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Sample records for 7-year-old boy presented

  1. Lymphedema in a 7-year-old boy infected with Wuchereria bancrofti in Sierra Leone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dome, Mackenzie; Ansumana, Rashid; Covington, Andrea L; Rebollo, Maria P; Sesay, Santigie; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; de Souza, Dziedzom K; Koudou, Benjamin G; Michael, Edwin; Bockarie, Moses J

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of congenital lymphedema in a 7-year-old boy in Sierra Leone with active filarial infection and penile edema. The genital edema with onset at 6 months of age may have been due to a congenital abnormality in lymphatic drainage. Other possible causes of childhood lymphedema, including Milroy's disease, are discussed. PMID:24561072

  2. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  3. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  4. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family. PMID:25937802

  5. Neurofibromatous sensory neuropathy of the thigh in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Gautam M; Murari, Ashok Shyam; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok Hyun; Yang, Jae Hyuk

    2008-10-01

    Neuropathy is considered to be an unusual complication of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Neurofibromatous neuropathy is extremely rare in the setting of paediatric age group, pure sensory mononeuropathy and NF1. The following is a description of a 7-year-old boy who presented with complains of discomfort and parasthesia on the anterior aspect of his left thigh which is an unusual mode of presentation and site of involvement. Clinical examination and imaging revealed an isolated sensory neuropathy of the left anterior femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh secondary to plexiform neurofibromatosis involving the L1-L4 nerve roots and the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve of thigh. The main abnormality in this patient was segmental hypertrophy of the left lower limb and dilatation of left lumbar neural foramens. Subtotal excision of the neurofibromas of the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve was performed and the patient was asymptomatic at the end of 27 months (2.25 years) of followup. Although the result of treatment in this case was good, long-term followup is necessary in view of greater risk of malignant transformation and development of spinal deformity and overall long-term poor prognosis in this particular patient subgroup of NF1. PMID:17929043

  6. A 7-year-old boy with acute onset of breathing difficulty.

    PubMed

    Salas, Ariel A

    2010-02-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a major bacterial pathogen affecting children globally. Approximately 15% of school-age children experience a symptomatic episode of GAS culture-positive pharyngitis each year. Although the incidence of invasive GAS disease under these circumstances is low (0.5%-2%), an increasing number of invasive GAS cases have been reported over the last 2 decades. This report describes a 7-year-old boy who, after being treated for GAS pharyngitis, developed a fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. PMID:20145509

  7. Duodenal intussusception secondary to web presenting as recurrent pancreatitis in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Tu, Long H; Villalona, Gustavo A; Cowles, Robert A; Silva, Cicero T

    2016-03-01

    Duodenal intussusception is a rare entity in children, with 32 cases reported in the English literature to our knowledge. Most reported cases are associated with endoluminal tubes or polyps, and the presenting symptoms are chronic and nonspecific. We report a case of duodenal intussusception in a 7-year-old girl secondary to a duodenal web and review the imaging findings. PMID:26553449

  8. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. A 7-year old boy with rapid growth and pubic hair].

    PubMed

    Berents-Oosterhof, M Y; Noordam, C; Otten, B J

    2000-12-16

    A 7-year-old boy was tall, with a developing penis and initial growth of pubic hair. Due to the accelerated growth there was no premature adrenarche and due to the increased testicular volume there must have been a central cause for the production of androgens. Further specific investigations revealed an astrocytoma of the hypothalamus. After radiotherapy, the tumour exhibited no growth. The pubertal development was inhibited and the growth later stimulated by means of medication. In the case of pubertas praecox the growth chart and pubertal stages including testicular volume can help to differentiate between central and peripheral precocious puberty, narrow the diagnostic evaluation and reduce the time of the initial therapy. PMID:11151653

  9. [Neurological alterations and intellectual deficits with sudden visual loss in a 7-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Gotz-Wieckowska, A; Pawlak, M; Siwiec-Proscinska, J; Seget, M

    2013-05-01

    Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NLC) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of lysosomal storage diseases. The most common NCL is the juvenile type which begins between the ages of 4 and 10 years in most cases with sudden visual loss which correlates with maculopathy and leads to blindness within a few years of presentation. After several years neurological deterioration ensues and in most cases death occurs in the 3rd decade of life. As with other storage disorders NCL is an incurable disease. PMID:23224126

  10. "Generalist Genes" and Mathematics in 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Y.; Harlaar, N.; Petrill, S. A.; Plomin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics performance at 7 years as assessed by teachers using UK national curriculum criteria has been found to be highly heritable. For almost 3000 pairs of 7-year-old same-sex twins, we used multivariate genetic analysis to investigate the extent to which these genetic effects on mathematics performance overlap with genetic effects on reading…

  11. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

  12. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  13. The Prevalence of Malocclusion and Oral Habits among 5–7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kasparaviciene, Kristina; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Zasciurinskiene, Egle; Vasiliauskas, Arunas; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Sidlauskas, Mantas; Marmaite, Ugne

    2014-01-01

    Background Digit sucking, tongue thrust swallowing, and mouth breathing are potential risk factors for development of malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of different occlusal traits among 5–7-year-old children and assess their relationship with oral habits. Material/Methods The study included 503 pre-school children (260 boys and 243 girls) with a mean age of 5.95 years. Different occlusal traits were verified by intraoral examination. Oral habits were diagnosed using data gathered from clinical examination of occlusion and extra-oral assessment of the face, combined with a questionnaire for parents. Results The study demonstrated that 71.4% of the children presented with 1 or more attributes of malocclusion and 16.9% had oral habits. The vertical and sagittal malrelation of incisors, as well as spacing, were the predominant features. This study showed that digit suckers have higher incidence of anterior open bite (P=0.013) and posterior crossbite (P=0.005). The infantile type of swallowing demonstrated strong association (P=0.001) with anterior open bite. Conclusions Non-nutritive sucking habits and tongue thrust swallowing are significant risk factors for the development of anterior open bite and posterior crossbite in pre-school children. PMID:25344319

  14. Darier's disease - Oral, general and histopathological features in a 7 year old child.

    PubMed

    Dharman, Sreedevi; Arvind, Muthukrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Darier's disease, also known as keratosis follicularis, is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, manifesting clinically as hyperkeratotic, firm papule that predominates in the seborrheic areas and flexures with accompanying nail abnormalities. Heat, sweating, sunlight, and stress are exacerbating factors of the lesion. The oral lesions are asymptomatic and comprise multiple white papules in the buccal mucosa and hard palate, giving a cobblestone appearance, and it is characterized histologically by loss of desmosomal adhesion and abnormal keratinization resulting in mucocutaneous abnormalities. Pruritus, recurrent infections, and malodor can decrease the quality of life. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with clinical and histological features of Darier's disease. PMID:27080970

  15. Large ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in a 7-year-old girl with analysis of 108 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kirjavainen, Antti; Tuovinen, Veikko; Sándor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) are rare conditions in children and are often asymptomatic. AFOs are found by routine clinical and radiological examination or when they cause obvious intra- or extra-oral swelling. Materials and Methods: A case of an AFO in a 7-year-old girl is described, and 107 cases from the literature and this report are analyzed. Results: The total of 108 cases revealed the average age at presentation of AFO to be 6.3 years in boys and 9.6 years in girls. There was a slight male predilection and AFO lesions most often occurred in the posterior mandible. AFO was almost always associated with an unerupted tooth or teeth. Conclusions: While the recurrence rate of AFO was found to be 5.5%, long-term postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up is advised to ensure no future signs of aggressive recurrence.

  16. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  17. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  18. Delayed retropneumoperitoneum following vaginal laceration in a 7-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Im, Hyesook; Lee, Sanghoon; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae-Yun; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of delayed retropneumoperitoneum caused by a deep vaginal laceration as a result trauma from a water jet in a fountain. A 7-year-old premenarcheal girl presented to the emergency department after experiencing an injury from a water jet at a fountain park. Initially, the patient's vital sign and perineum were within normal range. Because the patient's vital signs became unstable 12 hours after vaginal injury, we carried out abdomino-pelvic computed tomography resulting in retropneumoperitoneum. Arterial bleeding from vaginal lateral wall was founded and controlled by electrocoagulation. No damage to the rectum was laparoscopically confirmed. A diagnostic laparoscopy, not laparotomy, should be considered in cases of retropneumoperitoneum with an ambiguous cause first. PMID:27200319

  19. Delayed retropneumoperitoneum following vaginal laceration in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Im, Hyesook; Lee, Sanghoon; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae-Yun; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo

    2016-05-01

    We describe an unusual case of delayed retropneumoperitoneum caused by a deep vaginal laceration as a result trauma from a water jet in a fountain. A 7-year-old premenarcheal girl presented to the emergency department after experiencing an injury from a water jet at a fountain park. Initially, the patient's vital sign and perineum were within normal range. Because the patient's vital signs became unstable 12 hours after vaginal injury, we carried out abdomino-pelvic computed tomography resulting in retropneumoperitoneum. Arterial bleeding from vaginal lateral wall was founded and controlled by electrocoagulation. No damage to the rectum was laparoscopically confirmed. A diagnostic laparoscopy, not laparotomy, should be considered in cases of retropneumoperitoneum with an ambiguous cause first. PMID:27200319

  20. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Preterm-Born 7-Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of preterm-born children (<37 weeks’ gestation) have demonstrated decrements in lung function, exercise capacity, and increased respiratory symptoms compared to their term-born peers. However, it is unclear if these children have decreased levels of physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary behavior as a consequence of this increased respiratory morbidity. We therefore compared objectively measured PA in 7-year old preterm-born children with those born at term. Methods Children in the Millennium Cohort Study underwent assessment of PA at 7 years of age using accelerometry. 6422/12781 (50%) provided valid accelerometry and had gestational age data. A series of general linear models adjusted for confounders investigated the association between gestational age and levels of Total PA (average accelerometer counts per minute over the period of the recording), Moderate-to-Vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Mediation analysis was performed to specifically investigate whether the observed association of gestational age on PA was mediated by respiratory symptoms. Results PA data were available for 79, 119, 275 and 5949 children born at 25–32, 33–34, 35–36 and 37–43 weeks’ gestation respectively. Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation had modest but statistically significant reductions in MVPA when compared to term controls. This equated to a reduction of 9 minutes per day. No differences were found for Total PA or sedentary behavior. The association between gestational age and MVPA was not mediated by respiratory symptoms. In females, there was no association between gestational age and any measure of PA or sedentary behavior. Conclusions Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation took part in less MVPA than their term-born peers at 7 years of age. The differences were modest, but equated to a reduction of over 1 hour per week. Since PA levels have been shown to decline during childhood and adolescence, this vulnerable group

  1. Object exploration in 3- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sniegulska, Magdalena; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze free exploration of an unfamiliar, novel object in a semi-natural environment in 189 preschool children aged 3 to 7 years. The study used a purpose-built, novel, and complex stimulus object. Each child was shown the complex object lying on the floor and asked to explore it for 15 minutes. The child's behavior was video recorded. Age-dependent differences were found in the children's exploratory activity. No sex differences were found. Cluster analysis showed four main behavioral patterns that differed in their qualitative and quantitative parameters. Cluster membership was mainly age-dependent and not sex-specific. The results showed individual and developmental differences among the preschoolers with respect to their exploratory activity. This should be taken into account by school psychologists and teachers when designing the educational tasks and play situations. PMID:24597446

  2. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  3. A 7 years old girl with abdominal lump and per-vaginal bleeding of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Nahar, K; Begum, B; Sarker, U K; Akter, F; Roy, J; Chakrabarty, R

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is suggested from the clinical and laboratory findings. Here we present a case report on this disease with rare presentation of abdominal lump and pervaginal bleeding in childhood. A 7 years old girl admitted in a tertiary level hospital with abdominal lump and irregular per vaginal bleeding. Abdominal swelling was gradually increasing in size & associated with lower abdominal pain for last 5 months. On examination the girl was moderately anaemic, mildly oedematous, distended lower abdomen and a mass in left iliac region. Her thyroid function test, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Prolactin was done and high FSH, LH, Prolactin levels were found. Ultrasonography of lower abdomen revealed bulky uterus and bilateral ovarian cysts. MRI of Brain showed feature of pituitary microadenoma. Finally the patient was diagnosed as primary hypothyroidism and bilateral follicular ovarian cyst with pituitary adenoma developed as its consequence. The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience. PMID:25725684

  4. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  5. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  6. Electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions in 6-7 year olds with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Coppes, L; Kenemans, J L; Schutter, D J L G; Matthys, W

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expressions was recorded in twenty 6-7 year old children with ASD and twenty-seven typically developing children. Even though results did not show differences in facial mimicry between children with ASD and typically developing children, impairment in social responsiveness was significantly associated with reduced fear mimicry in children with ASD. These findings demonstrate normal mimicry in children with ASD as compared to healthy controls, but that in children with ASD the degree of impairments in social responsiveness may be associated with reduced sensitivity to distress signals. PMID:23888357

  7. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  8. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  9. Hypnotic intervention in a 7-year-old thumbsucker: a case study.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David N

    2012-01-01

    Thumbsucking is a common habit among younger children. Usually, the child outgrows this habit by age 6. When a child over the age of 6 continues to suck his or her thumb, it can be a cause of potential harm due to peer pressure, ridicule, and shunning. It can also lead to malocclusions requiring eventual orthodontic interventions. In this case study, the author demonstrates a hypnotic intervention in a 7-year-old girl. Validation of her habit and imaging a role model sucking her thumb were employed in trance. Using this approach, the child was able to end her dependence on thumbsucking in 1 session. PMID:22443022

  10. Bilateral optic neuritis in a boy - More than the eyes.

    PubMed

    Loh, M A; Alex Khoo, P C; Chong, M F

    2016-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare disorder in children with variable presentation. We report a 7-year-old boy who presented with bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and responded very well to treatment. He was also positive for aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies, which is part of an emerging endophenotype within autoimmune neurological disorders in childhood. PMID:27326949

  11. Clinical manifestation of Hurler syndrome in a 7 year old child.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Sabharwal, J R; Datta, P; Sood, S

    2012-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I H, Hurler syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn deficiency in the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate, resulting from deficiency of Alpha-L-iduronidase enzyme. This condition is characterized by accumulation of incompletely degraded glycosaminoglycans into various organs of body, which leads to impairment of organs and body functions. Such children appear nearly normal at birth; however, if left untreated, show a progressive mental and physical deterioration leading to death due to cardiorespiratory failure before the second decade of life. Pedodontists have a role for early diagnosis, rendering corrective and preventive treatment to the developing dentition, and referring the patient to the concerned specialities. An interesting case of a seven year old boy with a combination of skeletal, neurological, ophthalmologic, oro-dental and radiological findings of this diverse and devastating clinical entity with MPS I-(Hurler syndrome) has been presented here in this case report. PMID:22557905

  12. Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes in children, but findings with regard to behavioral problems are inconsistent. Objective We investigated whether residential road traffic noise exposure is associated with behavioral problems in 7-year-old children. Methods We identified 46,940 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete information on behavioral problems at 7 years of age and complete address history from conception to 7 years of age. Road traffic noise (Lden) was modeled at all present and historical addresses. Behavioral problems were assessed by the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between pregnancy and childhood exposure to noise and behavioral problems were analyzed by multinomial or logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders. Results A 10-dB increase in average time-weighted road traffic noise exposure from birth to 7 years of age was associated with a 7% increase (95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) in abnormal versus normal total difficulties scores; 5% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and 9% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) increases in borderline and abnormal hyperactivity/inattention subscale scores, respectively; and 5% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.14) and 6% (95% CI: 0.99, 1.12) increases in abnormal conduct problem and peer relationship problem subscale scores, respectively. Exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy was not associated with child behavioral problems at 7 years of age. Conclusions Residential road traffic noise in early childhood may be associated with behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Citation Hjortebjerg D, Andersen AM, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sunyer J, Julvez J, Forns J, Sørensen M. 2016. Exposure to road traffic noise and behavioral problems in 7-year-old children: a cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:228–234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409430 PMID

  13. Lead exposure and intelligence in 7-year-old children: the Yugoslavia Prospective Study.

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Lolacono, N J; Factor-Litvak, P; Kline, J K; Popovac, D; Morina, N; Musabegovic, A; Vrenezi, N; Capuni-Paracka, S; Lekic, V; Preteni-Redjepi, E; Hadzialjevic, S; Slavkovich, V; Graziano, J H

    1997-01-01

    For a prospective study of lead exposure and early development, we recruited pregnant women from a lead smelter town and from an unexposed town in Yugoslavia and followed their children through 7 years of age. In this paper we consider associations between lifetime lead exposure, estimated by the area under the blood lead (BPb) versus time curve (AUC7), and intelligence, with particular concern for identifying lead's behavioral signature. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Version III (WISC-III) was administered to 309 7-year-old children, 261 of whom had complete data on intelligence, blood lead, and relevant sociodemographic covariates (i.e., Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME), birth weight, gender, sibship size, and maternal age, ethnicity, intelligence, and education). These showed anticipated associations with 7-year intelligence, explaining 41-4% of the variance in Full Scale, Performance, and Verbal IQ. Before covariate adjustment, AUC7 was unrelated to intelligence; after adjustment, AUC7 explained a significant 2.8%-4.2% of the variance in IQ. After adjustment, a change in lifetime BPb from 10 to 30 micro/dl related to an estimated decrease of 4.3 Full Scale IQ points; estimated decreases for Verbal and Performance IQ were 3.4 and 4.5 points, respectively. AUC7 was significantly and negatively related to three WISC-III factor scores: Freedom from Distractibility, Perceptual Organization, and Verbal Comprehension; the association with Perceptual Organization was the strongest. Consistent with previous studies, the IQ/lead association is small relative to more powerful social factors. Findings offer support for lead's behavioral signature; perceptual-motor skills are significantly more sensitive to lead exposure than are the language-related aspects of intelligence. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 2. PMID:9410739

  14. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  15. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  16. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  17. A Developmental Study of Timing Behavior in 4 1/2- and 7-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouthas, Viviane; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne

    1987-01-01

    Investigates effects of age and instructions on temporal regulations of behavior in two experiments. Results of two experiments suggest that for 4 1/2- and 7-year-olds trained with DRL (differential reinforcement of low rates), age and timing performance are related, and that instructions to wait between operant responses enhance DRL performance…

  18. Enterobius vermicularis: an unusual cause of recurrent urinary tract infestation in a 7-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupeshwari; Sharma, Tanya; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Dhingra Bhan, Bhavna

    2015-04-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, the pinworm, is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. Ectopic infestations in the genital or urinary tracts rarely occur and chronic enterobiasis of the urinary tract has rarely been reported. Here we present such a case in a 7-year-old girl presenting with fever, pain in the abdomen, vomiting and burning micturition. Ultrasonography and micturating cystourethrogram (MCU) studies were normal. The ova were demonstrated from both the patient's urine and stool specimen. This child was treated successfully with Albendazole and Ivermectin. PMID:25586573

  19. Developing appreciation for ambivalence: the understanding of concurrent conflicting desires in 4- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-06-01

    The current experiment examined the development of children's ability to comprehend concurrent conflicting desires (i.e., both wanting and not wanting something at the same time). Participants were 4- to 7-year-old children and a group of undergraduate students (N = 20 in each age group). Results showed that the 6- and 7-year-old children understood concurrent conflicting desires at levels that were well above chance. There was evidence that even some of the 5-year-olds exhibited an emerging comprehension of conflicting desires. However, the 4-year-old children showed little ability to appreciate conflicting desire states. As such, children showed appreciation for conflicting desires at younger ages than suggested by previous research. In addition, significant relationships were observed between children's concurrent conflicting desire understanding and their theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) skills, even after controlling for chronological and verbal age. PMID:24708406

  20. Predictors of VO2Peak in children age 6- to 7-years-old.

    PubMed

    Dencker, Magnus; Hermansen, Bianca; Bugge, Anna; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars B

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the predictors of aerobic fitness (VO2PEAK) in young children on a population-base. Participants were 436 children (229 boys and 207 girls) aged 6.7 ± 0.4 yrs. VO2PEAK was measured during a maximal treadmill exercise test. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers. Total body fat and total fat free mass were estimated from skinfold measurements. Regression analyses indicated that significant predictors for VO2PEAK per kilogram body mass were total body fat, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 4-7%. Further analyses showed the main contributing factors for absolute values of VO2PEAK were fat free mass, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 3-6%. PMID:21467593

  1. A unique presentation, and management, of acute urinary retention in a young boy with underlying vesicoureteral reflux.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Modgil, Vaibhav; Luscombe, Christopher; Liu, Samson

    2013-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) affects ∼1% of children. We present an unusual case of urinary retention secondary to an obstructing urethral stone, underlying reflux, and its management. A 7-year-old boy presenting with acute urinary retention had a palpable penile shaft swelling and patent urethral meatus on examination. Cysto-urethroscopy with a 6.6Fr ureteroscope, due to unavailability of paediatric instruments, revealed an obstructing calculus impacted in the navicular fossa. This was laser fragmented and extracted. Cystoscopy revealed multiple bladder calculi with a patulous right ureteric orifice. Post-operative investigations revealed a small, scarred right kidney (ultrasound), bilateral ureteric reflux (micturating-cystourethrogram), 4 cm by 0.8 cm right ureteric calculus (CT-KUB) and 4% right split renal function (DMSA). Right laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was subsequently performed. Our case highlights the variety with which VUR can present and the effectiveness of a ureteroscope in an emergency setting as an alternative to a paediatric cystoscope to visualize the urethra and the bladder. PMID:24963900

  2. Development of Inferencing Skills in 5 to 7 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne, V.; Ramasamy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of inferencing in five to seven year old children. The subjects consisted of thirty typically developing children of five, six and seven years, distributed into three groups of ten. Four sets of material were prepared and for each two types of questions were constructed. The questions being of literal…

  3. Development of the Updating Executive Function: From 7-Year-Olds to Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R.; Herrero, Laura; Rucián, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Updating information in working memory (WM) is a critical executive function responsible both for continuously replacing outdated information with new relevant data and to suppress or inhibit content that is no longer relevant according to task demands. The goal of the present research is twofold: First, we aimed to study updating development in…

  4. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  5. Group-A-streptococcal meningitis in a 7-year-old child – a rare pathogen in a non-immune compromised patient

    PubMed Central

    van Zitteren, Leonarda Maria (LM); Arents, Niek LA; Halbertsma, Feico

    2011-01-01

    A case is presented of meningitis in a 7-year-old female child caused by Group A streptococcus (GAS), a rare bacterial cause of meningitis, with a high rate of morbidity (46%) and mortality (10%). GAS is susceptible for empiric antibiotic therapy aimed at the most prevalent pathogens of meningitis. As GAS meningitis is typically associated with ear-nose-throat (ENT) infections, specific search for a reservoir is advised. Bacterial typification often demonstrates M-protein gene sequence type (EMM type) 1.0 associated with upper respiratory tract infections and also severe, invasive GAS infections. Follow-up investigation including neurologic developmental status and audiologic testing is necessary. Although GAS is a very uncommon cause of acute bacterial meningitis in children, high morbidity and mortality have been reported. Being associated with ENT infections, a search for a GAS reservoir is proposed. GASs are susceptible for common empiric antibiotic therapies in meningitis. Follow-up investigation is necessary. PMID:22674699

  6. Parents' reports of disturbed sleep in 5-7-year-old Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Smedje, H; Broman, J E; Hetta, J

    1999-08-01

    Parents' reports on 1844 five to seven year olds from the general population were used to provide a detailed update about prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbances in children. Five different sleep disturbances were focused on: difficulty falling asleep, reported in 5.6% of the children; night waking in 15.5%; snoring in 7.7%; nightmares in 3.1%, and bedwetting in 5.3% of the children. Coexisting sleep disturbances were frequent in children with difficulties falling asleep, night waking and nightmares, but bedwetting usually emerged as a singular sleep disturbance. Nightmares were associated with serious health problems or handicaps, sleep problems in conjunction with life events, and female gender. Snoring as well as bedwetting were associated with reports of "very active" children. In 6.7% of the total sample, parents had previously consulted the healthcare services for a sleep problem in their child. These children had reports of colic during infancy, eczema, serious health problems or handicaps, current snoring and current nightmares. Only 1.1% (n = 21) of the children were said to have a present need to remedy sleep problems. The reports on these children included coexisting sleep disturbances, previous consultations for sleeping problems, parents' perceptions of "very active" children, diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major life events which had triggered sleep problems. In conclusion, although sleep disturbances are common in 5-7-y-old children, parents seldom express a need to remedy sleep problems in their children of this age. PMID:10503686

  7. Development of the updating executive function: From 7-year-olds to young adults.

    PubMed

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R; Herrero, Laura; Rucián, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Updating information in working memory (WM) is a critical executive function responsible both for continuously replacing outdated information with new relevant data and to suppress or inhibit content that is no longer relevant according to task demands. The goal of the present research is twofold: First, we aimed to study updating development in 548 participants of 4 different age ranges-7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and young adults-using the updating task devised by R. De Beni and P. Palladino (2004), which allows differentiating maintenance and inhibition processes. Second, we attempted to determine the relation between these processes across development as well as the differentiation among different types of inhibition processes tapped by this task. Results showed that there was an improvement of memory performance with age along with an upgrading of inhibitory efficiency. However, whereas in memory performance, a progressive increase was observed until the age of 15 years followed by stabilization, in inhibition, a continuous progressive increase was observed until young adulthood. Importantly, results showed that development of the different inhibitory mechanisms does not progress equally. All the groups committed more errors related to inefficient suppression mechanisms in WM than errors related to control of long-term memory interference. Principal component analysis showed that updating implies different subprocesses: active maintenance/suppression of information in WM and control of proactive interference. Developmental trajectories showed that the maintenance/suppression of information in the WM component continues to develop far beyond adolescence but that proactive interference control is responsible for variations in updating across development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882119

  8. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  9. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  10. Delayed recognition of profound hearing loss in a 7-year-old girl with a neurological condition.

    PubMed

    Tang, Brian G; Feldman, Heidi M; Padden, Carol; Israeli, Nili; Stein, Martin T

    2009-08-01

    Kelly is a 7-year-old girl with a complex medical history including asthma, mild spastic diplegia, and seizure disorder that is controlled with carbamazepine. She had a significant receptive and expressive language impairment and milder delays in gross and fine motor skills. Kelly is currently repeating first grade in a self-contained classroom; she receives speech, occupational, and physical therapy. At the 7-year-old well child visit, her mother is worried about Kelly's poor progress in school, and she expresses concern about her daughter's hearing. Her pediatrician observes that Kelly is withdrawn, uses minimal language, and is fearful of the examination.Kelly was born full-term by Cesarean section because of placental abruption. She was in the neonatal intensive care nursery for 2 weeks with metabolic acidosis because of acute tubular necrosis. One day after arriving home, she had a cardiopulmonary arrest followed by emergency open-heart surgery for critical pulmonary hypertension. Her postoperative course was significant for renal failure, extracorporal membrane oxygenation, ventilator dependency, tracheostomy, and gastrostomy. By 3 years of age her medical condition stabilized, and the tracheostomy and gastrostomy tubes were removed.A review of Kelly's previous audiological tests revealed a failed otoacoustic emission test at 5 months. An auditory brain stem response test at 8 months recorded normal hearing in the right ear. At 4 years, behavioral audiometry was attempted but not completed because Kelly cried throughout the session. At 5 years, testing with ear inserts showed normal hearing bilaterally.Because of the concerns raised by Kelly's mother at the pediatric visit, she was referred to audiology for a reevaluation. Testing at this time revealed moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both the ears, which was confirmed on subsequent examinations. Kelly was promptly fitted for hearing aids. Her individual education plan was changed to reflect

  11. Altered brain connectivity in 3-to 7-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Ueno, Sanae; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Munesue, Toshio; Nakatani, Hideo; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Oi, Manabu; Niida, Yo; Remijn, Gerard B.; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often described as a disorder of aberrant neural connectivity and/or aberrant hemispheric lateralization. Although it is important to study the pathophysiology of the developing ASD cortex, the physiological connectivity of the brain in young children with ASD under conscious conditions has not yet been described. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive brain imaging technique that is practical for use in young children. MEG produces a reference-free signal and is, therefore, an ideal tool for computing the coherence between two distant cortical rhythms. Using a custom child-sized MEG, we recently reported that 5- to 7-year-old children with ASD (n = 26) have inherently different neural pathways than typically developing (TD) children that contribute to their relatively preserved performance of visual tasks. In this study, we performed non-invasive measurements of the brain activity of 70 young children (3–7 years old, of which 18 were aged 3-4 years), a sample consisting of 35 ASD children and 35 TD children. Physiological connectivity and the laterality of physiological connectivity were assessed using intrahemispheric coherence for 9 frequency bands. As a result, significant rightward connectivity between the parietotemporal areas, via gamma band oscillations, was found in the ASD group. As we obtained the non-invasive measurements using a custom child-sized MEG, this is the first study to demonstrate a rightward-lateralized neurophysiological network in conscious young children (including children aged 3–4 years) with ASD. PMID:24179793

  12. A huge nodular fasciitis in parapharygneal space in a 7-year-old girl: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shumin; Liu, Wei; Xiang, Yuyan; Dai, Yinghuan; Ren, Jihao

    2014-01-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a benign and reactive fibroblastic growth extending from the superficial fascia into the subcutaneous tissue or muscle, with a morbidity of less than 20% in children. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl presented with a 3-month history of snore and mouth breathing. Image findings demonstrated a large soft-tissue mass in the right parapharyngeal space. The lesion was successfully eradicated by surgical removal. Pathological analysis established NF as the final diagnosis. Histopathological findings were notable for a reactive spindle-cell process composed of proliferative fibroblasts with extravasated red blood cells and interstitial edema. Immunohistochemical stains showed that the lesional cells were positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), muscle-specific actin (HHF35), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and negative for S100 protein. No clinical evidence of recurrence was noticed after 2 months of follow-up. Being the first report of NF in the parapharyngeal space of a child, this rare pediatric case points out the importance for otolaryngologists to keep NF in mind for differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary wide resection. PMID:25674281

  13. The Relations between Cluster Indexes of Risk and Promotion and the Problem Behaviors of 6- and 7-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Schoff, Kristen; Levinson, Karen; Youngstrom, Eric; Izard, Carroll E.

    1999-01-01

    Examined relations between alternative representations of poverty cofactors and promotion processes, and problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from disadvantaged families. Found that single-index risk representations and promotion variables predicted aggression but not anxiety/depression. An additive model of individual risk indicators performed…

  14. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  15. Physical Development of Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric data collected on groups of 7-year-old New Zealand boys, identified as hyperactive-only, aggressive-hyperactive, aggressive-only and nonaggressive/nonhyperactive did not confirm the hypothesis that hyperactive-only Ss would show delayed maturation. However, hyperactive-only Ss were significantly more lean than Ss in other groups.…

  16. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ilango, T Siva; Nambi, S

    2015-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is one the leukodystrophies causing a progressive decline in neurological function mainly affecting the children. The most common symptoms are changes in behavior, including social withdrawal or aggression, poor memory or poor scholastic performance. Here, we present a 7-year-old boy who presented with symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity and later turned out to be a case of X-ALD. PMID:26124531

  17. Awareness and Reactions of Young Stuttering Children Aged 2-7 Years Old towards Their Speech Disfluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boey, Ronny A.; Van de Heyning, Paul H.; Wuyts, Floris L.; Heylen, Louis; Stoop, Reinhard; De Bodt, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    Awareness has been an important factor in theories of onset and development of stuttering. So far it has been suggested that even young children might be aware of their speech difficulty. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (a) the number of stuttering children aware of their speech difficulty, (b) the description of reported…

  18. Application of Multimedia Technology to Study the Ordinal Competences of Children from 3 to 7 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Pedro; Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present an ongoing research study on the evolution of pre-numerical and pre-inductive levels of ordinal thought in students from three to seven years old. Our methodology is based on multimedia technology, an automatic and objective record of the data and minimal interaction between students and researcher. A…

  19. Empathy and Empathy Induced Prosocial Behavior in 6- and 7-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Peter K. H.; Been, Marieke; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess empathy and prosocial behavior in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Results showed, first, lower levels of parent- and teacher-rated cognitive empathy, and similar levels of affective empathy in children with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) children. Second, emotion recognition…

  20. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain

    PubMed Central

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  1. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain.

    PubMed

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  2. Mathematics and reading difficulty subtypes: minor phonological influences on mathematics for 5-7-years-old.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Julie A; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic influences in mathematics have previously been explored through subtyping methodology and by taking advantage of the componential nature of mathematics and variations in language requirements that exist across tasks. The present longitudinal investigation aimed to examine the language requirements of mathematical tasks in young children aged 5-7 years. Initially, 256 children were screened for mathematics and reading difficulties (RDs) using standardized measures. Those scoring at or below the 35th percentile on either dimension were classified as having difficulty. From this screening, 115 children were allocated to each of the mathematical difficulty (MD; n = 26), MDRD (n = 32), RD (n = 22) and typically achieving (n = 35) subtypes. These children were tested at four time points, separated by 6 monthly intervals, on a battery of seven mathematical tasks. Growth curve analysis indicated that, in contrast to previous research on older children, young children with MD and MDRD had very similar patterns of development on all mathematical tasks. Overall, the subtype comparisons suggested that language played only a minor mediating role in most tasks, and this was secondary in importance to non-verbal skills. Correlational evidence suggested that children from the different subtypes could have been using different mixes of verbal and non-verbal strategies to solve the mathematical problems. PMID:25798118

  3. Mathematics and reading difficulty subtypes: minor phonological influences on mathematics for 5–7-years-old

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Julie A.; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic influences in mathematics have previously been explored through subtyping methodology and by taking advantage of the componential nature of mathematics and variations in language requirements that exist across tasks. The present longitudinal investigation aimed to examine the language requirements of mathematical tasks in young children aged 5–7 years. Initially, 256 children were screened for mathematics and reading difficulties (RDs) using standardized measures. Those scoring at or below the 35th percentile on either dimension were classified as having difficulty. From this screening, 115 children were allocated to each of the mathematical difficulty (MD; n = 26), MDRD (n = 32), RD (n = 22) and typically achieving (n = 35) subtypes. These children were tested at four time points, separated by 6 monthly intervals, on a battery of seven mathematical tasks. Growth curve analysis indicated that, in contrast to previous research on older children, young children with MD and MDRD had very similar patterns of development on all mathematical tasks. Overall, the subtype comparisons suggested that language played only a minor mediating role in most tasks, and this was secondary in importance to non-verbal skills. Correlational evidence suggested that children from the different subtypes could have been using different mixes of verbal and non-verbal strategies to solve the mathematical problems. PMID:25798118

  4. Vitamin D insufficiency in a boy with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gonca; Tas, Didem Arslan; Varmıs, Dilek Altun; Tahiroglu, Aysegul; Avci, Ayse

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency not only causes low bone mass but also may lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present case, vitamin D supplementation reduced obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms associated with streptococcal infection in a 7-year-old boy. Sudden onset of symptoms, including excessive hand washing and fear of touching anything, had occurred 1 month before presentation. Although there are few studies on a possible causal relationship between vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disorders, the present report; together with previous data, suggest an etiological role of vitamin D-related immune processes. PMID:27388777

  5. Case Report: "Purely" Psychiatric Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis in an Adolescent Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Evankovich, Karen; Lotze, Tim

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old Hispanic boy with a 6-month history of a psychotic disorder necessitating several hospitalizations who was incidentally found to have multiple sclerosis with no physical findings. Neuropsychological assessment has revealed impairments in word-finding, bilateral fine motor skills, and attention. Imaging and…

  6. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    PubMed

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices. PMID:25703006

  7. The prosocial personality and its facets: genetic and environmental architecture of mother-reported behavior of 7-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Uzefovsky, Florina; Israel, Salomon; Davidov, Maayan; Zahn-Waxler, Caroyln

    2015-01-01

    Children vary markedly in their tendency to behave prosocially, and recent research has implicated both genetic and environmental factors in this variability. Yet, little is known about the extent to which different aspects of prosociality constitute a single dimension (the prosocial personality), and to the extent they are intercorrelated, whether these aspects share their genetic and environmental origins. As part of the Longitudinal Israeli Study of Twins (LIST), mothers of 183 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) 7-year-old twin pairs (51.6% male) reported regarding their children's prosociality using questionnaires. Five prosociality facets (sharing, social concern, kindness, helping, and empathic concern) were identified. All five facets intercorrelated positively (r > 0.39) suggesting a single-factor structure to the data, consistent with the theoretical idea of a single prosociality trait. Higher MZ than DZ twin correlations indicated genetic contributions to each prosociality facet. A common-factor-common-pathway multivariate model estimated high (69%) heritability for the common prosociality factor, with the non-shared environment and error accounting for the remaining variance. For each facet, unique genetic and environmental contributions were identified as well. The results point to the presence of a broad prosociality phenotype, largely affected by genetics; whereas additional genetic and environmental factors contribute to different aspects of prosociality, such as helping and sharing. PMID:25762952

  8. Pott puffy tumor in a 4-year-old boy presenting in status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Strony, Robert J; Dula, David

    2007-11-01

    Pott puffy tumor is an osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with the development of a subperiosteal abscess manifesting as a puffy swelling of the forehead or scalp. It is believed to occur as a complication of frontal sinusitis. The modern antibiotic era has made it a rarely encountered entity. This case describes a 4-year-old boy who presented in status epilepticus secondary to Pott puffy tumor. PMID:18007214

  9. Gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with thromboembolism in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wendy L M

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal pain is a frequent complaint in the pediatric emergency department. A 13-year-old boy presented with complaints of abdominal pain, hematemesis, headache, and leg pain. Further investigation revealed an advanced-stage gastric adenocarcinoma with multiple thromboembolism including the greater saphenous vein and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. This case points out the challenges of diagnosing this rare condition and treating the primary tumor and thromboembolism in the setting of both hypercoagulable state and gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25738239

  10. Risk factors during the prenatal period and the first year of life associated with overweight in 7-year-old low-income Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Rios-Castillo, Israel; Cerezo, Sheila; Corvalán, Camila; Martínez, Mario; Kain, Juliana

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify in low-income Chilean children with normal birthweight which factors occurring during the prenatal period and the first year are associated with overweight (OW)/obesity at 7 years. The sample included 652 7-year-olds from a larger cohort study. We collected anthropometric data at 0, 12 and 84 months, maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy characteristics, early feeding practices, number of siblings, birth order, breastfeeding, and timing of solid introduction information. We determined the residuals for z-scores for body mass index (BMI) (BAZ), weight/age and height/age0-12 months , run univariate analysis (X(2) or t-test) and multivariate logistic analyses (stepwise approach); P < 0.05 was considered significant. We evaluated the goodness of fit of the model using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and checked for overdispersion using the Pearson's X(2) . The odds of children being OW at 7 years increased if their mothers were OW before pregnancy, if born with a higher BAZ (increase of 18-74% per each additional unit of BAZ) and if their BAZ growth during the first year was higher (62-239% per each unit over the predicted BAZ increase). Higher birth order was protective (6-68% less risk for 2nd birth compared with 1st and 10-73% less for ≥3rd child). All other variables, including gender, were non-significant (P > 0.1). In low-income Chilean children with normal birth, four factors during the prenatal period and the first year were associated with OW at 7 years: pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI at birth, BMI gain between 0 and 12 months, and birth order. PMID:23241511

  11. Environmental Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure at Home, Mobile and Cordless Phone Use, and Sleep Problems in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Anke; van Eijsden, Manon; Guxens, Monica; Beekhuizen, Johan; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vrijkotte, Tania; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years. Methods This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations was assessed with a geospatial model (NISMap) and from indoor sources (cordless phone/WiFi) using parental self-reports. Parents also reported their children’s use of mobile or cordless phones. When children were seven years old, we evaluated sleep quality as measured with the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) filled in by parents. Of eight CSHQ subscales, we evaluated sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness with logistic or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for child’s age and sex and indicators of socio-economic position of the parents. We evaluated the remaining three subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep disordered breathing) as unrelated outcomes (negative control) because these were a priori hypothesised not to be associated with RF-EMF. Results Sleep onset delay, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness were not associated with residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations. Sleep duration scores were associated with RF-EMF levels from base stations. Higher use mobile phones was associated with less favourable sleep duration, night wakenings and parasomnias, and also with bedtime resistance. Cordless phone use was not related to any of the sleeping scores. Conclusion Given the different results across the evaluated RF-EMF exposure sources and the observed association between mobile phone use and the negative control sleep scale, our study does not support the hypothesis that it is the exposure to RF-EMF that is detrimental to sleep quality in 7-year old children, but potentially other factors that are related to mobile phone

  12. A selective IgA deficiency in a boy who presented recurrent parotitis

    PubMed Central

    Patıroglu, T.; Duman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent parotitis is a non-obstructive, non-suppurative inflammatory disease which is characterized by unilateral or bilateral parotid gland swelling attacks. It is also known as juvenile recurrent parotitis. Although the etiology is unknown, congenital malformations of the ductus, genetic predisposition, infections, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and some immune deficiencies are blamed. Here, we present a case report of recurrent parotitis with selective immunoglobulin A deficiency in a six-year-old boy. The patient was presented to us with a new episode of swelling of left parotid region. In the last 2 years, the patient suffered from recurrent parotitis which lasted for approximately 5 days in ten individual episodes. PMID:24883201

  13. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) presenting as colo-colic intussusception in a 16-year-old boy: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Chawla, Inderjit; Singh, Vishwajeet; Singh, Karnail

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with intestinal obstruction with left lumbar mass. On evaluation with ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT of abdomen he was found to have left colo-colic intussusception. On exploratory laparotomy he was found to have invagination of necrosed distal transverse colon and splenic flexure with omentum into descending colon with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes for which left hemicolectomy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry was suggestive of submucosal infiltration by immature myeloid precursors with few metamyelocytes and occasional eosinophils and the cells showed cytoplasmic granular positivity with myeloperoxidase stain suggestive of granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma—extra-medullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukaemia). Our patient received three cycles of cytarabine+daunorubicin chemotherapy in the postoperative period and is doing well at 12 months of follow-up. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) presenting as colo-colic intussusception is very rare and has not been reported in literature so far. PMID:25150243

  14. Developmental transitions in presentations of externalizing problems among boys and girls at risk for child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    VILLODAS, MIGUEL T.; LITROWNIK, ALAN J.; THOMPSON, RICHARD; JONES, DEBORAH; ROESCH, SCOTT C.; HUSSEY, JON M.; BLOCK, STEPHANIE; ENGLISH, DIANA J.; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of children’s maltreatment experiences on the emergence of externalizing problem presentations among children during different developmental periods. The sample included 788 youth and their caregivers who participated in a multisite, prospective study of youth at-risk for maltreatment. Externalizing problems were assessed at ages 4, 8, and 12, and symptoms and diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were assessed at age 14, during interviews with youth and caregivers. Information about maltreatment allegations was coded from official records. Latent transition analysis identified three groups of youth with similar presentations of externalizing problems (“well adjusted,” “hyperactive/oppositional,” and “aggressive/rule-breaking”) and transitions between groups from ages 4, 8, and 12. A “defiant/deceitful” group also emerged at age 12. Girls were generally more likely to present as well adjusted than boys. Children with recent physical abuse allegations had an increased risk for aggressive/rule-breaking presentations during the preschool and preadolescent years, while children with sexual abuse or neglect allegations had lower probabilities of having well-adjusted presentations during middle childhood. These findings indicate that persistently severe aggressive conduct problems, which are related to the most concerning outcomes, can be identified early, particularly among neglected and physically and sexually abused children. PMID:25045912

  15. Atypical presentation of perforated peptic ulcer disease in a 12-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Mbarushimana, Simon; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Thomas, George

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy was referred to the surgical unit with 4 h history of severe lower abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. No other symptoms were reported and there was no significant medical or family history. Examination revealed tenderness in the lower abdomen, in particular the left iliac fossa. His white cell count was elevated at 19.6×109/L, with a predominant neutrophilia of 15.8×109/L and a C reactive protein of <0.3 mg/L. An abdominal X-ray revealed intraperitoneal gas and a chest X-ray identified free air under both hemidiaphragms. Subsequent diagnostic laparoscopy identified a perforated duodenal ulcer that was repaired by means of an omental patch. The case illustrates that although uncommon, alternate diagnoses must be borne in mind in children presenting with lower abdominal pain and diagnostic laparoscopy is a useful tool in children with visceral perforation as it avoids treatment delays and exposure to excess radiation. PMID:24973349

  16. Hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia: an unusual presentation and management in an 11-year-old Xhosa boy.

    PubMed

    Sarvan, I; Naidoo, S; Norval, E J

    2000-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an inherited disorder in which two or more ectodermally derived structures fail to develop, or are abnormal in development. Hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) or Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, is an X-linked recessive syndrome with an incidence of 1/10,000 to 1/100,000 births. Because of its X-linked inheritance pattern, it is more common in males. HED is characterised by hypohydrosis (diminished perspiration), hypotrichosis (decreased amount of hair) and microdontia (small teeth), hypodontia (lack of development of one or more teeth) or adontia (total lack of tooth development). These patients present diagnostic and treatment challenges because of variable oral manifestations. This report describes an 11-year-old Xhosa boy, who was referred to the University Dental Faculty by his general medical practitioner because of hypodontia. General facial features included: frontal bossing, a depressed nasal bridge, 'butterfly' pattern of eczema over the nasal bridge to the malar process of each cheek, thinned out hair, loss of vertical dimension of face and dry skin. Intra-oral examination revealed hypodontia with peg-shaped anterior teeth and diastemas. Radiological examination revealed no developing permanent teeth or tooth buds. Diagnosis was confirmed by doing a sweat gland count. Management included oral hygiene instruction, fluoride treatments, construction of a partial lower denture and counselling about his condition with particular reference to the danger of hyperthermia and control of allergies. PMID:12608250

  17. Altering the function of commands presented to boys with oppositional and hyperactive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    Mentalistic and behavioral analyses of noncompliance among children with hyperactive behavior are contrasted. Then, a behavioral training program for 3 boys with behavior characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder is described. The child-focused training was conducted in conjunction with parent training. In an effort to increase the rate of compliance, the child-training program was designed to alter the function of parent commands by teaching the boys to verbalize rules about parent commands and consequences in the context of observing parent—child role-plays. Training was conducted within a multiple baseline design across children. Direct observation of mother—child interactions, telephone interviews, and standardized rating scales showed that training resulted in clinically significant reductions in noncompliance and improved parenting behavior. A 6-month follow-up revealed stable outcomes. PMID:22477227

  18. The Role of the Working Memory and Language Skills in the Prediction of Word Problem Solving in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttälä, Minna; Aunio, Pirjo; Lepola, Janne; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory (WM) and language skills (vocabulary, listening comprehension) in predicting preschool and kindergarten-aged children's ability to solve mathematical word problems presented orally. The participants were 116 Finnish-speaking children aged 4-7?years. The…

  19. The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

    The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend

  20. DOCK8 deficiency in a boy who presented with a giant aortic aneurysm between aortic root and iliac bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Patıroğlu, Türkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Doğan, Mehmet Sait; Üzüm, Kazım

    2016-06-01

    Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is an autosomal recessive, inherited form of hyper-immunoglobulin E (hyper-IgE) syndrome, characterized by persistent cutaneous viral infections, elevated IgE, eosinophilia, and allergic manifestations. The case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with giant aortic aneurysm between the aortic root and iliac bifurcation is described in the present report. Aortic aneurysm of this size has not yet been reported. PMID:27372622

  1. Caries experience in the primary dentition and presence of plaque in 7-year-old Chinese children: A 4-year time-lag study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xuan; Fan, Mingwen; Mulder, Jan; Frencken, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dental caries prevalence and caries experience in primary dentitions has increased over 4 years and to compare the presence of plaque on permanent teeth in child cohorts over 4 years. Materials and Methods: A time-lag study design was used comprising two cohorts of children aged 7 years from the same five primary schools in Wuhan examined in 2007 and 2011. Two calibrated examiners visually assessed plaque accumulation according to the Greene and Vermillion Index and the dentitions according to the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) caries criteria. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), logistic regression, and Chi-square test were used to test for differences between dependent and independent variables. Results: The 2007 sample consisted of 817 children and the 2011 sample consisted of 1010 children. The prevalence of dental caries (d3mft) was 68.2% in 2007 and 67.7% in 2011, while that of d2mft was 78.5% in 2007 and 71.4% in 2011 (P < 0.0006). The mean d3mft score was 2.8 in 2007 and 3.1 in 2011 (P = 0.046), while the mean d3mfs score was 4.9 in 2007 and 7.3 in 2011 (P < 0.0001). The d3-component of the d3mft index was 73% in 2007 and 69% in 2011, while the f-component was 22% in 2007 and 26% in 2011. The hypothesis was not accepted. The proportion of children with plaque code 3 (extensive coverage) was higher in 2011 (21.8%) than in age mates in 2007 (5.7%). Conclusions: There were no obvious signs that dental caries prevalence had been increased in primary dentitions of this child population between 2007 and 2011. But as the mean caries experience scores at the surface level were higher in 2011 than in 2007, monitoring caries prevalence remains essential, but should start at an earlier age than that covered by this study. Health and educational authorities should collaborate in setting up programs aimed at ensuring good oral health for school children. PMID:26236680

  2. Necrotizing soft tissue infection of the scalp after fronto-facial advancement by internal distraction in a 7-year old girl with Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome--a case report.

    PubMed

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Klein, Martin; Haberl, Ernst Johannes; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Menneking, Horst; Hoffmeister, Bodo

    2011-12-01

    In 1960, Gorlin, Chaudhry and Moss described a syndrome consisting of craniofacial dysostosis in association with hypertrichosis, cardiac, genital, dental and ocular anomalies. Diagnosis is based on typical clinical findings and cannot be performed by molecular genetic analysis until now. There is little in the clinical literature concerning this rare craniofacial syndrome. For functional and psychosocial reasons, surgical correction of the complex craniofacial malformation in a 7-year old Hungarian girl with Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome was performed by fronto-facial advancement using internal distraction devices. Postoperatively necrotizing soft tissue infection of the scalp developed leading to termination of the distraction process ahead of schedule and requiring aggressive surgical management. Typical physiological and clinical characteristics were observed both during the initial craniofacial correction as well as during the management of the infectious complication suggesting that the linking of different conditions (surgical trauma plus the selection of toxic microorganisms) has caused tissue destruction rather than the syndromal disorder or the surgical technique of distraction osteogenesis. Although skeletal improvement was achieved residual damage from the infectious complication must be considered as severe. PMID:21216154

  3. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts in 8-year-old boy: A case report and literature review of a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Babar; Riaz, Muhammad; Bari, Muhammad Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts are very rare with only a few reports in the literature detailing diagnostic workup, medical management, surgical techniques, possible complications, and outcomes. Case Description: We present the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with progressively worsening headaches, vomiting, and intermittent fever since 20 days. Diagnostic workup was performed, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple intracranial cysts predominantly in the right frontal region with significant mass effect. A total of 19 intracranial cysts were removed surgically, and the child recovered uneventfully. Conclusions: Neurosurgeons should keep hydatidosis in the list of differentials when evaluating patients with cystic diseases of the brain. Although the removal of such cysts is challenging, outcomes are excellent when cysts are evacuated without rupture and patients show complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:26257983

  4. Traumatic penile amputation in a 15-year-old boy presenting late in northwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Musa, Muhammad Ujudud; Abdulmajid, Umar Farouk; Mashi, Sharfuddeen Abbas; Yunusa, Bashir

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic penile amputation is a serious urological emergency, although rare whenever it happens, there is a need to refer the patient early to urologist within 24 h, with the stump wrapped in saline; unfortunately, our patient presented late and as such could not benefit from penile reimplantation. PMID:27525085

  5. A Rare and Unusual Case of Burkitt's Lymphoma Presenting with a Prostate Mass in a 12-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, N.; Babyn, P.; Kinloch, M.; Sinha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is the most frequent subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in childhood. Radiographic findings are protean and can often overlap with other neoplastic and nonneoplastic processes. We present an unusual case of Burkitt's lymphoma in a 12-year-old boy presenting with a one-week history of urinary retention, dysuria, and “tailbone pain,” as well as a 4-week history of jaw pain, initially treated as a dental abscess. On dental radiography, the patient was found to have resorption of alveolar bone adjacent to the lower first molars bilaterally, in keeping with “floating teeth,” classically associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Additionally, a large, eccentric, prostatic mass was noted, prompting the inclusion of rhabdomyosarcoma on the differential diagnosis, with subsequent definitive diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma on tissue and bone marrow biopsy. This case highlights the imaging overlap of these childhood neoplasms with an unusual lymphomatous prostate mass. It is important that the radiologists and pediatricians be aware of this potential overlap and the unusual presentation of Burkitt's lymphoma. PMID:24955275

  6. Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor presenting in an 8-year-old boy: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Hussa; Azouz, Haya; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumors are uncommon benign lesions. Accurately diagnosing hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor can be very challenging because the clinical presentation and radiological appearances are nonspecific and cannot be certainly distinguished from malignant neoplastic processes. Herein, we present a case of hepatic IPT in an 8-year-old boy who presented to clinic with a 3-mo history of a tender hepatic mass, fever of unknown origin, and 9-kg weight loss. The physical examination was notable for tender hepatomegaly. Laboratory investigations were notable for a normal hepatic profile and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. A T2-attenuated magnetic resonance imaging scan of the abdomen showed a 4.7 cm × 4.7 cm × 6.6 cm, contrast-enhancing, hyper-intense, well-defined lesion involving the right hepatic lobe. In view of the unremitting symptoms, tender hepatomegaly, thrombosed right hepatic vein, nonspecific radiological findings, and high suspicion of a deep-seated underlying infection or malignancy, a right hepatic lobectomy was recommended. Microscopically, the hepatic lesion exhibited a mixture of inflammatory cells (histiocytes, plasma cells, mature lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells) in a background of dense fibrous tissue. Immunohistochemically, the cells stained negative for SMA, ALK-1, CD-21 and CD-23, diffusely positive for CD-68, and focally positive for IgG4. The final histopathological diagnosis was consistent with hepatic IPT. At the postoperative 4-mo follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic without radiological evidence of recurrence. PMID:26229415

  7. Atypical brain lateralisation in the auditory cortex and language performance in 3- to 7-year-old children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a child-customised magnetoencephalography (MEG) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. In young children, however, the simultaneous quantification of the bilateral auditory-evoked response during binaural hearing is difficult using conventional adult-sized MEG systems. Recently, a child-customised MEG device has facilitated the acquisition of bi-hemispheric recordings, even in young children. Using the child-customised MEG device, we previously reported that language-related performance was reflected in the strength of the early component (P50m) of the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF) in typically developing (TD) young children (2 to 5 years old) [Eur J Neurosci 2012, 35:644–650]. The aim of this study was to investigate how this neurophysiological index in each hemisphere is correlated with language performance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and TD children. Methods We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. We investigated the P50m that is evoked by voice stimuli (/ne/) bilaterally in 33 young children (3 to 7 years old) with ASD and in 30 young children who were typically developing (TD). The children were matched according to their age (in months) and gender. Most of the children with ASD were high-functioning subjects. Results The results showed that the children with ASD exhibited significantly less leftward lateralisation in their P50m intensity compared with the TD children. Furthermore, the results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that a shorter P50m latency in both hemispheres was specifically correlated with higher language-related performance in the TD children, whereas this latency was not correlated with non-verbal cognitive performance or chronological age. The children with ASD did not show any correlation between P50m latency and language-related performance; instead, increasing

  8. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis. PMID:21479984

  9. Boys and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores key gender differences in motivation from a quantitative perspective and presents findings from a qualitative study into boys' perceptions of motivating teachers and motivating pedagogy. Data collected from 3773 high school students suggest that girls score significantly higher than boys in their belief in the value of school,…

  10. [Mid-aortic syndrome in 2-year old boy presenting with severe left ventricular dysfunction; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Kouichi; Shinohara, Gen; Nomura, Koji

    2014-08-01

    Mid aortic syndrome is uncommon acquired or congenital condition characterized by segmental narrowing of the abdominal or distal descending thoracic aorta. If left untreated, it result in life threatening complications. We described the case of 2-year-old boy admitted to our hospital for hypertension and heart failure. Diagnosis of mid aortic syndrome was made with severe stenosis in distal descending aorta. With consideration of growth, we avoided bypass grafting and implantation with prothesic graft. For severe adhesion, we performed patch aortoplasty with 0.4 mm expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) patch. Postoperative course was unevetful. His blood pressure and left ventricular function was normalized. He was discharged on the 20st day after the surgery. PMID:25135414

  11. [Chronic cytomegalovirus infection that present specific clinical course--a case of a boy with common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Wada, Y; Sato, T; Kitajima, H; Kubo, M

    1995-04-01

    We describe an 8-year-old boy with CVID and chronic CMV infection. Although at onset he was diagnosed as IgA deficiency, 4 years after his clinical manifestations because compatible to CVID. During his clinical course he had suffered from various disorders as follows; AIHA, interstitial pneumonia, hemophagocytic syndrome, chronic gastroenterocolitis and so forth. At the age of 8 the PCR of CMV-DNA of biopsy specimen from colon, lung and bone marrow were confirmed to be positive. Hematological examinations revealed abnormal cellular immunity such as decreased CD 4/8 ratio with increased HLA- DR+ CD 8+ T cell, decrease of absolute blood lymphocytes count and reduced response of lymphocytes to blastogenetic agents. These findings brought us to diagnose him as having CVID complicated with chronic CMV infection. This case gives us some impact to speculate what role CMV infection plays in CVID, Whose etiology is unknown. PMID:7553061

  12. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in Pediatric Hematologic-Oncologic Disease: Literature Review and Case Presentation

    PubMed Central

    ARZANIAN, Mohammad Thaghi; SHAMSIAN, Bibi Shahin; KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; KAJIYAZDI, Mohammad; MALEK, Fatima; HAMMOUD, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a cliniconeuroradiological disease entity, which is represented by characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of subcortical/cortical hyperintensity in T2-weighted sequences. It is more often seen in parietaloccipital lobes, and is accompanied by clinical neurological changes. PRES is a rare central nervous system (CNS) complication in patients with childhood hematologic-oncologic disese and shows very different neurological symptoms between patients, ranging from numbness of extremities to generalized seizure. In this article, we will review PRES presentation in hematologic-oncologic patients. Then, we will present our patient, a 7-year-old boy with Evans syndrome on treatment with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone, with seizure episodes and MRI finding in favour of PRES. PMID:24949044

  13. Spontaneous extradural hemorrhage due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the skull in a child: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G; Alghamdi, Fahad A; Baeesa, Saleh S

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) represents a local form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that occurs mostly in children. It usually presents with a gradually enlarging painless skull mass, and rarely presents a rapid clinical deterioration. This 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed with EG, based on a magnetic resonance imaging scan, after presenting with a painless right parietal swelling of 7-week duration. Three weeks prior his scheduled surgery, he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of sudden increased of the subcutaneous swelling associated with a headache, vomiting, and decreased the level of consciousness; there was no history of trauma. Brain computed tomography revealed a right parietal bone defect with large subgaleal and extradural hematoma. He underwent emergent surgical excision of the skull lesion and evacuation of the hematoma. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of EG. We aim to raise the awareness of physicians of this rare spontaneous hemorrhagic complication of EG and review the literature. PMID:27195034

  14. Spontaneous extradural hemorrhage due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the skull in a child: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G.; Alghamdi, Fahad A.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) represents a local form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that occurs mostly in children. It usually presents with a gradually enlarging painless skull mass, and rarely presents a rapid clinical deterioration. This 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed with EG, based on a magnetic resonance imaging scan, after presenting with a painless right parietal swelling of 7-week duration. Three weeks prior his scheduled surgery, he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of sudden increased of the subcutaneous swelling associated with a headache, vomiting, and decreased the level of consciousness; there was no history of trauma. Brain computed tomography revealed a right parietal bone defect with large subgaleal and extradural hematoma. He underwent emergent surgical excision of the skull lesion and evacuation of the hematoma. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of EG. We aim to raise the awareness of physicians of this rare spontaneous hemorrhagic complication of EG and review the literature. PMID:27195034

  15. Clinical Presentation of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (Hunter's Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chinawa, JM; Adimora, GN; Obu, HA; Tagbo, B; Ujunwa, F; Onubogu, I

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) with a typical presentation of mental retardation and absence of corneal clouding. The purpose of presenting this case report is to highlight the distinctive manifestation of MPS (Hunter's disease) and to provide a concise report of Hunter's disease for medical practitioners with the hope that such information will help identify boys earlier in the course of their disease. This report is of a 7-year-old boy who presented to the children outpatient through a referral with a history of inability to grasp objects, inability to express self, and coarse skin, which started 5 years ago. On examination, he was short statured, with a big head, protruding abdomen, coarse skin, swollen wrist joints, and clubbed fingers. There was mild mental retardation. Investigations revealed mucopolysaccharides in urine ad radiographic findings were in keeping with diagnosis. Based on the clinical features and radiological findings, one can diagnose a case of MPS. However, careful and critical approach is necessary to exactly diagnose the type of MPS as enzymatic studies are not available in most centers. PMID:23209998

  16. Antenatal mild hydronephrosis with subsequent polyp of the upper ureter in a child presenting with recurrent Dietl's crisis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik V; Johal, Navroop; Evans, Kathryn; Mushtaq, Imran

    2014-01-01

    We report a 7-year-old boy who had antenatally diagnosed and postnatally confirmed asymptomatic right congenital hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction with the anteroposterior diameter ranging from 7 to 15 mm on serial ultrasound scans till the age of 6 years. He then presented with recurrent attacks of Dietl's crisis almost every month in the seventh year of his life and eluded diagnosis for over a year at various national hospitals, and ended up with an international referral to us. Investigations of the acute attacks clinched the diagnosis of ureteral polyp causing intermittent crisis and he underwent segmental resection and reconstruction in the form of dismembered Anderson-Hyne pyeloplasty with good recovery. Our case revealed that prenatally detected hydronephrosis may worsen after spontaneous postnatal improvement and a polyp acting as a flip valve may produce intermittent hydronephrosis and symptoms later in life. The child should undergo urgent investigations during acute symptoms. PMID:24832709

  17. Post-traumatic left ventricular aneurysm with massive hemopericardium in a child presenting 3 years after a fall.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shan-Miao; Wu, Shyr-Jao; Hwang, Haw-Kwei; Peng, Chun-Chih; Chen, Ming-Ren

    2013-12-01

    A 7-year-old boy developed a left ventricular aneurysm with massive hemopericardium 3 years ago due to a fall from a fourth-floor window. He had mild neurological sequelae including cranial nerve III palsy and abnormal electroencephalography findings at that time. He had no chest pain until recently when he presented with chest tightness and abdominal pain for 2 days prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed marked cardiomegaly. Echocardiography revealed massive pericardial effusion and a large left ventricular aneurysm. The massive hemopericardium was surgically drained, and the aneurysm was resected under cardiopulmonary bypass. He was discharged uneventfully 1 week after operation. Because symptoms and signs can vary in patients with ventricular aneurysm, we strongly suggest a close clinical follow-up, preferably with chest X-ray or echocardiography, for patients experiencing a blunt chest trauma. PMID:23597547

  18. Antenatal mild hydronephrosis with subsequent polyp of the upper ureter in a child presenting with recurrent Dietl's crisis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Johal, Navroop; Evans, Kathryn; Mushtaq, Imran

    2014-01-01

    We report a 7-year-old boy who had antenatally diagnosed and postnatally confirmed asymptomatic right congenital hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction with the anteroposterior diameter ranging from 7 to 15 mm on serial ultrasound scans till the age of 6 years. He then presented with recurrent attacks of Dietl's crisis almost every month in the seventh year of his life and eluded diagnosis for over a year at various national hospitals, and ended up with an international referral to us. Investigations of the acute attacks clinched the diagnosis of ureteral polyp causing intermittent crisis and he underwent segmental resection and reconstruction in the form of dismembered Anderson-Hyne pyeloplasty with good recovery. Our case revealed that prenatally detected hydronephrosis may worsen after spontaneous postnatal improvement and a polyp acting as a flip valve may produce intermittent hydronephrosis and symptoms later in life. The child should undergo urgent investigations during acute symptoms. PMID:24832709

  19. Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a boy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming-Yan; Guo, Xia; Sun, Shu-Wen; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency, also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP2), is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency resulting from the XIAP (also known as BIRC4) mutation. XIAP deficiency is mainly associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) phenotypes, and genetic testing is crucial in diagnosing this syndrome. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only successful strategy for the treatment of this disease; however, a limited number of studies has been published concerning the outcomes of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. The present study reported a successful allogeneic HSCT performed to treat XIAP deficiency in a Chinese boy presenting with HLH. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were performed to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency, and allogeneic HSCT was performed. Genetic tests revealed a two-nucleotide deletion (c.1021_1022delAA) in the patient, which was inherited from his mother, and resulted in frameshift mutation and premature stop codon (p.N341fsX348); this is considered to be a disease-causing mutation. The XIAP deficiency patient underwent allogeneic HSCT, receiving busulfan-containing reduced intensity myeloablative conditioning regimen, with a good intermediate follow-up result obtained. Therefore, genetic testing is essential to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency and detect the carrier of mutation. The present case study may promote the investigation of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. PMID:27602064

  20. A Chilean boy with severe photosensitivity and finger shortening: the first case of homozygous variegate porphyria in South America.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Wolff, C; Farias, R; Frank, J

    2006-02-01

    A 7-year-old Chilean boy presented with severe photosensitivity, blistering, erosions and scarring on sun-exposed areas of the body since the age of 6 months. Additionally, he showed a short stature and shortening of the fingers. Laboratory examination revealed greatly elevated protoporphyrin levels in the blood. Such biochemical findings can be observed in homozygous variants of usually autosomal dominantly inherited acute porphyrias such as variegate porphyria (VP) and hereditary coproporphyria, which usually do not become manifest before the second or third decade of life in heterozygotes. Using polymerase chain reaction-based techniques we identified a missense mutation in exon 7 on the paternal allele and a frameshift mutation in exon 13 on the maternal allele of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene that harbours the mutations underlying VP. This is the first homozygous case of VP in South America. As VP represents the most frequent type of acute porphyria not only in Chile but also in South Africa, more such cases could be expected in the future, particularly because a founder mutation for this disease has already been described in the Chilean and South African population. PMID:16433813

  1. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  2. Boys Will Be "Boys": Variability in Boys' Experiences of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura; Katz, Herb; Adkins, Matthew; Gladu, Andrea; Jackson-Davis, Khalie; Kussin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-nine grade 2 boys participated in a study of the effects of book genre and sex of reading model on boys' (a) view of reading as feminine, (b) intrinsic motivation toward reading, (c) interest in reading, and (d) attitude to reading. Differential effects occurred in boys based on whether they liked or disliked reading and whether they viewed…

  3. [A boy with cholera from India].

    PubMed

    van Furth, A M; Croughs, R D; Terpstra, L; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; van Well, G T H

    2006-01-28

    A 7-year-old Indian boy travelling from India to the United Kingdom was brought to the Emergency Clinic of Airport Medical Services at Schiphol airport in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He had had watery diarrhoea in the aircraft and had lost consciousness. In view of the strong indications for cholera and the rice water-like diarrhoea, he was admitted to the paediatric ward of the VU Medical Centre where intravenous rehydration was carried out. He recovered within three days. A large number of comma-shaped, motile, Gram-negative rods were found in the faeces. After two days, the faeces culture revealed Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba. On the day of the flight, the patient had drunk a litre of water from a bottle that later turned out to have been from the New Delhi water supply. Cholera is rare as an import disease in the Netherlands. Due to the severe dehydration, the infection can run a serious course and even be fatal. The infection is not transmitted from person to person. Therefore, no special measures are needed when a patient with cholera is admitted to hospital. PMID:16471238

  4. Internal jugular vein phlebectasia presenting with hoarseness of voice.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sohini; Dey, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Amrita; Bagchi, Nilay Ranjan; Sarkar, Debalina; Pal, Sumita

    2013-01-01

    Internal jugular phlebectasia presents as a soft cystic mass in the neck that appears on straining. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with a painless soft cystic mass in the neck associated with hoarseness of voice. Based on clinical examination and CT image, diagnosis of right internal jugular phlebectasia was made. PMID:24369523

  5. The Horse Boy--attending to the stories our patients tell us.

    PubMed

    Karlinsky, Harry

    2013-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, Rupert Isaacson and Kirsten Neff set off to Mongolia on an extraordinary journey to heal their 7-year old autistic son. Their story was captured on film by a small crew, and both the resulting documentary, The Horse Boy, and the associated book have reached a wide audience. For those involved in psychiatric education, the film represents a valuable opportunity to explore a range of relevant clinical and ethical issues with their learners, including an introduction to the world of complementary and alternative medicine and the emerging discipline of narrative medicine. Perhaps most importantly, The Horse Boy is an impetus for health professionals to consider their own responsibilities when determined patients in their care undertake such remarkable quests to heal themselves or their loved ones. PMID:23820912

  6. A boy with classical Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome but no detectable mutation in the CREBBP and EP300 genes.

    PubMed

    Caglayan, A O; Lechno, S; Gumus, H; Bartsch, O; Fryns, J P

    2011-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder and is characterized by mental retardation, distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and great toes. We report on a 7 year old boy with classical Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. His facial and clinical features were very typical, including broad thumbs with radial angulation and broad great toes. Rigorous genetic analysis of the CREBBP and EP300 genes using DNA sequencing and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) revealed no causative mutation in this boy, only a hitherto unreported but paternally inherited heterozygous sequence alteration, c.506 1+9C>T in IVS 30-31, which most likely represents a normal variant (NetGene 2 splice prediction software). We question if this boy could have a hitherto undetectable mutation type. PMID:22303793

  7. Operation Sun Beam, Shot Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 6. 9. Correlation of present and previous electric-field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reno; Fowles, H.M.

    1985-09-01

    On most previous nuclear detonations, signatures and quantitative measurements of the electric-field signals associated with the detonations was obtained at distances such that normal radiation field characteristics apply. On Small Boy, measurements were made from stations located much closer in, such as to be inside, on the boundary of and just outside the limits of the ionized sphere created by the nuclear burst. The electric-field characteristics in these regions were unknown. In the hope of providing continuity from the region of the unknown into the reasonably well-understood region of the radiation field, this project was requested to make the typical radiation-field type of measurement that had been made on previous detonations. This report covers the signature characteristics and quantitative measurements of the electric-field signal from Small Boy as seen from outside the immediate region of theoretical generating mechanism.

  8. A Study of Attitudes in an All Boys' School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickner, Anne-Marie

    This study examined the effect of single-sex schooling on the academic and social development of boys. An extensive literature review presents the conflicting results of studies of various issues related to single-sex education. Subjects of the present study were 39 boys in a fourth grade class at a boys school and 23 boys in a fourth grade class…

  9. Puberty in boys

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000650.htm Puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, ... body changes, when you develop from being a boy to a man. Learn what changes to expect ...

  10. The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

  11. Bring Back the Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Boy culture is out of sync with school culture. There are several reasons for this, including zero tolerance policies that are too often taken to extremes, the lack of male teachers, and the compression of the curriculum. What's more, boy culture is not socially accepted, and boys quickly come to feel that they are not good at school. For many…

  12. Supporting Boys as Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with boys and reading are focused on such factors as society's lack of focus on literacy skills, parents failings to inspire reading in boys, and internal motivational factors rather than looking at the environments created for reading in and out of school. In this column, several ideas for helping boys develop a…

  13. Raising Better Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada, Geoffrey

    2000-01-01

    The author of "Reaching Up For Manhood" discusses troubling social/environmental conditions confronting boys. Raising better boys requires caring adults, safer risk-taking situations, positive reinforcement, and role models. Parents should monitor boys' media exposure, provide moral education, broaden their cultural and natural-world experiences,…

  14. The Wolf Boy

    PubMed Central

    Leckman, James F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2005-01-01

    An adolescent boy presented with episodic wolf-like aggressive behaviors, for which his rural community planned an exorcism. Admission to a tertiary care hospital revealed an adolescent suffering an array of severe psychiatric symptoms, which best fit the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). The differential diagnosis included delusional disorder, mood problems, anxiety, schizophrenia, and “feral child” syndrome. Nosology and pathophysiology as well as pharmacological and psychosocial treatments are discussed. We highlight the importance of early life events in determining mental health risk and resiliency. PMID:21120097

  15. Do We Really Have a "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the findings of "The Evidence Suggests Otherwise: The Truth About Boys and Girls," a report conducted by Education Sector senior policy analyst Sara Mead. This report examines trends in achievement and education attainment and concludes that the recent surge of concern about boys' academic performance has been…

  16. Syntelencephaly presenting with spastic diplegia.

    PubMed

    Coleman, L T; McCubbin, J P; Smith, L J; Reddihough, D S; Gardner, R J

    2000-08-01

    Two children with syntelencephaly presented with the predominant clinical picture of spastic diplegia. Brain scanning showed deficient formation of the interhemispheric fissure with fusion of occipital and parietal lobes, and an infolding and protrusion of occipital cortex into the telencephalic ventricle. The fusion extended further posteriorly than the cases of "middle interhemispheric fusion" thus far reported. One 7-year old has poor language development, while the other is regarded, at her present age of 3 years, as being cognitively within the normal range. PMID:11071147

  17. Turn Your Boys into Readers!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Girls outscore boys in reading proficiency levels; the gender gap is startling and concerning. The myth that boys won't read or that it's not "cool" for boys to love reading plays a big part in how these low levels come to be. Low expectations from teachers, and an assumption that boys prefer physical activity, mean that boys often don't find…

  18. National Boy Scout Jamboree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video looks at a NASA sponsored exhibit at the National Boy Scout Jamboree in Fredricksburg, VA. Boy Scouts are shown interacting with NASA researchers and astronauts and touring mockups of Space Station Freedom and Apollo 11. NASA's program to encourage the researchers of tomorrow is detailed.

  19. Boys and Girls Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This paper reports on a study to see whether girls in middle school who took tests separately from boys did better than when they were tested together. A mathematics attitude and anxiety instrument was administered as part of the study to determine if either had any effect on test performance. Results indicate that boys were more anxious than…

  20. Eskimo Boy Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Byron

    "Eskimo Boy Today" provides the reader with an account of what it is like to be a young Eskimo boy living in Barrow, Alaska, today. Accounts of his life at school depict the typical curriculum and learning activities, while accounts of his home life depict typical foods, clothing, and housing. The natural resources and their relationship to the…

  1. Boy Trouble: Rhetorical Framing of Boys' Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Jordan J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines discourse in the United States used to socially construct an "underachieving boys" moral panic. Employing discourse analysis I examine the adversarial rhetoric of claims-makers and the frames they deploy to undermine alternative and conflicting accounts (of females as disadvantaged) and to forestall any challenges to the…

  2. [13-Year old boy with abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol. PMID:22551758

  3. Puberty in boys

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys will have it. You will also get erections more often. An erection is when your penis becomes bigger, hard, and stands out from your body. Erections can happen at any time. This is normal. ...

  4. Teaching Boys: A Relational Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raider-Roth, Miriam B.; Albert, Marta K.; Bircann-Barkey, Ingrid; Gidseg, Eric; Murray, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Focus of Study: This article investigates how teachers' relationships with boys can be central in bolstering boys' resilience and connection to their work in schools. Specifically, we examine how teachers understand the ways that their relationships with boys shape their teaching practice as well as their understandings of boys' learning in…

  5. A boy with sudden headache.

    PubMed

    Norbedo, Stefania; Naviglio, Samuele; Murru, Flora Maria; Cavallin, Roberta; Giurici, Nagua; Rabusin, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2014-03-01

    Headache is a common presenting complaint in pediatric emergency departments. The goal of emergent evaluation is to identify those children with potentially life-threatening conditions. We present the case of an adolescent boy presenting with headache and hypertension who was diagnosed with a catecholamine-secreting abdominal paraganglioma. Genetic testing eventually led to the diagnosis of SDHB-related hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome. Alarm features ("red flags") in children presenting with headache are reviewed, as well as the main features of paragangliomas and the indications for genetic testing. PMID:24589807

  6. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error.

  7. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error. 5 references, 2 figures.

  8. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  9. How Boys Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the state of boyhood in education and explain the idea that not all elements of the brain--especially not gender--are plastic. They discuss the mismatch between boys and conventional education and how gender "really" happens in the brain and describe the three biological stages in which human nature…

  10. Boys in Primary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Don; Langhelt, Syd

    This study was concerned with implementing guidelines from studies of the differences between boys and girls in school-related behaviors to test the contribution made to educational goals by considering gender of the learner. The basic strategy was to consider tested sex differences in behavior and to use these as a basis for developing classroom…

  11. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Now Corporation for National and Community Service and Boys & Girls Clubs of America partner with Google to help ... Military Youth Arianna Skinner Receives Top Honor from Boys & Girls Clubs of America JB MDL- Fort Dix Youth ...

  12. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  13. Relational Strengths in Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy

    There has been a resurgence of interest in boys' relationships and boys' development which seems to respond, at least in part, to findings about the centrality and protective power of relationships in girls' development. However, few empirical studies have sought to learn from boys about their experiences, and, in particular, the ways in which…

  14. Boys' Literacy: Negotiating the Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne; Singh, Michael; Zhao, Dacheng

    2009-01-01

    The issue of boys' literacy has been explicitly named as "dangerous territory"--difficult to negotiate in terms of the validity of "failure" rhetoric, the stereotyping of boys' abilities and interests and the intersection of gender with factors such as class and geographical location. In this article, we address the issue of boys' literacy through…

  15. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  16. Sexually abused boys.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, M A

    1987-01-01

    Male victims of child sexual abuse have received inadequate attention in the literature. This article is a retrospective review of the reports of 189 boys evaluated during 1983-85. This population was younger than those previously reported. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of girl victims seen during the same period revealed many similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. The acts perpetrated against the boys included a wide array of invasive acts at all ages, but sodomy was more frequently reported in the older victims. Abnormal anogenital findings were seen more often in younger children, but the findings were often nonspecific. An examiner experienced with young children and infants is essential. PMID:3594283

  17. Evidence for Substantial Genetic Risk for Psychopathy in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viding, Essi; Blair, R. James R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with early warning signs of life-long psychopathy, callous-unemotional traits (CU) and high levels of antisocial behaviour (AB) can be identified in childhood. We report here the first twin study of high levels of psychopathic tendencies in young children. Methods: At the end of the first school year, teachers provided…

  18. Callous-unemotional traits and anxiety in a community sample of 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Humayun, Sajid; Kahn, Rachel E; Frick, Paul J; Viding, Essi

    2014-01-01

    In forensic samples of adults and adolescents, there is evidence to suggest that there may be distinct variants of psychopathy marked by the presence/absence of significant levels of anxiety. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits can be used to characterize children who share behavioural and neurocognitive features with adult psychopaths. The aims of this paper are to (a) investigate the genetic and environmental influences on CU traits with/without anxiety and (b) explore differences in terms of concurrent and early parenting and adjustment. Discrete groups were formed on the basis of scores in the top 10% of the sample on CU and anxiety scales at age 7. Estimates of group heritability were calculated using a Defries-Fulker (DF) extremes regression model. Follow back analyses of early parenting and adjustment were conducted using multivariate analyses of covariance. There was high group heritability for CU traits with/without anxiety. Children with both high CU and anxiety showed greater levels of adjustment problems than those with CU only at age 7. The two groups did not differ in parenting characteristics. In this general population sample, evidence did not support differences in etiology for the two groups high on CU traits differing in level of anxiety. PMID:23879532

  19. Skill-Related Uncertainty and Expected Value in 5- to 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Schlottmann, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Studies using an Information Integration approach have shown that children from four years have a good intuitive understanding of probability and expected value. Experience of skill-related uncertainty may provide one naturalistic opportunity to develop this intuitive understanding. To test the viability of this view, 16 5- and 16 7-year-olds…

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of 5- and 7-Year-Old Children's Self-Reports of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseneault, Louise; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    Past research suggests that young children are incapable of reporting information about their own behavior problems. To test this, we examined the validity and the usefulness of children's self-reports in the E-Risk Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of 2,232 children. We used the Berkeley Puppet Interview to obtain children's…

  1. Nature, Nurture and Academic Achievement: A Twin Study of Teacher Assessments of 7-year-olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Spinath, Frank M.; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: Twin research has consistently shown substantial genetic influence on individual differences in cognitive ability; however, much less is known about the genetic and environmental aetiologies of school achievement. Aims: Our goal is to test the hypotheses that teacher-assessed achievement in the early school years shows substantial…

  2. Callous-Unemotional Traits and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Viding, Essi

    2013-01-01

    In forensic samples of adults and adolescents, there is evidence to suggest that there may be distinct variants of psychopathy marked by the presence/absence of significant levels of anxiety. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits can be used to characterize children who share behavioural and neurocognitive features with adult psychopaths. The aims of this paper are to (a) investigate the genetic and environmental influences on CU traits with/without anxiety and (b) explore differences in terms of concurrent and early parenting and adjustment. Discrete groups were formed on the basis of scores in the top 10% of the sample on CU and anxiety scales at age 7. Estimates of group heritability were calculated using a Defries-Fulker (DF) extremes regression model. Follow back analyses of early parenting and adjustment were conducted using multivariate analyses of covariance. There was high group heritability for CU traits with/without anxiety. Children with both high CU and anxiety showed greater levels of adjustment problems than those with CU only at age 7. The two groups did not differ in parenting characteristics. In this general population sample, evidence did not support differences in etiology for the two groups high on CU traits differing in level of anxiety. PMID:23879532

  3. SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, NOT TV VIEWING, PREDICTS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG 3- TO 7-YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information about relationships between the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of young children is available in the literature. We therefore examined how sedentary behaviors, TV watching, and encouragements and discouragements for activity were associated with physical activity (as me...

  4. Emergency Department Diagnosis of Dietl Crisis in a 7-Year-Old Girl With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Burhop, James; Clingenpeel, Joel M; Poirier, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Children with Dietl crisis often experience a delay in diagnosis, with the clinical entity being underdiagnosed. Pain is caused by compression of an aberrant artery crossing dilated kidney. Pain is often worsened after the consumption of liquids and resolves after fluid reabsorption. There are no clear criteria for evaluating ureter obstruction in childhood abdominal pain in the emergency department setting; however, it has been suggested that ultrasound may aid in the diagnosis. As renal parenchyma is typically preserved, and there is a paucity of associated urological complaints, once properly diagnosed, most patients are well served by a pyeloplasty. PMID:25626638

  5. Corneal Epitheliopathy After Trauma by Fake Snow Powder in a 7-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amry, Mohammad A.; Al-Ghadeer, Huda A.

    2016-01-01

    Fake snow is a polymer of sodium polyacrylates used in games and celebrations. Despite the product leaflet that indicates safety, contact with the ocular surface can cause injury. We report a case of a child with corneal epitheliopathy due to a chemical burn injury after ocular surface contact with fake snow. The case was managed with epithelial debridement and a bandage contact lenses and topical antibiotics with complete resolution. PMID:27555717

  6. Clinical Perspectives: 7-Year-Old Girl Has 6 Organs Removed and Retransplanted

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital provides comprehensive care from diagnosis to recovery in general pediatrics and ... and skilled physicians surgeons, nurses and other health care professionals manage routine and complex conditions as well ...

  7. High Prevalence of Refractive Errors in 7 Year Old Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    HASHEMI, Hassan; YEKTA, Abbasali; JAFARZADEHPUR, Ebrahim; OSTADIMOGHADDAM, Hadi; ETEMAD, Koorosh; ASHARLOUS, Amir; NABOVATI, Payam; KHABAZKHOOB, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The latest WHO report indicates that refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in 7 yr old children in Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 2013 with multistage cluster sampling, first graders were randomly selected from 8 cities in Iran. All children were tested by an optometrist for uncorrected and corrected vision, and non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction. Refractive errors in this study were determined based on spherical equivalent (SE) cyloplegic refraction. Results: From 4614 selected children, 89.0% participated in the study, and 4072 were eligible. The prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were 3.04% (95% CI: 2.30–3.78), 6.20% (95% CI: 5.27–7.14), and 17.43% (95% CI: 15.39–19.46), respectively. Prevalence of myopia (P=0.925) and astigmatism (P=0.056) were not statistically significantly different between the two genders, but the odds of hyperopia were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.01–2.05) times higher in girls (P=0.011). The prevalence of with-the-rule astigmatism was 12.59%, against-the-rule was 2.07%, and oblique 2.65%. Overall, 22.8% (95% CI: 19.7–24.9) of the schoolchildren in this study had at least one type of refractive error. Conclusion: One out of every 5 schoolchildren had some refractive error. Conducting multicenter studies throughout the Middle East can be very helpful in understanding the current distribution patterns and etiology of refractive errors compared to the previous decade. PMID:27114984

  8. Corneal Epitheliopathy After Trauma by Fake Snow Powder in a 7-year-old Child.

    PubMed

    Al-Amry, Mohammad A; Al-Ghadeer, Huda A

    2016-01-01

    Fake snow is a polymer of sodium polyacrylates used in games and celebrations. Despite the product leaflet that indicates safety, contact with the ocular surface can cause injury. We report a case of a child with corneal epitheliopathy due to a chemical burn injury after ocular surface contact with fake snow. The case was managed with epithelial debridement and a bandage contact lenses and topical antibiotics with complete resolution. PMID:27555717

  9. Leadership in Boys' Education: 16 Case Studies from Public and Private, Rural and Urban, Primary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard, Ed.; Hartman, Deborah, Ed.; Browne, Rollo, Ed.

    Concern about boys' education in Australia and New Zealand led to the Leadership in Boys' Education Conference in May 1999. This book contains edited conference presentations focusing on boys' educational needs. The book also presents case studies related to academic achievement, school structure, discipline and bullying, broadening boys' options,…

  10. Extensive cervical lymphadenitis mimicking bacterial adenitis as the first presentation of Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Felipe de Souza; da Silva, Marco Felipe Castro; Kozu, Kátia Tomie; Camargo, Luís Fernando Aranha; Rossi, Flávia Feijó Panico; Silva, Clovis Artur; Campos, Lúcia Maria de Arruda

    2015-01-01

    Cervical adenitis >1.5cm in diameter is the less frequently observed criteria in patients with Kawasaki disease and it is usually found in association with other symptoms during the acute phase. Moreover, the finding of fever and lymphadenitis with intense local signs of inflammation and phlegmon is rarely seen as the initial manifestation of Kawasaki disease. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy who had cervical lymphadenitis with adjacent cellulitis and phlegmon mimicking bacterial adenitis as the first presentation of Kawasaki disease. The patient had fever, cervical lymphadenitis with adjacent cellulitis, and severe headache. Cefadroxil was prescribed based on the clinical diagnosis of bacterial adenitis. Because he remained febrile and phlogistic signs worsened, after 1 day of hospitalization, antibiotics were administrated intravenously (ceftriaxone and oxacillin). The computed tomography of the neck showed primary infectious/inflammatory process. On the fourth day, the patient had dry and scaly lips, and treatment with oxacillin was replaced by clindamycin because the patient was still febrile. On the ninth day, he presented non-exudative bilateral conjunctival injection. On the tenth day of febrile disease, a rash appeared on his trunk, hands and feet. Patient’s symptoms resolved after intravenous administration of immunoglobulin (2g/kg/dose), and he was discharged 2 days later. On the 14th day, the patient had lamellar desquamation of fingers. Kawasaki disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in children with febrile cervical lymphadenitis unresponsive to empiric antibiotics even if they have adjacent cellulitis and phlegmon. PMID:26132362

  11. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  13. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences…

  14. Psychophysiological Correlates of Developmental Changes in Healthy and Autistic Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismüller, Benjamin; Thienel, Renate; Youlden, Anne-Marie; Fulham, Ross; Koch, Michael; Schall, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated neurodevelopmental changes in sound processing by recording mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to various degrees of sound complexity in 18 mildly to moderately autistic versus 15 healthy boys aged between 6 and 15 years. Autistic boys presented with lower IQ and poor performance on a range of executive and social…

  15. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  16. Multiple salivary mucoceles in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Porter, S R; Scully, C; Kainth, B; Ward-Booth, P

    1998-06-01

    A rare case of multiple mucoceles in a 4-year-old boy is reported. The patients presented with multiple sessile swellings on his lower lip, with no obvious local aetiology. The patient was otherwise well. The lesions were excised surgically and histopathological examination confirmed the lesions to be extravasation-type mucoceles. The article includes a brief review of mucoceles. PMID:9728101

  17. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  18. Boys Are People Too: Boys and Reading, Truth and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent research on boys and reading that has been primarily conducted in Australia but is also available online to international readers. The research makes it clear that many boys are still reading, but competing claims on their busy lives easily sidetrack them from making reading their main activity. Educators…

  19. The Politics of Policy in Boys' Education: Getting Boys "Right"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores boy-focused education policy and how different educators struggle to implement or resist it in their schools. Weaver-Hightower examines masculinity politics in Australia and the United States, mapping how these politics create panic over raising and educating boys the "Right" way. Contextualizing this policy with movements for…

  20. A compound heterozygous mutation of the SPINK5 gene in a Taiwanese boy with Netherton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chao, Sheau-Chiou; Tsai, Ya-Ming; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun

    2003-06-01

    Netherton syndrome (NS) is a severe, autosomal, recessive ichthyosis. It is characterized by congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE), trichorrhexis invaginata (TI) - a distinctive hair-shaft anomaly, and atopic diathesis. Recently, pathogenic mutations were identified in serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5), the gene that encodes lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI), a recently identified type of serine protease inhibitor involved in the regulation of skin barrier formation and immunity. Here we report the mutation analysis of a 7-year-old Taiwanese boy with NS manifesting CIE with pathognomic ichthyosis linearis circumflexa and TI. Direct DNA sequencing of SPINK5 demonstrated a compound heterozygous mutation in the proband, 2260A>T (K754X) in exon 24 and 2468delA in exon 26. The former is a novel mutation and was detected in the mother. The latter mutation was detected in the father and has been previously reported in several European families. Both mutations are expected to result in premature termination codons. Mutation analysis could provide a reliable prenatal diagnosis of this lethal ichthyosis. PMID:12923596

  1. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  2. ERS Focus On: Educating Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This issue of "Focus On" examines where boys are underachieving and some possible reasons for their under-achievement, including biological and environmental factors. It also offers strategies that teachers can employ in their classrooms in order to address the educational needs of boys. Books in Brief; Web Resources; and Related ERS Resources are…

  3. The psychoeducational profile of boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rovet, J; Netley, C; Keenan, M; Bailey, J; Stewart, D

    1996-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) affects about 1 in 900 males due to an extra X chromosome. Although there are no obvious physical features associated with childhood KS, many boys demonstrate a cognitive deficit in verbal processing. The first section of this article integrates the extant literature on intelligence and achievement outcomes in boys with KS. The second section presents our findings from a 20-year study involving one of the largest unselected cohorts of boys with KS. We followed 36 boys with KS and 33 sibling controls from 6 until 20 years of age. Boys with KS are shown to demonstrate a verbal cognitive deficit and significant underachievement in reading and spelling, as well as in arithmetic. These problems, which are evident from early school years, increase with age such that by late adolescence, boys with KS are four to five grade levels behind. In addition, we also found that they were most likely to have a generalized type of learning disability, with very few boys indicating a pure reading or pure arithmetic problem. They also showed deficits in written language skills and acquisition of knowledge-based subject material were also problematic. Despite significant underachievement and frequent grade failure, many boys with KS had completed high school, and a few were also pursuing postsecondary educations. The discussion section examines how their language-based disability affects comprehension and learning, leading to underachievement. PMID:8820203

  4. Boys' and Girls' Motivations for Refraining from Prompting Friends to Talk about Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…

  5. 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN BOY SCOUTS: PILOT OUTCOME RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boy Scouts are an important channel to complement school-based programs to enable boys to eat more fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables (FJV) for chronic disease prevention. The "5 a Day Achievement Badge" program was presented on a pilot study basis to African-American Boy Scout troops in Houston. Tro...

  6. Questioning Masculinities: Interrogating Boys' Capacities for Self-Problematization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    In drawing on selected interviews with adolescent boys from both Australia and North America, we present an analysis of boys' own capacities for interrogating gender normalisation in their school lives. We set this analysis against a critique of the public media debates about boys' education, which continue to be fuelled by a moral panic about the…

  7. Variations in the Pattern of Pubertal Changes in Boys

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W. A.; Tanner, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    Mixed longitudinal data on the physical changes at puberty in 228 normal boys are presented together with normal standards for stages of genital and pubic hair development. The genitalia began to develop between the ages 9½ years and 13½ years in 95% of boys (mean = 11.6 ± 0.09) and reached maturity at ages varying between 13 and 17 (mean = 14.9 ± 1.10). The age at which pubic hair first appeared was not accurately determined, but its development through the later stages was studied. It reached the equivalent of an adult female distribution at a mean age of 15.2 ± 0.01 years. On average the genitalia reached the adult stage 3.0 years after they first began to develop; but some boys completed this development in as little as 1.8 years while others took as much as 4.7 years. Some boys complete the whole process in less time than others take to go from Stage G2 to Stage G3. The genitalia begin to develop before pubic hair is visible in photographs in practically all boys. The 41 boys in whom it could be studied reached their maximum rate of growth (peak height velocity) at a mean age of 14.1 ± 0.14 years. Very few boys (about 5%) reached peak height velocity before their genitalia were in Stage 4 and over 20% did not do so until their genitalia were adult. Peak height velocity is reached, on the average, nearly 2 years later in boys than in girls, but the boys' genitalia begin to develop only about 6 months later than the girls' breasts. Pubic hair appears about 1½ years later in boys than in girls. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5440182

  8. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis.

  9. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal part of the growth process. Wet Dreams Boys may wake up in the morning to ... in their pajama pants and sheets. These " wet dreams ," or nocturnal emissions, are caused by an ejaculation, ...

  10. For Boys: Trouble "Down There"

    MedlinePlus

    ... re a boy, you probably already know your penis and scrotum are sensitive. Why? And more important, ... have grown up calling it something else, but penis (say: PEE-niss) is the official word for ...

  11. Empathy in Boys with Gender Identity Disorder: A Comparison to Externalizing Clinical Control Boys and Community Control Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen-Anderson, Allison F. H.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Bradley, Susan J.; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The construct of empathy was examined in 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (range = 4-8 years). It was hypothesized that boys with GID would show…

  12. The acrocallosal syndrome in a Turkish boy.

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, M; Caliskan, M; Oğur, G; Ozmen, M; Dolunay, G; Apak, S

    1990-01-01

    A 6 month old Turkish boy with the acrocallosal syndrome is reported. The patient, born to consanguineous, healthy parents, presented with macrocephaly, a prominent forehead, hypertelorism, polydactyly of the fingers and toes, severe motor and mental retardation, hypotonia, and absence of the corpus callosum. The mode of inheritance is discussed and our case is compared with previously reported cases of the syndrome. Images PMID:2308155

  13. Guest Editorial: Are We Shortchanging Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the failure of early childhood education to meet the needs of boys. Describes developmental differences between boys and girls, and teacher attitudes towards boys. Suggests actions relating to environment, teacher training, hiring, evaluation, and activities that will meet the needs of boys. Lists characteristics of good early childhood…

  14. Discourse Skills of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Martin, Gary E.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Harris, Adrianne A.; Foreman, Jamila; Nelson, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the conversational discourse skills of boys who have fragile X syndrome with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with those of boys with Down syndrome and boys who are typically developing. Method: Participants were boys who have fragile X syndrome with (n = 26) and without (n = 28) ASD, boys with Down syndrome…

  15. Gender identity disorder in a five-year-old boy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Markedly effeminate behavior in a young boy is a source of concern and confusion for parents, teachers, and the child. It also represents a therapeutic dilemma for the child psychiatrist. The case of a five-year-old boy with gender identity disorder of childhood is presented and the literature on hypotheses of etiology, treatment, and long-term follow-up is reviewed. The ethical and philosophical questions posed by such a case are discussed. PMID:6880245

  16. Human dicrocoeliasis presenting as a subcutaneous mass

    PubMed Central

    Samaila, Modupeola Omotara; Shehu, Sani Mohammed; Abubakar, Nasiru; Mohammed, Umar; Jabo, Bashir

    2009-01-01

    Human infection by Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a zoonotic liver fluke, is uncommon and soft tissue manifestation is extremely rare. The infection has no specific clinical signs or symptoms and diagnosis may be missed completely, thus treatment may be delayed. Diagnosis in humans is by identification of the eggs in the stool, while a living or dead fluke is rarely seen. The present report concerns the case of a 7-year-old child who presented with recurrent right flank subcutaneous nodules containing a live fluke on excision, and tissue histology showed characteristic brown operculated ova of D dendriticum. This is the first extraintestinal soft tissue presentation in such a setting. It is important to know the life cycle and natural habitat of this rare human parasite in order to make a correct diagnosis and institute early treatment in patients who have become infected. PMID:21829430

  17. Masculinities and Resistance: High School Boys (Un)doing Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    In Australia, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom there has been a resurgence in attention directed at boys and schooling. The media and public discourse describes it as a burgeoning moral panic. Mainly grounded in public concerns about achievement levels and violence in schools, the response has been to develop quick fixes and…

  18. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements.

  19. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  20. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  1. How Schools Discriminate against Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Diane

    1979-01-01

    Biological differences between the sexes in motor, sensory, and some intellectual abilities are reviewed. The skills that lead to early success in school draw on female talents; as a result, boys are often labeled hyperactive. Journal availability: Human Nature, Inc., Subscriptions Department, P.O. Box 10702, Des Moines, Iowa 50340; single copy…

  2. The Trouble with "Rainbow Boys"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Few pieces of GLBTQ fiction have received the popular and scholarly acclaim awarded to Alex Sanchez's "Rainbow Boys" series. Although "problem novels" are rarely taken seriously as literature, the books--the first novel in particular--have joined the few pieces of GLBTQ literature incorporated into educational discourse and curriculum. In this…

  3. Our Minds Just Can't Feel Happy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoof, Katharene Kaufman

    1993-01-01

    Presents interviews with three children who offer firsthand accounts of their depression. Interviews 7-year-old boy referred for evaluation resulting from behavior problems; 12-year-old boy with major depressive episode, dysthymia, and learning disabilities, who was experiencing severe behavior and learning problems in school; and 13-year-old girl…

  4. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  5. Exploring the "Boy Crisis" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappon, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the "boy gap" or "boy crisis" in education has been the subject of increasing attention across a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Given the importance of this issue and the need to better understand the situation in boys' education, this report draws on material and data from a review…

  6. Little boy black and blue.

    PubMed

    Greene, Amanda E; Roosevelt, Genie E; Grubenhoff, Joseph A; Klein, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    Tooth decay is common in US children, especially for children in low-income families. More than half of second-grade children have cavities. Therefore, root canal procedures are becoming more common in children. We report a case of a 2-year-old boy with a rare complication of a root canal procedure secondary to sodium hypochlorite toxicity. Sodium hypochlorite, a commonly used root canal irrigant, and its toxicity are reviewed. PMID:21822090

  7. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the colon with an unusual presentation of intestinal intussusception.

    PubMed

    Appak, Yeliz Çağan; Sahin, Gülseren Evirgen; Ayhan, Semin; Taneli, Can; Kasırga, Erhun

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory myfibroblastic tumor (IMT), also known as inflammatory pseudotumor is unusual, benign solid tumor. This tumor is commonly reported in the lungs but can be present in extrapulmonary sites as well. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl with IMT in an unusual location. The patient was admitted with abdominal pain, and ultrasound showed a solid mass in the abdomen. She was operated and colocolic intussusception secondary to a mass was found. Histologic evaluation of mass revealed IMT. PMID:25755972

  8. The Absent Father: Gender Identity Considerations for Art Therapists Working with Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Martha

    1996-01-01

    Recent research has shown that boys from father-absent homes exhibit greater feminine role identification, delinquency, mental disorders, poor academic performance, and poor self-esteem. This article presents case studies that demonstrate crises of masculine identification for adolescent boys whose lives lack either a present father or male…

  9. Influence of Industrial Environments on the Development of Respiratory Systems and Morphofunctional Features in Preadolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Ignasiak, Zofia; Rozek, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the differences between levels of selected structural and functional features of boys 11–13 years in age from regions with varying levels of air pollution, including an industrial and rural region. The sample consisted of 213 boys from the industrial region and 98 from the rural region. Somatic, respiratory parameters and motor abilities were evaluated in both groups. The analysis of respiratory parameters revealed significantly better development of respiratory systems in boys from the rural region. Additionally, motor abilities were also better developed in boys from the rural region. PMID:23486548

  10. CHILD syndrome in a boy

    SciTech Connect

    Happle, R.; Effendy, I., Megahed, M.; Orlow, S.J.; Kuester, W. |

    1996-03-15

    CHILD syndrome (congential hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) occurs, as a rule, exclusively in girls because of the underlying X-linked gene exerts a lethal effect on male embryos. In this report the characteristic manifestations of CHILD syndrome are described in a 2-year-old boy with a normal chromosome constitution 46,XY. This exceptional case is best explained by the assumption of an early somatic mutation and thus compatible with the concept of X-linked dominant male-lethal inheritance of this trait. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  11. The Relationships among Executive Functions, Metacognitive Skills and Educational Achievement in 5 and 7 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Donna; Whitebread, David; Szucs, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between executive functions (inhibitory control and working memory) and metacognitive skills was investigated by applying correlational and regression analyses to data collected from two groups of children. To date, research in this area has lacked a theoretical model for considering these relationships; here we propose and test…

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  13. Association Between Gestational and Environmental Events and Central Nervous System Function in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drorbaugh, James E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The prevalence of variables frequently associated with low birthweight was compared in samples of 100 low-birthweight (LBW) infants and 100 normal birthweight infants, and the association with central nervous system function at 7 years was examined in LBW Ss. (Author/CL)

  14. Age-Appropriate Cues Facilitate Source-Monitoring and Reduce Suggestibility in 3- To 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright-Paul, A.; Jarrold, C.; Wright, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Providing cues to facilitate the recovery of source information can reduce postevent misinformation effects in adults, implying that errors in source-monitoring contribute to suggestibility (e.g., [Lindsay, D. S., & Johnson, M. K. (1989). The eyewitness suggestibility effect and memory for source. Memory & Cognition, 17, 349-358]). The present…

  15. Home Environment and Cognitive Ability of 7-Year-Old Children in the Colorado Adoption Project: Genetic and Environmental Etiologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Hilary; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study results indicate that correlations between measures of the home environment and children's intelligence quotient at 7 years of age are often mediated genetically. Among 153 adoptive and 136 nonadoptive families, such correlations were generally lower in adoptive families than in nonadoptive families. (RH)

  16. Put on a happy face! Inhibitory control and socioemotional knowledge predict emotion regulation in 5- to 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Amanda; Jacques, Sophie

    2014-07-01

    Children's developing capacity to regulate emotions may depend on individual characteristics and other abilities, including age, sex, inhibitory control, theory of mind, and emotion and display rule knowledge. In the current study, we examined the relations between these variables and children's (N=107) regulation of emotion in a disappointing gift paradigm as well as their relations with the amount of effort to control emotion children exhibited after receiving the disappointing gift. Regression analyses were also conducted to identify unique predictors. Children's understanding of others' emotions and emotion display rules, as well as their inhibitory control skills, emerged as significant correlates of emotion regulation and predicted children's responses to the disappointing gift even after controlling for other relevant variables. Age and inhibitory control significantly predicted the amount of overt effort that went into regulating emotions, as did emotion knowledge (albeit only marginally). Together, findings suggest that effectively regulating emotions requires (a) knowledge of context-appropriate emotions along with (b) inhibitory skills to implement that knowledge. PMID:24691036

  17. Discrimination of Speech Sounds Based upon Temporal Envelope versus Fine Structure Cues in 5- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoncini, Josiane; Serniclaes, Willy; Lorenzi, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the capacity of young children and adults with normal hearing to discriminate speech on the basis of either relatively slow (temporal envelope, E) or fast (temporal fine structure, TFS) auditory cues. Method: Vowel-consonant-vowel nonsense disyllables were processed to preserve either the E or the TFS information in 16…

  18. Pre-Adoption Adversity and Self-Reported Behavior Problems in 7 Year-Old International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Jeliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Celine; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…

  19. Building Creativity Training: Drawing with Left Hand to Stimulate Left Brain in Children Age 5-7 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saputra, Yanty Hardi; Sabana, Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Researcher and professionals that started researching about brains since 1930 believe that left brain is a rational brain, which is tightly related with the IO, rational thinking, arithmetic thinking, verbal, segmental, focus, serial (linear), finding the differences, and time management, Meanwhile right brain is the part of brain that controlled…

  20. The Transformation of Natural to Geometrical Concepts, Concerning Children 5-7 Years Old. The Case of Measuring Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharos, Konstantino; Ravanis, Konstantin

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the potentialities of teaching the concept of measuring surfaces to primary school children. Children tested in covering the surface of an object using socially significant materials (e.g., cardboard rectangles vs. car pictures and a drawing of a parking lot) were found to complete the task at ages younger than expected. (JPB)

  1. The Experience and Expression of Homesickness in Preadolescent and Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated homesickness in boys ages 8 through 16. Results indicated that homesickness was prevalent and varied in intensity, was experienced as a combination of depression and anxiety, was presented most often as internalizing behavior, and was more typical for younger boys. The most-homesick became increasingly so during the separation,…

  2. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia

    This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Social Responsibility of Boy Students in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; K, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to know the relationship between emotional intelligence and social responsibility of boy students in middle school using correlation. Survey method was adopted for the study. Data were collected from 100 boy students studying in Miandoab City of Iran during the academic year, 2012-13 who were selected…

  4. Alchemy and Aberrant Behaviour: A Jungian Approach to Working with Boys with Behaviour Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Alchemy is an ancient philosophy on which the two modern day sciences of chemistry and analytical psychology are grounded. In education in New South Wales (NSW) at the present time, the behaviour of boys is of increasing concern to schools, to teachers, to parents and to society at large as evidenced by the over-representation of boys in school…

  5. Streetsmart Schoolsmart: Urban Poverty and the Education of Adolescent Boys. Multicultural Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Vigil, James Diego

    2012-01-01

    In "Streetsmart Schoolsmart", two respected scholars present original research on youth gangs and school success to explain why some boys become disengaged and join gangs while others do not. Chapters vividly describe how urban boys from different ethnic backgrounds (Asian, African American, and Latino) approach schooling and identify the…

  6. Teaching Boys: Towards a Theory of Gender-Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol, Travis J.

    2015-01-01

    This article calls attention to the social and educational challenges facing boys and men around the world. Next, it highlights how the outcomes for males of African descent across the Americas, in particular the USA, are especially troubling. Moreover, a critique is presented about the recruitment campaigns that see increasing the number of Black…

  7. Differences between Boys and Girls in Extracurricular Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…

  8. Oceanography. Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, Irving, TX.

    Presented are various activities and projects intended to help Boy Scouts earn a merit badge in oceanography. Each project and/or activity is related to a requirement (objective) found in a list at the beginning of the booklet. Topic areas and/or related activities and projects include: (1) nature of oceanography (naming oceanography branches,…

  9. PE Is Not for Me: When Boys' Masculinities Are Threatened

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    This study used hegemonic masculinity theory to examine the intersection of masculinities and school physical education from the perspectives of boys who embodied masculinities that were marginalized. Over a 13-week period using present-focused, student-centered, qualitative methodological approaches, we observed, interviewed, and worked in small…

  10. Osteosarcoma in a sixteen-month old boy.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S; Sundari, M N; Masir, N

    1999-06-01

    We report a case of a sixteen-month old boy with osteosarcoma of the left humerus. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in Malaysia. This case illustrates that osteosarcoma although rare does occur in a very young child. The child died six weeks after presentation due to disseminated disease. PMID:10972039

  11. Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was to form…

  12. Establishing Five Derived Mands in Three Adolescent Boys with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Three 14-year-old boys with diagnoses of autism learned to mand for the delivery or removal of tokens by presenting nonsense syllables (A[subscript 1-5], respectively). A match-to-sample procedure was used t o establish conditional discriminations between the 5 A stimuli and 5 B stimuli and between the B stimuli and 5 C stimuli. Subsequently, each…

  13. Framing black boys: parent, teacher, and student narratives of the academic lives of black boys.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Ross, Latisha; Lozada, Fantasy T; Williams, Amber; Gale, Adrian; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research. PMID:25345000

  14. Growing Boys: Implementing a Boys' Empowerment Group in an Afterschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Georgia; Charmaraman, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The process of establishing a healthy male identity can be difficult for many boys. The limited definitions of masculinity available to boys and men are generally characterized by competition, repression of fear and emotion, and physical and emotional strength. Boys of color and those of lower economic status tend to encounter even fewer healthy…

  15. To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.

    When it comes to reading, teen and preteen boys are the most difficult students. This book addresses the growing concern among middle and high school teachers about boys' lack of literacy growth and independent reading. The book makes the case that boys are in the greatest need of help with literacy instruction and stresses the importance of…

  16. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating…

  17. "In the Eye of the Beholder...": Girls', Boys' and Teachers' Perceptions of Boys' Aggression to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…

  18. Dyskeratosis congenita in a Nigerian boy.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Aliyu; Halima, Kabir

    2014-03-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare hereditary disease. It mainly affects males and manifest between 5 years and 12 years. Its classic manifestation consists of skin pigmentary changes, nail dystrophy, oral leukoplakia, bone marrow failure and predisposition to malignany. We report the case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with hyperpigmentation of the skin, palms and soles, leukoplakia of the tongue, dystrophy of the nails, epiphoria and recurrent epistaxis with gum bleeding. Full blood count showed pancytopenia and bone marrow biopsy showed hypocellular marrow with no abnormal cells. He was transfused with pack red blood cells, platelets concentrate and was commenced on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and anabolic steroid. He is currently on follow-up in the paediatric clinic. PMID:24791055

  19. Girls and Boys Like to Read and Write Different Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merisuo-Storm, Tuula

    2006-01-01

    This study explored girls' and boys' (aged 10-11) attitudes towards reading and writing. Girls enjoyed reading significantly more than boys. Boys liked mostly comics and humorous books; adventure books were girls' favourites. Poetry did not appeal to pupils. Many boys did not enjoy typical school texts. Most pupils, especially boys, did not like…

  20. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  1. Role Calls for Boys & Girls Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and federal…

  2. More Boys Wanted in Upstate New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the popularity of TV shows like "American Idol" and "Glee," it can still be hard to convince boys that singing is cool. Therefore, choir directors who would like more boys to join their groups have their work cut out for them. Erin Belanger, music teacher at Stockbridge Valley central School in Munnsville, New York is a case in point.…

  3. Concern Over Gender Gaps Shifting to Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2006-01-01

    After years of efforts aimed at boosting girls' achievement in science and mathematics, researchers, writers, and educators are now expressing alarm about the plight of boys. Even boys themselves have jumped into the debate. In December 2006, Doug Anglin, a 17-year-old senior at Milton High School in Milton, Massachusetts, filed a federal civil…

  4. Failing Boys? Issues in Gender and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie, Ed.; Elwood, Jannette, Ed.; Hey, Valerie, Ed.; Maw, Janet, Ed.

    Issues surrounding boys'"underachievement" have been at the center of public debate about education and the raising of standards in recent years. Media and political responses to the "problem of boys" have tended to be simplistic, partial, and owe more to quick fixes than investigation and research. This book provides a detailed, nuanced case…

  5. Developmental Pathways in Boys' Disruptive Delinquent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Barbara Tatem; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate; DeLamatre, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Boys may follow various developmental pathways that lead to increasingly disruptive and delinquent behavior. To most parents, teachers, youth workers, mental health professionals, and juvenile justice practitioners, the development of disruptive and delinquent behavior in boys may appear erratic and unpredictable. This bulletin summarizes…

  6. Using Special Education to Destroy Black Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Asks whether special education is designed to keep African-American boys out of the mainstream of education and also looks at questions of a passive conspiracy to destroy African-American males and the role of racism. Discusses special education legislation, and argues that African-American boys are not being adequately educated. (JB)

  7. Adolescent Boys' Friendships and Peer Group Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy Y.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…

  8. Boy Scouts, School Policies and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America's anti-gay and anti-atheist youth policies are forcing school districts to reconsider sponsoring troops and allowing meetings on campus. To most school boards, banning Boy Scouts organizations seems unthinkable. The meeting-space question boils down to existence of anti-discrimination policies. (MLH)

  9. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

  10. Comparing matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Young, G D; Wilson, J F

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine whether girls and boys show patterns of problem-solving ability similar to those attributed by Kimura in 1992 to women and men, respectively. Subjects were 28 girls and 24 boys, aged 5-11 years, who were tested individually on matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency, tasks on which women reportedly outperform men. No significant gender differences in these problem-solving abilities were found. On ideational fluency, the youngest girls were seven times more likely than young boys to give whimsical responses, but older girls were then times less likely than older boys to give whimsical responses. These results suggest that the patterns of visuospatial problem-solving abilities that Kimura ascribed to women and men are not present in preadolescent girls and boys. PMID:7870488

  11. Heterotopic Pancreas Presented as Duodenal Tumor with Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Heun; Nam, So Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Heterotopic pancreas (HP) is defined as pancreatic tissue lacking anatomic and vascular continuity with the main body of the pancreas. Most are asymptomatic, but can cause ulcer, bleeding, intussusception, and mechanical obstruction. Herein, we presented one case of HP presented as duodenal tumor causing duodenal obstruction. A 7-year-old girl visited the emergency room for abdominal pain with vomiting for 24 hours. Computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal series revealed a polypoid mass with short stalk in the 2nd portion of duodenum. We attempted an endoscopic removal. However, the lumen was nearly obstructed by the mass and the stalk was too broad and hard to excise. The mass was surgically removed via duodenotomy. It was confirmed as a HP with ductal and acini components (type 2 by Heinrich classification). Postoperatively, the patient has been well without any complication and recurrence. PMID:26770904

  12. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A; Kota, Rahul Krishna S; Pilani, Abhisheik P

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  13. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Pilani, Abhisheik P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  14. Tinea nigra presenting speckled or "salt and pepper" pattern.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Haddad, Vidal Junior

    2014-06-01

    A 7-year-old Caucasian female resident of the southern coast of Brazil presented dark spots on the left palm that converged to a unique macule with speckled pattern at about 1 month. The mycological exam and the fungi culture were typical of Hortaea werneckii, the agent of the superficial mycosis Tinea nigra. The patient received butenafine hydrochloride 1% for 30 days, resulting in a complete remission of the lesion. At a follow-up visit 12 months after treatment, there was no lesion recurrence. We describe a form of rare geographical Tinea nigra with a speckled pattern. The "salt and pepper" aspect should be taken into consideration when the mycosis was suspected. PMID:24898980

  15. Efficacy of "talking books" for a group of reading disabled boys.

    PubMed

    Abelson, A G; Petersen, M

    1983-10-01

    No significant differences in proficiency of reading-listening comprehension among 24 reading-disabled boys in Grades 4, 5, and 6 were noted after hearing "talking book," taped stories, and teacher-read presentations. PMID:6634340

  16. Cryptorchidism in boys with posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Krueger, R P; Hardy, B E; Churchill, B M

    1980-07-01

    A review of 207 male children with poterior urethral valves revealed an over-all incidence of cryptorchidism of 12 per cent. This association of cryptorchidism in boys with posterior urethral valves has not been described previously. PMID:6106069

  17. Depression in Diagnostic Subtypes of Delinquent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashani, Javad H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Delinquent boys (18 percent of 120) were found to be depressed when DSM III criteria for Major Depressive Disorder were utilized. Results indicated the prevalence of depression was not significantly more frequent among socialized, undersocialized, aggressive or nonaggressive subtypes. (Author)

  18. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs began in New…

  19. Burkitt's lymphoma in a young Brazilian boy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudio M; Lopes, Ana Paula M; Meneghini, Alexandre J; Silva, Geisa B L; Monteiro, Mariana C; Botelho, Tessa de L

    2010-06-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is not an uncommon malignancy in the paediatric population. It is a high-grade non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma which may present as endemic, sporadic and human immunodeficiency-associated subtypes. The African, or endemic, variant usually involves the maxilla and other facial bones while head and neck manifestations in sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma are rare. We described a case of oral Burkitt's lymphoma involving the right jaw in a 4-year-old boy. The patient presented with a rapidly-enlarging swelling of one month duration, toothache-like pain and radiographical appearance of 'floating teeth' in the right mandible. Incisional biopsy revealed small round tumour cells with scarce cytoplasm and multiple small nuclei interspersed by phagocytic macrophages. The tumour cells were immunopositivity for CD20 and CD10, expressed weak positivity for CD3, negative for CD5 and showed > 90% positivity for Ki-67. Tumour remission was achieved with six cycles of chemotherapy with the CHOP regime. PMID:20614728

  20. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Manzur, A; Zaidi, S T H

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) presenting with hypopigmented lesions is an uncommon clinical variant of the disease, usually described in dark-skinned patients. We report a case of hypopigmented CTCL in a 10-year-old boy. The disease has responded favorably to narrowband UVB therapy. This case illustrates the importance of clinical suspicion for mycosis fungoides in patients with widespread hypopigmentation. PMID:17083901

  1. 'Body image is for girls': a qualitative study of boys' body image.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Duane A; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    Although a considerable and informative literature on boys' body image is beginning to emerge, this literature has been guided strongly by theorizing about female body image. The present study aimed to gain access to boys' own ideas and terminology regarding their body image. The participants (aged 14 to 16 years) said that they are satisfied with their appearance, but some conceded their physical appearance to be more important than they like to admit. Boys do not believe that the mass media influences their body image and said they do not talk about body image because it is a feminine or gay issue. PMID:16769736

  2. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated finiteness marking (e.g., he walk "s", he walk "ed") in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS); the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, impaired). Method: Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated. The boys completed probes…

  3. Relational Strategies to Engage Boys: The Need for Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Some boys thrive in school; many do not. There is a growing consensus that many boys' scholastic performance is failing to keep up with the new knowledge economy. As troubling as this trend in boys' scholastic performance may be generally, school troubles are neither universal nor normative. The intriguing fact is that some boys in most schools…

  4. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung: A Rare Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parveen; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma of lung is a rare tumor with few case reports in literature. Though named synovial sarcoma due to its resemblance to synovium on light microscopy, it arises from mesenchymal tissue. Here, we present a case of synovial sarcoma of lung in a 7-year old boy, with main emphasis on difficulty faced in the management. PMID:27170917

  5. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung: A Rare Tumor.

    PubMed

    Raj, Prince; Kumar, Parveen; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma of lung is a rare tumor with few case reports in literature. Though named synovial sarcoma due to its resemblance to synovium on light microscopy, it arises from mesenchymal tissue. Here, we present a case of synovial sarcoma of lung in a 7-year old boy, with main emphasis on difficulty faced in the management. PMID:27170917

  6. Phialemonium infection complicating chronic suppurative otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Pong, Dan L.; Marom, Tal; Makishima, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Phialemonium infection in humans is rare. We report a 7-year-old healthy boy who presented with chronic otorrhea, which persisted despite adequate antibiotic therapy and four preservative tympanomastoidectomy operations. Following 3 years of intermittent topical antibiotic therapy, cultures eventually grew Phialemonium, which necessitated a more extensive operation, combined with systemic/topical anti-fungal agent to achieve clinical cure. PMID:24596671

  7. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games. PMID:17034335

  8. Overcoming the Obstacle Course: Teenage Boys and Reading; Boy Books, Girl Books: Should We Re-Organize Our School Library Collections?; Guys and Reading; Where the Boys Are...; From "Boys' Life" to "Thrasher": Boys and Magazines; Connecting with Boys at Lunch: A Success Story; Motivating Boys as Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patrick; Fiorelli, Dawn Cartwright; Doiron, Ray; Scieszka, Jon; Haupt, Allison; Cox, Ruth E.; Martin, Robie; Dahlhauser, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Includes seven articles that discuss overcoming obstacles to getting teenage boys to read. Highlights include what teacher-librarians can do; what boys see as obstacles; material selection; collection organization; gender issues; learning differences; magazines; lunchtime book discussion groups; motivating boys as beginning readers; and popular…

  9. Play Preference and Play Performance in Normal Boys and Boys with Sensory Integrative Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Jane M.; Bundy, Anita C.

    1989-01-01

    The Preschool Play Scale (PPS) and the Preschool Play Materials Preference Inventory were administered to 35 normal preschool boys and 31 with sensory integrative dysfunction (SID). Results indicated no differences in regard to play preference, lower scores for SID boys on the PPS, and no relationship between performance and preference for SID…

  10. Boys Only: One Co-Educational Primary School's Experience of a Classroom for Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Concern over retention of boys as well as poor academic performance and behaviour, in a New Zealand co-educational primary school, led the school to trial, a "boys-only class". This case study reports interview and questionnaire commentary obtained at the beginning and end of the year from the principal, the teacher, pupils and parents, to…

  11. Two Boy Scout Troops: The Impact of the Troop Culture on What Boys Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinkwin, Anne; Kleinfeld, Judith

    Troop ideology as defined by the scoutmaster and other involved adults radically altered the learning experiences of boys in two Boy Scout troops, even though both adhered to the official program. Using observation and interviews, researchers studied all aspects of the troops over 7 months. One troop, whose scoutmaster was benevolent and…

  12. Successful Boys and Literacy: Are "Literate Boys" Challenging or Repackaging Hegemonic Masculinity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2011-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress statistics show that boys are underachieving in literacy compared to girls. Attempts to redress the problem in various Global North countries and particularly Australia and the United Kingdom have failed to make any impact. However, there are boys who are doing well in literacy. The aim of this…

  13. Effortful Control in Typically Developing Boys and in Boys with ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samyn, Vicky; Roeyers, Herbert; Bijttebier, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in the role of effortful control (EC) in developmental disorders, few studies have focused on EC in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and no study so far has directly compared children with ASD and children with ADHD. A first aim of this study was to investigate whether typically developing (TD) boys, boys with ADHD and…

  14. Genital injuries in boys and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, C J; Osman, J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To describe a cohort of boys with genital injuries in whom child abuse was suspected. Methods Boys with genital injury (penile and/or scrotal) and referred to paediatricians in Leeds, population 750 000, with concerns regarding possible abuse from 1983 to 2003 were identified from medical reports. Results 86 boys (average age 62.7 months, median age 48 months) were referred between 1983 and 2003. The injury was judged inflicted in 63, unexplained, suspicious or inconsistent with the history given in 17 and accidental in six. The number of discrete injuries ranged from one in 57, two in 15, three in 12, to more than three in two cases. Genital injuries included burns in seven boys, bruises in 27, incised wounds, lacerations or scars in 39, and other traumatic lesions in 27. Non‐genital findings included anal findings in 28, >10 bruises in 17, fractures in three, burns in 12, mouth injuries in four, brain and retinal haemorrhages in one, and poor nourishment or underweight in 14. The categories of abuse were physical (eight), sexual (19), both physical and sexual (eight), physical and neglect (four), and physical, sexual and neglect (one). The category of abuse was unspecified in 39 children. Conclusions Genital injury in boys may be the result of abuse which may be physical or sexual in nature. PMID:17376938

  15. Unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy: brief report.

    PubMed

    Alshaiji, Jasem M; Handler, Marc Z; Schwartzfarb, Elissa; Izakovic, Jan; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Striae distensae or stretch marks are a common skin condition that occurs frequently in association with adolescent growth spurts and pregnancy. They are characterized by linear symmetrical asymptomatic smooth bands of atrophic-appearing skin on the thighs, buttocks, and breasts in girls and on the shoulders, outer thighs, and lumbosacral areas in boys. We present a rare case of unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy. PMID:23072309

  16. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys with a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Teun G.; Prins, Pier J.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented. An 11 session group treatment, a social…

  17. Association of a Monoamine Oxidase-A Gene Promoter Polymorphism with ADHD and Anxiety in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAO-A gene and severity of ADHD and anxiety in boys with ASD. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 5- to 14-year-old boys with ASD (n = 43). Planned…

  18. Disruptive Behaviour in School, Personality Characteristics, and Heart Rate (HR) Levels in 7- to 9-Year-Old Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliphant, Rodney; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents results of study of British elementary school boys aged seven to nine, comparing disruptive behavior to heart rate. Distinguishes this study from earlier ones that found relationship between low base heart rates and low reactivity to mild stress among high school boys. Reports that this study disproves prediction that results would be…

  19. Changes in At-Risk Boys' Intrinsic Motivation toward Physical Activity: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiling; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia; Juzaily, Nasnoor

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is an important predictor of children's physical activity participation. The present 3-year longitudinal study examined changes in IM toward physical activity among a group of at-risk boys (N = 92) at a summer sports camp. Results showed the boys were intrinsically motivated in their first camp year, but their IM levels…

  20. Time Trends in Medically Serious Suicide-Related Behaviours in Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Lu, Hong; Skinner, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether emergency department (ED) presentations for suicide-related behaviours (SRBs) in boys and girls were identified as more clinically acute in the ED in the period after the regulatory warnings against prescribing antidepressants and during the global economic recession, and to characterize the medical severity of SRBs among boys and girls to aid surveillance activities. Method: Among Ontario boys and girls (aged 12 to 17 years) presenting to the ED with an incident (index) ED SRB event between fiscal years (FYs) 2002 to 2010, we compared the number of high (compared with lower) acuity events in FYs 2005 to 2010 to those in FYs 2002 to 2004. We described the SRB method by its acuity and tested the linearity of varying trends in the SRB method in boys and girls. Results: In both boys and girls, high acuity events were 50% greater after FY 2004 than before, regardless of subsequent admission, and most common among boys and girls who self-poisoned. In girls, opposing linear trends before and after FY 2004 were observed in the proportion of self-poisonings and cut (or) pierce SRB methods. Throughout the study period, there was a linear decline in the proportion of boys presenting to the ED with other methods. Conclusions: The previously reported increase in hospital admissions after the warnings and during the recession is unlikely artifactual. An equivalent increase in high acuity events was also evident among those not subsequently admitted. The reasons for varying responses in boys and girls by SRB method warrant further study. PMID:25565689

  1. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys: a worthwhile minor surgical procedure?

    PubMed

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike; Thorup, Jorgen; Hutson, John; Heloury, Yves

    2016-03-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure. For example, the use of immunohistochemical markers such as OCT/3-4, TSPY, Kit ligand (SCF) and ALPP (PLAP) has considerably facilitated the detection of germ cell tumour precursors, such as carcinoma in situ and/or gonadoblastoma. These markers are very important for evaluating malignancy risk in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys is a minor procedure that can provide valuable information for predicting the risk of malignancy and fertility, and might be useful in fertility preservation in the near future. PMID:26787392

  2. Effect of exercise on postprandial endothelial function in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Matthew J; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E; Tolfrey, Keith; Nevill, Alan; Barrett, Laura A

    2013-07-28

    The ingestion of high-fat meals induces a state of endothelial dysfunction in adults. This dysfunction is attenuated by prior exercise. The response of young people to these nutritional and physiological stressors has not been established. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if a bout of moderate-intensity exercise influenced endothelial function (as indicated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD)) following the ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch in adolescent boys (aged 12·6-14·3 years). Two, 2 d main trials (control and exercise) were completed by thirteen adolescent boys in a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Participants were inactive on day 1 of the control trial, but completed 60 min of walking at 60 % peak oxygen uptake in the exercise trial. On day 2, endothelial function was assessed via FMD prior to, and following, ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch. There was no difference in fasting FMD between the control and exercise trial (P= 0·449). In the control trial, FMD was reduced by 32 % following consumption of the high-fat breakfast and by 24 % following lunch. In the exercise trial, the corresponding reductions were 6 and 10 %, respectively (main effect trial, P= 0·002). These results demonstrate that moderate-intensity exercise can attenuate the decline in FMD seen following the consumption of high-fat meals in adolescent boys. PMID:23218136

  3. "Totem and Taboo" in a latency boy.

    PubMed

    Elkisch, P

    1979-01-01

    Against the background of Freud's "Totem and Taboo" the case of a seven-year-old boy is discusses, focusing on his identification with a cat. Guided by Freud's dialectic thinking and his discussion of the phenomena of patriarchy and matriarchy, one is led to contemplate the totemism of a matriarchally oriented boy. The attempt to understand this child's pathology is based upon the concept of the specificity of a developmental phase. In the light of anthropological data, clinical phenomena are evaluated ontogenetically, in analogy with the recapitulation hypothesis. PMID:489885

  4. A Boy's Alternative to Bodice-Rippers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katherine T.; Manning, M. Lee

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the genre of fantasy novels, noting its popularity with adolescent readers (especially boys). Notes sources helpful to teachers and school librarians, and lists a few personal favorite fantasy novels. Offers a brief note on whether the Harry Potter books can be considered young adult literature. (SR)

  5. The Neuropsychological Status of Adolescent Delinquent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, P. H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The neuropsychological status and neuromotor performance of adolescent boys from lower-middle-class social environments who were detained as juvenile delinquents were compared to those of nondelinquent lower- and upper-middle-class controls. Principal aims were to investigate relationships between delinquency and learning disabilities,…

  6. Woodland Biology for Hundreds of Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Margaret

    1982-01-01

    Describes outdoor biology activities in a woodland area at a private boys school in England. Activities included studies of areas within the woods, winter trips, and wood and pond animals. Includes comments on preparing for and teaching the activities. (Author/JN)

  7. Dr. von Braun Visits Huntsville Boys Club

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Dr. von Braun, Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and chairman of this year's United Givers Fund (UGF) drive at MSFC, takes time out from the problems of sending a man to the Moon to talk baseball with 11-year-old Randy Smith at the Huntsville Boys Club.

  8. TEACHERS' INTERACTIONS WITH BOYS AND WITH GIRLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FELDMAN, DAVID H.; SEARS, PAULINE S.

    AN EXAMINATION WAS MADE OF THE TEACHERS' PART IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF CHILDREN IN ADOPTING AND MAINTAINING A SEX-ROLE THAT WILL HELP THEM REACH A SENSE OF REAL IDENTITY. ANSWERS WERE SOUGHT FOR TWO QUESTIONS--(1) DO TEACHERS REACT DIFFERENTLY TO BOYS AND GIRLS, AND (2) IF SO, WHAT EFFECT MAY THIS HAVE ON THE INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL…

  9. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  10. With Boys and Girls in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…

  11. Language in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Yonata; Gottesman, Riki; Borochowitz, Zvi; Frydman, Moshe; Sagi, Michal

    2006-01-01

    The current paper reports of language production in 15 Hebrew-speaking boys, aged 9;0-13;0, with fully methylated, non-mosaic fragile X syndrome and no concomitant diagnosis of autism. Contrary to expectations, seven children were non-verbal. Language production in the verbal children was studied in free conversations and in context-bound speech.…

  12. A Young Boy Grows Away from Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoladore, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates a little boy's journey from autistic-like symptoms into more adaptive ways of coping with trauma and separation. Drawing from the psychoanalytic literature on autism and trauma, it discusses how traumatic events in the first two years of life may cause a child to withdraw from social relationships and cause developmental…

  13. "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son": A Memoir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Reta Ugena

    2010-01-01

    "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son" is Kevin Jennings's autobiographical account of growing up gay in the Southern United States. In his memoir, Jennings shares formative experiences relating to his impoverished childhood and his career as teacher and social activist. His rich description of the influence of family relationships on his personal and…

  14. Gene Therapy for "Bubble Boy" Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Jonathan

    2016-07-14

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites that destroy the immune system, causing severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), often referred to as the "bubble boy" disease. Strimvelis is a European Medicines Agency approved gene therapy for ADA-SCID patients without a suitable bone marrow donor. PMID:27419862

  15. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  16. Manifestations of Namibian Boy's Underachievement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimba, Roderick F.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the 2012 grade 10 and grade 12 Namibian examination data indicate that girls received higher grades than boys across the then 13 education regions (Educational Management Information System, EMIS, 2012). University of Namibia graduation statistics for the period of 2002 to 2012 revealed that the institution consistently produced…

  17. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Boys With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Campbell, Daniel; Chen, Lisha; Shic, Frederick; Klin, Ami; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. Objectives To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels. Design Retrospective study. Setting A specialized university-based clinic. Participants Boys diagnosed as having autistic disorder (n=64), pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (n=34), global developmental delay (n=13), and other developmental problems (n=18) and typically developing boys (n=55). Main Outcome Measures Age-related changes in HC, height, and weight between birth and age 24 months; measures of social, verbal, and cognitive functioning at age 2 years. Results Compared with typically developing controls, boys with autism were significantly longer by age 4.8 months, had a larger HC by age 9.5 months, and weighed more by age 11.4 months (P=.05 for all). None of the other clinical groups showed a similar overgrowth pattern. Boys with autism who were in the top 10% of overall physical size in infancy exhibited greater severity of social deficits (P=.009) and lower adaptive functioning (P=.03). Conclusions Boys with autism experienced accelerated HC growth in the first year of life. However, this phenomenon reflected a generalized process affecting other morphologic features, including height and weight. The study highlights the importance of studying factors that influence not only neuronal development but also skeletal growth in autism. PMID:21969460

  18. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    PubMed

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed. PMID:2086629

  19. Boys May Be Boys, but Do They Have to Read and Write that Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author, a mother of twin boys in middle school, shares excerpts from her sons' writings which she thinks are too violent and action oriented. She marvels at their knack for pacing, detail, and metaphor, but in the back of her mind she wonders what the content will make readers think of them as a boy and of her as a parent. She…

  20. Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease Preliminary research tries new approach to rebuild ... therapy shows preliminary promise against so-called "Bubble Boy" disease, researchers report. A small, early-stage trial ...

  1. Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159512.html Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School: ... 22, 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Behavior problems are more likely to hold boys back ...

  2. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... that nourishes the developing fetus, is different in boys and girls. "The placenta is critical for pregnancy success, and ... vary based on whether they are carrying a boy or a girl, the researchers said. The study was published online ...

  3. Weight Loss Surgery May Boost Good Cholesterol in Obese Boys

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery May Boost Good Cholesterol in Obese Boys Small study showed surgery also improved protective effects ... Weight loss surgery could help severely obese teenage boys reduce their risk for heart disease by increasing ...

  4. Research in Review. Kindness and Compassion: Convincing the Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Discusses research which states that girls' attitudes about animals are generally more humane than boys'. Suggests practical implications from the research. Lists resources which may be helpful to boys. (CW)

  5. A Book Club Sheds Light on Boys and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weih, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    This article is about a book club for middle school boys. The idea of a book club for boys came from the author's concern about what he had been hearing and reading about boys falling behind in their reading abilities. The purpose of establishing the club was to discover from the boys themselves what could be done to support them in their reading.…

  6. Relationships Play Primary Role in Boys' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…

  7. Gendered Practices in the Education of Gifted Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara A.; Vuyk, M. Alexandra; Rea, Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    Gifted girls and gifted boys are more alike than they are different, although researchers remain fascinated with sex differences. Small differences between gifted boys and girls in achievements, interests, careers, and relationships can become exaggerated through gendered educational practices. Kindergarten "red-shirting" of boys and the denial of…

  8. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  9. Memory Skills of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Peter A.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Mirrett, Penny; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple aspects of memory were examined in 42 boys with fragile X syndrome and a comparison group of 42 typically developing boys matched on MA. Working memory, incidental memory, and deliberate memory were assessed with a battery that included both free-recall and recognition tasks. Findings indicated that boys with fragile X syndrome performed…

  10. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  11. Boys' Friendships during Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…

  12. "Boys Don't Do Dance, Do They?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the Warwick Arts Centre launched the "Boys Dancing" project through the formation of the West Midlands Boys Dance Alliance. Aimed exclusively at boys and young men, the project has offered a range of performance-making opportunities with male professionals including Liam Steel (DV8, Stan Won't Dance) and David McKenna (Beingfrank Physical…

  13. The Mutilated Boy and the Press: A Rumor Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lee

    Responsible editors avoid printing falsehoods, but the public sometimes demands that rumors be covered in the press. One example of such rumors and the way editors deal with them is the "Mutilated Boy." The "Mutilated Boy" rumor has been circulating for decades and involves a brutal attack upon a small boy in a public rest room. The "crime" is…

  14. Clinical and neuroradiological approach to fucosidosis in a child with atypical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Zubarioglu, Tanyel; Kiykim, Ertugrul; Zeybek, Cigdem Aktuglu; Cansever, Mehmet Serif; Benbir, Gulcin; Aydin, Ahmet; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Fucosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease with clinical presentation of developmental retardation, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, and angiokeratomas. Here, a 7-year-old female patient with progressive dystonic movement disorder and loss of acquired motor skills is presented. Coarse facial feature and abnormal globuspallidus signaling in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) led the patient to be investigated in terms of fucosidosis despite absence of hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, and angiokeratomas. Markedly decreased enzyme activity of alpha-fucosidosis led to the correct diagnosis. Conclusion: Various neurological findings have recently been reported in fucosidosis. However, neuroimaging findings have not been studied in detail except a few studies. It is critically important to discuss the wide neuroradiological spectrum of the disease and to highlight fucosidosis in differential diagnosis of bilateral pallidalhypointensity on T2-weighted images in brain MRI. In addition, description of atypical clinical findings of fucosidosis should avoid clinicians from diagnostic delay. PMID:26713028

  15. Pediatric sciatic neuropathy presenting as painful leg: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Manish; Babiker, Mohamed; Rao, Ganesh; Rittey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Mononeuropathies, in general, are very uncommon in childhood. Sciatic neuropathy (SN) is probably underappreciated in childhood and likely to represent nearly one quarter of childhood mononeuropathies. Materials and Methods: We present a 7-year-old girl who presented with painful right lower limb and abnormal gait. Detailed investigation revealed transient eosinophilia, abnormal neurophysiology, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggestive of isolated sciatic neuropathy. Results: She has responded very well to physiotherapy and has made a complete motor recovery, although she is left with an area of abnormal sensation affecting the lateral border of her right leg and the dorsum of her foot. Discussion: Differential diagnoses for pediatric SN have been discussed including compressive neuropathies in children and various hyper-eosinophilia syndromes. Compressive neuropathies in childhood are very rare and compression of the sciatic nerve is the second most common group after peroneal nerve lesion. PMID:24082941

  16. Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

  17. Raising Boys: Why Boys Are Different and How To Help Them Become Happy and Well-Balanced Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddulph, Steve

    Noting that by 15 years of age, boys are three times more likely than girls to die from all causes combined, but especially from accidents, violence, and suicide, this book suggests that boys have special needs and offers suggestions for effective parenting. Chapter 1, "What Is It with Boys?," provides an overview. Chapter 2, "The Three Stages of…

  18. The Boy Problem: Many Boys Think School Is Stupid and Reading Stinks--Is There a Remedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The gender issue is relevant to classroom learning in more ways than one. Increasingly in the United States, young boys are saying that school is stupid and they do not like to read. This phenomenon cuts across all demographic groups: it affects affluent white boys in the suburbs no less than it affects black boys in low-income neighborhoods. In…

  19. Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, David; Lintott, Chris

    1996-10-01

    TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest, best equipped school observatories in the UK. It is now a minor centre for research and studies at GCSE and higher levels.

  20. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls. PMID:23402479

  1. Treating verbal working memory in a boy with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Orsolini, Margherita; Melogno, Sergio; Latini, Nausica; Penge, Roberta; Conforti, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1) core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2) guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3) a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced “near transfer” effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition, and switching) were long-lasting and produced “far transfer” effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting 8 or 10 weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1) in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a), then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b), then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3). A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and 7 months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a 13-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was 15 years old. PMID:26284014

  2. Histology of Testicular Biopsies Obtained for an Experimental Fertility Preservation Protocol in Boys with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietzak, Eugene J.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Brinster, Ralph L.; Carlson, Claire; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Kolon, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cryopreservation of testicular tissue with subsequent re-implantation after therapy has fertility perseveration potential for pre-pubertal boys with childhood cancer. We present the histology and the feasibility of testicular tissue procurement for this novel approach. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of boys at significant risk for treatment-associated gonadotoxicity who were eligible for an experimental research protocol between 2008 and 2011. Open testicular biopsy was performed while they were anesthetized for another treatment related procedure. Half of the specimen was reserved for cryopreservation, while the other half was used for research purposes. Semi-thin sections of the biopsy specimens were evaluated for histological features and compared to age-adjusted reference values. Results Of the 34 boys who underwent biopsy between March 2008 and October 2011, 29 had solid tumors and 5 underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for benign disease. Of these, 27 had adequate tissue for histologic analysis. The median age of the boys was 8.7 years (IQR=2.2 – 11.5 years). All children had either normal (81.5%) or increased (18.5%) numbers of normal germ cells per tubules for their age. However, 18.5% (5/27) of boys had no evidence of Adult dark (Ad) spermatogonia, and 56% (9/16) of boys had no evidence of primary spermatocytes on biopsy, that would be expected for their age norms. These findings are suggestive of abnormal germ cell maturation. Conclusion The preliminary histologic findings of abnormal spermatogenesis maturation in testes of pre-pubertal boys with cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:26032139

  3. HIV risks among gay- and non-gay-identified migrant money boys in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, F Y; Huang, Z J; He, N; Smith, B D; Ding, Y; Fu, C; Young, D

    2008-02-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) now account for 7% of all HIV/AIDS cases in China and there is growing awareness that internal rural-to-urban migration might shift the HIV epidemic within China by broadening social and sexual mixing. About 70% of HIV/AIDS infections are among rural residents, of whom 80% are males and 60% aged 16-29. This young, male, rural-to-urban migrant population has been identified as the 'tipping point' for the AIDS epidemic in China. A subgroup of these migrants is the 'money boy' population, i.e. those who engage in same-sex transactional sex for economic survival. However, the literature addressing money boys is very limited. The present study aims to elucidate factors for preventing substance abuse and HIV among two types of money boys 'gay-identified' and 'non-gay-identified' living in the Shanghai metropolitan area. This work is conceptually underpinned by Chng et al.'s (2003) tripartite model, which postulates that risk behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) engaged in by transient or non-native individuals are often shaped and regulated by factors in the home environment, migration experience and current environment. Results reveal gay and non-gay money boys were not significantly different in age, income, marriage status and education. Both groups shared similar patterns of substance use. Both groups had high self-reported depressive symptoms and low HIV knowledge. However, sexual orientation differentially predicted HIV testing, with gay money boys more likely to be tested for HIV. Non-gay money boys showed fewer sexual risks. HIV prevention targeting MSM (including money boys) within rapidly changing China is discussed, as are methodologies and outreach strategies most effective for particular subgroups of MSM. PMID:18293125

  4. Why, Mrs. Robinson? The seduction of teenage boys by women in classic films.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing three classic films, and psychoanalytic developmental theory, this paper explores the conscious and unconscious reasons why older women become sexually involved with teenage boys. After a presentation of aspects of young adult and midlife female development and a psychodynamic explanation for the developmental similarities between adolescence and menopause, each of the three films is summarized. The dynamics behind the women's behavior, as presented in the films, are discussed. The third section of the paper discusses similarities and differences among the three women and the negative effects on the boys' development. PMID:25117782

  5. Antiretroviral treatment induced catatonia in 16-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Lingeswaran, Anand

    2014-01-01

    We present a 16-year-old boy, who had presented to us with catatonic features of mutism, withdrawal, passive negativism, grimacing, gesturing, echopraxia, and excitement of 5 days duration while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a period of 2 years. He had history of birth asphyxia and acquired HIV infection from his father when the same syringe and needle was used on both of them in a medical setting where the father and son had consulted for treatment of pyrexia of unknown origin. He was the eldest of a three children family in which the biologic father had acquired HIV through extramarital sexual contact with HIV-infected sex workers but was unaware of his HIV positive status till our patient, the 16-year-old was admitted and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis at 14 years of age. The boy's mother had only acquired HIV after having three children with the HIV-positive husband, thus leaving the other two children HIV negative. The catatonia completely resolved within 2 days after the ART was withheld, and risperidone 1 mg twice a day was prescribed. This case highlights the risks of ART and breach of universal precautions. PMID:25624940

  6. Tor: Case Study of a Boy with Autism between the Age of Three and Eight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, C Reuterskiold; Nettelbladt, U.

    2005-01-01

    Longitudinal data are presented on a boy between the ages of three and eight. At age three he received a diagnosis of language impairment and at age six a diagnosis of high-functioning autism. Results are presented from extensive assessments at four points in time, including interviews with his mother and teachers. The results indicate that the…

  7. Tinea nigra Presenting Speckled or “Salt and Pepper” Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Junior, Vidal Haddad

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old Caucasian female resident of the southern coast of Brazil presented dark spots on the left palm that converged to a unique macule with speckled pattern at about 1 month. The mycological exam and the fungi culture were typical of Hortaea werneckii, the agent of the superficial mycosis Tinea nigra. The patient received butenafine hydrochloride 1% for 30 days, resulting in a complete remission of the lesion. At a follow-up visit 12 months after treatment, there was no lesion recurrence. We describe a form of rare geographical Tinea nigra with a speckled pattern. The “salt and pepper” aspect should be taken into consideration when the mycosis was suspected. PMID:24898980

  8. Rare presentation of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a pediatric patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, João Paulo; da Costa, Fernanda Herrera; Matheus, Ricardo Alves; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Pereira-Stabile, Cecilia Luiz

    2016-06-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a painless benign tumor with slow growth, usually asymptomatic. It has three variants: follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. In the follicular type, the tumor is associated with an impacted tooth, and maxillary canines are the most frequently affected. Association with primary teeth is very rare. Treatment consists essentially in a total lesion enucleation. The objective of this paper is to present the clinical case of a 7-year-old female patient with an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with the crown of the left lower deciduous canine (73), dislodging it to the mandibular base and consequently shifting and also impacting the permanent lower canine (33). The lesion was treated with careful enucleation, preserving the permanent canine, which then had its eruption path released favoring its migration to an ideal position. PMID:26584947

  9. Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary presenting as precocious puberty: a rare neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Afroz, Nishat; Maheshwari, Veena; Naim, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old Indian girl presented with symptoms of excessive development of breasts, early menarche, growth of pubic hairs, accelerated growth and abdominal distension. On clinical examination, a large right abdominopelvic mass was palpable. MRI revealed a large, heterogeneous, solid and cystic tumour in the right adnexal region, suggestive of an ovarian neoplasm. The hormonal profile showed markedly elevated oestradiol and low follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Clinical diagnosis of precocious puberty with right ovarian mass was concluded. Right-sided salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathology showed features consistent with sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary. Postoperatively, signs and symptoms of precocity gradually regressed and her serum oestradiol level came down to normal. This is the first reported case from India. PMID:24686794

  10. X-linked creatine transporter defect: A report on two unrelated boys with a severe clinical phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Anselm, I. M.; Alkuraya, F. S.; Salomons, G. S.; Jakobs, C.; Fulton, A. B.; Mazumdar, M.; Rivkin, M.; Frye, R.; Poussaint, T. Young; Marsden, D.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We report two unrelated boys with the X-linked creatine transporter defect (CRTR) and clinical features more severe than those previously described with this disorder. These two boys presented at ages 12 and 30 months with severe mental retardation, absent speech development, hypotonia, myopathy and extra-pyramidal movement disorder. One boy has seizures and some dysmorphic features; he also has evidence of an oxidative phosphorylation defect. They both had classical absence of creatine peak on brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In one, however, this critical finding was overlooked in the initial interpretation and was discovered upon subsequent review of the MRS. PMID:16601897

  11. HPA axis function predicts development of working memory in boys with FXS.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Jessica F; Hahn, Laura J; Hooper, Stephen R; Hatton, Deborah; Roberts, Jane E

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines verbal working memory over time in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) compared to nonverbal mental-age (NVMA) matched, typically developing (TD) boys. Concomitantly, the relationship between cortisol-a physiological marker for stress-and verbal working memory performance over time is examined to understand the role of physiological mechanisms in cognitive development in FXS. Participants were assessed between one and three times over a 2-year time frame using two verbal working memory tests that differ in complexity: memory for words and auditory working memory with salivary cortisol collected at the beginning and end of each assessment. Multilevel modeling results indicate specific deficits over time on the memory for words task in boys with FXS compared to TD controls that is exacerbated by elevated baseline cortisol. Similar increasing rates of growth over time were observed for boys with FXS and TD controls on the more complex auditory working memory task, but only boys with FXS displayed an association of increased baseline cortisol and lower performance. This study highlights the benefit of investigations of how dynamic biological and cognitive factors interact and influence cognitive development over time. PMID:26760450

  12. Circumcision of preschool boys in Baghdad, Iraq: prevalence, current practice and complications.

    PubMed

    Naji, Hussein; Mustafa, Rajaa

    2013-03-01

    Circumcision is probably one of the most ancient surgical operations and has been performed more than any other operation. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of circumcision in preschool boys and to present an overview of the current practices and complications in Baghdad, Iraq. A statistical survey was conducted at the Central Teaching Hospital for Children in Baghdad, Iraq during the period April 2003 to October 2004. The survey consisted of structured interviews with the accompanying parents while waiting for their children's routine appointments. A total of 4000 boys were included. 2443 (61%) were circumcised and the prevalence of circumcision increased from 18% at 6 months of age to reach 92% at 6 years. Only 180 (7.4%) boys had a medical reason while the rest were circumcised for religious reasons. Parents were the only determinant in deciding the time and place of religious circumcision. Circumcision was performed by a doctor in 732 (30%) boys, by a nurse in 1276 (52%) and by a traditional circumciser in 435 (18%). Post-operative complications were encountered in 209 (8.5%) boys. Circumcision is an important surgical procedure that should be performed by trained medical staff in medical institutions. Circumcision performed by medical professionals caused significantly less complications. PMID:23377888

  13. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  14. Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Pàmias-Massana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences. PMID:25261810

  15. Nutritional adequacy of boys in orphanages.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Sankhla, A; Dashora, P K

    1996-03-01

    In India, nutritionists gathered information on dietary intake, measured the diet, and calculated nutritional composition of the diet of 118 boys, 4-12 years old, living in all the orphanages in Udaipur, to determine the adequacy of their diet. The orphans consumed inadequate amounts of all food stuffs. For example, the boys consumed 76.2-91.5% of recommended intake for cereals, 30% for pulses, less than 50% for milk, and 30-45% for fats and oils. They consumed almost no leafy vegetables (0/75 g for 4-6 year olds; 1.5/75 g for 7-9 year olds; and 0.8/100 g for 10-12 year olds), but they consumed more than the recommended intake of other vegetables. The orphans were not provided fruits, meat, fish, or eggs. Only those 4-6 years old had adequate intake of protein. Energy and calcium intakes were significantly low in all age groups (p 0.01, except for calcium intake in 4-6 year olds [p 0.05]). In all age groups, phosphorous intake was adequate while iron intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (p 0.01). Beta-carotene intake was insufficient in all age groups (p 0.01). In fact, beta-carotene intake in 7-9 year olds did not even reach 20% of the recommended daily intake. Only the 4-6 year olds had adequate intake of niacin. Vitamin C intake was 30% of recommended levels. These findings show that these school age orphans had inadequate intake of almost all nutrients due to a daily diet limited in cereals, pulses, milk and milk products, leafy vegetable, fats and oils, and sugar. The orphanages should include seasonal green vegetables and other low-cost nutritious foods in the diet of orphan boys. PMID:8772844

  16. Media use and school achievement--boys at risk?

    PubMed

    Mössle, Thomas; Kleimann, Matthias; Rehbein, Florian; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2010-09-01

    In work done at the German Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN) various methods have been used to investigate how specific inappropriate media usage patterns affect academic performance in children and adolescents. The findings are paralleled by current international research indicating a negative relationship between these two variables. Based on a cross-sectional survey of 5,529 fourth grade students and a longitudinal panel study with 1,157 primary schoolchildren, a key finding can be demonstrated: the more time students spend on consuming media and the more violent its contents are, the worse are their marks at school, even when controlling for vital factors such as family, educational, or immigrant background. In particular, boys who gender-specifically are better equipped with electronic media devices, who partially have extensive media usage times and who strongly prefer violent media content, are at the risk of showing poor school performance. In fact, a decrease in academic performance of boys can be observed in German school statistics. By presenting first results of a school-based intervention programme, a promising approach to the reduction of detrimental effects of electronic media use on school performance is introduced. PMID:20849041

  17. Boys and girls who reason well mathematically.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J C

    1993-01-01

    Since 1971 the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) at Johns Hopkins University has pioneered in discovery of and provision of educational help for 12-year-old boys and girls who reason better mathematically than 99% of other 12-year-olds. SMPY originated widespread searches for such youths and special academic classes for them outside the regular school system. A regional talent search, verbal as well as mathematical, now covers all 50 states of the USA, and many varied residential summer programmes are offered across the country. These have provided educational facilitation for many thousands, and have encouraged greater curricular flexibility in schools and better articulation of in-school with out-of-school learning experiences. From the first talent search conducted by SMPY in 1972, it became obvious that boys tend to score considerably higher than girls on the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematical (SAT-M), a test intended mainly for college-bound 17- and 18-year-olds. This difference was reported in 1974 but attracted little attention until a controversial report in 1980 stimulated research on sex differences in various aspects of mathematics. Here I describe a study of sex differences over 10 years on 14 College Board high school achievement tests, which are taken (three usually) by bright 17- and 18-year-olds seeking admission to the USA's selective colleges and universities. Among the high scores on the European history test the ratio of males to females was greatest, 6:1. The next most sex-differentiating test was physics, 2.9:1, followed by elementary-level mathematics (mainly algebra and geometry), 2.5:1. Other ratios favouring males were, in 1991, chemistry (2.4:1), American history (2.1:1), biology (1.8:1), precalculus mathematics (1.6:1), Latin (1.6:1), French (1.4:1), modern Hebrew (1.1:1) and German (1.02:1). Tests in which more females were high scorers were literature (1.26:1), English composition (1.05:1) and Spanish (1

  18. Phallic construction in prepubertal and adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D A; Jordan, G H; Devine, C J; Winslow, B H; Schlossberg, S M

    1993-06-01

    During the last 10 years we performed microsurgical phallic reconstruction in 7 prepubertal and 4 adolescent boys. Indications for surgery included post-traumatic amputation, circumcision accident, developmental anomalies and micropenis. In addition, we performed phalloplasty on 5 other patients 18 to 24 years old. Total phallic reconstruction consisted of 1-stage microsurgical tissue transfers that included urethral reconstruction, coaptation of erogenous nerves, aesthetic refinement and, in some cases, scrotal reconstruction. All postpubertal patients recovered erogenous sensibility in the reconstructed phallus and the ability to masturbate. Surgical indications, techniques and results are discussed. PMID:8501802

  19. [Observations of play and verbal behavior of boys with fragile X syndrome in early childhood].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K

    1999-08-01

    Reports on development and behaviour in boys with fragile-X syndrome support the idea of a characteristic behavioural phenotype in this special population. Preliminary results are presented for 10 boys with fragile-X syndrome in early childhood. Severe mental handicaps and communicative abnormalities are observed less frequently than was expected on the basis of results reported for school-age children or adults. Boys with fragile-X syndrome show goal-directed and cooperative play behaviours in a Montessori play session, but less persistence and organisation than children with normal development or a mental handicap of heterogeneous origin. Results confirmed these behavioural differences as characteristic aspects of a "behavioural phenotype" in children who already in early childhood have fragile-X syndrome. PMID:10478436

  20. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Testosterone in Boys and Young Male Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chang, Jung-Su

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transition from childhood to teenaged years is associated with increased testosterone and a decreased iron status. It is not clear whether higher testosterone levels cause the decreased iron status, and to what extent, obesity-related inflammation influences the iron-testosterone relationship. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of testosterone, iron status, and anti-/proinflammatory cytokines in relation to nutritional status in boys and young adolescent Taiwanese males. Methods In total, 137 boys aged 7~13 yr were included. Parameters for obesity, the iron status, testosterone, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results Overweight and obese (ow/obese) boys had higher mean serum testosterone, interleukin (IL)-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) levels compared to their normal-weight counterparts (all p<0.05). Mean serum ferritin was slightly higher in ow/obese boys compared to normal-weight boys, but this did not reach statistical significance. A multiple linear regression showed that serum ferritin (β = -0.7470, p = 0.003) was inversely correlated with testosterone, while serum IL-10 (β = 0.3475, p = 0.009) was positively associated with testosterone after adjusting for covariates. When normal-weight boys were separately assessed from ow/obesity boys, the association between testosterone and serum ferritin became stronger (β = -0.9628, p<0.0001), but the association between testosterone and IL-10 became non-significant (β = 0.1140, p = 0.4065) after adjusting for covariates. In ow/obese boys, only IL-10 was weakly associated with serum testosterone (β = 0.6444, p = 0.051) after adjusting for age. Conclusions Testosterone and serum ferritin are intrinsically interrelated but this relationship is weaker in ow/obese boys after adjusting for age. PMID:26646112

  1. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M; Walsh, Tova B; Kimball, Ericka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves. PMID:26202155

  2. The Trouble with Boys: Observations about Boys' Post-Secondary Aspirations, Attendance and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    Boys have a slight advantage in the number of live births in the US (about 101:100), so, all things being equal, it is reasonable to assume that they would populate institutions at about the same rate as girls. However, institutions are social structures, and in social systems all things are almost "never" equal, so, clearly, there are other…

  3. Boys, Books, and Boredom: A Case of Three High School Boys and Their Encounters with Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarroub, Loukia K.; Pernicek, Todd

    2016-01-01

    We examine the literacy gender gap through the documented experiences of 3 representative high schools boys and their teacher--how they view themselves as students, their dispositions toward schooling and education, and their engagement with literacy--as a way to further understand how literacy teachers can better work with them. We offer a case…

  4. Raising and Educating Healthy Boys: A Report on the Growing Crisis in Boys' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froschl, Merle, Comp.; Sprung, Barbara, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    Raising and educating healthy boys is an area of increasing concern among educators, child development experts, and parents nationwide. It was the focus of an invitational meeting convened by the Educational Equity Center at the Academy for Educational Development (EEC/AED) in November 2004. The meeting brought together a national group of…

  5. Both Boys and Girls Are More Scared of Boys Than of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Leslie R.

    Explored were feelings of envy, warmth, and fear that children experience toward boys and girls engaged in same-gender role, cross-gender role, and gender-role-neutral behaviors. A total of 120 children participated in the study: 60 first and second graders, and 60 fifth and sixth graders, with equal numbers of males and females in each grade.…

  6. The Boys in Schools Bulletin: Practical Initiatives Addressing Boys' Needs, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard, Ed.; Browne, Rollo, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 2 of a quarterly bulletin for educators in Australia providing a practical focus to improving boys' schooling. The April 1999 issue focuses on the role of school executives, or administrators, on supporting educational initiatives. This issue includes articles describing the development of a program-based…

  7. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  8. When Boys Won't Be Boys: Discussing Gender with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Hannah; Katch, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this Voices Inside Schools essay, Hannah Katch and Jane Katch reflect on gender roles and how they are enacted in the classroom. When Timothy, a student in Jane's kindergarten class, refuses to count himself as one of the boys during a math lesson, Jane begins a conversation about social constructions of gender with her daughter, Hannah.…

  9. "Boys Will Be Boys": What Do Early Childhood Teachers Have to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ways in which a selected group of early childhood teachers in grades one and two, located in a predominantly white middle-class context in Durban, South Africa ascribe meaning to young boys they teach. The study finds that early childhood teachers are bearers of masculinity and incorporate taken-for-granted assumptions of…

  10. Improving Literacy Outcomes for Years 5-8 Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a small action research project carried out by a Special Education Needs Coordinator (SENCO) in a small rural, full primary school in New Zealand. It focused on improving the literacy outcomes for Years 5-8 boys in the school by way of a boys'-only writing group. Results show that the boys'-only learning group had a positive…

  11. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  12. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  13. Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

  14. Assessing Does Not Mean Threatening: The Purpose of Assessment as a Key Determinant of Girls' and Boys' Performance in a Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souchal, Carine; Toczek, Marie-Christine; Darnon, Céline; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio; Martinot, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Is it possible to reach performance equality between boys and girls in a science class? Given the stereotypes targeting their groups in scientific domains, diagnostic contexts generally lower girls' performance and non-diagnostic contexts may harm boys' performance. Aim: The present study tested the effectiveness of a…

  15. A Voice-Detecting Sensor and a Scanning Keyboard Emulator to Support Word Writing by Two Boys with Extensive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa; Chiapparino, Claudia; Stasolla, Fabrizio; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the use of a voice-detecting sensor interfaced with a scanning keyboard emulator to allow two boys with extensive motor disabilities to write. Specifically, the study (a) compared the effects of the voice-detecting sensor with those of a familiar pressure sensor on the boys' writing time, (b) checked which of the sensors…

  16. Boys to Men: Entertainment Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Entertainment Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz-Knowles, Katharine; Li-Vollmer, Meredith; Chen, Perry; Harris, Tarana; Haufler, Adrienne; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Boys are especially active users of media, and researchers have suggested that the cumulative impact of media, such as television, movies, and music videos, may make them some of the most influential forces in boys' lives. This report presents the findings of a national poll of 1,200 young people (ages 10 to 17) and focus groups in which boys…

  17. Sentence Comprehension in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kover, Sara T.; Haebig, Eileen; Oakes, Ashley; McDuffie, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous research suggests that language comprehension might be particularly impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but this profile has been only broadly characterized. The current study examined sentence comprehension in school-age boys with ASD, including a subgroup with intellectual disability, with particular attention to errors that might differentiate between lexically and syntactically based difficulties. Method Participants were boys with ASD (n = 45; ages 4 – 11 years) and younger typically developing boys (n = 45; ages 2 – 6 years). Comprehension was assessed with the Test for Reception of Grammar-2 (TROG-2). Error types were analyzed for a subset of items. Results Boys with ASD did not differ from younger typically developing boys matched on receptive vocabulary in overall sentence comprehension on the TROG-2 or the number of lexical errors committed. In contrast, the subgroup of boys with ASD and intellectual disability (n = 16) had poorer overall performance and committed more lexical errors than younger typically developing boys matched on nonverbal cognition. Conclusions On average, comprehension is delayed in school-age boys with ASD, but not beyond receptive vocabulary expectations. Boys with ASD and intellectual disability, however, have a weakness in sentence comprehension beyond nonverbal cognitive-expectations. PMID:24687049

  18. "In Far Cathay": Representations of China in "The Boy's Own Paper", 1879-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Wen

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how "knowledge" of China was presented for Victorian and Edwardian children in "The Boy's Own Paper" ("BOP") between 1879 and 1914. It considers how genre affects the representation of China in the "BOP" by comparing travel narratives and adventure stories. First, it focuses on non-fiction about China, examining the rhetorical…

  19. Gendered Subjective Theologies: Dutch Teenage Girls and Boys on the Role of Religion in Their Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Avest, Ina; Jozsa, Dan-Paul; Knauth, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this article about the Dutch contribution to the REDCo sub-project on the role of gender, related to religion in/and school, the authors present the characteristics in the answers girls and boys, respectively gave to their questionnaires. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were used in this research project. The research findings show…

  20. Grades Four and Eight Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Girls' and Boys' Writing Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Presents teacher and student responses that show a privileging of girls' writing over boys' writing. Finds that girls' writing was viewed as more detailed, descriptive, and showing greater conformity to writing conventions. Indicates a need for conversations that question an emphasis on conformity in writing and that explore ways to nurture…

  1. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Presnell, Katherine; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for…

  2. Dysfunctional Parenting Behaviors and Parenting Stress among Mothers of Aggressive Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation examined the relationship between dysfunctional parenting and parenting stress in a sample of 54 mothers of aggressive boys in Singapore. Overall dysfunctional parenting at Time 1 significantly predicted Time 2 maternal parenting stress in two subdomains of unrewarding mother-child interactions and poor attachment, over…

  3. Choice of Romantic, Violent, and Scary Fairy-Tale Books by Preschool Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Standley, Tracy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied story selection by preschoolers, ages 2 through 4. Presented children with three sets of books, each set consisting of three books depicting protagonists in romantic, violent, or scary stories; titles were read aloud to reinforce content. Found that with age, girls showed a growing preference for romantic stories, while boys showed a…

  4. Language Development in a 3-Year-Old Boy with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which has widespread developmental consequences including motor, cognitive and language delay. Previous research on PWS children has focused primarily on phonological development and dysfluency. In the present study, the lexical development of a boy with PWS was investigated in a series of 18 play…

  5. Gendered Literacy Experiences: The Effects of Expectation and Opportunity for Boys' and Girls' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The research reported in this article intends to contribute to an understanding of how out-of-school literacies can influence the present and future learning of adolescents. Evidence suggests that students, boys particularly, are becoming literate in many ways through out-of-school activities (e.g., video games, Internet browsing, chatrooms), but…

  6. A boy with a tight skin: Borrelia-associated early-onset morphea.

    PubMed

    Verberkt, Roos M; Janssen, Matthijs; Wesseling, Judit

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 16-year-old boy with morphea caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. We re-emphasise an immunohistochemical method, focus floating microscopy (FFM), to detect Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in tissue sections. Focus floating microscopy (FFM) proved to be more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nearly equally specific. PMID:24093617

  7. Surgical excision of hypothalamic hamartoma in a twenty months old boy with precocious puberty

    PubMed Central

    Ghanta, Rajesh K.; Koti, Kalyan; Kongara, Srikanth; Meher, Gautham E.

    2011-01-01

    A twenty months old boy presented to our department with true precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma. Total surgical excision of pedunculated hypothalamic hamartoma was done successfully by the pterional trans-sylvian approach as he could not afford medical management. Patient had uneventful post-operative course with normalization of serum testosterone levels and regression of secondary sexual characters. PMID:22029036

  8. "'Lad" Research, the Reproduction of Stereotypes? Ethnographic Dilemmas When Researching Boys from Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosvall, Per-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Previous research presented in this journal and elsewhere has suggested that vocational education is highly gender segregated and it is the heavy industrial sectors such as industry, vehicle and construction programmes that mainly attract boys with an anti-school attitude who are not interested in academic school work. However, there are good…

  9. Transported to Van Diemen's Land: The Boys of the "Frances Charlotte" (1832) and "Lord Goderich" (1841).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    The logs of two ships transporting juvenile convicts from Great Britain to Australia in the early nineteenth century have been transcribed. Data on the backgrounds of the boys and height data are presented and analyzed. Comparisons are made with ninteenth- and twentieth-century data sets. (Author/RH)

  10. Teaching Boys, Developing Fine Men Conference (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, August 21-22, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcastle Univ., Callaghan (Australia). Family Action Centre.

    This report contains the proceedings of a conference convened to build on the work of those pioneering better teaching and learning techniques for boys. Teachers at the conference were asked to present their schools' experiences in a case study format to maximize the learning and discussion among participants. The report begins with a schedule of…

  11. Common Sense Parenting of Toddlers and Preschoolers. A Girls and Boys Town Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bridget A.; York, Steven M.

    Based on the view that parents need to balance nurturing behaviors that demonstrate love and affection with the discipline that children need in order to learn and thrive, this book presents the Common Sense Parenting program from Girls and Boys Town as adapted for parents of toddlers and preschoolers. Offering logical techniques and foundations…

  12. Bringing Up Boys: A Parenting Manual for Sole Mothers Raising Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jo

    This manual for parent educators presents the "Bringing Up Boys" program, a series of group sessions designed for sole mothers raising sons up to age 12. Mothers raising sons without a father's input face a range of concerns. Participants are encouraged to share ideas and experiences in a supportive, non-judgmental environment. The program's focus…

  13. Patella fracture in a boy with bilateral inferior pole bipartite patellae.

    PubMed

    Peek, A C; Barry, M

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a 12 year old boy who had bilateral inferior pole fragment (Saupe type 1) bipartite patellae, and who sustained a traumatic separation through the right patella while playing basket ball, the left remaining asymptomatic. We have reviewed and discussed the previously published literature and case reports. PMID:22436328

  14. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  15. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus,…

  16. Lost Boys. Why Our Sons Turn Violent and How We Can Save Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    1999-01-01

    Presents four conclusions about why boys turn violent and how parents and teachers can save them: violence prevention is everybody's business; education for parents and teachers is crucial; child abuse prevention is the cornerstone of preventing lethal youth violence; and detoxifying the social environment of children and youth is essential to…

  17. Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Views of Fatherhood in the Context of the Changing Women's Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakka, Despina; Deliyanni-Kouimtzi, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring how Greek adolescents understand the notion of fatherhood. One hundred and ten pupils (64 boys and 46 girls), who attended four high schools of the area of Thessaloniki, Greece, participated in the study; they were aged from 14- to 16-years. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data were selected…

  18. Economic, Social and Embodied Cultural Capitals as Shapers and Predictors of Boys' Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockfelt, Shawanda

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the result of a quantitative survey as a part of a larger mixed-methods study conducted across two case study schools in urban Jamaica. It focuses on Black Caribbean boys' levels of educational aspirations in relation to their economic, social, and embodied cultural capital. The study utilizes Bourdieu's notions of capital,…

  19. The Relationship Between Social Behavior and Emergent Literacy Among Preschool Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctoroff, Greta L.; Greer, Joseph A.; Arnold, David H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between social behaviors and emergent literacy among young children, and sex differences in these relationships. Participants were 123 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (63 girls, 60 boys). Social behaviors were observed in classrooms, and emergent literacy…

  20. Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a young boy from rural part of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Mane, Pratibha; Sangwan, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta) is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India. PMID:27453865

  1. Taste perception and sensory sensitivity: Relationship to feeding problems in boys with Barth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Stacey; Kreider, Consuelo M.; Meeley, Lauren E.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding problems are common in boys with Barth syndrome and may contribute to the population’s propensity for growth delay and muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to quantify and describe these feeding issues and examine altered taste perception and sensory sensitivity as contributing factors. Methodology A cross-sectional, two-group comparison design was used to examine feeding preferences and behaviors, chemical taste perception, and sensory sensitivities in fifty boys with (n=24) and without (n=26) Barth ages 4–17 years. Taste perception was measured using chemical test strips saturated with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and sodium benzoate (NaB). Feeding problems were documented by parents using a Food Inventory, while sensory sensitivities were recorded using a Short Sensory Profile. Results Boys with Barth differed significantly from typical peers with regards to problem feeding behaviors. For boys with Barth, food refusal and food selectivity were identified as being present in 50% the sample, while 70% of had identified problems related to gagging or swallowing foods. About half of all Barth families noted that their child’s eating habits did not match the family’s and that separate meals were often prepared. As demonstrated in previous research, about 50% of boys with Barth demonstrated probable or definite differences in taste/smell sensitivity, which was significantly higher than controls. On tests of chemical taste perception, boys with Barth were significantly more likely to be supertasters to PTC and non-tasters to NaB. Taster-status did not directly relate to the presence of feeding problems, however, taste/smell sensitivity did significantly relate to food selectivity by type and texture. Conclusions Results indicate feeding problems in at least 50–70% of boys with Barth syndrome, and suggest that behaviors are often present before 6 months of age. Differences in taste perception may influence dietary choices in boys with

  2. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Verginelli, Fabio; De Lellis, Laura; Capelli, Cristian; Verzilli, Delfina; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika; Cama, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI). Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV), have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1) gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children. Methods 744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD): 8.4±1.4years) underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight) and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Results A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033), but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age) was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04) and waist circumference (p = 0.01) when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers. Conclusions In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain. PMID:27149670

  3. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to

  4. Collateral Damage and Critical Turning Points: Public Health Implications of HPV Vaccine News Coverage for Boys and Men in 2011.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Melinda; Rogers, Brian

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially expanded approval of the Gardasil vaccine to include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for boys and men, and in 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a formal recommendation for routine vaccination for this population. Despite these efforts, HPV vaccination rates for boys and men continue to fall short of public health targets. While news was breaking about the benefits of the HPV vaccine for boys and men, public attention shifted as a result of political debates concerning the vaccine. This study examines a pivotal time period for public health in which the vaccine became officially recommended for boys and men and at the same time became the center of political controversies in the lead-up to the 2012 presidential campaign. The current study extends previous research and presents a content analysis of newspaper articles (N = 154) about the HPV vaccine for the year 2011. Results indicate that the lack of comprehensive coverage of HPV and the HPV vaccine found in previous studies continued in this year. Results shed light on key political events that may have functioned to overshadow the recommendation of the HPV vaccine for boys and men. The implications of this pattern of news coverage can inform public health efforts to address low rates of HPV vaccination uptake among boys and men in present day. PMID:26799666

  5. [Circumscript myositis ossificans in a four-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Cabello García, D; Rodríguez Fernández, A; Gómez Río, M; Moreno, M J; Rebollo Aguirre, A C; Martín Castro, A; Llamas Elvira, J M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 4 year old boy with no previous personal or family history of interest, who attended the Paediatric Department of our hospital after a physical examination revealed a painful induration in the left arm which had increased in size; imaging tests were consistent with a calcified mass in soft tissues, without cortical involvement, suspected of being malignant. Two-phase bone scintigraphy was requested in which a soft tissue lesion, not suggestive of malignancy, was detected. The biopsy was negative for malignant cells. However, in view of the progressive increase in size of the lesion, FDG positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was performed, showing a hypermetabolic mass consistent with malignancy in the left arm, for which the patient underwent surgery for suspected possible parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:18817666

  6. [Herpangina and erythema multiforme in a three-year boy].

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The dentist can be confronted with a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa are a symptoms of herpes infection (herpangina) of throat. Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are a major cause of herpangina. Herpangina is an acute viral infection caused by certain viruses Coxsackie, is spread by respiratory droplets. The infection is mainly encountered in young children. Oral lesions rarely more than 7 days; treatment is symptomatic. Viral throat infections may accompany various skin rashes, such as erythema multiforme (which can also occur without any connection with a viral infection). At work was presented a case of 3-year-old boy with herpes symptoms of sore throat and mild forms of erythema multiforme. PMID:24455841

  7. Mystery case: a young boy with myoclonic jerks.

    PubMed

    Musleh, Camelia; Marcuse, Lara; Fields, Madeline

    2013-10-29

    A 16-year-old right-handed boy presented for consultation for recent development of seizures. He is the product of a normal pregnancy and delivery without a history of developmental delay, head trauma, or family history of epilepsy. A year and a half prior to our consultation, the patient noted that his hand would suddenly jerk across the page while writing in his morning classes. Stress would exacerbate the jerks. Six months later, after staying up late the previous night, the patient awoke early and began to play on the computer when both of his hands suddenly jerked multiple times. He then fell over and began seizing. His mother witnessed tonic contraction of his body followed by clonic activity. He was brought by ambulance to the nearest hospital where a CT head was reported normal. PMID:24166967

  8. Recurrent headache in a five year old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Lokesh; Kumar, Ranjith M; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Headache is infrequent in early childhood. Headache and neurological deficits associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis (HaNDL), a variant of migraine, is a rare disorder. A 5-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of headache for 6 months. Each episode lasted for a week and in the current episode, he was symptomatic for 3 days. All the episodes were associated with paresthesias and CSF lymplocytosis with normal protein and sugar. There was history of migraine in his family. His magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain with contrast with magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and venography were normal. Work-up for relevant causes of infection and vasculitis were negative. His symptoms subsided on oral antimigraine prophylaxis and he has been on remission for last 8 months. HaNDL should be considered in relevant clinical scenarios, as it prevents unnecessary investigations, therapy, and hospitalization. PMID:27011651

  9. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041

  10. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-03-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26757948

  11. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26757948

  12. The Boy Scouts of America: Slowly Changing.

    PubMed

    Pynes, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America National Executive Board (BSA) recently changed its longstanding policy of excluding gay youth up to the age of 18. Gay participants of its coed Venturing program would be allowed to be members until the age of 21. However, lesbians and homosexuals are still not permitted to be troop leaders. This article discusses the evolution of the change in BSA's policy, discusses the timeline of other proposals in regard to BSA's acceptance of gay youth, and suggests that changes in public opinion and the reaction of BSAs stakeholders lead to changes in the BSA policy. The BSA made a change to become more compatible with the environment in which it operates. PMID:26244484

  13. A Comparison of Phonological Skill of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Malkin, Cheryl; Barnes, Elizabeth; Skinner, Martie; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the phonological accuracy and patterns of sound change of boys with fragile X syndrome, boys with Down syndrome, and typically developing mental-age-matched boys. Participants were 50 boys with fragile X syndrome, ages 3 to 14 years; 32 boys with Down syndrome, ages 4 to 13 years; and 33 typically developing…

  14. Family-Based Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Enhancing Physical Activity and Motor Competence in 4–7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Laukkanen, Arto; Pesola, Arto Juhani; Heikkinen, Risto; Sääkslahti, Arja Kaarina; Finni, Taija

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of how to involve families in physical activity (PA) interventions for children. In this cluster randomized controlled trial, we recruited families with four- to seven-year-old children to participate in a year-long study where parents in the intervention group families (n = 46) received tailored counseling to increase children’s PA. Structured PA was not served. Control group families (n = 45) did not receive any counseling. PA in all children (n = 91; mean age 6.16 ± 1.13 years at the baseline) was measured by accelerometers at the baseline and after three, six, nine and 12 months. Motor competence (MC) (n = 89) was measured at the baseline and after six and 12 months by a KTK (KörperkoordinationsTest für Kinder) and throwing and catching a ball (TCB) protocols. The effect of parental counseling on study outcomes was analyzed by a linear mixed-effects model fit by REML and by a Mann-Whitney U test in the case of the TCB. As season was hypothesized to affect counseling effect, an interaction of season on the study outcomes was examined. The results show significant decrease of MVPA in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < .05). The TCB showed a nearly significant improvement at six months in the intervention group compared to the controls (p = .051), but not at 12 months. The intervention group had a steadier development of the KTK when the interaction of season was taken into account. In conclusion, more knowledge of family constructs associating with the effectiveness of counseling is needed for understanding how to enhance PA in children by parents. However, a hypothesis may be put forward that family-based counseling during an inactive season rather than an active season may provide a more lasting effect on the development of KTK in children. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN28668090 PMID:26502183

  15. Telephone Testing and Teacher Assessment of Reading Skills in 7-Year-Olds: I. Substantial Correspondence for a Sample of 5544 Children and for Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Philip S.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Many research questions require the assessment of reading in large samples of children. We compared two nonconventional procedures for early reading assessment: test administration by telephone, and teacher assessment. Five thousand five hundred and forty four children participating in a longitudinal twin study were assessed by telephone using the…

  16. The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2-7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test.

    PubMed

    Gerstadt, C L; Hong, Y J; Diamond, A

    1994-11-01

    One hundred and sixty children 3 1/2-7 years of age (10 M, 10 F at each 6-month interval) were tested on a task that requires inhibitory control of action plus learning and remembering two rules. They were asked to say "day" whenever a black card with the moon and stars appeared and to say "night" when shown a white card with a bright sun. Children < 5 years had great difficulty. They started out performing well, but could not sustain this over the course of the 16-trial session. Response latency decreased from 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 years. Children < 4 1/2 years performed well when they took very long to respond. To test whether the requirement to learn and remember two rules alone was sufficient to cause children difficulty, 80 children 3 1/2-5 years old were tested on a control version of the task ("say 'day' to one abstract design and 'night' to another"). Even the youngest children performed at a high level. We conclude that the requirement to learn and remember two rules is not in itself sufficient to account for the poor performance of the younger children in the experimental condition. PMID:7805351

  17. Analysis of Short-Term Dialogues in 5-7 Year Olds: Encoding of Intentions and Modifications of Speech Acts as a Function of Negative Feedback Loops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Hannelore

    This study investigates how children, who have acquired a basic speech repertoire, introduce dialogues and how they then pursue their communicative purpose in the course of interaction. The subjects were 20 kindergarten children and 20 second graders, ranging in age from 5 to 5 1/2 and from 7 to 7 1/2. The significant questions pursued were: (1)…

  18. Climate and prevalence of atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old school children in Spain. ISAAC PhASE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; García-Marcos Alvarez, Luís; Kogan, Michael D.; González, Agustín Llopis; Gimeno, Antonio Martínez; Ontoso, Inés Aguinaga; Díaz, Carlos González; Pena, Alberto Arnedo; Aurrecoechea, Begoña Domínguez; Monge, Rosa María Busquets; Quiros, Alfredo Blanco; Garrido, José Batlles; Canflanca, Iñaqui Miner; Varela, Ángel López-Silvarrey

    2008-11-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic skin disease. Recent reports indicate that the worldwide prevalence of AE is increasing and that various environmental factors are implicated in its aetiology. Climatic conditions have been related with AE prevalence, and Spain has varying climatic conditions. The aim of this study is to document the possible climatic influence on the prevalence of AE in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in three different climatic regions in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of 28,394 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 10 Spanish centres in three different climatic regions. The mean participation rate was 76.5%. AE prevalence was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Spanish Academy of Dermatology criteria used in Spain to diagnose AE. The data, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the annual number of sunny hours per climatic region, were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Meteorology. Different AE prevalences were found in all three climatic regions studied: Atlantic, 32.9; Mediterranean 28.3; and Continental 31.2 per 100 children studied ( p < 0.005). AE was positively associated with precipitation and humidity, and was negatively associated with temperature and the number of sunny hours. The results show that AE is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions.

  19. Adjective Semantics, World Knowledge and Visual Context: Comprehension of Size Terms by 2- to 7-Year-Old Dutch-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribushinina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of size terms involves constructing contextually-relevant reference points by combining visual cues with knowledge of typical object sizes. This study aims to establish at what age children learn to integrate these two sources of information in the interpretation process and tests comprehension of the Dutch adjectives "groot"…

  20. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children. PMID:17258351

  1. A Study on the Development of the Concept of Rhythm in 5 to 7-Year-Old with Profound Hearing Loss Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilir, Sule; And Others

    This study explored the development of rhythm among eight kindergarten children with profound hearing loss in Ankara, Turkey. Musical instruments were used whose frequency ranges matched those the children were capable of hearing. After a pretest, students spent 5 half-days per week in training over the course of 2 months. Training included…

  2. An Evaluation of the Use of Lexia Reading Software with Children in Year 3, Northern Ireland (6- to 7-Year Olds)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of Lexia Reading software on the progress of children experiencing reading difficulties in four Northern Ireland Schools. The program is designed to raise reading standards through a phonics-based approach to learning to read. A key feature of the software is the use of an "assessment without testing"…

  3. What Do the Children Really Think about a Day-Care Centre--The 5-7-Year-Old Finnish Children Speak out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyronlampi-Kylmanen, Taina; Maatta, Kaarina

    2012-01-01

    A day-care centre is a place where a child spends most of his/her week nowadays. A day-care centre as an institution of early childhood education has often been studied from the early childhood educators' point of view or within a wider societal context. The children's voices have not been heard much. The purpose of this article is to describe, on…

  4. Exploring the Psychometric Properties of the Farsi Version of Quality of Life Kindl Questionnaire for 4-7 Year-Old Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    ROJHANI SHIRAZI, Maryam; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; AZARGASHB, Eznollah; DERAKHSHANNIA, Mehdi; AGHDASTA, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to translate and validate the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Kindl questionnaire. Materials & Methods Parents of 4-7 yr-old healthy and ill children referred to Mofid Children Hospital in Tehran in 2013, Iran were sampled randomly in two groups each of which 130 people. After translation, the questionnaie’s validity and reliability was evaluated and was confirmed for face and content validity. Questionnaire was also completed by two (one healthy and one ill) groups for which inclusion criteria included consent of the parents, age of the children being beween 4 and 7 yr, and presence of the child in a nursery school, kindergarten, school or any class at least for one month. Exclusion criteria were inability of the parents in answering the questions accurately. Inclusion criterion for the ill group was having chronic cardiac, neurologic, hematologic, or respiratory diseases, lasting longer than 3 months for which they were followed up in outpatient clinic in the hospital. The reliability of questionnaire was measured by the Cronbach’s alpha. Data were analyzed using factor analysis, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square test. Results The reliability was 0.85 and 0.81 in healthy and ill groups, respectively. The results of factor analysis showed that each of eight subscales of questionnaire had acceptable construct validity. Only two of 52 questions of the questionnaire did not have proper correlation coefficient. Conclusion Quality of Life Kindl Questionnaire is a valid and reliable test for assessing healthy and ill children in Iran. PMID:27247583

  5. A Developmental Vocabulary Assessment for Parents (DVAP): Validating Parental Report of Vocabulary Size in 2- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Measuring individual differences in children's emerging language abilities is important to researchers and clinicians alike. The 2 most widely used methods for assessing children's vocabulary both have limitations: Experimenter-administered tests are time-consuming and expensive, and parent questionnaires have only been designed for children up to…

  6. The Differential Rate of Promotion from the First Grade in School for White and Negro, Male and Female 7-Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Norman B.; And Others

    The children followed at the University of Oregon Medical school site of the Collaborative Study on Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Other Neurological and Sensory Disorders of Infancy and Childhood comprised the research population. This study included 910 children--all of those completing the seven-year examination. About 65 percent were…

  7. Cognitive Skills Used to Solve Mathematical Word Problems and Numerical Operations: A Study of 6- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Isabel Maria; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between skills that underpin mathematical word problems and those that underpin numerical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Sixty children aged 6-7 years were tested on measures of mathematical ability, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, verbal intelligence and…

  8. Helping Muslim Boys Succeed: The Case for History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that Muslim boys have become the "New Folk Devils" of British education, who are characterised by resistance to formal education, especially at secondary level, and under-achievement. Since the 1990s, British Muslim boys would appear to have become increasingly alienated from compulsory schooling, especially in…

  9. The Child Behavior Profile: I. Boys Aged 6-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    1978-01-01

    Reports standardization of the Child Behavior Checklist for boys aged 6-11. Analysis of CBCLs of disturbed boys yielded behavior problem scales labeled schizoid, depressed, uncommunicative, obsessive-compulsive, somatic complaints, social withdrawal, hyperactive, aggressive, and delinquent. Second-order factors are Internalizing and Externalizing.…

  10. Visual Motor Short Term Memory in Educationally Subnormal Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation attempted to describe the developmental sequence of visual motor short term memory in mentally handicapped boys (mental ages 6, 9, and 12) during conditions of rest and interpolated activity, and to explore their use of spontaneous rehearsal strategies. Results are compared with those for normal boys. (Author/SJL)

  11. The "Boy Turn" in Research on Gender and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    Although the majority of research in gender and education has rightly focused on girls, recent research in the United States and elsewhere has focused much more on the learning, social outcomes, and schooling experiences of boys. This "boy turn" has produced a large corpus of theoretically oriented and practice-oriented research alongside popular…

  12. Adolescent Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Agneta; Brunnberg, Elinor; Eriksson, Charli

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study are to analyse the concept of mental health from the perspective of adolescent girls and boys and to describe what adolescent girls and boys regard as important determinants of mental health. Interviews with 48 children, 13 and 16 years old, in Sweden were held individually or in focus groups. The adolescents perceived…

  13. Motor Fitness of Mentally Retarded Boys to National Age Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, D. K.

    The study compared the physical fitness of 65 mentally retarded boys (mean age 14-years, mean IQ 60) at Austin (Texas) State School with national age scales for boys of the same chronological ages on the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation Youth Fitness Test, which measures strength, speed, agility, power,…

  14. Contributions and Implications of the Medford, Oregon, Boys' Growth Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. H.

    The overall and long-range purposes of the Medford Boys' Growth Study are: (1) to construct physical and motor growth curves and growth acceleration curves of boys seven to 18 years old; (2) to relate these traits to physiological maturity, physique type, nutritional status, socio-personal adjustment, interests, and scholastic aptitude and…

  15. Do Boys Need Different Remedial Reading Instruction from Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbrick, Lisa; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Recent inquiries into the underachievement of boys in reading have called into question whether they require different forms of reading instruction from girls. A number of reading programs and initiatives have been developed to address this issue, including programs based on increasing boys' motivation, improving behaviour, embracing the use of…

  16. Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159512.html Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School: Study They were more likely to ... When I compared 4- and 5-year-old boys and girls who had the same levels of behavior problems -- ...

  17. Four Hundred Losers: Delinquent Boys in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, Winston M.; Havighurst, Robert J.

    Reported is a longitudinal study of socially maladjusted boys in Kansas City, Missouri. Inner city seventh grade boys, identified as socially and educationally maladjusted, were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in a work-study program beginning in the eighth grade, receiving special classroom work…

  18. Reaching Boys: An International Study of Effective Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Michael; Hawley, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Despite a continuing stream of concern on the part of researchers, demographers, and cultural pundits about a crisis in boys' social development and schooling, surprisingly little attention has been paid to what is perhaps the richest pool of data: current, observable teaching practices that clearly work with boys. In schools of all types in all…

  19. The Problem of Boys' Literacy Underachievement: Raising Some Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne; Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Boys' literacy underachievement continues to garner significant attention and has been identified by journalists, educational policymakers, and scholars in the field as the cause for much concern. It has been established that boys perform less well than girls on literacy benchmark or standardized tests. According to the National Assessment of…

  20. Science Education in the Boy Scouts of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Rachel Sterneman

    2009-01-01

    This study of science education in the Boy Scouts of America focused on males with Boy Scout experience. The mixed-methods study topics included: merit badge standards compared with National Science Education Standards, Scout responses to open-ended survey questions, the learning styles of Scouts, a quantitative assessment of science content…

  1. Crafts, Boys, Ernest Thompson Seton, and the Woodcraft Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines early influences on art education for boys (Chalmers & Dancer, 2007) in areas traditionally labeled as crafts. Under review is the work of Ernest Thompson Seton, artist, naturalist, storyteller, author, philosopher, crusader for and supporter of indigenous American Indian ways of knowing, and a co-founder of the Boy Scouts of…

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap between Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The critical role of accountability on schools has intensified the need to understand the impact of intervention strategies and best practices on literacy. Of particular concern is the underachievement of boys and identifying the learning differences between boys and girls. Examined in this quantitative study were the strategies and practices…

  3. The Mutual Influence of Parenting and Boys' Externalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the mutual influence of parenting and boys' externalizing behavior from 4th to 8th grade, how these relationships change as children develop, and the stability of parenting and child behavior in a sample of 122 boys. Child behavior predicted poor parental monitoring at 6th and 7th grade and inconsistent discipline at all…

  4. Boys' Educational "Underachievement" in the Caribbean: Interpreting the "Problem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbett, Mary; Younger, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Education ministries in the Caribbean countries have directed considerable attention over the last decade to "solving" the "problem" of boys' underachievement. Rather than considering such interventions, our central concern in this paper is to revisit debates about the interpretation of the issue, to explore whether boys' underachievement is…

  5. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  6. Boyz to Men? Teaching to Restore Black Boys' Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson Billings, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Many schools see teaching African American boys as a daunting challenge. However, in many schools the primary focus of Black male children's educational experience is maintaining order and discipline rather than student learning and academic achievement. By the time Black boys reach the 3rd or 4th grade their teachers and other school personnel no…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Girls' and Boys' Delinquency and Associated Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepler, Debra J.; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy M.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories in delinquency through adolescence were studied along with family and peer relationship problems. Drawing from eight waves of data over seven years, we conducted trajectory analyses with a sample of 746 students (402 girls; 344 boys). Analyzing girls and boys together, a five-class model emerged: 60% of the adolescents…

  8. Rehearsing Masculinity: Challenging the "Boy Code" in Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Dance education experiences of boys and male youth are investigated in terms of dominant constructions of contemporary Western masculinity and the potential limitations these hegemonic discourses may place on male participation. Recent research on boys and male youth in dance, although limited, suggests prevailing social stigma, heteronormative…

  9. Mothering, Fathering, and Externalizing Behavior in Toddler Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological control was related to boys' externalizing behavior.…

  10. Assertive Behavior and Likeability in Elementary School Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojnilower, Daniel A.; Gross, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    The social impact of assertive versus nonassertive behavior in fourth- and fifth-grade boys was investigated. Subjects viewed and evaluated eight videotaped scenes of different ten-year-old male models responding assertively or nonassertively to given situations. Results suggest that assertive behavior is valued by elementary school boys. (RDN)

  11. Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in…

  12. Boys, Girls, and "Two Cultures" of Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Abby C.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in the quality of child care experienced by toddler boys and girls. Boys were more likely to be in lower-quality child care than girls, assessed with both setting-level measures and observations of caregiver-child interaction. A possible explanatory mechanism for the gender differences is suggested by evidence that…

  13. Parental Behavior Toward Boys and Girls of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Eva; And Others

    1961-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of sex roles in the United States has indicated a tendency for parents to treat girls less harshly than boys and for fathers to treat girls with more special warmth than they do boys. Eighteen children and their parents were interviewed and observed in Oslo, Norway, as part of a longitudinal study of parental influence…

  14. Is Anxiety in Young Boys the New Normal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogel, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    As a psychologist of 35 years, Wendy Mogel discusses what she has discovered to be the new trend behind anxiety in young boys. Through hours of probing and pondering, neither hyperparenting nor early trauma (what one might think were logical causes of a young boy's anxiety) is the key to understanding this new trend. She explains that many…

  15. Critical Literacy Learning through Video Games: Adolescent Boys' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy; Madill, Leanna

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly growing phenomenon of video games, along with learning that takes place through video game play, have raised concerns about the negative impact such games are reputed to have on youth, particularly boys. However, there is a disconnect between the discourse that suggests that boys are failing in learning literacy skills, and the…

  16. About Boys' Schools: A Progressive Case for an Ancient Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Defends the value of boys' schools, noting lack of objective data to support a negative appraisal of them. There is an inherent maleness that cannot be alienated from boys and men without a fundamental loss of their humanity. Schools must take the responsibility for conveying how to become a man. (SM)

  17. Gender Identity Conflict in Young Boys following Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Three boys, aged 4-7, wanted to be feminine and dressed in women's clothes following a difficult divorce with custody and visitation strife. In brief psychotherapy, gender seemed related to issues of loss and aggression. On followup, all three were symptomatically improved. Gender disturbance symptom in boys may come about as regressive reaction…

  18. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  19. Boys' Underachievement in Education. An Exploration in Selected Commonwealth Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jha, Jyotsna, Kelleher, Fatimah

    2006-01-01

    Gender disparity in education has usually been experienced as disadvantaging girls. Although this continues to be the case in many places, the phenomenon of boys' underachievement--both in terms of participation and performance--has also become an issue in a number of countries. This book reviews the research on boys' underachievement and presents…

  20. Do Girls and Boys need Different Electronic Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan; Luik, Piret

    2005-01-01

    Many researchers have found differences in the ways in which boys and girls use computers, but there has been no systematic investigation into what types of electronic textbook are good for girls and which are good for boys. This paper describes an experimental investigation in which 35 units from electronic textbooks on mathematics, history,…

  1. There Is the Hope: Abused Boys Finding God through Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The author, a narrative arts educator, was teaching an after-school drama program to 11 abused boys in a residential treatment center. The program promised them the opportunity to tell and stage their own story. The author began by sharing a story about an abused boy he befriended in seminary who ended up killing himself. The following week, he…

  2. Superhero Toys and Boys' Physically Active and Imaginative Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Amy; Howe, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The influence of superhero versus nonsuperhero toys on boys' physically active and imaginative play was studied in 29 dyads (n = 58 middle-class preschool boys; M age = 54.95 mos, SD = 5.28 mos). Each dyad participated in two play sessions: 1) superhero toys (media related) and 2) nonsuperhero (nonmedia related) toys. Dyads were observed for the…

  3. Boy Story: Do You Really Want Guys in Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to transform a down-on-its-luck library into an irresistible place for boys. She suggests to begin with vision, energy, and a lot of hard work. Based on the author's 30-plus years of experience working with students, she knows boys respond well to a scholarly environment. In fact, it is one of the ways…

  4. Canal Town Boys: Poor White Males and Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Examines domestic violence embedded within the lives of poor, white, urban middle school boys, describing observations and interviews conducted with 18 boys in their bilingual school, on neighborhood streets, and in the community center. Suggests that by not disrupting their violent attitudes and tendencies, the institutions around which their…

  5. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys with…

  6. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  7. Are You Helping Boys Outperform Girls in Math?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    A study of fourth and fifth grade classes suggests that competitive math activities give boys an advantage where cooperative math activities generally give girls an advantage. Suggestions to help teachers balance their teaching methods to decrease disparities between boys and girls are made. (MT)

  8. Handbook of Counseling Boys and Adolescent Males: A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Arthur M., Ed.; Kiselica, Mark S., Ed.

    This book serves as both a scholarly and practical guide for teachers, school psychologists, and parents on helping boys and adolescent males grow up. It provides practitioners with a comprehensive handbook on understanding and responding to the developmental, cultural, and special concerns of boys and adolescent males. It attempts to provide…

  9. Connecting Boys with Books 2: Closing the Reading Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In his hugely successful "Connecting Boys with Books" (2003), the author delved into the problem that reading skills of pre-adolescent boys lag behind those of girls in the same age group. In this companion book, Sullivan digs even deeper, melding his own experiences as an activist with perspectives gleaned from other industry experts to help…

  10. Final height in boys with untreated constitutional delay in growth and puberty.

    PubMed Central

    Crowne, E C; Shalet, S M; Wallace, W H; Eminson, D M; Price, D A

    1990-01-01

    To determine the natural history and psychological impact of the growth pattern in boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP), 43 boys presenting with short stature due to CDGP were followed up to final height. At presentation mean (SD) chronological age was 14.0 (1.9) years, bone age delay 2.7 (1.0) years, standing height standard deviation score (SDS) -3.4 (0.6), and predicted adult height SDS -1.3 (0.7). Final adult height SDS was -1.6 (0.9), measured at 21.2 (2.6) years. There was no significant difference between final height and predicted adult height, but there was a significant difference between final height and measured mid-parental height. Psychological questionnaires showed no significant difference in self esteem, marital, or employment state between the CDGP group and a control group. There was no correlation between self esteem and final height, but 25 felt their growth delay had affected their success either at school, work, or socially and 20 would rather have had treatment to advance their growth spurt. This study supports the more frequent use of active medical treatment to advance growth in boys with CDGP, and shows that although boys with CDGP reach their predicted heights, this is short for their families. PMID:2248500

  11. Gender differences in primary and secondary education: Are girls really outperforming boys?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert; van Langen, Annemarie

    2013-06-01

    A moral panic has broken out in several countries after recent studies showed that girls were outperforming boys in education. Commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Education, the present study examines the position of boys and girls in Dutch primary education and in the first phase of secondary education over the past ten to fifteen years. On the basis of several national and international large-scale databases, the authors examined whether one can indeed speak of a gender gap, at the expense of boys. Three domains were investigated, namely cognitive competencies, non-cognitive competencies, and school career features. The results as expressed in effect sizes show that there are hardly any differences with regard to language and mathematics proficiency. However, the position of boys in terms of educational level and attitudes and behaviour is much more unfavourable than that of girls. Girls, on the other hand, score more unfavourably with regard to sector and subject choice. While the present situation in general does not differ very much from that of a decade ago, it is difficult to predict in what way the balances might shift in the years to come.

  12. Creating developmentally auspicious school environments for African American boys.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F

    2014-01-01

    African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys. PMID:25345001

  13. Can disruptive boys be helped to become competent?

    PubMed

    Tremblay, R E; McCord, J; Boileau, H; Charlebois, P; Gagnon, C; Le Blanc, M; Larivée, S

    1991-05-01

    The Montréal Longitudinal Study of Disruptive Boys, an experimental study, was designed to understand boys who were considered disruptive in kindergarten. One part of the study involved assessing effects of a preventive treatment program carried out during the boys' early years in primary school. This paper reports on the outcome of the randomized treatment experiment 3 years after treatments ended. Disruptive boys were randomly allocated to a treated group and two nontreated groups. Treatment consisted of parent training and training of boys for social skills, fantasy play and television viewing. Results suggest that the treatment program had some positive effects. Some of the improvements were not evident immediately after treatment ended. PMID:1852848

  14. Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Wild, J; Bradley, S J; Lowry, C B

    1993-02-01

    University students blind to group status rated boys with gender identity disorder and clinical control boys regarding their physical attractiveness. Ratings were made of the face and upper torso from photographs taken at the time of clinical assessment (mean age, 8.1 years). On all five adjectives (attractive, beautiful, cute, handsome, and pretty), boys with gender identity disorder were judged to be more attractive than were the clinical control boys. Attractiveness correlated with extent of behavioral femininity in the clinical control group, but not in the group of boys with gender identity disorder. The extent to which the group differences in attractiveness were due to objective, structural differences in facial attractiveness vs. socially created, or subjective, processes is discussed. PMID:8435037

  15. Peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors and their risk perception of these behaviors; 155 adolescent boys, average age 14.3, participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests revealed that adolescent boys engaged in many types of behaviors, although they perceived some of them as unhealthy. When compared with adolescent boys who showed low peer influence, those with high peer influence engaged in the following behaviors more frequently: sunbathing, using tanning booths, waxing skin, and spa treatments. The findings suggest a need for further investigation regarding the motivation for and impediments to adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors. PMID:20432614

  16. Behavioural Differences Between Online Sexual Groomers Approaching Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    van Gijn-Grosvenor, Evianne L; Lamb, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on the behavior of convicted offenders who had approached profiles of boys and girls online for offline sexual encounters. A detailed coding scheme was designed to code and analyze offenders' grooming behaviors in transcripts of conversational interactions between convicted offenders and 52 volunteer workers purporting to be girls and 49 volunteer workers who masqueraded as boys. Behavioral differences and commonalities associated with the gender of the groomed child decoys were examined. Results showed that offenders approaching boys were significantly older and pretended to be younger than offenders approaching girls. When compared to offenders grooming boy decoys, offenders grooming girl decoys typically built more rapport, were less sexually explicit, and approached sexual topics carefully and indirectly. Offenders also used more strategies to conceal contact with girls than with boys. PMID:27472510

  17. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  18. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Koizumi, Michiko; Schug, Joanna; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kameshima, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6–12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed. PMID:26175707

  19. No Boy Left Behind: The Impact of Boy-Friendly Strategies on the Gender Writing Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Janet Lee

    2012-01-01

    A study of the implementation of boy-friendly strategies for teaching writing was conducted in order to determine if the strategies would improve the writing achievement of fifth grade boys, thereby narrowing the gender achievement gap in writing. The strategies were categorized in four modalities: self-efficacy, perception/attitude, performance,…

  20. Nightblindness-associated transient tonic downgaze (NATTD) in infant boys with chin-up head posture.

    PubMed

    Simonsz, H J; Florijn, R J; van Minderhout, H M; Bergen, A A B; Kamermans, M

    2009-01-01

    Eleven infant boys presented with chin-up head posture, tonic downgaze and, on attempted upgaze, large-amplitude upward saccades with deceleration during the slow phase downward. The gaze-evoked upward saccades disappeared at the age of 2 or 3 years. In addition, they had high-frequency, small-amplitude horizontal pendular nystagmus that remained. Among these infant boys were 2 pairs of maternally related half-brothers, 2 cousins, and 2 siblings. Visual acuity ranged from 0.1 to 0.6, ERG-amplitudes (both A- and B-wave) were reduced, and severe myopia was found in 5 cases. Eight boys had CACNA1F mutations, and 1 boy had a NYX mutation, compatible with incomplete or complete congenital stationary nightblindness (iCSNB or cCSNB), respectively. This points to a defective synapse between the rod and the ON-bipolar cell causing the motility disorder: CACNA1F is located on the rod side of this synapse, whereas NYX is located on the side of the ON-bipolar cell. The coexistence of horizontal and vertical nystagmus has been previously described in dark-reared cats. PMID:20001510

  1. Eating disorder examination questionnaire: Norms and clinical reference data from adolescent boys and girls in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Emma Forsén; Birgegård, Andreas

    2016-05-30

    The study investigated norms and clinical reference values for the 14-day time frame version of the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) specifically developed to suit adolescent populations. The EDE-Q is a self-report instrument measuring problematic eating behaviors and attitudes. A general population sample (N=487, 239 girls and 248 boys) and a clinical sample (N=1051, 989 girls and 62 boys) aged 12-14 years were analyzed. Descriptive statistics for EDE-Q subscales and Global scale, as well as key behaviors, are presented, along with sex differences and diagnostic differences (clinical sample). General population sample sex differences were consistent and medium to large, with some evidence of floor effects for boys. In the clinical sample there was a main effect of gender, with girls scoring higher overall. The covariate age accounted for more variance in EDE-Q subscale scores than did diagnostic group. Results are discussed in terms of the appropriateness of the EDE-Q for boys, and possible denial of illness among patients. PMID:27137979

  2. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated finite marking (e.g., he walks, he walked) in boys with fragile X syndrome; the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, or impaired vocabulary). Method Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 to 16 years participated. The boys completed probes from the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (Rice & Wexler, 2001), a language sample, a nonverbal IQ test (Leiter-R, Roid & Miller, 1997), a receptive vocabulary test (PPVT-IV Dunn & Dunn, 2007), and a measure of autistic symptoms (CARS; Schopler et al., 2002). Results There were group differences for finiteness responses on the third person singular probe; the group with impaired vocabulary omitted markers with greater frequency compared to borderline vocabulary group. There were not significant differences on the past tense probe, although boys with borderline and impaired vocabulary were delayed relative to language expectations. Nonverbal IQ was not correlated with the measures of finiteness marking. Conclusion Boys with FXS demonstrate delays in finiteness marking, in particular on past tense verbs. Boys with impaired vocabulary show a unique profile unlike children with SLI, in which their use of tense markers may exceed expectations benchmarked to clause length. PMID:22562829

  3. A Rare Presentation of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Al-Zaidi, Rashid; Al-Naamani, Rahma; Al-Futaisi, Amna; Jain, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 7 year-old Omani girl with tuberous sclerosis (TS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD), at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. For a year she had been suffering from hyperactivity, aggression, over talkativeness, insomnia, risk-taking behaviour, distractibility, poor attention and seizures. This clinical picture evolved slowly, but was progressive in nature. Before the consultation at her local health centre, she was given four drugs without being properly investigated; she continued to deteriorate. In SQUH, she showed hyperactive-impulsive behaviour, elation, flight of ideas, preoccupation with self and high self-confidence. The physical examination revealed multiple hypomelanotic patches all over the body and a shagreen patch at the sacral area. The electroencephalogram showed generalised epileptic discharges, while brain imaging showed multiple parenchymal calcified foci in both cerebral hemispheres. Other investigations were normal. She was given valproate, and then a psychostimulant, methylphenidate, that controlled her state. Our aim in reporting this case is not only because it is unique, given its rare comorbidity (ADHD, TS and BD), but also to remind our junior colleagues to be alert to the possibility of an underlying neuropathology when performing clinical examinations and investigations of children presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:21509086

  4. Severe phimosis leading to obstructive uropathy in a boy with lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Kilinçaslan, Hüseyin; Atar, Murat; Söylemez, Haluk; Penbegül, Necmettin; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Tepeler, Abdulkadir

    2012-10-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic, inflammatory condition which commonly involves the anogenital skin. This condition may affect the foreskin, glans, frenulum, meatus and urethra in males. It manifests itself with voiding symptoms. Obstructive uropathy is an extremely rare clinical presentation in childhood. This study reports the case of a 13-year-old boy presenting with obstructive uropathy due to LS and reviews the published data on the diagnosis, management and follow-up of this condition. PMID:22594961

  5. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Rayment, Jonathan H.; Narang, Indra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms.

  6. Brave message from a dead Bhundu Boy.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, A

    The death of David Mankaba, one of Zimbabwe's top pop stars, from AIDS is expected to increase the country's awareness regarding the dangers of the disease. Mankaba is the bass guitarist of The Bhundu Boys whose "Jit" music is popular in both England and US. He was diagnosed to have tuberculosis and was later found to have AIDS. Before his death, he requested for his family to announce to the public that he had died from AIDS. This made him the first well-known Zimbabwean to declare that he is infected with the HIV virus in a country that continues to ignore the threat from AIDS despite its 9000 full-blown cases and an estimated 500,000 to over a million HIV-positive individuals. Mankaba's message is expected to play a major role in educating Zimbabweans against casual, unprotected sex and encourage them to take education campaigns more seriously. Furthermore, Mankaba's announcement is important considering that public awareness campaigns have been shown to be more effective when supported by first hand knowledge of people with AIDS. PMID:12295501

  7. Man-boy lovers: assessment, counseling, and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    van Naerssen, A

    1990-01-01

    Clinical experiences with 36 males, between the ages of 21 and 60 are described. All of them felt an enduring sexual attraction for boys. Sixteen males were treated for sexual identity conflicts. For eight of them this ended in a positive self-labeling as pedophile, the others had severe problems with accepting sexuality as positive and lustful. Twenty males were treated for identity management problems and counseled how to handle their relationships with boys. Several modalities of interpersonal interaction in man-boy relationships are proposed and the ways conflicts can arise within these frames of reference are explored in counseling and psychotherapy. PMID:2086630

  8. Somatic and psychological problems in a cohort of sexually abused boys: a six year follow up case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Price, L; Maddocks, A; Davies, S; Griffiths, L

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To obtain information about the health and well being of 108 boys six years after their involvement with the same paedophile. Methods: Case–control study of the health records of 93 male victims of a major episode of school based child sexual abuse and 93 matched controls. Interviews with a sample of their general practitioners. Results: The number and frequency of reported health problems were similar in both cases and controls. However, abused boys were more likely than controls to present with symptoms that persisted for more than a year (31 cases compared with 10 controls). Conclusions: Boys who have previously suffered sexual abuse at school did not utilise primary health care services more than a group of age matched controls. They did not present with psychological or somatic problems different from those presented by non-abused boys. However, abused boys were more likely to complain of persistent somatic or psychological problems lasting more than a year. This pattern appeared to persist after the abuse had stopped and the perpetrator imprisoned. PMID:11861230

  9. Correlations Between Gene Expression and Mercury Levels in Blood of Boys With and Without Autism

    PubMed Central

    Green, Peter G.; Tian, Yingfang; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hansen, Robin; Yang, Xiaowei; Teng, Jennifer; Gregg, Jeffrey P.; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Sharp, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in blood was correlated with mercury levels in blood of 2- to 5-year-old boys with autism (AU) compared to age-matched typically developing (TD) control boys. This was done to address the possibility that the two groups might metabolize toxicants, such as mercury, differently. RNA was isolated from blood and gene expression assessed on whole genome Affymetrix Human U133 expression microarrays. Mercury levels were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed and partial correlations between gene expression and mercury levels were calculated, after correcting for age and batch effects. To reduce false positives, only genes shared by the ANCOVA models were analyzed. Of the 26 genes that correlated with mercury levels in both AU and TD boys, 11 were significantly different between the groups (P(Diagnosis*Mercury) ≤ 0.05). The expression of a large number of genes (n = 316) correlated with mercury levels in TD but not in AU boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell death and cell morphology. Expression of 189 genes correlated with mercury levels in AU but not in TD boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell morphology, amino acid metabolism, and antigen presentation. These data and those in our companion study on correlation of gene expression and lead levels show that AU and TD children display different correlations between transcript levels and low levels of mercury and lead. These findings might suggest different genetic transcriptional programs associated with mercury in AU compared to TD children. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12640-009-9137-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19937285

  10. 'Rules' for boys, 'guidelines' for girls: Gender differences in symptom reporting during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of higher reported morbidity in females compared with males is a feature of adolescent health in a large proportion of the world's industrialised countries. In this paper, qualitative data from twenty-five single-sex focus groups (90 participants in total) conducted with 10-, 13-, and 15-year olds in two Scottish schools is used to explore whether symptom reporting is influenced by perceived societal gender- and age-related expectations and the social context of symptom experiences. The degree to which these factors can help explain quantitative evidence of increases in gender differences in symptom reporting during adolescence is also examined. Accounts suggested gender-related expectations act as strict 'rules' for boys and less prohibitive 'guidelines' for girls. An unexpected finding was the extent of similarity between these 'rules' and 'guidelines'. Both boys and girls presented themselves as pressured to react to symptoms in stoic, controlled and independent ways, particularly when in the company of their peers, and both perceived that boys and girls could incur negative consequences if seen to have physical (e.g. stomach ache) or, especially, psychological symptoms (e.g. feeling like crying). These qualitative findings do not suggest that girls are simply more willing than boys to report their symptoms as they get older, which is one potential explanation for the quantitative evidence of increasing gender differences in symptom reporting in adolescence. Rather, the findings suggest a need to highlight both the potentially damaging effects of gender stereotypes which make boys reluctant to seek help for physical and, particularly, psychological symptoms, and the misconception that girls are not similarly reluctant to report illness. PMID:19931962

  11. Measurements of Heart Rate and Accelerometry to Determine the Physical Activity Level in Boys Playing Paintball

    PubMed Central

    JARVI, MICHELLE; BROWN, GREGORY A; SHAW, BRANDON S.; SHAW, INA

    2013-01-01

    Paintball is a popular recreational sport played by 3.655 million Americans and may be sufficient physical activity to promote health. Paintball has been played as an organized sport since the 1980’s and is essentially a game of tag, except instead of touching an opponent by hand opponents are tagged by shooting them with a paintball that leaves a mark indicating who has been eliminated. A previous evaluation of paintball as physical activity had 13 subjects undergo a VO2max test to develop a heart rate (HR) /oxygen consumption relationship, and it was observed that heart rates during paintball were 68–73% of the measured maximal HR. The present study used accelerometry and HR monitors to evaluate the quantity and intensity of physical activity in boys playing paintball. Eleven boys (12.7 ± 1.0 y, 51.5 ± 11.3 kg, 161.8 ± 10.1 cm) engaged in a VO2max test to develop a HR/oxygen consumption correlation. On a separate day the boys played 7 games of outdoor paintball while wearing a HR monitor and accelerometer. The boys played paintball for 11.5 ± 6.2 minutes/game for a total of 80.6 ± 10.0 minutes of game play. Average HR during paintball play was 129.6 ± 6.6 beats/min, representing 39.9 ± 12.9% VO2max. Based on accelerometry, the boys accumulated 63.2 ± 15.6 minutes of moderate intensity activity and 2.6 ± 2.8 minutes of vigorous activity during paintball. These data suggest that playing paintball may be considered as physical activity that is > 3 METs, and thus health promoting. PMID:27182396

  12. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in girls. A comparison of the results with those seen in boys.

    PubMed

    Guille, J T; Lipton, G E; Szöke, G; Bowen, J R; Harcke, H T; Glutting, J J

    1998-09-01

    We reviewed the records and roentgenograms of all patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease who had been seen at our institution between 1940 and 1996. One hundred and five girls (122 hips) and 470 boys (531 hips) were identified. Thus, 18 per cent of the 575 patients in the present series were girls. Seventeen (16 per cent) of the girls and sixty-one (13 per cent) of the boys had bilateral involvement. Although more girls than boys had severe involvement of the femoral head and the lateral pillar, we could not detect a significant difference between the two groups with respect to the distribution of the involvement of the hips according to the system of Catterall or the lateral pillar classification (p > 0.05, beta = 0.99). Serial roentgenograms that showed all four stages of the disease according to the system of Waldenström were available for fifty-two hips in girls and 184 hips in boys. A review of these roentgenograms revealed that the average ages of the girls at the stages of necrosis, fragmentation, reossification, and remodeling were 6.8, 7.3, 7.9, and 9.5 years, respectively, whereas the average ages of the boys were 6.8, 7.3, 7.9, and 9.9 years, respectively. Girls, however, had closure of the affected proximal femoral physis at an average age of 12.9 years, whereas boys had closure at an average age of 15.8 years. Therefore, girls had a shorter potential period for remodeling of the femoral head (average, 3.4 years) compared with boys (average, 5.9 years). Sixty-four girls (seventy-eight hips) and 363 boys (416 hips) had reached skeletal maturity by the time of the latest follow-up and were evaluated according to the system of Stulberg et al.; we could not detect a significant difference between boys and girls with respect to the distribution of the hips according to this system (p > 0.05, beta = 0.99). Although the numbers were too small for statistical analysis, our findings suggest that boys and girls who have the same Catterall or lateral pillar

  13. Nodular scabies: a classical case report in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra Reddy, Damodara; Ramachandra Reddy, Prathap

    2015-09-01

    This case report presents a classical case of nodular scabies in a 12 year boy who complained of itching for 20-21 days before presentation to the hospital. Application of Betnovate ointment (Betamethasone valerate 0.1 %) before presentation to the hospital had provided only 2-3 days of relief from itching. Dermatological examination revealed skin colored to erythematous papule of 3-4 mm on the body with predilection for web space of fingers and flexural areas and nodules on the scrotum and groin. Based on this, clinical diagnosis of scabies with nodular scabies was made on the child. The scraping obtained from the web-space of the child showed mite under the light microscope, which confirms the diagnosis. Treatment with topical permethrin 5 % lotion resulted in 50-70 % subsidence of itching within a day, and improvement in impetigo lesions of his father in 5 days. However, the scrotal and groin nodular lesion of the child persisted with severe itching. Treatment with topical steroid and tacrolimus 0.1 % ointment did not show much improvement. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone (5 mg/ml) on the nodule resulted in 30-40 % subsidence in itching and 50-60 % reduction in the size of the lesion over 2-3 weeks. PMID:26345076

  14. Do Boys Prefer Daddy or His Physical Style of Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Hildy; Taylor, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Observation of 18 three-year-old boys revealed that they reacted more positively to both of their parents when their play style was more physical and active, resembling the typical paternal style. (Author/BJV)

  15. 21. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW OF CALCINER VESSEL ON LOW BOY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW OF CALCINER VESSEL ON LOW BOY EN ROUTE TO FACILITY. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-2487. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Boy Scouts of America: Mainstreaming and Handicapped Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews mainstreaming efforts of the Boy Scouts who currently have about 190,000 disabled scouts participating, about two-thirds in regular scouting units and the remaining in special scouting units for the disabled. (DB)

  17. Co-Operative Conflict Resolution in Institutionalised Boy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Natasa; Krivohlavy, Jaro

    1974-01-01

    In order to test the practicality of non-zero sum games for analyzing children's social behavior, the classic Prisoners' Dilemna Game performance were compared for institutionalized and home-reared boys. (DP)

  18. Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158415.html Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease ... WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new gene therapy shows preliminary promise against so-called "Bubble ...

  19. Science education in the Boy Scouts of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Rachel Sterneman

    This study of science education in the Boy Scouts of America focused on males with Boy Scout experience. The mixed-methods study topics included: merit badge standards compared with National Science Education Standards, Scout responses to open-ended survey questions, the learning styles of Scouts, a quantitative assessment of science content knowledge acquisition using the Geology merit badge, and a qualitative analysis of interview responses of Scouts, Scout leaders, and scientists who were Scouts. The merit badge requirements of the 121 current merit badges were mapped onto the National Science Education Standards: 103 badges (85.12%) had at least one requirement meeting the National Science Education Standards. In 2007, Scouts earned 1,628,500 merit badges with at least one science requirement, including 72,279 Environmental Science merit badges. "Camping" was the "favorite thing about Scouts" for 54.4% of the boys who completed the survey. When combined with other outdoor activities, what 72.5% of the boys liked best about Boy Scouts involved outdoor activity. The learning styles of Scouts tend to include tactile and/or visual elements. Scouts were more global and integrated than analytical in their thinking patterns; they also had a significant intake element in their learning style. Earning a Geology merit badge at any location resulted in a significant gain of content knowledge; the combined treatment groups for all location types had a 9.13% gain in content knowledge. The amount of content knowledge acquired through the merit badge program varied with location; boys earning the Geology merit badge at summer camp or working as a troop with a merit badge counselor tended to acquire more geology content knowledge than boys earning the merit badge at a one-day event. Boys retained the content knowledge learned while earning the merit badge. Scientists, Scout leaders, and Scouts felt that Scouts learned science through participation in the Boy Scout program

  20. An ocular motility conundrum.

    PubMed

    McElnea, Elizabeth Margaret; Stephenson, Kirk; Lanigan, Bernie; Flitcroft, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Two siblings, an 11-year-old boy and a 7-year-old girl presented with bilateral symmetrical ptosis and limited eye movements. Having already been reviewed on a number of occasions by a variety of specialists in multiple hospital settings a diagnosis of their ocular motility disorder had remained elusive. We describe their cases, outline the differential diagnosis and review the investigations performed which were influential in finally making a diagnosis. PMID:25349186

  1. Extensive myelitis after oral polio vaccination: MRI features.

    PubMed

    Kozic, D; Turkulov, V; Bjelan, M; Petrovic, K; Popovic-Petrovic, S; Vanhoenacker, F M

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy presented with fever and ataxia 20 days after oral polio vaccination. Magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive myelitis, involving both anterior and posterior horns of the gray matter. Complete posttreatment recovery was evident. Postvaccinal myelitis after oral polio vaccination, of either infectious or immune mediated etiology, is very rare entity that should be promptly recognized in order to initiate adequate treatment. PMID:25786294

  2. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin. PMID:7665947

  3. A Little Boy Eats Too Much. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holthaus, Mary L.

    Part of the Indian Culture Series of the Montana Council for Indian Education, the book is a simple story of a young Alaskan boy who makes oil lamps and his grandmother who sews with a needle. The little boy goes to hunt by the sea because they are hungry. He catches and eats a tomcod, two seals, and a whale, then returns to the igloo having eaten…

  4. Physiological Adaptations to Resistance Training in Prepubertal Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Sant'anna, Marcelo Morganti; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; de Oliveira, Norton Luis; dos Santos, Cinara Bos; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological adaptations of resistance training (RT) in prepubertal boys. Methods: Eighteen healthy boys were divided into RT (n = 9, M[subscript age] = 10.4 ± 0.5 years) and control (CTR; n = 9, M[subscript age] = 10.9 ± 0.7 years) groups. The RT group underwent a resistance training…

  5. Physiological profiles of young boys training in ballet.

    PubMed Central

    Pekkarinen, H; Litmanen, H; Mahlamäki, S

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate physiological characteristics in young male ballet dancers, 27 boys (aged 9 to 16 years) who participated in a boys' dance course during the Kuopio Dance and Music Festival in June 1988 were studied. In general, the boys had started dancing at the age of 8.6 years and had been training for 4.1 years. They had, on average, three dancing sessions per week and the mean time spent on dancing was four hours per week. In the study, some anthropometric measurements were taken, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was measured by a cycle ergometer test and the explosive strength and the mechanical power of lower extremities were evaluated by a jumping test. The results indicate that boys who train in ballet are in general moderately lean, have relatively small body size and a high degree of flexibility. The younger boys especially have only moderate aerobic power, but both explosive strength and mechanical power in leg muscles are good in ballet trained boys. PMID:2630002

  6. Does Dent disease remain an underrecognized cause for young boys with focal glomerulosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kaori; Aizawa, Tomomi; Watanabe, Shojiro; Tsugawa, Koji; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Ito, Etsuro; Joh, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) is a histologic entity that causes significant proteinuria in children. Although its etiology varies, recent reports indicated that some young male patients with FGS had underlying Dent disease. We describe the case of a 14-year-old Japanese boy who presented with persistent non-nephrotic range proteinuria, hematuria, and renal insufficiency. The patient was initially diagnosed as having FGS associated with scattered tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Although he had neither nephrocalcinosis nor family history of renal disease including urolithiasis, increased excretion of urinary β2 microglobulin was noted. Genetic analysis for Dent disease indicated a mutation (c.726 + 1G > A) in Chloride Channel, Voltage-Sensitive 5 (CLCN5). Given a recent hypothesis that Dent disease may be underrecognized in children with FGS, a careful diagnostic evaluation for possible underlying Dent disease should be considered in young boys who present with persistent albuminuria associated with high-grade low-molecular-weight proteinuria. PMID:27324082

  7. Hypertension in a young boy: an energy drink effect

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of energy drinks has significantly increased in recent times. Besides athletes, teenagers and students are among the most common consumers. However, popularity is also increasing among the younger and older age groups. Most of the users believe that they are a good source of instant energy and are unaware of its high Caffeine content resulting in harmful effects on health. Case presentation We report the case of a young boy who presented with palpitations and high blood pressure as a result of energy drinks usage. He had been consuming a “Sting” energy drink on regular basis while studying for long hours during his O’ level Exams. His medical examination revealed Sinus tachycardia and high blood pressure. Rest of the examination and lab workup was within normal limits. His pulse and blood pressure returned to normal range after discontinuing Sting usage. Conclusion Several studies have reported numerous health hazards including cardiac effects associated with energy drinks. Warning labeling should be done on these drinks regulating the content of Caffeine and its harmful effects on health. PMID:23106965

  8. Mental retardation in a boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; González-Abarca, Sergio; Hernández-Rocha, Juan; García-Cruz, Diana; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2005-05-15

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis (ACH) is a rare form of localized hypertrichosis with 15 previously reported cases. ACH has been considered to be a dominant phenotype, either X-linked or autosomal [OMIM 600457]. ACH was associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) in one family, in which the proband also exhibited severe chorioretinal degeneration and optic atrophy, probably as a different entity [OMIM 239840]. A Mexican boy with congenital ACH associated with moderate mental retardation, abnormal EEG, mild microcephaly, hypertrichosis on the back, and hallux valgus is presented here. An equal sex ratio found in 16 reported cases as well as the suggestion of a paternal age effect in one report appear most consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for this trait. It remains unclear if isolated ACH, ACH-HMSN, or other associated findings reported in patients with ACH, including unusual features found in our case, are part of ACH or fortuitous associations, due to the small number of affected patients and different ascertainment biases present in previous reports. PMID:15800907

  9. [Acute bilateral impaired vision with central scotoma in an 11-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Pollithy, S; Ach, T; Schaal, K B; Dithmar, S

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a case of acute bilateral impaired vision and central scotoma in an 11-year-old boy. Looking directly into a laser beam of a laser pointer for only a few seconds can cause retinal damage in the form of lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor layer, up to retinal hemorrhage. Patients often complain about impaired vision and a central scotoma of the affected eye. PMID:22740016

  10. 18q- and 18q+ mosaicism in a mentally retarded boy

    SciTech Connect

    Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bhola, S.L.; France, H.F. de; Post-Blok, C.A.; Hennekam, R.C.M.

    1994-11-15

    A mentally retarded boy was found to have an unusual chromosomal mosaicism [46,XY,del(18) (q22)/46,XY,iso psu dic(18)(q23)]. The clinical manifestations are compatible with the 18q- syndrome. The chromosome alteration was defined by high resolution banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A mechanism to explain the origin of the two cell lines is presented and discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Mediastinal Mass with Hyper-eosinophilia in a Young Boy -A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Prem, Shruti; Jacob, Priya Mary; Nair, Rekha Appukuttan

    2016-01-01

    Mediastinal masses in children comprises of a heterogeneous group of tumours. In such cases, biopsy and histological analysis are mandatory for planning of treatment. We have reported an unusual aetiology for a mediastinal mass in a young boy presenting with features of Superior Vena Caval Obstruction (SVCO) who also had marked blood and marrow eosinophilia mimicking Chronic Eosinophilic Leukaemia (CEL). We have also discussed the differential diagnoses of mediastinal tumours with hyper-eosinophilia and possible therapeutic implications.

  12. Hamartoma of the tuber cinereum in a six-month-old boy, causing isosexual precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Roosen, N; Cras, P; Van Vyve, M

    1987-03-01

    A case of hamartoma of the tuber cinereum causing isosexual precocious puberty in a six-month-old boy, in whom the lesion was successfully extirpated, is presented. Our patient was relatively young, since hamartomas causing sexual precocity most often occur between the ages of one and three years. Hamartomas are discussed from the clinical and pathological points of view. The mechanisms of initiating pubertas praecox in cases of cerebral tumours, particularly hamartomas, are reviewed. PMID:3574584

  13. A 15-year-old boy with snoring and molar tooth sign.

    PubMed

    El-Kersh, Karim; Senthilvel, Egambaram

    2015-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented for evaluation of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing. The parents noted that the patient snored every night and that he had episodes when he stopped breathing, ending with gasping for air. He had no history of sleep walking, night terrors, tongue biting, or seizures. The patient had two healthy siblings, but he had a history of intellectual disability and developmental delay. The patient had a history of adenotonsillectomy. PMID:25846539

  14. Bifocal Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities in a 5-Year Old Boy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Snoek, K G; Jacobsohn, M; van As, A B

    2012-01-01

    We present the extremely unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a bifocal (cervical as well as lumbar) spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORAs). The MRI showed cord oedema at the level of C2 and T10. We propose that during the motor vehicle crash severe propulsion of the head with a flexed lumbar region resulted in a traction injury to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine and maximum flexion caused SCIWORA in C2. PMID:22649746

  15. Successful treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia meningitis in a preterm baby boy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important cause of hospital acquired infection particularly among severely debilitated and immunosuppressed patients. Case presentation We report a case of S. maltophilia meningitis in a preterm baby boy after a neurosurgical procedure, successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion This organism should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin are a combination that is successful and safe for treating preterm infants. PMID:19830198

  16. Coronary artery spasm after ingestion of Imodium (loperamide) in a 14-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Sehar, Tayyaba; Sadiq, Masood

    2016-01-01

    We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with acute chest pain, following the ingestion of loperamide for acute diarrhea. Twelve lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed evidence of acute ischemia indicating acute coronary artery spasm. The changes reverted with treatment within a few hours with no permanent effect on myocardial function. This report highlights a rare side effect of loperamide, often debated in adults and never reported in adolescents. PMID:27212851

  17. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  18. Reading and Related Skills in the Early School Years: Are Boys Really More Likely to Struggle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbrick, Lisa; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether boys and girls in the early school years differed in reading and related skills, and their rates of progress. Gender ratios were calculated to ascertain whether there were more boys than girls who struggle with different facets of reading, and whether the variability of boys' scores resulted in more boys being…

  19. Autism Symptoms and Internalizing Psychopathology in Girls and Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Marjorie; Miller, Meghan; Taylor, Sandra L.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Carter, Cameron S.

    2012-01-01

    Findings regarding phenotypic differences between boys and girls with ASD are mixed. We compared autism and internalizing symptoms in a sample of 8-18 year-old girls (n = 20) and boys (n = 20) with ASD and typically developing (TYP) girls (n = 19) and boys (n = 17). Girls with ASD were more impaired than TYP girls but did not differ from boys with…

  20. Conflict, Provocation and Fights among Boys in a South African High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlall, Vijay; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Boys are commonly associated with disruptive behaviour and physical fighting at school. Explanations for this behaviour range from naturalistic "boys will be boys" approaches to analyses which focus on the social construction of masculinity and emphasise the gendered nature of boys' behaviour. Whichever view holds sway, it is often assumed that…

  1. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  2. Using Picture Books to Provide Archetypes to Young Boys: Extending the Ideas of William Brozo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby

    2007-01-01

    In his book "To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy," William Brozo suggested that many adolescent boys have become mentally and academically detached from school. While Brozo acknowledges that a solution to these problems is multifaceted, he asserts that engaging boys in literature that makes use of…

  3. Priority Male: If We Want Boys to Love Books, It's Important to Recognize What They Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami

    2005-01-01

    It is the recent emphasis on testing that has brought life to this issue once again and has spawned the "New Boys Movement," which focuses on helping boys achieve in reading and writing, Researchers have been studying what makes boys tick. What they've learned is that boys take longer to learn to read than girls; they read less than girls and are…

  4. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Social Problems of Boys with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Fernandes-Richards, Siobhan; Aarskog, Cyrena; Osborn, Teresa; Capetillo, Darla

    2007-01-01

    Parents and teachers reported that 6- to 8-year-old boys with developmental delays were less able to regulate their emotions than nondelayed boys matched on chronological age. Compared to nondelayed boys, boys with developmental delays had more social problems, which persisted and increased over a 3-year period. Children's ability to regulate…

  5. The Relationship between Friendship Quality and Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Daubman, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the role of friendship quality in adolescent boys' and girls' self-esteem. High school student surveys indicated that girls had significantly lower self-esteem than boys, and they rated their relationships as stronger, more interpersonally rewarding, and more stressful than boys. Boys rated their cross-gender best friendship as more…

  6. Boys: Getting it Right--The "New" Disadvantaged or "Disadvantage" Redefined?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Zoe

    2005-01-01

    Over recent years there has been widespread concern for masculinity and the education of boys in Australia. In the policy arena, this has involved a federal parliamentary inquiry into the education of boys ("Boys: Getting it Right: Report on the inquiry into the education of boys", October 2002) and a federal government response to this inquiry…

  7. Bias and Undermatching in Delinquent Boys' Verbal Behavior as a Function of Their Level of Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, J. J.; Caron, Marcia L.

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer boys for each category of talk were also recorded,…

  8. Preventing Boys' Problems in Schools through Psychoeducational Programming: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.; Lujan, Melissa L.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy currently exists on whether boys are in crises and, if so, what to do about it. Research is reviewed that indicates that boys have problems that affect their emotional and interpersonal functioning. Psychoeducational and preventive programs for boys are recommended as a call to action in schools. Thematic areas for boys' programming…

  9. Boys and girls "doing science" and "doing gender"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervoni, Cleti

    The gender gap in achievement in science continues to plague science educators (AAAS, 2001). Strategies to close this gap have defined the problem in terms of girls' lack of interest or their inability to survive in science classrooms. Recent feminist scholarship has re-centered this problem of gender inequity not on girls, but on the nature of science and how it is taught in schools (Birke, 1986; Parker, 1997). Lesley Parker (1997) argues that it is schools that need to change and recommends a gender-inclusive science curriculum for schools. My dissertation argues for a new framework and research agenda for understanding the relationship between gender and science in schools. My study examines the gender dynamics of how unequal gender relations are negotiated, resisted and sustained in the context of a second grade science classroom. In examining the gender dynamics between the boys and the girls in a science classroom, I found that the boys positioned the girls as their assistants, as incompetent in science, as weak in contrast to the boys, and in need of the boys' help and protection. These discourses functioned to create and sustain unequal gender relations in the classroom. The girls responded in paradoxical ways to the boys' positioning of them. They resisted the boys by: (a) ignoring them; (b) using a domestic discourse to negotiate/gain more power; (c) appropriating teacher authority; or (d) using sexuality to embarrass and silence the boys. The girls also deferred to the boys as experts in science. In these ways, the girls themselves contributed to maintaining unequal gender relations in the classroom. I found that the classroom context is a site of struggle for both boys and girls as they seek to secure a place in the social hierarchy of the classroom. For the boys, masculinity is strong and powerful yet fragile and vulnerable. The girls struggle in holding multiple images of femininity. Examining gender dynamics through positioning and negotiation for

  10. Longitudinal growth attainments of Indian boys with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Bimal; Bhalla, Anil K; Singh, Surjit

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to study the pattern of distance and velocity growth in terms of weight and height in adolescent boys with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). This study was conducted on children diagnosed to have JRA (Cassidy and Petty in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 2005) at the Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology Clinic of Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. A total of 203 observations made on 70 boys with JRA, between 9 and 17 years of age, comprised the sample for this prospective mixed-longitudinal growth study. Each subject was measured for body weight and standing height using standardized anthropometric techniques (Eveleth and Tanner in Worldwide variation in human growth, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1990) at half yearly age intervals. All anthropometric measurements were carried out in the Growth Laboratory of Advanced Pediatrics Centre. Boys with polyarticular and systemic onset types of JRA in general measured lighter than their pauciarticular counterparts throughout the period of study. Height attainments in boys with polyarticular and systemic onset JRA measured shorter than their pauciarticular counterparts till 15 years and 12 years, respectively, where-after they became comparable to boys with pauciarticular JRA. As compared to normal Indian (Bhalla and Kumar in Int J Anthropol 18:113-125, 2003; Aggarwal et al. in Indian Pediatr 29:1203-1282, 1992) and American (Ogden et al. in Pediatrics 109:45-60, 2002) counterparts boys representing all categories of JRA remained lighter and shorter. Onset of Peak Height Velocity (PHV) in boys with polyarticular JRA (i.e. 12.5 years) was delayed by 1 year as compared to boys with pauciarticular JRA (i.e. 11.5 years). Attainment of Peak Weight Velocity (PWV) in boys with polyarticular JRA (i.e. 13.5 years) was also delayed by 1 year when compared to those with pauciarticular type (i.e. 12.5 years). In

  11. Puberty Influences Medial Temporal Lobe and Cortical Gray Matter Maturation Differently in Boys Than Girls Matched for Sexual Maturity

    PubMed Central

    Hranilovich, Jennifer A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Forbes, Erika E.; Chen, Jessica; Toga, Arthur W.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Worthman, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in age- and puberty-related maturation of human brain structure have been observed in typically developing age-matched boys and girls. Because girls mature 1–2 years earlier than boys, the present study aimed at assessing sex differences in brain structure by studying 80 adolescent boys and girls matched on sexual maturity, rather than age. We evaluated pubertal influences on medial temporal lobe (MTL), thalamic, caudate, and cortical gray matter volumes utilizing structural magnetic resonance imaging and 2 measures of pubertal status: physical sexual maturity and circulating testosterone. As predicted, significant interactions between sex and the effect of puberty were observed in regions with high sex steroid hormone receptor densities; sex differences in the right hippocampus, bilateral amygdala, and cortical gray matter were greater in more sexually mature adolescents. Within sex, we found larger volumes in MTL structures in more sexually mature boys, whereas smaller volumes were observed in more sexually mature girls. Our results demonstrate puberty-related maturation of the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortical gray matter that is not confounded by age, and is different for girls and boys, which may contribute to differences in social and cognitive development during adolescence, and lasting sexual dimorphisms in the adult brain. PMID:20713504

  12. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8–12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Method Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8–12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Results Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. Conclusions These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD. PMID:25610784

  13. The between-day reproducibility of fasting, satiety-related analytes, in 8 to 11year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Rumbold, Penny L S; Green, Benjamin P

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the between-day reproducibility of fasting plasma GLP-17-36, glucagon, leptin, insulin and glucose, in lean and overweight/obese 8-11year-old boys. A within-group study design was utilised wherein the boys attended two study days, separated by 1week, where a fasting fingertip capillary blood sample was obtained. Deming regression, mean difference, Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LOA) and typical imprecision as a percentage coefficient of variation (CV %), were utilised to assess reproducibility between-days. On a group level, Deming regression detected no evidence of systematic or proportional bias between-days for all of the satiety-related analytes however, only glucose and plasma GLP-17-36 displayed low typical and random imprecision. When analysed according to body composition, good reproducibility was maintained for glucose in the overweight/obese boys and for plasma GLP-17-36, in those with lean body mass. The present findings demonstrate that the measurement of glucose and plasma GLP-17-36 by fingertip capillary sampling on a group level, is reproducible between-days, in 8-11year-old boys. Comparison of blood glucose obtained by fingertip capillary sampling can be made between lean and overweight/obese 8-11year-old boys. Presently, the comparison of fasting plasma GLP-17-36 according to body weight is inappropriate due to high imprecision observed in lean boys between-days. The use of fingertip capillary sampling in the measurement of satiety-related analytes has the potential to provide a better understanding of mechanisms that affect appetite and feeding behaviour in children. PMID:27265877

  14. Development in a 46 XX boy with positive SRY gene.

    PubMed

    Rego, A; Margarit, E; Estivill, X; Regal, M; García-Mayor, R V

    1996-01-01

    We present the case of an 11 year-old boy, who asked for medical attention due to obesity and assumed underdeveloped external genitalia. He did not have genital anomalies, penile length was 5.3 cm, testicular volume 2 ml and pubic hair Tanner stage 1. His bone age was normal for chronological age. Endocrinological study showed normal results for his age. Karyotype revealed a 46 XX pattern. MRI of external genitalia showed bilateral scrotal testes which were normal in diameter for his age. The check of his historical growth chart and follow-up revealed normal growth with spontaneous pubertal development. However, hormonal studies showed progressive increase of FSH levels, indicative of failure of germinal epithelium. The presence of Y sequences, including SRY gene, was demonstrated by PCR. Our observation is in agreement with the view that 46 XX male subjects diagnosed at peripubertal age with the SRY gene in the genome have a good prognosis regarding growth and development, but the principal problem of these patients is infertility. PMID:9004179

  15. [Arachnoid cyst associated with pyloric stenosis in a young boy].

    PubMed

    Diaconescu, Smaranda; Păduraru, Gabriela; Bărbuţă, O; Vâscu, B; Lupu, V V; Burlea, M; Aprodu, G

    2010-01-01

    An unusual association between an arachnoid cyst and a decompensated pyloric stenosis in a three years-old boy is presented. The little patient was admitted into hospital with haematemesis, melena, influenced generally condition and acute posthemorrhagic anaemia following aspirin intake for hypertermia. Specific intensive care was successful and the little patient was discharged but without an upper digestive endoscopy(parents refusal, technical reasons). After one week he returned with progressive worsening vomitings and an intracranial hypertension was suspected. CT documented an arachnoid cyst in the right middle cranial fossa and the patient is directed to the Neurosurgical Clinic where a cyst fenestration was done. Subsequent to operation the vomitings reinstaled with severe dehydration and an upper GI series showed a decompensated pyloric stenosis. He was operated on underwenting an antrectomy. Finally the child recovered with good short and long-term evolution. The coincidental presence of an intracranial congenital mass and a complicated aspirin-induced peptic ulcer in this young patient, misleaded us and in the lack of an early endoscopy an intempestive neurosurgical operation was initially done. PMID:21500459

  16. Gangrenous Appendicitis in a Boy with Mobile Caecum.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Zeynep; Gunduz, Metin; Sekmenli, Taner; Kivrak, Hatice Yazar

    2015-04-01

    A mobile caecum and ascending colon is an uncommon congenital disorder, and it is even rarer as the cause of an acute abdomen during childhood. This report presents the case of a 6-year-old boy with acute gangrenous appendicitis with a mobile caecum and ascending colon. Data from the surgical course, as well as laboratory and imaging studies, were acquired and carefully examined. Emergency ultrasound (US) was performed and revealed no signs of appendicitis in the right lower quadrant. Serial imaging study, including non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), was performed. An imaging study identified epigastric appendicitis with mobile caecum. Surgery was executed under general anesthesia with a median incision extending from the epigastrium to the suprapubic region. The caecum was mobile and placed in the right epigastric area, next to the left lobe of the liver and gallbladder. The gangrenous appendix was discovered posterior to the caecum and transverse colon, enlarging to the left upper quadrant. Appendectomy was executed, the gangrenous appendix was confirmed pathologically, and the patient was released 4 days later. In the US, if there are unusual clinical findings or no findings in patients with abdominal pain, CT is beneficial in determining the location of the caecum and appendix and preventing misdiagnosis in children. PMID:26060548

  17. Early onset of puberty in an obese boy with Klinefelter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byoung-Wook; Kwon, Seung-Eun; Kim, Soon-Ki; Lee, Taek; Han, Jee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common disease entities characterized by X-chromosomal aberration causing the primary hypogonadism in adult men. Patients with KS seem to be typically characterized by tall, slender bodies with delayed puberty and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. However, it has been known that they have a broad spectrum of phenotype ranging from almost normal external appearances to typical phenotype. Only 25% KS Patients are ever diagnosed because KS remains unrecognized. Also, boys with KS have an onset of pubertal development within the normal range, not delayed onset of puberty. Adolescents with KS are generally diagnosed as having the lack of pubertal progress. Early detection of KS can be difficult without awareness. We report an unusual case of early onset of puberty in obese boy with KS who presented with a unilateral non-hormone secreting testicular teratoma. PMID:27104178

  18. Integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from a critical mockup of the Hiroshima bomb Little Boy at Los Alamos National Laobratory with detector systems developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Bonner ball detectors were used to map the neutron fluxes in the horizontal midplane at various distances from the mockup and for selected polar angles, keeping the source-detector separation constant. Gamma-ray energy deposition measurements were made with thermoluminescent detectors at several locations on the iron shell of the source mockup. The measurements were performed as part of a larger progam to provide benchmark data for testing the methods used to calculate the radiation released from the Little Boy bomb over Hiroshima. 3 references, 10 figures.

  19. Early onset of puberty in an obese boy with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byoung-Wook; Kwon, Seung-Eun; Kim, Soon-Ki; Lee, Taek; Han, Jee-Young; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2016-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common disease entities characterized by X-chromosomal aberration causing the primary hypogonadism in adult men. Patients with KS seem to be typically characterized by tall, slender bodies with delayed puberty and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. However, it has been known that they have a broad spectrum of phenotype ranging from almost normal external appearances to typical phenotype. Only 25% KS Patients are ever diagnosed because KS remains unrecognized. Also, boys with KS have an onset of pubertal development within the normal range, not delayed onset of puberty. Adolescents with KS are generally diagnosed as having the lack of pubertal progress. Early detection of KS can be difficult without awareness. We report an unusual case of early onset of puberty in obese boy with KS who presented with a unilateral non-hormone secreting testicular teratoma. PMID:27104178

  20. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine

    2006-04-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for various psychiatric disturbances. Body dissatisfaction showed significant increases for girls and significant decreases for boys during early adolescence. For both genders parental support deficits, negative affectivity, and self-reported dietary restraint, but not Ideal body internalization, body mass index, and eating pathology, showed significant relations to future increases in body dissatisfaction; peer support deficits showed a marginal relation to this outcome. Gender did not moderate these relations, despite adequate power to detect interactive effects. PMID:16912810