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Sample records for 7-year-old girl presented

  1. Anorexia nervosa in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bostic, J Q; Muriel, A C; Hack, S; Weinstein, S; Herzog, D

    1997-10-01

    We report on a 7-year-old girl with anorexia nervosa and consider factors contributing to this early emergency. Cognitive differences in younger children can alter their understanding of this illness, so we chronicled this girl's treatment because it diverged from practices used with older patients. Accordingly, effective interventions in very young anorexics might require modifications of treatments used in postpubertal populations.

  2. An asymptomatic case of a single coronary artery in a 7-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Hisao; Kimura, Masato; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with a single coronary artery. The coronary artery passed between the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery, and an aberrant vessel ran anterior to the latter.

  3. Delayed retropneumoperitoneum following vaginal laceration in a 7-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Im, Hyesook; Lee, Sanghoon; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae-Yun; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of delayed retropneumoperitoneum caused by a deep vaginal laceration as a result trauma from a water jet in a fountain. A 7-year-old premenarcheal girl presented to the emergency department after experiencing an injury from a water jet at a fountain park. Initially, the patient's vital sign and perineum were within normal range. Because the patient's vital signs became unstable 12 hours after vaginal injury, we carried out abdomino-pelvic computed tomography resulting in retropneumoperitoneum. Arterial bleeding from vaginal lateral wall was founded and controlled by electrocoagulation. No damage to the rectum was laparoscopically confirmed. A diagnostic laparoscopy, not laparotomy, should be considered in cases of retropneumoperitoneum with an ambiguous cause first. PMID:27200319

  4. Cystic pilomyxoid astrocytoma on suprasellar region in 7-year-old girl: Treatment and strategy

    PubMed Central

    Tjahjadi, Mardjono; Arifin, M. Zafrullah; Sobana, Mirna; Avianti, Astri; Caropeboka, M. Sinatrya; Eka, Priandana Adya; Agustina, Hasrayati

    2015-01-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described entity with similar features to pilocytic astrocytoma but with a rare occurrence. As a new diagnosis, no treatment guideline of PMA has been established; but generally, as for any low-grade gliomas, radical resection is performed if the location is favorable. In this report, we wished to share our experience treating the PMA. The authors presented a case of a 7-year-old girl with bitemporal hemianopia. From the history, the patient had a 4-month history of headache, following with nausea and projectile vomiting 1 week before hospital admission. Past history of seizure, weakness of left extremities, and decreased consciousness were reported. Computed tomography (CT) scanning showed acute obstructive hydrocephalus and an isohypodense mass at suprasellar region with the cystic component. We performed ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt to reduce the acute hydrocephalus, followed by craniotomy tumor removal 2 weeks later. The patient underwent radiotherapy and medical rehabilitation. Diagnosis of PMA was made on the basis of pathologic anatomy result, which showed a myxoid background with pseudorosette. Postoperative CT showed a residual tumor at right parasellar area without hydrocephalus. After the surgery, the treatment was followed with radiotherapy for 20 times within 2 months. Postradiation CT performed 1-year later showed a significant reduction of the tumor mass. There were no new postoperative deficits. The patient had improvement of the visual field and motor strength. The authors reported a case of a 7-year-old girl with PMA. Surgical resection combined with radiotherapy was performed to control the growth of PMA. More observation and further studies are required to refine the treatment methods. PMID:25972955

  5. A 7 years old girl with abdominal lump and per-vaginal bleeding of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Nahar, K; Begum, B; Sarker, U K; Akter, F; Roy, J; Chakrabarty, R

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is suggested from the clinical and laboratory findings. Here we present a case report on this disease with rare presentation of abdominal lump and pervaginal bleeding in childhood. A 7 years old girl admitted in a tertiary level hospital with abdominal lump and irregular per vaginal bleeding. Abdominal swelling was gradually increasing in size & associated with lower abdominal pain for last 5 months. On examination the girl was moderately anaemic, mildly oedematous, distended lower abdomen and a mass in left iliac region. Her thyroid function test, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Prolactin was done and high FSH, LH, Prolactin levels were found. Ultrasonography of lower abdomen revealed bulky uterus and bilateral ovarian cysts. MRI of Brain showed feature of pituitary microadenoma. Finally the patient was diagnosed as primary hypothyroidism and bilateral follicular ovarian cyst with pituitary adenoma developed as its consequence. The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience. PMID:25725684

  6. A 7 years old girl with abdominal lump and per-vaginal bleeding of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Nahar, K; Begum, B; Sarker, U K; Akter, F; Roy, J; Chakrabarty, R

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is suggested from the clinical and laboratory findings. Here we present a case report on this disease with rare presentation of abdominal lump and pervaginal bleeding in childhood. A 7 years old girl admitted in a tertiary level hospital with abdominal lump and irregular per vaginal bleeding. Abdominal swelling was gradually increasing in size & associated with lower abdominal pain for last 5 months. On examination the girl was moderately anaemic, mildly oedematous, distended lower abdomen and a mass in left iliac region. Her thyroid function test, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Prolactin was done and high FSH, LH, Prolactin levels were found. Ultrasonography of lower abdomen revealed bulky uterus and bilateral ovarian cysts. MRI of Brain showed feature of pituitary microadenoma. Finally the patient was diagnosed as primary hypothyroidism and bilateral follicular ovarian cyst with pituitary adenoma developed as its consequence. The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience.

  7. [Cerebral venous thrombosis and immune thrombocytopenia in a 7-year-old girl: a fortuitous association?].

    PubMed

    Cotillon, M; Lebas, A; Blanc, T; Schneider, P; Vannier, J-P; Buchbinder, N

    2014-12-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoantibody-mediated peripheral platelet destruction. It is rarely accompanied by thrombosis. Here, we describe a wide cerebral venous thrombosis that occurred at the onset of a primary ITP in a 7-year-old girl. ITP was confirmed by the presence of anti-platelet antibodies. Whether ITP is a risk factor for venous thrombosis is a matter of debate. The platelet microparticles released during the platelet destruction and the interaction between the autoantibodies and the platelet glycoproteins may contribute to platelet activation. Increased risk of thromboembolic events should be considered in all patients with ITP, including children. PMID:25445130

  8. Fatal hyponatremia in a 7-year-old girl with cloacal exstrophy after cystoscopy for a bladder stone.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marc R; Fuhr, Peter G; Koyle, Martin A

    2008-06-01

    A case of fatal hyponatremia in a 7-year-old girl following a percutaneous cystolithotomy is presented. Stone removal by percutaneous cystolithotomy is considered a safe and effective procedure, but this may depend on the type of solution used for irrigation. In this case less than 2L of sterile water was used as irrigation in an augmented bladder causing a drop in sodium to 120 mmol/L in 30 min. The result was a massive shift of water into the cerebral tissue, cerebral edema and death. PMID:18631933

  9. Large ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in a 7-year-old girl with analysis of 108 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kirjavainen, Antti; Tuovinen, Veikko; Sándor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) are rare conditions in children and are often asymptomatic. AFOs are found by routine clinical and radiological examination or when they cause obvious intra- or extra-oral swelling. Materials and Methods: A case of an AFO in a 7-year-old girl is described, and 107 cases from the literature and this report are analyzed. Results: The total of 108 cases revealed the average age at presentation of AFO to be 6.3 years in boys and 9.6 years in girls. There was a slight male predilection and AFO lesions most often occurred in the posterior mandible. AFO was almost always associated with an unerupted tooth or teeth. Conclusions: While the recurrence rate of AFO was found to be 5.5%, long-term postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up is advised to ensure no future signs of aggressive recurrence. PMID:27563600

  10. [Brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as a complication of acute otitis media in 7-year-old girl - a case report].

    PubMed

    Załęska-Ponganis, Joanna; Jackowska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood disease, especially in infants and preschool children. Onset of AOM encourage frequent upper respiratory infections and debilitating conditions that cause nasal patency and trumpets auditory dysfunction. Complications of AOM currently are rare. We present a case of complications of acute otitis media in form of acute cerebral abscess in a 7-year-old previously healthy girl.

  11. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a 7-year-old girl with congenital erythropoietic porphyria: a treatment dilemma.

    PubMed

    Taibjee, S M; Stevenson, O E; Abdullah, A; Tan, C Y; Darbyshire, P; Moss, C; Goodyear, H; Heagerty, A; Whatley, S; Badminton, M N

    2007-03-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP, Günther's disease) has a very variable phenotype. In the more severely affected, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is potentially curative, but is not without risks. We describe a 7-year-old girl with CEP characterized by severe photosensitivity but only mild anaemia, in whom the difficult decision to proceed with allogeneic BMT was made after discussion in a multidisciplinary team. She has shown successful engraftment, accompanied by biochemical and clinical resolution of her metabolic disease. She remains well 3 years later, the oldest patient with CEP receiving BMT to survive beyond 12 months. However, she has experienced significant morbidity including florid cutaneous graft-versus-host disease with postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Her case is important in highlighting the delay in diagnosis not uncommon in this condition and the complex decision-making process involved in proceeding with BMT.

  12. A huge nodular fasciitis in parapharygneal space in a 7-year-old girl: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shumin; Liu, Wei; Xiang, Yuyan; Dai, Yinghuan; Ren, Jihao

    2014-01-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a benign and reactive fibroblastic growth extending from the superficial fascia into the subcutaneous tissue or muscle, with a morbidity of less than 20% in children. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl presented with a 3-month history of snore and mouth breathing. Image findings demonstrated a large soft-tissue mass in the right parapharyngeal space. The lesion was successfully eradicated by surgical removal. Pathological analysis established NF as the final diagnosis. Histopathological findings were notable for a reactive spindle-cell process composed of proliferative fibroblasts with extravasated red blood cells and interstitial edema. Immunohistochemical stains showed that the lesional cells were positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), muscle-specific actin (HHF35), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and negative for S100 protein. No clinical evidence of recurrence was noticed after 2 months of follow-up. Being the first report of NF in the parapharyngeal space of a child, this rare pediatric case points out the importance for otolaryngologists to keep NF in mind for differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary wide resection.

  13. Necrotizing soft tissue infection of the scalp after fronto-facial advancement by internal distraction in a 7-year old girl with Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome--a case report.

    PubMed

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Klein, Martin; Haberl, Ernst Johannes; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Menneking, Horst; Hoffmeister, Bodo

    2011-12-01

    In 1960, Gorlin, Chaudhry and Moss described a syndrome consisting of craniofacial dysostosis in association with hypertrichosis, cardiac, genital, dental and ocular anomalies. Diagnosis is based on typical clinical findings and cannot be performed by molecular genetic analysis until now. There is little in the clinical literature concerning this rare craniofacial syndrome. For functional and psychosocial reasons, surgical correction of the complex craniofacial malformation in a 7-year old Hungarian girl with Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome was performed by fronto-facial advancement using internal distraction devices. Postoperatively necrotizing soft tissue infection of the scalp developed leading to termination of the distraction process ahead of schedule and requiring aggressive surgical management. Typical physiological and clinical characteristics were observed both during the initial craniofacial correction as well as during the management of the infectious complication suggesting that the linking of different conditions (surgical trauma plus the selection of toxic microorganisms) has caused tissue destruction rather than the syndromal disorder or the surgical technique of distraction osteogenesis. Although skeletal improvement was achieved residual damage from the infectious complication must be considered as severe.

  14. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  15. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  16. "Generalist Genes" and Mathematics in 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Y.; Harlaar, N.; Petrill, S. A.; Plomin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics performance at 7 years as assessed by teachers using UK national curriculum criteria has been found to be highly heritable. For almost 3000 pairs of 7-year-old same-sex twins, we used multivariate genetic analysis to investigate the extent to which these genetic effects on mathematics performance overlap with genetic effects on reading…

  17. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

  18. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  19. Growth and obesity in 7-year-old Croatian children: secular changes from 1991 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Bralić, Irena; Tahirović, Husref; Matanić, Dubravka

    2011-12-01

    The study analyses secular changes in body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in children in the Splitsko-dalmatinska County, Croatia, in the period from 1991 to 2008. The overweight/obesity trends from 1991 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2008 are assessed. The study included three cohorts of healthy 7-year-old children, measured during their regular medical examination before enrolment at school: 1991 (n = 514), 1999 (n = 428) and 2008 (n = 452), in a total of 1,394 children, 686 (49.21%) of whom were girls. Overweight/obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. From 1991 to 2008, there was a statistically significant rise in body weight and BMI in boys and girls (1.47 vs 1.50 kg; 0.55 vs 0.75 kg) and height in boys (1.4 cm). In 2008, the girls were 0.14 kg heavier and 0.39 cm taller than the girls of the same age measured in 1999, but their BMI was lower by 0.02 units. The frequency of obesity rose from 1991 to 2008 by 1.4 times in boys and 1.7 times in girls. The prevalence of obesity in girls rose from 1991 to 1999 (from 4.3% to 8.6%), but in 2008, it fell (7.1%). The prevalence of obesity in boys fell in 1999 (from 4.3% to 3.9%) but rose in 2008 (6.2%). The values of body weight, height and BMI in the observed population moved from 1991 to 2008 towards higher WHO standard values, which is descriptive of the problem of obesity and supports the need to consider the choice of cut-off points for obesity/overweight in local and national studies. In conclusion, the slowdown noticed in secular changes in body weight and BMI is encouraging and shows the importance of continuous paediatric health care for children, combined with an altered attitude in society towards obesity in children.

  20. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  1. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  2. Swyer-James Syndrome in a 7-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Jun; Kaneda, Daisuke; Fujiki, Atsushi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kotani, Tomoya; Ushijima, Yo

    2016-01-01

    Swyer-James syndrome is a rare syndrome that occurs as a result of repeated bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in childhood. Most cases are asymptomatic, and subsequent diagnosis may not occur until adulthood. We present the case of a 7-year-old female with Swyer-James syndrome, which was initially diagnosed and treated as asthma. The patient developed respiratory distress and atelectasis which were treated with biphasic cuirass ventilation. This case suggests that Swyer-James syndrome should be a concern in patients with chronic cough and wheezing, and highlights the importance of taking a careful history and appropriate radiological investigations for diagnosis. Once Swyer-James syndrome is diagnosed, prophylaxis and appropriate management of respiratory infections becomes important. PMID:27777706

  3. Tooth wear in the deciduous dentition of 5-7-year-old children: risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gatou, Tarsitsa; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and severity of tooth wear in deciduous dentition and its relationship with possible risk factors. A stratified cluster sample of 243 5-7-year-old children was examined using the tooth wear index of Smith and Knight, and their exposure to intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors was retrospectively investigated through a structured questionnaire. The severity of wear was quantitatively estimated by the number of surfaces with affected dentine and by the cumulative score of the sextants, based on the Basic Erosive Wear Examination scoring system. Only 1.6% of the children were tooth wear free, whereas 45.6% had moderate to severe wear involving dentine. Maxillary canines were the most affected teeth (83.2%), and occlusal/incisal the most affected surfaces (52.7%). The likelihood of tooth wear involving dentine was greater in boys than girls (OR = 1.72), in immigrants than in Greeks (OR = 1.93), and in 6- and 7-year olds than in 5-year olds (OR = 2.78 to 2.93). After adjustment for age, gender, and nationality, exposure to several dietary factors and especially to soft drinks was found to significantly affect the prevalence (OR = 1.27) and the severity of tooth wear. Every additional serving/week of consumption of soft drinks increases the number of surfaces with dentine affected by 0.03 per year (p < 0.05) and the cumulative score of sextants by 0.04 (p < 0.05). The cluster of children with the higher prevalence and severity of tooth wear had an average exposure to soft drinks of 10 servings/week for a duration of 4 years. The cumulative score of sextants was better predicted by the assessed risk factors, in comparison with the number of surfaces with affected dentine. Tooth wear is a common condition in children, related both to the physiological process of aging of dentition and to the erosive effect of dietary factors. Strategies to reduce the intake of soft drinks in children are expected to have multiple

  4. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  5. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family. PMID:25937802

  6. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family.

  7. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Janchevska, A; Tasic; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, HI

    2014-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family. PMID:25937802

  8. Tetralogy of fallot with dextrocardia and situs inversus in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Dilorenzo, Michael; Weinstein, Samuel; Shenoy, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most frequently diagnosed congenital cardiac abnormalities; however, its association with dextrocardia and situs inversus is reported only rarely. We report a case of these findings in a 7-year-old boy, describe the patient's postoperative course, and review the medical literature relevant to these combined conditions.

  9. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  10. Subacute osteomyelitis of the femur due to Fusobacterium nucleatum in a 7-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Budd, Emily; Johnson, David S; Thomas, Eva; Sadarangani, Manish

    2015-03-01

    Subacute hematogenous osteomyelitis is an insidious infection, which commonly has a delayed diagnosis. We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy with subacute osteomyelitis, which was initially considered to be a bone tumor. Infection should be considered in all cases of bone pain, especially in children, even in the absence of typical systemic features of inflammation.

  11. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  12. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  13. Emergency Department Diagnosis of Dietl Crisis in a 7-Year-Old Girl With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Burhop, James; Clingenpeel, Joel M; Poirier, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Children with Dietl crisis often experience a delay in diagnosis, with the clinical entity being underdiagnosed. Pain is caused by compression of an aberrant artery crossing dilated kidney. Pain is often worsened after the consumption of liquids and resolves after fluid reabsorption. There are no clear criteria for evaluating ureter obstruction in childhood abdominal pain in the emergency department setting; however, it has been suggested that ultrasound may aid in the diagnosis. As renal parenchyma is typically preserved, and there is a paucity of associated urological complaints, once properly diagnosed, most patients are well served by a pyeloplasty. PMID:25626638

  14. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Maryse F.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Vedar, Michelle; Calderon, Norma; Trujillo, Celina; Johnson, Caroline; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Context: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic at high doses. Few studies have examined whether chronic exposure at lower levels could adversely affect children’s cognitive development. Objective: We examined associations between prenatal and postnatal exposure to OP pesticides and cognitive abilities in school-age children. Methods: We conducted a birth cohort study (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study) among predominantly Latino farmworker families from an agricultural community in California. We assessed exposure to OP pesticides by measuring dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine collected during pregnancy and from children at 6 months and 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, to 329 children 7 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education and intelligence, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score, and language of cognitive assessment. Results: Urinary DAP concentrations measured during the first and second half of pregnancy had similar relations to cognitive scores, so we used the average of concentrations measured during pregnancy in further analyses. Averaged maternal DAP concentrations were associated with poorer scores for Working Memory, Processing Speed, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Children in the highest quintile of maternal DAP concentrations had an average deficit of 7.0 IQ points compared with those in the lowest quintile. However, children’s urinary DAP concentrations were not consistently associated with cognitive scores. Conclusions: Prenatal but not postnatal urinary DAP concentrations were associated with poorer intellectual development in 7-year-old children. Maternal urinary DAP concentrations in the present study were higher but nonetheless within the range of levels measured in the general U.S. population. PMID:21507776

  15. Electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions in 6-7 year olds with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Coppes, L; Kenemans, J L; Schutter, D J L G; Matthys, W

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expressions was recorded in twenty 6-7 year old children with ASD and twenty-seven typically developing children. Even though results did not show differences in facial mimicry between children with ASD and typically developing children, impairment in social responsiveness was significantly associated with reduced fear mimicry in children with ASD. These findings demonstrate normal mimicry in children with ASD as compared to healthy controls, but that in children with ASD the degree of impairments in social responsiveness may be associated with reduced sensitivity to distress signals.

  16. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  17. Partial oculomotor nerve palsy in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Israni, Anil; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy can be due to varied causes that include diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, brainstem infarction, demyelinating conditions, and cerebral aneurysms. Among the aneurysmal causes of oculomotor nerve palsy, aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery has been observed to be the most common. Pupillary dysfunction is considered to be an important feature of aneurysmal oculomotor nerve paresis. A case of a 7-year-old boy with partial oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is being reported here, the etiology of which is tortuous and ectatic distal internal carotid artery. This is a rare cause of oculomotor nerve paresis and to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in children. Ischemia rather than compression seems to be the most plausible cause in this case. PMID:27606031

  18. Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes in children, but findings with regard to behavioral problems are inconsistent. Objective We investigated whether residential road traffic noise exposure is associated with behavioral problems in 7-year-old children. Methods We identified 46,940 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete information on behavioral problems at 7 years of age and complete address history from conception to 7 years of age. Road traffic noise (Lden) was modeled at all present and historical addresses. Behavioral problems were assessed by the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between pregnancy and childhood exposure to noise and behavioral problems were analyzed by multinomial or logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders. Results A 10-dB increase in average time-weighted road traffic noise exposure from birth to 7 years of age was associated with a 7% increase (95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) in abnormal versus normal total difficulties scores; 5% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and 9% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) increases in borderline and abnormal hyperactivity/inattention subscale scores, respectively; and 5% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.14) and 6% (95% CI: 0.99, 1.12) increases in abnormal conduct problem and peer relationship problem subscale scores, respectively. Exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy was not associated with child behavioral problems at 7 years of age. Conclusions Residential road traffic noise in early childhood may be associated with behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Citation Hjortebjerg D, Andersen AM, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sunyer J, Julvez J, Forns J, Sørensen M. 2016. Exposure to road traffic noise and behavioral problems in 7-year-old children: a cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:228–234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409430 PMID

  19. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Preterm-Born 7-Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of preterm-born children (<37 weeks’ gestation) have demonstrated decrements in lung function, exercise capacity, and increased respiratory symptoms compared to their term-born peers. However, it is unclear if these children have decreased levels of physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary behavior as a consequence of this increased respiratory morbidity. We therefore compared objectively measured PA in 7-year old preterm-born children with those born at term. Methods Children in the Millennium Cohort Study underwent assessment of PA at 7 years of age using accelerometry. 6422/12781 (50%) provided valid accelerometry and had gestational age data. A series of general linear models adjusted for confounders investigated the association between gestational age and levels of Total PA (average accelerometer counts per minute over the period of the recording), Moderate-to-Vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Mediation analysis was performed to specifically investigate whether the observed association of gestational age on PA was mediated by respiratory symptoms. Results PA data were available for 79, 119, 275 and 5949 children born at 25–32, 33–34, 35–36 and 37–43 weeks’ gestation respectively. Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation had modest but statistically significant reductions in MVPA when compared to term controls. This equated to a reduction of 9 minutes per day. No differences were found for Total PA or sedentary behavior. The association between gestational age and MVPA was not mediated by respiratory symptoms. In females, there was no association between gestational age and any measure of PA or sedentary behavior. Conclusions Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation took part in less MVPA than their term-born peers at 7 years of age. The differences were modest, but equated to a reduction of over 1 hour per week. Since PA levels have been shown to decline during childhood and adolescence, this vulnerable group

  20. A Developmental Study of Timing Behavior in 4 1/2- and 7-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouthas, Viviane; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne

    1987-01-01

    Investigates effects of age and instructions on temporal regulations of behavior in two experiments. Results of two experiments suggest that for 4 1/2- and 7-year-olds trained with DRL (differential reinforcement of low rates), age and timing performance are related, and that instructions to wait between operant responses enhance DRL performance…

  1. Supportive or Suggestive: Do Human Figure Drawings Help 5- to 7-Year-Old Children to Report Touch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Deirdre A.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the…

  2. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  3. Lap-belt syndrome: management of aortic intimal dissection in a 7-year-old child with a constellation of injuries.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Paritosh C; Rothenbach, Patricia; Guzzetta, Philip C; Bulas, Dorothy I

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of lap-belt motor vehicle injury in a 7-year-old male who was admitted with abdominal ecchymoses and pain with associated aortic intimal flap, bowel injury, hemoperitoneum, and retroperitoneal hematoma at initial imaging with CT. Most of these findings were confirmed at subsequent laparotomy, and the patient underwent operative repair of bowel injuries. His aortic intimal flap was followed with US and color Doppler imaging during which time he was treated conservatively until there was sonographic evidence of intimal healing. This patient illustrates a multimodality approach to imaging and conservative management.

  4. Accuracy of the Welch Allyn Suresight for measurement of magnitude of astigmatism in 3- to 7-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.; Garvey, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of the Welch Allyn SureSight in noncycloplegic measurements of astigmatism as compared to cycloplegic Retinomax K+ autorefractor measurements of astigmatism in children from a Native American population with a high prevalence of high astigmatism. Methods Data are reported for 825 3- to 7-year-old children with no ocular abnormalities. Each child had a Retinomax K+ cycloplegic measurement of right eye astigmatism with a confidence rating ≥8 and 3 attempts to obtain a SureSight measurement on the right eye. Results SureSight measurement success rates did not differ significantly across age or measurement confidence rating (<6 vs ≥6). Ninety-six percent of children had at least 1 measurement (any confidence), and 89% had at least 1 measurement with confidence at the manufacturer's recommended value (≥6). Overall, the SureSight tended to overestimate astigmatism. If the SureSight measurement had any dioptric value (0.00 D to 3.00 D), astigmatism of 2.00 D or less was likely to be present. If the SureSight showed astigmatism beyond the instrument's dioptric range (>3.00 D), Retinomax K+ measurements indicated that >2.00 D of astigmatism was present in 136 of 157 (86.6%). In cooperative children for whom the SureSight would not give a reading, 32 of 34 (94%) had >3.00 D of astigmatism. Conclusions The SureSight does not provide an accurate, quantitative measure of amount of astigmatism. However, it does allow accurate categorization of amount of astigmatism as ≤2.00 D, >2.00 D, or >3.00 D, and it has high measurement success rate in young children. PMID:19840726

  5. Anterior prefrontal hemodynamic connectivity in conscious 3- to 7-year-old children with typical development and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Ueno, Sanae; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Ono, Yasuki; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Oi, Manabu; Niida, Yo; Remijn, Gerard B; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Socio-communicative impairments are salient features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from a young age. The anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC), or Brodmann area 10, is a key processing area for social function, and atypical development of this area is thought to play a role in the social deficits in ASD. It is important to understand these brain functions in developing children with ASD. However, these brain functions have not yet been well described under conscious conditions in young children with ASD. In the present study, we focused on the brain hemodynamic functional connectivity between the right and the left aPFC in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children and investigated whether there was a correlation between this connectivity and social ability. Brain hemodynamic fluctuations were measured non-invasively by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 3- to 7-year-old children with ASD (n = 15) and gender- and age-matched TD children (n = 15). The functional connectivity between the right and the left aPFC was assessed by measuring the coherence for low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations (0.01-0.10 Hz) during a narrated picture-card show. Coherence analysis demonstrated that children with ASD had a significantly higher inter-hemispheric connectivity with 0.02-Hz fluctuations, whereas a power analysis did not demonstrate significant differences between the two groups in terms of low frequency fluctuations (0.01-0.10 Hz). This aberrant higher connectivity in children with ASD was positively correlated with the severity of social deficit, as scored with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. This is the first study to demonstrate aberrant brain functional connectivity between the right and the left aPFC under conscious conditions in young children with ASD.

  6. Maternal Influences on 5- to 7-Year-Old Girls’ Intake of Multivitamin-Mineral Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonna; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine diet quality of girls who do or do not take multivitamin-mineral (MVM) supplements and to evaluate predictors of girls’ MVM use, including maternal eating behaviors, MVM use, beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions about child feeding, eating, and health. Design Participants were 192 mother and daughter pairs. Daughters were categorized as MVM supplement users or nonusers based on whether girls were consistently given MVM supplements at 5 and 7 years. Girls’ and mothers’ nutrient and food group intakes, maternal child-feeding practices, and maternal eating behavior were compared between the groups. Results Mothers who used MVM supplements were more likely to give MVM supplements to daughters. Excluding nutrients from MVM supplements, MVM users and nonusers did not differ in vitamin and mineral intake, either for girls or mothers, and patterns of food group intake were similar for users and nonusers. Mothers of MVM users reported the following: higher levels of pressuring their daughters to eat healthier diets, more monitoring of daughters’ food intake, more success in dieting for weight control, more positive evaluations of their success in eating healthy diets, and lower body mass indexes than mothers who did not give MVMs to daughters. Conclusions Daughters’ MVM supplement use was predicted by mothers’ beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and practices regarding mothers’ own eating and child feeding practices, rather than by daughters’ diet quality. For both MVM users and nonusers, daughters’ food group servings were below recommendations, whereas vitamin and mineral intakes exceeded recommendations, a pattern indicative of girls’ relatively high intakes of fortified foods. Mothers should be encouraged to foster healthier patterns of food intake in daughters, rather than providing MVM supplements. PMID:11875174

  7. Adverse effects of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine in 6- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chao, Yen-Nan; Huang, Song-En; Lee, Tsuey-Feng; Chang, Luan-Yin

    2011-02-01

    Although the safety profile of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines in adolescents and adults has been documented, few data have reported about their adverse events in children. Healthy 6- to 7-year-old children who were immunized with Tdap vaccine were evaluated for adverse events on Days 1, 2, 4, and 7 postimmunization. Information of sex, body mass index (BMI), and previous diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) immunization history was obtained and evaluated for the association with the adverse events. A total of 243 6- to 7-year-old children were immunized with Tdap. Among the 243 children immunized, remarkable adverse events included redness more than or equal to 10 mm in 47 (19%) children, induration more than or equal to 10 mm in 57 (23%), tenderness in 130 (53%), and fever in 12 (5%). Redness and induration resolved in 7 days and fever resolved on Day 4. The adverse events were not associated with gender, BMI above the mean value, or the type of fourth DPT immunization. Adverse events after Tdap vaccination were mild and dissolved within 7 days in 6- to 7-year-old children.

  8. High Prevalence of Refractive Errors in 7 Year Old Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    HASHEMI, Hassan; YEKTA, Abbasali; JAFARZADEHPUR, Ebrahim; OSTADIMOGHADDAM, Hadi; ETEMAD, Koorosh; ASHARLOUS, Amir; NABOVATI, Payam; KHABAZKHOOB, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The latest WHO report indicates that refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in 7 yr old children in Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 2013 with multistage cluster sampling, first graders were randomly selected from 8 cities in Iran. All children were tested by an optometrist for uncorrected and corrected vision, and non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction. Refractive errors in this study were determined based on spherical equivalent (SE) cyloplegic refraction. Results: From 4614 selected children, 89.0% participated in the study, and 4072 were eligible. The prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were 3.04% (95% CI: 2.30–3.78), 6.20% (95% CI: 5.27–7.14), and 17.43% (95% CI: 15.39–19.46), respectively. Prevalence of myopia (P=0.925) and astigmatism (P=0.056) were not statistically significantly different between the two genders, but the odds of hyperopia were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.01–2.05) times higher in girls (P=0.011). The prevalence of with-the-rule astigmatism was 12.59%, against-the-rule was 2.07%, and oblique 2.65%. Overall, 22.8% (95% CI: 19.7–24.9) of the schoolchildren in this study had at least one type of refractive error. Conclusion: One out of every 5 schoolchildren had some refractive error. Conducting multicenter studies throughout the Middle East can be very helpful in understanding the current distribution patterns and etiology of refractive errors compared to the previous decade. PMID:27114984

  9. Heterotopic pancreas in Meckel's diverticulum in a 7-year-old child with intussusception and recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: case report and literature review focusing on diagnostic controversies.

    PubMed

    Riccardo, Guanà; Valeria, Bucci; Giulia, Carbonaro; Alessia, Cerrina; Luisa, Ferrero; Elisabetta, Teruzzi; Alessandro, Mussa; Isabella, Morra; Jürgen, Schleef

    2014-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum, the most common congenital abnormality of the small intestine, may be associated to heterotopic pancreas, often diagnosed incidentally on histopathological examination. Intussusception affects infants between the ages of 5 and 9 months, but it may also occur in older children, teenagers and adults, and in some cases can be derived by a Meckel's diverticulum resulting in acute abdomen. We analyse the management and the recent literature on similar cases, describing diagnostic options. In May 2013, a 7-year-old girl admitted to our hospital with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, was discovered to have an ileoileal intussusception with a leading Meckel's diverticulum with heterotopic pancreatic tissue. This association is rare evidence in children and its proper management can be controversial, in particular from a diagnostic point of view. In such cases, preoperative radiological diagnosis can be only suspected in the presence of suggestive signs, more often depicted by ultrasound or computed tomography scan. During laparotomy an accurate exploration of all ileum is recommended, for the possibility to find others heterotopic segments.

  10. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  11. Development of Inferencing Skills in 5 to 7 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne, V.; Ramasamy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of inferencing in five to seven year old children. The subjects consisted of thirty typically developing children of five, six and seven years, distributed into three groups of ten. Four sets of material were prepared and for each two types of questions were constructed. The questions being of literal…

  12. Development of the Updating Executive Function: From 7-Year-Olds to Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R.; Herrero, Laura; Rucián, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Updating information in working memory (WM) is a critical executive function responsible both for continuously replacing outdated information with new relevant data and to suppress or inhibit content that is no longer relevant according to task demands. The goal of the present research is twofold: First, we aimed to study updating development in…

  13. Group-A-streptococcal meningitis in a 7-year-old child – a rare pathogen in a non-immune compromised patient

    PubMed Central

    van Zitteren, Leonarda Maria (LM); Arents, Niek LA; Halbertsma, Feico

    2011-01-01

    A case is presented of meningitis in a 7-year-old female child caused by Group A streptococcus (GAS), a rare bacterial cause of meningitis, with a high rate of morbidity (46%) and mortality (10%). GAS is susceptible for empiric antibiotic therapy aimed at the most prevalent pathogens of meningitis. As GAS meningitis is typically associated with ear-nose-throat (ENT) infections, specific search for a reservoir is advised. Bacterial typification often demonstrates M-protein gene sequence type (EMM type) 1.0 associated with upper respiratory tract infections and also severe, invasive GAS infections. Follow-up investigation including neurologic developmental status and audiologic testing is necessary. Although GAS is a very uncommon cause of acute bacterial meningitis in children, high morbidity and mortality have been reported. Being associated with ENT infections, a search for a GAS reservoir is proposed. GASs are susceptible for common empiric antibiotic therapies in meningitis. Follow-up investigation is necessary. PMID:22674699

  14. [Neurological alterations and intellectual deficits with sudden visual loss in a 7-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Gotz-Wieckowska, A; Pawlak, M; Siwiec-Proscinska, J; Seget, M

    2013-05-01

    Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NLC) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of lysosomal storage diseases. The most common NCL is the juvenile type which begins between the ages of 4 and 10 years in most cases with sudden visual loss which correlates with maculopathy and leads to blindness within a few years of presentation. After several years neurological deterioration ensues and in most cases death occurs in the 3rd decade of life. As with other storage disorders NCL is an incurable disease. PMID:23224126

  15. Parents' reports of disturbed sleep in 5-7-year-old Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Smedje, H; Broman, J E; Hetta, J

    1999-08-01

    Parents' reports on 1844 five to seven year olds from the general population were used to provide a detailed update about prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbances in children. Five different sleep disturbances were focused on: difficulty falling asleep, reported in 5.6% of the children; night waking in 15.5%; snoring in 7.7%; nightmares in 3.1%, and bedwetting in 5.3% of the children. Coexisting sleep disturbances were frequent in children with difficulties falling asleep, night waking and nightmares, but bedwetting usually emerged as a singular sleep disturbance. Nightmares were associated with serious health problems or handicaps, sleep problems in conjunction with life events, and female gender. Snoring as well as bedwetting were associated with reports of "very active" children. In 6.7% of the total sample, parents had previously consulted the healthcare services for a sleep problem in their child. These children had reports of colic during infancy, eczema, serious health problems or handicaps, current snoring and current nightmares. Only 1.1% (n = 21) of the children were said to have a present need to remedy sleep problems. The reports on these children included coexisting sleep disturbances, previous consultations for sleeping problems, parents' perceptions of "very active" children, diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major life events which had triggered sleep problems. In conclusion, although sleep disturbances are common in 5-7-y-old children, parents seldom express a need to remedy sleep problems in their children of this age. PMID:10503686

  16. Development of the updating executive function: From 7-year-olds to young adults.

    PubMed

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R; Herrero, Laura; Rucián, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Updating information in working memory (WM) is a critical executive function responsible both for continuously replacing outdated information with new relevant data and to suppress or inhibit content that is no longer relevant according to task demands. The goal of the present research is twofold: First, we aimed to study updating development in 548 participants of 4 different age ranges--7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and young adults--using the updating task devised by R. De Beni and P. Palladino (2004), which allows differentiating maintenance and inhibition processes. Second, we attempted to determine the relation between these processes across development as well as the differentiation among different types of inhibition processes tapped by this task. Results showed that there was an improvement of memory performance with age along with an upgrading of inhibitory efficiency. However, whereas in memory performance, a progressive increase was observed until the age of 15 years followed by stabilization, in inhibition, a continuous progressive increase was observed until young adulthood. Importantly, results showed that development of the different inhibitory mechanisms does not progress equally. All the groups committed more errors related to inefficient suppression mechanisms in WM than errors related to control of long-term memory interference. Principal component analysis showed that updating implies different subprocesses: active maintenance/suppression of information in WM and control of proactive interference. Developmental trajectories showed that the maintenance/suppression of information in the WM component continues to develop far beyond adolescence but that proactive interference control is responsible for variations in updating across development. PMID:26882119

  17. Development of the updating executive function: From 7-year-olds to young adults.

    PubMed

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R; Herrero, Laura; Rucián, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Updating information in working memory (WM) is a critical executive function responsible both for continuously replacing outdated information with new relevant data and to suppress or inhibit content that is no longer relevant according to task demands. The goal of the present research is twofold: First, we aimed to study updating development in 548 participants of 4 different age ranges--7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and young adults--using the updating task devised by R. De Beni and P. Palladino (2004), which allows differentiating maintenance and inhibition processes. Second, we attempted to determine the relation between these processes across development as well as the differentiation among different types of inhibition processes tapped by this task. Results showed that there was an improvement of memory performance with age along with an upgrading of inhibitory efficiency. However, whereas in memory performance, a progressive increase was observed until the age of 15 years followed by stabilization, in inhibition, a continuous progressive increase was observed until young adulthood. Importantly, results showed that development of the different inhibitory mechanisms does not progress equally. All the groups committed more errors related to inefficient suppression mechanisms in WM than errors related to control of long-term memory interference. Principal component analysis showed that updating implies different subprocesses: active maintenance/suppression of information in WM and control of proactive interference. Developmental trajectories showed that the maintenance/suppression of information in the WM component continues to develop far beyond adolescence but that proactive interference control is responsible for variations in updating across development.

  18. [Middle and anterior cerebral arteries dissection as a cause of ischemic stroke in a 7-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, L A; Dreval', M V; Dobrynina, L A; Krotenkova, M V

    2016-01-01

    Authors describe a 7-year-old boy, who developed a severe right-sided hemiparesis, aphasia, seizure, and confusion state during sport games. There was no headache. Allergic dermatitis in the past medical history and influenza vaccination 2 weeks before stroke were recorded. On the 12th day of disease, MRI of the brain revealed an acute infarction in the territory of left anterior and middle cerebral arteries with hemorrhagic transformation. MPA (15 day) showed occlusion of the left ACA and MCA. HR-MRI T1_db_fs weighted imaging (36 day) found intramural hematoma (IMH) in ACA and MCA with marked stenosis of the lumen. After 3 months, HR-MRI/MRA showed the complete regression of IMH, recanalization of the arterial lumen, prolonged irregular MCA stenosis. Neurological deficit regressed significantly.

  19. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. A 7-year old boy with rapid growth and pubic hair].

    PubMed

    Berents-Oosterhof, M Y; Noordam, C; Otten, B J

    2000-12-16

    A 7-year-old boy was tall, with a developing penis and initial growth of pubic hair. Due to the accelerated growth there was no premature adrenarche and due to the increased testicular volume there must have been a central cause for the production of androgens. Further specific investigations revealed an astrocytoma of the hypothalamus. After radiotherapy, the tumour exhibited no growth. The pubertal development was inhibited and the growth later stimulated by means of medication. In the case of pubertas praecox the growth chart and pubertal stages including testicular volume can help to differentiate between central and peripheral precocious puberty, narrow the diagnostic evaluation and reduce the time of the initial therapy. PMID:11151653

  20. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  1. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  2. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  3. 'Urinacoccus massiliensis' gen. nov. sp. nov., identified in urine sample of a 7-year-old boy hospitalized for dental care under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Morand, A; Cornu, F; Tsimaratos, M; Cadoret, F; Lagier, J-C; Fournier, P E; Raoult, D

    2016-11-01

    We report here the main characteristics of 'Urinacoccus massiliensis' gen. nov. sp. nov., strain FC2 (CSURP1992). This strain was isolated from the urine of an asymptomatic 7-year-old boy. PMID:27668082

  4. Successful application of MARS therapy in a 7 year-old patient with hepatic chronic rejection and severe cholestatic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voiculescu, Mihai; Ioanitescu, Simona; Rusu, Elena; Micu, Diana; Mihaila, Mariana; Micu, Laurentiu

    2002-06-01

    Liver transplant currently represents the therapeutic method for irreversible acute and chronic liver diseases without any other available therapy. In some cases, before or after liver transplantation, it is necessary to replace the functions of the liver. We report the case of a 7 year-old female patient with type I glycogenosis who was transplanted in July 2001 using living-related donor transplantation and who developed chronic rejection two months later. In this case, we used MARS (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System) detoxification therapy to optimise the patient's clinical and biological status and to create a bridge that allowed the patient's survival until retransplantation was available. The therapy was well tolerated, with no major incidents. We noted favourable clinical effects and significant improvement in serum bilirubin level, urea nitrogen level and serum creatinine level. We consider that MARS treatment is a temporary solution for patients with acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure, indicated in those cases with real chances of recovery of the hepatic functions or in patients on the liver transplantation waiting list.

  5. Automatic bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. However, due to various factors including the uncertain number of bones appearing, non-uniformity of soft tissue, low contrast between the bony structure and soft tissue, automatic segmentation and identification of carpal bone boundaries is an extremely challenging task. Past research works on carpal bone segmentation were performed utilizing dynamic thresholding. However, due to the limitation of the segmentation algorithm, carpal bones have not been taken into consideration in the bone age assessment procedure. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  6. The Relations between Cluster Indexes of Risk and Promotion and the Problem Behaviors of 6- and 7-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Schoff, Kristen; Levinson, Karen; Youngstrom, Eric; Izard, Carroll E.

    1999-01-01

    Examined relations between alternative representations of poverty cofactors and promotion processes, and problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from disadvantaged families. Found that single-index risk representations and promotion variables predicted aggression but not anxiety/depression. An additive model of individual risk indicators performed…

  7. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  8. The effect of shared book reading on the acquisition of expressive vocabulary of a 7 year old who uses AAC.

    PubMed

    Soto, Gloria; Dukhovny, Elena

    2008-05-01

    Children who have poor expressive vocabularies are at risk of further language delays and reading comprehension difficulties, which will significantly impact their educational achievement. The role of shared book reading in supporting vocabulary growth continues to receive empirical attention in the field of communication disorders. This single-subject study analyzes the effect of an intervention program based on shared book reading in a girl with no functional speech who used augmentative and alternative communication. The study included three literacy activities, a prereading activity to stimulate the girl's prior knowledge about the topic, a shared reading activity, and a postreading activity to assess and support language comprehension. Our findings suggest that the activities and elicitation techniques used by the clinician had a positive effect on the participant's expressive vocabulary. PMID:18645915

  9. Preadolescent Girls and the Presentation of Self: A Dramaturgical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lori; MacKinnon, David

    2001-01-01

    Interviews and focus groups with five 9- and 10-year-old girls from rural Nova Scotia (Canada) clearly revealed the power and influence of the media in manipulating young girls' perceptions of themselves and others. Goffman's interactionist perspective of the "theatrical performance" provided a framework for the study. (Contains 47 references.)…

  10. Empathy and Empathy Induced Prosocial Behavior in 6- and 7-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Peter K. H.; Been, Marieke; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess empathy and prosocial behavior in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Results showed, first, lower levels of parent- and teacher-rated cognitive empathy, and similar levels of affective empathy in children with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) children. Second, emotion recognition…

  11. Awareness and Reactions of Young Stuttering Children Aged 2-7 Years Old towards Their Speech Disfluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boey, Ronny A.; Van de Heyning, Paul H.; Wuyts, Floris L.; Heylen, Louis; Stoop, Reinhard; De Bodt, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    Awareness has been an important factor in theories of onset and development of stuttering. So far it has been suggested that even young children might be aware of their speech difficulty. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (a) the number of stuttering children aware of their speech difficulty, (b) the description of reported…

  12. U-shaped development in math: 7-year-olds outperform 9-year-olds on equivalence problems.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Nicole M

    2007-05-01

    What is the nature of the association between age (7-11 years) and performance on mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 7+4+5+7+_)? Many prevailing theories suggest that there should be a positive association. However, change-resistance accounts (e.g., N. M. McNeil & M. W. Alibali, 2005b) predict a U-shaped association. The purpose of the present research was to test these differing predictions. Results from two studies supported a change-resistance account. In the first study (N=87), performance on equivalence problems declined between the ages of 7 and 9 and improved between the ages of 9 and 11. The decrements in performance between the ages of 7 and 9 were then replicated in a second study (N=35). Results suggest that the association between age and performance on equivalence problems is U-shaped.

  13. Mathematics and reading difficulty subtypes: minor phonological influences on mathematics for 5–7-years-old

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Julie A.; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic influences in mathematics have previously been explored through subtyping methodology and by taking advantage of the componential nature of mathematics and variations in language requirements that exist across tasks. The present longitudinal investigation aimed to examine the language requirements of mathematical tasks in young children aged 5–7 years. Initially, 256 children were screened for mathematics and reading difficulties (RDs) using standardized measures. Those scoring at or below the 35th percentile on either dimension were classified as having difficulty. From this screening, 115 children were allocated to each of the mathematical difficulty (MD; n = 26), MDRD (n = 32), RD (n = 22) and typically achieving (n = 35) subtypes. These children were tested at four time points, separated by 6 monthly intervals, on a battery of seven mathematical tasks. Growth curve analysis indicated that, in contrast to previous research on older children, young children with MD and MDRD had very similar patterns of development on all mathematical tasks. Overall, the subtype comparisons suggested that language played only a minor mediating role in most tasks, and this was secondary in importance to non-verbal skills. Correlational evidence suggested that children from the different subtypes could have been using different mixes of verbal and non-verbal strategies to solve the mathematical problems. PMID:25798118

  14. Mathematics and reading difficulty subtypes: minor phonological influences on mathematics for 5-7-years-old.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Julie A; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic influences in mathematics have previously been explored through subtyping methodology and by taking advantage of the componential nature of mathematics and variations in language requirements that exist across tasks. The present longitudinal investigation aimed to examine the language requirements of mathematical tasks in young children aged 5-7 years. Initially, 256 children were screened for mathematics and reading difficulties (RDs) using standardized measures. Those scoring at or below the 35th percentile on either dimension were classified as having difficulty. From this screening, 115 children were allocated to each of the mathematical difficulty (MD; n = 26), MDRD (n = 32), RD (n = 22) and typically achieving (n = 35) subtypes. These children were tested at four time points, separated by 6 monthly intervals, on a battery of seven mathematical tasks. Growth curve analysis indicated that, in contrast to previous research on older children, young children with MD and MDRD had very similar patterns of development on all mathematical tasks. Overall, the subtype comparisons suggested that language played only a minor mediating role in most tasks, and this was secondary in importance to non-verbal skills. Correlational evidence suggested that children from the different subtypes could have been using different mixes of verbal and non-verbal strategies to solve the mathematical problems. PMID:25798118

  15. Growing trees in child brains: graph theoretical analysis of electroencephalography-derived minimum spanning tree in 5- and 7-year-old children reflects brain maturation.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Maria; Smit, Dirk J A; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco J C; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Stam, Cornelis J

    2013-01-01

    The child brain is a small-world network, which is hypothesized to change toward more ordered configurations with development. In graph theoretical studies, comparing network topologies under different conditions remains a critical point. Constructing a minimum spanning tree (MST) might present a solution, since it does not require setting a threshold and uses a fixed number of nodes and edges. In this study, the MST method is introduced to examine developmental changes in functional brain network topology in young children. Resting-state electroencephalography was recorded from 227 children twice at 5 and 7 years of age. Synchronization likelihood (SL) weighted matrices were calculated in three different frequency bands from which MSTs were constructed, which represent constructs of the most important routes for information flow in a network. From these trees, several parameters were calculated to characterize developmental change in network organization. The MST diameter and eccentricity significantly increased, while the leaf number and hierarchy significantly decreased in the alpha band with development. Boys showed significant higher leaf number, betweenness, degree and hierarchy and significant lower SL, diameter, and eccentricity than girls in the theta band. The developmental changes indicate a shift toward more decentralized line-like trees, which supports the previously hypothesized increase toward regularity of brain networks with development. Additionally, girls showed more line-like decentralized configurations, which is consistent with the view that girls are ahead of boys in brain development. MST provides an elegant method sensitive to capture subtle developmental changes in network organization without the bias of network comparison.

  16. The Education of African American Girls and Women: Past to Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Veronica G.; Jackson, Janine A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the education of African American girls and women. It begins with a look at scholarship on African American girls and women published in "The Journal of Negro Education" from its inception in 1932 to the present. Subsequently, a historical overview of the long, hard-fought struggles of educating this population for…

  17. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    PubMed

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices. PMID:25703006

  18. Transjugular Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty Through a Bidirectional Glenn Shunt for Dysplastic Pulmonary Valve Stenosis in an 8.7-Year-Old Boy with Inaccessible Femoral Veins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Luen

    2016-04-01

    An 8.7-year-old boy was affected by exertional dyspnea with cyanosis of the lip at 6 years old. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 66%. A bidirectional Glenn shunt (BGS) was constructed to successfully elevate SpO2 to 88%. Unfortunately, he again experienced exertional dyspnea with flagrant cyanosis of the lip at 8.5 years old. SpO2 decreased to 65%. Echocardiography revealed a dysplastic pulmonary valve with severe stenosis. Considering the potential growth of the right ventricle and the branch pulmonary arteries, transjugular balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) through a BGS was performed as a palliative treatment for cyanosis in this boy because of inaccessible femoral veins. After gradational BPV, the opening of the pulmonary valve was dilated from 2.59 mm to 6.65 mm, the pressure gradient decreased from 60 mmHg to 25 mmHg, and the SpO2 increased to 85%. He became physically active and was free of exertional dyspnea at the 12-month follow-up. BGS is irrefutably an alternative vascular access through which transjugular BPV could be performed to ameliorate cyanosis due to dysplastic pulmonary valve stenosis in patients with inaccessible femoral vessels.

  19. The prosocial personality and its facets: genetic and environmental architecture of mother-reported behavior of 7-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Uzefovsky, Florina; Israel, Salomon; Davidov, Maayan; Zahn-Waxler, Caroyln

    2015-01-01

    Children vary markedly in their tendency to behave prosocially, and recent research has implicated both genetic and environmental factors in this variability. Yet, little is known about the extent to which different aspects of prosociality constitute a single dimension (the prosocial personality), and to the extent they are intercorrelated, whether these aspects share their genetic and environmental origins. As part of the Longitudinal Israeli Study of Twins (LIST), mothers of 183 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) 7-year-old twin pairs (51.6% male) reported regarding their children's prosociality using questionnaires. Five prosociality facets (sharing, social concern, kindness, helping, and empathic concern) were identified. All five facets intercorrelated positively (r > 0.39) suggesting a single-factor structure to the data, consistent with the theoretical idea of a single prosociality trait. Higher MZ than DZ twin correlations indicated genetic contributions to each prosociality facet. A common-factor-common-pathway multivariate model estimated high (69%) heritability for the common prosociality factor, with the non-shared environment and error accounting for the remaining variance. For each facet, unique genetic and environmental contributions were identified as well. The results point to the presence of a broad prosociality phenotype, largely affected by genetics; whereas additional genetic and environmental factors contribute to different aspects of prosociality, such as helping and sharing.

  20. Environmental Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure at Home, Mobile and Cordless Phone Use, and Sleep Problems in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Anke; van Eijsden, Manon; Guxens, Monica; Beekhuizen, Johan; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vrijkotte, Tania; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years. Methods This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations was assessed with a geospatial model (NISMap) and from indoor sources (cordless phone/WiFi) using parental self-reports. Parents also reported their children’s use of mobile or cordless phones. When children were seven years old, we evaluated sleep quality as measured with the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) filled in by parents. Of eight CSHQ subscales, we evaluated sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness with logistic or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for child’s age and sex and indicators of socio-economic position of the parents. We evaluated the remaining three subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep disordered breathing) as unrelated outcomes (negative control) because these were a priori hypothesised not to be associated with RF-EMF. Results Sleep onset delay, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness were not associated with residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations. Sleep duration scores were associated with RF-EMF levels from base stations. Higher use mobile phones was associated with less favourable sleep duration, night wakenings and parasomnias, and also with bedtime resistance. Cordless phone use was not related to any of the sleeping scores. Conclusion Given the different results across the evaluated RF-EMF exposure sources and the observed association between mobile phone use and the negative control sleep scale, our study does not support the hypothesis that it is the exposure to RF-EMF that is detrimental to sleep quality in 7-year old children, but potentially other factors that are related to mobile phone

  1. The relationship between physical fitness, urine iodine status, and body-mass index in 6- to 7-year-old Polish children.

    PubMed

    Merkiel, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess physical fitness in 6- to 7-yr-old children and determine if there is any relationship between children's physical fitness, their urine iodine status, and their body-mass index (BMI). The studied population included 121 children from southern Poland. Physical fitness was measured using a physical fitness test for children age 3-7 yr. Urinary iodine concentrations were measured in the children's first urine output on waking using the modified PAMM (Program Against Micronutrient Malnutrition) method. Body height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. The subjects were characterized by low physical fitness. Boys obtained better results in agility, power, and strength exercises (p ≤ .05). In girls, 11 correlation coefficients between the scores obtained in the physical fitness test, urinary iodine, and anthropometric measures were statistically significant, and in boys, only 2. BMI correlated positively with agility in girls and with strength in girls and boys. Our study revealed low physical fitness in Polish 6- to 7-yr-old children, which shows the need to implement programs aimed at increasing their physical activity. The relationship found between physical fitness and urine iodine status in girls indicates that future research in this area is needed.

  2. Prolapsing ectopic ureterocele presenting as a vulval mass in a newborn girl.

    PubMed

    Ilica, Ahmet Turan; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Bulakbaşi, Nail; Sürer, Ilhami; Tayfun, Cem

    2008-03-01

    Prolapse of the ureterocele and its presentation as a vulval mass is an extremely rare condition. There are no detailed imaging findings of such cases in the literature. We present voiding cystourethrography and MRI findings of a newborn girl with a ureterocele extending through the urethra. PMID:18306143

  3. A teenage girl with a sternal mass: an unusual presentation of Pott disease.

    PubMed

    Posner, Kari R; Mittal, Manoj K

    2010-11-01

    Bone and joint infection complicating tuberculosis is most likely to involve vertebrae. Pott disease, or tuberculous spondylitis, represents a small proportion of tuberculosis cases, but it can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our case report details Pott disease in a teenage girl, which presented with a sternal mass. We also present a review of the subject.

  4. A Weeping Tumor in a Young Girl: An Unusual Presentation of Nodular Hidradenoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Gayen, Tirthankar; Podder, Indrashis; Shome, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with a swelling on her left thigh that was associated with dripping of serous fluid from the lesion. Based on histological features of the excised tumor, a diagnosis of nodular hidradenoma was made. Atypical features including large size of the tumor, location on the lower limb, a weeping presentation, and histological finding of a nodular hidradenoma with an unusually large cystic cavity discharging fluid prompted us to report the case.

  5. Differential diagnosis of double site intussusception in childhood: a 15-year-old girl presenting with bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joseph; Wright, Naomi Jane; Kufeji, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain in a teenage girl is common; however, thorough history and examination can often distinguish a more rare or sinister diagnosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl presenting with abdominal pain, who was subsequently diagnosed with double intussusception secondary to her previously unrecognised Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). PMID:26581705

  6. Does having a drink help you think? 6-7-Year-old children show improvements in cognitive performance from baseline to test after having a drink of water.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Jeffes, Ben

    2009-12-01

    Little research has examined the effect of water consumption on cognition in children. We examined whether drinking water improves performance from baseline to test in twenty-three 6-7-year-old children. There were significant interactions between time of test and water group (water/no water), with improvements in the water group on thirst and happiness ratings, visual attention and visual search, but not visual memory or visuomotor performance. These results indicate that even under conditions of mild dehydration, not as a result of exercise, intentional water deprivation or heat exposure, children's cognitive performance can be improved by having a drink of water.

  7. The Adolescent Outcome of Hyperactive Girls: Self-Report of Psychosocial Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Heptinstall, Ellen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Chadwick, Oliver; Taylor, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to clarify the developmental risk associated with hyperactive behaviour in girls in a longitudinal epidemiological design. Methods: This was investigated in a follow-up study of girls who were identified by parent and teacher ratings in a large community survey of 6- and 7-year-olds as showing pervasive…

  8. The Role of the Working Memory and Language Skills in the Prediction of Word Problem Solving in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttälä, Minna; Aunio, Pirjo; Lepola, Janne; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory (WM) and language skills (vocabulary, listening comprehension) in predicting preschool and kindergarten-aged children's ability to solve mathematical word problems presented orally. The participants were 116 Finnish-speaking children aged 4-7?years. The…

  9. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the colon with an unusual presentation of intestinal intussusception.

    PubMed

    Appak, Yeliz Çağan; Sahin, Gülseren Evirgen; Ayhan, Semin; Taneli, Can; Kasırga, Erhun

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory myfibroblastic tumor (IMT), also known as inflammatory pseudotumor is unusual, benign solid tumor. This tumor is commonly reported in the lungs but can be present in extrapulmonary sites as well. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl with IMT in an unusual location. The patient was admitted with abdominal pain, and ultrasound showed a solid mass in the abdomen. She was operated and colocolic intussusception secondary to a mass was found. Histologic evaluation of mass revealed IMT. PMID:25755972

  10. Lupus catatonia in a young girl who presented with fever and altered sensorium.

    PubMed

    Ali, Alia; Taj, Azeem; -Uz-Zehra, Misbah

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of 20 Years old girl who presented with catatonia resulting from cerebral lupus. There are few cases of catatonia being described in Systemic Lupus Erythmatoses (SLE). The patient presented to us with fever and altered sensorium. She was initially treated on lines of Acute Bacterial Meningitis/encephalitis but lumbar puncture examination and CT scan showed no evidence of these conditions. Patient's behavior was also not improved after this treatment and she further deteriorated in the sense that she exhibited mutism, negativism and psychosocial withdrawal. Psychiatric analysis was done and she was found to be having catatonia and on further investigation came out to be a case of SLE. Keeping in mind her previous history of joint pains, oral ulcers and alopecia her autoimmune profile such as ANA and dsDNA was done that came out to be positive. Patient responded to treatment with steroids, Hyroxychloroquine and azathioprine in addition to clonazepam and fluoxetine for her catatonic behavior. Thus this case history illustrates the importance of considering organic disease in patients presenting with catatonia.

  11. A 12-year-old girl presenting with bilateral gigantic Burkitt's lymphoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lingohr, Philipp; Eidt, Sebastian; Rheinwalt, Karl Peter

    2009-05-01

    The female breast rarely constitutes the primary localization for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of primary breast lymphoma (PBL) lies between 0.04 and 1.1% for all breast tumors and 1.7-2.2% for all extranodal NHL. Mostly it occurs during the child-bearing period, during pregnancy or lactation. In general, children between the ages of 8 and 10 years are most frequently affected by Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods for classification, detection and especially treatment of this condition continue being a subject of discussions and research. We present and evaluate the rare case of a 12-year-old girl with bilateral gigantic breast tumors treated during a surgical mission with "Doctors without borders" (MSF, "médecins sans frontiers") in the zone of civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The monstrous bilateral breast hypertrophy, symmetrical, rapidly growing, consequently ulcerating and severely bleeding had to be treated by bilateral mastectomy as a salvage procedure. Examinations through histopathology was not feasible and other facilities like ultrasound, CT, MRI and further laboratory examinations were not available.. The patient died 27 days after the surgical procedure. The histological result received by later examination in Germany showed a bilateral high malignant B cell lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma) of the breast.

  12. [Painless skin nodules and ecchymosis in a school-aged girl].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Ting; Yang, Ming-Hua; Cao, Li-Zhi; Huang, Ye-Hong; Xie, Min; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yang, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl was admitted to Xiangya Hospital due to systemic lymphadenectasis for 2 months and skin ecchymosis for 3 days. Nine months ago, the girl experienced painless nodules in the left lower extremity with no apparent causes. Three months later, dermatorrhagia and ecchymosis occurred in many regions such as the periocular areas, conjunctiva, oral mucosa, perineal area, and groin, with a "raccoon sign" in both eyes; superficial lymphadenectasis and hepatosplenomegaly were also observed in many regions. The pathological sections for the skin nodules showed malignant tumors in lymphohematopoietic cells, and in combination with clinical manifestations, immunohistochemistry, and positive results for CD4, CD56, and CD123 by bone marrow flow cytometry, the girl was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Then high-risk ALL regimen was applied as the chemotherapy for this girl. At present, the girl has been followed up for 3 months; ecchymosis has disappeared, and the enlarged lymph nodes have shrunk. No abnormal cells have been found in bone marrow morphological examination, and bone marrow flow cytometry has shown that primitive precursor cells account for 1.5% and express CD33, CD34, CD123, and CD117. PMID:26483238

  13. [Painless skin nodules and ecchymosis in a school-aged girl].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Ting; Yang, Ming-Hua; Cao, Li-Zhi; Huang, Ye-Hong; Xie, Min; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yang, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl was admitted to Xiangya Hospital due to systemic lymphadenectasis for 2 months and skin ecchymosis for 3 days. Nine months ago, the girl experienced painless nodules in the left lower extremity with no apparent causes. Three months later, dermatorrhagia and ecchymosis occurred in many regions such as the periocular areas, conjunctiva, oral mucosa, perineal area, and groin, with a "raccoon sign" in both eyes; superficial lymphadenectasis and hepatosplenomegaly were also observed in many regions. The pathological sections for the skin nodules showed malignant tumors in lymphohematopoietic cells, and in combination with clinical manifestations, immunohistochemistry, and positive results for CD4, CD56, and CD123 by bone marrow flow cytometry, the girl was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Then high-risk ALL regimen was applied as the chemotherapy for this girl. At present, the girl has been followed up for 3 months; ecchymosis has disappeared, and the enlarged lymph nodes have shrunk. No abnormal cells have been found in bone marrow morphological examination, and bone marrow flow cytometry has shown that primitive precursor cells account for 1.5% and express CD33, CD34, CD123, and CD117.

  14. Early Puberty in African-American Girls: Nutrition Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Talpade, Salil

    2001-01-01

    Early sexual maturation is associated with many high-risk behaviors and a prediction was made that food consumption may contribute to early onset of puberty. A comparison was made between the eating habits of several generations of African-American women. Girls today were found to consume more calcium, grains, and meat then older women did in…

  15. Brainstem arteriovenous malformation presenting with dyspraxic handwriting in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Giangennaro; D'Amico, Alessandra; Pironti, Erica; Martino, Federica; Santoro, Elena; Di Paolo, Nilde; Isone, Claudia; Catone, Gennaro

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 11-year-old girl who developed an isolated hand-writing disorder with dysgraphia at the beginning of the school year in the sixth grade. A brain magnetic resonance angiography showed a round arteriovenous malformation sited in the left side of the midbrain extending to the ipsilateral medio-basal thalamus. Child neurologists should never neglect a thorough neurological evaluation in case of isolated worsening of handwriting, to rule out possible underlying organic causes.

  16. Girl child and sexual victimisation.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K P

    1995-01-01

    This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry. PMID:12158001

  17. Clinical Reasoning: a girl presenting with stiffness episodes during sleep, cafe-au-lait spots, and flecked retina.

    PubMed

    Moavero, Romina; Cusmai, Raffaella; Roberti, Maria Cristina; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-29

    A 4-year-old girl who had been born of normal pregnancy and delivery and had an unremarkable family or personal history was referred to a neuropsychiatric department because of the appearance of peculiar nocturnal episodes. Parents described that their child abruptly became stiff during sleep. These episodes usually ranged from 20 to 40 seconds, and after that the child continued to sleep. Initially she presented 1 episode per week, but there was a progressive increase in frequency up to 3 to 4 times per night. The child never presented similar episodes while awake. Her examination revealed some café-au-lait spots, congenital microcephaly (3rd centile) and low stature for the age (10th centile). She did not present any neurologic deficit, but she failed to develop an age-appropriate speech, with a delay in the main language milestones.

  18. Gorham-Stout syndrome presenting in a 5-year-old girl with a successful bisphosphonate therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, MIN-WEN; YANG, MIN; QIU, JIAN-XIN; NAN, XUE-PING; HUANG, LU-YU; ZHANG, WEN-DONG; GONG, LI; HUANG, ZHI-ZHONG

    2012-01-01

    Gorham-Stout syndrome (GSS), also known as Gorham-Stout disease, massive osteolysis, disappearing bone disease or phantom bone, is a rare disorder of the musculo-skeletal system. It most commonly involves the skull, shoulder and pelvic girdle. Histological examination reveals a progressive osteolysis always associated with an angiomatosis of blood vessels and sometimes of lymphatics, which seemingly is responsible for the destruction of the bone. It is extremely rare that Gorham-Stout syndrome involves the bones of the entire body. A 5-year-old girl complaining of intermittent and dull back pain for 3 months was admitted to a local hospital. X-ray revealed left pleural effusion, and the patient was diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy. Thus, anti-tuberculosis therapy was performed. However, it was not effective. A soft mass with significant tenderness was found in the upper segment of the right leg 50 days afterwards. X-ray revealed multiple osteolysis of the bilateral clavicle, scapula, rib, vertebral body, ilium, sacrum, femur and tibia. The biopsy from the right tibia disclosed that the lesion was composed of hyperplastic blood vessels and fibrous tissues similar to hemangioma. Based on the above clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, the clinical physician confirmed a diagnosis of Gorham-Stout disease, and prescribed oral anti-osteoclastic medications consisting of bisphosphonates. At present, the girl is alive and healthy, and new lesions have not been noted. PMID:23181116

  19. Uterine sarcoma in a 14 year-old girl presenting with uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Jane; Dülger, Özlem; Küpelioğlu, Latif; Gönenç, Ali İhsan; Erşahin, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    •Uterine sarcomas are rare in adolescents. Adenosarcomas are even more rare. Uterine rupture, as a presentation is a rare entity.•It is hard to diagnose sarcomas preoperatively. It is still hard even postoperatively due to variable morphologic features.•Experience of the gynecopathologists and oncologic surgeons is the hallmark of the treatment option.

  20. Atrial Fibrillation and Long QT Syndrome Presenting in a 12-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Jonathan W; Orland, Kate M; January, Craig T; Maginot, Kathleen R

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare in the pediatric population; however, there is increasing recognition that AF can be inherited. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), likewise, can be both acquired and inherited with mutations leading to abnormalities in cardiac ion channel function. Mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of LQTS. Although rare, mutations in KCNQ1 also can cause familial AF. This report describes a child with a KCNQ1 missense mutation who uniquely expresses concomitant AF and LQTS. Due to the potential for increased morbidity and mortality, young patients who present with AF and a family history suggestive of inherited arrhythmias should trigger further investigation for LQTS and subsequent familial genetic counseling. PMID:23193492

  1. Atrial Fibrillation and Long QT Syndrome Presenting in a 12-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Knoche, Jonathan W.; Orland, Kate M.; January, Craig T.; Maginot, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare in the pediatric population; however, there is increasing recognition that AF can be inherited. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), likewise, can be both acquired and inherited with mutations leading to abnormalities in cardiac ion channel function. Mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of LQTS. Although rare, mutations in KCNQ1 also can cause familial AF. This report describes a child with a KCNQ1 missense mutation who uniquely expresses concomitant AF and LQTS. Due to the potential for increased morbidity and mortality, young patients who present with AF and a family history suggestive of inherited arrhythmias should trigger further investigation for LQTS and subsequent familial genetic counseling. PMID:23193492

  2. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting with acute psychosis in a preteenage girl: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a rare, newly defined autoimmune clinical entity that presents with atypical clinical manifestations. Most patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis develop a progressive illness from psychosis into a state of unresponsiveness, with catatonic features often associated with abnormal movements and autonomic instability. This is the first report of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a Greek pediatric hospital. Case presentation An 11-year-old Greek girl presented with clinical manifestations of acute psychosis. The differential diagnosis included viral encephalitis. The presence of a tumor usually an ovarian teratoma, a common clinical finding in many patients, was excluded. Early diagnosis and prompt immunotherapy resulted in full recovery up to one year after the initial diagnosis. Conclusion Acute psychosis is a rare psychiatric presentation in children, diagnosed only after possible organic syndromes that mimic acute psychosis are excluded, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor receptor encephalitis. Pediatricians, neurologists and psychiatrists should consider this rare clinical syndrome, in order to make an early diagnosis and instigate appropriate treatment to maximize neurological recovery. PMID:22846610

  3. Hypocretin-1 deficiency in a girl with ROHHAD syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dhondt, Karlien; Verloo, Patrick; Verhelst, Hélène; Van Coster, Rudy; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare and complex pediatric syndrome, essentially caused by dysfunction of 3 vital systems regulating endocrine, respiratory, and autonomic nervous system functioning. The clinical spectrum of ROHHAD is broad, but sleep/wake disorders have received relatively little attention so far, although the central hypothalamic dysfunction would make the occurrence of sleep symptoms likely. In this case report, we expand the phenotype of ROHHAD with a number of striking sleep symptoms that together can be classified as a secondary form of narcolepsy. We present a 7-year-old girl with ROHHAD who displayed the classic features of narcolepsy with cataplexy: excessive daytime sleepiness with daytime naps, visual hallucinations, and partial cataplexy reflected in intermittent loss of facial muscle tone. Nocturnal polysomnography revealed sleep fragmentation and a sleep-onset REM period characteristic for narcolepsy. The diagnosis was confirmed by showing an absence of hypocretin-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid. We discuss potential pathophysiological implications as well as symptomatic treatment options.

  4. Periodontal and space maintenance considerations for primary teeth presenting with aggressive periodontitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Zigdon, Hadar; Einy, Shmuel; Aizenbud, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is diagnosed mainly by clinical and radiographic examination. Diagnosis in the primary dentition indicates a choice between conservative and radical treatment that involves extractions, depending on the severity of the case. The purpose of this report was to present a case of aggressive periodontitis in a systemically healthy child and to discuss the periodontal and orthodontic aspects. A 7-year-old girl presented with bleeding on probing of approximately half of the dentition, deep periodontal pockets around all primary molars, and increased tooth mobility. An individual oral hygiene program was initiated. The primary maxillary right molar and all primary mandibular molars were extracted, and clear vacuum-formed removable retainers were fabricated and used as space maintainers. The patient was followed longitudinally for 2 years, and no space loss was recorded. Clear vacuum-formed removable retainers mainly involve occlusal crown attachment and, therefore, decrease the risk of plaque accumulation, gingival irritation, and aggressive periodontitis in the permanent dentition.

  5. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  6. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  7. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  8. Gifted Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the theme of the education of gifted female students. This document consists of the five articles devoted to this subject. The lead article by Carolyn M. Callahan, titled "How Schools Shortchange Girls: Implications for Parents and Educators of Gifted Girls," discusses the development of gender roles, the experiences…

  9. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF.

  10. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF. PMID:27625935

  11. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  12. The importance of recognizing paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction: A case report of a 13-year-old girl presenting with stridor

    PubMed Central

    Seaberg, Raewyn M; Allegro, Jennifer; Friedman, Jeremy N; Campisi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The present report details the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented to the emergency department with stridor. Treatment for presumed reactive airway disease was attempted with antibiotics, nebulized adrenaline masks and high-dose corticosteroids. Over the next month, she presented repeatedly in a similar fashion and was admitted to hospital on three separate occasions. Ultimately, she was referred to the Centre for Paediatric Voice and Laryngeal Function at The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario) for a speech-language pathology evaluation and direct laryngoscopy. The patient was diagnosed with paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction. After a brief treatment session with a speech-language pathologist, her stridor completely resolved and paradoxical inspiratory vocal fold adduction was no longer visualized on direct laryngoscopy. The present case highlights the fact that paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction can mimic other entities that present with stridor, and misdiagnosis can result in significant morbidity. Investigation into a patient’s social history and stressors can facilitate the diagnosis, and can avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful medical and surgical interventions. PMID:19436501

  13. Bowel perforation presenting with acute abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema in a 14-year-old girl with an abandoned distal peritoneal shunt catheter: case report.

    PubMed

    Riccardello, Gerald J; Barr, Luke K; Bassani, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    The authors report the case of 14-year-old girl with a history of myelomeningocele and previously shunt-treated hydrocephalus who presented with right-sided abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema that developed over a 1-week period. A CT scan of the patient's abdomen revealed a retained distal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) catheter with air tracking from the catheter to the upper chest wall. Given the high suspicion of the catheter being intraluminal, an exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed multiple jejunal perforations. The patient required a partial small-bowel resection and reanastomosis for complete removal of the retained catheter. Six other similar cases of bowel perforation occurring in patients with abandoned VP and subdural-peritoneal shunts have been reported. The authors analyzed these cases with regard to age of presentation, symptomatic presentation, management, morbidity, and mortality. While there was 0% mortality associated with bowel perforation secondary to a retained distal VP catheter, the morbidity was significantly high and included peritonitis and small bowel resection.

  14. Perianal and vulvar Crohn's disease presenting as suspected abuse.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Alaggio, Rita; Aprile, Anna

    2005-12-01

    Misdiagnosis of sexual abuse may arise in cases of vulvar and/or perianal diseases such as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, Behcet's syndrome, bullous diseases, contact dermatitis, or neoplastic lesions. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl who was referred by her general paediatrician to the local hospital for perianal fissures and swelling of the labia majora. A report to the judicial authorities was made, for suspected sexual abuse, and the patient was transferred to the department of paediatric surgery. Here, histopathologic examination of vulvar and rectal biopsies revealed multiple non-caseating and non-confluent epithelioid-gigantocellular granulomas, consistent with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease, with cutaneous involvement of the genitalia. In cases of suspected sexual abuse, examination of children should be performed by a specialist in legal medicine in collaboration with a gynaecologist or paediatric surgeon. If the patient is hospitalised and the question of protection does not arise, physicians should exclude dermatological diseases before reporting to the judicial authorities.

  15. A girl with permanent neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutation presented with Mauriac syndrome after improper adjustment in sulfonylurea dosage over 6 years.

    PubMed

    Chai-Udom, Rapeepun; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Supornsilchai, Vichit

    2016-09-01

    Mauriac syndrome is characterized by growth impairment, Cushingoid features, and hepatomegaly in patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We report a novel presentation of Mauriac syndrome in a 9-year-old girl who was diagnosed with neonatal diabetes at 3 months of age due to the p.R201C mutation in KCNJ11. She was initially treated successfully with glipizide at a dose of 0.85 mg/kg/day but after being lost to follow-up and having improper adjustment in dose over many years, the recent dose of 0.6 mg/kg/day appears to have been insufficient for glycemic control but enough to maintain a low level of C-peptide and prevent diabetic ketoacidosis. With proper insulin administration, all presenting clinical characteristics were resolved within 1 month. A review of the literature relating to clinical manifestations of Mauriac syndrome in children with diabetes was performed and included in this report for comparison with our patient. While Mauriac syndrome has been traditionally associated with T1DM, the presence of Mauriac syndrome should not be excluded in other types of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Progression of Idiopathic Eruptive Macular Pigmentation in a Girl from Childhood to Adolescence: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chien; Lan, Jui; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2016-09-01

    A 14-year-old girl developed brownish round macules and patches over the face, trunk, and proximal limbs with extensive progression since she was 7 years old. Electron microscopy examination revealed an increase in the number and maturity of melanosomes in basal and suprabasal keratinocytes, although the number of melanocytes was within the normal range. A diagnosis of idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation was made. We describe the unusual disease progression of this case of idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation, which was thought to be self-limited.

  17. Turtle Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  18. Imaging Girls: Visual Methodologies and Messages for Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…

  19. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  20. A novel atypical presentation of insulin autoimmune syndrome (Hirata's disease) in a child

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Cresio; Constança, Julia; De León, Diva D.; Snider, Kara; Stanley, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) or Hirata's disease is a rare cause of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. We report the case of a child with a mild, atypical presentation of IAS. A previously healthy girl, aged 7 years old, developed non-ketotic fasting hypoglycemia during treatment for pneumonia. Laboratory evaluation during hypoglycemia showed the following results: serum glucose, 32 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L); insulin, 5.6 μIU/mL (38.9 pmol/L); C-peptide, 1.4 ng/mL (0.47 nmol/L); antiinsulin antibody, 6.2% (normal, < 2.4%); absence of ketonuria; and positive glucagon stimulation test result. Search for mutation in genes ABCC8, KCNJ11, GLUD1 and MEN1 was negative. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing was HLA-DRB1*1104. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a normal result. The patient evolved with spontaneous resolution of the hypoglycemia, within 30 days, with normalization of serum anti-insulin titers. The serum levels of insulin and anti-insulin antibodies in the patient of this report were not extremely high as previously reported. This novel, mild, or forme fruste presentation of IAS expands the previously reported spectrum of this disease. PMID:23843578

  1. What about the Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Rebecca Priegert

    2012-01-01

    Aggregated test results that identify the literacy problems of boys as the most salient gender issue in schools distort the reality that girls experience significant gender-based challenges as well, though their problems may not present as clearly on standardized tests. This emphasis on boys' difficulties has moved educational resources in that…

  2. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  3. A Girl Like You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…

  4. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain.

    PubMed

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  5. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain

    PubMed Central

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  6. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  7. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  8. A girl with tuberous sclerosis complex presenting with severe epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and with high-functioning autism and mutism.

    PubMed

    Pacheva, Iliyana; Panov, Georgi; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) suffer from epilepsy, and many have cognitive and behavioral problems like severe intellectual disability, autism, and hyperactivity. Only rare patients with TSC and autism have a normal intelligence quotient. We report a 13-year-old girl with definite TSC who had early-onset severe epilepsy, autistic behavior, and moderate developmental delay. By school age, however, she had normal intelligence; her intelligence quotient was at least 70 based on a Stanford-Binet test that she refused to complete. She showed good reading, writing, and language comprehension skills, and the special abilities of hyperlexia, hypermnesia, and hypercalculia. However, she did not speak. Criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and her Childhood Autism Rating Scale score of 36 indicated mild to moderate autism. She had severe electroencephalographic abnormalities: hypsarrhythmia, multifocal or generalized epileptiform discharges, and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, with a continuous left temporal focus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed many cortical tubers in all brain lobes, and subependymal nodules. We discuss possible explanations for her lack of speech. Considered as speech apraxia, her mutism could be either a symptom of her TSC or a component of her autism. Another possibility is that long-lasting electrical status epilepticus during sleep led to her autistic behavior and language arrest. Still another possibility is that a disinhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was at the root of all of her neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:24968009

  9. A girl with tuberous sclerosis complex presenting with severe epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and with high-functioning autism and mutism.

    PubMed

    Pacheva, Iliyana; Panov, Georgi; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) suffer from epilepsy, and many have cognitive and behavioral problems like severe intellectual disability, autism, and hyperactivity. Only rare patients with TSC and autism have a normal intelligence quotient. We report a 13-year-old girl with definite TSC who had early-onset severe epilepsy, autistic behavior, and moderate developmental delay. By school age, however, she had normal intelligence; her intelligence quotient was at least 70 based on a Stanford-Binet test that she refused to complete. She showed good reading, writing, and language comprehension skills, and the special abilities of hyperlexia, hypermnesia, and hypercalculia. However, she did not speak. Criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and her Childhood Autism Rating Scale score of 36 indicated mild to moderate autism. She had severe electroencephalographic abnormalities: hypsarrhythmia, multifocal or generalized epileptiform discharges, and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, with a continuous left temporal focus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed many cortical tubers in all brain lobes, and subependymal nodules. We discuss possible explanations for her lack of speech. Considered as speech apraxia, her mutism could be either a symptom of her TSC or a component of her autism. Another possibility is that long-lasting electrical status epilepticus during sleep led to her autistic behavior and language arrest. Still another possibility is that a disinhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was at the root of all of her neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  10. Dysosteosclerosis Presents as an “Osteoclast-Poor” Form of Osteopetrosis: Comprehensive Investigation of a 3-Year-Old Girl and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Nenninger, Angie R; Zhang, Xiafang; Huskey, Margaret; Mumm, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to –2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring

  11. Girls back off mathematics again: the views and experiences of girls in computer-based mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-12-01

    The views and experiences of girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used were researched. Data were collected by observation and videotaping of lessons, questionnaire, and interviews of students and the teachers. In this paper case studies of six girls are presented. Their `stories' reveal a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. High achieving girls persisted as "outsiders within," other girls "backed off", and exceptional girls challenged gender stereotypes. Implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the super highway are discussed.

  12. Girls and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ratio of ... even when their symptoms are the same as boys’, and girls are less likely than boys to receive sufficient ...

  13. Metaphyseal dysplasia of Braun-Tinschert type: report of a Japanese girl.

    PubMed

    Takata, Shinjiro; Nishimura, Gen; Ikegawa, Shiro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Nishino, Mizuho; Matsui, Yoshito; Yasui, Natsuo

    2006-06-01

    We report on a 7-year-old Japanese girl with metaphyseal dysplasia (MD) of Braun-Tinschert type, a recently recognized, autosomal dominant sclerosing bone dysplasia. All individuals with the disorder from four families in the literature originated from a small town in Bohemia or its vicinity. The occurrence of the disorder in a Japanese girl indicates that it is not restricted to Germans. The radiographic hallmarks of the disorder include metaphyseal undermodeling (Erlenmeyer-flask deformity); osteosclerosis of the chondroosseous junctions, metaphyseal cortices, and epiphyseal margins; and exostosis-like bone excrescences at the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junctions. In the girl we described, the latter two findings were conspicuous at age 4 years, but became less prominent with increasing age. The metaphyseal trabeculae were somewhat coarse. The humeri exhibited varus deformity, and the ulnae and fibulae mild bowing. The mean bone mineral density of the lumbar spine was lower than that of age-matched controls. The patient exhibited premature loss of primary teeth, likely to be a sign of increased periodontal bone resorption. Markers of bone formation and resorption were both increased, an indication of a high rate of bone turnover. PMID:16691581

  14. Skill-Related Uncertainty and Expected Value in 5- to 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Schlottmann, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Studies using an Information Integration approach have shown that children from four years have a good intuitive understanding of probability and expected value. Experience of skill-related uncertainty may provide one naturalistic opportunity to develop this intuitive understanding. To test the viability of this view, 16 5- and 16 7-year-olds…

  15. Corneal Epitheliopathy After Trauma by Fake Snow Powder in a 7-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amry, Mohammad A.; Al-Ghadeer, Huda A.

    2016-01-01

    Fake snow is a polymer of sodium polyacrylates used in games and celebrations. Despite the product leaflet that indicates safety, contact with the ocular surface can cause injury. We report a case of a child with corneal epitheliopathy due to a chemical burn injury after ocular surface contact with fake snow. The case was managed with epithelial debridement and a bandage contact lenses and topical antibiotics with complete resolution. PMID:27555717

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of 5- and 7-Year-Old Children's Self-Reports of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseneault, Louise; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    Past research suggests that young children are incapable of reporting information about their own behavior problems. To test this, we examined the validity and the usefulness of children's self-reports in the E-Risk Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of 2,232 children. We used the Berkeley Puppet Interview to obtain children's…

  17. Evidence for Substantial Genetic Risk for Psychopathy in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viding, Essi; Blair, R. James R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with early warning signs of life-long psychopathy, callous-unemotional traits (CU) and high levels of antisocial behaviour (AB) can be identified in childhood. We report here the first twin study of high levels of psychopathic tendencies in young children. Methods: At the end of the first school year, teachers provided…

  18. Callous-unemotional traits and anxiety in a community sample of 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Humayun, Sajid; Kahn, Rachel E; Frick, Paul J; Viding, Essi

    2014-01-01

    In forensic samples of adults and adolescents, there is evidence to suggest that there may be distinct variants of psychopathy marked by the presence/absence of significant levels of anxiety. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits can be used to characterize children who share behavioural and neurocognitive features with adult psychopaths. The aims of this paper are to (a) investigate the genetic and environmental influences on CU traits with/without anxiety and (b) explore differences in terms of concurrent and early parenting and adjustment. Discrete groups were formed on the basis of scores in the top 10% of the sample on CU and anxiety scales at age 7. Estimates of group heritability were calculated using a Defries-Fulker (DF) extremes regression model. Follow back analyses of early parenting and adjustment were conducted using multivariate analyses of covariance. There was high group heritability for CU traits with/without anxiety. Children with both high CU and anxiety showed greater levels of adjustment problems than those with CU only at age 7. The two groups did not differ in parenting characteristics. In this general population sample, evidence did not support differences in etiology for the two groups high on CU traits differing in level of anxiety.

  19. Callous-Unemotional Traits and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Viding, Essi

    2013-01-01

    In forensic samples of adults and adolescents, there is evidence to suggest that there may be distinct variants of psychopathy marked by the presence/absence of significant levels of anxiety. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits can be used to characterize children who share behavioural and neurocognitive features with adult psychopaths. The aims of this paper are to (a) investigate the genetic and environmental influences on CU traits with/without anxiety and (b) explore differences in terms of concurrent and early parenting and adjustment. Discrete groups were formed on the basis of scores in the top 10% of the sample on CU and anxiety scales at age 7. Estimates of group heritability were calculated using a Defries-Fulker (DF) extremes regression model. Follow back analyses of early parenting and adjustment were conducted using multivariate analyses of covariance. There was high group heritability for CU traits with/without anxiety. Children with both high CU and anxiety showed greater levels of adjustment problems than those with CU only at age 7. The two groups did not differ in parenting characteristics. In this general population sample, evidence did not support differences in etiology for the two groups high on CU traits differing in level of anxiety. PMID:23879532

  20. Longitudinal genetic analysis of childhood IQ in 6- and 7-year-old Russian twins.

    PubMed

    Malykh, Sergey B; Zyrianova, Nadezhda M; Kuravsky, Lev S

    2003-08-01

    Using a longitudinal twin study of Moscow children, we have studied the development of psychometric intelligence during the transition from preschool (age 6) to school (age 7). Children were tested using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Simplex models were applied to explore the relationship of different sources of phenotypic variance. The following sources of variation were considered: genetic effects, common or shared family environment and unique environment. At age 6, genetic influences were much greater than those of shared environment but the magnitude of genetic influences decreased and the magnitude of shared environment influences increased substantially by age 7. PMID:14511434

  1. Maternal IQ, Child IQ, behavior and achievement in urban 5–7 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Schwarz, Donald; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2006-01-01

    In one study of children in 27 families with maternal retardation, those children with higher IQ were more likely to have multiple behavior problems than those with lower IQ. If true, this result would affect clinical practice, but it has not been replicated. Since the setting of the initial observation is similar to the setting of childhood lead poisoning, we attempted a replication using data from the Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) study, in which 780 children aged 12–33 months with blood lead level 20–44 μg/dL were randomized to either succimer treatment or placebo and then followed up to 5 years. Of 656 mothers of TLC children with IQ measured, 113 demonstrated mental retardation (IQ < 70). Whether maternal IQ was less than 70 or over 70, children with IQ over 85 were rated more favorably on cognitive tests and behavioral questionnaires than children with IQ less than 85; these measures included Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised at age 5, the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment at ages 5 and 7, and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children at age 7. Among children of mothers with IQ <70, those with IQ over 85 did not show more severe clinical behavioral problems, nor were they more likely to show multiple behavior problems. Children with higher IQ have fewer behavior problems, irrespective of the mother’s IQ. In the special setting of mothers with IQ < 70, children with higher IQ are not at greater risk of behavior problems. PMID:16492992

  2. Maternal IQ, child IQ, behavior, and achievement in urban 5-7 year olds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aimin; Schwarz, Donald; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2006-03-01

    In one study of children in 27 families with maternal retardation, those children with higher intelligence quotient (IQ) were more likely to have multiple behavior problems than those with lower IQ. If true, this result would affect clinical practice, but it has not been replicated. Because the setting of the initial observation is similar to the setting of childhood lead poisoning, we attempted a replication using data from the Treatment of Lead-Exposed Children (TLC) study, in which 780 children aged 12-33 mo with blood lead levels 20-44 microg/dL were randomized to either succimer treatment or placebo and then followed up to 5 y. Of 656 mothers of TLC children with IQ measured, 113 demonstrated mental retardation (IQ <70). Whether maternal IQ was <70 or >or=70, children with IQ >or=85 were rated more favorably on cognitive tests and behavioral questionnaires than children with IQ <85; these measures included Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised at age 5, the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment at ages 5 and 7, and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children at age 7. Among children of mothers with IQ <70, those with IQ >or=85 did not show more severe clinical behavioral problems, nor were they more likely to show multiple behavior problems. Children with higher IQ have fewer behavior problems, irrespective of the mother's IQ. In the special setting of mothers with IQ <70, children with higher IQ are not at greater risk of behavior problems. PMID:16492992

  3. Nature, Nurture and Academic Achievement: A Twin Study of Teacher Assessments of 7-year-olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Spinath, Frank M.; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: Twin research has consistently shown substantial genetic influence on individual differences in cognitive ability; however, much less is known about the genetic and environmental aetiologies of school achievement. Aims: Our goal is to test the hypotheses that teacher-assessed achievement in the early school years shows substantial…

  4. Corneal Epitheliopathy After Trauma by Fake Snow Powder in a 7-year-old Child.

    PubMed

    Al-Amry, Mohammad A; Al-Ghadeer, Huda A

    2016-01-01

    Fake snow is a polymer of sodium polyacrylates used in games and celebrations. Despite the product leaflet that indicates safety, contact with the ocular surface can cause injury. We report a case of a child with corneal epitheliopathy due to a chemical burn injury after ocular surface contact with fake snow. The case was managed with epithelial debridement and a bandage contact lenses and topical antibiotics with complete resolution. PMID:27555717

  5. SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, NOT TV VIEWING, PREDICTS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG 3- TO 7-YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information about relationships between the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of young children is available in the literature. We therefore examined how sedentary behaviors, TV watching, and encouragements and discouragements for activity were associated with physical activity (as me...

  6. Dental fluorosis, dental caries and fluoride exposure among 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Riordan, P J

    1993-01-01

    Mild dental fluorosis is frequently linked to fluoridated water, but discretionary fluoride sources may also be important. The aim of this study was to record age of weaning and fluoride exposure from water, toothpaste and supplements, and to relate these to the presence of caries and fluorosis in children born in 1983. In Perth (Western Australia) 14 school classes were selected. The 350 children (mean age 7.5 years) ultimately included gave fluoride exposure data for the period birth to 4 years of age. Caries (DMFT, WHO criteria, no radiographs) and dental fluorosis (TF index, dry permanent incisors) were registered clinically. Most (89%) children had lived at least 2.5 years in a fluoridated area. Supplement use was minimal and unrelated to caries or fluorosis. Mean age of weaning of those who had been breast-fed was 7.7 months; by 9 months, 74% had been weaned. Eighty-five percent liked toothpaste, 60.7% had swallowed it, and the mean age of starting to use it was 1.5 (SD 0.96) years. Caries prevalence was 0.1 and mean DMFT was 0.13. The prevalence of fluorosis was 0.48; 63% of fluorosis was TF score 1. Residence in a fluoridated area for > or = 2.5 of the first 4 years of life had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.9 for fluorosis. Weaning before 9 months of age, swallowing toothpaste and liking toothpaste were also statistically significant risk factors. Major risk factors for more severe fluorosis (TF > or = 2) were early weaning and swallowing toothpaste (ORs 2.77 and 2.64, respectively). Residence in a fluoridated area (OR 2.2) was not a statistically significant risk factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  8. [A girl with a cold foot].

    PubMed

    Rouwet, E V; Ten Raa, S; Verhagen, H J M

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a progressively cold, pale foot. Pedal pulses were absent and there was sensory and motor loss. CT angiography revealed a thromboembolic occlusion of the crural arteries and a popliteal artery entrapment. Following thromboembolectomy with popliteal artery patch angioplasty and release of the gastrocnemius muscle, the girl fully recovered.

  9. Girls Can! Community Coalitions Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Women Educational Foundation, Washington, DC.

    It is possible that the materials presented in this manual were used in implementing community action projects supported by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) Educational Foundation. These projects, part of the Girls Can! initiative, were intended to address the disparity between the educational experiences of girls and boys in…

  10. A Novel Frameshift Mutation of the ALDOB Gene in a Korean Girl Presenting with Recurrent Hepatitis Diagnosed as Hereditary Fructose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae-Won; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Oh, Seak Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Ryu, Jeong-Min; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency in fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (Aldolase B). Children can present with hypoglycemia, jaundice, elevated liver enzymes and hepatomegaly after intake of dietary fructose. Long-term intake of fructose in undiagnosed patients can result in hepatic failure or renal failure. We experienced a case of hereditary fructose intolerance presenting as recurrent hepatitis-like episodes. Detailed evaluation of her dietary habits revealed her avoidance of sweetened foods and fruits. Genetic analysis of ALDOB revealed that she is a homozygote for a novel frameshifting mutation c[758_759insT]+[758_759insT] (p.[val25 3fsX24]+[val253fsX24]). This report is the first of a Korean patient diagnosed with hereditary fructose intolerance using only molecular testing without undergoing intravenous fructose tolerance test or enzyme assay.

  11. A YOUNG GIRL WITH FITS.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imran; Ahmed, Ejaz; Zaidi, Badshah Hussain; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Nisar, Shazia

    2015-01-01

    A young girl presented with fits vomiting and epigastric pain. Investigations including CT-Scan brain, MRI brain, MRV brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination were normal. Her urine was screened for porphobilinogen which was positive. She responded to intravenous dextrose and hypercaloric diet

  12. Girls' Bodies, Drama and Unruliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of the performance outcomes from a practised-based research project that took place with adolescent girls attending an after-school drama club. Participants experimented with slapstick humour in a series of workshops, before presenting their own devised physical comedy performance for a live audience. Comic performances…

  13. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  14. Music Therapy: A Therapeutic Intervention for Girls with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Kathleen A.

    The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…

  15. Girls Incorporated of Alameda County at 50: a voice for girls (1958-2008).

    PubMed

    Terrazas, Cecilia; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Girls Incorporated of Alameda County is nonprofit human service organization that has delivered education, counseling, and advocacy services to girls aged 6 to 18 for 50 years. The organization began as a small, local girls club and has grown into a large multi-faceted service delivery organization attached to a national governing body. The history of Girls Incorporated of Alameda County introduces struggles in relation to external and internal factors that altered the way that the agency financed and managed and exemplifies the important role of nonprofit leadership. The organization's many accomplishments have also presented multiple challenges, particularly related to the changing roles of women in American society. PMID:21416431

  16. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  17. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  18. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  19. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted by the new…

  20. A Ray of Hope for Girls in Trouble: Alternative Education Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Wu, Deirdra I-Hwey

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a trans-cultural perspective of emotional/behavioral difficulties and a brief overview of the subculture of today's young adolescent girls. Features of successful alternative education services provided at a Singapore girls' home are also presented. This paper concludes with a consideration of implications for teachers and…

  1. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    PubMed

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  2. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  3. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  4. Acute pediatric facial nerve paralysis as the first indication for familial cerebral cavernoma: case presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rohani, Pooyan; McRackan, Theodore R; Aulino, Joseph M; Wanna, George B

    2014-01-01

    Familial cerebral cavernoma is an autosomal dominant phenotype with incomplete clinical and neuroimaging penetrance. The most common clinical manifestations include seizures and cerebral hemorrhage. We present the case of a 7-year-old boy who developed acute onset facial nerve paralysis secondary to previously unknown familial cerebral cavernoma. Genetic workup revealed a KRIT1 gene deletion which was later confirmed in the patient's asymptomatic father and younger brother.

  5. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  6. The Search for Sustainable Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabst, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The girls of girls' schools, the author believes, are a kind of Platonic Form of American girl, an ideal to which most of the rest of society, of the country's meritocratic system, aspires for their daughters, a reflection of one's deepest values. She believes girls all over the country, in all high schools, want The Dream. They want to achieve…

  7. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  8. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  9. Fighting like a girl fighting like a guy: gender identity, ideology, and girls at early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that both perpetuates and challenges the usual notions of masculinity and femininity and the differential power associated with these discourses. We present a sociocultural approach to identity that we believe not only holds promise for helping us to understand girl-fighting behavior but also highlights the clear interrelationship between social identity and personal identity. We conclude by highlighting several implications of this analysis for those who work with girls (and boys) in educational and clinical settings.

  10. Cerebellar ataxia as the presenting manifestation of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Arav-Boger, Ravit; Crawford, Thomas; Steere, Allen C; Halsey, Neal A

    2002-04-01

    A 7-year-old boy from suburban Baltimore who presented with cerebellar ataxia and headaches was found by magnetic resonance imaging to have multiple cerebellar enhancing lesions. He had no history of tick exposure. He was initially treated with steroids for presumptive postinfectious encephalitis. Lyme disease was diagnosed 10 weeks later after arthritis developed. Testing of the cerebrospinal fluid obtained at the time cerebellar ataxia was diagnosed revealed intrathecal antibody production to Borrelia burgdorferi. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics led to rapid resolution of persistent cerebellar findings.

  11. Attention styles of hyperactive and normal girls.

    PubMed

    deHaas, P A; Young, R D

    1984-12-01

    Behavioral characteristics and cognitive skills of teacher-identified hyperactive (n = 24) and normally active (n = 24) first- and second-grade girls were investigated. Teachers rated subjects on the Conners Teacher Rating Scale (TRS). Subjects were given several tasks measuring attentional styles and motor skills. Results suggested that hyperactive girls, like hyperactive boys, have short attention spans and poor concentration when compared with normals. Unlike hyperactive boys, hyperactive girls did not show an impulsive response style, and presented few conduct problems to their teachers. TRS profile patterns of the hyperactive girls were similar to those of hyperactive boys, but cutoff scores currently used for males may not be applicable to females. A direct comparison of hyperactive females and males is advocated.

  12. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  13. Connecting with Girls, Connects Them to You: Toward a "by Girls, for Girls" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Today there are 14 million girls ages 11-17 in the United States. The growing population of girls clearly represents a new opportunity for youth development organizations to reach out and engage them. In its continuing commitment to develop program options to meet the needs of girls today, in 2001 the Girl Scout Research Institute conducted one of…

  14. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Afifi, Hanan H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS). They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS) method. RESULTS: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM) from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. CONCLUSION: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy. PMID:24019614

  15. Parental Pressure, Dietary Patterns, and Weight Status among Girls Who Are “Picky Eaters”

    PubMed Central

    GALLOWAY, AMY T.; FIORITO, LAURA; LEE, YOONNA; BIRCH, LEANN L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether mothers' fruit and vegetable intake and mothers' use of pressure in the feeding domain when their daughters were 7 years old predicted picky eating and dietary intake when their daughters were 9 years old, and to examine diet and weight status in picky and nonpicky eaters. Design/Subjects Participants were 173 9-year-old non-Hispanic white girls and their mothers. A longitudinal analysis was used to assess maternal influences on picky eating and diet. A cross-sectional analysis was used to examine diet and weight status between picky and non-picky eaters. Measures included maternal feeding practices, daughters' pickiness, mothers' fruit and vegetable intake, daughters' food intake, and weight status. Statistical Analyses t tests examined differences between picky and nonpicky eaters. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among mothers' fruit and vegetable intake; child feeding practices; daughters' pickiness; and fruit, vegetable, micronutrient, and fiber intakes. Results Mothers consuming more fruits and vegetables were less likely to pressure their daughters to eat and had daughters who were less picky and consumed more fruits and vegetables. Picky eaters consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, but also fewer fats and sweets. All girls consumed low amounts of vitamin E, calcium, and magnesium, but more picky girls were at risk for not meeting recommendations for vitamins E and C and also consumed significantly less fiber. In addition, picky eaters were less likely to be overweight. Conclusions Mothers influenced daughters' fruit and vegetable intake via their own patterns of fruit and vegetable intake and by influencing their daughters' tendencies to be picky eaters. Both picky and nonpicky eaters had aspects of their diets that did not meet recommendations. Taken together, these findings suggest that parents should focus less on “picky eating” behavior and more on modeling fruit and vegetable consumption for their

  16. Emotion recognition in girls with conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Schwenck, Christina; Gensthaler, Angelika; Romanos, Marcel; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Wolfgang; Taurines, Regina

    2014-01-01

    A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD=2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations. PMID:23568422

  17. Earth Science Education and the Girl Scouts USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, A. S.

    2001-12-01

    Women are an under-represented population in the physical sciences and engineering, including the Earth sciences. In order to enhance interest and understanding of the Earth sciences in young girls, the Atmospheric Sciences Program at the NASA Langley Research Center, in partnership and cooperation with the Girl Scouts USA and individual Girl Scout Councils, have developed a series of Earth science workshops for Girl Scout trainers and leaders. The workshops cover the Earth system, including the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, and the biosphere and the interactions betwen the various components of the system. The workshop lectures are presented by NASA and university scientists. Each workshop includes hands-on demonstrations and experiments that can be performed by the Girl Scouts. The workshops are presented both at the NASA Langley Research Center and at the Girl Scout USA Conference Center in Briarcliff, New York. The workshop format, content and demonstrations will be discussed.

  18. Human dicrocoeliasis presenting as a subcutaneous mass

    PubMed Central

    Samaila, Modupeola Omotara; Shehu, Sani Mohammed; Abubakar, Nasiru; Mohammed, Umar; Jabo, Bashir

    2009-01-01

    Human infection by Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a zoonotic liver fluke, is uncommon and soft tissue manifestation is extremely rare. The infection has no specific clinical signs or symptoms and diagnosis may be missed completely, thus treatment may be delayed. Diagnosis in humans is by identification of the eggs in the stool, while a living or dead fluke is rarely seen. The present report concerns the case of a 7-year-old child who presented with recurrent right flank subcutaneous nodules containing a live fluke on excision, and tissue histology showed characteristic brown operculated ova of D dendriticum. This is the first extraintestinal soft tissue presentation in such a setting. It is important to know the life cycle and natural habitat of this rare human parasite in order to make a correct diagnosis and institute early treatment in patients who have become infected. PMID:21829430

  19. Putting menarche and girls into the global population health agenda.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni; Sutherland, Carla; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-03-26

    Menarche, the onset of menstruation is a fundamental part of a girl's transition from childhood to adolescence. Studies show that girls in many countries experience menarche with insufficient information and support. Girls from around the world report feeling ashamed and afraid. The potential health effects of such experiences include a weakening of girls' sense of self-confidence and competence, which in turn may comprise girls' abilities to assert themselves in different situations, including in relation to their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health. There is an important need for the public health community to assure that girls receive the education and support they need about menstruation, so they are able to feel more confident about their bodies, and navigate preventable health problems - now and in the future. For too long, the global health community has overlooked the window of opportunity presented by menarche. Family planning programs have generally focused their efforts on married couples and HIV programs have focused safer sex promotion on older adolescent girls and boys. Starting the conversation at menarche with girls in early adolescence would fully use this window of opportunity. It would engage young adolescent girls and be a natural first step for later, more comprehensive conversations about sexuality, reproduction and reproductive health. There are a number of initiatives beginning to tackle the provision of puberty information to girls and boys, but the global health community is overdue to set a global standard for the provision of such guidance.

  20. The Girl Game Company: Engaging Latina Girls in Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…

  1. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  2. Atypical soft tissue perineurioma in the tongue of a young girl.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Shiro; Doi, Reiko; Mitani, Kenji; Iwamoto, Yoriko; Furumoto, Ayumi; Yamashita, Maki; Cho, Hironori

    2010-12-01

    Perineuriomas are uncommon benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors that include soft tissue, sclerosing, reticular, and intraneural variants. Soft tissue perineuriomas arise in a wide anatomic distribution and mostly in patients older than 20 years of age. We report an atypical perineurioma in a 7-year-old girl. The tumor, located in the tongue, was uniformly hypercellular. The tumor cells were spindle-shaped with a slender, elongated, bipolar, wavy cytoplasmic process formation and wavy elongated nuclei, and the architecture was composed of predominantly short fascicles with areas exhibiting a vague storiform pattern. Although the tumor cells generally appeared bland, the tumor showed worrisome features including an infiltrative pattern and occasional mitotic figures. Psammoma bodies were observed in the periphery of the tumor. Immunohistochemically, the cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, claudin-1, and GLUT-1, but negative for S-100 protein, CD34, and type IV collagen. The authors document a case of soft tissue perineurioma with atypical histological features that occurred in the tongue of a child.

  3. Boys and Girls Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This paper reports on a study to see whether girls in middle school who took tests separately from boys did better than when they were tested together. A mathematics attitude and anxiety instrument was administered as part of the study to determine if either had any effect on test performance. Results indicate that boys were more anxious than…

  4. Stage Costumes for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhowe, Jean

    This book contains full instructions for making 14 costumes for girls to fit any sizes up to about 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches) in height. All the garments can be made to fit any child's individual measurements without the need of complicated pattern pieces. Simple basic shapes such as rectangles and circles are used for the patterns and the only…

  5. Girls + Technology = Turnoff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman

    1997-01-01

    Examines gender differences in computer use, citing male- oriented software as a possible reason girls are turned off, and highlights traditionally feminine and gender-neutral games. Describes ways of encouraging females: all-female computer and math classes, pairing students, mentoring, integrating technology into content areas, early…

  6. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  7. Girls in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…

  8. Academe's New Girl Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Angela

    1978-01-01

    A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)

  9. The Goose Girl Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Janice H.

    1989-01-01

    Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)

  10. Girl scouts face complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    A claim filed by the Legal Action Center alleges that the Girl Scouts USA and the Adirondack Girl Scout Council discriminated against 8-year-old [name removed] [name removed] by refusing to admit her because she has HIV. One complaint, filed in the New York State's Division of Human Rights, alleged that the Adirondack Council denied the girl equal access based on New York's human rights law. A second complaint alleged that the Girl Scouts USA aided and abetted in the discrimination by not requiring the Adirondack unit to comply with national organization policy barring discrimination based on disability. The girl has been successfully placed in another troop.

  11. Girl scouts face complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    A claim filed by the Legal Action Center alleges that the Girl Scouts USA and the Adirondack Girl Scout Council discriminated against 8-year-old [name removed] [name removed] by refusing to admit her because she has HIV. One complaint, filed in the New York State's Division of Human Rights, alleged that the Adirondack Council denied the girl equal access based on New York's human rights law. A second complaint alleged that the Girl Scouts USA aided and abetted in the discrimination by not requiring the Adirondack unit to comply with national organization policy barring discrimination based on disability. The girl has been successfully placed in another troop. PMID:11366636

  12. Acrocallosal syndrome: report of a Brazilian girl.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, M L; Richieri-Costa, A

    1992-08-01

    We report on a Brazilian girl born to nonconsanguineous parents and presenting with frontonasal dysostosis, callosal agenesis, abnormal upper lids, cleft lip/palate, redundant skin in the neck, grooved chin, and bifid thumbs. Major diagnostic criteria present in this patient are related to the acrocallosal syndrome. The clinical and major nosologic aspects of this condition are discussed.

  13. Pubertal Timing and Its Link to Behavioral and Emotional Problems among "At-Risk" African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.

    2009-01-01

    Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…

  14. Puberty and Girls' Sexuality: Why Hormones Are Not the Complete Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Sontag, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of puberty on changes in girls' feelings about their bodies and their sexuality is discussed. We present a model of girls' sexuality development that incorporates puberty, self, and peer systems. (Contains 2 figures.)

  15. High Achieving Girls in Mathematics: What's Wrong with Working Hard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Ann C.; Berenson, Sarah B.

    2003-01-01

    The participation of women in graduate studies and mathematics-related careers remains a social and economic problem in the United States. Part of a larger study to understand this lack of participation, here we present preliminary findings of girls who are high achievers in middle grades mathematics. This interpretive study documents girls'…

  16. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…

  17. Raising Their Voices: The Politics of Girls' Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel

    Challenging conventional characterization of teenage girlhood as a wasteland of depression, low self-esteem, and passive victimhood, this book presents accounts of young girls showing how their voices are shaped and constrained by socioeconomic class. Based on a year-long study involving conversations with white adolescent girls from the working…

  18. The All-American Girls' Baseball League, 1943-1954.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Merrie A.

    This presentation provides an historical sketch of the All-American Girls' Baseball League (AAGBBL). The League was created in 1942 as the All-American Girls' Softball League, by Philip K. Wrigley. He initiated the League as a non-profit organization governed by a board of three trustees. Mr. Wrigley's basic motivation for creating the AAGSBL was…

  19. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences…

  20. Breast carcinoma in a prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Singh, Sudipto Kumar; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Manju

    2014-04-15

    Breast carcinoma is a very rare disease in children. We present a rare case of breast cancer in an 11-year-old prepubertal girl. Clinically, it was a case of locally advanced breast cancer (T4bN1M0). The core biopsy report showed adenocarcinoma of the not otherwise specified (NOS) variety (oestrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative). Diagnosis was late in this case due to lack of suspicion. A modified radical mastectomy was considered to be adequate treatment. Histologically, it was adenocarcinoma NOS, which is rare in young girls (the secretory type being more common). Incidence, differential diagnoses, investigation and management of breast carcinoma in young girls are discussed. The purpose of reporting this case is to highlight that prevention and early detection of breast carcinoma in children is very important.

  1. [A girl with a painful red skin].

    PubMed

    Bakker, M E C Mariëlle; Oberndorff, Karin M E J

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl presented with increasing erythroderma since one day in combination with impetigo vulgaris. As exfoliative lesions and bullae developed within hours, the patient was diagnosed with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. She was successfully treated with flucloxacillin. PMID:23369814

  2. Book Series Helps Girls Fight Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2003-2004) revealed that approximately 18% of children 6-to-19 years old are overweight. The Beacon Street Girls brand was specifically designed to entertain while providing healthy role models and positive messages. This article presents a study that tested whether an…

  3. Facilitating Career Development for Girls and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Vocational Guidance Association, Washington, DC.

    Selections from papers given at a 1973 workshop held at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, are presented. Seventy-nine participants gathered to search out new insights into the changing world of girls and women. A forword by Carl McDaniels and an introduction by Thelma Lennon precede the 12 papers, which include: (1) Historical…

  4. Learning to Negotiate Sexual Relationships: A Girls' School in Tanzania as a Restrictive and Agentic Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Laura Wangsness; DeJaeghere, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Literature on schooling in Africa often frames sexual relationships as threatening girls' educational participation, health, and general well-being. Schooling practices aimed at sheltering girls reflect the prevalence of discourses emphasising danger and abstinence. This article presents the case of one all-girls school in Tanzania which provides…

  5. Some Problems of Sexual Growth in Adolescent Underprivileged Unwed Black Girls

    PubMed Central

    James, W. F. Bernell; James, Pauline M.; Walker, Edgar

    1977-01-01

    The adolescent female experiences many problems associated with sexual growth. These are greatly compounded in underprivileged black girls, particularly the unwed. Meharry Medical College has established comprehensive programs for the management of special health problems involving adolescent girls. This study presents an overview and statistical study of the psychological and psychosocial forces that confront these underprivileged girls. PMID:904015

  6. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  7. Baseline and Modulated Acoustic Startle Responses in Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…

  8. No Boys Allowed! All-Girl Class Gets Students Hooked on TE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the number of girls who enroll in their elective courses is a perennial challenge for many technology educators. Yet one educator has found a very successful approach to drawing in female students: a girls-only class called Woodworking for Girls. This paper presents a brief description of the course. It also offers suggestions for…

  9. The girl child: a girls' empowerment initiative in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, B; Sheikh, M

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Girl Child Project became a reality in Pakistan. This pilot project aimed to 1) set a base line for activities for a sample of 1000 girls and their families, 2) organize orientation meetings and workshops to raise the awareness of 500 young girls and women, 3) develop a core of young girls to create local awareness of the problems of girls through various activities, and 4) develop motivational messages and advocacy/training materials. The first phase of the project included a national workshop for leaders in June 1992; 10 evaluation workshops on the topics of status, literacy, nutrition, health, and the environment as they relate to the girl child; the formation of 105 groups of five to eight girls each who were directly influenced by the project; and the indirect influence of 2.7 million people. The second phase, begun in 1994, expands on the first phase and sponsors project activities in 200 locations. Girls who participated in the project have learned to increase their confidence and to voice their opinions in their homes as they have become aware of their rights. Thus mothers who feed sons better than daughters, for example, are being challenged and are changing their practices. Some girls are also providing education to other children. The girls face a great deal of resistance when they try to change their traditional roles, and they must convince their families that their increased knowledge and skills will ultimately benefit their family and community. The girls who have participated in the workshops have become aware of new worlds and ways of life which they did not know existed, and they have developed the confidence to gain the education they need to improve their society.

  10. Weight, height and puberty in a cohort of Macedonian girls.

    PubMed

    Krstevska-Konstantinova, Marina; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Kicova, M; Gucev, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a growing problem in developed and developing countries. Many studies report an increasing incidence of obesity in the last decade. The aim of our transversal epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight children, auxological characteristics and pubertal stage in healthy girls from first (200 girls), third (209), fifth (290) and seventh (223) grade of school. In this study 928 girls were evaluated through systematic school examinations in the ambulance of municipality of Karposh, Skopje. The Rome and Turkish nationality, as well as Serbian were present in a small percentage, while detailed analysis was performed in the Macedonian and Albanian population of girls. The initiation of puberty (stage M2 or P2 by Tanner) was present in Macedonian girls: 4.3% of children in first grade, 23% in third grade, and 51.7% in fifth grade. In Albanians, in first grade M2 is present in 2.7%, in third grade 5.2%, and in fifth grade 46.9%. Body mass index (BMI SDS) was +3.5 +/- 1.5 in 35% of Macedonian girls and only 5% of Albanian girls. The Macedonian girls were also significantly higher (p < 0.01) and more obese than the Albanian girls. The pubertal stage was also more advanced in Macedonian girls. Most of the obese children who were included in the study reported increased consumption of fast food. Although in the past years obesity was not a problem in our country, it is becoming more severe with every year. PMID:19537661

  11. Handicapped Girls and Girl Scouting: A Guide for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Marian Weller

    Designed as a handbook for girl scount leaders involved with the handicapped girl scout, the manual first makes general statements about handicaps, leader qualifications, and troop placement and organization. Information and guidelines for leaders are provided for the following exceptionalities: visual impairment, hearing impairment, orthopedic…

  12. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND PHYSICAL CAPACITY IN 4 TO 7-YEAR-OLD STUDENTS IN A CHILEAN PUBLIC SCHOOL 2014].

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Silva, Miguel; Aguilar-Farías, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: el sobrepeso y la obesidad infantiles han experimentado un incremento significativo a nivel global, no obstante, se expresan diferencias regionales debidas a diversos factores. Junto a esto, la evidencia ha demostrado que la capacidad física de los niños también se está viendo afectada. Por este motivo, este estudio tuvo por objeto evaluar el estado nutricional y la capacidad física de escolares de 4 a 7 años en un establecimiento escolar público del sur de Chile. Material y método: 351 niños (6,1 años, SD = 1,13; 47,3% varones) completaron el estudio. Para determinar el estado nutricional se utilizó la clasificación basada en el índice de masa corporal y los puntajes Z recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se calculó el porcentaje de grasa corporal con antropometría de pliegues cutáneos. Para determinar la capacidad física se realizó el Test de Marcha de seis Minutos (TM6). Resultados: la prevalencia de sobrepeso fue del 27,0% (rango 21-32%), mientras que la obesidad tuvo una prevalencia total de 39.9% (rango 33-50%), sin diferencias entre género (p = 0,84). El porcentaje de grasa corporal promedio fue de 19,1% en hombres y 20,9% en mujeres (p = 0,02). Para TM6 se observaron diferencias según edad (p > 0,001) y se observó un rango de 421,5 a 540,2 mts. Discusión: los resultados obtenidos indican una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad. Los resultados son más altos que los conseguidos en mediciones realizadas en otras regiones del mundo. Esta evidencia supone una llamada de atención para la promoción de hábitos de vida saludable a través de programas integrales en establecimientos escolares públicos.

  13. The Relationships among Executive Functions, Metacognitive Skills and Educational Achievement in 5 and 7 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Donna; Whitebread, David; Szucs, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between executive functions (inhibitory control and working memory) and metacognitive skills was investigated by applying correlational and regression analyses to data collected from two groups of children. To date, research in this area has lacked a theoretical model for considering these relationships; here we propose and test…

  14. Building Creativity Training: Drawing with Left Hand to Stimulate Left Brain in Children Age 5-7 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saputra, Yanty Hardi; Sabana, Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Researcher and professionals that started researching about brains since 1930 believe that left brain is a rational brain, which is tightly related with the IO, rational thinking, arithmetic thinking, verbal, segmental, focus, serial (linear), finding the differences, and time management, Meanwhile right brain is the part of brain that controlled…

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for 4- to 7-Year-Old Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…

  16. Pre-adoption adversity and self-reported behavior problems in 7 year-old international adoptees.

    PubMed

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noémi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andrée; Malcuit, Gérard; Chicoine, Jean-François; Jéliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Céline; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-08-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed soon after arrival in their adoptive family. At age 7, the Dominic Interactive, a self-report measure, was used to evaluate externalizing and internalizing symptoms while mothers completed the CBCL. Children's self-reports were compared to their non-adopted peers'. Adopted children reported more symptoms of specific phobia than their peers. A significant correlation was found between mothers' and children's reports but only for externalizing symptoms. Self-reported symptoms were related to indices of nutritional and psychosocial deprivation at arrival, such as low height/age and weight/height ratios. Our results emphasize the importance of considering international adoptees' perception of their psychological adjustment and the long-term impact of early risk factors.

  17. A non-occlusive bezoar of caecum in a 7-year-old child: ultrasound detection and multimodality imaging management.

    PubMed

    Marilina, D'Amora; Gaetana, Cremone; Eugenio, Rossi; Massimo, Zeccolini

    2016-09-01

    Bezoars represent the most frequent foreign bodies of gastro-intestinal system, involving first of all the stomach and small intestine; instead the cecum tract is a very uncommon site for bezoars associated with a poor abdominal symptomatology. We report a case of a very rare localization of bezoar in the caecum tract of the ascending colon in a child affected by undefined abdominal pain. In this case, the abdominal Ultrasound examination showed characteristic imaging findings of bezoar completely comparable to that of Computed Tomography, allowing an early diagnosis of bezoar and the possibility of a conservative treatment for the young patient. PMID:27635158

  18. Lead exposure, IQ, and behavior in urban 5-7 year olds: Does lead affect behavior only by lowering IQ?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Cai, Bo; Dietrich, Kim N.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lead exposure in childhood lowers IQ scores, but its effect on children's behavior is less clear. Since IQ per se affects behavior, measuring lead's direct effect requires measuring and then adjusting for IQ. In addition, either peak blood lead concentration, usually at age 2 years, or the lower blood lead measured at school age may be the most relevant. Few studies have all this information. Objective To differentiate the direct effect of lead on behavior and the indirect effect through IQ, and to examine the strength of the association for peak and concurrent blood lead concentration. Methods Data come from a clinical trial of the chelating drug succimer to prevent cognitive impairment in 780 urban 12-33 month olds with blood lead concentration of 20-44 μg/dL. The children were followed from ages 2 to 7 years. The trial data were analyzed as a prospective observational study. Results Blood lead concentration at age 2 years was not associated with Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R) scores at age 5 years or Behavioral Assessment Systems for Children (BASC) scores at age 7 years. Blood lead at age 7 years had direct effects on the BASC Behavioral Symptoms Index, Externalizing, and School Problems at age 7. Conclusions Concurrent blood lead concentration was associated with Externalizing and School Problems scales at age 7 years, and the effect was not entirely mediated through lead's effect on IQ. PMID:17332184

  19. Age-Appropriate Cues Facilitate Source-Monitoring and Reduce Suggestibility in 3- To 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright-Paul, A.; Jarrold, C.; Wright, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Providing cues to facilitate the recovery of source information can reduce postevent misinformation effects in adults, implying that errors in source-monitoring contribute to suggestibility (e.g., [Lindsay, D. S., & Johnson, M. K. (1989). The eyewitness suggestibility effect and memory for source. Memory & Cognition, 17, 349-358]). The present…

  20. Discrimination of Speech Sounds Based upon Temporal Envelope versus Fine Structure Cues in 5- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoncini, Josiane; Serniclaes, Willy; Lorenzi, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the capacity of young children and adults with normal hearing to discriminate speech on the basis of either relatively slow (temporal envelope, E) or fast (temporal fine structure, TFS) auditory cues. Method: Vowel-consonant-vowel nonsense disyllables were processed to preserve either the E or the TFS information in 16…

  1. A non-occlusive bezoar of caecum in a 7-year-old child: ultrasound detection and multimodality imaging management.

    PubMed

    Marilina, D'Amora; Gaetana, Cremone; Eugenio, Rossi; Massimo, Zeccolini

    2016-09-01

    Bezoars represent the most frequent foreign bodies of gastro-intestinal system, involving first of all the stomach and small intestine; instead the cecum tract is a very uncommon site for bezoars associated with a poor abdominal symptomatology. We report a case of a very rare localization of bezoar in the caecum tract of the ascending colon in a child affected by undefined abdominal pain. In this case, the abdominal Ultrasound examination showed characteristic imaging findings of bezoar completely comparable to that of Computed Tomography, allowing an early diagnosis of bezoar and the possibility of a conservative treatment for the young patient.

  2. Girl Scouts settle complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    The Girl Scouts have settled a claim of discrimination made against New York's Adirondack Girl Scout Council and the national Girl Scouts organization for refusing admittance of a third-grader into the Brownies because of her HIV infection. The settlement occurred without adjudication on the key point of whether volunteer-based organizations such as the Girl Scouts are places of public accommodation under the New York Human Rights Act. The parties agreed that the Adirondack council will revise its HIV policy so that volunteers know they cannot deny admission to HIV-positive candidates; that the council will educate its troop leaders and staff on HIV transmission, universal precautions, and the organization's policy of nondiscrimination; and that the national Girl Scouts' organization will continue to investigate any allegations of HIV discrimination against applicants.

  3. Girl Scouts settle complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    The Girl Scouts have settled a claim of discrimination made against New York's Adirondack Girl Scout Council and the national Girl Scouts organization for refusing admittance of a third-grader into the Brownies because of her HIV infection. The settlement occurred without adjudication on the key point of whether volunteer-based organizations such as the Girl Scouts are places of public accommodation under the New York Human Rights Act. The parties agreed that the Adirondack council will revise its HIV policy so that volunteers know they cannot deny admission to HIV-positive candidates; that the council will educate its troop leaders and staff on HIV transmission, universal precautions, and the organization's policy of nondiscrimination; and that the national Girl Scouts' organization will continue to investigate any allegations of HIV discrimination against applicants. PMID:11366649

  4. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  5. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  6. [Repeated torsion of the normal adnexa in a premenarchal girl].

    PubMed

    Pankrac, Zofia; Preis, Krzysztof; Swiatkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Korzon, Michał

    2004-12-01

    Recurrent normal adnexal torsion is rare. The clinical presentation is poor and nonspecific. Authors present 11-years old girl with repeated torsion of the normal adnexa. At the first laparotomy salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Next two incidences were treated conservatively by ovary detorsion in laparoscopy. After second laparoscopy the girl was referred to the Adolescent Gynecology Outpatient Clinic. Preventive oophoroplexy was performed. After half of a year observation the girl reported no complaints and no abnormalities in physical examinations were found. Oophoroplexy in the cases of repeated normal adnexal torsion is a very useful method of prevention of recurrence.

  7. Molecular characterization of co-occurring Duchenne muscular dystrophy and X-linked oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome in a girl.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-hui; Fang, Ping; Adesina, Adekunle M; Furman, Patricia; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Brown, Chester W

    2009-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked condition at the severe end of the spectrum of dystrophinopathies. Females with dystrophin mutations are at risk for cardiomyopathy, but are usually asymptomatic during childhood. However, some girls can exhibit features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy because of skewed X-inactivation, aneuploidy, or chromosomal rearrangement. Oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder, lethal in males, that comprises microphthalmia, congenital cataracts, congenital heart defect, canine radiculomegaly, and digital anomalies. We report on a 7-year-old girl who was referred for muscular hypotonia, with clinical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, including elevated serum creatine phosphokinase, pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, and muscle weakness, which became evident at 3 years of age. In addition, she had multiple congenital anomalies including atrial septal defect, cataracts, dental and digital anomalies, a constellation that suggested the diagnosis of oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome, a condition caused by mutations in BCOR. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of muscle, and mutation analysis of DMD showed a maternally inherited deletion of exons 30-43, confirming the diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Studies of lymphocytes showed essentially complete skewing of X-inactivation. Mutation analysis of BCOR revealed a de novo frameshift mutation (c.1005delC). Thus, we report for the first time on an individual with the co-occurrence of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome. PMID:19449433

  8. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  9. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  10. Are Girls Behaving like Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…

  11. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  12. Serum leptin levels in girls with precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, A; Basciani, F; Trotta, D; De Simone, M; Morgese, G; Chiarelli, F

    2003-04-01

    Few data are available regarding leptin levels in children with different pubertal stages or with precocious puberty (PP). The aim of this study was to assess the changes in serum leptin levels in patients with PP. We studied 20 girls with PP, with Tanner stage II-III; the age at the beginning of pubertal signs ranged from 4.2 to 7.1 yr; all the girls had an advantaged bone age. Controls were subdivided in two groups: group 1: 20 pre-pubertal girls with the same chronological age of the patients, without any signs of pubertal development (Tanner stage I); group 2: 20 additional girls with the same bone age, pubertal stage and body mass index (BMI) of the girls with PP. Serum leptin levels in females with PP are similar to those found in subjects with normal puberty (9.0 +/- 0.8 vs 9.1 +/- 0.9 ng/ml; ns) and different from subjects with the same chronological age without activation of puberty (5.6 +/- 0.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In all groups leptin levels correlated significantly with BMI (girls with PP: r = 0.5 1, p < 0.02; control group 1 girls: r = 0.71; p < 0.0001; control group 2 girls: r = 0.49; p < 0.02), there was no significant relationship between leptin and activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our results indicate that the serum leptin levels in the girls with PP are not significantly different from levels in healthy girls at a similar stage of pubertal development, suggesting that the relationship between serum leptin levels and BMI is also present in this pathological situation.

  13. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758

  14. A message to school girls.

    PubMed

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  15. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  16. India's "nowhere" girls. Voices of girls 1: India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S

    1998-01-01

    In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed.

  17. Korean Physical Society's Physics Camp for High School Girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngah; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2005-10-01

    The Women's Committee of the Korean Physical Society organized physics camps during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 for high school girls. The camps give the girls an opportunity to meet and interact with working physicists and enhance smart-girl networking. About 40 students in 10 teams visited excellent laboratories in universities and research institutes located in diverse areas of the country. The girls explored the work going on in each laboratory for a few days and participated in some basic experiments when possible. Afterward they gathered at the on-site camp for oral and poster presentations about what they learned and what they did in the laboratories they visited. Their presentations were evaluated and prizes awarded for outstanding teams. These camps were successful in terms of attracting many enthusiastic girl students and enhancing their interest in physics. The camps also showed the Korean physics community the importance of this kind of activity. To attract many girl students from various regions of the country, the Korean Physical Society co-organized the physics camp with the WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) Center, which has a network system for girl students interested in science and mathematics. The 2004 KPS-ASML-WISE Physics camp was supported by the ASML Foundation in the Netherlands.

  18. Bridging Differences -- how Social Relationships and Racial Diversity Matter in a Girls' Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekelis, Linda S.; Ancheta, Rebecca Wepsic; Heber, Etta; Countryman, Jeri

    In this article, we explore an understudied dimension of girls' single-sex education - how social relationships and racial diversity impact the educational environment for girls, and how teachers may best address these concerns. Findings are presented from a 3-year qualitative study of girls' experiences in a single-sex technology program. Girls valued the all-girls aspect of the programs, and friendships formed the foundation of their social experiences. Girls' friendship groups influenced their experiences and eventually their success in the after school technology programs. When friendship groups were observed to be racially homogeneous, they created challenges for including and supporting a racially diverse student membership. Our responses to the challenges that cultural differences and tensions present are outlined, along with recommendations for helping girls bridge these differences.

  19. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  20. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life. PMID:12158010

  1. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life.

  2. Girls Back Off Mathematics Again: The Views and Experiences of Girls in Computer-Based Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Presents the views and experiences of six girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used. Indicates a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. Discusses implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the information super highway. (Author/KHR)

  3. Nobody's perfect: a qualitative examination of African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' perceptions of body image.

    PubMed

    Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-06-01

    Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors.

  4. Understanding Girls' Circle as an Intervention on Perceived Social Support, Body Image, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving…

  5. Girls Online Feeling Out of Bounds: Girl Scout Research Institute Study on Teenage Girls and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…

  6. Cognitive Distortions about Sex and Sexual Offending: A Comparison of Sex Offending Girls, Delinquent Girls, and Girls from the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…

  7. Metastatic Crohn's disease in a Chinese girl.

    PubMed

    Yu, J T H T; Chong, L Y; Lee, K C

    2006-12-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease, in which non-caseating granulomatous infiltration of the skin occurs at sites separated from the gastro-intestinal tract by normal tissue, is the least common dermatologic manifestation of Crohn's disease. We report a 15-year-old girl with metastatic Crohn's disease presenting as granulomatous vulvar papules and nodules with typical histopathologic features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic Crohn's disease in Chinese children reported in the English medical literature.

  8. Forefoot pain in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Veenema, K R

    1999-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl struck her left foot against a wall during a school basketball game but continued to play, despite a minor injury. During the following days, she developed mild forefoot swelling and persistent discomfort in the foot. She presented to her primary care physician, and plain x-rays were unremarkable. She was diagnosed as having a foot sprain and was given no specific treatment.

  9. Lyme neuroborreliosis presenting as Alice in Wonderland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Binalsheikh, Ibrahim M; Griesemer, David; Wang, Sonya; Alvarez-Altalef, Rebeca

    2012-03-01

    We describe a 7-year-old boy with Alice in Wonderland syndrome associated with Lyme disease. He presented with metamorphopsia and auditory hallucinations in the absence of previous tick bites or other signs of Lyme disease. The boy never developed clinical seizures, and electroencephalograms during these spells indicated no epileptic activity. There was no history of migraine. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging produced normal results. Lyme serology tested positive in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. He was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for 3 weeks, with complete resolution of signs. This case report is the first, to our knowledge, of neuroborreliosis presenting as Alice in Wonderland syndrome with complete resolution of findings after intravenous antibiotic treatment. PMID:22353296

  10. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly-active 8th grade girls

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W.; Pate, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly-active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Methods Data from 1,866 8th grade girls from 6 field centers across the U.S. participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. Results High-active girls were taller, had lower BMIs and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure-time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Conclusions Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. PMID:23384978

  11. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls. PMID:18551822

  12. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls.

  13. Writing Like a Good Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitler, Helen Collins

    2008-01-01

    In a montage of genres, Helen Collins Sitler illuminates the subtle yet powerful, often detrimental messages we send to girls that silence their public and private voices and diminish their opportunities to question and learn.

  14. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome.

  15. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. PMID:26170676

  16. Does worry moderate the relation between aggression and depression in adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Aggressive girls, more so than aggressive boys, are at an increased risk for depression. Despite disconcerting outcomes, few researchers have examined factors that may attenuate or exacerbate the relation between aggression and depression. Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of worry in the relation between aggressive behaviour and depressive symptoms, commonly co-occurring problems in girls, have been proposed. In the present study, we examined worry as a possible moderator in the relation between girls nominated as aggressive by their peers and self-reported depressive symptoms in a sample of 226 girls aged 13 (M = 12.92, SD = 1.28) at Time 1. We found that worry exacerbated the risk of depressive symptoms concurrently and one year later for physically aggressive girls, but not relationally aggressive girls. These results suggest that worry plays an important role in the prediction of depression for aggressive girls, which varies by the form aggression takes.

  17. Body Talk for Girls Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to girls, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for girls on…

  18. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  19. Listening to girls and boys talk about girls' physical activity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vu, Maihan B; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B

    2006-02-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus groups (N = 77), and 80 semistructured interviews with girls are examined to identify perceptions of girls' physical activity behaviors to help develop TAAG interventions. Both girls and boys talk about physically active girls as being "tomboys" or "too aggressive." Girls are more likely to characterize active girls as "in shape," whereas boys say they are "too athletic." Girls report boys to be influential barriers and motivators in shaping their beliefs about physical activity. Given the strong influence of peers, developing successful interventions for girls should include verbal persuasion, modeling, and social support from both girls and boys.

  20. Premature thelarche in Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Ting; Tung, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Wen-Yu

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to understand the clinical features and natural course of Taiwanese girls with premature thelarche (PT). The medical records of 91 Taiwanese girls with PT who were diagnosed younger than six and have been regularly followed up for more than two years were reviewed. For comparison, GnRH test was also done in 25 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 10 normal prepubertal girls. The age of onset of these patients was 1.5 +/- 1.6 years and 79% of them developed PT before the age of two. Girls with PT had intermediate degree of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian activity between prepuberty and CPP with FSH-predominant response to GnRH stimulation. 87% of patients have complete regression of breast development during 3.8 +/- 2.5 years' follow-up but 19% of them have progressed to CPP during follow-up. We conclude that Taiwanese girls with PT more often developed within the first two years of life. Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with predominant FSH activity during infancy may contribute to its development. In addition, PT is not always a benign self-limited condition, and clinicians should be cautious about pubertal development of these patients.

  1. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  2. Epidemiology of bowling-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2011-08-01

    Objective. To examine bowling-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments (EDs) from 1990 to 2008. Methods. Bowling-related injury data were analyzed from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Results. From 1990 to 2008, 8754 bowling injuries presented to US EDs, correlating to an estimated 375 468 injuries nationwide. Common body parts injured were the finger (19.0%), trunk (15.8%), and ankle/foot/toe (14.9%). Common diagnoses were sprain/strain (42.7%) and soft-tissue injury (20.3%). Children <7 years old had a higher proportion of finger injuries (49.2%) and injuries from dropping the ball (42.8%) than individuals ≥7 years old (15.9%, injury proportion ratio [IPR] = 3.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.76-3.45, P < .001; and 15.9%, IPR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.32-3.12, P < .001, respectively). Seniors ≥65 years old sustained a greater proportion of injuries related to falling/slipping/tripping (72.4%) than individuals <65 years old (38.3%; IPR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.74-2.05, P < .001). Conclusions. Bowling injuries vary by age and gender. Further research on such differences is needed to drive the development of targeted, evidence-based injury prevention strategies.

  3. Tall girls: the social shaping of a medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce M; Howell, Joel D

    2006-10-01

    During the latter half of the 20th century, estrogen therapy was administered to prevent otherwise healthy girls with tall stature from becoming tall adults by inhibiting further linear growth. We explore how decisions to treat tall girls with estrogen were influenced by both scientific knowledge and sociologic norms. Estrogen therapy represented the logical application of scientific knowledge regarding the role of estrogen for closure of the growth plates, but it also reflected prevailing societal and political beliefs about what it meant to be a tall girl. We discuss the rise and fall in popularity of this therapy and suggest that insight into the present-day treatment of short stature can be gained by comparing the use of estrogen therapy for tall girls with the use of growth hormone therapy for short boys. We suggest that this case study illustrates how scientific knowledge is always created and applied within a particular social context. PMID:17018462

  4. Tinea nigra presenting speckled or "salt and pepper" pattern.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Haddad, Vidal Junior

    2014-06-01

    A 7-year-old Caucasian female resident of the southern coast of Brazil presented dark spots on the left palm that converged to a unique macule with speckled pattern at about 1 month. The mycological exam and the fungi culture were typical of Hortaea werneckii, the agent of the superficial mycosis Tinea nigra. The patient received butenafine hydrochloride 1% for 30 days, resulting in a complete remission of the lesion. At a follow-up visit 12 months after treatment, there was no lesion recurrence. We describe a form of rare geographical Tinea nigra with a speckled pattern. The "salt and pepper" aspect should be taken into consideration when the mycosis was suspected.

  5. Does Barbie Make Girls Want to be Thin? The Effect of Experimental Exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-Year-Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported…

  6. Girl child and gender bias.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned.

  7. Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls Into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among middle school—aged girls. TAAG provided a unique opportunity to recruit large cohorts of randomly sampled girls within 36 diverse middle schools across the United States. METHODS Key elements of the formative planning, coordination, and design of TAAG’s recruitment efforts included flexibility, tailoring, and the use of incentives. Various barriers, including a natural disaster, political tension, and district regulations, were encountered throughout the recruitment process, but coordinated strategies and frequent communication between the 6 TAAG sites were helpful in tailoring the recruitment process at the 36 intervention and control schools. RESULTS Progressively refined recruitment strategies and specific attention to the target audience of middle school girls resulted in overall study recruitment rates of 80%, 85%, and 89%, for the baseline, posttest, and follow-up period, respectively. DISCUSSION The steady increase in recruitment rates over time is attributed to an emphasis on successful strategies and a willingness to modify less successful methods. Open and consistent communication, an increasingly coordinated recruitment strategy, interactive recruitment presentations, and participant incentives resulted in an effective recruitment campaign. PMID:18808471

  8. Severely obese adolescent girls rely earlier on carbohydrates during walking than normal-weight matched girls.

    PubMed

    Gavarry, Olivier; Aguer, Celine; Delextrat, Anne; Lentin, Gregory; Ayme, Karine; Boussuges, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the substrate oxidation rate and the exercise intensity at which maximal lipid oxidation and ventilatory threshold (VT) occur in obese (BMI: 36.6 ± 6.3 kg · m(-2)) and normal-weight adolescent girls (BMI: 18.7 ± 1.6 kg · m(-2)) aged 14-18 years. Substrate oxidation rate was determined by gas exchange using an incremental field test involving walking. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Carbohydrate oxidation rates were significantly higher in obese than in normal-weight girls at speeds ranging from 4 to 6 km · h(-1) (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were observed between groups regarding lipid oxidation rates. The crossover point of substrate utilisation and the VT were significantly lower in obese than in normal-weight adolescents (P < 0.05). Maximal lipid oxidation rate was observed at 46 ± 15 and 53 ± 15 %EVO2max in obese and normal-weight adolescents, respectively. At these intensities, the Lipox(max) was significantly lower in obese than in normal-weight girls (6.7 ± 2.3 versus 8.9 ± 3.5 mg · min(-1) · kg(-1) FFM, P < 0.05, 95% CI: -3.7 to -0.7, d = -0.74). The present results have implications in designing interventions to promote lipid oxidation and energy expenditure during walking in severely obese adolescent girls.

  9. Gender Context of the School and Study Culture, or How the Presence of Girls Affects the Achievement of Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtte, Mieke Van

    2004-01-01

    This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys'…

  10. Girls, pecking order and smoking.

    PubMed

    Michell, L; Amos, A

    1997-06-01

    Against a background of growing concern about the failure to reduce cigarette smoking amongst young people, particularly girls, this paper attempts to unravel the complex interrelationships between smoking, peer group structure and gender. We were particularly intrigued to explore a recent hypothesis in the literature that suggests that girls who smoke, far from lacking self-esteem, are more self-confident and socially skilled than their non-smoking peers. Sociometric and qualitative analyses revealed that smoking behaviour was indeed shaped by gender, and that the psychosocial processes involved in smoking uptake may be different for boys and than for girls. Peer group structure, consistently described by young people as hierarchical, was closely related to smoking behaviour. Girls at the top of the social pecking order who projected an image of high self-esteem were identified as most likely to smoke, while only a small minority of girls fitted the stereotype of the young female smoker who has poor social skills and low self-esteem. Boys of high social status were less vulnerable, since sport and a desire to be fit to some extent protected them. Our findings raise fundamental questions about the meaning of self-esteem in relation to smoking uptake, arguing instead for an exploration of the term "self-worth". They suggest the need for health education programmes which are sensitive both to gender and to peer group structures.

  11. Girl child and family in Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Pandey, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of the girl child at the family level in India. Analysis is based on a field study in Maharashtra state and other studies included in a government report on the "Girl Child and the Family." The family context strongly impacts child growth and development. Evidence indicates that a girl child faces discrimination and inequality. Every sixth female death is attributed to gender discrimination. Household tasks prevent girls' school enrollment. Children learn role expectations at home. Daughters are taught their duties and obligations as if they were a piece of property. 25% of the parents in the sample considered a girl's birth with indifference and unhappiness. In 11% of cases, girls were not immunized at all. Breast feeding was short. 31.8% of mothers and 25% of in-laws expected the girl's birth to be a boy. 98.2% of mothers did not rely on sex determination of the fetus. Almost 60% of households did not restrict smiling or crying among boys or girls. 70% restricted laughing loudly. 42.4% restricted only girls' laughing out loud. 17% restricted girls' smiling or crying. 46.5% restricted girls' movement to the house. 42% did not allow daughters to speak to the opposite sex. 17% restricted access to the market for daughters. Girls were encouraged to cook, stitch, and dance. 60% of girls preferred to spend time with girl friends. Boys had better access to movies. 57% of girls spent time on housework. 47% became gender aware from mass media. Most felt frightened at menstruation. 88% of girls thought that all should equally attain the same level of education. Girls received an equal share of food and health care. 87% of girls did not work for wages. Those who worked did not control their income.

  12. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl

    PubMed Central

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa. PMID:24706700

  13. Where the girls aren't: High school girls and advanced placement physics enrollment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Susan O'brien

    During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.

  14. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  15. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  16. The effect of horizontal versus vertical task presentation on children's performance in coordinate tasks.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Naomi; Davis, Alyson; De Bruyn, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Empirical work on children's ability to understand spatial coordinates has focused on the factors that increase children's proficiency. When interpreting performance, it should be considered that presenting a coordinate task on a horizontal surface might constrain the responses that children make because some target positions are further away from the child than others. Vertical task presentation removes this constraint. Children aged 3 to 9 years were presented with an interpretative coordinate task administered on a touchscreen, presented in an egocentric-vertical position or egocentric-horizontal position. The results show that for 5- to 7-year-old children vertical presentation led to far more correct responses than horizontal presentation. Analysis of the children's errors suggests that this may be due to the fact that vertical presentation suppresses children's bias towards responding in relation to one rather than both coordinates. Taken together these findings contribute to understanding why children's performance in xy coordination tasks is highly contextually sensitive.

  17. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Silicon Valley youth awarded $145,000 in college scholarships, organization’s highest honor representing four million kids and teens MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the University of Wisconsin-Madison to Provide Full Tuition Scholarships for Multicultural Arts Program Two full-tuition ...

  18. Making Science Appeal to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that many girls seem disinterested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but strategies for building their interest are sometimes elusive. Because STEM career paths are not always perceived as "natural" for women, educators do no't always push their female students to explore these educational areas. As a…

  19. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  20. Urogenital complications among girls with genital mutilation: a hospital-based study in Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Almroth, Lars; Bedri, Hibba; El Musharaf, Susan; Satti, Alia; Idris, Tayseer; Hashim, M Sir K; Suliman, Gaafar I; Bergström, Staffan

    2005-08-01

    To explore paediatric complications of female genital mutilation (FGM), 255 consecutive girls aged 4-9 years presenting to an emergency ward in Sudan were included in this clinical study. Full examination, including inspection of genitalia, was performed. Dipsticks for nitrite and leucocytes were used to diagnose suspected urinary tract infection (UTI). Girls with a form of FGM narrowing vulva had significantly more UTI than others, and among girls below the age of seven there was a significant association between FGM and UTI. Only 8% of girls diagnosed as having UTI reported urogenital symptoms. In spite of the fact that 73% of the girls subjected to FGM were reported to have been bedridden for one week or more after the operation, only 10% stated immediate complications. We conclude that FGM contributes significantly to morbidity among girls, a large share of which does not come to medical attention.

  1. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math.

  2. Pharmacological Management of Treatment-Induced Insomnia in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Lake, Marybeth; Pliszka, Steven R.; Walkup, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined subtype, and oppositional defiant disorder presents with a complaint of marked insomnia. Her parents describe 60 to 90 minutes of nightly initial insomnia that began with the initiation of 36 mg OROS methylphenidate (Concerta) 2 months ago. Behavioral interventions…

  3. Pressurised air injury in a child.

    PubMed

    Poovazhagi, V; Thangavelu, S; Shanthi, S

    2011-08-01

    We report the case of a 7 year old girl, who sustained accidental injury following injection of pressurized air from a bicycle tyre air nozzle. She presented with generalized subcutaneous emphysema along with pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumorra-chis. The child was recovered completely on conservative management. PMID:21918272

  4. Color naming by boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Machen, V

    2002-02-01

    The present study describes a field experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that color naming varies for 56 adolescent boys and 39 girls. No standard color chart such as Munsell, Pantone, or Crayola was used. Instead, subjects identified 15 computer-generated color samples assigned a score based on thescale devised by Rich in 1977 of four color descriptor categories. Findings differed from those of most previous studies, in which women aged over 16 years showed a more elaborate color vocabulary than men. Among the 14- to 16-yr.-old subjects, there was no significant difference in color naming. PMID:11883586

  5. Fasciolopsiasis in a five year old girl.

    PubMed

    Naher, B S; Shahid, A T; Khan, K A; Nargis, S; Hoque, M M

    2013-04-01

    A 5 year old girl hailing from Keraniganj, presented with the complaints of fever, periumbilical pain and vomiting. In vomitus, Fasciolopsis buski worm in adult form was identified by naked eye examination. In stool, ova of Fasciolopsis buski were also observed under microscope. Clinically she was pale and had hepatomegaly. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia with normal liver function test was found on lab investigation. She was diagnosed as a case of Fasciolopsiasis and treated with Praziquantel and on follow up visit she was found to be free of symptom.

  6. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  7. Listening to Girls and Boys Talk about Girls' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Maihan B.; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus…

  8. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  9. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  10. Phenomenology of Depression in Young Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…

  11. Gifted Girls: What Challenges Do They Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Vickie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses challenges facing gifted girls at all levels of education, including social pressures not to appear gifted. Identifies school factors that negatively impact their education, and provides school strategies for helping gifted girls succeed, including support groups, counseling, and calling on girls in class. (CR)

  12. Working with Challenging Groups of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditter, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Discusses conflicts among girls in a camp setting and how camp counselors can promote positive changes. Examines conflicting female roles in today's society and girls' reactions. Suggests addressing social dysphoria among girls through outdoor-challenge activities led by credible adult female role models. Includes counseling tips. (SV)

  13. The Young Gifted Girl: A Contemporary View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    In this reprint of an article published in 1978, the role of women in society and its impact on gifted girls is discussed. It is argued that gender stereotypes work against gifted girls and that the women's movement has helped gifted girls develop a new image and concept of womanhood. (CR)

  14. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  15. Improving Girls' Education in Guatemala. Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC. Center for Development Information and Evaluation.

    In Guatemala, many girls attend no school. A project by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Basic Education Strengthening (BEST), demonstrated that improving educational quality is the best approach to enhancing girls' participation. BEST included a Girls Education Program (GEP) activity. Under the BEST/GEP umbrella,…

  16. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide for Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Mentoring is about building trust over a long period of time. If a mentor cares about the girls and follows through with the promises that he or she makes to them, a mentor will be successful in helping them to improve their lives. This "Guide" serves as…

  17. Exploring Work: Fun Activities for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This document contains learning activities to help middle school girls begin the career planning process and resist gender-role stereotyping. The activities are designed for individuals and/or groups of girls either in classroom settings or in organizations such as Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs. A total of 30 activities are organized into 4 sections…

  18. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  19. [Incidentaloma in a 16 years old girl -- 2 year observation].

    PubMed

    Basiak, Aleksander; Bolanowski, Marek; Wasikowa, Renata; Noczyńska, Anna; Bednorz, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Adenomas of the hypophysis are tumors of the CNS which are on the third place in the frequency of appearance, which cause disturbances of hypophyseal function. In children incidentaloma is seldom observed. The authors present a 16-year-old girl who was admitted to the clinic because of amenorrhoea and an increased growth velocity during the last year. The MRI examination of the hypophysis proved a hypophyseal adenoma. Hormonal laboratory examinations do not show any hormonal activity of the observation. The girl's case is presented because the diagnosis of an incidentaloma is exceptionally rare in this age group.

  20. Creating Spaces for Black Adolescent Girls to "Write It Out!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…

  1. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating. PMID:27551992

  2. Interlabial masses in little girls: review and imaging recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, A.R.; Lebowitz, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    When an interlabial mass is seen on physical examination in a little girl, there is often confusion about its etiology, its implications, and what should be done next. Five common interlabial masses, which superficially are strikingly similar, include a prolapsed ectopic ureterocele, a prolapsed urethra, a paraurethral cyst, hydro(metro)colpos, and rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina (botryoid sarcoma). A prolapsed ectopic ureterocele occurs in white girls as a smooth mass which protrudes from the urethral meatus so that urine exits circumferentially. A prolapsed urethra occurs in black girls and resembles a donut with the urethral meatus in the center. A paraurethral cyst is smaller and displaces the meatus, so that the urinary stream is eccentric. Hydro(metro)colpos from hymenal imperforation presents as a smooth mass that fills the vaginal introitus, as opposed to the introital grapelike cluster of masses of botryoid sarcoma. Recommendations for efficient imaging are presented.

  3. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating.

  4. Middle school girls' envisioned future in computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open to computing career were compared to the two thirds were not. Girls open to a computing career had higher interest and confidence in computing, had more social support for computing, and saw themselves as more like a computer scientist than girls who did not want a computing career.

  5. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  6. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial

  7. Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-03-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported lower body esteem and greater desire for a thinner body shape than girls in the other exposure conditions. However, this immediate negative impact of Barbie doll was no longer evident in the oldest girls. These findings imply that, even if dolls cease to function as aspirational role models for older girls, early exposure to dolls epitomizing an unrealistically thin body ideal may damage girls' body image, which would contribute to an increased risk of disordered eating and weight cycling. PMID:16569167

  8. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  9. Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome during Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…

  10. A Perceptual Study of Girls Education, Its Factors and Challenges in South Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2015-01-01

    Education is accepted as an important tool for human development in all dimensions of life, it is at same level of significance for boys and girls. Despite this recognition, girls are one of the most vulnerable groups, deprived of education by various socio-cultural, economical and political reasons. The present study is a perceptual study, which…

  11. Grades Four and Eight Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Girls' and Boys' Writing Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Presents teacher and student responses that show a privileging of girls' writing over boys' writing. Finds that girls' writing was viewed as more detailed, descriptive, and showing greater conformity to writing conventions. Indicates a need for conversations that question an emphasis on conformity in writing and that explore ways to nurture…

  12. Pubertal Effects on Adjustment in Girls: Moving from Demonstrating Effects to Identifying Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation examines mediated pathways from pubertal development to changes in depressive affect and aggression. Participants were 100 white girls who were between the ages of 10 and 14 (M=12.13, SD=0.80); girls were from well-educated, middle-to upper-middle class families, and attended private schools in a major northeastern urban…

  13. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  14. "Little Intellectuals". Girls' Academic Secondary Education under Francoism: Projects, Realities and Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Antonio Fco.

    2012-01-01

    The present article examines the situation of girls in Spanish academic secondary education during the first Francoism. It outlines the measures introduced by the Franco Regime that maintained the traditional access for girls to the same academic curriculum followed by boys, although in separate schools. Later, it examines the various projects put…

  15. "What You Wear Tells a Lot about You:" Girls Dress Up Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Rebekah

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study in which 26 girls aged 12- to 13-years-old took part in workshops at a specialist ICT center connected to a school in inner-city London. The girls explored and discussed fashion as presented online, and they produced their own interactive fashion design webpages, making decisions about body shapes, types…

  16. Between Returns and Respectability: Parental Attitudes towards Girls' Education in Rural Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purewal, Navtej; Hashmi, Naimatullah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses upon perceptions of girls' education in the family context within which decisions around children's education and opportunities are made. The article presents a framework showing how parental attitudes to girls' education are shaped by an objective logic framed by the notion of returns, relating to potential benefits of…

  17. Where the Girls Are: The Facts about Gender Equity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Christianne; Hill, Catherine; St. Rose, Andresse

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive look at girls' educational achievement during the past 35 years, paying special attention to the relationship between girls' and boys' progress. Analyses of results from national standardized tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the SAT and ACT college entrance examinations,…

  18. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia

    This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…

  19. Girls, Subjectivity and Language: From Four to Twelve in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette

    This dissertation presents the construction and development of a thesis that investigates links between discourses of gender and the production of writing by girls at primary school. The research took place over three years in a one-teacher rural school in country Victoria (Australia). The girls were aged from four to twelve. The research…

  20. The Experience of the Hidden Curriculum for Autistic Girls at Mainstream Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyse, R.; Porter, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of ethnographic case studies of three girls on the autistic spectrum attending mainstream primary schools and illustrates the difficulties they experience and the ways in which these are often unrecognised. The observations of the girls and subsequent individual interviews with their mothers, class teachers,…

  1. Boys' and Girls' Motivations for Refraining from Prompting Friends to Talk about Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…

  2. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  3. Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome of the hypertrophic clitoris in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Karakaya, Ali Erdal

    2015-05-01

    Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome is defined as the ischemic strangulation of hair resulting in edema and severe pain and may cause amputation of organs. Strangulation of the external genitalia (clitoris, labia minora) has rarely been described in girls. Here, we present a case of hypertrophic clitoris injury secondary to hair strangulation in a 6-year-old girl.

  4. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  5. Colloquium on HIV/AIDS and Girls' Education. Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 25-26, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This document presents a summary of a colloquium that focused on the threat the HIV/AIDS epidemic poses to education systems and to girls' access to and completion of education. The colloquium examined how girls' education might be used to mitigate this impact. The meeting involved nearly 200 people from academic institutions, nongovernmental…

  6. When Little Girls Become Junior Connoisseurs: A Cautionary Tale of Art Museum Education in the Hyperreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Melinda M.

    2006-01-01

    Introducing the tale--A young girl about eleven years old appeared on the TV screen. She stood in an art museum expounding upon the painting hanging behind her. She talked about the artist and what the image portrayed. With an air of elitist prissiness that suited the museum environment, the girl delivered her presentation to a group of…

  7. Reversing the Effects of Sexism in Elementary School Girls Through the Use of Classical Conditioning Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; Bryant, William T.

    Probably as a result of America's "socialization" process, girls and women have tended to develop rather negativistic views of females. That this negativism may be part of a developmental indoctrination process is further advanced by the present experiment's finding that older girls in this experiment demonstrated significantly less favorable…

  8. Preschool Girls and the Media: How Magazines Describe and Depict Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hata, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the presentation and content of magazines targeted at preschool-aged girls in Japan to analyse what gender patterns or gendered behaviours were encouraged and how the readers reacted to the media discourse. There were 13 magazines published in 2013 in Japan. Seven of them catered to girls, three to boys and three to both…

  9. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  10. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  11. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  12. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  13. Amenorrhea, ptosis and high insulin requirement in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Hari Kumar, K V S; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Lipodystrophy is an uncommon condition leading to excessive insulin requirement and menstrual abnormalities in young girls with diabetes. Neurological symptoms are uncommon in patients of generalized or partial lipodystrophy. We recently encountered a young girl, who presented with high insulin requirement, amenorrhea and neurological symptoms. Detailed evaluation led to the diagnosis of congenital lipodystrophy and we describe the same in this report. We also highlight the atypical features of the congenital lipodystrophy and the reasons for the excessive insulin requirement in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  14. Spreading the use of solar cooking by Girl Scouts

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, B.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes the advantages of using organizations such as the World Organization of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts to include solar cooking technology in their programs. The national organizations involved have researched the needs and resources of their countries and have developed plans to meet their unique needs. The need is great for contributions to purchase materials. This need would be best met with large grants to the World Organization of the Scouting movement where staff could provide oversight and evaluation of projects. Projects from several countries are presented as illustration.

  15. Phallometric comparison of pedophilic interest in nonadmitting sexual offenders against stepdaughters, biological daughters, other biologically related girls, and unrelated girls.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip; Dickey, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the mean levels of sexual response to children produced by four groups of men with sexual offences against prepubescent girls and two comparison groups with other offences or no offences. All groups (N = 291) consisted of patients referred for clinical assessment of their sexual behavior or interests. Group assignment was determined by the victim's age and her relation to the patient: biological daughter; stepdaughter; other biologically related girl (e.g., sister, niece, granddaughter); unrelated girl; adult woman; and no known victim. The men with sexual offences had precisely one known victim each. The patients with offences may or may not have denied the act of which they were accused, but all patients denied an erotic preference for children. Sexual response to children was assessed by means of phallometric testing, a psychophysiological technique in which the individual's penile blood volume is monitored while he is presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children and adults. The results indicated that the mean level of pedophilic response in men with offences against daughters or stepdaughters is intermediate between that in men with offences against otherwise-related or unrelated girls and that in men with no offences against girls at all. PMID:16598663

  16. Cognitive distortions about sex and sexual offending: a comparison of sex offending girls, delinquent girls, and girls from the community.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Elizabeth K; Hecker, Jeffrey E

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual of non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes varied with respect to the sexual contact portrayed and the victim's response. Girls who had sexually offended were more likely to endorse statements reflecting the belief that the offender in a sexually aggressive vignette was not responsible for initiating the sexual contact. In addition, when the victim's response to the sexual contact was clearly negative, and the degree of contact was more serious, girls who had sexually offended demonstrated more distorted beliefs about the victim than the other two groups. Similarities and differences between the current findings and studies of distorted thinking in male sexual offenders are discussed.

  17. [The sleeping girl from Oknö].

    PubMed

    Holmstedt, B; Ljungberg, L; Moëll, H; Sjöberg, S G

    1995-01-01

    The peninsula of Oknö is located on the Baltic in Southern Sweden. It was here a 14 year-old girl "fell asleep" around Christmas time in the year 1875 - she woke up on April 3rd, 1908. She was then 46 years of age and had slept for 32 years. Except for numerous newspaper articles this unusual case has been described by the Swedish psychiatrist Harald Fröderström in 1912. The present article is based on his review and the investigation of the medical records at the hospital of the city of Oskarshamn where the woman in question was hospitalized for one month in 1892. At the city hospital she was given the diagnosis dementia paralytica - a diagnosis which was obviously wrong. When the woman woke up in 1908 she assumed a normal life and remained healthy until she died in 1950 through a brain hemorrhage. Fröderström, who except for an article written in French, wrote several extensive articles for Swedish newspapers about the sleeping girl. These articles are here reviewed from a modern psychiatric point of view.

  18. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  19. Differences between Boys and Girls in Extracurricular Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…

  20. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  1. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

  2. Deaf Lives: Nineteenth-Century Spanish Deaf Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plann, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This article is about the lives of nineteenth-century Spanish deaf girls and women. The research presented is contained in a larger work, a book titled "Portraits from the Spanish National Deaf-Mute School," to be published by Gallaudet University Press. These "portraits" are in fact biographical essays on nineteenth-century deaf people and their…

  3. Growing Up Girl: Preparing for Change through Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nancy; Jones, Cathy P.

    2007-01-01

    The early years of school provide opportunities for active learning, including developing habits of resiliency and perceptions of self-worth. Girls in particular may be at risk for developing negative self-perceptions. This article presents a pilot group (psychoeducational and counseling) designed to educate members about pre-adolescent…

  4. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  5. Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was to form…

  6. Defining Deviance: Sex, Science, and Delinquent Girls, 1890-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemente, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review on "Defining deviance: sex, science, and delinquent girls, 1890-1960," by Michael A. Rembis. This is the first book by Michael A. Rembis, an Associate Professor and Director of the Center for Disability Studies at the University of Buffalo. Drawing on thousands of case files from the Illinois State Training School in…

  7. Self-Care Strategies among Chinese Adolescent Girls with Dysmenorrhea: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Lam, Lai Wah

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how Chinese adolescent girls manage dysmenorrhea. This study aims to explore self-care strategies among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. The study uses a mixed methods design with two phases: a cross-sectional survey in phase I and semistructured interviews in phase II. This paper reports phase II. In line with the phase I findings, 28 adolescent girls with different characteristics (high or low levels of self-care behavior and pain intensity, who did or did not self-medicate, and who had or had not received menstrual education) were recruited for interviews. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Four categories emerged from the data: lifestyle changes, symptom management, communicating dysmenorrhea with others, and seeking medical advice. Girls selected their diets carefully and reduced physical activity during menstruation to avoid aggravating symptoms. Heat therapy commonly was employed for symptom management. A few girls self-medicated to obtain immediate relief from pain, but the majority expressed reservations about using medication because they worried about dependence and side effects. Some girls communicated dysmenorrhea with their family and friends, but the majority did not seek medical advice. The present study showed that girls employed various self-care strategies for dysmenorrhea, including some strategies stemming from traditional Chinese medicine. The findings revealed menstrual etiquette among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea, and demonstrated that self-medication was not part of most girls' self-care. Understanding the self-care strategies of these girls is important, as it can help nurses develop a culturally-specific intervention to promote self-care among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea.

  8. Self-Care Strategies among Chinese Adolescent Girls with Dysmenorrhea: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Lam, Lai Wah

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how Chinese adolescent girls manage dysmenorrhea. This study aims to explore self-care strategies among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. The study uses a mixed methods design with two phases: a cross-sectional survey in phase I and semistructured interviews in phase II. This paper reports phase II. In line with the phase I findings, 28 adolescent girls with different characteristics (high or low levels of self-care behavior and pain intensity, who did or did not self-medicate, and who had or had not received menstrual education) were recruited for interviews. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Four categories emerged from the data: lifestyle changes, symptom management, communicating dysmenorrhea with others, and seeking medical advice. Girls selected their diets carefully and reduced physical activity during menstruation to avoid aggravating symptoms. Heat therapy commonly was employed for symptom management. A few girls self-medicated to obtain immediate relief from pain, but the majority expressed reservations about using medication because they worried about dependence and side effects. Some girls communicated dysmenorrhea with their family and friends, but the majority did not seek medical advice. The present study showed that girls employed various self-care strategies for dysmenorrhea, including some strategies stemming from traditional Chinese medicine. The findings revealed menstrual etiquette among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea, and demonstrated that self-medication was not part of most girls' self-care. Understanding the self-care strategies of these girls is important, as it can help nurses develop a culturally-specific intervention to promote self-care among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. PMID:27292081

  9. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  10. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  11. Altered Breast Development in Young Girls from an Agricultural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Elizabeth A.; Conard, Craig; Lares, Fernando; Aguilar, Maria Guadalupe; McLachlan, John; Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    In several human populations, the age at which female breast development begins is reported to have declined over the last five decades. Much debate has occurred over whether this reported decline has actually occurred and what factors contribute to it. However, geographical patterns reflecting earlier developmental onset in some human populations suggest environmental factors influence this phenomenon. These factors include interactions between genetic makeup, nutrition, and possible cumulative exposure to estrogens, both endogenous as well as environmental beginning during in utero development. We examined the onset of breast development in a group of peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. We observed that girls from valley towns, areas using modern agricultural practices, exhibited larger breast fields than those of girls living in the foothills who exhibited similar stature [e.g., weight, height, body mass index (BMI)], and genetic background. Further, girls from valley towns displayed a poorly defined relationship between breast size and mammary gland development, whereas girls from the Yaqui foothills, where traditional ranching occurs, show a robust positive relationship between breast size and mammary size. The differences noted were obtained by a medically based exam involving morphometric analysis and palpation of tissues, in contrast to visual staging alone. In fact, use of the Tanner scale, involving visual staging of breast development for puberty, detected no differences between the study populations. Mammary tissue, determined by palpation, was absent in 18.5% of the girls living in agricultural areas, although palpable breast adipose tissue was present. No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in either population. These data suggest that future in-depth studies examining mammary tissue growth and fat deposition in breast tissue are required if we are to understand environmental influences on these

  12. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  13. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes.

  14. Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6-9 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies.

  15. Dysmenorrhoea in Different Settings: Are the Rural and Urban Adolescent Girls Perceiving and Managing the Dysmenorrhoea Problem Differently?

    PubMed Central

    Avasarala, Atchuta Kameswararao; Panchangam, Saibharghavi

    2008-01-01

    Context: It is well-known that every health problem, not only presents itself with different epidemiological profiles in different population settings, but is also perceived and managed differently. Having knowledge of these variations in its presentations and perceptions in different population settings, for example, in urban and rural settings, will be useful for its successful management. Aim: To study differences in epidemiological profiles, perceptions, socio economic losses, and quality-of-life losses and management of dysmenorrhoea in different settings for effective management. Design and Setting: A comparative cross-sectional study among adolescent school girls (101 girls in urban areas and 79 girls in rural areas) in the district of Karimnagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a pretested questionnaire was conducted among 180 adolescent girls in urban and rural settings. Statistical Analyses Used: Proportions and X2 test. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea is 54% (53% in girls in urban areas and 56% in girls in rural areas) (X2 df = 0.1, P = 0.05). Sickness absenteeism (28–48%), socio economic losses, and perceived quality of life losses are more prevalent among girls in urban areas than in girls in rural areas. Girls in rural areas resort to physical labor and other natural methods to obtain relief while the girls in urban areas are mainly depending on medications. Conclusions: Dysmenorrhoea can also be managed effectively by natural methods without resorting to medicines, provided one is psychologically prepared to face it without anxiety. PMID:19876499

  16. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls’hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups. PMID:26139955

  17. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout and NIRCam Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Arizona's (UA) NIRCam E/PO team (NASA James Webb Space Telescope) and the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council began a long-term collaboration to bring astronomy activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers and, in turn, to their councils and girls, i.e., to train the trainers. Nationally, our goal is to reach leaders in all councils. To date, this program has reached nearly 200 adults from 39 councils nationwide (plus Guam and Korea), bringing together leaders, UA graduate students, and NIRCam scientists and educators to experience Arizona's dark skies. Locally, our goal is to provide Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education to girls of all ages throughout southern Arizona. To accomplish this in astronomy, we have additional ongoing collaborations with the Planetary Science Institute, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and, most recently with the Amphitheater School District. One of the programs that we have been recently emphasizing is Family Science and Astronomy Nights. These programs can be run at our local Girl Scout facility or can be incorporated into programs that we are running in local schools. Our near-term goal is to provide a series of interconnected activities that can be done in classrooms, in afterschool programs, as part of the Family Science and Astronomy Nights, or in summer astronomy camps. Our long-term goal is to empower girls ultimately to become leaders who are excited about the night sky and can take lead roles presenting activities and facilitating astronomy nights. Our poster will display a variety of the activities we have refined and developed through this progam: scale models of the Solar System and beyond, classifying Solar System objects, a portable human orrery, observing the night sky with and without telescopes, constellation transformations, and constellation sorting cards.NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  18. Understanding girls' enrollment at Louise's Farm School: A qualitative case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Ashley E. P.

    This thesis presents a qualitative case study of enrollment and retention considerations at Louise's Farm School (LFS) in Palmer, Alaska, with a focus on how gender is performed in this domain. Interviews with 25 students, 12 parents, and 14 instructors revealed the enrollment decision-making process, identifying constraints to and enablers of girls' participation. Findings included three primary factors as greatly influencing girls' enrollment: (1) mothers' backgrounds; (2) mothers' knowledge of and the misperceptions regarding outcomes of LFS programing; and (3) girls' interest in LFS curriculum. Findings also exposed differences in mothers' and instructors' expectations for the educative development of girls and boys, suggesting that there is greater pressure on girls to perform academically while boys are expected to need greater space for physical expression.

  19. Changes in Girls' Lives: Malawi from 1990 to 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Joyce; Kainja, Katherine

    Increased awareness of the importance of girls' education within Malawi and internationally resulted in the implementation of many changes in girls' education during the 1990s. By 1997, the number of girls enrolled in primary school was twice the level in 1990, and girls' share of enrollment increased from 45 to 48 percent. Malawi improved girls'…

  20. We Roll Deep: Appalachian Girls Fight for Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatig, Linda; Parrott, Laurel; Carter, Carolyn; Kusimo, Patricia; Keyes, Marian

    This paper chronicles the experiences of nine adolescent girls who participated in a 3-year science, mathematics, and technology program for Appalachian girls. The girls lived in two West Virginia communities (one rural, one urban). Most of the girls were poor; six were African American. Descriptions of the girls' neighborhoods and local…

  1. Britney, Beyonce, and Me--Primary School Girls' Role Models and Constructions of the "Popular" Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which the gendered social construction of the "popular girl" infuses girls' ideas as to their role models: those representing who they would like to be when they "grow up". It will look at the ways in which the gendered characteristics that are seen to be of most value to girls (often embodied by "celebrities" such…

  2. Teaching the Third World Girl: "Girl Rising" as a Precarious Curriculum of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the recently released "Girl Rising" film and associated campaign to analyze how the guarantee that girls' education is panacea for local, national and global solutions is sedimented through affective logics. I view Girl Rising as a curriculum inclusive of the film, accompanying packaged lesson plans for educators,…

  3. Fighting Like a Girl Fighting Like a Guy: Gender Identity, Ideology, and Girls at Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that…

  4. Understanding Girls' Friendships, Fights and Feuds: A Practical Approach to Girls' Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besag, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    Girls' bullying is more subtle and less physical than that perpetrated by boys; however, it can be just as powerful, and the emotional repercussions of bullying among girls can be more destructive and longer lasting than the effects of more obvious forms of bullying. Teachers report that quarrels between girls are far more time-consuming and…

  5. "In the Eye of the Beholder...": Girls', Boys' and Teachers' Perceptions of Boys' Aggression to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…

  6. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout NIRCam Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2012-03-01

    A long-term collaboration between the JWST’s NIRCam E/PO team and the Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona brings STEM activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers, and in turn to their councils and girls.

  7. Promoting Girls' Participation in Sports: Discursive Constructions of Girls in a Sports Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svender, Jenny; Larsson, Hakan; Redelius, Karin

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to promote girls' participation in sports and which girls are seen as needing support? In this article we focus a government-financed sports venture and scrutinize the frames governing what is possible to say about girls and their participation in sports. By analyzing project applications from local sport clubs we investigate how…

  8. Resilient Girls--Factors That Protect against Delinquency. Girls Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Graham, Phillip W.; Williams, Jason; Zahn, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    According to data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, from 1991 to 2000, arrests of girls increased more (or decreased less) than arrests of boys for most types of offenses. By 2004, girls accounted for 30 percent of all juvenile arrests. However, questions remain about whether these trends reflect an actual increase in girls' delinquency or…

  9. How Schools Shortchange Girls. A Study of Major Findings on Girls and Education. The AAUW Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellesley Coll., MA. Center for Research on Women.

    The educational experience of girls has been largely ignored in the current education debate in the United States. This absence does not mean that boys and girls have identical educational experiences in school. This report challenges the common assumption that girls and boys are treated equally in U.S. public schools by providing a synthesis of…

  10. Smart Girls, Hard-Working Girls but Not yet Self-Assured Girls: The Limits of Gender Equity Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Higher levels of girls and women's participation in targeted areas are widely apparent, particularly in affluent and middle-class sites. Here, we report on research with young middle and upper middle-class high school girls successfully enrolled in non-traditional advanced placement (AP) courses in mathematics, science, and computer programming in…

  11. Gall bladder Adenocarcinoma in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Date, Shivprasad V; Rizvi, S J

    2015-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with abdominal discomfort, weakness, and jaundice. General examination revealed deep icterus with hard lymph nodes in left supraclavicular region. On gastrointestinal examination, we appreciated a hard intra-abdominal lump in the right hypochondrium. Biochemical evaluation showed features of obstructive jaundice. Imaging confirmed the presence of gall bladder lump with multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of neck nodes demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the gall bladder lump (done under sonographic guidance) confirmed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, malignancy of the gall bladder has not been reported in individuals less than 18 years in India, and only three cases have been reported worldwide in English literature. PMID:26139973

  12. Gall bladder Adenocarcinoma in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Date, Shivprasad V; Rizvi, S J

    2015-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with abdominal discomfort, weakness, and jaundice. General examination revealed deep icterus with hard lymph nodes in left supraclavicular region. On gastrointestinal examination, we appreciated a hard intra-abdominal lump in the right hypochondrium. Biochemical evaluation showed features of obstructive jaundice. Imaging confirmed the presence of gall bladder lump with multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of neck nodes demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the gall bladder lump (done under sonographic guidance) confirmed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, malignancy of the gall bladder has not been reported in individuals less than 18 years in India, and only three cases have been reported worldwide in English literature.

  13. Lupus vulgaris in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2013-01-01

    With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( < 1-2 % of total cases) becomes significant. With the WHO setting up public-private mix partnerships and a millenium development goal of a 50% reduction in the total number of incident cases, the case detection and reporting of unusual cutaneous TB cases becomes very important. We present a case of lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously.

  14. [Plasmapheresis for macrophage activation syndrome and multiorgan failure as first presentation of juvenile dermatomyositis].

    PubMed

    Bustos B, R; Carrasco A, C; Toledo R, C

    2012-07-01

    The use of extracorporeal techniques for the treatment of paediatric diseases has expanded dramatically in the past decade. Plasmapheresis, a technique for exchanging plasma components with albumin or plasma, has been used in some rheumatologic conditions. We report the clinical course of a 7 years old boy with clinical and biological features of macrophage activation syndrome and multiorgan failure, at the time of presentation of severe juvenile dermatomyositis, and non responsive to corticosteroids, cyclosporine and immunoglobulin. After 4 days in the paediatric intensive care unit, plasmapheresis was used as rescue therapy. Repeated therapeutic plasmapheresis was effective for improving the multiorgan failure and laboratory abnormalities. The patient was discharged on the 21st hospital day with good functional condition. Plasmapheresis should be considered as rescue treatment in patients with life threatening macrophage activation syndrome and systemic onset of juvenile dermatomyositis. PMID:22342516

  15. Girls and Violence. ERIC Digest Number 143.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Jeanne

    This digest reviews current research on girls' delinquent and violent behavior, the factors contributing to it, and effective programming strategies to prevent it. Girls are more involved in violent crime than they were a decade ago. Their murder rate is up 64%, although status offenses (offenses only because the perpetrator is a minor) continue…

  16. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  17. A Climbing Girl's Reflections about Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    The main research question in this paper is whether a climbing discourse can be a resource for a school-geometry discourse. The text is based on a 12-year old girl's story from an exciting climbing trip during her summer holiday. The girl uncovers some of her knowledge that had been invisible to her; she is guided to see some relations between her…

  18. Girls and Physics: Continuing Barriers to "Belonging"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia; Whitelegg, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses selected findings of a narrative review, funded by the Institute of Physics, in response to the continuing decline in the number of girls studying physics post-16 in England; 177 selected sources, of national and international research literature about girls' participation in physics, were reviewed. In the article, we argue…

  19. Girls' Education: The Power of Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…

  20. Body Talk for Parents of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to girls' parents, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction discusses cultural images of menstruation and girls' attitudes towards it. Suggestions are offered for discussing menstruation with one's daughter. Suggestions focus on timing of introducing the topic; which parent takes responsibility for menstrual…

  1. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  2. Girls' Attitudes towards Science in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences…

  3. Overview of the Girls' Education Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan; Leal, Angela; Saher, Najat Yamouri; Robles, Ana Maria; Mendoza, Johanna

    In 1996, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Girls' Education Activity (GEA). GEA's goal has been to assist host country governments and private sector and nongovernmental entities in formulating, institutionalizing, and implementing country initiatives for girls' education. These initiatives have been designed…

  4. Girls Save the World through Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Christine

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…

  5. Science Camp: Just for the Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Research shows that girls tend to lose interest in science and math as they move through the education pipeline--a retreat that often begins during middle school. Summer science camps can be part of reversing that trend, some say. Academic camps are on the rise across the country, including ones to get adolescent girls excited about the…

  6. Smart Girls, Black Girls, Mean Girls, and Bullies: At the Intersection of Identities and the Mediating Role of Young Girls' Social Network in Mathematical Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.

    2014-01-01

    By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…

  7. Reading Girls: Living Literate and Powerful Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Pam; Roe, Mary F.

    2008-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors merge two bodies of previously separated scholarship: (1) a socio-cultural understanding of adolescent girls in light of the shifting meaning of ideal girlhood, and (2) the participation and success of adolescent girls in school-based literacy activities. They apply these fields of inquiry to explore the…

  8. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  9. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  10. Little Girl, Where Are You Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elisberg, Joan; Elisberg Sue

    1974-01-01

    This article consists of black and white photographs of girls ages 13-17 doing things that interest them: carpentry, basketball, pottery, camera work, etc. The photographs are accompanied by the girls' thoughts on what they will do as future women, and what it means to be a woman. (Author/RM)

  11. Role Calls for Boys & Girls Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and federal…

  12. The Meaning of Running Away for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Method: Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. Results: The meaning of running away as it emerged…

  13. Adolescent Girls' Parasocial Interactions with Media Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied…

  14. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  15. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  16. Developing the Girl as a Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembrow-Beach, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…

  17. Transforming an icon: Girl Scouts of America.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Michelle; Inzunza, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The Girl Scouts is four years away from celebrating its centennial and has helped nurture courage, confidence, and character in more than fifty million girls. There are a quarter million troops, but mission, program, fundraising, and branding occur at the national level. These exciting programs are described here.

  18. Transforming an icon: Girl Scouts of America.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Michelle; Inzunza, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The Girl Scouts is four years away from celebrating its centennial and has helped nurture courage, confidence, and character in more than fifty million girls. There are a quarter million troops, but mission, program, fundraising, and branding occur at the national level. These exciting programs are described here. PMID:18551845

  19. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  20. Girls in School: Women in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahle, Jane Butler

    This report describes a 9-month project, conducted in seven states, during which teaching strategies and teacher attitudes which successfully encouraged girls in science were observed, described, and analyzed. Biology, taken by over 80 percent of high school students, was the course selected for observation; if girls are turned off to science in…

  1. Girls' and Women's Education in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Cultural and socioeconomic barriers to girls' and women's education are reflected in the female literacy rate, average wage, and girls' enrollment, dropout, attainment, and participation rates in formal education. Development of national education has been given top priority in the Indonesian national development. The education system is organized…

  2. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  3. Adolescent Girls' Participation in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Janice; Hall, M. Ann

    A longitudinal study of girls from the sixth through tenth grades sought to determine if the extent and type of participation in physical activities changed with age. A sample of 207 girls was selected with 140 completing the survey over 5 years. Participation was measured by activities in interschool teams, intramural activities,…

  4. Cyber Bullying and Our Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline; Wheeler, Edyth

    2007-01-01

    This column of Childhood Education focuses on middle school girls. Cyberbullying has emerged as a new, insidious, and harmful way of getting back at an individual girl who may be "different" or disliked for a physical or social trait. Cyberbullying has been described as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text"…

  5. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  6. Anorexia nervosa among teenage girls: Emerging or prevalent?

    PubMed Central

    Hisam, Aliya; Rahman, Mahmood Ur; Mashhadi, Syed Fawad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To find out frequency of anorexia nervosa (AN) among teenage girls (TG) and to find out the knowledge and practice regarding anorexia nervosa among teenage girls. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at higher secondary public school, Rawalpindi from June 2013 till December 2013. A sample of 100 female students of the age group 13-19 years were inducted by systematic sampling technique. Mixed pretested questionnaire was filled after informed verbal consent. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20. Results: Participants mean age was 15.81 ± 1.323 years. Mean weight, mean height and mean body mass index were found to be 50.34 ± 10.445 kg, 160.14 ± 7.846 cm and 19.675 ± 4.1477 kg/m2 respectively. Anorexia nervosa was found in 42 (42%) teenage girls while 58 (58%) were not having anorexia nervosa. Sufficient knowledge and positive practice were found to be present in 57 (57%) and 49 (49%) respectively. Statistically no significant association was found between KP and AN (p=0.73). Conclusion: Anorexia nervosa is an emerging health concern in Pakistan. Anorexia prevalent behaviour was observed in almost half of the teenage girls. PMID:26870084

  7. Rubella seroprevalence among Turkish adolescent girls living in Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oner, Naci; Vatansever, Ulfet; Karasalihoglu, Serap; Tatman Otkun, Müşerref; Ekuklu, Galip; Küçükugurluoglu, Yasemin

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate the rubella seroprevalence in unvaccinated Turkish adolescent girls in urban and rural areas of Edirne, and to create preventive strategies for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The sample, representing 12- to 17-year-old adolescent girls, consisted of 1,600 subjects selected from school lists by systematic and random sampling, which was matched by age and urban-rural residency strata proportional to the corresponding distributions in the Edirne population. For each participant, a questionnaire was completed and rubella-specific IgG antibodies were measured. After analysis of samples, seropositivity prevalence, equivocal and seronegative samples of adolescent girls in Edirne were determined as 93.1%, 0.6% and 6.3%, respectively. Data from the present study may indicate that 6.9% of adolescent girls have considerable risk for rubella infection during pregnancy. Eliminating rubella and CRS in Turkey will require national health service efforts, including vaccination of all adolescents and all susceptible women of childbearing age.

  8. Spontaneous extradural hemorrhage due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the skull in a child: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G.; Alghamdi, Fahad A.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) represents a local form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that occurs mostly in children. It usually presents with a gradually enlarging painless skull mass, and rarely presents a rapid clinical deterioration. This 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed with EG, based on a magnetic resonance imaging scan, after presenting with a painless right parietal swelling of 7-week duration. Three weeks prior his scheduled surgery, he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of sudden increased of the subcutaneous swelling associated with a headache, vomiting, and decreased the level of consciousness; there was no history of trauma. Brain computed tomography revealed a right parietal bone defect with large subgaleal and extradural hematoma. He underwent emergent surgical excision of the skull lesion and evacuation of the hematoma. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of EG. We aim to raise the awareness of physicians of this rare spontaneous hemorrhagic complication of EG and review the literature. PMID:27195034

  9. Congenital Panfollicular Nevus in a 6-Month-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Duan, Linna; Antaya, Richard J; Ko, Christine J; Narayan, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month-old girl presented with an irregular nodule on the right lateral neck. The lesion, which superficially resembled a lymphangioma or mastocytoma, had been present since birth but had recently been growing. The patient was referred for surgical resection. Microscopic findings were compatible with a recently described rare hamartoma termed "panfollicular nevus," which is a well-circumscribed lesion containing aberrantly differentiated, clustered hair follicles in high density. PMID:26822169

  10. Educating girls: population growth's silver bullet?

    PubMed

    Fishel, J

    1998-06-01

    In Africa, only 46% of women are literate; 60% in Asian countries and 85% in Latin America. Even though educating girls has been repeatedly shown to increase their self-esteem, to increase their influence over their own lives and family and community decisions, to lower fertility, to improve maternal and child health, and to help in decreasing environmental degradation, considerable resistance still exists in developing countries to educating girls. Believing that boys who attend school will complete their education, secure employment, and earn wages to contribute to the well-being of the family, parents encourage boys to attend school and girls to remain at home to help with housework and raising younger siblings. The author recounts the story of a 10-year-old girl in Namibia forced to remain at home with her mother to help care for her younger siblings. The girl looks forward to having her own, albeit smaller, family.

  11. Hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; Ong, Ken K; López-Bermejo, Abel; Dunger, David B; de Zegher, Francis

    2014-08-01

    Hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess is the most common cause of hirsutism, acne and menstrual irregularity in adolescent girls. Here, we propose that the disorder frequently originates from an absolute or relative excess of lipids in adipose tissue, and from associated changes in insulin sensitivity, gonadotropin secretion and ovarian androgen release. Girls from populations with genotypes attuned to nutritionally harsh conditions seem to be particularly vulnerable to the development of hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess in today's obesogenic environment. We propose that hirsutism, hyperandrogenaemia and menstrual irregularity (≥2 years after menarche) is used as a diagnostic triad for the disorder. No pharmacological therapy has been approved for girls with androgen excess; however, lifestyle intervention is essential to reduce adiposity. In girls without obesity who are not sexually active, insulin sensitization has more broadly normalizing effects than estradiol-progestogen combinations. The early recognition of girls at risk of developing hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess might enable prevention in childhood.

  12. Incestuous Rape: A Cause for Hysterical Seizures in Four Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Meir

    1979-01-01

    The etiology of such hysteroepilepsy is explored. It is suggested that, for all girls presented to the clinician with symptoms of hysterical seizures, a detailed history should be taken to explore for the possibility of incest. (Author/DLS)

  13. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.

  14. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework. PMID:12158009

  15. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them. PMID:23684196

  16. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  17. The Nature of Co-Occurring Exposure to Violence and of Court Responses to Girls in the Juvenile Justice System.

    PubMed

    Morash, Merry

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the co-occurrence of different types of victimization and violence exposure, and the effects of court interventions for girls in juvenile court. A life history interview methodology was used to collect qualitative data from 27 girls who had penetrated deeply into a treatment-oriented county court system. The study revealed that early abuse and violence in the home made girls vulnerable to later intimate partner violence and sexual assault when they left to avoid continued victimization. Whereas some court interventions helped girls, others revictimized them. Implications for helpful court practices and future research are presented and discussed.

  18. Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team

    2016-10-01

    This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with

  19. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  20. Girls, science and epistemology: A societal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arner Welsh, Jennifer M.

    This study examines the ways in which girls' personal epistemologies are applied and modulated in relationship with scientific disciplinary epistemology in the context of their early science learning. The research takes a societal approach, assuming that both girls' reasoning and scientific disciplinary epistemology are socially constituted, emphasizing the role of gendered discourses, realities and experiences in the construction of girls' subjectivities and disciplinary epistemology. Initially, three research scientists were interviewed to provide a naturalized understanding of scientific disciplinary epistemology. Subsequently, over the course of spring semester, seven ninth-grade girls from a small middle-class town participated in a series of in-depth interviews about their reasoning in scientific contexts. The focus of the interview analysis is two-fold. Possible points of connection and contention are examined between the ways in which girls deploy their personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. Individual profiles of each girl are also developed, describing patterns and tensions in her reasoning. This study reveals the intersection between personal and disciplinary epistemology as a productive area for research, and further, shows that examining societal context and personal epistemologies provides new insight into the issues facing girls learning science. Results suggest that there are both significant disjuncts and points of connection between these girls' personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. In particular, the personal understandings of knowledge as perspectival and the role of experience as providing frameworks for thinking which were shown by the girls in this study could be meaningfully used in conjunction with contemporary trends in philosophy of science to enhance understanding of science and scientific disciplinary epistemology.

  1. The Indian "girl" psychology: A perspective.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Prasad; Vidya, K L; Sriramya, V

    2015-07-01

    India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Girls below 19 years of age comprise one-quarter of India's rapidly growing population. In spite of India's reputation for respecting women, to an extent to treat her as a goddess, the moment a baby is born, the first thing comes to mind is "boy or girl?" as the differences are beyond just being biological. This article examines the significance of various psychological constructs and psychosocial issues that are important in the life of a "girl" baby born in our country.

  2. The Indian "girl" psychology: A perspective.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Prasad; Vidya, K L; Sriramya, V

    2015-07-01

    India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Girls below 19 years of age comprise one-quarter of India's rapidly growing population. In spite of India's reputation for respecting women, to an extent to treat her as a goddess, the moment a baby is born, the first thing comes to mind is "boy or girl?" as the differences are beyond just being biological. This article examines the significance of various psychological constructs and psychosocial issues that are important in the life of a "girl" baby born in our country. PMID:26330637

  3. Environmental Exposures and Puberty in Inner-City Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Mary S.; Britton, Julie A; Boguski, Lisa; Hochman, Sarah; Maloney, Nell; Serra, Nicole; Liu, Zhisong; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Larson, Signe; Forman, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background Hormonally active environmental exposures are suspected to alter onset of puberty in girls, but research on this question has been very limited. Objective We investigated pubertal status in relation to hormonally active environmental exposures among a multiethnic group of 192 healthy nine-year old girls residing in New York City. Methods Information was collected on breast and pubic hair stages, weight and height. Phytoestrogen intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Three phytoestrogens and bis-phenolA (BPA) were measured in urine. In a subset, 1,1′-dichloro-2,2′-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in blood plasma and lead (Pb) in blood. Associations of exposures with pubertal stages (present=stage 2+ vs absent=stage 1) were examined using t-tests and Poisson multivariate regression to derive prevalence ratios (PR, 95%-confidence limits [CI]). Results Breast development was present in 53% of girls. DDE, Pb, and dietary intakes of phytoestrogens were not significantly associated with breast stage. Urinary phytoestrogen biomarker concentrations were lower among girls with breast development than with no development. In multivariate models, main effects were strongest for two urinary isoflavones, daidzein (PR 0.89 [0.83-0.96] per ln-μg/g creatinine) and genistein (0.94 [0.88-1.01]). Body mass index (BMI) is a hormonally relevant, strong risk factor for breast development. Therefore, BMI-modification of exposure effects was examined, and associations became stronger. Delayed breast development was observed among girls with below-median BMI and 3rd tertile (high exposure) of urinary daidzein (PR 0.46 [0.26-0.78]); a similar effect was seen with genistein, comparing to girls ≥median BMI and lowest two tertiles (combined) of these isoflavones. With urinary enterolactone a phytoestrogen effect was seen only among girls with high BMI, where breast development was delayed among those with high

  4. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  5. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis.

  6. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:26522216

  7. Making 'good girls': sexual agency in the sexuality education of low-income black girls.

    PubMed

    Froyum, Carissa M

    2010-01-01

    Critics argue that abstinence-only programmes reinforce gender inequality when they contain discourses that equate being a 'good girl' with sexual restraint. Yet they too often overlook how racial and class inequalities shape discourses about girls' sexual agency. This ethnography extends gender scholarship by analysing the racialised, classed and gendered dynamics of an abstinence-only programme for low-income black girls. It finds that black adults viewed the girls as sexually vulnerable because of racism and class inequality. They tried to mediate this vulnerability by transforming girls into sexual agents. They did so, though, by exaggerating the gendered discourses of the official sexuality education curricula that framed girls as victims and their sexual restraint as a matter of morality. Thus, the programme reinforced gender inequality while trying to disrupt race and class inequalities.

  8. Coeducational or Single-Sex School: Does It Make a Difference on High School Girls' Academic Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Roch; Vezeau, Carole; Bouffard, Therese

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to further examine the impact over time of single-sex and coeducational school environments on girls' motivation in language arts and mathematics. Two cohorts comprising 340 girls (7th to 9th grade; 9th to 11th grade) from eight coeducational and two single-sex schools were followed during a period of three…

  9. Predictors of Learned Helplessness among Average and Mildly Gifted Girls and Boys Attending Initial High School Physics Instruction in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Finsterwald, Monika; Grassinger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In mathematics, physics, and chemistry, women are still considered to be at a disadvantage. In the present study, the development of the symptoms of learned helplessness was of particular interest. A study involving average and mildly gifted 8th-grade boys and girls (top 60%) investigated whether girls, regardless of ability level, experience…

  10. Developing Critical Hip Hop Feminist Literacies: Centrality and Subversion of Sexuality in the Lives of Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The present article explores discourses surrounding the bodies of Black women and girls as they engage the meanings of Black womanhood in (American) society in an afterschool setting. Drawing on Black and hip hop feminisms, African American literacies, and critical discourse perspectives, the author analyzes two young girls' narratives, which…

  11. Policy Framework for Addressing Personal Security Issues Concerning Women and Girls. National Strategy on Community Safety and Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Centre, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document presents a policy framework for improving the personal security of women and girls. The document includes: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Policy Background" (the concept of personal security, the societal context of women's personal security, consequences of violence for women and girls, long-term policy concern, and building an integrated…

  12. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A National Survey of Children. A Summary of Findings and Toplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document presents a summary of a national telephone survey that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender…

  13. Experimentally Testing a Narrative Sense-Making Metaphor Intervention: Facilitating Communicative Coping about Social Aggression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…

  14. Bodily Knowledge: Learning about Equity and Justice with Adolescent Girls. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society, Vol. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kimberly L.; Lalik, Rosary.

    This book examines how four adolescent girls constructed the meaning of their bodies, discussing oppression and resistance, voice and silence, and girls' desires to be seen and heard for who they are as they experience themselves individually and socially. It presents the struggles of two educational researchers trying to create ethical research…

  15. For All Our Daughters: How Mentoring Helps Young Women and Girls Master the Art of Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Pegine

    As girls face the serious emotional, physical, and developmental challenges during youth and adolescence, external support from a nonparental female role model is an essential, and too frequently ignored, requirement for healthy development. This book presents a process for mentoring young women and girls by providing guidance in five areas:…

  16. [Psychoanalytic treatment of a drepressive girl which sufferend from loyality conflicts due to the divorce of her parents].

    PubMed

    Glorius-Josefowicz, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the long term psychoanalytic treatment of a depressive girl was presented, which suffered from loyality conflicts due to the divorce of her parents. The treatment lasted for 150 hours and was conducted over two years. Meetings with the parents were also included. The focus of this article is on the treatment of the girl. PMID:17451155

  17. On Their Own and in Their Own Words: Bolivian Adolescent Girls' Empowerment through Non-Governmental Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…

  18. Climate and prevalence of atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old school children in Spain. ISAAC PhASE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; García-Marcos Alvarez, Luís; Kogan, Michael D.; González, Agustín Llopis; Gimeno, Antonio Martínez; Ontoso, Inés Aguinaga; Díaz, Carlos González; Pena, Alberto Arnedo; Aurrecoechea, Begoña Domínguez; Monge, Rosa María Busquets; Quiros, Alfredo Blanco; Garrido, José Batlles; Canflanca, Iñaqui Miner; Varela, Ángel López-Silvarrey

    2008-11-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic skin disease. Recent reports indicate that the worldwide prevalence of AE is increasing and that various environmental factors are implicated in its aetiology. Climatic conditions have been related with AE prevalence, and Spain has varying climatic conditions. The aim of this study is to document the possible climatic influence on the prevalence of AE in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in three different climatic regions in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of 28,394 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 10 Spanish centres in three different climatic regions. The mean participation rate was 76.5%. AE prevalence was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Spanish Academy of Dermatology criteria used in Spain to diagnose AE. The data, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the annual number of sunny hours per climatic region, were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Meteorology. Different AE prevalences were found in all three climatic regions studied: Atlantic, 32.9; Mediterranean 28.3; and Continental 31.2 per 100 children studied ( p < 0.005). AE was positively associated with precipitation and humidity, and was negatively associated with temperature and the number of sunny hours. The results show that AE is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions.

  19. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children. PMID:17258351

  20. Adjective Semantics, World Knowledge and Visual Context: Comprehension of Size Terms by 2- to 7-Year-Old Dutch-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribushinina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of size terms involves constructing contextually-relevant reference points by combining visual cues with knowledge of typical object sizes. This study aims to establish at what age children learn to integrate these two sources of information in the interpretation process and tests comprehension of the Dutch adjectives "groot"…

  1. What Do the Children Really Think about a Day-Care Centre--The 5-7-Year-Old Finnish Children Speak out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyronlampi-Kylmanen, Taina; Maatta, Kaarina

    2012-01-01

    A day-care centre is a place where a child spends most of his/her week nowadays. A day-care centre as an institution of early childhood education has often been studied from the early childhood educators' point of view or within a wider societal context. The children's voices have not been heard much. The purpose of this article is to describe, on…

  2. Feeding the 1 to 7-year-old child. A support paper for the South African paediatric food-based dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bowley, Nadia A; Pentz-Kluyts, Megan A; Bourne, Lesley T; Marino, Louise V

    2007-10-01

    Young children embark on a transitional nutritional journey, progressing from total reliance on caregivers to independence, autonomy and self-determination. Appropriate nutritional intake in young children is a diverse concept, incorporating suitable nutritional choices and feeding behaviours. Lessons learnt in childhood will have long-term effects on the individual and society overall. Since South African children are raised in a country where under- and over-nutrition exist simultaneously, a careful balance should be achieved in any national public health message. The South African paediatric food-based dietary guidelines for children younger than 7 years strive to facilitate the education of carers of young children in the adoption of healthy eating practices. The guidelines address issues regarding variety in the diet that has been shown to improve both micro- and macronutrient intakes. Specific reference is made to starchy foods, vegetables, fruit and water along with protein sources, which should be consumed regularly. Milk, has been emphasised in these guidelines because of the poor calcium intake in South African children. The only guideline that limits intake is the sweet treats or drinks message, because of public health concerns such as obesity and dental caries. Other messages pertaining to eating habits take cognisance of the child's physiological limitations in gastric capacity and suggest small regular meals. Clean, safe drinking water is the beverage of choice. Non-food-based guidelines are also included, which recognize the importance of active play, for developmental and health purposes, as well as regular clinic attendance. PMID:17824856

  3. Cognitive Skills Used to Solve Mathematical Word Problems and Numerical Operations: A Study of 6- to 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Isabel Maria; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between skills that underpin mathematical word problems and those that underpin numerical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Sixty children aged 6-7 years were tested on measures of mathematical ability, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, verbal intelligence and…

  4. Exploring the Psychometric Properties of the Farsi Version of Quality of Life Kindl Questionnaire for 4-7 Year-Old Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    ROJHANI SHIRAZI, Maryam; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; AZARGASHB, Eznollah; DERAKHSHANNIA, Mehdi; AGHDASTA, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to translate and validate the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Kindl questionnaire. Materials & Methods Parents of 4-7 yr-old healthy and ill children referred to Mofid Children Hospital in Tehran in 2013, Iran were sampled randomly in two groups each of which 130 people. After translation, the questionnaie’s validity and reliability was evaluated and was confirmed for face and content validity. Questionnaire was also completed by two (one healthy and one ill) groups for which inclusion criteria included consent of the parents, age of the children being beween 4 and 7 yr, and presence of the child in a nursery school, kindergarten, school or any class at least for one month. Exclusion criteria were inability of the parents in answering the questions accurately. Inclusion criterion for the ill group was having chronic cardiac, neurologic, hematologic, or respiratory diseases, lasting longer than 3 months for which they were followed up in outpatient clinic in the hospital. The reliability of questionnaire was measured by the Cronbach’s alpha. Data were analyzed using factor analysis, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square test. Results The reliability was 0.85 and 0.81 in healthy and ill groups, respectively. The results of factor analysis showed that each of eight subscales of questionnaire had acceptable construct validity. Only two of 52 questions of the questionnaire did not have proper correlation coefficient. Conclusion Quality of Life Kindl Questionnaire is a valid and reliable test for assessing healthy and ill children in Iran. PMID:27247583

  5. Development of Category-Based Reasoning in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children: The Influence of Label Co-Occurrence and Kinship Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2013-01-01

    Category-based reasoning is central to mature cognition; however, the developmental course of this ability remains contested. One strong indicator of category-based reasoning is the propensity to make inferences based on semantically similar labels. Recent evidence indicates that in preschool-age children the effects of semantically similar labels…

  6. Family-Based Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Enhancing Physical Activity and Motor Competence in 4–7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Laukkanen, Arto; Pesola, Arto Juhani; Heikkinen, Risto; Sääkslahti, Arja Kaarina; Finni, Taija

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of how to involve families in physical activity (PA) interventions for children. In this cluster randomized controlled trial, we recruited families with four- to seven-year-old children to participate in a year-long study where parents in the intervention group families (n = 46) received tailored counseling to increase children’s PA. Structured PA was not served. Control group families (n = 45) did not receive any counseling. PA in all children (n = 91; mean age 6.16 ± 1.13 years at the baseline) was measured by accelerometers at the baseline and after three, six, nine and 12 months. Motor competence (MC) (n = 89) was measured at the baseline and after six and 12 months by a KTK (KörperkoordinationsTest für Kinder) and throwing and catching a ball (TCB) protocols. The effect of parental counseling on study outcomes was analyzed by a linear mixed-effects model fit by REML and by a Mann-Whitney U test in the case of the TCB. As season was hypothesized to affect counseling effect, an interaction of season on the study outcomes was examined. The results show significant decrease of MVPA in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < .05). The TCB showed a nearly significant improvement at six months in the intervention group compared to the controls (p = .051), but not at 12 months. The intervention group had a steadier development of the KTK when the interaction of season was taken into account. In conclusion, more knowledge of family constructs associating with the effectiveness of counseling is needed for understanding how to enhance PA in children by parents. However, a hypothesis may be put forward that family-based counseling during an inactive season rather than an active season may provide a more lasting effect on the development of KTK in children. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN28668090 PMID:26502183

  7. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: the delayed-onset pathway in girls.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.

  8. Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls reported sexual harassment (90%), academic sexism (52%), and athletic sexism (76%) at least once, with likelihood increasing with age. Socialization influences and individual factors, however, influenced likelihood of all three forms of sexism. Specifically, learning about feminism and gender-conformity pressures were linked to higher perceptions of sexism. Furthermore, girls' social gender identity (i.e., perceived gender typicality and gender-role contentedness) and gender-egalitarian attitudes were related to perceived sexism.

  9. Building Self-Esteem through Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Joanne

    1984-01-01

    Through fun and educational activities, Girl Scouts develop self-esteem. Scouting activities include such things as camping, job skills development, career awareness, self-reliance skills, and mainstreaming of disabled children. (DF)

  10. Understanding Girls' Circle as an intervention on perceived social support, body image, self-efficacy, locus of control, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving social support, body image, locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Sixty-three girls from 9 support groups (comprising 5 to 15 girls each) across the United States completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, the Nowicki-Strickland Personal Reaction Survey, Schwarzer's General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale both before and after the 10-week Girls' Circle program. Results revealed a significant increase in social support, body image, and self-efficacy after completion of the program. PMID:16689441

  11. "The Power to Squash People": Understanding Girls' Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Dawn H.; Kelly, Deirdre M.; Pomerantz, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    While researchers and concerned adults alike draw attention to relational aggression among girls, how this aggression is associated with girls' agency remains a matter of debate. This paper explores relational aggression among girls designated by their peers as "popular" in order to understand how social power constructs girls' agency as…

  12. Understanding Aggressive Girls in Canada: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Sibylle; Nicholson, Diana

    This review of the literature on aggression and violence in girls, especially girls in Canada, begins with data showing increasing rates of assault and other violent crimes by Canadian girls, although the rate for girls continues to be much less than for boys (a fact possibly responsible for the small amount of research on this population). The…

  13. Starting Now: Strategies for Helping Girls Complete Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Andrea

    This report assesses the current situation of girls' participation in elementary education, suggesting approaches that may help increase girls' retention. It reviews research findings and conventional wisdom on constraints affecting girls' schooling and examines initiatives that have attempted to increase girls' retention. Chapter 1,…

  14. Masculinity, Popularity, and Self-Esteem among Israeli Preadolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Thalma E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied popularity and aspects of self-esteem between girls evidencing more traditional masculine characteristics and girls with more feminine characteristics. Findings from 166 girls aged 9 to 10 years old reveal girls reporting both traits and behaviors considered traditionally masculine were less popular, had lower self-esteem, and were less…

  15. Meeting at the Crossroads: Women's Psychology and Girls' Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Gilligan, Carol

    A study explored girls' development and its implication for the psychology of women. From 1986-1990, nearly 100 girls between the ages of 7 and 18 at the Laurel School for Girls in Cleveland, Ohio, were interviewed. Most of the girls were from middle- or upper-middle-class families (80%), although some were scholarship students from working-class…

  16. Girls Are Great. Contemporary Issues: Growing Up Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosatche, Harriet S.; And Others

    This document is designed to help Girl Scout leaders understand the maturation of girls and how to assist the girls in their development. The information and activities described in this booklet are designed to help girls see themselves in a positive way, understand some of the forces that influence them as they develop, and cope with the stresses…

  17. Educational Work of the Girl Scouts. Bulletin, 1921, No. 46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Louise Stevens

    1921-01-01

    The Girl Scouts, a national organization, is open to any girl who expresses her desire to join and voluntarily accepts the promise and the laws. The object of the Girl Scouts is to bring to all girls the opportunity for group experience outdoor life, and to learn through work, but more by play, to serve their community. Patterned after the Girl…

  18. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs began in New…

  19. Letting girls speak out about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dale; Leary, Rosemary

    The purpose of this study was to try to determine what influences girls to choose science. Forty girls were interviewed in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11 using a semistructured protocol. The interview focused on feelings about science, science careers, peer and parental support, and how science is taught. To determine whether their responses were based on gender, each girl was asked to respond to questions as if she were a boy. The girls were highly self-confident and positive about science. All of the girls took a strong equity position and asserted that women can and should do science. The girls liked learning science in an interactive social context rather than participating in activities that isolated them such as independent reading, writing, or note taking. Those who chose science careers were drawn to them because of strong affective experiences with a loved one and a desire to help. The interviews were analyzed through the framework of women's affective and psychological needs.Received: 15 July 1993; Revised: 23 May 1994;

  20. Girls' Attitudes Towards Science in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.

  1. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls.

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-09-03

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.

  2. Approach to the Girl with Early Onset of Pubic Hair

    PubMed Central

    Sopher, Aviva B.; Gerken, Adrienne T.

    2011-01-01

    Premature pubarche, or the development of pubic hair before the age of 8 in girls or 9 in boys, is most commonly caused by premature adrenarche. Adrenarche is the maturation of the adrenal zona reticularis in both boys and girls, resulting in the development of pubic hair, axillary hair, and adult apocrine body odor. Although originally thought to be a benign variant of normal development, premature adrenarche has been associated with insulin resistance and the later development of metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome. Although further studies are needed to confirm these relationships, the case presented herein argues for periodic assessment of children at risk. Indeed, recognition of these associations may allow for early preventive measures. PMID:21602454

  3. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: the importance of group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Wientzen, R L; Barsanti, R G

    1982-04-01

    We report four cases of group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal children. All cases were acute in onset. This illness presents with nonspecific signs and symptoms of labial inflammation. In a suburban community, streptococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls may be more common then genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Since media used for the selective isolation of N gonorrhoeae do not readily support the growth of streptococci, we suggest that the routine bacteriologic approach to the diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in young girls include inoculation of the culture swab on 5% sheep blood agar and the application of a bacitracin disk (taxo A disc) to detect any small beta-hemolytic, presumptively group A streptococcal colonies after overnight incubation. Penicillin therapy results in prompt cure.

  4. Nutritional status of married adolescent girls in rural Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, S; Kapil, U; Bhanthi, T; Gnanasekaran, N; Pandey, R M

    1994-01-01

    Adolescence is period of rapid growth and development. The present study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of 941 adolescent girls, aged 10-18 years belonging to Scheduled Caste communities in rural Rajasthan, using the probability proportionate to size sampling procedure. Data on 93 married adolescent girls was analysed in detail. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by anthropometry, dietary intake and by clinical examination of nutritional deficiency disorders. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for height, weight, chest circumference, MUAC and TSF using standardised techniques. On comparing the present study's data with ICMR's study data (1956-65) it was found that there has been a significant improvement in the height, weight and chest circumference of the adolescent girls but the values were below the well-to-do group study data. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 hours recall method. The dietary intake was compared against ICMR's RDA. It was found that the diets were deficient in calories by 30 to 40% in proteins by 25 to 37%, by 39 to 55% in iron and by 10 to 34% in vitamin A. 78% of the subjects suffered from various grades of anaemia and 40% of the subjects had B-complex deficiency.

  5. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls: A Pilot Study of All Girls Versus Co-Ed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested…

  6. Antenatal mild hydronephrosis with subsequent polyp of the upper ureter in a child presenting with recurrent Dietl's crisis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Johal, Navroop; Evans, Kathryn; Mushtaq, Imran

    2014-01-01

    We report a 7-year-old boy who had antenatally diagnosed and postnatally confirmed asymptomatic right congenital hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction with the anteroposterior diameter ranging from 7 to 15 mm on serial ultrasound scans till the age of 6 years. He then presented with recurrent attacks of Dietl's crisis almost every month in the seventh year of his life and eluded diagnosis for over a year at various national hospitals, and ended up with an international referral to us. Investigations of the acute attacks clinched the diagnosis of ureteral polyp causing intermittent crisis and he underwent segmental resection and reconstruction in the form of dismembered Anderson-Hyne pyeloplasty with good recovery. Our case revealed that prenatally detected hydronephrosis may worsen after spontaneous postnatal improvement and a polyp acting as a flip valve may produce intermittent hydronephrosis and symptoms later in life. The child should undergo urgent investigations during acute symptoms. PMID:24832709

  7. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  8. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  9. Pubertal Development in Mexican American Girls: The Family’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Rosenie Thelus; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Forman, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American (MA) girls are entering puberty earlier than in the past, yet few studies have explored the perceptions surrounding puberty among this group. We conducted separate focus groups for fathers, mothers, and daughters aged 6 to 12 years to explore perceptions of body image, pubertal development, communications, and sources of puberty-related information in MA participants. Our results revealed parental concerns about daughters’ weight and pubertal development, as well as differences in their communication with their daughters. Although both parents willingly discussed pubertal issues concerning their daughters, mothers had a more active role in conveying pubertal information to daughters. Among the girls, there was a gap in knowledge about the pubertal process between the younger and older girls. Our findings present opportunities and challenges for addressing obesity as a pubertal risk factor in MA girls; however, more studies are needed to understand family beliefs and sociocultural dynamics surrounding puberty in MAs. PMID:19690203

  10. Abuses of the girl child in some African societies: implications for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Doris Deedei

    2006-01-01

    The definition of a child in African societies varies. From the moment the girl child can talk and walk, she is allocated responsibilities within the family. Westernized cultures view such responsibilities as forms of abuse. Thus, various reports had been written about girl children and had been critical of African societies without acknowledging that Africa is a very large continent. This paper sets out to identify, explore, and present potential areas of abuse of the girl child, for example, female circumcision, child slaves, rape survivors, child soldiers, child prostitution, teenage pregnancy, and arranged marriages. This paper suggests strategies that healthcare professionals could initiate in situations where a girl child is being abused. PMID:16512869

  11. The Rural Girls in Science Project: from Pipelines to Affirming Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Huston, Michelle; Frevert, Katie; Seibel, Jane Bierman

    The Rural Girls in Science (RGS) program was developed to foster the interest in science, engineering, and mathematics among rural high school girls in the state of Washington. Girls served include American Indians, Latinas, and Whites. This article provides an overview of the program and its outcomes not only for the participants (girls, teachers, counselors, and schools) but the researchers. Lessons learned from and about the participants are presented, and lessons learned from the process are discussed to illustrate how RGS moved from a focus on individuals to a focus on the school. The initial guiding concepts (self-esteem and scientific pipeline) were replaced by “possible selves” and our proposed complementary concepts: science-affirming and affirming science education.

  12. Meeting the need. Special report: educating girls.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D

    1993-01-01

    Educated women are more productive, more confident, marry later, use family planning, and have healthier children. There are an estimated 600 million illiterate women in the world, which is double the number of male illiterates. Improvements have been made in the past 10 years in educating girls. Current figures indicate that 65% of girls and 78% of boys enter primary school in developing countries vs. 20% and 11%, respectively, 10 years earlier. 37% of girls and 48% of boys are in secondary schools. An additional 56 million girls need to be enrolled in order to achieve parity with boys. The education of girls in Africa has suffered setbacks in the past decade due to economic recession. Primary school enrollment fell from 80% of eligible children in 1980 to 76% in 1986. Many countries are having difficulty keeping pace with population growth and educating more girls. There are many factors which interfere with girls' schooling: shortages of schools, lack of educational materials, cost of schools or educational materials, girl's status in society, competition with other household chores, child labor, time schedules of classes, flexibility of schools in allowing dropping in and out of school, lack of the appropriate kind of resources, distance to schools, lack of sanitation, and values emphasizing "respectability" rather than autonomy. Many countries are using innovative solutions to these difficulties. For example, in Bangladesh, Liberia, Morocco, and Tanzania, schools are "double shift" where classes are conducted in the morning, in the afternoon, and sometimes again in the evening for adult education. Communities and shanty towns are constructing their own crude buildings as schools close to home. However, in Egypt school construction is not the only answer; 400 new primary schools were opened and male enrollment increased from 90% to 100% and female enrollment rose to 74%. In Nigeria, cost of books and uniforms prevents many from attending. Poor families must be

  13. [Girls of today, women of tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Torres, C

    1996-01-01

    In many countries, girls are discriminated against in nutrition, education, health care, and other areas, to the detriment of their personal development. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with promoting women's rights have come to regard the problem of girls' rights as very serious. Attention to girls in the past was focused on adolescent pregnancy or on social problems such as violence or child prostitution. But in the view of the NGOs, gender equity will be impossible to achieve as long as discrimination against girls continues. In addition, limiting the opportunities of girls will inevitably limit their potential contributions to society. The UN General Assembly in September 1989 approved the Convention on the Rights of Children, the principal goals of which were to eliminate malnutrition, preventable diseases, and illiteracy. The World Conference on Children in 1990 was attended by representatives of over 150 countries, who specified concrete goals. Measurable progress has occurred. UNICEF estimates, for example, that 2.5 million fewer children died on 1996 than in 1990, but it is probable that over half of the children in Latin America and the Caribbean live in poverty. In 1990, nearly 1 million children under age 5 in the region died of preventable diseases, and some 7 million were estimated to be malnourished, 1 million seriously. Infant mortality rates indicate that most countries of the region have improved their health status, but the rate has apparently increased in Haiti, Bolivia, and Peru. The Pan American Health Organization and the Demographic and Health Surveys have accumulated data indicating that excess mortality has occurred among girls 1-4 years old in at least 9 countries of the region. Some evidence suggests that health care is less likely to be sought for girls than boys. Domestic violence and sexual abuse are a serious problem for girls and women, but many countries continue to avoid the issue. The 1993 UN Declaration of Human

  14. Pubertal Stage and Brain Anatomy in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Rebecca E.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Joormann, Jutta; Eugène, Fanny; Glover, Gary H.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of puberty have focused primarily on changes in hormones and on observable physical bodily characteristics. Little is known, however, about the nature of the relation between pubertal status and brain physiology. This is particularly important given findings that have linked the onset of puberty with both changes in cognitive functioning and increases in the incidence of depression and anxiety. The present study examined relations between pubertal stage, as assessed by Tanner Staging, and brain anatomy in a sample of 54 girls aged 9 - 15 years. Brain morphometric analysis was conducted using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hippocampus and amygdala were manually traced on MRI scans in all participants. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with total intracranial volume (ICV), age, and pubertal status as the predictor variables and hippocampus and amygdala volumes as outcome variables. Pubertal status was significantly associated with left amygdala volume, after controlling for both age and intracranial volume (ICV). In addition, puberty was related to right hippocampus and amygdala volumes, after controlling for ICV. In contrast, no significant associations were found between age and hippocampal and amygdala volumes after controlling for pubertal status and ICV. These findings highlight the importance of the relation between pubertal status and morphometry of the hippocampus and amygdala, and of limbic and subcortical structures that have been implicated in emotional and social behavior. PMID:22569152

  15. And Girl Justice for All: Blending Girl-Specific & Youth Development Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muno, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a Seattle-based nonprofit organization, Powerful Voices, designed to help girls realize their dreams, engage their communities, and shape a better world. One among many efforts to address the equity gap for girls of color, Powerful Voices intertwines gender- and race-specific practices with evidence-based…

  16. Mean Girls, Homosociality and Football: An Education on Social and Power Dynamics between Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between girls and women have typically been explored through the lexicon of "friendship" or, where there is a presence of sexual desire, "lesbian". This article suggests the complexity and impact of female (same-sex) sociality, and its relationship to heteronormativity and power dynamics between girls and women…

  17. Girls Rule! TGIF: Thank God I'm Female: Girls Kick Butt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Elaine M.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that teachers and librarians can have a positive influence on the lives of young girls by complimenting their reading choices and search strategies rather than just their shoes and hairdos. Discusses books dealing with beauty, clothes, media stereotypes, women in sports, sexuality, and recommended reading for girls. (PEN)

  18. Girls Helping Girls: Assessing the Influence of College Student Mentors in an Afterschool Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stephanie; Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Current data suggest fewer females than males continue to be interested in engineering and that this gender gap is first evidenced during middle school years. One might expect that female engineering role models would encourage adolescent girls to pursue future careers in engineering and thereby increase the girls' interests in and attitudes…

  19. Missionary Girl Power: Saving the "Third World" One Girl at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensoy, Ozlem; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Deborah Ellis's "The Breadwinner" is a popular young adult novel about Muslim girls. In this paper, we offer an analysis of the representation of Muslim girls and women in the book as well as responses from undergraduate students enrolled in a children's literature course to these constructions. Building on the work of postcolonial feminism…

  20. Investing in Girls: A 21st Century Strategy. Also: The Female Intervention Team; National Girls' Caucus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvenile Justice, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This issue of the serial "Juvenile Justice" is devoted to the theme of female juvenile defenders and contains three articles on this subject. The lead article, "Investing in Girls: A 21st Century Strategy," by Leslie Acoca, stresses that addressing the needs of adolescent girls, who make up the fastest growing segment of the juvenile justice…

  1. Resilience of Girls with Incarcerated Mothers: The Impact of Girl Scouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darlene

    2006-01-01

    Girl Scouts Beyond Bars, an in-prison mother-daughter visitation program, was designed using a resilience framework. This article describes the Girl Scouts Beyond Bars program and discusses current research findings about the effects of the program on participants' ability to form healthier relationships with their mothers and improve their sense…

  2. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  3. Cool Girls, Inc.: Promoting the Positive Development of Urban Preadolescent and Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and…

  4. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. PMID:25620319

  5. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution.

  6. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  7. Association of iron depletion with menstruation and dietary intake indices in pubertal girls: the healthy growth study.

    PubMed

    Moschonis, George; Papandreou, Dimitrios; Mavrogianni, Christina; Giannopoulou, Angeliki; Damianidi, Louisa; Malindretos, Pavlos; Lionis, Christos; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of iron depletion (ID) with menstrual blood losses, lifestyle, and dietary habits, in pubertal girls. The study sample comprised 1222 girls aged 9-13 years old. Biochemical, anthropometrical, dietary, clinical, and physical activity data were collected. Out of 274 adolescent girls with menses, 33.5% were found to be iron depleted (defined as serum ferritin < 12 μg/L) compared to 15.9% out of 948 girls without menses. Iron-depleted girls without menses were found to have lower consumption of poultry (P = 0.017) and higher consumption of fruits (P = 0.044) and fast food (P = 0.041) compared to their peers having normal iron status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that girls with menses were 2.57 (95% CI: 1.37, 4.81) times more likely of being iron depleted compared to girls with no menses. Iron depletion was found to be associated with high calcium intake, high consumption of fast foods, and low consumption of poultry and fruits. Menses was the only factor that was found to significantly increase the likelihood of ID in these girls. More future research is probably needed in order to better understand the role of diet and menses in iron depletion.

  8. Substance use behavior among early-adolescent Asian American girls: the impact of psychological and family factors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P

    2011-11-01

    Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs among early-adolescent Asian American girls. Between August 2007 and March 2008, 135 pairs of Asian American girls (mean age 13.21 years, SD=0.90) and their mothers (mean age 39.86 years, SD=6.99) were recruited from 19 states that had significant Asian populations. Girls and mothers each completed an online survey. Relative to girls who did not use substances, girls who did had higher levels of depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, and maternal substance use. Multiple logistic regression modeling revealed that they also had significantly lower levels of body satisfaction, problem-solving ability, parental monitoring, mother-daughter communication, family involvement, and family rules about substance use. Household composition, acculturation, and academic achievement were not associated with girls' substance use. These findings point to directions for substance abuse prevention programming among Asian American girls. PMID:22082244

  9. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  10. Promoting positive body image in young girls: an evaluation of 'Shapesville'.

    PubMed

    Dohnt, Hayley K; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the current research was to evaluate Shapesville, a children's picture book designed to promote positive body image in young children. Participants were a convenience sample comprising 84 girls (aged 5-9 years) recruited from four private girls' schools. Girls were randomly allocated to be read either Shapesville or a control book. Individual measures of body image, stereotyping on the basis of weight and media internalisation, as well as knowledge of non-appearance topics, were obtained at pre- and post-intervention, as well as at 6-week follow-up. Relative to the control book, girls' appearance satisfaction increased after reading Shapesville. In addition, stereotyping on the basis of weight and internalisation of media ideals was reduced. Finally, reading Shapesville also increased girls' knowledge base of non-appearance topics, such as recognising their special talents and awareness of healthy eating, at post-intervention. These gains were somewhat reduced at follow-up, yet were largely still significantly greater than at pre-intervention. The present study demonstrates that Shapesville has the potential to be a successful prevention tool for use with young girls. Schools can incorporate Shapesville into their curriculum as early as school entry, in order to help prevent the early development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. PMID:17680591

  11. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  12. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  13. A five years old girl child with Takayasu arteritis.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Shahid; Ul Hassan Shah, Syed Awais; Zaman, Syed Qamar; Ali, Salman

    2013-12-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a systemic vasulitis of large vessels that mainly involves the aorta and its branches. It normally presents in third decade of life and has rarely been reported in children under 10 years of age. We report here a case of Takayasu arteritis in a 5 years old girl who presented with headache, generalized body swelling, severe hypertension, proteinuria and minimal functioning kidneys. Conventional angiography demonstrated narrowing of descending aorta, right subclavian artery and right common iliac artery. She responded steroids, diuretics, antiplatelets and digoxin and discharged home on maintenance therapy.

  14. [Juvenile dermatomyositis in 12 years old girl].

    PubMed

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Lis, Anna; Krauze, Ewa; Marszał, Elzbieta; Jamroz, Ewa; Klimek, Beata; Kajor, Maciej

    2005-01-01

    We would like to present a selected case of 12-aged girl, with recognition of dermatomyositis (DM). At the age of 11 in the normally developing child, erythematous-oedematous changes have appeared on the face, particularly intensified in the vicinity of the orbital cavities (so called: pseudoglasses), as well as erythema and teleangiectasis on the dorsum of hands and small-sized diarthroidal joints (the Gottron's symptom). Subsequently, lower physical efficiency and distinctly weakness in the child's extremities occurred. In EMG (quadriceps muscle of the thigh) myogenous traits have been proven. Neurological examination revealed as follows: muscular weakness (adynamia), mainly lower limbs (grade 3 in the Lovett's scale, along with decreased loss of muscles tone), lack of the periosteal reflex near lower limbs, positive Gower's symptom and increased anterior spinal curvature. In the biochemical examinations accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and a rise of activity in muscles enzymes were stated. In the child's blood serum, we disclosed antinuclear antibodies ANA (type of granular luminescence, titre 160), to be rather evident to presence of autoimmunological process. During examinations of the musculocutaneus specimen, DM-markers have been detected. Capillaroscopy proved specific presence of numerous vessels, multiple capillary tubes, individual gemmated vessels and completely invisible dermatomyositous border. Patient was treated with per os sterid--Encorton at the initial dose of 2 mg/day, every other day during the lapse of 6 weeks to reach the normal CPK-activity, and consequently clinical picture under "on-line" surveillance, gradually reducing a specific medicine up to maintenance dose through 18 months. At present, the patient is subjected to check-up and monitoring by Neurological Outpatient and Rehabilitain Clinic for Children.

  15. Sexual violence and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Purewal, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the forms of sexual abuse of female children and the psychosocial impact on the well-being of girls in India. Child sexual abuse statistics reveal an estimated 50% of girls being sexually abused before the age of 15 years. Girl children are abused and then are made to feel personally responsible, guilty, or persecuted. Girls are threatened with violence if they tell about the sexual abuse. Pregnancies arising from sexual abuse result in shame and early marriage. Male children are also abused but they are not made to feel punished. Child sexual abuse is technically any sexual activity (rape, fondling of genitalia, masturbation, forced oral sex, sodomy, or vaginal penetration) that is committed by someone in a position of authority, power, or trust over the child or by a stranger. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 10 children worldwide is sexually abused. Rape within the family is particularly difficult for the victim. In almost 60% of rape cases, the victim was unwilling to report the name of the abuser. Families remain silent about sexual offenses in order to protect the family image. Mothers remain silent if the abuser is the father, which interferes with a child's relationship to both parents. Sexual abuse can result in bed wetting, nightmares, sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, running away from home, multiple personality disorders, precocious sexual behavior, or sexual inhibition and low self-esteem. Parental responses tend to be inappropriate discipline or ignoring it. Children may experience flashbacks or other long-term effects. Girls who experience sexual abuse once tend to be more vulnerable to abuse in adult life. Healing is slow and systematic. The first aim is to restore a girl's ability to say no and to teach her to protect herself. Healing is about removing guilt and resolution of the conflict between blame and the grossness of the violation.

  16. Sexual violence and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Purewal, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the forms of sexual abuse of female children and the psychosocial impact on the well-being of girls in India. Child sexual abuse statistics reveal an estimated 50% of girls being sexually abused before the age of 15 years. Girl children are abused and then are made to feel personally responsible, guilty, or persecuted. Girls are threatened with violence if they tell about the sexual abuse. Pregnancies arising from sexual abuse result in shame and early marriage. Male children are also abused but they are not made to feel punished. Child sexual abuse is technically any sexual activity (rape, fondling of genitalia, masturbation, forced oral sex, sodomy, or vaginal penetration) that is committed by someone in a position of authority, power, or trust over the child or by a stranger. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 10 children worldwide is sexually abused. Rape within the family is particularly difficult for the victim. In almost 60% of rape cases, the victim was unwilling to report the name of the abuser. Families remain silent about sexual offenses in order to protect the family image. Mothers remain silent if the abuser is the father, which interferes with a child's relationship to both parents. Sexual abuse can result in bed wetting, nightmares, sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, running away from home, multiple personality disorders, precocious sexual behavior, or sexual inhibition and low self-esteem. Parental responses tend to be inappropriate discipline or ignoring it. Children may experience flashbacks or other long-term effects. Girls who experience sexual abuse once tend to be more vulnerable to abuse in adult life. Healing is slow and systematic. The first aim is to restore a girl's ability to say no and to teach her to protect herself. Healing is about removing guilt and resolution of the conflict between blame and the grossness of the violation. PMID:12158003

  17. Teacher learning from girls' informal science experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, Daniel J.

    School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP, 2010). Despite the success, little is known about how teachers can learn from informal science practices to support student engagement in science. In this study, I examine the impact informal science experiences has for the teaching and learning of science in school contexts. This study is focused on eliciting girls' stories of informal science learning experiences and sharing these stories with science teachers to examine what they notice and make meaning of in connection with their classroom practices (van Es & Sherin, 2002). I co-constructed cases of informal science experiences with middle school females who participate in an after school science program in an urban area. These cases consisted of the girls' written stories, their explicit messages to science teachers, examples of actions taken when investigating community based science issues and transcripts of conversations between the girls and researchers. These cases were shared with local science teachers in order to investigate what they "notice" (van Es & Sherin, 2002) regarding girls' participation in informal science learning, how they make meaning of youths' stories and whether the stories influence their classroom practices. I found that the girls' use their cases to share experiences of how, where and why science matters, to express hope for school science and to critique stereotypical views that young, female, students of color from lower SES backgrounds are not interested or capable of making contributions to scientific investigations. Additionally, I found that teachers noticed powerful messages within and across the girls' cases. The messages include; 1

  18. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa.

    PubMed

    Namuddu, K

    1993-01-01

    In Africa, the education of girls has varied with the history and development of countries. For instance, botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have higher enrollment of girls than boys, and in Nigeria the dropout rate for boys is higher than for girls. In Mozambique, girl's education is dependent on matrilineal or patrilineal family structure, urban or rural location, or religious preference. These and many other factors interfere with girl's access, survival, performance, and achievement in school. Strategies generally involve 1) improving access and increasing enrollment, 2) increasing survival in the school system, and 3) improving the quality of the learning environment. Most African countries are involved with the first strategy, but problems remain in selecting the appropriate age to begin school, retaining students and teachers, lowering absenteeism, providing adequate and appropriate teaching materials for students, and other factors that discourage female attendance. Solutions have involved establishing book banks and cardboard box libraries as a supplement to classroom learning. Gender stereotypes in curriculum materials are being introduced which show females in a positive and prominent way. In Zambia, an in-service training program aims to develop positive teacher attitudes toward girls, toward their work, and toward pupil's work. Program efforts in Kenya are attempting to educate parents about the importance of keeping their daughters in school, and about issues related to population, health, education, and a healthy environment. Traditional practices such as female circumcision, childhood marriages, early pregnancy, and nutritional taboos are discouraged. There are 43 district coordinators who conduct seminars and workshops to spread information to communities and households. Other countries are engaged in village meetings and workshops to persuade parents to examine their own interpersonal interaction with their daughters and the impact on their

  19. Astronomy for Mile-Hi Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Fuller, L.

    1999-12-01

    The Space Science Institute engaged Denver area astronomers in collaboration with the Girl Scouts - Mile Hi Council to plan, implement, and evaluate workshops on astronomy and Mars exploration for Junior Girl Scouts (ages 9-11) and their Troop Leaders. We designed a workshop for the Scouts that would enable them to earn their Sky Watch badge. In addition we implemented a workshop for Troop Leaders who want to implement badge-related space science activities within their troops. This talk (or poster) will report on our experiences and lessons learned in these workshops. Our work was supported by the NASA IDEAS program.

  20. Exploring the perspectives of obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Chung, Richard J; Sherman, Laura; Goodman, Elizabeth; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael

    2013-10-01

    To understand obese adolescent girls' perspectives regarding their weight and health we studied video intervention/prevention assessment audiovisual narratives created by 14 obese girls ages 12 to 20 years. The narratives included interviews, monologues, and daily activities. Themes included illness conceptualizations, health concerns, health misinformation, and distress regarding appearance deriving from both within and without. The predominant theme was ambivalence about obesity. Close examination of these themes revealed potential footholds for intervention. Sensitive exploration of issues such as appearance and psychosocial distress might strengthen the patient-clinician partnership in identifying a patient's strengths and motivating weight loss. PMID:24043347