columbus Knee System.

    PubMed

    Thielemann, Friedrich W; Konstantinids, Lukas; Herget, Georg W; Knothe, Dagmar; Helwig, Peter; Sudkamp, Norbert P; Hauschild, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of rotational component alignment on outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. For this study, 96 patients were available for follow-up at a mean of 5.7 years after TKA. Computed tomography scans were available in 55 patients. Outcome (Oxford Knee Score [KSS], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], 36-item Short Form Health Survey) was correlated with postoperative femoral and tibial component malrotation or femorotibial rotational alignment mismatch. Results showed that femoral or tibial component malrotation or femorotibial mismatch were present in 15.5%, 38.2%, and 29.1% of patients, respectively. Although femoral componoent malrotation was associated with significantly poorer, KSS and KOOS scores, outcome was comparable for patients with or without tibial component malrotation or femorotibial mismatch. In conclusion, both internal and external rotational femoral malalignment exceeding 3° is associated with significantly poorer subjective and objective outcome 5 to 7 years after TKA. Tibial component malrotation and femorotibial mismatch were more common, but did not significantly compromise outcome. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):S50-S55.].

  14. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors.

  15. A rare case of paragonimiasis miyazakii with lung involvement diagnosed 7 years after infection: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yatera, Kazuhiro; Hanaka, Minako; Hanaka, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Kei; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kawanami, Toshinori; Kawanami, Yukiko; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus miyazakii that showed pulmonary manifestations and a long-term clinical course after infection. A 45-year-old Japanese male developed cough and dyspnea in 2004 and was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia. He had been treated with low-dose oral corticosteroid for 7 years. He recalled that he had consumed a large amount of raw freshwater crab (Geothelphusa dehaani) several weeks before he had been admitted for the first time, and that had been the only occasion when he had eaten this meat. The patient was referred to our hospital due to persistent hemoptysis, and his chest computed tomography scan showed pulmonary nodules and cavities, and his serum total IgE level was elevated. Bronchoscopy was performed, and ova were detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The morphological examination of the ova and immunoserological examination yielded typical findings of P. miyazakii. Treatment with praziquantel improved his chest radiographic findings and a decrease of serum total IgE, as well as the values of immunoserological examination for P. miyazakii. The clinical course of this patient indicated that he had been infected with P. miyazakii for 7 years at least, which is unusual for paragonimiasis miyazakii. PMID:25771073

  16. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  17. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  18. Uniform batch processing using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave oven and microwave heating method generates microwaves within a cavity in a predetermined mode such that there is a known region of uniform microwave field. Samples placed in the region will then be heated in a relatively identical manner. Where perturbations induced by the samples are significant, samples are arranged in a symmetrical distribution so that the cumulative perturbation at each sample location is the same.

  19. Angular power spectrum of the FASTICA cosmic microwave background component from Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, S.; Maino, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Childers, J.; Figueiredo, N.; Lubin, P. M.; Meinhold, P. R.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Seiffert, M. D.; Villela, T.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2006-06-01

    We present the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) component extracted with FASTICA from the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) data. BEAST is a 2.2-m off-axis telescope with a focal plane comprising eight elements at Q (38-45 GHz) and Ka (26-36 GHz) bands. It operates from the UC (University of California) White Mountain Research Station at an altitude of 3800 m. The BEAST CMB angular power spectrum has already been calculated by O'Dwyer et al. using only the Q-band data. With two input channels, FASTICA returns two possible independent components. We found that one of these two has an unphysical spectral behaviour, while the other is a reasonable CMB component. After a detailed calibration procedure based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we extracted the angular power spectrum for the identified CMB component and found a very good agreement with the already published BEAST CMB angular power spectrum and with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data.

  20. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION AND TEMPERATURE POWER SPECTRA ESTIMATION USING LINEAR COMBINATION OF WMAP 5 YEAR MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Samal, Pramoda Kumar; Jain, Pankaj; Saha, Rajib; Prunet, Simon; Souradeep, Tarun

    2010-05-01

    We estimate cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization and temperature power spectra using Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 5 year foreground contaminated maps. The power spectrum is estimated by using a model-independent method, which does not utilize directly the diffuse foreground templates nor the detector noise model. The method essentially consists of two steps: (1) removal of diffuse foregrounds contamination by making linear combination of individual maps in harmonic space and (2) cross-correlation of foreground cleaned maps to minimize detector noise bias. For the temperature power spectrum we also estimate and subtract residual unresolved point source contamination in the cross-power spectrum using the point source model provided by the WMAP science team. Our TT, TE, and EE power spectra are in good agreement with the published results of the WMAP science team. We perform detailed numerical simulations to test for bias in our procedure. We find that the bias is small in almost all cases. A negative bias at low l in TT power spectrum has been pointed out in an earlier publication. We find that the bias-corrected quadrupole power (l(l + 1)C{sub l} /2{pi}) is 532 {mu}K{sup 2}, approximately 2.5 times the estimate (213.4 {mu}K{sup 2}) made by the WMAP team.

  1. Optomechanics with microwave light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Konrad

    2009-03-01

    Recently, superconducting circuits resonant at microwave frequencies have revolutionized the measurement of astrophysical detectors [1] and superconducting qubits [2]. In this talk, I will describe how we extend this technique to measuring and manipulating nanomechanical oscillators. By strongly coupling the motion of a nanomechanical oscillator to the resonance of the microwave circuit we create structures where the dominant dissipative force acting on the oscillator is the radiation pressure of microwave ``light'' [3]. These devices are ultrasensitive force detectors and they allow us to cool the oscillator towards its motional ground state. [4pt] [1] P. K. Day et al., Nature 425, 817 (2003).[0pt] [2] A. Wallraff et al., Nature 431, 162 (2004).[0pt] [3] J. D. Teufel, J. W. Harlow, C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 197203 (2008).

  2. Physics of the Microwave Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  3. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  4. Microwave Frequency Polarizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Vien The; Mirel, Paul; Kogut, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on the analysis of the grids' wire heights, diameters, and spacing.

  5. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  6. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a 7-year-old girl with congenital erythropoietic porphyria: a treatment dilemma.

    PubMed

    Taibjee, S M; Stevenson, O E; Abdullah, A; Tan, C Y; Darbyshire, P; Moss, C; Goodyear, H; Heagerty, A; Whatley, S; Badminton, M N

    2007-03-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP, Günther's disease) has a very variable phenotype. In the more severely affected, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is potentially curative, but is not without risks. We describe a 7-year-old girl with CEP characterized by severe photosensitivity but only mild anaemia, in whom the difficult decision to proceed with allogeneic BMT was made after discussion in a multidisciplinary team. She has shown successful engraftment, accompanied by biochemical and clinical resolution of her metabolic disease. She remains well 3 years later, the oldest patient with CEP receiving BMT to survive beyond 12 months. However, she has experienced significant morbidity including florid cutaneous graft-versus-host disease with postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Her case is important in highlighting the delay in diagnosis not uncommon in this condition and the complex decision-making process involved in proceeding with BMT.

  7. [Middle and anterior cerebral arteries dissection as a cause of ischemic stroke in a 7-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, L A; Dreval', M V; Dobrynina, L A; Krotenkova, M V

    2016-01-01

    Authors describe a 7-year-old boy, who developed a severe right-sided hemiparesis, aphasia, seizure, and confusion state during sport games. There was no headache. Allergic dermatitis in the past medical history and influenza vaccination 2 weeks before stroke were recorded. On the 12th day of disease, MRI of the brain revealed an acute infarction in the territory of left anterior and middle cerebral arteries with hemorrhagic transformation. MPA (15 day) showed occlusion of the left ACA and MCA. HR-MRI T1_db_fs weighted imaging (36 day) found intramural hematoma (IMH) in ACA and MCA with marked stenosis of the lumen. After 3 months, HR-MRI/MRA showed the complete regression of IMH, recanalization of the arterial lumen, prolonged irregular MCA stenosis. Neurological deficit regressed significantly.

  8. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. A 7-year old boy with rapid growth and pubic hair].

    PubMed

    Berents-Oosterhof, M Y; Noordam, C; Otten, B J

    2000-12-16

    A 7-year-old boy was tall, with a developing penis and initial growth of pubic hair. Due to the accelerated growth there was no premature adrenarche and due to the increased testicular volume there must have been a central cause for the production of androgens. Further specific investigations revealed an astrocytoma of the hypothalamus. After radiotherapy, the tumour exhibited no growth. The pubertal development was inhibited and the growth later stimulated by means of medication. In the case of pubertas praecox the growth chart and pubertal stages including testicular volume can help to differentiate between central and peripheral precocious puberty, narrow the diagnostic evaluation and reduce the time of the initial therapy. PMID:11151653

  9. Large ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in a 7-year-old girl with analysis of 108 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kirjavainen, Antti; Tuovinen, Veikko; Sándor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) are rare conditions in children and are often asymptomatic. AFOs are found by routine clinical and radiological examination or when they cause obvious intra- or extra-oral swelling. Materials and Methods: A case of an AFO in a 7-year-old girl is described, and 107 cases from the literature and this report are analyzed. Results: The total of 108 cases revealed the average age at presentation of AFO to be 6.3 years in boys and 9.6 years in girls. There was a slight male predilection and AFO lesions most often occurred in the posterior mandible. AFO was almost always associated with an unerupted tooth or teeth. Conclusions: While the recurrence rate of AFO was found to be 5.5%, long-term postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up is advised to ensure no future signs of aggressive recurrence. PMID:27563600

  10. Retrospective clinical investigation and survival analysis on ceramic inlays and partial ceramic crowns: results up to 7 years.

    PubMed

    Felden, A; Schmalz, G; Federlin, M; Hiller, K A

    1998-12-01

    This study retrospectively evaluated the clinical performance of 287 all-ceramic restorations placed during routine patient care in the University setting in the past 7 years. All patients (n = 106) with ceramic inlays or partial ceramic crowns (PCC), placed during 1988-1994 (n = 327) by five experienced dentists were asked to take part in a clinical investigation, and 92 patients with 287 restorations (232 inlays, 55 PCC) agreed to do so. The following ceramics were used: 44 (15.3%) Dicor (Dentsply), 126 (43.9%) IPS-Empress (Ivoclar), 82 (28.7%) Mirage II, 33 (11.5%) Cerec-Vita-Mark 1 (Vita), and 2 (0.7%) Duceram LFC (Ducera) restorations. The restorations were placed using the following luting composites: 73 (25.4%) Dual Cure Luting Cement (Optec), 81 (28.3%) Variolink high viscosity (Ivoclar), 32 (11.1%) Microfill Pontic C (Kulzer), 51 (17.8%) Dual Zement (Ivoclar), 40 (13.9%) Dicor Light Activated Cement (Dentsply), and 10 (3.5%) Vita Cerec Duo Cement (Vita). Restorations were evaluated according to the modified USPHS criteria. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate the probability of survival. Of the 287 restorations 270 (94.2%) were still in function without any need of intervention. Fourteen restorations (4.8%) had failed before starting the clinical investigation, and in three a fracture was found during the investigation. These 17 failed restorations consisted of 14 PCC and 3 ceramic inlays. The results of the clinical investigation revealed 59.2% Alpha-ratings for marginal adaptation. Only one restored tooth showed recurrent caries. The probability of survival (95% confidence interval) for 7 years was 98% (97.99-98.01%) for ceramic inlays and 56% (46-66%) for PCC. Our findings show that ceramic inlays can be regarded as an acceptable alternative to cast gold restorations within the methodological limitations of the present study. For PCC further experience with more recent ceramics is warranted.

  11. Two-dose varicella vaccination coverage among children aged 7 years--six sentinel sites, United States, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adriana S; Cardemil, Cristina; Pabst, Laura J; Cullen, Karen A; Leung, Jessica; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2014-02-28

    In 2007, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a routine second dose of varicella vaccine for children at age 4-6 years, in addition to the first dose given at age 12-15 months. One strategy recommended for increasing varicella vaccination coverage is a school entry requirement of proof of varicella immunity. To determine the extent of implementation of the routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program, the number of states with a 2-dose varicella vaccination elementary school entry requirement in 2012 was compared with the number in 2007, and 2-dose varicella vaccination coverage during 2006 was compared with coverage in 2012 among children aged 7 years, using data from six Immunization Information System (IIS) sentinel sites. The number of states (including the District of Columbia) with a 2-dose varicella vaccination elementary school entry requirement increased from four in 2007 to 36 in 2012. Two-dose varicella vaccination coverage levels among children aged 7 years in the six IIS sentinel sites increased from a range of 3.6%-8.9% in 2006 to a range of 79.9%-92.0% in 2012 and were approaching the levels of 2-dose measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) coverage, which had a range of 81.9%-94.0% in 2012. These increases suggest substantial progress in implementing the routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program in the first 6 years since its recommendation by ACIP. Wider adoption of 2-dose varicella vaccination school entry requirements might help progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of 95% of kindergarten students having received 2 doses of varicella vaccine.

  12. Two-dose varicella vaccination coverage among children aged 7 years--six sentinel sites, United States, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adriana S; Cardemil, Cristina; Pabst, Laura J; Cullen, Karen A; Leung, Jessica; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2014-02-28

    In 2007, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a routine second dose of varicella vaccine for children at age 4-6 years, in addition to the first dose given at age 12-15 months. One strategy recommended for increasing varicella vaccination coverage is a school entry requirement of proof of varicella immunity. To determine the extent of implementation of the routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program, the number of states with a 2-dose varicella vaccination elementary school entry requirement in 2012 was compared with the number in 2007, and 2-dose varicella vaccination coverage during 2006 was compared with coverage in 2012 among children aged 7 years, using data from six Immunization Information System (IIS) sentinel sites. The number of states (including the District of Columbia) with a 2-dose varicella vaccination elementary school entry requirement increased from four in 2007 to 36 in 2012. Two-dose varicella vaccination coverage levels among children aged 7 years in the six IIS sentinel sites increased from a range of 3.6%-8.9% in 2006 to a range of 79.9%-92.0% in 2012 and were approaching the levels of 2-dose measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) coverage, which had a range of 81.9%-94.0% in 2012. These increases suggest substantial progress in implementing the routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program in the first 6 years since its recommendation by ACIP. Wider adoption of 2-dose varicella vaccination school entry requirements might help progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of 95% of kindergarten students having received 2 doses of varicella vaccine. PMID:24572613

  13. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6–7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6–7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods Evaluations at 6–7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. Results In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0–3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0–3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Conclusions Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration. PMID:23896791

  14. The Comparative Study of Body Mass Index Distribution Among Preschool Children in a 7 Years Period in North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamreza, Veghari; Mohsen, Saeedi

    The main objective of this study is the comparison of Body Mass Index distribution among preschool children between 1997 and 2004. Using cluster and simple sampling chose 20 villages and 20 persons completed the questionnaires and measured their weight and height. The sample size was 3154 (stage 1 = 1585 cases and stage 2 = 1569 cases). Data of two stages was added to the file and was analyzed by spss.win soft-war. NCHS standard was used for comparison. The BMI percentiles by NCHS standard were used to classify subjects as follows: under weight, < 5th BMI percentiles; healthy weight, 5th-84th BMI percentiles; overweight, 85th-94th BMI percentiles; or obese, 95th = BMI percentiles. Gorgan a capital city and located in north of Iran and south east of Caspian Sea. In spite of boy=s weight increased about 0.1 kg, but height increased about 3.4 cm in second stage and t-test is significant between two stage by height (p< 0.001). Girl=s weight didn=t have any change, but height increased about 2.7 cm. t-test is significant between two stages by height (p< 0.001). The prevalence of obesity and overweight declined 17.36 and 4.7% respectively after 7 years. There is a statistical significant between two stages by obesity index (p< 0.05). The most outstanding results of this study is unvarying of weight and dramatically improving of height. The prevalence of obesity and overweight significantly declined after 7 years. Some health strategy that carried out by health managers in this area can caused this situation. Other studies are necessary for following the physical growth pattern in future.

  15. Non-military microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, Howard

    1990-04-01

    The nonmilitary applications of microwave technology in medicine, communications, and agriculture are discussed. Particular attention is given to a microwave multichannel multipoint video distribution system (a broadcasting system with up to 20 programs drawn from satellites, video tape libraries, and locally generated material); microwaves used in DBS distribution; satellite receivers for data communications; microwave thermography used for early cancer detection, brain temperature measurements, and appendicitis diagnosis; an experimental Doppler radar assembly for guiding robots walking on a factory floor; and an agricultural application where microwaves are used to break down slugs in soil and thus improve potato and grain crops. Schematic diagrams are included.

  16. Microwave Interstellar Medium Emission in the Green Bank Galactic Plane Survey: Evidence for Spinning Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Langston, Glen I.; Minter, Anthony H.

    2004-12-01

    We observe significant dust-correlated emission outside of H II regions in the Green Bank Galactic Plane Survey (-4degWilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (23-94 GHz) data, it is possible to fit dust-correlated emission at 2.3-94 GHz with only soft synchrotron, free-free, thermal dust, and an additional dust-correlated component similar to Draine & Lazarian spinning dust. The rising component generally dominates free-free and synchrotron for ν>~14 GHz and is overwhelmed by thermal dust at ν>~60 GHz. The current data fulfill most of the criteria laid out by Finkbeiner and coworkers for detection of spinning dust.

  17. Understanding Microwave Radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents principles of microwave receivers for observing planetary surfaces from space. Report is tutorial and explains operation of receivers in detail to enable reader to specify and qualify them for spaceborne operation. Gives many examples to illustrate practical design procedures.

  18. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  19. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  20. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  1. Physically disturbed deep-sea macrofauna in the Peru Basin, southeast Pacific, revisited 7 years after the experimental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Christian

    Long-term disturbance effects of a physical disturbance experiment on the benthic macrofauna (>500 μm), with particular emphasis on the dominant Polychaeta, were investigated in connection with the German ATESEPP joint programme in 4150 m depth in the Peru Basin of the tropical southeast (SE) Pacific. The study site was the 10.8 km 2 experimental field of the disturbance and re colonization experiment (DISCOL) conducted in early 1989. This programme had the objective to simulate some of the potential disturbance effects of manganese nodule mining on the bottom-dwelling biota with a towed "plough-harrow" disturber, and subsequently to investigate the resultant community responses with three post-impact samplings during a period of 3 years. Seven years after disturbance, in early 1996, the DISCOL site was revisited, and this study focuses on temporal development of the macrofauna over that extended period. Box core samples obtained during all post-impact expeditions from the disturber tracks ( disturbed treatment) were compared with unploughed sediments from the experimental field ( undisturbed treatment) and with samples from unimpacted sites of the surrounding ( reference treatment). The experiment did not cause the disastrous long-term community changes in the sediment dwelling macrofauna that previously were predicted to follow large-scale disturbances. Abundance recoveries of the macrofaunal taxa were largely terminated after 7 years. Major differences in the faunal compositions at the selected taxonomic levels of higher macrofauna taxa, polychaete families and polychaete species between disturbed and control sites were not observed, but certain disturbance effects remained present over the entire 7-year period: Within-treatment data heterogeneity for the higher macrofauna taxa and the polychaete families was greater in the disturber track samples than in undisturbed and reference treatments. Enhanced heterogeneity was expressed by significantly steeper

  2. 'Urinacoccus massiliensis' gen. nov. sp. nov., identified in urine sample of a 7-year-old boy hospitalized for dental care under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Morand, A; Cornu, F; Tsimaratos, M; Cadoret, F; Lagier, J-C; Fournier, P E; Raoult, D

    2016-11-01

    We report here the main characteristics of 'Urinacoccus massiliensis' gen. nov. sp. nov., strain FC2 (CSURP1992). This strain was isolated from the urine of an asymptomatic 7-year-old boy. PMID:27668082

  3. Growth and adrenal androgen status at 7 years in very low birth weight survivors with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, P; Hyodynmaa, E; Lenko, H; Tammela, O

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate whether 7 year old VLBW (very low birth weight, <1500 g) survivors with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) evince similar growth status and higher adrenal androgen (AA) levels than term controls, and whether AA levels are higher in VLBW children born small for gestational age (SGA) than in non-SGA cases. Methods: Assessment of height standard deviation score (SDs), body mass index (BMI), and serum androstenedione and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate levels in 31 VLBW children with BPD, 33 without BPD (no-BPD group), and 33 term controls. Results: Lower median (range) height SDs was found in BPD (-1.0 (-3.4 to 1.4) SD) and no-BPD (-0.9 (-2.9 to 2.2) SD) children than in term controls (0.3 (-1.5 to 1.9) SD). Low BMI (below 10th centile) was more common in both the BPD (18 (58%)) and no-BPD (16 (49%)) children compared to term cases (3 (9%)). The median (range) androstenedione levels tended to be higher in the BPD (0.8 (0 to 2.8) nmol/l) and no-BPD (0.8 (0 to 2.3) nmol/l) groups than in term controls (0.6 (0 to 1.8)). Higher median (range) dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate levels were detected in the no-BPD compared to the term group (0.9 (0 to 4.1) v 0.3 (0 to 2.3) µmol/l). VLBW children born SGA had higher AA levels compared to non-SGA cases. Conclusions: At 7 years of age, VLBW children are shorter and tend to have higher AA levels than term controls, but VLBW children with and without BPD do not differ from each other in growth or AA status. Those born SGA have higher AA levels compared to non-SGA cases. The consequences of these findings to final height and to later metabolic and vascular health remain to be determined. PMID:15033838

  4. CONSTRAINTS ON PERTURBATIONS TO THE RECOMBINATION HISTORY FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DAMPING TAIL

    SciTech Connect

    Farhang, M.; Bond, J. R.; Chluba, J.; Switzer, E. R.

    2013-02-20

    The primordial cosmic microwave background at small angular scales is sensitive to the ionization and expansion history of the universe around the time of recombination. This dependence has been exploited to constrain the helium abundance and the effective number of relativistic species. Here we focus on allowed ionization fraction trajectories, x {sub e}(z), by constraining low-order principal components of perturbations to the standard recombination scenario (x {sub e}-eigenmodes) in the circa 2011 South Pole Telescope (SPT), Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven-year data (WMAP7). Although the trajectories are statistically consistent with the standard recombination, we find that there is a tension similar to that found by varying the helium fraction. As this paper was in press, final SPT and ACT datasets were released and we applied our framework to them: we find that the tension continues, with slightly higher significance, in the new 2012 SPT data, but find no tension with the standard model of recombination in the new 2012 ACT data. We find that the prior probabilities on the eigenamplitudes are substantially influenced by the requirement that x {sub e}-trajectories conserve electron number. We propose requiring a sufficient entropy decrease between posterior and prior marginalized distributions be used as an x {sub e}-mode selection criterion. We find that in the case of the 2011 SPT/ACT+WMAP7 data only two modes are constrainable, but upcoming ACTPol, Planck, and SPTPol data will be able to test more modes and more precisely address the current tension.

  5. HARMONIC IN-PAINTING OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SKY BY CONSTRAINED GAUSSIAN REALIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel; Mandolesi, Nazzareno

    2012-05-01

    The presence of astrophysical emissions between the last scattering surface and our vantage point requires us to apply a foreground mask on cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky maps, leading to large cuts around the Galactic equator and numerous holes. Since many CMB analysis, in particular on the largest angular scales, may be performed on a whole-sky map in a more straightforward and reliable manner, it is of utmost importance to develop an efficient method to fill in the masked pixels in a way compliant with the expected statistical properties and the unmasked pixels. In this Letter, we consider the Monte Carlo simulation of a constrained Gaussian field and derive it CMB anisotropy in harmonic space, where a feasible implementation is possible with good approximation. We applied our method to simulated data, which shows that our method produces a plausible whole-sky map, given the unmasked pixels, and a theoretical expectation. Subsequently, we applied our method to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe foreground-reduced maps and investigated the anomalous alignment between quadrupole and octupole components. From our investigation, we find that the alignment in the foreground-reduced maps is even higher than the Internal Linear Combination map. We also find that the V-band map has higher alignment than other bands, despite the expectation that the V-band map has less foreground contamination than other bands. Therefore, we find it hard to attribute the alignment to residual foregrounds. Our method will be complementary to other efforts on in-painting or reconstructing the masked CMB data, and of great use to Planck surveyor and future missions.

  6. Short-Term Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Functioning in Preschoolers: Longitudinal Predictors of Mathematical Achievement at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether measures of short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschool children predict later proficiency in academic achievement at 7 years of age (third year of primary school). Children were tested in preschool (M age = 4 years, 6 months) on a battery of cognitive measures, and mathematics and reading outcomes (from standardized, norm-referenced school-based assessments) were taken on entry to primary school, and at the end of the first and third year of primary school. Growth curve analyses examined predictors of math and reading achievement across the duration of the study and revealed that better digit span and executive function skills provided children with an immediate head start in math and reading that they maintained throughout the first three years of primary school. Visual-spatial short-term memory span was found to be a predictor specifically of math ability. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that visual short-term and working memory were found to specifically predict math achievement at each time point, while executive function skills predicted learning in general rather than learning in one specific domain. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to further understanding the role of cognitive skills in different mathematical tasks, and in relation to the impact of limited cognitive skills in the classroom environment. PMID:18473197

  7. Mathematics and reading difficulty subtypes: minor phonological influences on mathematics for 5–7-years-old

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Julie A.; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic influences in mathematics have previously been explored through subtyping methodology and by taking advantage of the componential nature of mathematics and variations in language requirements that exist across tasks. The present longitudinal investigation aimed to examine the language requirements of mathematical tasks in young children aged 5–7 years. Initially, 256 children were screened for mathematics and reading difficulties (RDs) using standardized measures. Those scoring at or below the 35th percentile on either dimension were classified as having difficulty. From this screening, 115 children were allocated to each of the mathematical difficulty (MD; n = 26), MDRD (n = 32), RD (n = 22) and typically achieving (n = 35) subtypes. These children were tested at four time points, separated by 6 monthly intervals, on a battery of seven mathematical tasks. Growth curve analysis indicated that, in contrast to previous research on older children, young children with MD and MDRD had very similar patterns of development on all mathematical tasks. Overall, the subtype comparisons suggested that language played only a minor mediating role in most tasks, and this was secondary in importance to non-verbal skills. Correlational evidence suggested that children from the different subtypes could have been using different mixes of verbal and non-verbal strategies to solve the mathematical problems. PMID:25798118

  8. Transgene Expression up to 7 Years in Nonhuman Primates Following Hepatic Transduction with Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Ng, Thomas; Iannitti, David; Cioffi, William; Stapleton, Gary; Law, Mark; Breinholt, John; Palmer, Donna; Grove, Nathan; Rice, Karen; Bauer, Cassondra; Finegold, Milton; Beaudet, Arthur; Mullins, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAd) have been shown to mediate a considerably longer duration of transgene expression than first-generation adenoviral vectors. We have previously shown that transgene expression from HDAd-transduced hepatocytes can persist at high levels for up to 2.6 years in nonhuman primates following a single-vector administration. Because duration of transgene expression and long-term toxicity are critical for risk:benefit assessment, we have continued to monitor these animals. We report here that transgene expression has persisted for the entire observation period of up to 7 years for all animals without long-term adverse effects. However, in all cases, transgene expression level slowly declined over time to less than 10% of peak values by the end of the observation period but remained 2.3–111-fold above baseline values. These results will provide important information for a more informed risk:benefit assessment before clinical application of HDAd. PMID:23902403

  9. Outcomes of polyethylene liner cementation into a fixed metal acetabular shell with minimum follow-up of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung-Sik; Yoon, Sun-Jung; Lee, Ju Rang

    2015-01-01

    Cementation of a polyethylene liner into the well-fixed shell is a convenient option for revision total hip arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed 45 patients who had liner cementation to investigate the risk factors which gave rise to major complications and reoperation. Patients were observed for a minimum of 7 years (range 7.8-14 years). Relevant risk factors (age, BMI, surgical approach, previous cup size and position, types of coated surface) were assessed with Cox regression analysis. The mean Harris Hip Score was improved from 62.5 (range 57-68) preoperatively to 87.1 (range 70-97). A total of 7 hips (15.5%) had acetabular component loosening that was treated with reoperation. Prevalence of acetabular component loosening was statistically significantly higher in hydroxyapatite-coated group (5 of 13) than in the Ti-coated group (2 of 32, p = 0.015). All recurrent dislocations occurred in patients treated with a posterior approach. Diameter of the previous metal shell of below 54 mm showed a lower 10-year survival rate than those greater than 54 mm in diameter. PE liner cementation in stable metal cup is a useful alternative option for carefully selected patients. Pre-existing HA-coated cups as well as small sized cups were indicative of poor outcomes.

  10. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  11. Successful application of MARS therapy in a 7 year-old patient with hepatic chronic rejection and severe cholestatic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voiculescu, Mihai; Ioanitescu, Simona; Rusu, Elena; Micu, Diana; Mihaila, Mariana; Micu, Laurentiu

    2002-06-01

    Liver transplant currently represents the therapeutic method for irreversible acute and chronic liver diseases without any other available therapy. In some cases, before or after liver transplantation, it is necessary to replace the functions of the liver. We report the case of a 7 year-old female patient with type I glycogenosis who was transplanted in July 2001 using living-related donor transplantation and who developed chronic rejection two months later. In this case, we used MARS (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System) detoxification therapy to optimise the patient's clinical and biological status and to create a bridge that allowed the patient's survival until retransplantation was available. The therapy was well tolerated, with no major incidents. We noted favourable clinical effects and significant improvement in serum bilirubin level, urea nitrogen level and serum creatinine level. We consider that MARS treatment is a temporary solution for patients with acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure, indicated in those cases with real chances of recovery of the hepatic functions or in patients on the liver transplantation waiting list.

  12. Acute diarrhoeal disease in children under 7 years of age in a peri-urban slum of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Araya, M.; Figueroa, G.; Espinoza, J.; Montesinos, N.; Spencer, E.; Brunser, O.

    1985-01-01

    A group of 168 families who lived in a peri-urban slum in Santiago were surveyed for 9 months. All of them had a child under 7 years of age. Medical activities and data collection were carried out at a Field Station and by means of twice-weekly visits to each home, at which time cases of diarrhoea were recorded and investigated. Faecal samples for bacteriological, parasitological and rotavirus studies were obtained during each episode. The characteristics of clinical course, hygienic practices in the family, and monthly anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers were also recorded. The mean monthly incidence of diarrhoea was 7.1 episodes per 100 children. Of the episodes, 44.2% were associated with pathogenic bacteria, 14.4% with rotavirus, 38.4% with parasites and in 27.9% no enteropathogens were identified. It was found that adequate hygienic habits were not associated with a decreased risk of developing diarrhoea and that about 60% of children did not have diarrhoea throughout the study period. The nutritional status was adequate in most cases: weight-for-age was below the 5th percentile in 11.5% of subjects and the height-for-age was normal in all. No moderate or severe cases of malnutrition were detected. PMID:4067299

  13. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  14. Mathematics and reading difficulty subtypes: minor phonological influences on mathematics for 5-7-years-old.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Julie A; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic influences in mathematics have previously been explored through subtyping methodology and by taking advantage of the componential nature of mathematics and variations in language requirements that exist across tasks. The present longitudinal investigation aimed to examine the language requirements of mathematical tasks in young children aged 5-7 years. Initially, 256 children were screened for mathematics and reading difficulties (RDs) using standardized measures. Those scoring at or below the 35th percentile on either dimension were classified as having difficulty. From this screening, 115 children were allocated to each of the mathematical difficulty (MD; n = 26), MDRD (n = 32), RD (n = 22) and typically achieving (n = 35) subtypes. These children were tested at four time points, separated by 6 monthly intervals, on a battery of seven mathematical tasks. Growth curve analysis indicated that, in contrast to previous research on older children, young children with MD and MDRD had very similar patterns of development on all mathematical tasks. Overall, the subtype comparisons suggested that language played only a minor mediating role in most tasks, and this was secondary in importance to non-verbal skills. Correlational evidence suggested that children from the different subtypes could have been using different mixes of verbal and non-verbal strategies to solve the mathematical problems. PMID:25798118

  15. Automatic bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. However, due to various factors including the uncertain number of bones appearing, non-uniformity of soft tissue, low contrast between the bony structure and soft tissue, automatic segmentation and identification of carpal bone boundaries is an extremely challenging task. Past research works on carpal bone segmentation were performed utilizing dynamic thresholding. However, due to the limitation of the segmentation algorithm, carpal bones have not been taken into consideration in the bone age assessment procedure. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  16. Alectinib induced CNS radiation necrosis in an ALK+NSCLC patient with a remote (7 years) history of brain radiation.

    PubMed

    Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Weitz, Michael; Jalas, John R; Kelly, Daniel F; Wong, Vanessa; Azada, Michele C; Quines, Oliver; Klempner, Samuel J

    2016-06-01

    Alectinib is a second generation ALK inhibitor that has significant clinical activity in central nervous system (CNS) metastases in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pseudoprogression (PsP) due to radiation necrosis during alecitnib treatment of central nervous system (CNS) metastases from ALK-rearranged NSCLC as been reported. Hence, distinguishing radiation-related PsP from alectinib-induced radiographic changes is important to avoid erroneous early trial discontinuation and abandonment of an effective treatment. However, it remains difficult to assess casuality of radiation necrosis is related to recent direct radiation or induced by alectinib treatment or both. It is also unknown how long from previous radiation can alectinib still induce radiation necrosis. Here we reported a crizotinib-refractory ALK-positive NSCLC patient who develop radiation necrosis in one of his metastatic CNS lesions after approximately 12 months of alectinib treatment who otherwise had on-going CNS response on alectinib. His most recent radiation to his CNS metastases was 7 years prior to the start of alectinib. This case illustrates that in the setting of pror CNS radiation, given the significant clinical activity of alectinib in CNS metastases in ALK-positive NSCLC patients the risk of CNS radiation necrosis remains long after previous radiation to the CNS metastases has been completed and can occur after durable response of treatment. PMID:27133743

  17. Molecular Analysis of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates from a Portuguese Cystic Fibrosis Center: a 7-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Mónica V.; Leitão, Jorge H.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Vandamme, Peter; Lito, Luís; Barreto, Celeste; Salgado, Maria José; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    This work reports results of a systematic molecular analysis involving 113 Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates obtained from 23 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients under surveillance over a 7-year period at the major Portuguese CF center, the Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon. The majority of the isolates were serial isolates from persistently infected patients (more than one-half of the population examined). In agreement with previous studies, B. cenocepacia (formerly genomovar III) was the most prevalent species; it was isolated from 52% of the patients infected with B. cepacia complex isolates. Contrasting with previous studies, a very significant percentage of the Portuguese CF subpopulation examined was infected with B. cepacia genomovar I (36%) and B. stabilis (18%). B. multivorans was recovered from two of the infected patients. All four of the species or genomovars were associated with poor clinical outcome, including the cepacia syndrome, and gave rise to chronic and transient infections, with the clinical condition depending on the patient and other still-unidentified factors. The B. cepacia epidemic strain marker region was found exclusively in genomovar III strains, while cblA was detected in genomovars I and III, only. There was no clear relation between the presence of these markers and transmissibility. Altogether, our results indicate that the use of these markers or the genomovar status in identifying patients at higher risk for infection is uncertain. PMID:12958234

  18. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  19. Microwave solidification project overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included.

  20. New microwave coupler material

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1983-12-01

    The unexpected coupling of urania (UO/sub x/, with 2 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 3) to microwave energy has previously been reported. The present study screened several different materials for coupling with microwave energy using a 1.6 kW, 2450 MHz system. Materials were nominally -100 mesh powder, >99% pure. Those which showed minimal or no heating with the microwave energy included Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SiO/sub 2/, BN, graphite, and unstabilized ZrO/sub 2/. Pronounced heating occurred with B/sub 4/C. This discovery led to the following evaluation/comparison of the coupling ability of B/sub 4/C with water, structurally similar materials (boron suboxide, B/sub 6/O - prepared from zinc oxide and boron, microcrystalline or amorphous boron, ..cap alpha..-type), and UO/sub 2/. In order to compare relative heating rates, the materials were placed into 50 mL beakers, covered with alumina-silica felt insulation, and subjected to 30 s at full power (both top and bottom sources on). The temperature was measured at the end of the test, after the door automatically opened, by inserting a type K thermocouple into the material. For the powders, the thermocouple was moved about to obtain the highest reading, although only a 10% or so variation occurred before the temperature dropped from heat losses. 4 references, 1 table.

  1. Microwave-Assisted Olefin Metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicks, François; Borguet, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Bicchielli, Dario; Delfosse, Sébastien; Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    Since the first reports on the use of microwave irradiation to accelerate organic chemical transformations, a plethora of papers have been published in this field. In most examples, microwave heating has been shown to dramatically reduce reaction times, increase product yields, and enhance product purity by reducing unwanted side reactions compared to conventional heating methods. The present contribution aims at illustrating the advantages of this technology in olefin metathesis and, when data are available, at comparing microwave-heated and conventionally heated experiments

  2. A cryogenically coolable microwave limiter

    PubMed

    Rinard; Quine; Eaton

    1999-02-01

    A microwave (ca. 3 GHz) limiter, constructed using a GaAs PIN diode and microstrip impedance transformation circuit, limited 300-ns long 11-W microwave pulses to 70 mW at ca. 4.2 K. This limiter was implemented in a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer to protect a low-noise microwave preamplifier from the high-power pulses. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9986762

  3. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  4. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sagripanti, J.L.; Swicord, M.L.; Davis, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  5. Microwave NDE for Reinforced Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Melapudi, Vikram R.; Rothwell, Edward J.; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.

    2006-03-01

    Nondestructive assessment of the integrity of civil structures is of paramount importance for ensuring safety. In concrete imaging, radiography, ground penetrating radar and infrared thermography are some of the widely used techniques for health monitoring. Other emerging technologies that are gaining impetus for detecting and locating flaws in steel reinforcement bar include radioactive computed tomography, microwave holography, microwave and acoustic tomography. Of all the emerging techniques, microwave NDT is a promising imaging modality largely due to their ability to penetrate thick concrete structures, contrast between steel rebar and concrete and their non-radioactive nature. This paper investigates the feasibility of a far field microwave NDE technique for reinforced concrete structures.

  6. Accuracy of the Welch Allyn Suresight for measurement of magnitude of astigmatism in 3- to 7-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.; Garvey, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of the Welch Allyn SureSight in noncycloplegic measurements of astigmatism as compared to cycloplegic Retinomax K+ autorefractor measurements of astigmatism in children from a Native American population with a high prevalence of high astigmatism. Methods Data are reported for 825 3- to 7-year-old children with no ocular abnormalities. Each child had a Retinomax K+ cycloplegic measurement of right eye astigmatism with a confidence rating ≥8 and 3 attempts to obtain a SureSight measurement on the right eye. Results SureSight measurement success rates did not differ significantly across age or measurement confidence rating (<6 vs ≥6). Ninety-six percent of children had at least 1 measurement (any confidence), and 89% had at least 1 measurement with confidence at the manufacturer's recommended value (≥6). Overall, the SureSight tended to overestimate astigmatism. If the SureSight measurement had any dioptric value (0.00 D to 3.00 D), astigmatism of 2.00 D or less was likely to be present. If the SureSight showed astigmatism beyond the instrument's dioptric range (>3.00 D), Retinomax K+ measurements indicated that >2.00 D of astigmatism was present in 136 of 157 (86.6%). In cooperative children for whom the SureSight would not give a reading, 32 of 34 (94%) had >3.00 D of astigmatism. Conclusions The SureSight does not provide an accurate, quantitative measure of amount of astigmatism. However, it does allow accurate categorization of amount of astigmatism as ≤2.00 D, >2.00 D, or >3.00 D, and it has high measurement success rate in young children. PMID:19840726

  7. Decentralization of CD4 testing in resource-limited settings: 7 years of experience in six African countries.

    PubMed

    Marinucci, F; Medina-Moreno, S; Paterniti, A D; Wattleworth, M; Redfield, R R

    2011-05-01

    Improving access to CD4 testing in resource-limited settings can be achieved through both centralized and decentralized testing networks. Decentralized testing models are more suitable for countries where the HIV epidemic affects a large portion of rural populations. Timely access to accurate CD4 results is crucial at the primary level of the health system. For the past 7 years, the Institute of Human Virology of the University of Maryland School of Medicine has implemented a flexible and sustainable three-phase model: (1) site assessment and improvement, (2) appropriate technology selection with capacity building through practical training and laboratory mentoring, and (3) quality management system strengthening and monitoring, to support accessibility to reliable CD4 counting at the point of service. CD4 testing capacity was established in 122 of 229 (53%) laboratories supported in Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Among those in rural settings, 46% (69/151) had CD4 testing available at site level, with a functioning flow cytometer installed at 28% (8/29) and 50% (61/122) of level 1 and level 2 sites, respectively. To strengthen local capacity, a total of 1,152 laboratory technicians were trained through 188 training sessions provided both on-site and at central locations. The overall quality of CD4 total testing procedure was assessed at 76% (92/121) of the laboratories, with 25% (23/92), 34% (31/92), and 33% (30/92) of them reporting excellent, good, and satisfactory performance. Balancing country-specific factors with the location of the clinic, number of patients, and the expected workload, was crucial in adapting this flexible model for decentralizing CD4 testing. The close collaboration with local governments and private vendors was key to successfully expanding access to CD4 testing within the framework of HIV care and treatment programs and for the sustainability of medical laboratories in resource-limited settings. PMID:21495181

  8. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes. PMID:24312035

  9. Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Ueno, Sanae; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Ono, Yasuki; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Oi, Manabu; Niida, Yo; Remijn, Gerard B; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Socio-communicative impairments are salient features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from a young age. The anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC), or Brodmann area 10, is a key processing area for social function, and atypical development of this area is thought to play a role in the social deficits in ASD. It is important to understand these brain functions in developing children with ASD. However, these brain functions have not yet been well described under conscious conditions in young children with ASD. In the present study, we focused on the brain hemodynamic functional connectivity between the right and the left aPFC in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children and investigated whether there was a correlation between this connectivity and social ability. Brain hemodynamic fluctuations were measured non-invasively by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 3- to 7-year-old children with ASD (n = 15) and gender- and age-matched TD children (n = 15). The functional connectivity between the right and the left aPFC was assessed by measuring the coherence for low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations (0.01-0.10 Hz) during a narrated picture-card show. Coherence analysis demonstrated that children with ASD had a significantly higher inter-hemispheric connectivity with 0.02-Hz fluctuations, whereas a power analysis did not demonstrate significant differences between the two groups in terms of low frequency fluctuations (0.01-0.10 Hz). This aberrant higher connectivity in children with ASD was positively correlated with the severity of social deficit, as scored with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. This is the first study to demonstrate aberrant brain functional connectivity between the right and the left aPFC under conscious conditions in young children with ASD.

  10. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  11. A 7-year study on risks and costs of knee injuries in male and female youth participants in 12 sports.

    PubMed

    de Loës, M; Dahlstedt, L J; Thomée, R

    2000-04-01

    Knee injuries are common and account in various sports for 15-50% of all sports injuries. The cost of knee injuries is therefore a large part of the cost for medical care of sports injuries. Furthermore, the risk of acquiring a knee injury during sports is considered higher for females than for males. The nationwide organization "Youth and Sports" represents the major source of organized sports and recreation for Swiss youth and engages annually around 370000 participants in the age group of 14 to 20 years. The purpose of this study was to combine data on knee injuries from two sources, the first being data on the exposure to risk found in the activity registration in "Youth and Sports" and the second injuries with their associated costs resulting from the activities and filed at the Swiss Military Insurance. This allowed calculation of knee injury incidences, to compare risks between males and females and to estimate the costs of medical treatment. The study comprises 3864 knee injuries from 12 sports during 7 years. Females were significantly more at risk in six sports: alpinism, downhill skiing, gymnastics, volleyball, basketball and team handball. The incidences of knee injuries and of cruciate ligament injuries in particular, together with the costs per hour of participation, all displayed the same sports as the top five for both females and males: ice hockey, team handball, soccer, downhill skiing and basketball. Female alpinism and gymnastics had also high rankings. Knee injuries comprised 10% of all injuries in males and 13% in females, but their proportional contribution to the costs per hour of participation was 27% and 33%, respectively. From this study it can be concluded that females were significantly more at risk for knee injuries than males in six sports and that knee injuries accounted for a high proportion of the costs of medical treatment.

  12. Microwave and Pulsed Power

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, E.K.

    1993-03-01

    The goals of the Microwave and Pulsed Power thrust area are to identify realizable research and development efforts and to conduct high-quality research in those pulse power and microwave technologies that support existing and emerging programmatic requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Our main objective is to work on nationally important problems while enhancing our basic understanding of enabling technologies such as component design and testing, compact systems packaging, exploratory physics experiments, and advanced systems integration and performance. During FY-92, we concentrated our research efforts on the six project areas described in this report. (1) We are investigating the superior electronic and thermal properties of diamond that may make it an ideal material for a high-power, solid-state switch. (2) We are studying the feasibility of using advanced Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar technology for reliable non-destructive evaluation of bridges and other high-value concrete structures. These studies include conceptual designs, modeling, experimental verifications, and image reconstruction of simulated radar data. (3) We are exploring the efficiency of pulsed plasma processing techniques used for the removal of NO{sub x} from various effluent sources. (4) We have finished the investigation of the properties of a magnetically delayed low-pressure gas switch, which was designed here at LLNL. (5) We are applying statistical electromagnetic theory techniques to help assess microwave effects on electronic subsystems, by using a mode stirred chamber as our measurement tool. (6) We are investigating the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in proposed CFC replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stresses and breakdown environments.

  13. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Rodger D.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  14. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS & TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical account of the utility of microwaves in a variety of chemical synthesis applications will be presented, including a solvent-free strategy that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such...

  15. High-Sensitivity Microwave Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, W. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a 3.33-cm wavelength (9 GHz) microwave system that achieves a high overall signal sensitivity and a well-collimated beam with moderate-size equipment. The system has been used to develop microwave versions of the Michelson interferometer, Bragg reflector, Brewster's law and total internal reflection, and Young's interference experiment.…

  16. Microwave Sterilization in School Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Brian; Dixon, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Described are two investigations carried out in a high school biology department using a domestic microwave oven to compare the relative attributes of the autoclave and microwave oven in school use. Discussed are equipment, methods, and results of each investigation. (Author/CW)

  17. Microwave Properties of Quiet Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Microwave fluxes from three quiet seas documented for five microwave frequencies. Measurements taken by satellite in Earth orbit with mechanically scanned antenna. 10-channel receiver used to record simultaneously signal intensities in both horizontal and vertical polarizations at each frequency. Comparisons of flux measurements of three quiet seas drawn, and results discussed and analyzed.

  18. Computer-Generated Microwave Holograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leming, Charles W.; Hastings, Orestes Patterson, III

    1980-01-01

    Described is the phasor method of superposition of waves. The intensity pattern from a system of microwave sources is calculated point by point on a plane corresponding to a film emulsion, and then printed and directly converted to a hologram for 3-cm microwaves. Calculations, construction, and viewing of holograms are included. (Author/DS)

  19. GREENER SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave irradiation has been used for a variety of organic transformations wherein chemical reactions are expedited because of selective adsorption of microwave (MW) energy by polar molecules, non-polar molecules being inert to the MW dielectric loss. The MW application under s...

  20. More Experiments with Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    Microwave ovens can be used to perform exciting demonstrations that illustrate a variety of physics topics. Experiments discussed here show superheating, visualize the inhomogeneous heating that takes place in a microwave and also show how to use a mobile phone to detect radiation leaking from the oven. Finally eggs can give some spectacular…

  1. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  2. Microwave PASER Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Antipov, S.; Poluektov, O.; Jing, C.

    2009-01-22

    The PASER (Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) concept for particle acceleration entails the direct transfer of energy from an active medium to a charged particle beam. The PASER was originally formulated for optical (laser) media; we are planning a PASER demonstration experiment based on an optically pumped X-band paramagnetic medium consisting of porphyrin or fullerene (C{sub 60}) derivatives in a toluene solution or polystyrene matrix. We discuss the background of this project and report on the status of the experiment to measure the acceleration of electrons using the microwave PASER.

  3. Direct microwave demodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsac, J. P.

    1985-03-01

    The technical characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of three types of coherent direct microwave demodulators are discussed. Bypassing the intermediate frequencies normally present in radio circuitry is a means to lowering equipment costs and enhancing reliability. The phase, frequency and spectral demodulators described all allow carrier recapture with a Costas loop. In all cases, the demodulation is performed at an intermediate frequency after transposition of the modulated carrier wave. MSK, 4 PSK and 16 QAM modulations are considered, together with circuitry for each and experimental results. Finally, the progress toward development of an integrated receiver is assessed.

  4. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  5. A 7-Year Retrospective Multisource Analysis on the Incidence of Anesthesia Awareness With Recall in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Mehrabmi-Kermani, Farrokh; Muzio, Maria Rosaria; Forte, Cira Antonietta; De Falco, Francesco; Barberio, Daniela; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although randomized controlled studies reported an incidence of anesthesia awareness with recall ∼1 to 2 per 1000 (0.1–0.2%), recent data from the NAP5 study showed an incidence of only 1:19,600. Although in a prospective study many tools for anesthesia awareness detection can be used, a retrospective analysis requires a careful collection of information. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of anesthesia awareness with recall in a cohort of cancer patients through a multisource retrospective analysis, and the clinical description, including the psychological outcome, of the cases detected. We also tested whether our retrospective analysis would be improved by a routinely psycho-oncological assessment. As secondary endpoints we evaluated the use of depth of anesthesia monitoring over a large cohort of patients, and the correlation between the brain monitoring and the incidence of awareness. We have carried out a 7-year retrospective analysis in a large cohort of cancer patients on the incidence of awareness with recall during general anesthesia. Of 35,595 patients assessed for eligibility, 21,099 were studied. We analyzed all data from the operative rooms’ database, the anesthesia records, and from the database of the surgical divisions. In addition we examined reports from psychologists and spontaneous reports to the quality team of the hospital. Two certain cases of awareness were detected, with an incidence of 1:10,550 (0.0095%). They occurred during elective surgery, in female patients without other risk factors. One case came from the report of a psychologist. In both episodes, brain monitoring was not applied and no long-term psychological sequelae were reported. Despite the limitations, our investigation suggests that the incidence of anesthesia awareness is very low, also in a specific cohort of patients, such as the cancer patients, and even when the depth of anesthesia monitoring is rarely used. The limitations caused by both

  6. Does serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D influence muscle development during puberty in girls? A 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru; Alen, Markku; Yu, Zhusheng; Wiklund, Petri; Cheng, Shu Mei; Törmäkangas, Timo; Chen, Peijie; Cheng, Sulin

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is well known for its regulatory role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, but its role in muscle mass and strength during growth remains inconclusive. We explored the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with muscle development in girls from 11 to 18-years old. Whole body lean tissue mass (LMWB), appendicular lean mass (aLM), muscle cross-sectional area at the lower leg (mCSA), maximal voluntary contraction of elbow flexors (MVC elbow) and knee extensors (MVC knee) were assessed in 217 girls aged 10-13 years (at baseline), 215 in 2-year and 226 in 7.5-year follow-up. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed retrospectively and girls were categorized according to their 25(OH)D levels (consistently insufficient 25(OH)D GLL <50 nmol/l and consistently sufficient GHH >50 nmol/l from baseline to 7-year follow-up). We found that 25(OH)D level declined until menarche (p<0.05) while LMWB, aLM, mCSA, MVC elbow and MVC knee continued to increase (p<0.001 for all) post menarche. At pre-menarche, the GLL (n = 34) had higher LMWB and aLM than the GHH (n = 21, p<0.05), while post-menarche the GHH (n = 15) had a greater catch-up gain in LMWB (p = 0.004), aLM (p = 0.001) and mCSA (p = 0.027) compared to the GLL (n = 65) over the first 2-year period. At the age of 18, no differences in muscle mass/strength between the low (n = 151) and high (n = 77) levels of 25(OH)D groups were found. This finding was independent of vitamin D receptor genotype and other confounders. In conclusion, our results showed that levels of 25(OH)D have no significant negative influence on the development of muscle mass and strength during pubertal growth both with longitudinal and cross-sectional comparison. On the contrary, our results suggest that the temporary negative association between 25(OH)D and muscle mass arises as a consequence of fast growth prior to menarche, and this negative association is diminished through catch-up growth

  7. Study of T Cell subsets and IL-7 protein expression in HIV-1-infected patients after 7 years HAART

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes in T cell subsets and IL-7 in HIV-1-infected patients after seven years of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods Seventy-five individuals were included in this study (25 with effective HAART, 18 with ineffective HAART, 17 untreated HIV+ patients, and 15 volunteers in the HIV negative control group). The counts of CD4+, CD8+, CD8/CD38+, and CD8/HLADR+ T cells as well as the IL-7 protein expression was measured at 5 time points during a period of seven years in patients starting HAART (baseline) and in the HIV negative control group. The expression of CD127 on CD3+ T cells was measured by flow cytometry at a single time point (after 7 years) in patients with HAART and was compared with untreated HIV+ patients and the HIV negative control group. Results At baseline CD4+ T cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were lower than that in the control group (p < 0.01), whereas the CD8+, CD8/HLADR+ and CD8/CD38+ T cell counts were higher than those in the control group (p <0.01). After seven years of effective HAART, the CD4+ T cell counts had increased and the CD8+ T cell count had decreased, although not to the normal levels (p < 0.05). Both the CD8/HLADR+ and CD8/CD38+ T cell counts had gradually approached those of the control group (p > 0.05). In the ineffective HAART group, the CD8/CD38+ T cell count had not decreased significantly, and CD8/HLADR+ T cell count gradually decreased. Before treatment, IL-7 serum levels of patients were significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01). After seven years of effective HAART, IL-7 levels had gradually decreased, but were still higher than in the control group (p < 0.01). The CD127 expression on CD3+ CD8+ T cells in effective HAART patients was higher than in untreated HIV+ patients (p < 0.05), but was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). CD127 expression on CD3+ CD4+ T cells was not significantly different among the control group, untreated HIV+ patients

  8. ESD practice through global approach -7-year practices of developing science lessen modules and fostering integrated decision making ability-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiyama, Kosei

    2016-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) has devised and carried out overseas exchange programs on ESD issues for 7 years. These programs have been carried out as a part of a government-aided project called SSH (Super Science High School) *1. To start with, we had cooperative study program with a school in Germany in 2009, and next year with a school in Korea, and then gradually have expanded the cooperative schools. Since 2013, we have worked with schools in four countries; Korea, Thailand, Czech and Germany. Science lesson modules here refers to an assembly of a set of lessons, newly developed and improved for the project. These modules characteristically require the students to make decisions by themselves on given problems. In the course of the decision making, students learn what kind of data or facts should be presented as evidence and how they can make their decisions known to others. Among several modules we have designed, the one introduced here deals with the use of solar energy, which we carried out with a school in Korea in 2014-2015. It also includes lessons of the fuel cells using energy from hydrogen gas generated by solar cells. It aims to develop global human resources through carefully planned activities. First, the students of both schools make mixed groups and conduct experiments in physics, chemistry or biology on a given problem related to solar energy. Then they discuss in groups using data obtained from the experiments and through the Internet as evidence. After the thorough discussion, each group gives a presentation on their decision. The analysis of the presentations and the questionnaire to the students revealed the following points: 1) Students have come to have multidimensional perspectives on the utilization of solar energy. 2) Students have come to combine the results of different experiments when making decisions. 3) Students have developed flexible attitudes toward other cultures. 4) Students have developed communication skills in

  9. Microwave hematoma detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  10. Tuning Broadband Microwave Amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Alaniz, Gabriel

    2003-09-05

    The PEP-II/DA {Phi} NE/ALS longitudinal feedback systems are complex wide bandwidth systems requiring analog, digital and microwave circuits. The solid-state amplifier is one of the components in the microwave circuit that is required to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities that exist in the PEP-II accelerator. The suppression is achieved by using an antenna as a kicker structure that provides an electric field in order to increase or decrease the energy of particles passing through the structure. The amplifier is made up of sixteen 30 to 35W microstrip GaAs FET modules that are combined to obtain 500W over a bandwidth of 850MHz to 1850MHz. The amplifier malfunctioned causing a reduction in the functionality and power output of the individual GaAs FET modules. The amplifier must be repaired. After repair, the amplifier must be tuned to optimize the gain while maintaining proper power output. The amplifier is tuned using microstrip circuit techniques. A variety of microstrip methods are used to obtain the proper line impedance. The result is a working amplifier that operates efficiently.

  11. Transcatheter Microwave Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Dickey G. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  12. Diffuse Microwave Emission Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, R. A.; Mather, J.; Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Seiffert, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Levin, S. M.

    1996-12-01

    The Diffuse Microwave Emission Survey (DIMES) is a mission concept selected by NASA in 1995 to answer fundamental questions about the content and history of the universe. DIMES will use a set of absolutely calibrated cryogenic radiometers from a space platform to measure the frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at wavelengths 15--0.3 cm (frequency 2--100 GHz) to precision 0.1 mK or better. Measurements at centimeter wavelengths probe different physical processes than the COBE-FIRAS spectra at shorter wavelengths, and complement the anisotropy measurements from DMR, balloon and ground-based instruments, and the planned MAP and COBRAS/SAMBA satellites. DIMES will observe the free-free signal from early photoionization to establish the precise epoch of structure formation, and will measure or limit energy release at redshift 10(4) < z < 10(7) by measuring the chemical potential distortion of the CMB spectrum. Both are likely under current cosmological theory and allowed by current measurement limits; even an upper limit at the expected sensitivity 10(-5) MJy/sr will place important constraints on the matter content, structure, and evolution of the universe. Detecting these distortions or showing that they do not exist constitutes the last frontier of CMB observations.

  13. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    DOEpatents

    Manos, Dennis M.; Diggs, Jessie; Ametepe, Joseph D.

    2002-01-29

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  14. Searching for stringy topologies in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-David, Assaf; Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com

    2012-11-01

    We consider a universe with a non-classical stringy topology that has fixed points. We concentrate on the simplest example, an orbifold point, and study its observable imprints on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that an orbifold preserves the Gaussian nature of the temperature fluctuations, yet modifies the angular correlation function. A direct signature of an orbifold is a single circle in the CMB that is invariant under rotation by 180°. Searching the 7-year ILC map of WMAP, we find one candidate circle with high statistical significance. However, a closer look reveals that the temperature profile does not fit an orbifold. We place a lower bound on the distance to an orbifold point at ∼ 85% of the distance to the surface of last scattering.

  15. The Liverpool Microwave Palaeointensity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mimi; Biggin, Andrew; Hawkins, Louise; Hodgson, Emma; Hurst, Elliot

    2016-04-01

    The motivation for the group at Liverpool in the 1990s (led by John Shaw and Derek Walton) to start experimenting with using microwaves to demagnetise and remagnetise palaeomagnetic samples, rather than heating using conventional ovens, was to reduce laboratory induced alteration in absolute palaeointensity experiments. As with other methods, the non-ideal effects of grain size and naturally altered remanence must still be addressed. From humble beginnings using a domestic microwave oven the current 4th generation microwave system (MWS) has developed in to an integrated combined 14 GHz microwave resonant cavity and SQUID magnetometer system. The MWS is designed to investigate one 5 mm diameter sample at a time with microwave exposure (the equivalent of a heating step in conventional experiments) ranging from a few seconds up to around a minute. Each experiment (protocol, checks, direction and strength of applied field, number of steps etc) can be tailored to the behaviour of each individual sample. There have been many published studies demonstrating the equivalence of conventional thermal (Thellier) and microwave techniques using both artificial and natural remanence and also that the microwave method can indeed reduce laboratory induced alteration. Here an overview of the present MWS including a discussion of the physical processes occurring will be given. Examples of current projects (both archaeological and geological) utilising the method will also be described. Finally, future developments and applications of the method will be discussed.

  16. Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Anthony G.

    Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10-14 to a few times 10-16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground stations to clean up the transmitter close in phase noise. Fractional frequency stabilities of passive atomic frequency standards are now approaching 3 x10^-14 /τ where τ is the measurement time, limited only by the number of atoms that are being interrogated. This requires an interrogation oscillator whose short-term stability is of the order of 10-14 or better, which cannot be provided by present-day quartz technology. Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are based on resonators which have very high electrical Q-factors. The resolution of the resonator's linewidth is typically limited by electronics noise to about 1ppm and hence Q-factors in excess of 108 are required. As these are only attained in superconducting cavities or sapphire resonators at low temperatures, use of liquid helium cooling is mandatory, which has so far restricted these oscillators to the research or metrology laboratory. Recently, there has been an effort to dispense with the need for liquid helium and make compact flywheel oscillators for the new generation of primary frequency standards. Work is under way to achieve this goal in space-borne and mobile liquid-nitrogen-cooled systems. The best cryogenic oscillators developed to date are the ``whispering gallery'' (WG) mode sapphire resonator-oscillators of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Western Australia (UWA), as well as Stanford University's superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator (SCSO). All of these oscillators have demonstrated frequency

  17. Method and apparatus for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A. (Inventor); Brain, Ruth A. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves. A heterostructure, comprised of a material having higher microwave absorption and a material having lower microwave absorption, is exposed to microwaves in the cavity. The higher microwave absorbing material absorbs the microwaves and selectively heats while the lower microwave absorbing material absorbs small amounts of microwaves and minimally heats. The higher microwave absorbing material is thereby annealed onto the less absorbing material which is thermally isolated.

  18. Method and apparatus for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A. (Inventor); Brain, Ruth A. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves. A heterostructure, comprised of a material having higher microwave absorption and a material having lower microwave absorption, is exposed to microwaves in the cavity. The higher microwave absorbing material absorbs the microwaves and selectively heats while the lower microwave absorbing material absorbs small amounts of microwaves and minimally heats. The higher microwave absorbing material is thereby annealed onto the less absorbing material which is thermally isolated.

  19. The Relations between Cluster Indexes of Risk and Promotion and the Problem Behaviors of 6- and 7-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Schoff, Kristen; Levinson, Karen; Youngstrom, Eric; Izard, Carroll E.

    1999-01-01

    Examined relations between alternative representations of poverty cofactors and promotion processes, and problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from disadvantaged families. Found that single-index risk representations and promotion variables predicted aggression but not anxiety/depression. An additive model of individual risk indicators performed…

  20. The Incidence of Attachment Objects and Oral Habits at Bedtime in Two Longitudinal Samples of Children Aged 1.5-7 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalski, Pauline A.

    1983-01-01

    Mothers in one sample were interviewed when children were 1.5, 2, and 2.5 years old, while mothers in the other sample answered questionnaires when their children were 3.5, 5, and 7 years old. Strong emotional attachment to objects and finger-sucking were most prevalent around 2 years of age. (MP)

  1. The Role of the Working Memory and Language Skills in the Prediction of Word Problem Solving in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttälä, Minna; Aunio, Pirjo; Lepola, Janne; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory (WM) and language skills (vocabulary, listening comprehension) in predicting preschool and kindergarten-aged children's ability to solve mathematical word problems presented orally. The participants were 116 Finnish-speaking children aged 4-7?years. The…

  2. A Study of Teacher Confidence in Teaching Music within the Context of the Introduction of the Foundation Phase (3-7 Years) Statutory Education Programme in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lara; Beauchamp, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher confidence in teaching music within the context of the introduction of a Foundation Phase "curriculum" in Wales for pupils aged 3-7 years. This involved a move away from music as a single subject to being part of creative development. The findings are based on a small-scale study of 12 teachers from four…

  3. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  4. Microwave properties of ferromagnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, R; Alvarez, G; Mata-Zamora, M E

    2008-06-01

    A review of the dynamic properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic materials at microwave frequencies (1-40 GHz) is presented. Since some confusion has recently appeared between giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), a detailed analysis is made in order to establish their differences. A brief review of a novel microwave absorption mode, the low-field microwave absorption (LFA) is then presented, together with a discussion about its similarities with GMI. Recent results on high-frequency measurements on nanogranular thin films and FMR in nanowire arrays are finally addressed.

  5. Microwave dielectric properties of biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Carrie M.; Subramanyam, Guru; Grote, James G.; Hopkins, F. Kenneth; Brott, Lawrence L.; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2006-09-01

    A new capacitive test structure is used to characterize biopolymers at microwave frequencies. The new test structure is comprised of a parallel plate capacitor, combined with coplanar waveguide-based input and output feed lines. This allows microwave measurements to be taken easily under an applied DC electric field. The microwave dielectric properties are characterized for two biopolymer thin films: a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based film and a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based film. These bio-dielectric thin-films are compared with a standard commercial polymer thin film, poly[Bisphenol A carbonate-co-4,4'(3,3,5-trimethyl cyclohexylidene) diphenol], or amorphous polycarbonate (APC).

  6. A Microwave Pressure Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    An instrument to measure atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface from an orbiting satellite would be a valuable addition to the expanding inventory of remote sensors. The subject of this report is such an instrument - the Microwave Pressure Sounder (MPS). It is shown that global-ocean coverage is attainable with sufficient accuracy, resolution and observational frequency for meteorological, oceanographic and climate research applications. Surface pressure can be deduced from a measurement of the absorption by an atmospheric column at a frequency in the wing of the oxygen band centered on 60 GHz. An active multifrequency instrument is needed to make this measurement with sufficient accuracy. The selection of optimum operating frequencies is based upon accepted models of surface reflection, oxygen, water vapor and cloud absorption. Numerical simulation using a range of real atmospheres defined by radiosonde observations were used to validate the frequency selection procedure. Analyses are presented of alternative system configurations that define the balance between accuracy and achievable resolution.

  7. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, P.M.

    1993-07-13

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency is described, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot there through for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  8. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot therethrough for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  9. Multilayered Graphene in Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhir, P.; Volynets, N.; Maksimenko, S.; Kaplas, T.; Svirko, Yu.

    2013-05-01

    We report on the experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) properties of multilayered graphene in Ka-band synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in between nanometrically thin Cu catalyst film and dielectric (SiO2) substrate. The quality of the produced multilayered graphene samples were monitored by Raman spectroscopy. The thickness of graphene films was controlled by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and was found to be a few nanometers (up to 5 nm). We discovered, that the fabricated graphene provided remarkably high EM shielding efficiency caused by absorption losses at the level of 35-43% of incident power. Being highly conductive at room temperature, multi-layer graphene emerges as a promising material for manufacturing ultrathin microwave coatings to be used in aerospace applications.

  10. Personality traits as predictors of decline in higher-level functional capacity over a 7-year follow-up in older adults: the Ohasama study.

    PubMed

    Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Satoh, Michihiro; Hosaka, Miki; Inoue, Ryusuke; Asayama, Kei; Hirose, Takuo; Metoki, Hirohito; Kikuya, Masahiro; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Numerous factors that affect functional decline have been identified, and personality traits are considered to be an important factor in functional decline risk. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG) was developed to measure three higher-level functional capacities, instrumental activities of daily living, intellectual activity, and social roles, in Japanese elderly, which were previously not assessed adequately with existing scales of functional decline. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of personality traits as predictors of higher-level functional decline over a 7-year follow-up in a rural Japanese community. Data on 676 participants (mean 67.1 years) who were free of functional decline and had completed questionnaires at baseline and 7 years later, were analyzed. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle and personality characteristics were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire at baseline. Higher-level functional decline was examined using the subscales of the TMIG at baseline and at a 7-year follow-up examination. Over the 7-year study period, 21.7% of eligible participants reported decline in higher-level functional capacity. After adjustment for putative confounding factors, the traits that were significant predictors of decline in higher-level functional capacity at the 7-year follow-up had higher psychoticism scores [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.12 (1.23-3.66)] and lower extraversion scores [1.89 (1.01-3.56)]. The personality traits of higher psychoticism and lower extraversion were significantly associated with a risk of future functional decline. A better understanding of these personality traits may help identify of at-risk individuals and could help reduce functional decline in older adults.

  11. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    PubMed

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  12. Fast microwave assisted pyrolysis of biomass using microwave absorbent.

    PubMed

    Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Du, Zhenyi; Xie, Qinglong; Trierweiler, Jorge Otávio; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhu, Rongbi; Lin, Xiangyang; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    A novel concept of fast microwave assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) in the presence of microwave absorbents was presented and examined. Wood sawdust and corn stover were pyrolyzed by means of microwave heating and silicon carbide (SiC) as microwave absorbent. The bio-oil was characterized, and the effects of temperature, feedstock loading, particle sizes, and vacuum degree were analyzed. For wood sawdust, a temperature of 480°C, 50 grit SiC, with 2g/min of biomass feeding, were the optimal conditions, with a maximum bio-oil yield of 65 wt.%. For corn stover, temperatures ranging from 490°C to 560°C, biomass particle sizes from 0.9mm to 1.9mm, and vacuum degree lower than 100mmHg obtained a maximum bio-oil yield of 64 wt.%. This study shows that the use of microwave absorbents for fMAP is feasible and a promising technology to improve the practical values and commercial application outlook of microwave based pyrolysis. PMID:24518438

  13. Fast microwave assisted pyrolysis of biomass using microwave absorbent.

    PubMed

    Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Du, Zhenyi; Xie, Qinglong; Trierweiler, Jorge Otávio; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhu, Rongbi; Lin, Xiangyang; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    A novel concept of fast microwave assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) in the presence of microwave absorbents was presented and examined. Wood sawdust and corn stover were pyrolyzed by means of microwave heating and silicon carbide (SiC) as microwave absorbent. The bio-oil was characterized, and the effects of temperature, feedstock loading, particle sizes, and vacuum degree were analyzed. For wood sawdust, a temperature of 480°C, 50 grit SiC, with 2g/min of biomass feeding, were the optimal conditions, with a maximum bio-oil yield of 65 wt.%. For corn stover, temperatures ranging from 490°C to 560°C, biomass particle sizes from 0.9mm to 1.9mm, and vacuum degree lower than 100mmHg obtained a maximum bio-oil yield of 64 wt.%. This study shows that the use of microwave absorbents for fMAP is feasible and a promising technology to improve the practical values and commercial application outlook of microwave based pyrolysis.

  14. EFFICIENT CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic organic transformations performed under non-traditional conditions are becoming popular primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensiv...

  15. EXPEDITIOUS SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-expedited solvent-free synthetic processes will be described for the synthesis of a variety of industrially significant compounds and intermediates namely, enamines, nitroalkenes, enones, oxidized sulfur compounds and ionic liquids. This solvent-free synthetic methodolo...

  16. Microwave Dielectrophoretic Levitation In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Jackson, Henry W.; Barmatz, Martin B.

    1993-01-01

    Two reports propose use of dielectrophoresis in microwave resonant cavities to levitate samples of materials for containerless processing in microgravity in vacuum or in any suitable atmosphere. Also describe experiments undertaken to verify feasibility of proposal.

  17. The classical microwave frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busca, Giovanni; Thomann, Pierre; Laurent-Guy, Bernier; Willemin, Philippe; Schweda, Hartmut S.

    1990-01-01

    Some key problems are presented encountered in the classical microwave frequency standards which are still not solved today. The point of view expressed benefits from the experience gained both in the industry and in the research lab, on the following classical microwave frequency standards: active and passive H, conventional and laser pumped Cs beam tube, small conventional and laser pumped Rubidium. The accent is put on the Rubidium standard.

  18. GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  19. Two Thick Microwave Dichroic Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Larry W.; Chen, Jacqueline C.; Stanton, Philip H.; Jorgenson, Roy E.

    1994-01-01

    Cross-shaped apertures enable relatively tight packing, eliminating some grating lobes. Two panels made of thin, honey-comblike metal walls constitute planar arrays of waveguidelike apertures designed to satisfy special requirements with respect to microwave transmittance and reflectance. Considered for use in multiplexing signals at various frequencies in microwave communication system. Both panels required to exhibit low insertion loss. Angle of incidence 30 degrees.

  20. Study of federal microwave standards

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  1. Microwave remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Elachi, C.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1985-01-01

    Spaceborne microwave remote sensors provide perspectives of the earth surface and atmosphere which are of unique value in scientific studies of geomorphology, oceanic waves and topography, atmospheric water vapor and temperatures, vegetation classification and stress, ice types and dynamics, and hydrological characteristics. Microwave radars and radiometers offer enhanced sensitivities to the geometrical characteristics of the earth's surface and its cover, to water in all its forms - soil and vegetation moisture, ice, wetlands, oceans, and atmospheric water vapor, and can provide high-resolution imagery of the earth's surface independent of cloud cover or sun angle. A brief review of the historical development and principles of active and passive microwave remote sensing is presented, with emphasis on the unique characteristics of the information obtainable in the microwave spectrum and the value of this information to global geoscientific studies. Various spaceborne microwave remote sensors are described, with applications to geology, planetology, oceanography, glaciology, land biology, meteorology, and hydrology. A discussion of future microwave remote sensor technological developments and challenges is presented, along with a summary of future missions being planned by several countries.

  2. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takeo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Mineki, Shigeru; Ohuchi, Shokichi

    2015-01-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  3. Plasma-assisted microwave processing of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin (Inventor); Ylin, Tzu-yuan (Inventor); Jackson, Henry (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave plasma assisted method and system for heating and joining materials. The invention uses a microwave induced plasma to controllably preheat workpiece materials that are poorly microwave absorbing. The plasma preheats the workpiece to a temperature that improves the materials' ability to absorb microwave energy. The plasma is extinguished and microwave energy is able to volumetrically heat the workpiece. Localized heating of good microwave absorbing materials is done by shielding certain parts of the workpiece and igniting the plasma in the areas not shielded. Microwave induced plasma is also used to induce self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) process for the joining of materials. Preferably, a microwave induced plasma preheats the material and then microwave energy ignites the center of the material, thereby causing a high temperature spherical wave front from the center outward.

  4. Cosmic microwave background with Brans-Dicke gravity. II. Constraints with the WMAP and SDSS data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Fengquan; Chen Xuelei

    2010-10-15

    Using the covariant formalism developed in a companion paper [F.-Q. Wu, L. E. Qiang, X. Wang, and X. Chen, preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 82, 083002 (2010)] (paper I), we derive observational constraints on the Brans-Dicke model in a flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter. The CMB observations we use include the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5 yr data, the Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver 2007 data, the Cosmic Background Imager polarization data, and the Balloon Observations of Millimetric Extragalactic Radiation and Geophysics 2003 flight data. For the large scale structure we use the matter power spectrum data measured with the luminous red galaxy survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. We parametrize the Brans-Dicke parameter {omega} with a new parameter {zeta}=ln(1/{omega}+1), and use the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method to explore the parameter space. We find that using CMB data alone, one could place some constraints on positive {zeta} or {omega}, but negative {zeta} or {omega} could not be constrained effectively. However, with additional large scale structure data, one could break the degeneracy at {zeta}<0. The 2{sigma} (95.5%) bound on {zeta} is -0.008 37<{zeta}<0.010 18 (corresponding to {omega}<-120.0 or {omega}>97.8). We also obtained constraints on G/G, the rate of change of G at present, as -1.75x10{sup -12} yr{sup -1}

  5. Cosmic microwave background images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranz, D.; Vielva, P.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmology concerns itself with the fundamental questions about the formation, structure, and evolution of the Universe as a whole. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is one of the foremost pillars of physical cosmology. Joint analyses of CMB and other astronomical observations are able to determine with ever increasing precision the value of the fundamental cosmological parameters and to provide us with valuable insight about the dynamics of the Universe in evolution. The CMB radiation is a relic of the hot and dense first moments of the Universe: a extraordinarily homogeneous and isotropic blackbody radiation, which shows small temperature anisotropies that are the key for understanding the conditions of the primitive Universe, testing cosmological models and probing fundamental physics at the very dawn of time. CMB observations are obtained by imaging of the sky at microwave wavelengths. However, the CMB signal is mixed with other astrophysical signals of both Galactic and extragalactic origin. To properly exploit the cosmological information contained in CMB images, they must be cleansed of these other astrophysical emissions first. Blind source separation (BSS) has been a very active field in the last few years. Conversely, the term "compact sources" is often used in the CMB literature referring to spatially bounded, small features in the images, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. Compact sources and diffuse sources are usually treated separately in CMB image processing. We devote this tutorial to the case of compact sources. Many of the compact source-detection techniques that are widespread inmost fields of astronomy are not easily applicable to CMB images. In this tutorial, we present an overview of the fundamentals of compact object detection theory keeping in mind at every moment these particularities. Throughout the article, we briefly consider Bayesian object detection, model selection, optimal linear filtering, nonlinear filtering, and

  6. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  7. 5 Tips for Using Your Microwave Oven Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... a microwave oven, the door should close and seal fully. Unsafe Microwave Oven Use If the fan, ... openings such as gaps in the microwave oven seals. However, FDA regulations require that microwave ovens are ...

  8. Effect of microwaves on microorganisms in foods

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, D.Y.C.; Cunningham, F.E.

    1980-08-01

    The microbial safety of foods cooked in microwave ovens was investigated. The mechanisms of microwave destruction of microorganisms were examined. Effects of time and temperature on microorganisms in different food systems were described. Studies showed that: microwave heating of food is more ''''food dependent'' than conventional heating; recommended microwave treatment time for some foods may not destroy high levels of bacteria; use of microwaves in combination with conventional heating methods results in more uniform heating of foods and destruction of bacteria; and microwaves exert different killing effects on individual bacterial species. (78 references, 2 tables)

  9. Analysis of monthly, winter, and annual temperatures in Zagreb, Croatia, from 1864 to 2010: the 7.7-year cycle and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Asok K.; Ogrin, Darko

    2016-02-01

    Long instrumental records of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation are very useful for studying regional climate in the past, present, and future. They can also be useful for understanding the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation processes on the regional climate. This paper investigates the monthly, winter, and annual temperature time series obtained from the instrumental records in Zagreb, Croatia, for the period 1864-2010. Using wavelet analysis, the dominant modes of variability in these temperature series are identified, and the time intervals over which these modes may persist are delineated. The results reveal that all three temperature records exhibit low-frequency variability with a dominant periodicity at around 7.7 years. The 7.7-year cycle has also been observed in the temperature data recorded at several other stations in Europe, especially in Northern and Western Europe, and may be linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and/or solar/geomagnetic activity.

  10. [Brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as a complication of acute otitis media in 7-year-old girl - a case report].

    PubMed

    Załęska-Ponganis, Joanna; Jackowska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood disease, especially in infants and preschool children. Onset of AOM encourage frequent upper respiratory infections and debilitating conditions that cause nasal patency and trumpets auditory dysfunction. Complications of AOM currently are rare. We present a case of complications of acute otitis media in form of acute cerebral abscess in a 7-year-old previously healthy girl.

  11. The natural course of eczema from birth to age 7 years and the association with asthma and allergic rhinitis: a population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chian-Yin; Lin, Ming-Chih; Lin, Heng-Kuei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Fu, Lin-Shien; Fu, Yun-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Although "atopic march" is a popular concept, the relationship between eczema and subsequent asthma is far from clear. However, some cohort studies have shown the possibility of two different allergic phenotypes in those who present with early eczema in terms of their persistency. We checked the cohort data from 308,849 children born in 2000 in Taiwan, to evaluate the different courses of eczema and their relationships to subsequent asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) at age 7 years. We examined the age prevalence of eczema, asthma, and AR up to 7 years of age. We grouped all cases according to their course of eczema, as well as wheezing, and determined the rates of asthma and AR at age 7 years. We checked the adjusted risk factors by multiple logistic regression model. We also examined the distributions of wheezing types in different eczema groups. We found the "atopic march" pattern of allergic diseases based on their age prevalence. Early eczema was associated with asthma and AR at the age of 7 years. Those with eczema symptoms persisting after 36 months of age had a higher risk than those with transient eczema. Early wheeze also contributed to asthma and AR later in childhood. In addition, late-onset eczema had a completely different wheeze distribution compared with other groups and also had a higher risk for asthma and AR than transient eczema. In conclusion, different eczema phenotypes could be found in this population-based cohort. This article emphasizes the special attention to the persistency and late-onset eczema in clinical practice.

  12. Cogeneration microwave food dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, S.; Ushimaru, K.

    1986-11-18

    A method is described for efficient removal of moisture from a moist interior solid product with controlled physical change comprising the steps of: convection heating the solid product with a heated air stream to remove internal moisture to achieve a maximum moisture removal rate while maintaining the product below a predetermined maximum temperature thereby controlling additional physical change to the product, maintaining the convection heating until a predetermined critical moisture content of the product is achieved beyond which critical moisture content the drying rate decreases and the temperature of the product increases. The product temperature increases above the predetermined determined maximum with continued convection heating due to decreased evaporation and decreased surface migration of moisture, and then exposing the product to microwave radiation to increase moisture migration toward the product surface for removal and evaporation cooling to maintain the product below the maximum temperature until the desired moisture removal is completed, whereby the desired moisture will be efficiently removed from the product while controlling internal and surface physical change to the product.

  13. Microwave reflectometer ionization sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seals, Joseph; Fordham, Jeffrey A.; Pauley, Robert G.; Simonutti, Mario D.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) Instrument for use on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft is described. The instrument contract was terminated, due to cancellation of the AFE program, subsequent to testing of an engineering development model. The MRIS, a four-frequency reflectometer, was designed for the detection and location of critical electron density levels in spacecraft reentry plasmas. The instrument would sample the relative magnitude and phase of reflected signals at discrete frequency steps across 4 GHz bandwidths centered at four frequencies: 20, 44, 95, and 140 GHz. The sampled data would be stored for later processing to calculate the distance from the spacecraft surface to the critical electron densities versus time. Four stepped PM CW transmitter receivers were located behind the thermal protection system of the spacecraft with horn antennas radiating and receiving through an insulating tile. Techniques were developed to deal with interference, including multiple reflections and resonance effects, resulting from the antenna configuration and operating environment.

  14. Microwave field effect transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Ho-Chung (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Electrodes of a high power, microwave field effect transistor are substantially matched to external input and output networks. The field effect transistor includes a metal ground plane layer, a dielectric layer on the ground plane layer, a gallium arsenide active region on the dielectric layer, and substantially coplanar spaced source, gate, and drain electrodes having active segments covering the active region. The active segment of the gate electrode is located between edges of the active segments of the source and drain electrodes. The gate and drain electrodes include inactive pads remote from the active segments. The pads are connected directly to the input and output networks. The source electrode is connected to the ground plane layer. The space between the electrodes and the geometry of the electrodes extablish parasitic shunt capacitances and series inductances that provide substantial matches between the input network and the gate electrode and between the output network and the drain electrode. Many of the devices are connected in parallel and share a common active region, so that each pair of adjacent devices shares the same source electrodes and each pair of adjacent devices shares the same drain electrodes. The gate electrodes for the parallel devices are formed by a continuous stripe that extends between adjacent devices and is connected at different points to the common gate pad.

  15. Weight and height at 4 and 7 years of age in children born to mothers with a high intake of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Lars; Strömberg, Ulf; Hagmar, Lars

    2007-03-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) is through consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea (off the eastern coast). The present study aimed to investigate whether intrauterine exposure for POP may have negative impact on children's weight and height at 4 and 7 years of age, respectively. The study included 174 fishermen's wives from the Swedish east coast who had given birth to an infant with either low (n=55) or normal (n=119) birth weight, and 88 and 206 corresponding women from the Swedish west coast (where the fish is less polluted). Comparisons between the east and west coast cohorts were performed. In addition, blood samples were collected among the east coast women and the concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in plasma was analyzed and estimated for the year of childbirth. There were no significant differences between the east and west coast cohorts regarding weight and height at 4 and 7 years of age. There were, however, significant negative associations between the estimated plasma concentrations of CB-153 during year of childbirth and weight at 4 and 7 years of age, respectively, among the normal birth weight children. The study gives only very weak support for the hypothesized association.

  16. Microwave. Instructor's Edition. Louisiana Vocational-Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, William

    This publication contains related study assignments and job sheets for a course in microwave technology. The course is organized into 12 units covering the following topics: introduction to microwave, microwave systems, microwave oscillators, microwave modulators, microwave transmission lines, transmission lines, detectors and mixers, microwave…

  17. Near-field scanning microwave microscopy of microwave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, David E.; Dutta, S.; Anlage, S. M.; Wellstood, F. C.; Newman, H.

    1997-03-01

    We have developed a scanning microwave microscope which can presently image features with a spatial resolution of 10-100 μm in the frequency range 5-15 GHz.(C. P. Vlahacos, et al.), Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3272 (1996).^,(S. M. Anlage, et al.), IEEE. Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1997). The microscope consists of a resonant section of a coaxial cable which is terminated with a small-diameter open-ended coaxial probe. Images are made by scanning the sample under the probe while recording the induced near-field microwave voltage as a function of sample position. We will present images for several microwave devices, including an X-band microstrip planar ferrite circulator and a high-temperature superconducting microstrip YBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ resonator, and compare them to the calculated field profiles.

  18. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Andrew J.; Petersen, Robert D.; Swanson, Stephen D.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

  19. Microwave heating of porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, F.; Martini, L. ); Gentili, G.B. )

    1987-05-01

    The technique actually used for recycling in place asphaltic concrete pavements is the following: heating of the surface layer of the pavement with special infrared lamps (gas-fed); hot removal and remixing in place of the materials with the addition of new binder; in-line reconstruction of the pavement layer with rolling. Such a technique is highly efficient and economic but it suffers an important disadvantage: The low thermal conductivity of the asphalt causes a strong temperature decrease with depth. Further on, the infrared radiation produces carbonization of the pavement skin with possible modification of the rheological properties of the bitumen. The technology of microwave generators (Magnetron, Klystron, and Amplitron) has registered some recent advances. It is now possible, and in some cases convenient, to use microwave energy for industrial heating of low-thermal-conductivity materials. Actually the microwaves are employed for drying wood, paper, and textiles, and for freeze-drying, cooking, and defrosting foods. One of the most interesting features of the microwave process is the rate and uniformity of the heating inside the material. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out for recycling in place asphaltic concrete pavements. The goal of the present paper is to propose a theoretical model capable of describing the phenomena occurring in a soil during a microwave heating process.

  20. Temperature measurement during microwave cooking.

    PubMed

    Mullin, J; Bows, J

    1993-01-01

    Product development of microwavable foods originally suffered from a high degree of non-uniform heating which is generic in microwave heating. Typically, foods have suffered from either overheated edges or under heated centres. This was compounded by short reheat times which allowed little opportunity for temperature equilibration. A crucial step in overcoming this problem has been the understanding provided from time-temperature data. Conventional temperature measurements by thermocouple, etc. are inappropriate in microwave cooking due to the high electric fields which are present (ca 15 kV/m). The result is either very significant interference, or even failure of the sensor. Therefore, alternative methods were developed to meet the need, some of which are discussed in this paper. One such measurement system is the now commonplace fibre optic probe, originally from Luxtron. The discrete data provided from this system are compared with the surface imaging data delivered by thermal imaging. These techniques are discussed in the context of microwave packaging materials heated in situ in a microwave oven and the need for temperature data as a basis for establishing testing regimes.

  1. Wideband Agile Digital Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd C.; Brown, Shannon T.; Ruf, Christopher; Gross, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to take the initial steps needed to develop a field programmable gate array (FPGA)- based wideband digital radiometer backend (>500 MHz bandwidth) that will enable passive microwave observations with minimal performance degradation in a radiofrequency-interference (RFI)-rich environment. As manmade RF emissions increase over time and fill more of the microwave spectrum, microwave radiometer science applications will be increasingly impacted in a negative way, and the current generation of spaceborne microwave radiometers that use broadband analog back ends will become severely compromised or unusable over an increasing fraction of time on orbit. There is a need to develop a digital radiometer back end that, for each observation period, uses digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to identify the maximum amount of RFI-free spectrum across the radiometer band to preserve bandwidth to minimize radiometer noise (which is inversely related to the bandwidth). Ultimately, the objective is to incorporate all processing necessary in the back end to take contaminated input spectra and produce a single output value free of manmade signals to minimize data rates for spaceborne radiometer missions. But, to meet these objectives, several intermediate processing algorithms had to be developed, and their performance characterized relative to typical brightness temperature accuracy re quirements for current and future microwave radiometer missions, including those for measuring salinity, soil moisture, and snow pack.

  2. ORGANIC SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVES AND SUPPORTED REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although the use of dedicated MW equipment...

  3. SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department

    ScienceCinema

    Haase, Andy

    2016-07-12

    The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

  4. SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, Andy

    2012-10-09

    The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

  5. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1994-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture... This Paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods.

  6. Student Microwave Experiments Involving the Doppler Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, F. Neff; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described is the use of the Doppler Effect with microwaves in the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity of falling objects. The experiments described add to the repertoire of quantitative student microwave experiments. (Author/DS)

  7. An ultra wideband Wilkinson power divider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeri, Ali Reza

    2012-04-01

    In this article, an ultra wideband power divider is proposed, analysed and designed. The design approach of the proposed power divider is derived from even/odd mode analysis. The design approach is validated, and the power divider is simulated by two full-wave electromagnetic simulators (ADS and Sonnet) and fabricated on a substrate with a thickness of 0.635 mm and relative constant of 10.2. Measured results of the proposed power divider show equal power split, excellent insertion loss and good return loss at all the three ports, and a good isolation between the two output ports is achieved over the specified 3.1-10.6 GHz ultra wideband range. In the input port return loss, there are two transmission poles around 5.2 and 9.5 GHz. The overall size of the proposed power divider is just ? .

  8. Microwave inverse Cerenkov accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. B.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1997-03-01

    A Microwave Inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (MICA) is currently under construction at the Yale Beam Physics Laboratory. The accelerating structure in MICA consists of an axisymmetric dielectrically lined waveguide. For the injection of 6 MeV microbunches from a 2.856 GHz RF gun, and subsequent acceleration by the TM01 fields, particle simulation studies predict that an acceleration gradient of 6.3 MV/m can be achieved with a traveling-wave power of 15 MW applied to the structure. Synchronous injection into a narrow phase window is shown to allow trapping of all injected particles. The RF fields of the accelerating structure are shown to provide radial focusing, so that longitudinal and transverse emittance growth during acceleration is small, and that no external magnetic fields are required for focusing. For 0.16 nC, 5 psec microbunches, the normalized emittance of the accelerated beam is predicted to be less than 5πmm-mrad. Experiments on sample alumina tubes have been conducted that verify the theoretical dispersion relation for the TM01 mode over a two-to-one range in frequency. No excitation of axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric competing waveguide modes was observed. High power tests showed that tangential electric fields at the inner surface of an uncoated sample of alumina pipe could be sustained up to at least 8.4 MV/m without breakdown. These considerations suggest that a MICA test accelerator can be built to examine these predictions using an available RF power source, 6 MeV RF gun and associated beam line.

  9. Ignition methods and apparatus using microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    DeFreitas, Dennis M.; Darling, Timothy W.; Migliori, Albert; Rees, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    An ignition apparatus for a combustor includes a microwave energy source that emits microwave energy into the combustor at a frequency within a resonant response of the combustor, the combustor functioning as a resonant cavity for the microwave energy so that a plasma is produced that ignites a combustible mixture therein. The plasma preferably is a non-contact plasma produced in free space within the resonant cavity spaced away from with the cavity wall structure and spaced from the microwave emitter.

  10. [Experimental tests of a microwave sterilization system].

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Liguori, G; Anzanel, D; Finzi, G; Salvatorelli, G

    1994-01-01

    Data obtained in our experiments indicate that the microwave sterilization system utilized may be considered as a practical and rapid method for decontaminating steel surgical instruments. For the tested organisms (7 Gram- and 2 Gram+ genera) a 3' exposure time to microwaves provides successful sterilization. Microwave irradiation also had a killing action against Bacillus subtilis spores. A study by SEM of microwave treated spores shows typical morphological alterations of spore surfaces. PMID:8170448

  11. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7 mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple λ/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  12. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  13. High power ferrite microwave switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardash, I.; Roschak, N. K.

    1975-01-01

    A high power ferrite microwave switch was developed along with associated electronic driver circuits for operation in a spaceborne high power microwave transmitter in geostationary orbit. Three units were built and tested in a space environment to demonstrate conformance to the required performance characteristics. Each unit consisted of an input magic-tee hybrid, two non-reciprocal latching ferrite phase shifters, an out short-slot 3 db quadrature coupler, a dual driver electronic circuit, and input logic interface circuitry. The basic mode of operation of the high power ferrite microwave switch is identical to that of a four-port, differential phase shift, switchable circulator. By appropriately designing the phase shifters and electronic driver circuits to operate in the flux-transfer magnetization mode, power and temperature insensitive operation was achieved. A list of the realized characteristics of the developed units is given.

  14. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  15. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  16. Microwave heat treating of manufactured components

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2007-01-09

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  17. Microwave assisted centrifuge and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    Centrifuge samples may be exposed to microwave energy to heat the samples during centrifugation and to promote separation of the different components or constituents of the samples using a centrifuge device configured for generating microwave energy and directing the microwave energy at a sample located in the centrifuge.

  18. A Microwave Interferometer on an Air Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polley, J. Patrick

    1993-01-01

    Uses an air track and microwave transmitters and receivers to make a Michelson interferometer. Includes three experiments: (1) measuring the wavelength of microwaves, (2) measuring the wavelength of microwaves by using the Doppler Effect, and (3) measuring the Doppler shift. (MVL)

  19. Statistical analysis of the cosmic microwave background: Power spectra and foregrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer, Ian J.

    2005-11-01

    In this thesis I examine some of the challenges associated with analyzing Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data and present a novel approach to solving the problem of power spectrum estimation, which is called MAGIC (MAGIC Allows Global Inference of Covariance). In light of the computational difficulty of a brute force approach to power spectrum estimation, I review several approaches which have been applied to the problem and show an example application of such an approximate method to experimental CMB data from the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST). I then introduce MAGIC, a new approach to power spectrum estimation; based on a Bayesian statistical analysis of the data utilizing Gibbs Sampling. I demonstrate application of this method to the all-sky Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe WMAP data. The results are in broad agreement with those obtained originally by the WMAP team. Since MAGIC generates a full description of each C l it is possible to examine several issues raised by the best-fit WMAP power spectrum, for example the perceived lack of power at low ℓ. It is found that the distribution of C ℓ's at low l are significantly non-Gaussian and, based on the exact analysis presented here, the "low quadrupole issue" can be attributed to a statistical fluctuation. Finally, I examine the effect of Galactic foreground contamination on CMB experiments and describe the principle foregrounds. I show that it is possible to include the foreground components in a self-consistent fashion within the statistical framework of MAGIC and give explicit examples of how this might be achieved. Foreground contamination will become an increasingly important issue in CMB data analysis and the ability of this new algorithm to produce an exact power spectrum in a computationally feasible time, coupled with the foreground component separation and removal is an exciting development in CMB data analysis. When considered with current algorithmic developments

  20. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND CONSTRAINTS ON THE DURATION AND TIMING OF REIONIZATION FROM THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Zahn, O.; Reichardt, C. L.; Shaw, L.; George, E. M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Lidz, A.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Cho, H. M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J.; Holder, G. P.; Dore, O.; Halverson, N. W.; and others

    2012-09-01

    The epoch of reionization is a milestone of cosmological structure formation, marking the birth of the first objects massive enough to yield large numbers of ionizing photons. However, the mechanism and timescale of reionization remain largely unknown. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) Doppler effect from ionizing bubbles embedded in large-scale velocity streams-known as the patchy kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect-can be used to constrain the duration of reionization. When combined with large-scale CMB polarization measurements, the evolution of the ionized fraction, x-bar{sub e}, can be inferred. Using new multi-frequency data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT), we show that the ionized fraction evolved relatively rapidly. For our basic foreground model, we find the kSZ power sourced by reionization at l = 3000 to be D{sup patchy}{sub 3000} {<=} 2.1 {mu}K{sup 2} at 95% confidence. Using reionization simulations, we translate this to a limit on the duration of reionization of {Delta}z{identical_to}z{sub x}-bar{sub e=0.20}-z{sub x}-bar{sub e=0.99}{<=}4.4 (95% confidence). We find that this constraint depends on assumptions about the angular correlation between the thermal SZ power and the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Introducing the degree of correlation as a free parameter, we find that the limit on kSZ power weakens to D{sup patchy}{sub 3000} {<=} 4.9 {mu}K{sup 2}, implying {Delta}z {<=} 7.9 (95% confidence). We combine the SPT constraint on the duration of reionization with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe measurement of the integrated optical depth to probe the cosmic ionization history. We find that reionization ended with 95% confidence at z > 7.2 under the assumption of no tSZ-CIB correlation, and z > 5.8 when correlations are allowed. Improved constraints from the full SPT data set in conjunction with upcoming Herschel and Planck data should detect extended reionization at >95% confidence provided {Delta}z {>=} 2

  1. Hemispherical power asymmetry: parameter estimation from cosmic microwave background WMAP5 data

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, Bartosz

    2008-09-15

    We re-examine the evidence for hemispherical power asymmetry, detected in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data using a new method. We use a data filtering, preprocessing, and a statistical approach different from those used previously, and pursue an independent method of parameter estimation. First, we analyze the hemispherical variance ratios and compare these with simulated distributions. Secondly, working within a previously proposed CMB bipolar modulation model, we constrain model parameters: the amplitude and the orientation of the modulation field, as a function of various multipole bins. Finally, we select three ranges of multipoles leading to the most anomalous signals, and we process a hundred corresponding Gaussian random field (GRF) simulations, treated as observational data, to further test the statistical significance and robustness of the hemispherical power asymmetry. For our analysis we use the Internally Linearly Coadded (ILC) full sky map, and the KQ75 cut sky V channel foreground reduced map of the WMAP five-year data (V5). We constrain the modulation parameters using a generic maximum a posteriori method. In particular, we find differences in hemispherical power distribution, which when described in terms of a model with a bipolar modulation field, exclude the field amplitude value of the isotropic model, A = 0, at the confidence level of {approx}99.5% ({approx}99.4%) in the multipole range l element of [7,19] (l element of [7,79]) for the V5 data, and at the confidence level of {approx}99.9% in the multipole range l element of [7,39] for the ILC5 data, with best-fit (modal probability distribution function) values in these particular multipole ranges of A = 0.21 (A = 0.21) and A = 0.15 respectively. However, we also point out that similar or larger significances (in terms of rejecting the isotropic model) and large best-fit modulation amplitudes are obtained in GRF simulations as well, which

  2. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  3. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    During the four years of the AgRISTARS Program, significant progress was made in quantifying the capabilities of microwave sensors for the remote sensing of soil moisture. In this paper, a discussion is provided of the results of numerous field and aircraft experiments, analysis of spacecraft data, and modeling activities which examined the various noise factors such as roughness and vegetation that affect the interpretability of microwave emission measurements. While determining that a 21-cm wavelength radiometer was the best single sensor for soil moisture research, these studies demonstrated that a multisensor approach will provide more accurate soil moisture information for a wider range of naturally occurring conditions.

  4. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-12-31

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ``inside out`` deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs.

  5. Canadian microwaves - An interim report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachmar, Michael

    1987-02-01

    A survey is presented of various research programs being pursued by Canadian companies to develop microwave technologies for communications satellites. The discussion covers corporate resources and projects undertaken, e.g., the ANIK and Olympus microwave systems, the MSAT program, SARSAT, BRASILSAT and RADARSAT. Attention is given to intergovernmental, industry-government and fully commercial arrangements, and developmental efforts in the C and Ku bands, X-band SAR devices, and plans for a Shuttle-borne wide angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer for upper atmospheric research.

  6. Microwave treatment of vulcanized rubber

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.; Folz, Diane C.

    2002-07-16

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds broken by microwave radiation. The direct application of microwaves in combination with uniform heating of the crumb rubber renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger particle sizes and/or loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures to produce recycled composite products with good properties.

  7. Prenatal microwave exposure and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The hypotheses for the initial investigation was based on the idea that failure to observe structural teratogenesis following microwave exposure did not preclude the possibility that such exposure would result in behavioral changes. We also proposed that such exposure might specifically alter some aspect of thermoregulatory behavior. The results of these studies support both of these hypotheses. Whether the studies show enhanced thermal sensitivity or enhanced development, they do support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to microwave radiation is more likely to alter postnatal sensitivity to thermally related stimuli or conditions as compared to stimuli that are thermally neutral.

  8. Microwave vegetation indices derived from satellite microwave radiometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices are valuable in many fields of geosciences. Conventional, visible-near infrared, indices are often limited by the effects of atmosphere, background soil conditions, and saturation at high levels of vegetation. In this study, the theoretical basis for a new type of passive microwav...

  9. Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Jaen, Javier; Vazquez, Gonzalo; Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura; De Las Heras, Manuel; Perez-Regadera, Jose F.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical

  10. [Case of multiple encrusted stones on the ureteral stent left for 7 years: the efficacy of extracting the ureteral stent on transurethral lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamanaka, Masaki; Kimura, Toshio; Takeyama, Masami

    2009-09-01

    A 48 years-old man had undergone transurethral lithotripsy (TUL) and Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL) for bilateral ureteral stones and bilateral ureteral stents had been placed in 2001. He was lost to the follow-up for about 7 years after the removal of left ureteral stent. He had complained of right back pain and fever for two months. KUB showed right ureteral stones and encrustation along the ureteral stent. We performed TUL extracting the ureteral stent by silk, referring to silk loop technique. All stones and the encrusted ureteral stent were removed. This was very effective for patients with encrusted ureteral stent.

  11. Abused women with children who are first-time users of a shelter or applicants for a protection order: entry data of a 7-year prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Judith; Maddoux, John; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi

    2015-02-01

    Worldwide, two models of care are offered most often to abused women-safe shelter and justice services. No evidence exists on the differential effectiveness of the services. To provide evidence, 300 abused women, 150 first-time users of a shelter and 150 first-time applicants for a protection order, signed informed consent to participate in a 7-year study. Safety, abuse, and functioning of the women and their children were measured. Compared with women seeking justice services, women in shelters reported more abuse and depression and less support. The baseline characteristics of these 300 women are presented with implications for practice and policy.

  12. Lap-belt syndrome: management of aortic intimal dissection in a 7-year-old child with a constellation of injuries.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Paritosh C; Rothenbach, Patricia; Guzzetta, Philip C; Bulas, Dorothy I

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of lap-belt motor vehicle injury in a 7-year-old male who was admitted with abdominal ecchymoses and pain with associated aortic intimal flap, bowel injury, hemoperitoneum, and retroperitoneal hematoma at initial imaging with CT. Most of these findings were confirmed at subsequent laparotomy, and the patient underwent operative repair of bowel injuries. His aortic intimal flap was followed with US and color Doppler imaging during which time he was treated conservatively until there was sonographic evidence of intimal healing. This patient illustrates a multimodality approach to imaging and conservative management.

  13. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Fathi, Zakaryae; Wei, Jianghua

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  14. Microwave-acoustic phasoscopy for tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin; Wang, Dongfang

    2012-07-01

    In this letter, we present a method named microwave-acoustic phasoscopy (MAPC) by collecting both scattered microwave energy and microwave-induced thermoacoustic wave energy for tissue characterization. Different from conventional amplitude and spectrum analysis, we propose to evaluate the microwave-acoustic phase for tissue characterization. Theoretical analysis and experiment verification are performed to show a good agreement. Four different biological tissues are well differentiated in phase region using the proposed MAPC. This attempt of exploring intrinsic relationship between scattered microwave and induced thermoacoustic signals simultaneously provides phase contrast for tissue characterization, showing significant potential in developing phase-contrast imaging prototype based on MAPC theory.

  15. Microwave scattering from laser spark in air

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Jordan; Zhang Zhili; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2012-09-15

    In this paper, microwave Mie scattering from a laser-induced plasma in atmospheric air is computed. It shows that the scattered microwave transitions from coherent Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering based on the relative transparency of the laser-induced plasma at the microwave frequency. The microwave penetration in the plasma alters from total transparency to partial shielding due to the sharp increase of the electron number density within the avalanche ionization phase. The transition from Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering is verified by both the temporal evolution of the scattered microwave and the homogeneity of polar scattering plots.

  16. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  17. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  18. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  19. Microwave processing of radioactive materials-I

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Berry, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers that reviews the major past and present applications of microwave energy for processing radioactive materials, with particular emphasis on processing radioactive wastes. Microwave heating occurs through the internal friction produced inside a dielectric material when its molecules vibrate in response to an oscillating microwave field. For this presentation, we shall focus on the two FCC-approved microwave frequencies for industrial, scientific, and medical use, 915 and 2450 MHz. Also, because of space limitations, we shall postpone addressing plasma processing of hazardous wastes using microwave energy until a later date. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, X.D.; Schultz, P.G.; Wei, T.

    1998-10-13

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an end wall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity. 17 figs.

  1. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Schultz, Peter G.; Wei, Tao

    1998-01-01

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

  2. Making Curved Frequency-Selective Microwave Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Wu, Te-Kao

    1995-01-01

    Prototype curved lightweight dichroic microwave reflectors designed to be highly reflective in X and K(suba) frequency bands and highly transmissive in K(subu) and S bands. Conductive grid elements formed photolithographically on curved reflector surfaces. Intended for use as subreflectors of main paraboloidal antenna reflector to enable simultaneous operation in both prime-focus configuration in K(subu) and S bands and Cassegrain configuration in X and K(suba) bands. Basic concepts of reflectors described in "Frequency-Selective Microwave Reflectors" (NPO-18701). "Double Square-Loop Dichroic Microwave Reflector" (NPO-18676), "Triband Circular-Loop Dichroic Microwave Reflector" (NPO-18714), and "Improved Dichroic Microwave Reflector" (NPO-18664).

  3. Exploding microwaved eggs--revisited.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Y; Adler, N; Hauben, D J

    2001-12-01

    Different types of injuries are described as caused by the use of microwave ovens. Four of 41 burns from microwave ovens, presented by an international survey in 1986, were due to exploding microwave-heated eggs. Careful review of the English language literature through a Medline search from 1966 to 2000 was performed, in search of burns caused by exploding eggs. Clinical information from the published articles was reviewed and missing information was completed by e-mail correspondence with authors. Our own case was added to the collected data, and a total of 13 cases were analyzed. The average age of patients was 24.3 years (range, 7-49 years). All patients suffered from superficial burns of the mid and upper face, namely the forehead, periorbital region, dorsum of nose and malar areas. All patients with information available complained of ocular disturbances, and three suffered long-term decrease in visual acuity. Long-term skin complications were not reported. In summary, the clinical presentation of a facial injury from an exploding microwave-heated egg is relatively constant and mild. Favorable outcome can be expected but a meticulous ophthalmologic evaluation and a close follow-up are mandatory for prevention of long-term sequelae.

  4. Microwave Treatment for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Moya, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    NASA seeks to transfer the NASA developed microwave ablation technology, designed for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia (irregular heart beat), to industry. After a heart attack, many cells surrounding the resulting scar continue to live but are abnormal electrically; they may conduct impulses unusually slowly or fire when they would typically be silent. These diseased areas might disturb smooth signaling by forming a reentrant circuit in the muscle. The objective of microwave ablation is to heat and kill these diseased cells to restore appropriate electrical activity in the heart. This technology is a method and apparatus that provides for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In comparison with other methods that involve direct-current pulses or radio frequencies below 1 GHz, this method may prove more effective in treating ventricular tachycardia. This is because the present method provides for greater control of the location, cross-sectional area, and depth of a lesion via selection of the location and design of the antenna and the choice of microwave power and frequency.

  5. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  6. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  7. GREENER CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or "doped" surfaces is presented which is applicable to a wide range of cleavage, condensation, cyc...

  8. Microwave Levitation Of Small Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Jackson, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave radiation in resonant cavities used to levitate small objects, according to proposal. Feedback control and atmosphere not needed. Technique conceived for use in experiments on processing of materials in low gravitation of outer space, also used in normal Earth gravitation, albeit under some limitations.

  9. Microwave Propagation in Dielectric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment designed to verify quantitatively the effect of a dielectric fluid's dielectric constant on the observed wavelength of microwave radiation propagating through the fluid. The fluid used is castor oil, and results agree with the expected behavior within 5 percent. (Author/CS)

  10. Microwave Treatment for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue to treat ventricular tachycardia and other arrhythmias while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In operation, microwave energy between about 1 Gigahertz and 12 Gigahertz is applied to monopole microwave radiator having a surface wave limiter. A test setup provides physical testing of microwave radiators to determine the temperature profile created in actual heart tissue or ersatz heart tissue. Saline solution pumped over the heart tissue with a peristaltic pump simulates blood flow. Optical temperature sensors disposed at various tissue depths within the heart tissue detect the temperature profile without creating any electromagnetic interference. The method may be used to produce a desired temperature profile in other body tissues reachable by catheter such as tumors and the like.

  11. Transcatheter Antenna For Microwave Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor); Karasack, Vincent G. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Pieper, Carl F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue to treat ventricular tachycardia and other arrhythmias while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In operation, microwave energy between about 1 Gigahertz and 12 Gigahertz is applied to monopole microwave radiation having a surface wave limiter. A test setup provides physical testing of microwave radiators to determine the temperature profile created in actual heart tissue or ersatz heart tissue. Saline solution pumped over the heart tissue with a peristaltic pump simulates blood flow. Optical temperature sensors disposed at various tissue depths within the heart tissue detect the temperature profile without creating any electromagnetic interference. The method may he used to produce a desired temperature profile in other body tissues reachable by catheter such as tumors and the like.

  12. Microwave powered sterile access port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Dahl, Roger W. (Inventor); Garmon, Frank C. (Inventor); Lunsford, Teddie D. (Inventor); Michalek, William F. (Inventor); Wheeler, Jr., Richard R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A device and method for elimination of contamination during transfer of materials either into or from bioreactors, food containers, or other microbially vulnerable systems. Using microwave power, thermal sterilizations of mating fixtures are achieved simply, reliably, and quickly by the volatilization of small quantities of water to produce superheated steam which contacts all exposed surfaces.

  13. Thermoregulation in intense microwave fields

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, S.M.

    1981-10-01

    These studies clearly indicate the thermoregulatory capacity of the dog to withstand exposure to high microwave fields at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 3.7 and 6.1 W/kg. It appears that adequate thermoregulation takes place at an SAR of 3.7 W/kg but only transiently at 6.1 W/kg. These values, compared with the standardized resting metabolic rate of 3.29 W/kg (0.75), provide a basis for assessing the relationship of the thermal burden and thermo-regulatory disruption by microwaves in the dog. To elucidate the thermal potential of microwave exposure, it was helpful to conduct these exposures at various ambient temperatures in which the normal body temperature remained stable, thus permitting comparison of heat production and dissipation with our without microwaves. The zone of the thermal neutrality or thermoneutral zone of vasomotor activity, 22-26.5 deg C, where body temperature is regulated by changes in vasomotor tonus, fulfilled this requirement.

  14. Applications of active microwave imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. P.; Childs, L. F.; Gilbert, R.; Harlan, J. C.; Hoffer, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Parsons, J.; Polcyn, F.; Schardt, B. B.; Smith, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics were discussed in reference to active microwave applications: (1) Use of imaging radar to improve the data collection/analysis process; (2) Data collection tasks for radar that other systems will not perform; (3) Data reduction concepts; and (4) System and vehicle parameters: aircraft and spacecraft.

  15. Microwave applicators for BPH thermotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Jan; Hlavac, R.; Herza, Jan; Chovanec, Roman; Cvek, Jakub; Oppl, L.

    2004-04-01

    Paper deals with new results in the field of intracavitary microwave applicators used for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. We demonstrate here that it is necessary to use more sophisticated applicators than a simple monopole radiating structure. One of the good possibilities for safe and efficient treatments we propose here is a helix structure.

  16. High power microwave simulator development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, James

    1987-12-01

    Emerging applications for high power microwaves in defense necessitate the development of reliable GW level sources for simulation of effects. For broadband variable frequency survey work, the vircator (virtual cathode oscillator) was developed; this is a tunable RF source operating from the upper X band to below the L band range. For narrowband fixed frequency studies, a special magnetron was developed.

  17. Microwave Atmospheric-Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes tests of microwave pressure sounder (MPS) for use in satellite measurements of atmospheric pressure. MPS is multifrequency radar operating between 25 and 80 GHz. Determines signal absorption over vertical path through atmosphere by measuring strength of echoes from ocean surface. MPS operates with cloud cover, and suitable for use on current meteorological satellites.

  18. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    PubMed

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices. PMID:25703006

  19. Climate and prevalence of atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old school children in Spain. ISAAC PhASE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; García-Marcos Alvarez, Luís; Kogan, Michael D.; González, Agustín Llopis; Gimeno, Antonio Martínez; Ontoso, Inés Aguinaga; Díaz, Carlos González; Pena, Alberto Arnedo; Aurrecoechea, Begoña Domínguez; Monge, Rosa María Busquets; Quiros, Alfredo Blanco; Garrido, José Batlles; Canflanca, Iñaqui Miner; Varela, Ángel López-Silvarrey

    2008-11-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic skin disease. Recent reports indicate that the worldwide prevalence of AE is increasing and that various environmental factors are implicated in its aetiology. Climatic conditions have been related with AE prevalence, and Spain has varying climatic conditions. The aim of this study is to document the possible climatic influence on the prevalence of AE in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in three different climatic regions in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of 28,394 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 10 Spanish centres in three different climatic regions. The mean participation rate was 76.5%. AE prevalence was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Spanish Academy of Dermatology criteria used in Spain to diagnose AE. The data, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the annual number of sunny hours per climatic region, were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Meteorology. Different AE prevalences were found in all three climatic regions studied: Atlantic, 32.9; Mediterranean 28.3; and Continental 31.2 per 100 children studied ( p < 0.005). AE was positively associated with precipitation and humidity, and was negatively associated with temperature and the number of sunny hours. The results show that AE is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions.

  20. Outpatient rehabilitation utilization and medical expenses in children aged 0-7 years with ADHD: analyses of population-based national health insurance data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Medical costs of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are substantial and have a large impact on the public health system. The present study presents information regarding outpatient rehabilitation care usage and medical expenditure for children with ADHD. A cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database for the year 2009. A total of 6643 children aged 0-7 years with ADHD (ICD-9-CM codes 314.0x: attention deficit disorder, 314.00: attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity, or 314.01: attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity) who had used outpatient rehabilitation care were included in the analyses. Results showed that the mean annual rehabilitation care was 22.24 visits. Among the care users, 76% of patients were male, and 24% were female. More than half of the children with ADHD had comorbid mental illnesses as well. A logistic regression analysis of outpatient rehabilitation expenditure (low vs. high) showed that of those children with ADHD, those aged 0-2 years tended to incur more medical costs than those aged 6-7 years. Other factors such as frequency of rehabilitation visits, hospital medical setting and ownership, location of medical care setting, and types of rehabilitation were also significantly correlated with medical expenditure. The results from this study suggest that health care systems should ensure accurate diagnosis and measurement of impairment to maintain appropriate and successful management of rehabilitation needs for children with ADHD. PMID:23643766

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood during pregnancy, at birth and at 7 years: their associations with two common FADS2 polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Colin D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George

    2012-01-01

    Minor alleles of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with reduced desaturation of the precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) in small studies. The effects of these polymorphisms during progressive developmental stages have not previously been reported. Data from blood samples for 4342 pregnant women, 3343 umbilical cords reflecting the newborn's blood supply and 5240 children aged 7 years were analysed to investigate the associations of polyunsaturated FAs with rs1535 and rs174575—two polymorphisms in the FADS2 gene. Strong positive associations were observed between the minor G allele for these two markers, especially rs1535, and the substrates linoleic (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid. Negative associations were observed for the more highly unsaturated FAs such as arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), timnodonic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and cervonic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Bivariable genetic associations using the mother and child genotypes suggested that the newborn metabolism had a greater capacity to synthesize the more highly unsaturated omega-6 FAs than the more highly unsaturated omega-3 FAs. Nevertheless, despite the immaturity of the neonate, there was evidence that synthesis of DHA was occurring. However, by 7 years, no associations were observed with the maternal genotype. This suggested that the children's FA levels were related only to their own metabolism with no apparent lasting influences of the in utero environment. PMID:22194195

  2. Microwave bonding of thin film metal coated substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Bonding of materials such as MEMS materials is carried out using microwaves. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity containing other less microwave absorbing materials, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin depth of the films. This causes heating in one place more than another. This thereby minimizes unwanted heating effects during the microwave bonding process.

  3. Group-A-streptococcal meningitis in a 7-year-old child – a rare pathogen in a non-immune compromised patient

    PubMed Central

    van Zitteren, Leonarda Maria (LM); Arents, Niek LA; Halbertsma, Feico

    2011-01-01

    A case is presented of meningitis in a 7-year-old female child caused by Group A streptococcus (GAS), a rare bacterial cause of meningitis, with a high rate of morbidity (46%) and mortality (10%). GAS is susceptible for empiric antibiotic therapy aimed at the most prevalent pathogens of meningitis. As GAS meningitis is typically associated with ear-nose-throat (ENT) infections, specific search for a reservoir is advised. Bacterial typification often demonstrates M-protein gene sequence type (EMM type) 1.0 associated with upper respiratory tract infections and also severe, invasive GAS infections. Follow-up investigation including neurologic developmental status and audiologic testing is necessary. Although GAS is a very uncommon cause of acute bacterial meningitis in children, high morbidity and mortality have been reported. Being associated with ENT infections, a search for a GAS reservoir is proposed. GASs are susceptible for common empiric antibiotic therapies in meningitis. Follow-up investigation is necessary. PMID:22674699

  4. Acculturation and associated effects on abused immigrant women's safety and mental functioning: results of entry data for a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nava, Angeles; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence has negative effects on women's safety and wellbeing. When immigrant women are victimized the danger and poor health may intensify. The purpose was to determine the impact of acculturation on severity of violence, danger for murder, mental health functioning, and safety behaviors of abused immigrant women. Entry data of a 7-year prospective study of 106 abused immigrant women who were first time users of safe shelter or justice services is presented. The interview included the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, Danger Assessment, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Safety Behavior Checklist, and Acculturation for Hispanics instruments. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between acculturation and safety behaviors and BSI scores was established. Higher acculturation scores were associated with significantly more practiced safety behaviors and higher levels of depression. Understanding the specific needs of abuse immigrant women associated with acculturation is imperative to develop interventions to interrupt abuse and promote safety and mental well-being.

  5. Effects of microwave power and microwave irradiation time on pretreatment efficiency and characteristics of corn stover using combination of steam explosion and microwave irradiation (SE-MI) pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Pang, Feng; Xue, Shulin; Yu, Shengshuan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Bing; Kang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    The effects of microwave power and microwave irradiation time on pretreatment efficiency and characteristics of corn stover were investigated based on a new process named combination of steam explosion and microwave irradiation (SE-MI) pretreatment. Results showed that with microwave power and microwave irradiation time increasing, glucose and xylose that released into hydrolyzate, as well as enzymatic hydrolysis yields and sugar yields of glucose and xylose were all slightly increased after SE-MI pretreatment. The maximum sugar yield was 72.1 g per 100 g glucose and xylose in feedstock, achieved at 540 W microwave power and 5 min microwave irradiation time. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of biomass was 15.6-19.9% lower for SE-MI pretreatment with microwave effect than that without microwave effect. However, low microwave power and short microwave irradiation time were favorable for SE-MI pretreatment considering energy consumption.

  6. Microwave Imaging under Oblique Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qingyang; Xu, Kuiwen; Shen, Fazhong; Zhang, Bin; Ye, Dexin; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Li, Changzhi; Ran, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Microwave imaging based on inverse scattering problem has been attracting many interests in the microwave society. Among some major technical challenges, the ill-posed, multi-dimensional inversion algorithm and the complicated measurement setup are critical ones that prevent it from practical applications. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of the subspace-based optimization method (SOM) for two-dimensional objects when it was applied to a setup designed for oblique incidence. Analytical, simulation, and experimental results show that, for 2D objects, neglecting the cross-polarization scattering will not cause a notable loss of information. Our method can be potentially used in practical imaging applications for 2D-like objects, such as human limbs. PMID:27399706

  7. Microwave properties of metallic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goglio, G.; Pignard, S.; Radulescu, A.; Piraux, L.; Huynen, I.; Vanhoenacker, D.; Vander Vorst, A.

    1999-09-01

    We report on the microwave properties of arrays of parallel magnetic nanowires constituted of nickel, cobalt, or Ni/Fe alloy embedded in nanoporous track-etched polymer membranes. The experiments consist of transmission measurements carried out on microwave stripline structures using a magnetically loaded membrane as the substrate. Measurements were performed at frequencies ranging from 100 MHz to 40 GHz and under static magnetic fields up to 5.6 kOe applied along the wires axis. Resonance phenomena have been observed in the magnitude of the complex transmission coefficient at frequencies which depend on the nature of the material and applied static magnetic field. Results are consistent with those expected for a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiment and the observed behaviors are analyzed in the framework of the classical FMR theory.

  8. Handbook of microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Reinmut K.

    The design and operation of ICs for use in the 0.5-20-GHz range are described in an introductory and reference work for industrial engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of microwave IC (MIC) technology, general stripline characteristics, microwave transmission line (MTL) parameters for microstrips with isotropic dielectric substrates, higher-order modes on a microstrip, the effects of metallic enclosure on MTL transmission parameters, losses in microstrips, the measurement of MTL parameters, and MTLs on anisotropic dielectric substrates. Consideration is given to coupled microstrips on dielectric substrates, microstrip discontinuities, radiation from microstrip circuits, MTL variations, coplanar MTLs, slotlines, and spurious modes in MTL circuits. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  9. Geostationary microwave imagers detection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Geostationary orbit is investigated as a vantage point from which to sense remotely the surface features of the planet and its atmosphere, with microwave sensors. The geometrical relationships associated with geostationary altitude are developed to produce an efficient search pattern for the detection of emitting media and metal objects. Power transfer equations are derived from the roots of first principles and explain the expected values of the signal-to-clutter ratios for the detection of aircraft, ships, and buoys and for the detection of natural features where they are manifested as cold and warm eddies. The transport of microwave power is described for modeled detection where the direction of power flow is explained by the Zeroth and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. Mathematical expressions are derived that elucidate the detectability of natural emitting media and metal objects. Signal-to-clutter ratio comparisons are drawn among detectable objects that show relative detectability with a thermodynamic sensor and with a short-pulse radar.

  10. Detecting itinerant single microwave photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyamoorthy, Sankar Raman; Stace, Thomas M.; Johansson, Göran

    2016-08-01

    Single-photon detectors are fundamental tools of investigation in quantum optics and play a central role in measurement theory and quantum informatics. Photodetectors based on different technologies exist at optical frequencies and much effort is currently being spent on pushing their efficiencies to meet the demands coming from the quantum computing and quantum communication proposals. In the microwave regime, however, a single-photon detector has remained elusive, although several theoretical proposals have been put forth. In this article, we review these recent proposals, especially focusing on non-destructive detectors of propagating microwave photons. These detection schemes using superconducting artificial atoms can reach detection efficiencies of 90% with the existing technologies and are ripe for experimental investigations.

  11. Microwave waste processing technology overview

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    Applications using microwave energy in the chemical processing industry have increased within the last ten years. Recently, interest in waste treatment applications process development, especially solidification, has grown. Microwave waste processing offers many advantages over conventional waste treatment technologies. These advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form, volume and toxicity reduction, favorable economics, in-container treatment, good public acceptance, isolated equipment, and instantaneous energy control. The results from the {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} demonstration scale testing at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility are described. Preliminary results for a transuranic (TRU) precipitation sludge indicate that volume reductions of over 80% are achievable over the current immobilization process. An economic evaluation performed demonstrated cost savings of $11.68 per pound compared to the immobilization process currently in use on wet sludge.

  12. Successful Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap Reconstruction for a Recurrent Ischial Pressure Ulcer: A Case With Multiple Recurrences Over a 7-year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Yu; Shih, Yu-Jen; Chou, Chang-Yi; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Ischial pressure ulcers are difficult ulcers to treat and have a low treatment success rate compared to sacral and trochanteric ulcers; regional flap failure further complicates the treatment. Reported here is a case of a 65-year-old man who experienced a spinal injury with paraplegia due to trauma 20 years ago. The patient experienced a recurrent ischial ulcer since 2007, and underwent several types of flap reconstruction with poor outcomes over a 7-year period. Therefore, the chosen intervention was a pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) fasciocutaneous flap reconstruction for the ischial ulcer via a subcutaneous route. Over the 10-month follow-up, the recurrent ischial ulcer healed without wound dehiscence. Island pALT reconstruction appears to be an alternative technique for treating recurrent ischial pressure ulcers. Though reconstruction of ischial ulcers via the pALT technique has been described previously, this may be the first case report to describe pALT flap in a patient with recurrent ischial ulcers after failed reconstructions using a gluteus maximus flap, V-Y advancement flap, and hatchet flap.Ischial pressure ulcers are difficult to treat and have a low treatment success rate1 compared to sacral and trochanteric ulcers. In addition, there are many different techniques that can be used to treat ischial pressure ulcers, including primary wound closure, gluteus maximus flaps, V-Y advancement flaps, or inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps. However, several experts have recently described using the pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) flap for reconstruction of recurrent ischial pressure ulcers.1,2 In the presented case, the authors followed a single patient with paraplegia with a recurrent ischial ulcer who had undergone several types of wound treatment over a 7-year period. The indurated ulcer was ultimately resolved by pALT reconstruction.

  13. Time Trends of Cannabis Use Among Treatment-seeking Individuals at Government De-addiction Centers Across India Over a Period of 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mishra, Ashwani; Sethi, Hem; Singh, Shalini; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number) across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013) period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001) of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4%) tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%). Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country. PMID:27570345

  14. Study of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic over a period of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Immunisation is an important part of childcare practice. It is one of the most beneficial and cost effective measures for the prevention of diseases. From the previous retrospective studies, it was evident that smallpox has been completely eradicated throughout now-a-days with the wholehearted and sincere efforts of healthcare providers by applying efficient and safe vaccine against smallpox, same is true also to polio which is now close to worldwide eradication and measles and rubella are no longer endemic in certain parts of the world. Not only has that with the introduction of safer and more efficient newer vaccines, the incidence of most other vaccine preventable disease of childhood also reduced considerably. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines for a period of seven years using prospective active surveillance. Children under the age of 7 years were taken for universal and newer scheduled vaccinations given in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic under the supervision of the clinicians maintaining strictly the guidelines of Expanded Programme of Immunisation (Government of India). This study of adverse events following immunisation in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic confirms that the adverse events such as fever (0.37%), pain and swelling at the site of injection (0.32%0, urticarial rash (0.02%), anaphylactic shock (0.003%) are negligible. There were only two reports of anaphylaxis following preschool and infant schedule vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines and typhoid vaccines in approximately 52,000 infants received over a period of 7 years starting from 1st April, 2005 to 31st March, 2012 and there were no deaths or longterm effects reported during the post follow-up period in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic.

  15. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Mary E.; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers’ involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000–2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Results Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (p<0.05), odds ratios ranging between 0.81 and 0.89 per quintile of involvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Conclusion Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes. PMID:27654635

  16. Environmental Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure at Home, Mobile and Cordless Phone Use, and Sleep Problems in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Anke; van Eijsden, Manon; Guxens, Monica; Beekhuizen, Johan; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vrijkotte, Tania; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years. Methods This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations was assessed with a geospatial model (NISMap) and from indoor sources (cordless phone/WiFi) using parental self-reports. Parents also reported their children’s use of mobile or cordless phones. When children were seven years old, we evaluated sleep quality as measured with the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) filled in by parents. Of eight CSHQ subscales, we evaluated sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness with logistic or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for child’s age and sex and indicators of socio-economic position of the parents. We evaluated the remaining three subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep disordered breathing) as unrelated outcomes (negative control) because these were a priori hypothesised not to be associated with RF-EMF. Results Sleep onset delay, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness were not associated with residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations. Sleep duration scores were associated with RF-EMF levels from base stations. Higher use mobile phones was associated with less favourable sleep duration, night wakenings and parasomnias, and also with bedtime resistance. Cordless phone use was not related to any of the sleeping scores. Conclusion Given the different results across the evaluated RF-EMF exposure sources and the observed association between mobile phone use and the negative control sleep scale, our study does not support the hypothesis that it is the exposure to RF-EMF that is detrimental to sleep quality in 7-year old children, but potentially other factors that are related to mobile phone

  17. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy for Hormone-Naieve Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: A 7-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Aluwini, Shafak; Rooij, Peter H. van; Kirkels, Wim J.; Jansen, Peter P.; Praag, John O.; Bangma, Chris H.; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report clinical outcomes and early and late complications in 264 hormone-naieve patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in combination with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Between February 2000 and July 2007, 264 patients underwent HDR-BT in combination with EBRT as a treatment for their low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The HDR-BT was performed using ultrasound-based implantation. The total HDR-BT dose was 18 Gy in 3 fractions within 24 h, with a 6-h minimum interval. The EBRT started 2 weeks after HDR-BT and was delivered in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy to 45 Gy within 5 weeks. Results: After a mean follow-up of 74.5 months, 4 patients (1.5%) showed prostate-specific antigen progression according to the American Society for Radiation Oncology definition and 8 patients (3%) according to the Phoenix definition. A biopsy-proven local recurrence was registered in 1 patient (0.4%), and clinical progression (bone metastases) was documented in 2 patients (0.7%). Seven-year actuarial freedom from biochemical failure was 97%, and 7-year disease-specific survival and overall survival were 100% and 91%, respectively. Toxicities were comparable to other series. Conclusions: Treatment with interstitial HDR-BT plus EBRT shows a low incidence of late complications and a favorable oncologic outcome after 7 years follow-up.

  18. Assessment of Vegetation Establishment on Tailings Dam at an Iron Ore Mining Site of Suburban Beijing, China, 7 Years After Reclamation with Contrasting Site Treatment Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

  19. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  20. Directional microwave applicator and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A miniature microwave antenna is disclosed which may be utilized for biomedical applications such as, for example, radiation induced hyperthermia through catheter systems. One feature of the antenna is that it possesses azimuthal directionality despite its small size. This directionality permits targeting of certain tissues while limiting thermal exposure of adjacent tissue. One embodiment has an outer diameter of about 0.095'' (2.4 mm) but the design permits for smaller diameters.

  1. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  2. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Ravi

    1990-01-01

    A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

  3. Atmospheric microwave refractivity and refraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, E.; Hodge, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    The atmospheric refractivity can be expressed as a function of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, and operating frequency. Based on twenty-year meteorological data, statistics of the atmospheric refractivity were obtained. These statistics were used to estimate the variation of dispersion, attenuation, and refraction effects on microwave and millimeter wave signals propagating along atmospheric paths. Bending angle, elevation angle error, and range error were also developed for an exponentially tapered, spherical atmosphere.

  4. Note: Cryogenic coaxial microwave filters

    SciTech Connect

    Tancredi, G.; Meeson, P. J.; Schmidlin, S.

    2014-02-15

    The careful filtering of microwave electromagnetic radiation is critical for controlling the electromagnetic environment for experiments in solid-state quantum information processing and quantum metrology at millikelvin temperatures. We describe the design and fabrication of a coaxial filter assembly and demonstrate that its performance is in excellent agreement with theoretical modelling. We further perform an indicative test of the operation of the filters by making current-voltage measurements of small, underdamped Josephson junctions at 15 mK.

  5. Microwave processing of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Akerman, M.A.; Baity, F.W. Jr.; Caughman, J.B.; Forrester, S.C.; Kass, M.D.; Morrow, M.S.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Moyer, M.W.; Dews, T.W.

    1994-12-31

    Reaction-bonded silicon carbide ({alpha}-SiC) armor tiles were annealed at 2100{degree}C using microwave radiation at 2.45 GHz. Ultrasonic velocity measurements showed that the longitudinal and shear velocities, acoustic impedances, and acoustic moduli of the post-annealed tiles were statistically higher than for the unannealed tiles. However, the exposed surfaces of the annealed tiles experienced slight degradation, which was attributed to the high annealing temperatures.

  6. Microwave thermal radiation effects on skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hargsoon; Song, Kyo D.; Lee, Uhn; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-10-01

    Microwave/RF energy has been used for wireless power transmission including many therapeutic applications, such as transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT). For safe uses of RF power, it is important to know how to deliver microwave energy on focused area and control the temperature changes not to drastically increase on adjacent areas. Graphical analysis of thermal loading factor is important to understand how to achieve effective transmission of microwave through the tissue. The loss mechanism while transmission often appears as thermal effects due to absorption of microwave, especially for materials such as human skin, muscles, and other organic parts including brain. In this paper, microwave thermal effects are investigated to measure temperatures, penetration depth through animal skins in terms of input power and various frequencies. This result will be compare with the case of human applications.

  7. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  8. Time-of-Flight Microwave Camera.

    PubMed

    Charvat, Gregory; Temme, Andrew; Feigin, Micha; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-10-05

    Microwaves can penetrate many obstructions that are opaque at visible wavelengths, however microwave imaging is challenging due to resolution limits associated with relatively small apertures and unrecoverable "stealth" regions due to the specularity of most objects at microwave frequencies. We demonstrate a multispectral time-of-flight microwave imaging system which overcomes these challenges with a large passive aperture to improve lateral resolution, multiple illumination points with a data fusion method to reduce stealth regions, and a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) receiver to achieve depth resolution. The camera captures images with a resolution of 1.5 degrees, multispectral images across the X frequency band (8 GHz-12 GHz), and a time resolution of 200 ps (6 cm optical path in free space). Images are taken of objects in free space as well as behind drywall and plywood. This architecture allows "camera-like" behavior from a microwave imaging system and is practical for imaging everyday objects in the microwave spectrum.

  9. Microwave experiments on Prairie View Rotamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, R. J.; Xu, M.; Huang, Tian-Sen

    2015-05-15

    A 6 kW/2.45 GHz microwave system has been added on Prairie View Rotamak, and a series of experiments with microwave heating in both O-mode and X-mode configurations have been performed. Effective ionization of hydrogen in the two configurations is observed when filling pressure of the hydrogen gas is under p{sub f}=0.1 Pa. Clear oscillations in plasma current I{sub p} and magnetic field B{sub R} are excited when microwaves are injected into plasma in the X-mode configuration. The higher the injected microwave power, the sooner the emergence of the magnetic oscillations in B{sub R}, which implies the microwave may have decreased the elongation of the plasma. In the experiments, the efficiency of the current drive mechanism due to the injected microwave is about 0.2 kA/kW.

  10. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, G.J.; Katz, J.D.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques at 2.45 GHZ to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company.

  11. Realization of Miniaturized Multi-/Wideband Microwave Front-Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Shamaileh, Khair A.

    The ever-growing demand toward designing microwave front-end components with enhanced access to the radio spectrum (e.g., multi-/wideband functionality) and improved physical features (e.g., miniaturized circuitry, ease and cost of fabrication) is becoming more paramount than ever before. This dissertation proposes new design methodologies, simulations, and experimental validations of passive front-ends (i.e., antennas, couplers, dividers) at microwave frequencies. The presented design concepts optimize both electrical and physical characteristics without degrading the intended performance. The developed designs are essential to the upcoming wireless technologies. The first proposed component is a compact ultra-wideband (UWB) Wilkinson power divider (WPD). The design procedure is accomplished by replacing the uniform transmission lines in each arm of the conventional single-frequency divider with impedance-varying profiles governed by a truncated Fourier series. While such non-uniform transmission lines (NTLs) are obtained through the even-mode analysis, three isolation resistors are optimized in the odd-mode circuit to achieve proper isolation and output ports matching over the frequency range of interest. The proposed design methodology is systematic, and results in single-layered and compact structures. For verification purposes, an equal split WPD is designed, simulated, and measured. The obtained results show that the input and output ports matching as well as the isolation between the output ports are below --10 dB; whereas the transmission parameters vary between --3.2 dB and --5 dB across the 3.1--10.6 GHz band. The designed divider is expected to find applications in UWB antenna diversity, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) schemes, and antenna arrays feeding networks. The second proposed component is a wideband multi-way Bagley power divider (BPD). Wideband functionality is achieved by replacing the single-frequency matching uniform microstrip lines in

  12. Virtual cathode microwave devices: Basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thode, L. E.; Snell, C. M.

    Unlike a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential can cause electron reflection. The region associated with this electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and through the bunching of electrons trapped in a potential well between the real and virtual cathodes. These two mechanisms are competitive. There are three basic classes of virtual cathode devices: (1) reflex triode; (2) reditron and side-shoot vircator; and (3) reflex diode or vircator. The reflex diode is the highest power virtual-cathode device. For the reflex diode the energy exchange between the beam and electromagnetic wave occurs in both the axial and radial directions. In some designs the oscillating virtual-cathode frequency exceeds the reflexing-electron frequency while in other designs the reflexing-electron frequency exceeds the oscillating virtual-cathode frequency. For the flex diode, a periodic disruption in magnetic insulation can modulate the high-frequency microwave power. Overall, particle-in-cell simulation predictions and axial reflex diode experiments are in good agreement. Although frequency stability and phase locking of the reflex diode have been demonstrated, little progress has been made in efficiency enhancement.

  13. Microwave remote sensing of snowpacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction mechanisms responsible for the microwave backscattering and emission behavior of snow were investigated, and models were developed relating the backscattering coefficient (sigma) and apparent temperature (T) to the physical parameters of the snowpack. The microwave responses to snow wetness, snow water equivalent, snow surface roughness, and to diurnal variations were investigated. Snow wetness was shown to have an increasing effect with increasing frequency and angle of incidence for both active and passive cases. Increasing snow wetness was observed to decrease the magnitude sigma and increase T. Snow water equivalent was also observed to exhibit a significant influence sigma and T. Snow surface configuration (roughness) was observed to be significant only for wet snow surface conditions. Diurnal variations were as large as 15 dB for sigma at 35 GHz and 120 K for T at 37 GHz. Simple models for sigma and T of a snowpack scene were developed in terms of the most significant ground-truth parameters. The coefficients for these models were then evaluated; the fits to the sigma and T measurements were generally good. Finally, areas of needed additional observations were outlined and experiments were specified to further the understanding of the microwave-snowpack interaction mechanisms.

  14. Microwave amplification with nanomechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Massel, F; Heikkilä, T T; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Cho, S U; Saloniemi, H; Hakonen, P J; Sillanpää, M A

    2011-12-15

    The sensitive measurement of electrical signals is at the heart of modern technology. According to the principles of quantum mechanics, any detector or amplifier necessarily adds a certain amount of noise to the signal, equal to at least the noise added by quantum fluctuations. This quantum limit of added noise has nearly been reached in superconducting devices that take advantage of nonlinearities in Josephson junctions. Here we introduce the concept of the amplification of microwave signals using mechanical oscillation, which seems likely to enable quantum-limited operation. We drive a nanomechanical resonator with a radiation pressure force, and provide an experimental demonstration and an analytical description of how a signal input to a microwave cavity induces coherent stimulated emission and, consequently, signal amplification. This generic scheme, which is based on two linear oscillators, has the advantage of being conceptually and practically simpler than the Josephson junction devices. In our device, we achieve signal amplification of 25 decibels with the addition of 20 quanta of noise, which is consistent with the expected amount of added noise. The generality of the model allows for realization in other physical systems as well, and we anticipate that near-quantum-limited mechanical microwave amplification will soon be feasible in various applications involving integrated electrical circuits.

  15. Emissions from cooking microwave popcorn.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Jacky A; Krebs, Kenneth A; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    This study characterized chemicals released into a chamber in the process of cooking microwave popcorn. Seventeen types of microwave popcorn from eight different brands were studied. The work proceeded in two phases: phase one investigated chemicals emitted during popping and opening, phase two investigated chemicals emitted at discrete intervals from 0-40 minutes post-pop opening. The research was performed using a microwave oven enclosed in a chamber with ports for air sampling of particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs in the air samples were identified and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PM was characterized using both an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to cover a full range of emitted sizes. The compounds measured during popping and opening included butter flavoring components such as diacetyl, butyric acid, acetoin, propylene glycol, 2-nonanone, and triacetin and bag components such as p-xylene and perfluorinated alcohol 8:2 telomer. The greatest chemical quantity is emitted when the bag is opened post-popping; more than 80% of the total chemical emissions occur at this time. PMID:17987444

  16. Virtual cathode microwave devices -- Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, L.E.; Snell, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential can cause electron reflection. The region associated with this electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and through the bunching of electrons trapped in a potential well between the real and virtual cathodes. These two mechanisms are competitive. There are three basic classes of virtual cathode devices: (1) reflex triode; (2) reditron and side-shoot vircator; and (3) reflex diode or vircator. The reflex diode is the highest power virtual-cathode device. For the reflex diode the energy exchange between the beam and electromagnetic wave occurs in both the axial and radial directions. In some designs the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency exceeds the reflexing-electron frequency exceeds the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency. For the flex diode a periodic disruption in magnetic insulation can modulate the high- frequency microwave power. Overall, particle-in-cell simulation predictions and axial reflex diode experiments are in good agreement. Although frequency stability and phase locking of the reflex diode have been demonstrated, little progress has been made in efficiency enhancement. 58 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave power to thermally regenerate sorbents loaded with water vapor, CO2, and organic contaminants has been rigorously demonstrated. Sorbents challenged with air containing 0.5% CO2, 300 ppm acetone, 50 ppm trichloroethylene, and saturated with water vapor have been regenerated, singly and in combination. Microwave transmission, reflection, and phase shift has also been determined for a variety of sorbents over the frequency range between 1.3-2.7 GHz. This innovative technology offers the potential for significant energy savings in comparison to current resistive heating methods because energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated. Conductive, convective and radiative losses are minimized. Extremely rapid heating is also possible, i.e., 1400 C in less than 60 seconds. Microwave powered thermal desorption is directly applicable to the needs of Advance Life Support in general, and of EVA in particular. Additionally, the applicability of two specific commercial applications arising from this technology have been demonstrated: the recovery for re-use of acetone (and similar solvents) from industrial waste streams using a carbon based molecular sieve; and the separation and destruction of trichloroethylene using ZSM-5 synthetic zeolite catalyst, a predominant halocarbon environmental contaminant. Based upon these results, Phase II development is strongly recommended.

  18. Improved Microwave Fiber-Optic Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Ronald T.; Lutes, George F.

    1995-01-01

    High power output and narrow linewidth of Nd:YAG laser and external modulator combination enable higher stability and higher dynamic range fiber-optic transmission of microwave signals over longer distances. System prototype to test concept of high fidelity transmission of received microwave signals over fiber-optic cables, without need to downconvert microwave signals for transmission. Useful in distribution of future, more stable, frequency reference signals, phased array radar systems, and aircraft landing systems using bistatic radar.

  19. Microwave devices: Carbon nanotubes as cold cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Minoux, Eric; Hudanski, Ludovic; Peauger, Franck; Schnell, Jean-Philippe; Gangloff, Laurent; Legagneux, Pierre; Dieumegard, Dominique; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Milne, William I.

    2005-10-01

    To communicate, spacecraft and satellites rely on microwave devices, which at present are based on relatively inefficient thermionic electron sources that require heating and cannot be switched on instantaneously. Here we describe a microwave diode that uses a cold-cathode electron source consisting of carbon nanotubes and that operates at high frequency and at high current densities. Because it weighs little, responds instantaneously and has no need of heating, this miniaturized electron source should prove valuable for microwave devices used in telecommunications.

  20. Microwave devices: carbon nanotubes as cold cathodes.

    PubMed

    Teo, Kenneth B K; Minoux, Eric; Hudanski, Ludovic; Peauger, Franck; Schnell, Jean-Philippe; Gangloff, Laurent; Legagneux, Pierre; Dieumegard, Dominique; Amaratunga, Gehan A J; Milne, William I

    2005-10-13

    To communicate, spacecraft and satellites rely on microwave devices, which at present are based on relatively inefficient thermionic electron sources that require heating and cannot be switched on instantaneously. Here we describe a microwave diode that uses a cold-cathode electron source consisting of carbon nanotubes and that operates at high frequency and at high current densities. Because it weighs little, responds instantaneously and has no need of heating, this miniaturized electron source should prove valuable for microwave devices used in telecommunications.

  1. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  2. Microwave Stark decelerator for polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Enomoto, Katsunari; Momose, Takamasa

    2005-12-15

    We propose a method to decelerate polar molecules from a beam using a microwave field. A moving standing wave of a microwave electric field causes an ac Stark shift to polar molecules and decelerates them. The method is applicable to polar molecules in rotational ground states and can be used to directly load a microwave trap. Numerical simulations are presented indicating large phase-space acceptance volume.

  3. Design of a geostationary microwave precipitation radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William J.; Eldred, Daniel B.

    1993-11-01

    The Geostationary Microwave Precipitation Radiometer will be a passive microwave radiometer system to be flown on the NASA Geostationary Earth Observatory. This instrument will provide microwave images for meteorology. It will measure radiation from the Earth and its atmosphere in seven frequency bands from 37 to 220 GHz. The instrument will have a 4 m Cassegrain antenna which will be mechanically scanned to provide images of the Earth in approximately equals 2 hours.

  4. Microwave Tokamak Experiment: Overview and status

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The Microwave Tokamak Experiment, now under construction at the Laboratory, will use microwave heating from a free-electron laser. The intense microwave pulses will be injected into the tokamak to realize several goals, including a demonstration of the effects of localized heat deposition within magnetically confined plasma, a better understanding of energy confinement in tokamaks, and use of the new free-electron laser technology for plasma heating. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Microwave applications and characterization of the microwave properties of high temperature superconducting films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, D. M.; Bautista, J. J.; Riley, A. L.; Dick, G. J.; Housley, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The development by NASA JPL of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) for use in microwave circuit elements is discussed. The synthesis of HTS films and characterization of their microwave absorption are reviewed. Applications to cryogenic low-noise receivers, spacecraft microwave systems, and low-noise oscillators are considered.

  6. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takeo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Mineki, Shigeru; Ohuchi, Shokichi

    2015-01-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same. PMID:26348227

  7. Microwave-mediated enzymatic modifications of DNA.

    PubMed

    Das, Rakha Hari; Ahirwar, Rajesh; Kumar, Saroj; Nahar, Pradip

    2015-02-15

    Here we report microwave-induced specific cleavage, ligation, dephosphorylation, and phosphorylation of nucleic acids catalyzed by restriction endonucleases, T4 DNA ligase, T4 polynucleotide kinase, and calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase. The microwave-mediated method has dramatically reduced the reaction time to 20 to 50s. In control experiments, the same reactions failed to give the desired reaction products when carried out in the same time periods but without microwave irradiation. Because the microwave method is rapid, it could be a useful alternative to the time-consuming conventional procedure for enzymatic modification of DNA. PMID:25447491

  8. Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhao, Chujun; Lu, Shunbin; Chen, Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

    2012-10-01

    We report on the first experiments on saturable absorption in graphene at microwave frequency band. Almost independent of the incident frequency, microwave absorbance of graphene always decreases with increasing the power and reaches at a constant level for power larger than 80 µW, evidencing the microwave saturable absorption property of graphene. Optical saturable absorption of the same graphene sample was also experimentally confirmed by an open-aperture Z-scan technique by one laser at telecommunication band and another pico-second laser at 1053 nm, respectively. Herein, we are able to conclude that graphene is indeed a broadband saturable absorber that can operate at both microwave and optical band.

  9. Microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, J A; Inguanzo, M; Pis, J J

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a new method for pyrolyzing sewage sludge using a microwave furnace. It was found that if just the raw wet sludge is treated in the microwave, only drying of the sample takes place. However, if the sludge is mixed with a small amount of a suitable microwave absorber (such as the char produced in the pyrolysis itself) temperatures of up to 900 degrees C can be achieved, so that pyrolysis takes place rather than drying. Microwave treatments were also compared with those carried out in a conventional electric furnace, as well as the characteristics of their respective carbonaceous solid residues.

  10. Interaction of microwaves and germinating seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary investigation measured the internal metabolic process by ATP production. Leakage of ions and organic material from germinating seeds indicated that membranes are a target of microwaves and heat. Electron photo-micrographs showed an increase in damage to membranes as heat and microwave treatments were increased. The second phase of this investigation was concerned with determining some of the biological activity at the initiation of germination of wheat seed, Triticum aestivum L., using a resonating microwave cavity oscillating at 9.3 GHz as a probe. Direct current conductivity measurements were also made on the seeds as a means of confirming the observations made with the microwave cavity.

  11. Microwave Supported Treatment of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíček, František; Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Giemza, Markus; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This work is focused on microwave treatment of sewage sludge. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the impact of microwave radiation upon different sewage sludge parameters such as concentration of nitrates and nitrites, phosphates, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SVI (Sludge Volume Index) and the microscopic structure of sludge. The experiments with microwave irradiation of sewage sludge indicate that moderate microwave power causes visible effects on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the sludge. The calculation of profitability and energy efficiency is also presented.

  12. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-03-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure.

  13. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  14. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  15. Simple microwave preionization source for ohmic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, W.; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Kim, Junghee; Kim, Jayhyun; Jeon, Sang-Jean; Huh, Songwhe

    2000-07-01

    A simple economical 2.45 GHz microwave system has been developed and utilized for preionization on the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)-TOKAMAK. The magnetron microwave source was obtained from a widely used, household microwave oven. Since ac operation of the magnetron is not suitable for tokamak application, the magnetron cathode bias circuit was modified to obtain continuous and stable operation of the magnetron for several hundred milliseconds. Application of the developed microwave system to KAIST-TOKAMAK resulted in a reduction of ohmic flux consumption.

  16. CHARGING OF DEVICES BY MICROWAVE POWER BEAMING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system for providing wireless, charging power and/or primary power to electronic/electrical devices is described whereby microwave energy is employed. Microwave energy is focused by a power transmitter comprising one or more adaptively-phased microwave array emitters onto a device to be charged. Rectennas within the device to be charged receive and rectify the microwave energy and use it for battery charging and/or for primary power. A locator signal generated by the device to be charged is analyzed by the system to determine the location of the device to be charged relative to the microwave array emitters, permitting thc microwave energy to be directly specifically towards the device to be charged. Backscatter detectors respond to backscatter energy reflected off of any obstacle between the device to be charged and the microwave array emitters. Power to any obstructed microwave array emitter is reduced until the obstruction is removed. Optionally, data can be modulated onto microwave energy beams produced by the array emitter and demodulated by the device, thereby providing means of data communication from the power transmitter to the device. Similarly, data can be modulated onto the locator signal and demodulated in the power transmitter, thereby providing means of data communication from the device to the power transmitter.

  17. Microwave cavity diagnostics of microwave breakdown plasmas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstrom, D.J.; Williams, M.S.

    1989-08-01

    We have performed microwave cavity perturbation measurements in the LLNL AIM facility using a 329-MHz cavity that allow us to examine in detail the plasma formation and decay processes for electron densities between approximately 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 7}/cm{sup 3}. We believe these to be the lowest density plasmas ever studied in microwave breakdown experiments, and as such they allow us to determine the power and energy required to produce plasmas suitable for HF radar reflection as well as the effective lifetimes of these plasmas before re-ionization is required. Analyses of these results leads to the following conclusions. (1) For microwave breakdown pulses varying from 0.6 to 2.4 {mu}s, the threshold power required to produce measurable plasmas is 30 to 12 MW/m{sup 2} at 0.01 torr, decreasing to 3.5 to 1.8 MW/m{sup 2} at 1 to 3 torr, and then increasing to 5 to 3.5 MW/m{sup 2} at 30 torr. The threshold power in each case decreases with increasing pulse length, but the required pulse energy increases with decreasing power or increasing pulse length. (2) The effective electron density decay rates are approximately 100/s for 0.1 to 1 torr, after which they increase linearly with pressure. Thus, the useful plasma lifetimes are in the range of 20 to 40 ms at the lower pressures and decrease to about 1 ms at 30 torr. These decay rates and lifetimes are comparable to those that would exist for artificially ionized regions in the upper atmosphere. (3) The collision frequencies measured at pressures of 1 torr and above correspond to electron temperatures of 800 K or less. In fact, the inferred temperatures for p > 3 torr are below room temperature. This may be due to a contribution to the measured conductivity by negative ions.

  18. Status of the NASA SETI Sky Survey microwave observing project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Wilck, H. C.; Olsen, E. T.; Garyantes, M. F.; Burns, D. J.; Asmar, P. R.; Brady, R. B.; Deich, W. T. S.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sky Survey observing program is one of two complementary strategies that NASA plans to use in its microwave Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). The primary objective of the Sky Survey is to search the entire sky over the frequency range 1000-10,000 MHz for evidence of narrow band signals of extraterrestrial, intelligent origin. Spectrum analyzers with upwards of 10 million channels and data rates in excess of 10 gigabits per second are required to complete the survey in less than 7 years. To lay the foundation for the operational SETI Sky Survey, a prototype system has been built to test and refine real time signal detection algorithms, to test scan strategies and observatory control functions, and to test algorithms designed to reject radio frequency interference. This paper presents a high level description of the prototype hardware and reports on the preparations to deploy the system to the 34-m antenna at the research and development station of NASA's Deep Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California.

  19. Associations of trimester-specific gestational weight gain with maternal adiposity and systolic blood pressure at 3 and 7 years postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jessica R.; Perng, Wei; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rifas-Shiman, Ms. Sheryl L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our objective was to examine the associations of total and trimester-specific gestational weight gain (GWG) rate with postpartum maternal weight and cardiometabolic risk. We hypothesized the first trimester GWG would be most strongly associated with long-term maternal health. METHODS We studied 801 women enrolled during the 1st trimester of pregnancy in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort 1999–2002. At 3 years postpartum we measured maternal weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and collected fasting blood from a subset. At 7 years postpartum we again measured weight and waist circumference. We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate relations of total and trimester-specific GWG rate with weight change (vs. self-reported pre-pregnancy weight) and waist circumference at each timepoint, stratified by pre-pregnancy weight, as well as associations with SBP and insulin resistance at 3 years. RESULTS Median age at enrollment was 34.0 years (range: 16.4–44.9); 65% were white. Mean (SD) total GWG rate was 0.38 (0.14) kg/week. Women gained weight faster during the second (0.47 [0.19] kg/week) and third trimesters (0.44 [0.22] kg/week) than the first (0.22 [0.22] kg/week). Total and first trimester GWG rate were most strongly associated with postpartum weight change. Among normal weight women, each 1 SD increase in total and first trimester GWG rate corresponded with 0.85 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.63) kg and 2.08 (1.32, 2.84) kg greater weight change at 3 and 7 years postpartum respectively, but there was not strong evidence of association for either second (−0.30 kg; 95% CI: −1.08, 0.48) or third trimester (−0.26 kg; 95% CI: −1.08, 0.55) GWG. First trimester GWG rate also related to 3-year postpartum weight change in overweight (2.28 kg; 95% CI: 0.95, 3.61) and obese (2.47 kg; 95% CI: 0.98, 3.97) women. Greater total and first trimester GWG rate were associated with larger waist circumference and higher SBP but not insulin

  20. Microwave radiometry for continuous non-contact temperature measurements during microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D; Pearce, John A

    2005-01-01

    Temperature measurement during microwave heating in industrial and commercial processes can improve quality, throughput, and energy conservation. Conventional ways of measuring temperature inside a microwave oven cavity are costly, inconvenient, or unsuitable for high-volume industrial applications. In this paper, we describe the theory of microwave radiometry as applied to the measurement of temperature during microwave heating. By extending the theory of radiative transfer to the case of thermal microwave radiation inside a cavity, we show that the same characteristics which make a microwave cavity suitable for heating materials also assist in obtaining meaningful temperature data with microwave radiometry. We present experimental data from the heating of liquid and solid materials which confirm the essential features of the theory, and show agreement between this method and more conventional methods of +/-4 degrees C.