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Sample records for 70-cm azt-8 crao

  1. Asteroid observations with NCSFCT's AZT-8 telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhukhov, O. M.; Maigurova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    The asteroid observations of the small Solar System bodies were carried out with the AZT-8 telescope (D = 0.7 m, f/4) of the National Center of Space Facilities Control and Testing (NCSFCT) during 2010-2013. The telescope is located near Yevpatoria, the observatory code according IAU is B17. The observational program included perturbed main belt asteroids and NEO's for the GAIA FUN-SSO Company. The MPC database contains more than 4500 asteroids positions and magnitudes obtained during this period at AZT-8 telescope. The article presents analysis of the positional accuracy of B17 observations obtained from the comparison with the JPL HORIZONS ephemeris, and data from AstD-yS-2 and NEODyS-2 web services.

  2. Evaluation of Ophthalmic Artery Branch Retrograde Intervention in the Treatment of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Runsheng; Qian, Lu; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Du, Shanshuang; Lei, Tao; Lv, Peilin; Long, Tan; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Background Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the occlusion of the central retinal artery resulting in retinal infarction and acute vision loss. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)–guided superselective ophthalmic artery or selective carotid thrombolysis remains the preferred treatment method for CRAO. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of the novel ophthalmic artery branch retrograde thrombolytic intervention for CRAO. Material/Methods Fifty patients with monocular CRAO were enrolled, including 28 males and 22 females (mean age: 55.7±2.3 years). The patients were randomly divided into two groups for thrombolysis with urokinase (400,000 U) and papaverine (30 mg) by either ophthalmic artery branch retrograde intervention (group A, n=26) or superselective ophthalmic artery/selective carotid intervention (group B, n=24). There was no significant difference in age (P=0.58), gender ratio (P=0.49), and time to onset (P=1.00) between the two groups. The adverse reactions and clinical efficacy were evaluated by postoperative DSA, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and visual acuity tests. Results No serious complications, abnormal eye movement, or vitreous hemorrhage occurred in either group. DSA showed that group A had an effective rate (92.30%) comparable to that of group B (100%, χ2=2.08, P=0.25). FFA suggested that both groups had similar treatment efficacy (χ2=3.09, P=0.21). Visual acuity tests also confirmed a similar efficacy of the two intervention approaches (χ2=0.25, P=0.88). Conclusions The developed novel ophthalmic artery branch retrograde intervention is highly effective and safe for CRAO, and may be a superior method compared with the conventional approach. PMID:28064304

  3. Optical activity of the high-mass X-ray binary SAX J2103.5+4545.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishina, T. S.; Larionova, E. G.; Savchenko, S. S.; Larionov, V. M.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the renewed optical activity of the high-mass X-ray binary system SAX J2103.5+4545. The source is monitored with the 0.4-m LX-200 (St.Petersburg, Russia) and 0.7-m AZT-8 (CrAO, Russia) telescopes.

  4. Interactive Possibility of Working with a Digital Version of the Journal "Izvestia of the CRAO"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar', N.; Gorbunov, M.; Shlyapnikov, A.

    The main problem that arises when working with a scanned version of any published scientific journal related to the presentation of digital information displayed. In this paper, we consider the statistics, which represents the journal "Izvestia of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory" in the SAO/NASA ADS. As the example of articles from the print version of the journal we consider the possibility to access the world's astronomical databases for obtaining additional information about the investigated objects. We describe briefly on-line virtual applications for the graphical information display.

  5. History of cometary exploration at Kyiv University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.

    Active exploration of comets at Kyiv University in Ukraine began from 1939 when the astronomy department of the physics faculty of this university was founded by Prof. Sergey Konstantinovich Vsekhsvyatsky, who moved for this aim from Moscow to Kyiv. Prof. Vsekhsvytsky played an great role in the development of cometary astronomy at Kyiv University. Vsekhsvytsky developed the Lagrange hypothesis regarding eruptive ejection of comet nuclei and other minor bodies from surfaces of satellites of giant planets. Vsekhsvyatsky's monographs "Physical characteristic of comets" (Moscow,1958; Jerusalem, 1964) and "Nature and origin of comets and meteor matter" (Moscow, 1967) are widely known. On the initiative of Vsekhsvytsky in the village of Lisniki (near Kyiv), the Comet station of Kyiv University was organized, where two optical telescopes (AZT-8 with mirror by D=70 cm and AZT-14 with mirror D=50 cm) for photographic, photoelectric, TV and CCD observations of comets were installed. In 1965 the special cometary project for observations and detections of comets began. Two comets 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 1969 and C/1986 N1 (Churyumov-Solodovnikov) in 1986 were discovered. The comet explorers at Kyiv University took part in numerous International observational programs for study of comets: C/1973 E1 Kohoutek in 1973-1974, 27P/Crommelin in 1984, 1P/ Halley in 1986, 23P/Brorsen-Metcalf in 1989, D/Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1994, C/1996 B2 Hyakutake in 1996, C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp in 1997 and others.

  6. Progress in development of the Russian scientific optical network for space debris research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotov, I.; Agapov, V.; Guseva, I.; Kornienko, G.; Volvach, A.; Ibragimov, M.; Vlasjuk, V.; Kiladze, R.; Zalles, O.; Sukhov, P.

    The Pulkovo cooperation of optical observers PULCOO collaborates with the 8 FSU observatories along 110 degree of longitude to conduct out the observations of space debris and asteroids The 10 telescopes were equipped with CCD cameras and GPS-receivers provided with software for CCD frame processing and ephemeris support 2 6-m ZTSh in Nauchny 32-cm ZA-320 and 22-cm SR-220 in Pulkovo 60-cm Zeiss-600 in Maidanak 1-m Zeiss-1000 in Zelenchuk 40-cm double Zeiss astrograph in Ussuriysk 40-cm double Zeiss astrograph in Abastumani 60-cm RK-600 in Mayaki 70-cm AZT-8 in Chuguev 1-m Zeiss-1000 in Simeiz Few observing campaigns of GEO region were carried out in collaboration with ESOC for searching and tracking of the unknown objects More than 60 000 measurements of PULCOO and European telescopes were collected and processed at Space Debris Data Base in KIAM Ballistic Center of Russian Academy of Science that allowed to find about 170 GEO objects that are absent in public distributed orbital data and to fix their orbital elements Including the 50 small-sized fragments of space debris that were discovered in areas predicted using Pulkovo Laplace motion theory 1 Some of these faint GEO fragments are tracked during few hundred day period The trial observations were arranged in Tarija Bolivia The test GEO survey demonstrated the high performances of new SR-220 in Nauchny 300 square degrees hour 100 detection of catalogued objects up to 15 star magnitude Two more such telescopes were ordered for future usage in Far East and Moldova The research was supported

  7. Databases of publications and observations as a part of the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyapnikov, A.; Bondar', N.; Gorbunov, M.

    We describe the main principles of formation of databases (DBs) with information about astronomical objects and their physical characteristics derived from observations obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and published in the ``Izvestiya of the CrAO'' and elsewhere. Emphasis is placed on the DBs missing from the most complete global library of catalogs and data tables, VizieR (supported by the Center of Astronomical Data, Strasbourg). We specially consider the problem of forming a digital archive of observational data obtained at the CrAO as an interactive DB related to database objects and publications. We present examples of all our DBs as elements integrated into the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory. We illustrate the work with the CrAO DBs using tools of the International Virtual Observatory: Aladin, VOPlot, VOSpec, in conjunction with the VizieR and Simbad DBs.

  8. ACUTE RETINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental study shows that CRAO for 97 minutes produces no detectable permanent retinal damage but there is a progressive ischemic damage thereafter, and by 4 hours the retina has suffered irreversible damage. In the clinical section, I discuss at length various controversies on acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Classification of acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders These are of 4 types: CRAO, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), cotton wools spots and amaurosis fugax. Both CRAO and BRAO further comprise multiple clinical entities. Contrary to the universal belief, pathogenetically, clinically and for management, CRAO is not one clinical entity but 4 distinct clinical entities – non-arteritic CRAO, non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, arteritic CRAO associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and transient non-arteritic CRAO. Similarly, BRAO comprises permanent BRAO, transient BRAO and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), and the latter further consists of 3 distinct clinical entities - non-arteritic CLRAO alone, non-arteritic CLRAO associated with central retinal vein occlusion and arteritic CLRAO associated with GCA. Understanding these classifications is essential to comprehend fully various aspects of these disorders. Central retinal artery occlusion The pathogeneses, clinical features and management of the various types of CRAO are discussed in detail. Contrary to the prevalent belief, spontaneous improvement in both visual acuity and visual fields does occur, mainly during the first 7 days. The incidence of spontaneous visual

  9. Violent optical activity of the blazar OJ 287

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V.; Mokrushina, A. A.; Grishina, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    We perform optical photometric and polarimetric monitoring of a sample of gamma-bright blazars using 0.7-m AZT-8 telescope (Crimean Astrophysical Observatory) and 0.4-m LX-200 telescope (St.Petersburg), as a part of WEBT/GASP project.

  10. Observation of Comet C/2013 US (Catalina) in Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buriev, Anvardzhon

    2016-07-01

    Kh. I. Ibadinov, A.M. Buriev Institute of Astrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan E-mail: ibadinov@mail.ru, anvar10@mail.ru The position, magnitude in BVRI filters and diameter of the nucleus of comet C/ 2013 US 10 (CANALINA) on the basis of CCD observations with AZT-8 telescope Hissar Astronomical observatory in 2016 were founded.

  11. Ocular vascular occlusive disorders: Natural history of visual outcome☆

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Ocular vascular occlusive disorders collectively constitute the most common cause of visual disability. Before a disease can be managed, it is essential to understand its natural history, so as to be able to assess the likely effectiveness of any intervention. I investigated natural history of visual outcome in prospective studies of 386 eyes with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION), 16 eyes with non-arteritic posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, 697 eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), 67 eyes with hemi-CRVO (HCRVO), 216 eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), 260 eyes with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), 151 eyes with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) and 61 eyes with cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO). My studies have shown that every one of these disorders consists of multiple distinct clinical sub-categories with different visual findings. When an ocular vascular occlusive disorder is caused by giant cell arteritis, which is an ophthalmic emergency, it would be unethical to do a natural history study of visual outcome in them, because in this case early diagnosis and immediate, intensive high-dose steroid therapy is essential to prevent any further visual loss, not only in the involved eye but also in the fellow, normal eye. In NA-AION in eyes seen ≤2 weeks after the onset, visual acuity (VA) improved in 41% of those with VA 20/70 or worse, and visual field (VF) improved in 26% of those with moderate to severe VF defect. In non-ischemic CRVO eyes with VA 20/70 or worse, VA improved in 47% and in ischemic CRVO in 23%; moderate to severe VF defect improved in 79% in non-ischemic CRVO and in 27% in ischemic CRVO. In HCRVO, overall findings demonstrated that initial VA and VF defect and the final visual outcome were different in non-ischemic from ischemic HCRVO – much better in the former than the latter. In major BRVO, in eyes with initial VA of 20/70 or worse, VA improved in 69%, and moderate to

  12. Optical flare of the Quasar 3C279

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorstad, Svetlana; Savchenko, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    The quasar 3C279 shows significant activity at optical wavelengths. According to our observations at the Perkins telescope of Lowell Obs. (Flagstaff, AZ) on February 23 R band magnitude of the quasar reached 14.088+-0.004 with the degree of polarization P=8.82+-0.11%, while observations at the AZT-8 telescope of Crimean Astrophysical Obs. show that the source was more than 1 mag fainter on February 20, R=15.237+-0.005, with P=6.45+0.88%.

  13. Polycythemia causing posterior segment vascular occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Suganeswari; Raman, Rajiv; Sharma, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    A 44-year-old male patient presented with features suggestive of transient central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) followed by permanent CRAO and lateral posterior ciliary artery occlusion. He had diagnostic features of polycythemia vera (PV). When presented for the first time, the patient had features of ocular ischemia such as ocular pain, conjunctival congestion, and retinal opacification but with normal arm-to-retina time and normal arteriovenous transit time. During the second presentation, he had ocular pain, congested conjunctiva, retinal opacification, cherry red spot with box-carrying of retinal vessels, and choroidal infarct (Amalric's sign). He had lost light perception in that eye. Patients with polycythemia are prone to multifocal vascular occlusions and this can be the presenting feature in PV. A timely diagnosis and prompt management can prevent these repeated thromboembolic occlusive episodes. PMID:28298862

  14. Hemi-central retinal artery occlusion in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Sharma, Tarun; Mahajan, Sheshadri

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the clinical presentations of retinal artery occlusion, hemi-central retinal artery occlusion (Hemi-CRAO) is rarely described. This case series of four adults aged between 22 and 36 years attempts to describe the clinical profile, etiology and management of Hemi-CRAO. Case 1 had an artificial mitral valve implant. Polycythemia and malignant hypertension were noted in Case 2. The third patient had Leiden mutation while the fourth patient had Eisenmenger's syndrome. Clinical examination and fundus fluorescein angiography revealed a bifurcated central retinal artery at emergence from the optic nerve head, in all cases. Color Doppler examination of the central retinal artery confirmed branching of the artery behind the lamina cribrosa. It is hypothesized that bifurcation of central retinal artery behind the lamina cribrosa may predispose these hemi-trunks to develop an acute occlusion if associated with underlying risk factors. The prognosis depends upon arterial recanalisation and etiology of the thromboembolic event.

  15. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 5. Aircraft Postcrash Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    mine specific relationships between crash forces, structur:- failures . crao1 fires, and injuries. A series of reports covering this effort was prepared...regardless of the degree of failure of the sur- rounding structure. Success of such a system depends on proper selection of materials and design techniques...provided. 31 Another factor that can govern whether or not a fuel tank will survive a given impact is the method of failure experienced by the

  16. Cockroach-allergen study: allergen patterns of three common cockroach species probed by allergic sera collected in two cities.

    PubMed

    Kang, B C; Wilson, M; Price, K H; Kambara, T

    1991-06-01

    Antigens/allergens of three common cockroach extracts, crude whole body extract of the American cockroach (CRa-A), crude whole body extract of the German cockroach (CRa-G), and crude whole body extract of the Oriental cockroach (CRa-O), were studied with crossed immunoelectrophoresis, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis, and Western blot analysis. Sera of cockroach-allergic patients with asthma, 10 from Chicago, Ill. (C group) and six patients from Lexington, Ky. (L group), were used; results were then compared with sera of control subjects with asthma. Qualitative differences in protein bands were noted among CRa-A, CRa-G, and CRa-O by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allergen bands on Western blot were analyzed for distribution by molecular weight (MW) with relative intensity scores. Results were compared by species and by geography. Two to 12 allergenic bands of variable MW (14 kd to greater than 116 kd) were identified by 13 of 16 individual sera from cockroach-allergic patients from all three extracts. CRa-A demonstrated 55 bands with an intensity score of 125; CRa-G, 58 bands with an intensity score of 100; and CRa-O, 51 bands with an intensity score of 108. Allergenic bands of CRa-A were identified by six sera of the C group and one sera of the L group, whereas bands of both CRa-G and CRa-O were noted by nine sera of the C group and four sera of the L group. All three species had an allergen band in MW range of 40 to 45 kd that reacted to most sera from cockroach-allergic patients with asthma.

  17. Selective thrombolysis performed through meningo-ophthalmic artery in central retinal artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Halpert, Michael; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The poor natural history of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually not modified with conventional, conservative management techniques. Guidelines for selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis are still lacking. While many centers continue to perform this procedure with promising results, others are reluctant due to conflicting findings in recent studies. We present our experience in a 36-year-old male with CRAO. Based on the patient's clinical presentation, we planned to perform selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis via the ophthalmic artery. When angiography demonstrated that the retina was not supplied by the ophthalmic artery, but by a meningo-ophthalmic artery branching from the internal maxillary artery, we instead administered thrombolytic agents via the meningo-ophthalmic artery. The patient's vision recovered completely, with visual acuity and visual field examination at 30 day follow up comparable to his pre-treatment status. This case emphasizes the need for external carotid artery examination in cases of nonvisualization of the ophthalmic artery. In addition, it illustrates the successful use of the meningo-ophthalmic artery to perform selective intraarterial thrombolysis for CRAO.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Eight transiting light curves of WASP-43b (Jiang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, I.-G.; Lai, C.-Y.; Savushkin, A.; Mkrtichian, D.; Antonyuk, K.; Griv, E.; Hsieh, H.-F.; Yeh, L.-C.

    2016-07-01

    In this project, two telescopes were employed to observe the transits of WASP-43b. One is the 1.25m telescope (AZT-11) at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) in Nauchny, Crimea, and another is the 60 inch telescope (P60) at Palomar Observatory in California, USA. We successfully performed one complete transit observation with AZT-11 in 2012 and seven with P60 in 2014 and 2015. A summary of the above observations is presented in Table1. (2 data files).

  19. Significant increase in the optical brightness of V2492 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibryamov, Sunay; Semkov, Evgeni

    2017-03-01

    We observed a recent increase in the optical brightness of the young eruptive star V2492 Cyg using the 2-m and the 50/70-cm Schmidt telescopes administered by National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen in Bulgaria.

  20. A Reduced Power Digital Electronics System for a Digital Beamforming Space Exploration Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Rincon, R. F.; Novak, M.

    2016-10-01

    We will discuss design of an orbital P-band (70 cm wavelength) digital beamforming radar system that is modular and can be used for imaging polarimetry of Earth and rocky planets and moons, as well as asteroids and comets.

  1. Unusual Radar Backscatter Properties Along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    In general, radar backscatter from the lunar terrae is 2-4 times that of the maria. One exception to this is the terra terrain along the northern rim of Imbrium Basin. The highlands that surround Sinus Iridum and crater Plato have long-wavelength (70-cm) radar backscatter that is comparable to or lower than that from the adjacent maria. We are studying new 70-cm radar images and earlier multispectral data to better constrain the regional geology.

  2. Acute occlusion of the retinal arteries: current concepts and recent advances in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, S; Eong, K

    2000-01-01

    Purpose/Background—Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually a blinding event, and is not an infrequent presentation to the accident and emergency (A&E) department. The evidence-base in support of current treatment options is weak. Methods—This paper reviewed the literature germane to the diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of retinal arterial occlusive disease. Results—The visual prognosis associated with CRAO remains poor, and current therapeutic practices are of unproven benefit. The non-ophthalmologist in the A&E department should lie the patient flat and give a stat dose of intravenous acetazolamide in an attempt to improve the retinal perfusion pressure. Conclusion—The management of acute occlusion of the central retinal artery has not changed over the past 30 years, although the potential benefits of superselective intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy warrant evaluation in a randomised controlled trial. The identification of underlying pathology is an essential component of medical care, and all cases should be followed up by an ophthalmologist because of the possibility of ocular rubeosis. PMID:11005400

  3. Unusual Radar Backscatter along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Ghent, Rebecca R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Leverington, David W.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of the unusual radar backscatter properties along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin is shown. The contents include: 1) Visual and Infrared Observations of Moon; 2) Radar Observations of Moon; 3) Lunar Orbiter Photographs Geologic Setting; 4) 70-cm Radar Data; 5) .70-cm Radar Dark Halo Craters; 6) 3.8-cm Radar Data; 7) 7.5-m Radar Data; 8) 70cm, 3.8 cm and 7.5-m Radar Data; 9) Optical and Infrared Data; 10) Plato Rilles; 11) Isopachs of Crater Ejecta; 12) Plato-like Craters; 13) Observation Summary; 14) Interpretation Matrix; 15) Dark Halo Diameters vs. Crater Size; and 16) Radar Geologic Column.

  4. Spectral photographic archives of observatories of Ukraine: digital versions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, L.; Shlyapnikov, A.; Rosenbush, A.; Gorbunov, M.

    Photographic archives of Ukrainian observatories contain a large number of plates in collections of spectral observations. First attempts to digitize them and to make them available via VO formats and protocols of data transfer and processing were undertaken during last years. The involved observatories are Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Main Astronomical observatory NAS of Ukraine (MAO NASU).The project of spectral archive digitizing is carried out within the framework of Ukrainian Virtual Observatory - UkrVO. The core of UkrVO is a Joint Digital Archive (JDA) of photographic and CCD observations. On-line databases of spectral photographic collections and their fitting for VO tools set are the further enhancement of the idea of JDA.

  5. Peculiarities of the SU UMa-Type Dwarf Nova V1504 Cyg Behavior in 1994 - 2012 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyuk, O. I.; Pavlenko, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    For the SU UMa-type dwarf nova V1504 Cyg on the data base of the CrAO (1998 - 2009), space telescope "Kepler" (2009 - 2011), AAVSO and VSNET (1994 - 2012) we found as follows: 1) the supercycle length varying in average from 100 to 140 d; 2) the normal outbursts show a bimodal cycles lengths distributions with centers 8 - 9 days and 11 days within the range of 5 - 22 days; 3) for the quiescent data JD 2451737-2451745 we have detected the 0.0677-d periodicity that probably connected to the negative superhumps, and for the JD 245497 - 2454974 - these consisting either with simultaneous existing of positive and negative superhumps or with one of these periods.

  6. Starspots and active regions on IN Com: UBVRI photometry and linear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I. Yu.; Kozlova, O. V.

    2014-06-01

    The activity of the variable star IN Com is considered using the latest multicolor UBVRI photometry and linear polarimetric observations carried out during a decade. The photometric variability of the star is fully described using the zonal spottedness model developed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO). Spotted regions cover up to 22% of the total stellar surface, with the difference in temperatures between the quiet photosphere and the spot umbra being 600 K. The spots are located at middle and low latitudes (40°-55°). The intrinsic broad-band linear polarization of IN Com and its rotational modulation in the U band due to local magnetic fields at the most spotted (active) stellar longitudes were detected for the first time.

  7. Determination of parameters of transit exoplanets, using data obtained at the small telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krushevska, V.; Kuznyetsova, Yu.; Matsiaka, O.; Andreev, M.; Romanyuk, Ya.; Vidmachenko, A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of CCD-photometry data processing of some stars with transiting extrasolar planets. Observations were carried out using such small telescopes: a 38-cm Cassegrain telescope K-380 (CrAO, Ukraine), a 60-cm Zeiss-600 (Terskol, Russia), a Celestron-14″ (Lesniki & MAO NASU, Ukraine). The main physical and orbital parameters for specified exoplanetary systems were calculated by the Monte-Carlo method. Using obtained best-fit parameters the light curve modeling was simulated. Calculations and light curve simulation were realized using an IDL programming environment. A light curve analysis includes simulation of a transit curve shape using the analytic theory of the light curve and experimentally obtained data. A comparison of the results obtained in each of the above mentioned telescopes is presented.

  8. Perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spine surgery occurs in from 0.013% to 1% of cases and is variously attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION: anterior ION or posterior ION [reported in 1.9/10,000 cases: constitutes 89% of all POVL cases], central retinal artery occlusion [CRAO], central retinal vein occlusion [CRVO], cortical blindness [CB], direct compression [horseshoe, prone pillows, and eye protectors Dupaco Opti-Gard]), and acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG). Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged operative times, long-segment spinal instrumentation, anemia, intraoperative hypotension, diabetes, obesity, male sex, using the Wilson frame, microvascular pathology, decreased the percent of colloid administration, and extensive intraoperative blood loss. Risk factors for CRAO more typically include improper positioning during the surgery (e.g., cervical rotation), while those for CB included prone positioning and obesity. Results: POVL may be avoided by greater utilization of crystalloids versus colloids, administration of α-2 agonists (e.g., decreases intraocular pressure), avoidance of catecholamines (e.g., avoid vasoconstrictors), avoiding intraoperative hypotension, and averting anemia. Patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects may undergo preoperative evaluation by ophthalmologists to determine whether they require prophylactic treatment prior to prone spinal surgery and whether and if prophylactic treatment is warranted. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL is to recognize its multiple etiologies and limit the various risk factors that contribute to this devastating complication of prone spinal surgery. Furthermore, routinely utilizing a 3-pin head holder will completely avoid ophthalmic compression, while maintaining the neck in a neutral posture, largely avoiding the risk of jugular vein and/or carotid artery compromise and thus avoiding increasing IOP. PMID:27274409

  9. How to avoid perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In a prior article, “Perioperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spinal surgery: A review,” Epstein documented that postoperative visual loss (POVL) occurs in from 0.013% to 0.2% of spine procedures performed in the prone position. POVL is largely attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), cortical blindness (CB), direct compression (prone pillows/horseshoe, eye protectors), and rarely, acute angle closure glaucoma. Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged surgery, extensive fusions, anemia, hypotension, hypovolemia, diabetes, obesity, use of the Wilson frame, male sex, and microvascular pathology. CRAO may result from improper prone positioning (e.g., eye compression or rotation contributing to jugular/venous or carotid compression), while CB more typically results from both direct compression and obesity. Results: Several preventive/prophylactic measures should limit the risk of POVL. The routine use of an arterial line and continuous intraoperative monitoring document intraoperative hypotension/hypovolemia/anemia that can be immediately corrected with appropriate resuscitative measures. Application of a 3-pin head holder completely eliminates direct eye compression and maintains the neck in a neutral posture, thus avoiding rotation that can contribute to jugular/venous obstruction and/or inadvertent carotid compression. In addition, elevating the head 10° from the horizontal directly reduces intraocular pressure. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL following prone spine surgery is to prevent it. Routine use of an arterial line, intraoperative monitoring, a 3-pin head holder, and elevation of the head 10° from the horizontal should limit the risk of encountering POVL after spinal procedures performed in the prone position. PMID:27274406

  10. Reversibility of retinal ischemia due to central retinal artery occlusion by hyperbaric oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Hadanny, Amir; Maliar, Amit; Fishlev, Gregory; Bechor, Yair; Bergan, Jacob; Friedman, Mony; Avni, Isaac; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ischemic retinal damage can be reversed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) as long as irreversible infarction damage has not developed. However, the time window till irreversible damage develops is still unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effect of HBOT and determine possible markers for irreversible retinal damage. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis of 225 patients treated with HBOT for central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in 1999–2015. One hundred and twenty-eight patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria: age >18 years, symptoms <20 hours, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) <0.5 logMAR. Results Time delay from symptoms to treatment was 7.8±3.8 hours. The BCVA was significantly improved after HBOT, from 2.14±0.50 to 1.61±0.78 (P<0.0001). The proportion of patients with clinically meaningful visual improvement was significantly higher in patients without cherry-red spot (CRS) compared to patients with CRS at presentation (86.0% vs 57.6%, P<0.0001). The percentage of patients with final BCVA better than 1.0 was also significantly higher in patients without CRS vs patients with CRS at presentation (61.0% vs 7.1%, P<0.0001). There was no correlation between CRS and the time from symptoms. HBOT was found to be safe, and only 5.5% of patients had minor, reversible, adverse events. Conclusion HBOT is an effective treatment for non-arteritic CRAO as long as CRS has not formed. The fundus findings, rather than the time delay, should be used as a marker for irreversible damage. PMID:28096655

  11. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment.

  12. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  13. UBV observations of the flickering of T CrB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanov, R.; Semkov, E.; Stoyanov, K.; Tomov, T.

    2016-02-01

    In 2015 the recurrent nova T Coronae Borealis has entered a super-active state (Munari, Dallaporta & amp; Cherini, 2016, NewA, in press). On February 7, 2016, we observed the flickering of T CrB in three filters (UBV) using the 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen (Bulgaria).

  14. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  15. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  16. ISON Near-Earth asteroids project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotov, Igor; Elenin, Leonid; Krugly, Yurij; Ivaschenko, Yuri

    International scientific optical network (ISON) is now one of largest system in the world capable to observe across all Earth longitudes . At present more than 20 observatories in 9 countries -Bolivia, Georgia, Italy, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan participate in coor-dinated observations under ISON. More then 30 telescopes with aperture in range between 0.12 and 1 meter have provided regular survey of sky -1042 telescope-nights in 2007, 1324 telescope-nights in 2008, and 1730 telescope-nights in 2009. Most part of ISON telescopes has large field of view (FOV) between 1.5 and 12 and a lot of them seems to be acceptable for new asteroids searching -0.64m AT-64 (2.3) in Nauchny (Crimea), 0.7m AS-32 (1.5) in Abastumani (Georgia), 0.5m VT-40/500 (1.8) in Ussurijsk (Vladivostok region), 0.5m Santel 500A (1.7) in Zvenigorod (near Moscow), 0.4m ORI-40 (2.3) in Krasnojarsk (Siberia) and Kitab (Uzbekistan). In addition, the work on modernization of Zeiss-600 to improve FOV up to 1 is on the way in Andrushivka, Tarija, Simeiz, Mayaki and Sanglok. The asteroid investigations is already started within ISON -new asteroid survey is arranged in Andrushivka (0.6 m Zeiss-600), and near-Earth asteroid photometry is carried out in Chuguev (0.7 m AZT-8), Simeiz (1 m Zeiss-1000) and Gissar (0.7m AZT-8). ISON observatories regis-tration on MPC code is under fulfillment now. Last time it was obtained MPC code C15 for Ussuriysk and C06 for Krasnojarsk. The first astrometry observations of asteroids were carried out in Tarija (0.6m Zeiss-600), Ussuriysk (0.5m VT-40/500 and 0.25m GAS-250), Krasnojarsk (0.4m ORI-40), Milkovo (0.22m ORI-22), Blagoveschensk (0.22m ORI-22), and Tiraspol (0.22 m RST-220). Beginning from 2010 the ISON observatories start regular observations of asteroids. For this task we create separate asteroid group. In addition several telescopes of 0.25 -0.4m will be installed in Mongolia, Vietnam, Blagoveschensk, Kitab, and Tiraspol. Work on refurbishing

  17. On the Nature of EXor Accretion Events: An Infrequent Manifestation of a Common Phenomenology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Ventura, P.; Arkharov, A. A.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Larionov, V. M.; Di Paola, A.; Nisini, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of a comparison between classical and newly identified EXor based on literature data and aimed at recognizing possible differences or similarities between the categories. Optical and near-IR two-color diagrams, modalities of fluctuations, and derived values of the mass accretion rates are indicative of strong similarities between the two samples. We demonstrate how the difference between the outburst and the quiescence spectral energy distribution of all EXor can be well fitted with a single blackbody, as if an additional thermal component appears during the outbursting phase. Temperatures of this additional component span between 1000 and 4500 K, while the radii of the emitting regions (assumed to be a uniform disk) span between 0.01 and 0.1 AU, sizes typical of the inner portions of the circumstellar disk. Spots persisting up to 50% of the outburst duration, not exceeding 10% of the stellar surface, and with temperatures compatible with the EXor mass accretion rates, are able to account for both the appearance of the additional thermal component and the dust sublimation in the inner structures of the disk. We also compare the EXor events with the most significant color and magnitude fluctuations of active T Tauri stars finding that (1) burst accretion phenomena should also be important for this latter class and (2) EXor events could be more frequent than those accidentally discovered. A remarkable case is that of the source V2493 Cyg, a T Tauri star recently identified as a strong outbursting object: New optical and near-IR photometric and spectroscopic data are presented in an attempt to clarify its EXor or FUor nature. Based on observations collected at AZT-24 telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), AZT-8 (Crimea, Ukraine), and LX-200 (St. Petersburg, Russia).

  18. Visual reinforcement audiometry. Comparison of loudspeaker arrangements.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, L; Börjesson, E; Axelsson, A C

    1997-01-01

    Two different loudspeaker arrangements are currently used when performing Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA). In the one arrangement, the loudspeakers are mounted on separate movable arms and positioned 15 cm from each ear. In the other, the loudspeakers are rigidly mounted close to their respective picture monitor at a distance of 50-70 cm from the child. In the present study, these two arrangements were compared by measuring real-ear sound pressure levels and actual sound field conditions. It was shown that a predominantly monaural stimulation was best achieved by using the 15-cm position, but also that the measurements were significantly more affected by small head movements when using this close position. When assessing the acoustics as well as practical aspects, it was concluded that loudspeakers mounted beside the picture monitors at a distance of 50-70 cm from the child makes a generally appropriate arrangement for VRA.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVRI observations of the FUor star V582 Aur (Semkov+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkov, E. H.; Peneva, S. P.; Munari, U.; Dennefeld, M.; Mito, H.; Dimitrov, D. P.; Ibryamov, S.; Stoyanov, K. A.

    2013-07-01

    The CCD photometric observations of V582 Aur were performed with the 2m RCC, the 50/70cm Schmidt, and the 60cm Cassegrain telescopes of the National Astronomical Observatory (NAO) Rozhen (Bulgaria) and with the 1.3m RC telescope of the Skinakas Observatory of the Institute of Astronomy, University of Crete (Greece). Observations were performed, between 2009 October and 2013 April, with four types of the CCD camera Vers Array 1300B at the 2m RCC telescope, ANDOR DZ436-BV at the 1.3m RC telescope, FLI PL16803 at the 50/70cm Schmidt telescope, and FLI PL9000 at the 60cm Cassegrain telescope. All frames were exposed through a set of standard Johnson-Cousins filters. The measured magnitudes from the photometric observations of V582 Aur made with the Asiago Schmidt telescope on 2009 August are also included in table 2. (1 data file).

  20. Dependence of sea-surface microwave emissivity on friction velocity as derived from SMMR/SASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, F. J.; Christensen, E. J.; Richardson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The sea-surface microwave emissivity is derived using SMMR brightness temperatures and SASS inferred friction velocities for three North Pacific Seasat passes. The results show the emissivity increasing linearly with friction velocity with no obvious break between the foam-free and foam regimes up to a friction velocity of about 70 cm/sec (15 m/sec wind speed). For horizontal polarization the sensitivity of emissivity to friction velocity greatly increases with frequency, while for vertical polarization the sensitivity is much less and is independent of frequency. This behavior is consistent with two-scale scattering theory. A limited amount of high friction velocity data above 70 cm/sec suggests an additional increase in emissivity due to whitecapping.

  1. Long-term effect of agricultural reclamation on soil chemical properties of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Feng, Xiaoping; Guo, Changcheng; Chen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Over the past six decades, coastal wetlands in China have experienced rapid and extensive agricultural reclamation. In the context of saline conditions, long-term effect of cultivation after reclamation on soil chemical properties has not been well understood. We studied this issue using a case of approximately 60-years cultivation of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China. The results showed that long-term reclamation significantly decreased soil organic carbon (SOC) (-42.2%) and total nitrogen (TN) (-25.8%) at surface layer (0-30 cm) as well as their stratification ratios (SRs) (0-5 cm:50-70 cm and 5-10 cm:50-70 cm). However, there was no significant change in total phosphorus (TP) as well as its SRs under cultivation. Cultivation markedly reduced ratios of SOC to TN, SOC to TP and TN to TP at surface layer (0-30 cm) and their SRs (0-5 cm:50-70 cm). After cultivation, electrical conductivity and salinity significantly decreased by 60.1% and 55.3% at 0-100 cm layer, respectively, suggesting a great desalinization. In contrast, soil pH at 20-70 cm horizons notably increased as an effect of reclamation. Cultivation also changed compositions of cations at 0-10 cm layer and anions at 5-100 cm layer, mainly decreasing the proportion of Na+, Cl- and SO4(2-). Furthermore, cultivation significantly reduced the sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in plow-layer (0-20 cm) but not residual sodium carbonate, suggesting a reduction in sodium harm.

  2. Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    seafloor bedform measurements (Rotary Sidescan and Pencil-beam sonars ) APPROACH Our project is focused on obtaining direct measurements of the...September 2011, showing Pulse Coherent Doppler Profiler (PCDP), Imagenex rotary sidescan sonar , Imagenex 2- axis rotary pencil beam sonar , Aquatec ABS and...Nortek Vector ADVs. Rotary Pencil Beam Sonar Rotary Sidescan Sonar PCDP ABS ADVs 5 Figure 3. Rotary Sidescan Image showing 70 cm

  3. Microwave Radiation and Thermoregulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    temperature changes due to circadian variation, febrile disease , exercise, etc. In experimental animals, highly localized temperature changes in specific...cm x 70 cm plane ortho- gonal to the K vector centered on the antenna boresight 1.42 meters from the front edge of the antenna. Dashed outline shows...primates, and man) activate sweat glands over some or all of the body surface, thereby increasing heat lost from the skin by evaporation. In man, the

  4. Asteroid lightcurve analysis at the NAO Rozhen: 2014 March - December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolovska, Gordana; Kostov, Andon; Donchev, Zahary; Kuzmanovska, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    Lightcurve analysis of five main belt asteroids 339 Dorothea, 549 Jessonda, 2445 Blazhko, 4528 Berg and 5317 Vero-lacqua observed at Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory (NAO) Rozhen since March to December 2014 is presented. The choice of the asteroids was made according to their visibility in allocated observing time on the 50/70cm Schmidt and 60cm Cassegrain telescope and in the frame of our long term photometry program for determining the shape and poles of asteroids.

  5. Long-Term Effect of Agricultural Reclamation on Soil Chemical Properties of a Coastal Saline Marsh in Bohai Rim, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Feng, Xiaoping; Guo, Changcheng; Chen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Over the past six decades, coastal wetlands in China have experienced rapid and extensive agricultural reclamation. In the context of saline conditions, long-term effect of cultivation after reclamation on soil chemical properties has not been well understood. We studied this issue using a case of approximately 60-years cultivation of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China. The results showed that long-term reclamation significantly decreased soil organic carbon (SOC) (−42.2%) and total nitrogen (TN) (−25.8%) at surface layer (0–30 cm) as well as their stratification ratios (SRs) (0–5 cm:50–70 cm and 5–10 cm:50–70 cm). However, there was no significant change in total phosphorus (TP) as well as its SRs under cultivation. Cultivation markedly reduced ratios of SOC to TN, SOC to TP and TN to TP at surface layer (0–30 cm) and their SRs (0–5 cm:50–70 cm). After cultivation, electrical conductivity and salinity significantly decreased by 60.1% and 55.3% at 0–100 cm layer, respectively, suggesting a great desalinization. In contrast, soil pH at 20–70 cm horizons notably increased as an effect of reclamation. Cultivation also changed compositions of cations at 0–10 cm layer and anions at 5–100 cm layer, mainly decreasing the proportion of Na+, Cl− and SO42−. Furthermore, cultivation significantly reduced the sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in plow-layer (0–20 cm) but not residual sodium carbonate, suggesting a reduction in sodium harm. PMID:24695526

  6. Confinement of high-density pellet-fueled discharges in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Milora, S.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Bush, C.E.; Combs, S.K.; England, A.; Fredrickson, E.; Goldston, R.J.; Grek, B.

    1986-01-01

    TFTR pellet injection results reported by Schmidt have been extended to higher density and ntau in plasmas limited by a graphite inner-wall belt limiter. Increased pellet penetration and larger density increases were achieved by operation at reduced plasma current (1.6 MA), minor radius (70 cm), and major radius (235 cm). Under these conditions, beam heating results have been extended to 7 MW.

  7. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  8. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation (p = 0.037). A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm3 had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction (p = 0.045). Conclusion The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm3. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm3 should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation. PMID:26929456

  9. New results of the spectral observations of CP stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N. S.; Shavrina, A. V.; Drake, N. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2010-04-01

    The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars has been, for a long time, a subject of debate. Individual characteristics of CP stars, such as high abundance of the rare-earth elements presence of magnetic fields, complicate structure of the surface distribution of chemical elements, rapid oscillations of some CP-stars, make the detection of the lithium lines and the determination of the lithium abundance, a difficult task. During the International Meeting in Slovakia in 1996, the lithium problem in Ap-CP stars was discussed. The results of the Li study carried out in CrAO Polosukhina (1973-1976), the works of Hack & Faraggiana (1963), Wallerstein & Hack (1964), Faraggiana et al. (1992-1996) formed the basis of the International project ‘Lithium in the cool CP-stars with magnetic fields’. The main goal of the project was, using systematical observations of Ap-CP stars with phase rotation in the spectral regions of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å and subordinate 6104 Å lithium lines with different telescopes, to create a database, which will permit to explain the physical origin of anomalous Li abundance in the atmospheres of these stars.

  10. New Results of Spectral Observations of CP Stars in the Li I 6708 Å Spectral Region with the 6-m BTA Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Drake, N.; Kudryavtsev, D.; Smirnova, M.

    The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars has for a long time been a subject of debates. Individual characteristics of CP stars, such as a high abundance of rare-earth elements, the presence of magnetic fields, complex structures of the surface distribution of chemical elements, rapid oscillations of some CP stars, make the detection of lithium lines, and determination of lithium abundance a challenging task. The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars was discussed during the meeting in Slovakia in 1996. The results of the Li study, carried out in CrAO (Polosukhina, 1973 - 1976), the works of Faraggiana & Hack (1963), Wallerstein & Hack (1964), Faraggiana et al. (1992 - 1996) formed the basis of the international project, called Lithium in the Cool CP Stars with Magnetic Fields. The main goal of the project was, using systematical observations of Ap-CP stars with phase rotation in the spectral regions of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å and subordinate 6104 Å lithium lines with different telescopes, to create a database, which will permit to explain the physical origin of the anomalous Li abundance in the atmospheres of these stars.

  11. Narrowband Radio Emission As A Possible Feature of Before CMEs Onset Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, V.; Sheiner, O.; Grechin, S.

    The narrow band events in microwave radio emission were discovered during the ob- servations by RT-22 CrAO on August 12, 1989 before CMEs registration has been done. The observations were carried out using the sweeping spectrograph in 13-17 GHz range with frequency resolution of 100 MHz and sweeping time of less then 1 sec. It is well known that the period preceding the CMEs formation is characterized by sporadic radio emission of different types. We have found the existence of fast changes in temporal behavior of radio emission during the burst. They are character- ized by consistent origin of narrow-band (<1 GHz) components of emission with flux amplitude of about 1 sfu, moving from high to low frequencies in 1-3 seconds. We detected the shift of spectral maximum to short waves and appearance of narrow-band (<800 MHz) features during the CMEs formation. The results are being discussed within the framework of known models of radioemission of active region and bursts. Their application to possible conditions in formation of CMEs is also addressed in this research. This work is being supported by the Federal Science and Technology Programme "Astronomy" and the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research.

  12. A case report and brief review of the literature on bilateral retinal infarction following cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative visual loss is a devastating perioperative complication. The commonest aetiologies are anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION), posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (PION), and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). These appear to be related to certain types of operation, most commonly spinal and cardiac bypass procedures; with the rest divided between: major trauma causing excessive blood loss; head/neck and nasal or sinus surgery; major vascular procedures (aortic aneurysm repair, aorto-bifemoral bypass); general surgery; urology; gynaecology; liposuction; liver transplantation and duration of surgery. The non-surgical risk factors are multifactorial: advanced age, prolonged postoperative anaemia, positioning (supine v prone), alteration of venous drainage of the retina, hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, hypercoagulability, hypotension, blood loss and large volume resuscitation. Other important cardiac causes are septic emboli from bacterial endocarditis and emboli caused by atrial myxomata. The majority of AION cases occur during CPB followed by head/neck surgery and prone spine surgery. CPB is used to allow coronary artery bypass grafting on a motionless heart. It has many side-effects and complications associated with its use and we report here a case of bilateral retinal infarction during routine coronary artery bypass grafting in a young male patient with multiple risk factors for developing this complication despite steps to minimise its occurrence. PMID:22104114

  13. Mitigation of image contrast loss due to mask-side non-telecentricity in an EUV scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chih-Tsung; Yu, Shinn-Sheng; Lu, Yen-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Jack J. H.; Yen, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Due to the use of reflective optics in extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the chief ray angle of incidence at the object (mask) side (CRAO) cannot be zero. If the conventional resolution enhancement technique (RET) of off-axis illumination (OAI) is used, such mask-side non-telecentricity degrades aerial image contrast partly because of asymmetry (w.r.t. the mask) of the two beams in an incident beam pair and partly because of asymmetry (w.r.t. the mask) of the two diffraction orders of either incident beam. The former leads to intensity imbalance of the two incident beams (after leaving the mask) and the latter leads to amplitude and phase imbalance of the two diffraction orders of either incident beam. Solutions proposed previously only alleviate the former and have little help for the latter. In this paper, we introduce n=1 absorber to eliminate the phase imbalance so that the transverse shift between the two aerial images formed by the two incident beams can be minimized and the contrast of the final aerial image (by superposition of the two) can be restored.

  14. Perioperative visual loss in ocular and nonocular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kathleen T; Harrison, Andrew R; Lee, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Incidence estimates for perioperative vision loss (POVL) after nonocular surgery range from 0.013% for all surgeries up to 0.2% following spine surgery. The most common neuro-ophthalmologic causes of POVL are the ischemic optic neuropathies (ION), either anterior (AION) or posterior (PION). We identified 111 case reports of AION following nonocular surgery in the literature, with most occurring after cardiac surgery, and 165 case reports of PION following nonocular surgery, with most occurring after spine surgery or radical neck dissection. There were an additional 526 cases of ION that did not specify if the diagnosis was AION or PION. We also identified 933 case reports of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), 33 cases of pituitary apoplexy, and 245 cases of cortical blindness following nonocular surgery. The incidence of POVL following ocular surgery appears to be much lower than that seen following nonocular surgery. We identified five cases in the literature of direct optic nerve trauma, 47 cases of AION, and five cases of PION following ocular surgery. The specific pathogenesis and risk factors underlying these neuro-ophthalmic complications remain unknown, and physicians should be alert to the potential for loss of vision in the postoperative period. PMID:20596508

  15. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  16. Progress of astrometric research in Nikolaev Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivantsov, Anatoliy; Maigurova, Nadia; Martynov, Maxim; Pinigin, Gennadiy

    2012-08-01

    A catalog of astrometric positions and proper motions of 140237 stars in fields of ecliptical zone and high proper motion stars was derived from CCD - observations made at AMC telescope (Nikolaev) in 2008 - 2009. The UCAC2 catalog was used as a reference one for astrometric reductions. The standard error for a single position is 20 - 65 mas in right ascension and 30 - 70 mas in declination. Cross - identification of the obtained data with modern astrometric catalogs such as TYCHO2, 2MASS, CMC14, PPMX, XPM, USNO - A2.0 and XPM - 1.0 was made for investigation systematical errors and calculation of the proper motions [1]. The final catalog contains star positions, proper motions as well as photometric data (B, V, r ´, J, H, K) taken from other catalogs. For analysis of perturbed motion of selected asteroids, there was made astrometric reduction for three thousands of positions of 68 selected asteroids observed at the Russian - Turkish telescope RTT150 in 2008 - 2011 [2]. The research is conducted within the International Joint Project between IMCCE (France), NAO (Ukraine), KFU (Russia), and TUG (Turkey). The reduction was made with the UCAC2 and UCAC3 catalogs. The standard error of a single position is 0.15 arcsec in right ascension and 0.13 arcsec in declination. Also, the first results of astrometric reduction are presented for the observations of selected asteroids made at the AZT8 (Evpatoriya ) and Mobitel (Nikolaev) telescopes. The obtained positions are expected to be used for derivation masses of asteroids by dynamical method. This work is supported by State Agency on Science, Innovation and Information of Ukraine, Russian Foundation for Basic Research. 1. Jin, W., Pinigin, G., Tang, Zh., Shulga, A. (2011). The collaboration between ShAO and NAO: Celebration of the 1 90th anniversary of NAO. Proc. Int. Conf. “Astronomical Research: from near - Earth Space to the Galaxy”, Nikolaev (pp. 92 - 104). 2 . Ivantsov, A., Gumerov, R., Khamitov, I., Aslan, Z

  17. Development of a sizes estimation method of spots on surfaces of atmosphereless Solar system bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rublevskiy, Alexey; Prokofjeva, Valentina

    All small bodies allow to know the information about the primary substance protoplanet cloud structure. These bodies are in a condition of continuous dynamic evolution. The decision of fundamental problems of occurrence and formation of the Solar system demands comprehensive investigation of small bodies of our planetary system. There is a task of development of methods of remote sounding of surfaces of small bodies of the Solar system with the purpose of reception of all the possible information about their chemical compound and properties of surfaces. The works with an application of the new spectral-frequency method (SFM) to research the asteroid surfaces are begun in the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) in collaboration with the Moscow State University (2). The purpose of these researches is the acquisition the new information about of asteroids. In the CrAO for observation is used slitless spectrograph (3). The photometry accuracy of measurements is about 0.005 mag (1). Requirements to an observational material are presented. The accuracy of data should be very high to provide registration of periodicity with small amplitudes. Before the beginning of the search for periods, it is necessary to remove the period of rotation of an asteroid. The search for pe-riods is made by several methods of the frequency analysis. The period is considered to be found, if it is present in the frequency analysis made by different methods, and if an accuracy of definition of period amplitude is more than 3. The size of the spots which are being in the field of equator is es-timated from sizes of the periods found. It is supposed that the size of a spot corresponds to of the period. The size, accordingly, decreases at an estimation of the sizes of spots located at other lati-tudes. Application of the SFM to the surface of the asteroid 4 Vesta allowed to find the size which coincide with the sizes of the crater registered by the Hubble telescope. The conclusion is made

  18. Radar mapping of lunar cryptomaria east of Orientale basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray

    2005-09-01

    Lunar cryptomare deposits represent early basaltic volcanic material that has been mantled by or incorporated into highland-rich ejecta from basin- or crater-forming impacts. Mapping these buried basalts is important for understanding regional stratigraphy and the history and extent of lunar volcanism. We use new 70 cm wavelength radar images, collected using Arecibo Observatory and the Green Bank Telescope, and Clementine data to study cryptomaria east of Orientale basin. Earlier multispectral analyses showed that mare material is mixed with the highland terrain along the western margin of Oceanus Procellarum, leading to a detectable increase in the FeO and TiO2 abundance of the regolith surface. The highland margin of western Procellarum is also characterized by low 70 cm radar returns, consistent with an increased regolith loss tangent due to ilmenite in the mare-derived material. The low 70 cm radar echo, however, persists well to the west of the mixed zone evident in multispectral data and includes the region surrounding Cruger crater. It is likely that mare basalt, or a mixed zone of mare and highland material, exists at depth across the region and only reaches the visible surface near the western Procellarum margin. The plausible depth to this mixed zone is dependent upon the loss tangent of the overlying ``pure'' highland ejecta. If Orientale ejecta is primarily low-loss anorthosite, then the mixed zone could lie at depths of up to several tens of meters. We propose that pre-Orientale mare deposits flooded the region between Cruger, Grimaldi, and Oceanus Procellarum and also patches west and northwest of Humorum basin. The total area of these deposits represents 178 × 103 km2, or an additional ~0.5% of the lunar surface, covered by mare basalts.

  19. Evaluation of Soil Moisture, Storm Characteristics, and Their Influence on Storm Runoff and Water Yield at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. W.; Aulenbach, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors that control runoff processes is important for many aspects of water supply and ecosystem protection, especially during climatic extremes that result in flooding or droughts; potentially impacting human safety. Furthermore, having knowledge of the conditions during which runoff occurs contributes to the conceptual understanding of the hydrologic cycle and may improve parameterization of hydrologic models. We evaluated soil moisture, storm characteristics, and the subsequent runoff and water yield for 297 storms over an eight-year period at Panola Mountain Research Watershed to better understand runoff generation processes. Panola Mountain Research Watershed is a small (41-hectare), relatively undisturbed forested watershed near Atlanta, GA, U.S.A. Strong relations were observed between total precipitation for a given storm, deep (70 cm below surface) antecedent soil moisture content and the volume of runoff. However, the strength of the relations varied based on occurrence during the growing (April - September; 172 storms) or dormant (October - March; 125 storms) period. In general, soil moisture responded at a minimum of 15 cm depth for all but 18 events. In addition, we found storms that initiated a response of deep soil moisture (70 cm below surface) to be an important factor relating to storm runoff and water yield. Seventy percent of the dormant period storms generated a response at 70 cm depth compared to 58% of growing period storms. A stronger relation between soil moisture and water yield was noted during the dormant period and indicated that all storms that produced a water yield >12% occurred when deep pre-event soil moisture was >20%. Similar patterns were also present during the growing season with occasional intense thunderstorms also generating higher water yields even in the absence of high soil moisture. The importance of deep soil moisture likely reflects the overall status of watershed storage conditions.

  20. Co-occurrence and distribution of nitrite-dependent anaerobic ammonium and methane-oxidizing bacteria in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Guibing; Harhangi, Harry R; Zhu, Baoli; Jetten, Mike S M; Yin, Chengqing; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2012-11-01

    The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) and nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing (n-damo) bacteria in a paddy soil core (0-100 cm) were investigated with newly designed primers targeting the hydrazine synthase β-subunit (hzsB) of anammox bacteria and the recently published primers targeting the pmoA and 16S rRNA genes of n-damo bacteria. The hzsB gene was identified as a proper biomarker to explore the anammox bacterial biodiversity and abundance in soil. The anammox bacteria were present throughout the soil core with the highest abundance of 2.7 × 10(6) hzsB copies g(-1) dry soil at 40-50 cm and were not detectable below 70 cm. Sequences related to at least three species of known anammox bacteria, 'Brocadia anammoxidans', 'Brocadia fulgida', and 'Jettenia asiatica' were detected. By combining the analysis of pmoA and 16S rRNA genes, the n-damo bacteria were observed to be present in 30-70 cm with abundance from 6.5 × 10(3) (60-70 cm) to 7.5 × 10(4) (30-40 cm) copies g(-1) dry soil. The pmoA sequences retrieved from different depths closely related to each other and formed a unique clade. Our results showed that anammox and n-damo bacteria co-occurred in the paddy soil. Both of them were abundant in deep layers (30-60 cm) and the community structures changed along depths in the soil core.

  1. (Hadamard Raman imaging)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    We have used newly developed holographic notch filters for obtaining both Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman images. The filters can be used as close as {plus minus}70 cm{sup {minus}1} from the Rayleigh line. We have demonstrated that they are insensitive to polarization, have 80% transmission across their clear apertures and block laser light by 10{sup 4}. The devices now have replaced sharp-cut glass filters on our microscope. We have successfully developed multispectral control and display software for the microscope. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  2. BR-confirmation of the probable nova M31 2016-07c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcheva, A.; Kurtenkov, A.; Ovcharov, E.; Kostov, A.; Minev, M.; Nedialkov, P.

    2016-07-01

    We report BR-photomerty of the probable nova M31 2016-07c (PNV J00435768+4134528) located at RA(2000) = 00h43m57.94s, Dec(2000) = +41d34'54.6", which is 830.0" east and 1126.1" north of the center of M31. The coordinates uncertainties are 0''.24 in RA and 0''.12 in DEC. The images are obtained with the 50/70cm Schmidt telescope at Rozhen NAO, Bulgaria.

  3. Chemotherapy and Biochemistry of Leishmania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    Naturelles , C.N.R.S., Gif-sur-Yvettes France. Aphidicolin was supplied by A.H. Todd of Imperial Chemical Industries, England. All other chemicals were of...HJTTP (45 Ci mmole and I C)-adenosylmethionine (40 Ci mmole ) were purchased from Amersham. Heparin-Sepharose CL-6B, cellulose phosphate , and denatured...were added as described above, and the pooled fractions were applied to a cellulose- phosphate 7 - -" "A column (7.0 cm x 1.3 cm) equilibrated with 0.1

  4. A comparison of thunderstorm reflectivities measured at the VHF and UHF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.; Rottger, J.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of thunderstorms made with two radars operating at different wavelengths of 70 cm and 5.67 m are compared. The first set of observations was made with the UHF radar at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, and the second set was made with the Max-Planck-Institut fur Aeronomie VHF radar in the Harz Mountains in West Germany. Both sets of observations show large echo strengths in the convective region above the -10 C isothem. At UHF, there appears to be a contribution from both the precipitation echoes and the normal echoes due to scatter from turbulent variations in the refractive index.

  5. Transvenous Transjugular Renal Core Biopsy with a Redesigned Biopsy Set Including a Blunt-Tipped Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Bahramipour, Philip; Mele, Christopher; Hinrichs, Clay R.; Barone, Alison; Abujudeh, Hani

    2002-03-15

    A novel 19-gauge, blunt-tipped, side cutting single throw, 70-cm long transjugular needle, specifically designed for transvenous kidney biopsy, was used in seven patients with high risk for bleeding. A mean of 4 device-passes (3-6) per patient resulted in a satisfactory specimen for pathological diagnosis. Immediate post-biopsy non enhanced CT was performed to evaluate for bleeding at the biopsy site. All patients were observed for 2 hr after the procedure. No clinically significant immediate or late complication was noted.

  6. Doppler measurement of implosion velocity in fast Z-pinch x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Maron, Y.; Coverdale, C. A.; Yu, E. P.; Hansen, S. B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lake, P. W.; Dunham, G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.; Fisher, D. V.; Fisher, V. I.; Bernshtam, V.; Starobinets, A.; Weingarten, L.

    2011-11-01

    The observation of Doppler splitting in K-shell x-ray lines emitted from optically thin dopants is used to infer implosion velocities of up to 70 cm/μs in wire-array and gas-puff Z pinches at drive currents of 15-20 MA. These data can benchmark numerical implosion models, which produce reasonable agreement with the measured velocity in the emitting region. Doppler splitting is obscured in lines with strong opacity, but red-shifted absorption produced by the cooler halo of material backlit by the hot core assembling on axis can be used to diagnose velocity in the trailing mass.

  7. SSPARAMA: A Nonlinear, Wave Optics Multipulse (and CW) Steady-State Propagation Code with Adaptive Coordinates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-10

    MADEIR, AND U[IItC1I1 aperture as the pulse under study begins to propagate. The solution to Eq. (8) il ob- tained subject to the energy...Herrmann of Lincoln Laboratory, who studied the propagation of a CW infinite Gauuian with a C-2 diameter of 70 cm. The absorption coefficient was 0.07 km -1...mnitiazatin rure coline with a call to UTUT tsore vio alerue untity calcult aeamed. int * The call to DNC aomppes the urie trno ofi Eq. (6) and then he

  8. Asteroids with unusual lightcurves: 14 Irene and 51 Nemausa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belskaya, I. N.; Dovgopol, A. N.

    1992-01-01

    Some asteroids with peculiar light curves were chosen for more detail investigation. We present the first results of that study. Observations were obtained in 1989 and 1990 using the 70-cm telescope of Kharkov Observatory; the 40-cm telescope of Abastumani Observatory (Georgia), and the 60-cm telescope of the Main Astronomical Observatory of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (Mt. Majdanak, Middle Asia). Observations and their reduction were carried out in a standard way. The aspect data, absolute magnitude of primary maximum, and lightcurve amplitude are given.

  9. Infrared analysis of hole properties of Mg-doped p-type InN films

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Ishitani, Yoshihiro; Wang Xinqiang; Che, Song-Bek; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2008-12-08

    Mg-doped InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were characterized by infrared reflectance. Signatures of p-type conductivity in the spectra were obtained in the same doping density range where the existence of net acceptors was found by electrolyte capacitance-voltage measurements. Numerical spectrum analysis, which takes into account the large broadening factor of the normal mode energies of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling yielded high hole densities in the range of (0.1-1.2)x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and optical mobilities in the range of 25-70 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  10. Comments on ocean circulation with regard to satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturges, W.

    1972-01-01

    Basic features of sea surface topography are reviewed, to show those oceanographic results which may be of value to a geodetic satellite program: (1) the shape and magnitude of the large scale features of the mean sea surface, relative to a level surface; (2) the position and magnitude of the slopes across the western boundary currents, from a variety of data; (3) an estimate of the position of the geoid, tied into the U.S. leveling network; and (4) a documented change of 60 to 70 cm in mean sea level, with respect to the geoid, between the U.S. east and west coasts.

  11. Photometric follow-up observations of the new FUor candidate HBC 722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkov, E.; Peneva, S.

    2010-08-01

    We report results from photometric observations of the new FUor candidate HBC 722 discovered in the region of NGC 7000/IC 5070 (ATEL #2801 and #2808). Our observations were performed with the 50/70 cm Schmidt telescopes of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen (Bulgaria) and the 1.3 m RC telescope of the Skinakas Observatory of the Institute of Astronomy, University of Crete (Greece). Our resent data suggest that the rise in brightness continue and a small reflection nebula around HBC 722 became visible.

  12. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  13. LIDAR and airphoto technology in the study of the Black Sea accumulative coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Evgeniy; Krylenko, Viacheslav; Krylenko, Marina

    2015-06-01

    For the 2013-14 year as part of the study Anapa accumulative coasts was performed aerial survey, including airborne laser scanning and digital aerial photography. Size of the survey was 48 km, width of pregnancy ranged from 500 to 1500 meters, depending on the configuration of the coastline. Surveying was done using aerial mapping production Leica Geosystems, consisting of airborne laser scanner ALS70-CM and digital aerophotocamera RCD-30. The data allowed us to obtain highly accurate digital terrain models and orthophotos. To perform morphological and morphometric analysis of the territory at the micro and nanoscale.

  14. Radar Probing of Planetary Regoliths: An Example from the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Ghent, Rebecca R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Leverington, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging radar measurements at long wavelengths (e.g., >30 cm) allow deep (up to tens of meters) probing of the physical structure and dielectric properties of planetary regoliths. We illustrate a potential application for a Mars orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR) using new Earth-based 70-cm wavelength radar data for the Moon. The terrae on the northern margin of Mare Imbrium, the Montes Jura region, have diffuse radar backscatter echoes that are 2-4 times weaker at 3.8-cm, 70-cm, and 7.5-m wavelengths than most other lunar nearside terrae. Possible geologic explanations are (1) a pyroclastic deposit associated with sinuous rilles in this region, (2) buried mare basalt or a zone of mixed highland/basaltic debris (cryptomaria), or (3) layers of ejecta associated with the Iridum and Plato impacts that have fewer meter-sized rocks than typical highlands regolith. While radar data at 3.8-cm to 7.5-m wavelengths suggest significant differences between the Montes Jura region and typical highlands, the surface geochemistry and rock abundance inferred from Clementine UV-VIS data and eclipse thermal images are consistent with other lunar terrae. There is no evidence for enhanced iron abundance, expected for basaltic pyroclastic deposits, near the source vents of the sinuous rilles radial to Plato. The regions of low 70-cm radar return are consistent with overlapping concentric ''haloes'' about Iridum and Plato and do not occur referentially in topographically low areas, as is observed for radar-mapped cryptomaria. Thus we suggest that the extensive radar-dark area associated with the Montes Jura region is due to overlapping, rock-poor ejecta deposits from Iridum and Plato craters. Comparison of the radial extent of low-radar-return crater haloes with a model for ejecta thickness shows that these rock-poor layers are detected by 70-cm radar where they are on the order of 10 m and thicker. A SAR in orbit about Mars could use similar deep probing to reveal the nature of

  15. Growth of silicon ribbon by edge-defined, film-fed growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Jewett, D. N.; White, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of the edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) method to silicon ribbon are described. Ribbons up to 2 x 40 cm and 1 x 70 cm in width and length, respectively, have been grown at rates of 1 to 2.5 cm/min. The electrical properties of typical undoped ribbons are resistivity of 0.5 to 5 ohm-cm p-type, and hole mobility of 200 to 350 sq cm/V-sec. Ribbon growth speeds are consistent with the use of EFG silicon for terrestrial power.

  16. Radio tracking of a fin whale /Balaenoptera physalus/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, G. C.; Wartzok, D.; Mitchell, E. D.; Kozicki, V. M.; Maiefski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Tracking of a fin whale tagged with an implantable beacon transmitter (IBT) is described. The IBT, which was fired from a modified 12-gauge shotgun, weighs 517 g and is 70 cm long, including a 46-cm antenna. Data on whale movement and breathing are presented. Contact was lost after 27.8 hours of intermittent tracking, presumably as a result of battery leakage. Potential range and duration of IBT transmission are considered, and the significance of transmitter location and orientation in the whale blubber is considered.

  17. Left Ventricular Remodeling and Myocardial Recovery on Mechanical Circulatory Support

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Marc A; Primack, Brian A.; Teuteberg, Jeffrey; Kormos, Robert L; Bermudez, Christian; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Shah, Hemal; Gorcsan, John; McNamara, Dennis M

    2009-01-01

    Background Myocardial recovery after VAD is rare but appears more common in non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM). We sought to evaluate left ventricular (LV) end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) for predicting recovery after ventricular assist device (VAD). Methods and Results NICM patients receiving long-term mechanical support 1996–2008 were reviewed. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: mild, moderate and severe dilation (Group A: LVEDD <6.0 cm [n=22]; Group B: 6.0–7.0 cm [n=32]; Group C: >7.0 cm [n=48], respectively). Overall, recovery (successful explant without transplantation) occurred in 14 of 102 subjects (14%). Of these, 2 died and 2 required transplantation within one year. Recovery was more common in patients without LV dilation (Groups A/B/C = 32%/22%/0 %, P<0.001), as was sustained recovery (alive and transplant free one year after explant; A/B/C =27%/10%/0%, P=0.001). Of the recovery patients in Group A, 6/7 (86%) had sustained recovery versus 3/6 (50%) in Group B. Conclusions Recovery occurred in 32% of NICM patients without significant LV dilation at time of VAD, the majority of whom experienced significant sustained recovery. Recovery was not evident in those with severe LV dilation. Routine echocardiography at the time of implant may assist in targeting patients for recovery after VAD. PMID:20142020

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Characterization of Non-Organized Soils at Gusev Crater with the Spirit Rover Data; Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions; Analysis of the Lunar Surface with Global Mineral and Mg-Number Maps ALH77005: The Magmatic History from Rehomogenized Melt Inclusions; New 70-cm Radar Mapping of the Moon; Cryptomare Deposits Revealed by 70-cm Radar; Construction of a PZT Sensor Network for Low and Hypervelocity Impact Detection; Palmer Quest: A Feasible Nuclear Fission "Vision Mission" to the Mars Polar Caps; Physical Properties of Volcanic Deposits on Venus from Radar Polarimetry; Science Alert Demonstration with a Rover Traverse Science Data Analysis System; Earth and Mars, Similar Features and Parallel Lives? Didactic Activities; Expected Constraints on Rhea s Interior from Cassini; Microbially Induced Precipitates: Examples from CO3, Si-, Mn- and Fe-rich Deposits; Li, B - Behavior in Lunar Basalts During Shock and Thermal Metamorphism: Implications for H2O in Martian Magmas; Evaluation of CO Self-Shielding as a Possible Mechanism for Anomalous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Early Solar System Materials; Effect of Ground Ice on Apparent Thermal Inertia on Mars; Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparative Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars; Newly Discovered Meteor Crater Metallic Impact Spherules: Report and Implications; and Evidence of Very Young Glacial Processes in Central Candor Chasma, Mars.

  19. Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth.

    PubMed

    Titus, J E; Gary Sullivan, P

    2001-08-01

    We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, [CO(2)]-, depth-, and temperature-controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free [CO(2)], and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater [NH(4)(+)] favored floating leaf development. Low CO(2)-grown plants initiated floating leaf development significantly earlier than high CO(2)-grown plants, which produced significantly more submersed leaves and fewer floating leaves. Mean floating leaf biomass was significantly greater than mean submersed leaf biomass but was not influenced by CO(2) enrichment, whereas mean submersed leaf biomass increased 88% at high [CO(2)]. At the shallower depth (35 cm), floating leaves required 50% less biomass investment per leaf than at 70 cm, and a significantly greater proportion of plants had floating leaves (70 vs. 23-43% at 35 vs. 70 cm, respectively) for the last three of the eight leaf censuses. Sediment type, water depth, and especially free [CO(2)] all can influence leaf morphogenesis in Nuphar variegata, and the development of more and larger submersed leaves with CO(2) enrichment favors the exploitation of high [CO(2)] when it is present in the water column.

  20. Engineering and design of a CO{sub 2} phase contrast interferometer system for DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.D.; Coda, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the development of a CO{sub 2} laser interferometer system, the engineering, design and installation of the hardware, and the selection of materials specific to the requirements of a CO{sub 2} laser diagnostic. A brief description of system operation is included. A phase contrast interferometer diagnostic has been designed and installed on the DIII-D tokamak to enhance studies of the physical characteristics of plasma turbulence, and specifically to analyze plasma density fluctuations in the boundary region of the plasma. A 20 watt CO{sub 2} laser beam, operating at the 10.6 micron wavelength, is expanded to a diameter of 76 mm and directed through a series of mirrors which provide for entry of the beam into the vessel at a point 70 cm above the midplane at the 285 degree toroidal location. After being reflected from a mirror inside the vessel, the beam is directed downward so that it passes through the edge of the plasma immediately in front of a four-strap fast wave current drive rf antenna. The laser beam is then reflected by a second internal mirror and exits the vessel 70 cm below the midplane (also at 285 degrees) returning to an optical table through a final series of external steering mirrors.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: V977 Cep and V982 Cep long-term photometry (Ibryamov+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibryamov, S. I.; Semkov, E. H.; Milanov, T. R.; Peneva, S. P.

    2017-02-01

    BVRI photometric data of V977 Cep and V982 Cep during the period from 2000 October to 2016 August are presented. The CCD observations were carried out with the 50/70-cm Schmidt and the 60-cm Cassegrain telescopes administered by Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. The observations were performed with four different types of CCD cameras: SBIG ST-8, SBIG STL-11000M and FLI PL16803 on the 50/70-cm Schmidt telescope, and FLI PL09000 on the 60-cm Cassegrain telescope. All frames were taken through a standard Johnson-Cousins set of filters. All obtained frames are dark frame subtracted and flat field corrected. The photometric data were reduced using subroutine DAOPHOT in the IDL software package. All data were analyzed using the same aperture, which was chosen to have a 6-arcsec radius and background annulus from 10-arcsec to 15-arcsec. As a reference sequence we used the BVRI comparisons reported in Semkov (2002IBVS.5214....1S; 2003IBVS.5373....1S). The average value of the errors in the reported magnitudes are 0.01-0.02mag for the I- and R-band data, and 0.02-0.03mag for the V- and B-band data. (3 data files).

  2. Array Automated Assembly Task for the Low Cost Solar Array Project, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Seman, E. J.; Rohatgi, A.; Davis, J. R.; Ostroski, J.; Stapleton, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using silk screened evaporated and sputtered Al as the metal source, the formation of Al back surface fields was studied. The most satisfactory results were those obtained with the sputtered A1 and in which open circuit voltages (V sub oc) of 0.585 v (12 ohm cm FZ silicon) were achieved. The ultrasonic interconnect process is discussed. The process is shown to be satisfactory, but increased pull-strength may be obtained if some form of sintering is carried out on the metallized contacts. Plasma etching is shown to be feasible as a replacement for wet chemical cleaning prior to diffusion. Initial results on cells prepared by using electroless Pd/Ni plus either electroplated Ag or Cu show slightly poor performance than cells with the baseline evaporated Ti/Pd/Ag system. A mask designed for the 1.6 x 7.0 cm and 2.0 x 7.0 cm cells is described. This mask has a lower area coverage and total lower resistive loss than the previous mask design. It is also shown that the cell width should not exceed 2.0 - 3.0 cm for optimum efficiency.

  3. Distribution of glacial deposits, soils, and permafrost in Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bockheim, James G.; Prentice, M.L.; McLeod, M.

    2008-01-01

    We provide a map of lower and central Taylor Valley, Antarctica, that shows deposits from Taylor Glacier, local alpine glaciers, and grounded ice in the Ross Embayment. From our electronic database, which includes 153 sites from the coast 50 km upvalley to Pearse Valley, we show the distribution of permafrost type and soil subgroups according to Soil Taxonomy. Soils in eastern Taylor Valley are of late Pleistocene age, cryoturbated due to the presence of ground ice or ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, and classified as Glacic and Typic Haploturbels. In central Taylor Valley, soils are dominantly Typic Anhyorthels of mid-Pleistocene age that have dry-frozen permafrost within the upper 70 cm. Salt-enriched soils (Salic Anhyorthels and Petrosalic Anhyorthels) are of limited extent in Taylor Valley and occur primarily on drifts of early Pleistocene and Pliocene age. Soils are less developed in Taylor Valley than in nearby Wright Valley, because of lesser salt input from atmospheric deposition and salt weathering. Ice-cemented permafrost is ubiquitous on Ross Sea, pre-Ross Sea, and Bonney drifts that occur within 28 km of the McMurdo coast. In contrast, dry-frozen permafrost is prevalent on older (???115 ky) surfaces to the west. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  4. Experimental characterization of HOTNES: A new thermal neutron facility with large homogeneity area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, R.; Sperduti, A.; Pietropaolo, A.; Pillon, M.; Pola, A.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, called HOTNES (HOmogeneous Thermal NEutron Source), was established in the framework of a collaboration between INFN-LNF and ENEA-Frascati. HOTNES is a polyethylene assembly, with about 70 cmx70 cm square section and 100 cm height, including a large, cylindrical cavity with diameter 30 cm and height 70 cm. The facility is supplied by a 241Am-B source located at the bottom of this cavity. The facility was designed in such a way that the iso-thermal-fluence surfaces, characterizing the irradiation volume, coincide with planes parallel to the cavity bottom. The thermal fluence rate across a given isofluence plane is as uniform as 1% on a disk with 30 cm diameter. Thermal fluence rate values from about 700 cm-2 s-1 to 1000 cm-2 s-1 can be achieved. The facility design, previously optimized by Monte Carlo simulation, was experimentally verified. The following techniques were used: gold activation foils to assess the thermal fluence rate, semiconductor-based active detector for mapping the irradiation volume, and Bonner Sphere Spectrometer to determine the complete neutron spectrum. HOTNES is expected to be attractive for the scientific community involved in neutron metrology, neutron dosimetry and neutron detector testing.

  5. Morphometric Study of Pancreas in Human Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Dhende, Abhijeet S.; Joshi, Deepak S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The pancreas arises from the endoderm as a dorsal and a ventral bud which fuse together to form the single organ. It extends transversely across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum to the spleen. Functionally, it is endocrine and exocrine. Aim This study was undertaken to study the morphometry of human pancreas at different gestational age groups of normal, still born fetuses. Materials and Methods Forty aborted human fetuses (25 male and 15 female) of 12-40 weeks gestational age with no obvious congenital abnormality were obtained. The fetuses were dissected and pancreas was removed. The length and weight of the pancreas as well as height of its head were noted. Results It was observed that there was increase in body weight and crown rump length with increasing gestational age. The average length of pancreas was 1.80 cm in 12th week and 4.70 cm in 40th week of gestation. The average height of pancreas head was 0.80 cm in the 12th and 2.70 cm in 40th week of gestation. Conclusion The knowledge of development of pancreas helps in planning new therapeutic interventions in the treatment of various congenital and functional pancreatic anomalies. PMID:28050352

  6. Rotation rates in the Koronis family, complete to H≈11.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivan, Stephen M.; Binzel, Richard P.; Boroumand, Shaida C.; Pan, Margaret W.; Simpson, Christine M.; Tanabe, James T.; Villastrigo, Rosalinda M.; Yen, Lesley L.; Ditteon, Richard P.; Pray, Donald P.; Stephens, Robert D.

    2008-05-01

    We report the results of an observational survey of rotation lightcurves for members of the Koronis asteroid family that we conducted using CCD imaging cameras at seven different observatories during the period 1998-2005. A total of 375 individual lightcurves yield new or refined rotation periods for the 24 survey objects (658) Asteria, (761) Brendelia, (811) Nauheima, (975) Perseverantia, (1029) La Plata, (1079) Mimosa, (1100) Arnica, (1245) Calvinia, (1336) Zeelandia, (1350) Rosselia, (1423) Jose, (1482) Sebastiana, (1618) Dawn, (1635) Bohrmann, (1725) CrAO, (1741) Giclas, (1742) Schaifers, (1848) Delvaux, (1955) McMath, (2123) Vltava, (2144) Marietta, (2224) Tucson, (2729) Urumqi, and (2985) Shakespeare. Most of the data have been calibrated to standard magnitudes. Several previously unpublished lightcurves recorded using a photoelectric photometer during the period 1987-1989 are also reported here. We present composite lightcurves and report derived synodic rotation periods. For those objects with sufficient coverage in solar phase angle we also determined Lumme-Bowell solar phase parameters, and for four objects we obtained V-R colors. Our results reduce selection biases among known rotation lightcurve parameters for Koronis family members by completing the sample down to H≈11.2, and they lay the foundation for future spin vector and shape determinations. The distribution of rotation rates in the available sample of N=40 Koronis members is non-Maxwellian at a confidence level of 99%. It also seems to be qualitatively consistent with the effects of long-term modification by thermal YORP torques, as proposed by Vokrouhlický et al. [Vokrouhlický, D., Nesvorný, D., Bottke, W.F., 2003. Nature 425, 147-151] to explain the distribution of the ten Koronis member spin vectors that have already been determined [Slivan, S.M., 2002. Nature 419, 49-51; Slivan, S.M., Binzel, R.P., Crespo da Silva, L.D., Kaasalainen, M., Lyndaker, M.M., Krčo, M., 2003. Icarus 162, 285-307].

  7. Pulkovo Observatory and its Former Branches in the Crimea and Nikolaev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A. V.; Abalakin, V. K.; Pinigin, G. I.; Rostopchina, A. N.

    2012-09-01

    The Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo was founded in 1839 for ``providing permanent and, as far as possible, the most perfect observations aimed at the prosperity of Astronomy and necessary for geographic undertakings of the Russian Empire and for ends of the Practical Astronomy as well''. The first director of the Pulkovo was the prominent astronomer F.G.W. Struve (1793--1864). The Observatory was designed by the well-known architect Alexander Brüllow. The three-dome Pulkovo style was propagated over the world. Widely-used methods of astrometric observations along with famous fundamental star catalogs were developed in Pulkovo. The Observatory has kept the leading position in Russia up to date, conducting research in all major areas of astronomy -- astrophysics, solar physics, radio astronomy, astrometry, celestial mechanics, etc. In 1908, the south branch of Pulkovo Observatory in Simeiz (Crimea) was organized, where both systematic observations in search of new comets and minor planets, photometric and spectroscopic observations of stars and galaxies were started. These observations yielded fundamental results concerning rotation of stars, structure of galaxies, the role of magnetic field in interstellar medium. In 1945 Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of USSR Academy of Science (now Scientific Research Institute ``Crimean Astrophysical Observatory'', Ukraine) was founded on the base of the Simeiz department. Now it is a leading astronomical institution in Ukraine. Areas of research at CrAO are solar physics, chemical composition and activity of stars and their surroundings, extragalactic studies, geo-dynamics, small bodies in the Solar System and in the near-Earth space, instrumentation for ground-based and space astronomy. In 1912, Nikolaev branch of Pulkovo Observatory was organized on the basis of the oldest in Russia Naval Observatory in Nikolaev, which was founded in 1821 by Admiral A. Greig, chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Regular

  8. The simultaneous low state spectral energy distribution of 1ES 2344+514 from radio to very high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jankowski, F.; Kadenius, V.; Klepser, S.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Pilia, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; AGILE Team; Bastieri, D.; Sbarra, C.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Nestoras, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Sievers, A.; Zensus, J. A.; F-GAMMA program; Antonyuk, K. A.; Baumgartner, W.; Berduygin, A.; Carini, M.; Cook, K.; Gehrels, N.; Kadler, M.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krauss, F.; Krimm, H. A.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lister, M. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pasanen, M.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Sainio, J.; Shakhovskoy, D. N.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Tornikoski, M.; Tueller, J.; Weidinger, M.; Wilms, J.

    2013-08-01

    Context. BL Lacertae objects are variable at all energy bands on time scales down to minutes. To construct and interpret their spectral energy distribution (SED), simultaneous broad-band observations are mandatory. Up to now, the number of objects studied during such campaigns is very limited and biased towards high flux states. Aims: We present the results of a dedicated multi-wavelength study of the high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae (HBL) object and known TeV emitter 1ES 2344+514 by means of a pre-organised campaign. Methods: The observations were conducted during simultaneous visibility windows of MAGIC and AGILE in late 2008. The measurements were complemented by Metsähovi, RATAN-600, KVA+Tuorla, Swift and VLBA pointings. Additional coverage was provided by the ongoing long-term F-GAMMA and MOJAVE programs, the OVRO 40-m and CrAO telescopes as well as the Fermi satellite. The obtained SEDs are modelled using a one-zone as well as a self-consistent two-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. Results: 1ES 2344+514 was found at very low flux states in both X-rays and very high energy gamma rays. Variability was detected in the low frequency radio and X-ray bands only, where for the latter a small flare was observed. The X-ray flare was possibly caused by shock acceleration characterised by similar cooling and acceleration time scales. MOJAVE VLBA monitoring reveals a static jet whose components are stable over time scales of eleven years, contrary to previous findings. There appears to be no significant correlation between the 15 GHz and R-band monitoring light curves. The observations presented here constitute the first multi-wavelength campaign on 1ES 2344+514 from radio to VHE energies and one of the few simultaneous SEDs during low activity states. The quasi-simultaneous Fermi-LAT data poses some challenges for SED modelling, but in general the SEDs are described well by both applied models. The resulting parameters are typical for TeV emitting HBLs

  9. The development of a compact positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Qi, Jinyi; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.; Huesman, Ronald H.; Budinger, Thomas F.

    2002-12-17

    We give design details and expected image results of a compact positron tomograph designed for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair of external curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis). The bottom bank is fixed below the patient bed, and the top bank moves upward for patient access and downward for maximum sensitivity. Each bank is composed of two rows (axially) of 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors, forming two arcs that can be tilted to minimize attenuation. Compared to a conventional PET system, our camera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and has almost two times higher solid angle coverage for a central point source, because the detectors are close to the patient. The detectors are read out by modified CTI HRRT data acquisition electronics. The individual detectors are angled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize reso

  10. Calibration of the Dust Impact Monitor DIM onboard Rosetta/Philae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Harald; Seidensticker, Klaus; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Hirn, Attila; Loose, Alexander; Peter, Attila; Ossowski, Thomas; Flandes, Alberto; Herwig, Alexander; Apathy, Istvan; Arnold, Walter; Sperl, Mathias

    2012-07-01

    The Rosetta lander spacecraft Philae will land on the nucleus surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in late 2014. It is equipped with the Dust Impact Monitor instrument (DIM). DIM is part of the SESAME instrument package onboard Philae [Seidensticker et al., 2007] and consists of three piezoelectric PZT sensors. Each sensor is mounted on the outer side of a cube, facing in orthogonal directions, this way allowing for the detection of grains approaching normal to the nucleus surface and from two horizontal directions. DIM's total sensitive area is approximately 70 cm^2. It will measure impacts of sub-millimeter and millimeter sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma by the escaping gas flow. A grain-size dependent fraction of the emitted grains is expected to fall back to the nucleus surface due to gravity.

  11. Density profile control in a large diameter, helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cluggish, B.P.; Anderegg, F.A.; Freeman, R.L.; Gilleland, J.; Hilsabeck, T.J.; Isler, R.C.; Lee, W.D.; Litvak, A.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ohkawa, T.; Putvinski, S.; Umstadter, K.R.; Winslow, D.L.

    2005-05-15

    Plasmas with peaked radial density profiles have been generated in the world's largest helicon device, with plasma diameters of over 70 cm. The density profiles can be manipulated by controlling the phase of the current in each strap of two multistrap antenna arrays. Phase settings that excite long axial wavelengths create hollow density profiles, whereas settings that excite short axial wavelengths create peaked density profiles. This change in density profile is consistent with the cold-plasma dispersion relation for helicon modes, which predicts a strong increase in the effective skin depth of the rf fields as the wavelength decreases. Scaling of the density with magnetic field, gas pressure, and rf power is also presented.

  12. Design and optimization of 32-core rod/trench assisted square-lattice structured single-mode multi-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xueqin; Tu, Jiajing; Zhou, Xian; Long, Keping; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2017-03-06

    We propose and design a kind of heterogeneous rod-assisted and trench-assisted multi-core fiber (Hetero-RA-TA-MCF) with 32 cores arranged in square-lattice structure (SLS), and then we introduce the design method for Hetero-RA-TA-MCF. Simulation results show that the Hetero-RA-TA-32-Core-Fiber achieves average effective area (Aeff) of about 74 μm2, low crosstalk (XT) of about -31 dB/100km, threshold value of bending radius (Rpk) of 7.0 cm, relative core multiplicity factor (RCMF) of 8.74, and cable cutoff wavelength (λcc) of less than 1.53 μm.

  13. Telemetry Data Collection from Oscar Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Paul C.; Horan, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, configuration, and operation of a satellite station built for the Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Laboratory in the Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Engineering at New Mexico State University (NMSU). This satellite station consists of a computer-controlled antenna tracking system, 2m/70cm transceiver, satellite tracking software, and a demodulator. The satellite station receives satellite,telemetry, allows for voice communications, and will be used in future classes. Currently this satellite station is receiving telemetry from an amateur radio satellite, UoSAT-OSCAR-11. Amateur radio satellites are referred to as Orbiting Satellites Carrying Amateur Radio (OSCAR) satellites as discussed in the next section.

  14. Vibrational and electronic spectroscopic studies of melatonin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Abbas, J. M.; Dogra, Sukh Dev; Sachdeva, Ritika; Rai, Bimal; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya; Sathe, Vasant; Saini, G. S. S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of melatonin recorded with 488 and 632.8 nm excitations in 3600-2700 and 1700-70 cm-1 regions. Further, we optimized molecular structure of the three conformers of melatonin within density functional theory calculations. Vibrational frequencies of all three conformers have also been calculated. Observed vibrational bands have been assigned to different vibrational motions of the molecules on the basis of potential energy distribution calculations and calculated vibrational frequencies. Observed band positions match well with the calculated values after scaling except Nsbnd H stretching mode frequencies. It is found that the observed and calculated frequencies mismatch of Nsbnd H stretching is due to intermolecular interactions between melatonin molecules.

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture" contained the following reports:Approaches for Approximating Topography in High Resolution, Multispectral Data; Verification of Quality and Compatibility for the Newly Calibrated Clementine NIR Data Set; Near Infrared Spectral Properties of Selected Nearside and Farside Sites ; Global Comparisons of Mare Volcanism from Clementine Near-Infrared Data; Testing the Relation Between UVVIS Color and TiO2 Composition in the Lunar Maria; Color Reflectance Trends in the Mare: Implications for Mapping Iron with Multispectral Images ; The Composition of the Lunar Megaregolith: Some Initial Results from Global Mapping; Global Images of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data; The Origin of Lunar Crater Rays; Properties of Lunar Crater Ejecta from New 70-cm Radar Observations ; Permanent Sunlight at the Lunar North Pole; and ESA s SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals, Status and First Results.

  16. Indium-cadmium-oxide films having exceptional electrical conductivity and optical transparency: clues for optimizing transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Babcock, J R; Edleman, N L; Metz, A W; Lane, M A; Asahi, R; Dravid, V P; Kannewurf, C R; Freeman, A J; Marks, T J

    2001-06-19

    Materials with high electrical conductivity and optical transparency are needed for future flat panel display, solar energy, and other opto-electronic technologies. In(x)Cd(1-x)O films having a simple cubic microstructure have been grown on amorphous glass substrates by a straightforward chemical vapor deposition process. The x = 0.05 film conductivity of 17,000 S/cm, carrier mobility of 70 cm2/Vs, and visible region optical transparency window considerably exceed the corresponding parameters for commercial indium-tin oxide. Ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal small conduction electron effective masses, a dramatic shift of the CdO band gap with doping, and a conduction band hybridization gap caused by extensive Cd 5s + In 5s mixing.

  17. Wind and tidal forcing of a buoyant plume, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Pennock, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    AVHRR satellite imagery and in situ observations were combined to study the motion of a buoyant plume at the mouth of Mobile Bay, Alabama. The plume extended up to 30 km from shore, with a thickness of about 1 m. The inner plume, which was 3-8 m thick, moved between the Bay and inner shelf in response to tidal forcing. The tidal prism could be identified through the movement of plume waters between satellite images. The plume responded rapidly to alongshore wind, with sections of the plume moving at speeds of more than 70 cm s-1, about 11% of the wind speed. The plume moved predominantly in the direction of the wind with a weak Ekman drift. The enhanced speed of the plume relative to normal surface drift is probably due to the strong stratification in the plume, which limits the transfer of momentum into the underlying ambient waters. ?? 1993.

  18. CDF run IIb silicon detector: The innermost layer

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Hara, K.; Kim, S.; Manea, C.; Wang, Z.; Behari, S.; Maksimovic, P.; Benjamin, D.; Cabrera, S.; Kruse, M.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Canepa,A.; Fernandez, J.P.; Booth, P.; Cooke, P.; Cascella, M.; Cardoso, G.; Derylo, G.; Flaugher, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lukens, P.; Nelson,T.; Orlov, Y.; Wester, W.; Yun, J.C.; Chertok, M.; Holbrook, B.; Lander,R.; Landry, T.; Pellett, D.; Soha, A.; Yao, W.; Ciobanu, C.I.; Junk, T.; Feng, E.J.; Freeman, J.; Galtieri, L.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Haber, C.; Lujan, P.J.; Mandelli, E.; Weber, M.; Zetti, F.; Zimmermann, S.; Goldstein, J.; Harr, R.; Hill, C.; Himmel, A.; Incandela, J.; Stuart, D.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakano, I.; Tanaka, R.; Kong, D.J.; Yang, Y.C.; Lauhakangas, R.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Lu, R.-S.; Min, S.N.; Okusawa,T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tavi, M.; Zucchelli, S.; Hong, S.C.; Jeon, E.J.; Joo,K.K.; Lee, J.

    2003-10-24

    The innermost layer (L00) of the Run IIa silicon detector of CDF was planned to be replaced for the high luminosity Tevatron upgrade of Run IIb. This new silicon layer (L0) is designed to be a radiation tolerant replacement for the otherwise very similar L00 from Run IIa. The data are read out via long, fine-pitch, low-mass cables allowing the hybrids with the chips to sit at higher z(/spl sim/70 cm), outside of the tracking volume. The design and first results from the prototyping phase are presented. Special focus is placed on the amount and the structure of induced noise as well as signal-to-noise values.

  19. Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Scurlock, R. G.; Wu, Y. Y.; Goodyer, M. J.; Balcerek, K.; Eskins, J.; Britcher, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting electromagnetic suspension and balance system for an 8 x 8-ft, Mach 0.9 wind tunnel is presented. The system uses a superconducting solenoid as a model core 70 cm long and with a 11.5 cm OD, and a combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings to produce the required roll torque. The design, which uses an integral cold structure rather than separate cryostats for mounting all control magnets, has 14 external magnets, including 4 racetrack-shaped roll coils. Helium capacity of the system is 3.0 to 3.5 l with idling boiloff rate predicted at 0.147 to 0.2 l/h. The improvements yielded a 50-percent reduction in the system size, weight, and cost.

  20. Anomalous Iridium Enrichment at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary, Blomidon Formation, Fundy Basin, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We present new analyses that confirm Ir enrichment (up to 0.31 ng/g) in close proximity to the palynological Triassic-Jurassic boundary in strata near the top of the Blomidon Formation at Partridge Island, Nova Scotia. High Ir concentrations have been found in at least two samples within the uppermost 70 cm of the formation. Ratios of other PGEs and Au to Ir are generally higher by an order of magnitude than in ordinary chondrites. No impact-related materials have been identified at #is horizon in the Blomidon Formation, therefore we cannot confirm an extraterrestrial source for the anomalous Ir levels. We consider, however, the possibility that regional basaltic volcanism is a potential source for the Ir in these sediments. The elevated Ir concentrations are found in reduced, grey colored mudstones, so redox concentration is a possible explanation for the distribution of Ir in these strata.

  1. Optical design of Lyman/FUSE. [Far UV Spectroscopic Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D. A.; Davila, P. M.; Osantowski, J. F.; Saha, T. T.; Wilson, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    The optical system for the proposed Lyman/Far UV Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) orbiting observatory is described and illustrated with drawings and graphs of predicted performance. The system comprises (1) an FUV channel based on a 1.84-m-diameter Rowland circle spectrograph with five high-density modified ellipsiodal near-normal-incidence gratings and an array of four MAMA detectors; (2) an EUV channel with ellipsoidal mirror, planar varied-line-space grating, microchannel-plate array, and wedge-and-strip anode detector; (3) a 70-cm Wolter II glancing-incidence telescope; and (4) a CCD-detector fine-error sensor to provide accurate pointing (within 200 marcsec rms). The resolving powers of the spectrographs are 30,000 in the FUV and 300-600 (wavelength-dependent) in the EUV.

  2. Resonances in rotationally inelastic scattering of NH3 and ND3 with H2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qianli; van der Avoird, Ad; Loreau, Jérôme; Alexander, Millard H; van de Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y T; Dagdigian, Paul J

    2015-07-28

    We present theoretical studies on the scattering resonances in rotationally inelastic collisions of NH3 and ND3 molecules with H2 molecules. We use the quantum close-coupling method to compute state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the NH3/ND3-H2 system for collision energies between 5 and 70 cm(-1), using a previously reported potential energy surface [Maret et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 399, 425 (2009)]. We identify the resonances as shape or Feshbach resonances. To analyze these, we use an adiabatic bender model, as well as examination at the scattering wave functions and lifetimes. The strength and width of the resonance peaks suggest that they could be observed in a crossed molecular beam experiment involving a Stark-decelerated NH3 beam.

  3. Feasibility of the preparation of silica monoliths for gas chromatography: fast separation of light hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Imadeddine; Essoussi, Anouar; Fleury, Joachim; Haudebourg, Raphael; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jerome

    2015-02-27

    The preparation conditions of silica monoliths for gas chromatography were investigated. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns based on sol-gel process were tested in the course of high-speed gas chromatographic separations of light hydrocarbons mixture (C1-C4). The impact of modifying the amount of porogen and/or catalyst on the monolith properties were studied. At the best precursor/catalyst/porogen ratio evaluated, a column efficiency of about 6500 theoretical plates per meter was reached with a very good resolution (4.3) for very light compounds (C1-C2). The test mixture was baseline separated on a 70cm column. To our knowledge for the first time a silica-based monolithic capillary column was able to separate light hydrocarbons from methane to n-butane at room temperature with a back pressure in the range of gas chromatography facilities (under 4.1bar).

  4. Radiation enhancement in doped AlGaN-structures upon optical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhan, P. A.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Zakrevsky, D. E.; Malin, T. V.; Osinnykh, I. V.; Fateev, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of spontaneous and stimulated luminescence have been studied for molecular beam epitaxy synthesized Al x Ga1- x N/AlN solid solutions with x = 0.5 and 0.74 upon optical pumping by pulse laser radiation with λ = 266 nm. Broadband radiation spectra with a width of 260 THz for Al0.5Ga0.5N and 360 THz for Al0.74Ga0.26N have been obtained. The measured enhancement factors are g ≈ 70 cm-1 for Al0.5Ga0.5N at λ ≈ 528 nm and g ≈ 20 cm-1 for Al0.74Ga0.26N at λ ≈ 468 nm.

  5. High Nitrogen Explosives. Part 1. 2,6-Dinitropyridines and Dibenzo-1,3a, 4,6a-Tetraazapentalenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    explosive material. Ritter and Licht prepared 2,4,6-trinitropyridine-l-oxide (Reference 4), but found it to be like pentaerythritol tetranitrate ( PETN ...Density 1.81 (1.86) g/cm 3 VofD 8370 rn’s Vof D 8730 nVs VoID 8780 nVs PETN -like hwo% 70 cm hWo% 179 an In a related program (Reference 7) it was shown...N- NO2 H2 N NO2 NO 2 HN NO 2 (34) (35) 0 O-N, O, NO 2 NO2 H2N NO 2 TABLE 3. 1H-NMR Chemical Shifts of 2-Phenylbenzotriltzles. Chemical shift 3 34

  6. Implications of excess 210Pb and 137Cs in sediment cores from Mikawa Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqiang; Matsumoto, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected from Mikawa Bay, Japan, and excess 210Pb and 137Cs were measured by gamma spectrometry. Sedimentation rates for the four cores were determined by 210Pb method. The sedimentation rate range is 0.10-0.70 g/(cm2 x year). The bio-mixing depth for each core is less than 7.0 cm, and was determined by the excess 210Pb profiles as well. Therefore, the bioturbation is slight. The 210Pb-derived dates coincided with the results from 137Cs geochronology. Acceleration in sedimentation rate due to environmental alteration has been found in cores A2.5 and 05AS8, representing two depocenters due to their topography. Evidence of the Tokai Flood in 2000 was found in core 05AS8 according to the profiles of both radioisotopes and trace metals.

  7. Sojourner Rover View of Shark and Half Dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rounded knobs (arrows) up to 3 or 4 cm wide on Shark (left; approximately 70 cm wide)) and Half Dome (upper right) and in the foreground could be pebbles in a cemented matrix of clays, silts, and sands; such rocks are called conglomerates. Well-rounded objects like these were not seen at the Viking sites.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  8. Electrochromic properties of a metallo-supramolecular polymer derived from tetra(2-pyridyl-1,4-pyrazine) ligands integrated in thin multilayer films.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Clóvis A; Vidotti, Marcio; Fiorito, Pablo A; Córdoba de Torresi, Susana I; Torresi, Roberto M; Alves, Wendel A

    2012-02-14

    The electrochromic behavior of iron complexes derived from tetra-2-pyridyl-1,4-pyrazine (TPPZ) and a hexacyanoferrate species in polyelectrolytic multilayer adsorbed films is described for the first time. This complex macromolecule was deposited onto indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates via self-assembly, and the morphology of the modified electrodes was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which indicated that the hybrid film containing the polyelectrolyte multilayer and the iron complex was highly homogeneous and was approximately 50 nm thick. The modified electrodes exhibited excellent electrochromic behavior with both intense and persistent coloration as well as a chromatic contrast of approximately 70%. In addition, this system achieved high electrochromic efficiency (over 70 cm(2) C(-1) at 630 nm) and a response time that could be measured in milliseconds. The electrode was cycled more than 10(3) times, indicating excellent stability.

  9. High-quality, highly concentrated semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes for use in field effect transistors and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Shan; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Liu, Chang; Sun, Dong-Ming; Yuan, Jiangtan; Zhao, Shi-Yong; Yin, Li-Chang; Cong, Hongtao; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-08-27

    We developed a simple and scalable selective synthesis method of high-quality, highly concentrated semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) by in situ hydrogen etching. Samples containing ~93% s-SWCNTs were obtained in bulk. These s-SWCNTs with good structural integrity showed a high oxidation resistance temperature of ~800 °C. Thin-film transistors based on the s-SWCNTs demonstrated a high carrier mobility of 21.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at an on/off ratio of 1.1 × 10(4) and a high on/off ratio of 4.0 × 10(5) with a carrier mobility of 7.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). A biosensor fabricated using the s-SWCNTs had a very low dopamine detection limit of 10(-18) mol/L at room temperature.

  10. Studies on Physical Properties of Snow Based on Multi Channel Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Takeda, K.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the data observed over a snow field with a breadboard model of MSR (microwave scanning radiometer) to be installed in MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1) indicates that: (1) the influence of incident angle on brightness temperature is larger in horizontal polarization component than in vertical polarization component. The effect of incident angle depends upon the property of snow with larger value for dry snow; (2) the difference of snow surface configuration consisting of artifically made parallel ditches of 5 cm depth and 5 cm width with spacing of 10 and 30 cm respectively which are oriented normal to electrical axis do not affect brightness temperature significantly; and (3) there is high negative correlation between brightness temperature and snow depth up to the depth of 70 cm which suggests that the snow depth can be measured with a two channel microwave radiometer up to this depth.

  11. Resonances in rotationally inelastic scattering of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} with H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Qianli; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Avoird, Ad van der Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T. van de; Loreau, Jérôme

    2015-07-28

    We present theoretical studies on the scattering resonances in rotationally inelastic collisions of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} molecules with H{sub 2} molecules. We use the quantum close-coupling method to compute state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the NH{sub 3}/ND{sub 3}–H{sub 2} system for collision energies between 5 and 70 cm{sup −1}, using a previously reported potential energy surface [Maret et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 399, 425 (2009)]. We identify the resonances as shape or Feshbach resonances. To analyze these, we use an adiabatic bender model, as well as examination at the scattering wave functions and lifetimes. The strength and width of the resonance peaks suggest that they could be observed in a crossed molecular beam experiment involving a Stark-decelerated NH{sub 3} beam.

  12. Fate and transport of plutonium-239 + 240 and Americium-241 in the soil of Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Litaor, M.I.; Barth, G.R.; Zika, E.M.

    1996-07-01

    Actinides contamination of soils around Rocky Flats, CO, resulted from leaking drums of Pu-contaminated oil stored at an outdoor site. The transport of these actinides through the soil to groundwater was studied using an advanced monitoring system (MS). The fully automated, remotely controlled MS gathered real-time data on soil water content, groundwater level, and timing of gravitationally flowing water. Controlled rain simulations coupled with measurements of volume flux and actinide activities provided essential information about the fate and transport of Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241. Volume fluxes at most sampling locations were similar, regardless of the antecedent moisture or the duration, frequency, and intensity of the simulated rain. Actinide activities were not correlated with the measured volume flux, or the duration, frequency, and intensity of the simulated rain. Flow was facilitated primarily via macropore channeling. The relatively short residence time precluded a continuous interaction between the soil and the flowing water, which minimized the movement of actinides in the soil. Actinide activities in the interstitial water collected from the upper 20 cm of the soil were significantly higher (P>0.001) than water collected at deeper sampling depths (20-70 cm). Actinide activity in water samples from the deepest sampling depth (40-70 cm) did not exceed 0.4 Bq/L. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the movement of actinides was restricted to the top 20 cm. A transport mechanism involving discrete Pu oxide particles, coupled with macropore channeling is proposed to explain the observed actinide activities in the soil. 31 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of the dynamic micro-multileaf collimator of a LINAC Elekta Precise using PENELOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, W.; Lallena, A. M.; Alfonso, R.

    2011-06-01

    Micro-multileaf collimators are devices that are added to LINAC heads for stereotactic radiosurgery. In this work, the performance of an Elekta Precise LINAC with a dynamic micro-multileaf collimator manufactured by 3D-line has been studied. Monte Carlo simulations based on PENELOPE code and measurements with three different detectors (PTW Semiflex 31010 chamber, PTW PinPoint 31016 chamber and PTW Diode 60008) have been carried out. Simulations were tuned by reproducing the experimental TPR20, 10 quality index, providing a nice description of both the PDD curve and the transverse profiles at the two depths measured. The geometry of the micro-multileaf collimator was tested by calculating the transmission through it, and it was needed to significantly reduce the leaf separation indicated by the manufacturer to reproduce the experimental results. An approximate simulation in which the transport of the particles traversing the dynamic micro-multileaf collimator was described in a simplified way was analyzed, providing good agreement with the full simulations. With the MC model fixed, output factors for various field sizes were calculated and compared to the experimental ones, obtaining good agreement. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) and transverse profiles at two depths measured with the diode for small fields were well reproduced by the simulation, while the measurements performed with the PinPoint chamber showed differences in the PDDs, at large depths, and transverse profiles, at the penumbra. Monte Carlo simulations and Semiflex and diode measurements, performed for a 7.0 cm × 7.0 cm field, were in nice agreement, while those obtained with the PinPoint chamber showed differences that increased with the depth in water. At the phantom entrance, all measurements showed non-negligible differences that made Monte Carlo a good option to estimate the absorbed dose in this region.

  14. Macroscopic x-ray fluorescence capability for large-scale elemental mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Volz, Heather M; Havrilla, George J; Aikin, Jr., Robert M; Montoya, Velma M

    2010-01-01

    A non-destructive method of determining segregation of constituent elements over large length-scales is desired. Compositional information to moderate resolution over centimeters will be powerful not only to validate casting models but also to understand large-scale phenomena during solidification. To this end, they have rebuilt their XRF capability in conjunction with IXRF Systems, Inc. (Houston, TX) to accommodate samples that are much larger than those that typically fit into an XRF instrument chamber (up to 70 cm x 70 cm x 25 cm). This system uses a rhodium tube with maximum power of 35 kV and 100 {mu}A, the detector is a liquid nitrogen cooled lithium drifted silicon detector, and the smallest spot size is approximately 0.4 mm. Reference standard specimens will enable quantitative elemental mapping and analysis. Challenges to modifying the equipment are described. Non-uniformities in the Inconel 718 system will be shown and discussed. As another example, segregation of niobium or molybdenum in depleted uranium (DU) castings has been known to occur based on wet chemical anslysis (ICP-MS), but this destructive and time-consuming measurement is not practical for routine inspection of ingots. The U-Nb system is complicated due to overlap of the Nb K-alpha line with the U L-beta. Preliminary quantitative results are included on the distribution of Nb across slices from DU castings with different cooling rates. They foresee this macro-XRF elemental mapping capability to prove invaluable to many in the materials processing industry.

  15. Investigation of soil water changes under different land use types at a small Balaton catchment in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horel, Agota; Kasa, Ilona; Bakacsi, Zsofia; Dencso, Marton; Koos, Sandor; Gelybo, Gyorgyi; Toth, Eszter; Farkas, Csilla

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural lands are among the most sensitive ecosystems subject to climate change, which can have substantial effects on soil erosion rates. The present study is part of an on-going monitoring effort, which is being carried out on three reference watersheds around Lake Balaton, Hungary, where plot- and catchment scale processes are being monitored. The selected catchment presented in this study has an area of 21.3 km2, with land use types including forest, grassland, and agricultural land use of vineyard and wheat. Soil water content and soil temperature were continuously measured while weather data were obtained either from local measurements at the sites for precipitation, or from meteorological stations close to the pilot area for other meteorological variables. We investigated the effects of antecedent soil water (ASW) content on soil erosion rates and aggregate stability, also on the amount of total suspended sediments (TSS) leaving the catchment. HYDRUS-1D was used to simulate the soil water content, infiltration, evaporation, and percolation of water through soils under different land use types. Based on single rain events on a short term, the soil water contents stayed relatively constant at 15, 40, and 70 cm below surface in case when cumulative rainfall amounts were approximately 10 mm. During a month long period with no major rain events (precipitation < 0.5 mm), the largest change in VWC was observed in the soil cover under forest. In these soils the water content decreased by 14% at 70 cm depth, while in the 15 cm layer this change was much less pronounced, with only 7% decrease. Changes in TSS values during single rainfall events showed good correlation with initial soil moisture conditions; however we need further data collection to draw more precise conclusions. Preliminary data also suggests that ASW has a major effect on soil aggregate stability and TSS rate.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of the dynamic micro-multileaf collimator of a LINAC Elekta Precise using PENELOPE.

    PubMed

    González, W; Lallena, A M; Alfonso, R

    2011-06-07

    Micro-multileaf collimators are devices that are added to LINAC heads for stereotactic radiosurgery. In this work, the performance of an Elekta Precise LINAC with a dynamic micro-multileaf collimator manufactured by 3D-line has been studied. Monte Carlo simulations based on PENELOPE code and measurements with three different detectors (PTW Semiflex 31010 chamber, PTW PinPoint 31016 chamber and PTW Diode 60008) have been carried out. Simulations were tuned by reproducing the experimental TPR(20, 10) quality index, providing a nice description of both the PDD curve and the transverse profiles at the two depths measured. The geometry of the micro-multileaf collimator was tested by calculating the transmission through it, and it was needed to significantly reduce the leaf separation indicated by the manufacturer to reproduce the experimental results. An approximate simulation in which the transport of the particles traversing the dynamic micro-multileaf collimator was described in a simplified way was analyzed, providing good agreement with the full simulations. With the MC model fixed, output factors for various field sizes were calculated and compared to the experimental ones, obtaining good agreement. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) and transverse profiles at two depths measured with the diode for small fields were well reproduced by the simulation, while the measurements performed with the PinPoint chamber showed differences in the PDDs, at large depths, and transverse profiles, at the penumbra. Monte Carlo simulations and Semiflex and diode measurements, performed for a 7.0 cm × 7.0 cm field, were in nice agreement, while those obtained with the PinPoint chamber showed differences that increased with the depth in water. At the phantom entrance, all measurements showed non-negligible differences that made Monte Carlo a good option to estimate the absorbed dose in this region.

  17. Low dissolved organic carbon input from fresh litter to deep mineral soils

    SciTech Connect

    Froeberg, Mats J; Jardine, Philip M; Hanson, Paul J; Swanston, Christopher; Todd Jr, Donald E; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Garten Jr, Charles T

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from recent litter in the forest floor has been suggested to be an important source of C to the mineral soil of forest ecosystems. In order to determine the rate at which this flux of C occurs we have taken advantage of a local release of 14C at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Reservation, USA (latitude N 35 58'; longitude W 84 16'). Eight replicate 7x7 m plots were estab lished at four field sites on the reservation in an upland oak forest setting. Half of the plots were provided with 14C-enriched litter (∆14C ≈1000 ), and the other half with near-background litter (∆14C ≈220 ) over multiple years. Differences in the labeled leaf litter were used to quantify the movement of litter derived DOC through the soil profile. Soil solutions were collected over several years with tension lysimeters at 15 and 70 cm depth and measured for DOC concentration and 14C abundance. The net amount of DOC retained between 15 and 70 cm was 1.5-6 g m-2 y-1. There were significant effects of the litter additions on the 14C abundance in the DOC, but the net transport of 14C from the added litter was small. The difference in ∆14C between the treatments with enriched and near-background litter was only about 130 at both depths, which is small compared with the difference in Δ14C in the added litter. The primary source of DOC within the mineral soil must therefore have been either the Oe/Oa horizon or the organic matter in the mineral soil. Over a 2-year time frame, leaching of DOC from recent litter did not have a major impact on the C stock in the mineral soil below 15 cm in this ecosystem.

  18. Effects of Climate and Soil Properties on U.S. Home Lawn Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selhorst, Adam; Lal, Rattan

    2012-12-01

    Following turfgrass establishment, soils sequester carbon (C) over time. However, the magnitude of this sequestration may be influenced by a range of climatic and soil factors. Analysis of home lawn turfgrass soils throughout the United States indicated that both climatic and soil properties significantly affected the soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and pool to 15-cm depth. Soil sampling showed that the mean annual temperature (MAT) was negatively correlated with SOC concentration. Additionally, a nonlinear interaction was observed between mean annual precipitation (MAP) and SOC concentration with optimal sequestration occurring in soils receiving 60-70 cm of precipitation per year. Furthermore, soil properties also influenced SOC concentration. Soil nitrogen (N) had a high positive correlation with SOC concentration, as a 0.1 % increase in N concentration led to a 0.99 % increase in SOC concentration. Additionally, soil bulk density (ρb) had a curvilinear interaction with SOC concentration, with an increase in ρb indicating a positive effect on SOC concentration until a ρb of ~1.4-1.5 Mg m-3 was attained, after which, inhibition of SOC sequestration occurred. Finally, no correlation between SOC concentration or pool was observed with texture. Based upon these results, highest SOC pools within this study are observed in regions of low MAT, moderate MAP (60-70 cm year-1), high soil N concentration, and moderate ρb (1.4-1.5 Mg m-3). In order to maximize the C storage capacity of home lawns, non C-intensive management practices should be used to maintain soils within these conditions.

  19. Isotope shift in the sulfur electron affinity: Observation and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Carette, Thomas; Scharf, Oliver; Godefroid, Michel; Froese Fischer, Charlotte

    2010-04-15

    The sulfur electron affinities {sup e}A(S) are measured by photodetachment microscopy for the two isotopes {sup 32}S and {sup 34}S (16 752.975 3(41) and 16 752.977 6(85) cm{sup -1}, respectively). The isotope shift in the electron affinity is found to be more probably positive, {sup e}A({sup 34}S)- {sup e}A({sup 32}S) =+0.0023(70) cm{sup -1}, but the uncertainty allows for the possibility that it may be either ''normal''[{sup e}A({sup 34}S) > {sup e}A({sup 32}S)] or ''anomalous''[{sup e}A({sup 34}S) < {sup e}A({sup 32}S)]. The isotope shift is estimated theoretically using elaborate correlation models, monitoring the electron affinity and the mass polarization term expectation value. The theoretical analysis predicts a very large specific mass shift (SMS) that counterbalances the normal mass shift (NMS) and produces an anomalous isotope shift {sup e}A({sup 34}S)- {sup e}A({sup 32}S) =-0.0053(24) cm{sup -1}, field shift corrections included. The total isotope shift can always be written as the sum of the NMS (here +0.0169 cm{sup -1}) and a residual isotope shift (RIS). Since the NMS has nearly no uncertainty, the comparison between experimental and theoretical RIS is more fair. With respective values of -0.0146(70) cm{sup -1} and -0.0222(24) cm{sup -1}, these residual isotope shifts are found to agree within the estimated uncertainties.

  20. Soil Organic Carbon Beneath Croplands and Re-established Grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rebecca L.; Eken, Mikki R.; West, Mark S.

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  1. Comparison of measured Varian Clinac 21EX and TrueBeam accelerator electron field characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Samantha A M; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Gagne, Isabelle M

    2015-07-08

    Dosimetric comparisons of radiation fields produced by Varian's newest linear accelerator, the TrueBeam, with those produced by older Varian accelerators are of interest from both practical and research standpoints. While photon fields have been compared in the literature, similar comparisons of electron fields have not yet been reported. In this work, electron fields produced by the TrueBeam are compared with those produced by Varian's Clinac 21EX accelerator. Diode measurements were taken of fields shaped with electron applicators and delivered at 100 cm SSD, as well as those shaped with photon MLCs without applicators and delivered at 70 cm SSD for field sizes ranging from 5 × 5 to 25 × 25 cm² at energies between 6 and 20 MeV. Additionally, EBT2 and EBT3 radio-chromic film measurements were taken of an MLC-shaped aperture with closed leaf pairs delivered at 70 cm SSD using 6 and 20 MeV electrons. The 6 MeV fields produced by the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX were found to be almost indistinguishable. At higher energies, TrueBeam fields shaped by electron applicators were generally flatter and had less photon contamination compared to the Clinac 21EX. Differences in PDDs and profiles fell within 3% and 3 mm for the majority of measurements. The most notable differences for open fields occurred in the profile shoulders for the largest applicator field sizes. In these cases, the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX data differed by as much as 8%. Our data indicate that an accurate electron beam model of the Clinac 21EX could be used as a starting point to simulate electron fields that are dosimetrically equivalent to those produced by the TrueBeam. Given that the Clinac 21EX shares head geometry with Varian's iX, Trilogy, and Novalis TX accelerators, our findings should also be applicable to these machines.

  2. Characterization of radiation beams used to determinate the correction factor for a CyberKnife® unit reference field using ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Aragón-Martínez, Nestor Massillon-JL, Guerda; Gómez-Muñoz, Arnulfo

    2014-11-07

    This paper aimed to characterize a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian® iX linear accelerator in order to obtain the correction factors needed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism{sup 1}. The experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom under different irradiation conditions: a) Calibration of the reference field of 10 cm × 10 cm at 90 cm SSD and 10 cm depth was carried out according to the TRS-398 protocol using three ionization chambers (IC) calibrated in different reference laboratory and b) Measurement of the absorbed dose rate at 70 cm SSD and 10 cm depth in a 10 cm × 10 cm and 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm fields was obtained in order to simulate the CyberKnife® conditions where maximum distance between the source and the detector is equal to 80 cm and the maximum field size is 6 cm diameter. Depending where the IC was calibrated, differences between 0.16% and 2.24% in the absorbed dose rate measured in the 10 cm × 10 cm field at 90 cm SSD were observed, while for the measurements at 70 cm SSD, differences between 1.27% and 3.88% were obtained. For the 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm field, the absorbed dose measured with the three ICs varies between 1.37% and 3.52%. The increase in the difference on the absorbed dose when decreasing the SSD could possibly be associated to scattering radiation generated from the collimators and/or the energy dependence of the ionization chambers to low-energy radiation. The results presented in this work suggest the importance of simulating the CyberKnife® conditions using other linear accelerator for obtaining the correction factors as proposed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism in order to measure the absorbed dose with acceptable accuracy.

  3. Characterization of radiation beams used to determinate the correction factor for a CyberKnife® unit reference field using ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-Martínez, Nestor; Gómez-Muñoz, Arnulfo; Massillon-JL, Guerda

    2014-11-01

    This paper aimed to characterize a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian® iX linear accelerator in order to obtain the correction factors needed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism1. The experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom under different irradiation conditions: a) Calibration of the reference field of 10 cm × 10 cm at 90 cm SSD and 10 cm depth was carried out according to the TRS-398 protocol using three ionization chambers (IC) calibrated in different reference laboratory and b) Measurement of the absorbed dose rate at 70 cm SSD and 10 cm depth in a 10 cm × 10 cm and 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm fields was obtained in order to simulate the CyberKnife® conditions where maximum distance between the source and the detector is equal to 80 cm and the maximum field size is 6 cm diameter. Depending where the IC was calibrated, differences between 0.16% and 2.24% in the absorbed dose rate measured in the 10 cm × 10 cm field at 90 cm SSD were observed, while for the measurements at 70 cm SSD, differences between 1.27% and 3.88% were obtained. For the 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm field, the absorbed dose measured with the three ICs varies between 1.37% and 3.52%. The increase in the difference on the absorbed dose when decreasing the SSD could possibly be associated to scattering radiation generated from the collimators and/or the energy dependence of the ionization chambers to low-energy radiation. The results presented in this work suggest the importance of simulating the CyberKnife® conditions using other linear accelerator for obtaining the correction factors as proposed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism in order to measure the absorbed dose with acceptable accuracy.

  4. Japanese infrared survey mission IRIS (ASTRO-F)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hiroshi

    1998-08-01

    The IR Imaging Survey (IRIS) is the second IR astronomy mission of the Institute of Space and Astronomical Science (ISAS). The IRIS is a 70 cm cooled telescope dedicated for IR sky survey. This project has been approved as ISAS's 21st science mission 'ASTRO-F', and prototype model development has been ongoing since 1997. The IRIS will be launched with ISAS's launch vehicle M-V, into a sun-synchronous polar orbit with an altitude of 750 km. The IRIS telescope has a 70 cm aperture and is cooled to 6K using Stirling-cycle coolers and liquid helium. The primary and secondary mirrors are light-weight mirrors make of silicon carbide. Two focal- plane instruments are installed. One is the far-IR surveyor (FIS) which will survey the entire sky in the wavelength range from 50 to 200 micron with angular resolutions of 30- 50 arcsec. The other focal-plane instrument is the IR camera (IRC). It employs large-format detector arrays and will take deep images of selected sky regions in the near and mid IR range. The field of view of the IRC is 10 arcmin and the spatial resolution is approximately 2 arcsec. The IRIS has much higher sensitivity than that of the IRAS survey. The detection limits are 1-100 micro Jy in the near-MID IR and 10-100 mJy in the far IR. With the IRIS survey, great progress is expected in the research on evolution of galaxies, formation of stars and planets, dark matter and brown dwarfs. The IRIS is now scheduled to be launched in early 2003.

  5. Vertical Distribution of the Plant-Parasitic Nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, Under Four Field Crops.

    PubMed

    Pudasaini, Mahesh P; Schomaker, Cornelia H; Been, Thomas H; Moens, Maurice

    2006-03-01

    ABSTRACT The vertical distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans was monitored in four fields cropped with maize, black salsify, carrot, or potato. Soil samples were collected at 21-day intervals from May 2002 until April 2003 from five plots (2 x 5 m(2)) per field. Per plot, 15 cores were taken to a depth of 70 cm and split into seven segments of 10 cm each. Within the plots, segments from corresponding depths were pooled. After mixing, 200-g subsamples were taken and nematodes were extracted by zonal centrifugation from the root fraction and the mineral soil fraction separately. In most crops, the root fraction contained more than 50% of the total number of P. penetrans. Because the ratio between the numbers of nematodes in the root fraction and mineral soil fraction changes during the growing season, numbers of P. penetrans found in the mineral soil fraction cannot be used to estimate the total number in the soil. Therefore, both fractions have to be processed to obtain a reliable estimate of the density. No nematodes were recovered below 50 cm soil depth, except in the maize field where nematodes were found at 70 cm. The optimum sampling depth for maize, black salsify, carrot, and potato was 45, 25, 25, and 35 cm, respectively. The percentage of nematodes per soil layer was independent of the sampling date, indicating that a defined optimum sampling depth will be applicable throughout all seasons. The cumulative vertical distribution, modeled with a logistic equation, can be used to estimate the sampling error when samples are collected at different depths.

  6. Increasing the Stability of Streambanks through the Hydrologic Effects of Riparian Vegetation: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.; Pollen, N. L.

    2003-12-01

    Riparian vegetation can provide both mechanical and hydrologic benefits to the shear strength of streambanks. Recent research has shown that the hydrologic effects of water withdrawal on streambank stability can be significant, and far exceeds that provided by root reinforcement during certain times of the year. To accurately quantify the hydrologic effects of riparian vegetation on streambank stability and to determine optimum species for bank stabilization, experiments with common riparian species (planted in 2000) were conducted in large soil monoliths. Pore-water pressure data from depths of 30 and 70 cm within soil monoliths containing Black Willow, River Birch, Eastern Sycamore, and bare soil were monitored for the period February through June, 2002 (Figure XX1). This period was selected because it represents the wettest and, therefore, the most critical period for streambank stability. With rainfall, all of the tensiometers showed decreases in matric suction (negative pore-water pressure) or increases in positive pore-water pressure reflecting the addition of water. However, both the magnitude of the changes and the absoulute values attained within the soil monoliths differed by treatment. At both 30 cm and 70 cm depths, the soil in the control monoliths became the wettest during and after rainfall indicating the role of the woody species in maintaining matric suction and enhancing shear strength. During late February and early March before leaves appeared on stems and branches, there appeared to be little difference in matric suction values between individual species although matirc suction values within these monoliths were still greater than within the control monoliths. This lack of significant differences between the vegetated monoliths and the controls are at least in part a function of the young age of the specimens and the lack of a carryover of high values of matric suction from the previous summer that can be typical in more mature stands of trees

  7. Radiocarbon Dating and age Inversions in Lake Chapala Late Holocene Sediments, Western Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate-Del Valle, P.; Israde-Alcantara, I.; Ramírez-Sánchez, H.; Gómez-Salazar, S.; Ríos-Donato, N.

    2006-12-01

    Neotectonic Lake Chapala, the major Mexican freshwater reservoir lies at the north and northeast of the Citala Rift and is linked to history of the active Plio-Quaternary Transmexican Volcanic Belt geological province. Eight radiocarbon 14C dates were obtained on shallow sediment samples from a gravity corer (T46) of 5 cm in diameter and 1.7 m long. The core was collected from the western sector of Lake Chapala (103° 15.43' W, 20° 14.45' N) at water depth of 3.7 m (june 2000). In general, shallow sediments (<2m deep) in Lake Chapala are dark and silty with granulometric median ranging from 10 to 50 μm. Major oxides in sediments are: SiO2 (54.05%), Al2O3 (18.94%), Fe2O3 (6.75%) and CaO (2.57%). The major mineralogical composition of sediments is as follows: plagioclases (25.86%), quartz (20.92%), clays (38.5%), carbonates (2.99%) and TiO2 (1.05%). Radiocarbon ages were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and were obtained through the organic carbon fraction extracted from the bulk sediment samples sliced every 20 cm taken from the whole core. Stratigraphically ordered from highest to lowest, the eight ages reported are: 1) 2,000 ±40 yr on sediments at 30 cm deep; 2) 1,920 ±35 yr on sediments at 50 cm deep; 3) 1,900 ±35 yr on sediments at 70 cm deep; 4) 2,080 ±35 yr on sediments at 90 cm deep; 5) 2,090 ±50 yr on sediments at 110 cm deep; 6) 2,190 ±35 yr on sediments at 130 cm deep; 7) 2,050 ±35 yr on sediments at 150 cm deep and, 8) 1,500 ±35 yr on sediments at 170 cm deep. From the top until 70 cm and from 130 to bottom we observe two age inversions; the interval apparently with no age inversions is from 70cm to 130cm. As it is known the age inversions observed may be due to a) ancient carbon being incorporated into the sediment during deposition; b) unrecognized bioturbation, c) Postdepositional alteration and, d) variations in the apparent geological ages of the different chemical phases comprising the total sediment. Basically, the factors

  8. Dose-Volume Parameters Predict for the Development of Chest Wall Pain After Stereotactic Body Radiation for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mutter, Robert W.; Liu Fan; Abreu, Andres; Yorke, Ellen; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Chest wall (CW) pain has recently been recognized as an important adverse effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We developed a dose-volume model to predict the development of this toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 126 patients with primary, clinically node-negative NSCLC received three to five fractions of SBRT to doses of 40-60 Gy and were prospectively followed. The dose-absolute volume histograms of two different definitions of the CW as an organ at risk (CW3cm and CW2cm) were examined for all 126 patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 16 months, the 2-year estimated actuarial incidence of Grade {>=} 2 CW pain was 39%. The median time to onset of Grade {>=} 2 CW pain (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0) was 9 months. There was no predictive advantage for biologically corrected dose over physical dose. Neither fraction number (p = 0.07) nor prescription dose (p = 0.07) were significantly correlated with the development of Grade {>=} 2 CW pain. Cox Proportional Hazards analysis identified significant correlation with a broad range of dose-volume combinations, with the CW volume receiving 30 Gy (V30) as one of the strongest predictors (p < 0.001). CW2cm consistently enabled better prediction of CW toxicity. When a physical dose of 30 Gy was received by more than 70 cm{sup 3} of CW2cm, there was a significant correlation with Grade {>=} 2 CW pain (p = 0.004). Conclusions: CW toxicity after SBRT is common and long-term follow-up is needed to identify affected patients. A volume of CW {>=} 70 cm{sup 3} receiving 30 Gy is significantly correlated with Grade {>=} 2 CW pain. We are currently applying this constraint at our institution for patients receiving thoracic SBRT. An actuarial atlas of our data is provided as an electronic supplement to facilitate data-sharing and meta-analysis relating to CW pain.

  9. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Brake, J

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen-day egg production in combination with 10.4 cm/pullet rearing but not with 7.0 cm/pullet rearing space. In a similar manner, hen mortality was greater in the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female feeder space combination that the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination.

  10. Evaluation of Plant- Compost -Microorganisms Synergy for the Remediation of Diesel contaminated Soil: Success Stories from the Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Imran; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Sessitsch, Angela; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contain a mixture of crude oil, gasoline, creosote and diesel is one of the most common groups of persistent organic pollutants. TPH enters into the ecosystem (soil, water and air) through leakage of underground storage tanks (LUST), accidental oil spills, transportation losses and industrial processes. Pollution associated with diesel oil and its refined products is of great concern worldwide due to its threats/damages for human and ecosystem health, soil structure and ground water quality. Extensive soils pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons results in extreme harsh surroundings, produce hydrophobic conditions and infertile soils that ultimately lead towards less plant and microorganisms growth. Among biological methods, bioremediation and phytoremediation are promising technologies that have both technical and ecological benefits as compared to convention methods. Within phytoremediation, rhizoremediation based on stimulation of degrading microorganism's population influenced by plant rhizospheric effect is known as main mechanism for phytoremediation of petroleum polluted soils. Composting along with rhizodegradtion was used to remediate freshly spilled soils at Lysimeter station Siebersdof, Austria. Experiment was started in July 2013 and will be monitored up to September 2016. Field station has 12 Lysimeter in total; each has length, width and depth of 100 cm respectively. Each Lysimeter was filled with normal agricultural soil from Siebersdof (0-70 cm), sand (70-85 cm) and stones (85-100cm). Sand and stones were added to support the normal leaching and percolation of water as we collected leachate samples after regular intervals. After filling, commercial diesel oil (2% w/w of 0-70 cm soil) was spilled on top of each Lysimeter as accidental spill occurs in filed. Compost was added at 0-15 cm layer (5% w/w of soil) to stimulate plant as well as microorganisms growth. Whole Lysimeter station was divided into three treatments

  11. Low-Frequency Vibrational Modes of Poly(glycolic acid) and Thermal Expansion of Crystal Lattice Assigned On the Basis of DFT-Spectral Simulation Aided with a Fragment Method.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shigeki; Miyada, Mai; Sato, Harumi; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-02-09

    Low-frequency vibrational modes of lamellar crystalline poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) were measured on Raman and far-infrared (FIR) spectra. Among the observed bands, an FIR band at ∼70 cm(-1) and a Raman band at 125 cm(-1) showed a gradual lower-frequency shift with increasing temperature from 20 °C to the melting point at ∼230 °C. Their polarization direction was perpendicular to the chain axis of PGA. Both spectra were quantum-mechanically simulated with the aid of a fragment method, the Cartesian-coordinate tensor transfer, which enabled an explicit consideration of molecular interactions between two adjacent polymer chains. Good agreement was achieved between the experiment and theory in both spectra. The temperature-sensitive bands at ∼70 cm(-1) in FIR and at 125 cm(-1) in Raman comprise the out-of-plane C═O bending motion. The temperature-dependent shifts of the low-frequency bands were successfully simulated by the DFT-spectral calculation, exploring that the main origin of the shifts is the thermal expansion of the crystal lattice. This result indicates that the thermally shifted bands may be used as an indicator of the lattice expansion of PGA. Possible changes in intermolecular interactions of PGA under temperature rising were ascribed on the basis of natural bond orbital theory. The steric repulsion between the carbonyl O atom in one chain and the H-C bond in the adjacent chain will be a dominant interaction in the lattice-expanding process, which would cause the observed thermal shifts of the bending modes. Comparisons of the spectral assignment for PGA obtained in this study and that for poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) reported by us suggest that crystalline polyesters give vibrational modes composed of out-of-plane bending motion of C═O groups between ∼70 and ∼125 cm(-1), the modes of which are sensitive to the thermal expansion of crystal lattice and its concomitant changes in their intermolecular interactions.

  12. SU-E-T-516: Measurement of the Absorbed Dose Rate in Water Under Reference Conditions in a CyberKnife Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon-Martinez, N; Hernandez-Guzman, A; Gomez-Munoz, A; Massillon-JL, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to measure the absorbed-dose-rate in a CyberKnife unit reference-field (6cm diameter) using three ionization chambers (IC) following the new IAEA/AAPM formalism and Gafchromic film (MD-V3-55 and EBT3) protocol according to our work reported previously. Methods: The absorbed-dose-rates were measured at 90cm and 70cm SSD in a 10cmx10cm field and at 70cm SSD in a 5.4cmx5.4cm equivalent to 6cm diameter field using a linac Varian iX. All measurements were performed at 10cm depth in water. The correction factors that account for the difference between the IC response on the reference field and the CyberKnife reference field, k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref), were evaluated and Gafchromic film were calibrated using the results obtained above. Under the CyberKnife reference conditions, the factors were used to measure the absorbed-dose-rate with IC according to the new formalism and the calibrated film was irradiated in water. The film calibration curve was used to evaluate the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife unit. Results: Difference up to 2.56% is observed between dose-rate measured with IC in the reference 10cmx10cm field, depending where the chamber was calibrated, which was not reflected in the correction factor k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref ) where variations of ~0.15%-0.5% were obtained. Within measurements uncertainties, maximum difference of 1.8% on the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife reference field is observed between all IC and the films Conclusion: Absorbed-dose-rate to water was measured in a CyberKnife reference field with acceptable accuracy (combined uncertainties ~1.32%-1.73%, k=1) using three IC and films. The MD-V3-55 film as well as the new IAEA/AAPM formalism can be considered as a suitable dosimetric method to measure absorbed-dose-rate to water in small and non-standard CyberKnife fields used in clinical treatments However, the EBT3 film is not appropriated due to the high uncertainty provided (combined uncertainty ~9%, k=1

  13. Modeling of water management and hydrological properties of orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A.; Tamás, J.; Soltész, M.

    2012-04-01

    Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Eastern part of Hungary and an 80 hectare Bosc and Williams pear orchard in the South Western part of Hungary. in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer and soil physical parameters on soil water regime, supporting the water management of the orchard on hillsides and to reduce the effect of high precipitation intensity on orchards. The total drainable water regime is 920 m3 ha-1 from the upper 40cm soil layer and 1460 m3 ha-1 from the upper 70 cm soil layer. This amount of water should have been drained several times in 2010 to prevent the orchard from the negative effect of surplus water. Since the conventional horizontal drainage system can damage the present apple orchard significantly, the harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by the loosening of the compacted soil layer in the 50-70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage. Therefore one, solo knife coulter is suggested to use at 80-90cm depth. In the case of the hillside a possible replantation of the orchard, pear trees should be planted along the contour lines, so as to avoid erosion and tree damage caused by water erosion. The irrigation of the orchard would be much easier in this case due to better establishment of the irrigation system and lower pipe-line pressure lost. To decrease the effect of erosion, the levels of the existing farm tracks have to be developed with reverse gradient. With the present situation, distributing small dosse of fertilizer should be utilized at the ridge spots, while in the case of convex parts of the valley, smaller doses of nutrients should be used. These digital data can be the basis for a precision spatial decision support system. This research was funded by TECH_08-A3/2-2008-0373 and TECH_08-A4/2-2008-0138 projects.

  14. Performance evaluation of Biograph PET/CT system based on Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Gao, Fei; Liu, Hua-Feng

    2010-10-01

    Combined lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) Biograph PET/CT is developed by Siemens Company and has been introduced into medical practice. There is no septa between the scintillator rings, the acquisition mode is full 3D mode. The PET components incorporate three rings of 48 detector blocks which comprises a 13×13 matrix of 4×4×20mm3 elements. The patient aperture is 70cm, the transversal field of view (FOV) is 58.5cm, and the axial field of view is 16.2cm. The CT components adopt 16 slices spiral CT scanner. The physical performance of this PET/CT scanner has been evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation method according to latest NEMA NU 2-2007 standard and the results have been compared with real experiment results. For PET part, in the center FOV the average transversal resolution is 3.67mm, the average axial resolution is 3.94mm, and the 3D-reconstructed scatter fraction is 31.7%. The sensitivities of the PET scanner are 4.21kcps/MBq and 4.26kcps/MBq at 0cm and 10cm off the center of the transversal FOV. The peak NEC is 95.6kcps at a concentration of 39.2kBq/ml. The spatial resolution of CT part is up to 1.12mm at 10mm off the center. The errors between simulated and real results are permitted.

  15. In-situ experiments for the determination of rock properties and behaviour at the Meuse/Haute Marne Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, J.; Delay, J.; Armand, G.; Rebours, H.; Conil, N.

    2010-06-01

    Andra is in charge of studying the feasibility of a disposal facility for longlived high-level nuclear waste (LL-HLW) in a deep geological environment. With this aim, dedicated experiments have been carried out for several years at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory excavated in a 500 m deep argillaceous rock formation. These experiments include determining the feasibility of the excavation of disposal cells for LL-HLW, consisting of 40 meter long, 70 cm in diameter, horizontal cased micro tunnels. The hydro mechanical impact of the excavation of such openings on the rock mass behaviour is continuously monitored as well as their mean term mechanical behaviour. Since LL-HLW produce heat, the impact of temperature on the surrounding rock mass and on the micro tunnel steel casing will also be studied. Specific instrumentation has been developed to study this impact. The first step of the microtunnel excavation tests, carried out in 2009, has led to improving the excavation method and the drilling machine. These improvements will be tested in the next step of the excavation tests planned for 2010. The THM experiment dedicated to studying the behaviour of the rock mass under thermal solicitation started early 2010. The behaviour of a steel casing in contact with the rock mass and under thermal solicitation will be studied in an experiment scheduled to start in September 2010.

  16. Water temperature profiles for reaches of the Raging River during summer baseflow, King County, western Washington, July 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Opatz, Chad C.

    2016-03-22

    Re-introducing wood into rivers where it was historically removed is one approach to improving habitat conditions in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. The Raging River drainage basin, which flows into the Snoqualmie River at Fall City, western Washington, was largely logged during the 20th century and wood was removed from its channel. To improve habitat conditions for several species of anadromous salmonids that spawn and rear in the Raging River, King County Department of Transportation placed untethered log jams in a 250-meter reach where wood was historically removed. The U.S. Geological Survey measured longitudinal profiles of near-streambed temperature during summer baseflow along 1,026 meters of channel upstream, downstream, and within the area of wood placements. These measurements were part of an effort by King County to monitor the geomorphic and biological responses to these wood placements. Near-streambed temperatures averaged over about 1-meter intervals were measured with a fiber‑optic distributed temperature sensor every 30 minutes for 7 days between July 7 and 13, 2015. Vertical temperature profiles were measured coincident with the longitudinal temperature profile at four locations at 0 centimeters (cm) (at the streambed), and 35 and 70 cm beneath the streambed to document thermal dynamics of the hyporheic zone and surface water in the study reach.

  17. The effect of sea ice on the solar energy budget in the astmosphere-sea ice-ocean system: A model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, Knut; Weeks, W. F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1994-01-01

    A coupled one-dimensional multilayer and multistream radiative transfer model has been developed and applied to the study of radiative interactions in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system. The consistent solution of the radiative transfer equation in this coupled system automatically takes into account the refraction and reflection at the air-ice interface and allows flexibility in choice of stream numbers. The solar radiation spectrum (0.25 micron-4.0 micron) is divided into 24 spectral bands to account adequately for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere. The effects of ice property changes, including salinity and density variations, as well as of melt ponds and snow cover variations over the ice on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. The results show that for bare ice it is the scattering, determined by air bubbles and brine pockets, in just a few centimeters of the top layer of ice that plays the most important role in the solar energy absorption and partitioning in the entire system. Ice thickness is important to the energy distribution only when the ice is thin, while the absorption in the atmosphere is not sensitive to ice thickness exceeds about 70 cm. The presence of clouds moderates all the sensitivities of the absorptive amounts in each layer to the variations in the ice properties and ice thickness. Comparisons with observational spectral albedo values for two simple ice types are also presented.

  18. Buldir Depression - A Late Tertiary graben on the Aleutian Ridge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Scholl, D. W.; Buffington, E.C.; Boyce, R.E.; Alpha, T.R.; Smith, P.J.; Shipek, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    Buldir Depression is a large, rectilinear basin that lies on the northern edge of the Aleutian Ridge and is aligned with the arcuate chain of active volcanoes on the ridge crest. The depression appears to be a volcanic-tectonic feature, which began to form in Late Tertiary time and which is still forming. It is a graben formed by extensional rifting and accompanied by contemporaneous volcanism on the Aleutian Ridge. Subsidence rates for the depression are estimated at 20-70 cm/1,000 years. Sediments in the depression are 300 m thick and are probably pelagic and turbidite deposits of Pleistocene age. The turbidites were apparently derived from the plateau area of the Aleutian Ridge surrounding the depression. Older sediments on the northern slope of the Aleutian Ridge have a maximum thickness of 550 m and are deformed and slumped toward the Bering Sea. These sediments are postulated to overlie a mid-flank terrace on the northern Aleutian Ridge that titled to the north during the formation of Buldir Depression. ?? 1970.

  19. Physico-chemical conditions for plankton in Lake Timsah, a saline lake on the Suez Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Serehy, H. A. H.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1992-02-01

    Lake Timsah receives high salinity water from the Suez Canal, mainly from the south, and freshwater from a Nile canal and other sources, producing a salinity stratification with surface salinities of 20-40‰ and over 40‰ in deeper water. Water temperature at a depth of 50-70 cm fell to below 20 °C in winter and rose to above 30 °C in summer; oxygen concentration at the same depth ranged between 6-10 mg l -1 and the pH was 8·1-8·3, and at mid-day this water was supersaturated with oxygen through 6-8 months of the year. The main chemical nutrients reached their highest levels in winter (December-February) and their lowest levels in summer (May-August), silicate varying between 1-7 μ M, phosphate between 0·1 and 0·8 μ M and nitrate between 4-10 μ M; nitrite varied in a more complex manner, usually between 0·25 and 0·4 μ M. The atomic ratio of N/P was generally well above the Redfield ratio level, except for a few months in midwinter. These nutrient concentrations are high in comparison with those of unpolluted seas of the region, but are typical of the more eutrophic coastal waters in most parts of the world.

  20. Siltation Rate and Mechanism in the North Harbour of Incheon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, G. H.; Ryu, W.; Shin, H. J.; Lee, S.; Kim, K.; Dellapenna, T.; Williams, J. R.; Ha, H.

    2014-12-01

    The development of North Harbour was initiated at a macro-tidal flat within the Harbour Complex of Incheon, Korea in 1997. To maintain the design depth of -14 m below ALLW (Approximately Lowest Low Water) from the tidal flat of 2 m above LLW, dredging operation has been repeated over the last 13 years within the unbalanced (disequilibrium) North Harbour. In efforts to reduce the siltation within the harbour, this paper deals with the estimation of siltation rate and the determination of the mechanism for the siltation within the North Harbour. The siltation rate was estimated and then confirmed by the following three independent methods: comparison of available hydrographic survey data (smooth sheet), radioisotope analysis of gravity cores and altimeter measurement of bed level. The sedimentation rate varied from 20 cm/yr in the far end of the harbour to about 70 cm/yr at the entrance. In order to determine dominant mechanisms for siltation, two ADCPs and two CTDs were deployed at the entrance and the far end of the harbour over a month, and examined flow mechanisms for a harbour basin. The preliminary results suggest that the mechanisms include Suspended Particulate Material (SPM) exchange by horizontal entrainment through the harbour mouth and trapping of SPM in the harbour basin.

  1. Generation of stable and narrow spacing dual-wavelength ytterbium-doped fiber laser using a photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Harith; Aizi Mat Salim, Muhammad; Soltanian, Mohammad Reza K.; Razalli Azzuhri, Saaidal; Wadi Harun, Sulaiman; Yasin, Moh.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the design and operation of novel narrow spacing and stable dual-wavelength fiber laser (DWFL). A 70-cm ytterbium-doped fiber has been chosen as the gain medium in a ring cavity arrangement. Our design includes a short length photonic crystal fiber, acting as a dual-wavelength stabilizer based on its birefringence coefficient and nonlinear behavior and tunable band pass filter (TBPF) to achieve narrow spacing spectrum lasing. Our laser output is considered to be highly stable, with power fluctuation less than 0.8 dB over a period of 15 min. The flexibility and tunability of TBPF, together with polarization controller enable the spacing tuning of the DWFL from 0.03 nm up to 0.07 nm for 1040 nm region, and 0.10 nm up to 0.40 nm for 1060 nm region. The tunable wavelength spacing shows the flexibility of the DWFL in addition to stable and reliable properties of fiber laser in 1-μm region.

  2. Initial results of a positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.S.; Choong, W.S.; Moses, W.W.; Qi, J.; Hu, J.; Wang,G.C.; Wilson, D.; Oh, S.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    2004-11-29

    We present the status and initial images of a positrontomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair ofexternal curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis).The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access andto position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivitywith patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rowsof 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 modules inthe camera. Compared to an ECAT HR PET system operating in 3D mode, ourcamera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and hasapproximately the same sensitivity for a central point source, becauseour detectors are close to the patient. The individual detectors areangled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize resolutiondegradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified CTIdata acquisition electronics. We have completed construction of thegantry and electronics, have developed detector calibration and dataacquisition software, and are taking coincidence data. We demonstratethat we can clearly visualize a "prostate" in a simple phantom.Reconstructed images of two phantoms are shown.

  3. Determination of stimulants and narcotics as well as their in vitro metabolites by online CE-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Lu, Minghua; Li, Qin; Lai, Yongquan; Zhang, Lan; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Guonan; Cai, Zongwei

    2011-02-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive CE-ESI-MS method for the simultaneous analysis of seven stimulants and narcotics (amphetamine, ephedrine, methadone, pethidine, tetracaine, codeine and heroin) was developed. The CE-ESI-MS experimental conditions were optimized as follows: 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate with pH 9.0 as running buffer, the separation voltage of 22 kV and the sheath liquid of isopropanol/water (1:1 v/v) containing 7.5 mmol/L acetic acid with 3.0 μL/min flow rate. Under the optimized conditions, the stimulants and narcotics were well separated within 4.6 min using a 70-cm length fused-silica capillary (50 μm id). The detection limits (S/N=3) of the CE-ESI-MS analysis were in the range of 0.40-1.0 ng/mL. Method repeatability of intra-day and inter-day was satisfactory. The recoveries obtained from the analysis of spiked urine samples were between 84.1 and 108%. The developed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of methadone, pethidine and codeine and their in vitro metabolites.

  4. Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of the marine boundary layer species I2, IO and OIO.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Stewart; Gherman, Titus; Ruth, Albert A; Orphal, Johannes

    2008-08-14

    The novel combination of incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) and a discharge-flow tube for the study of three key atmospheric trace species, I(2), IO and OIO, is reported. Absorption measurements of I(2) and OIO at lambda=525-555 nm and IO at lambda=420-460 nm were made using a compact cavity-enhanced spectrometer employing a 150 W short-arc Xenon lamp. The use of a flow system allowed the monitoring of the chemically short-lived radical species IO and OIO to be conducted over timescales of several seconds. We report detection limits of approximately 26 pmol mol(-1) for I(2) (L=81 cm, acquisition time 60 s), approximately 45 pmol mol(-1) for OIO (L=42.5 cm, acquisition time 5 s) and approximately 210 pmol mol(-1) for IO (L=70 cm, acquisition time 60 s), demonstrating the usefulness of this approach for monitoring these important species in both laboratory studies and field campaigns.

  5. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    PubMed

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, p<0.05). Fractures patterns were found to be comparable to the PMHS for tests conducted with Synbones, however the input parameters were slightly varied to produce similar results. The fractures patterns with the Sawbones were not found to be as comparable to the PMHS. An ideal bone surrogate for ballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted.

  6. Blast-induced neurotrauma in whales.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Siri K; Øen, Egil O

    2003-07-01

    A majority of investigations on primary blast injuries have focused on gas-containing organs, while the likelihood of blast-induced neurotrauma remains underrated. In Norway minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are hunted using small fishing boats rigged with harpoon guns, which fire harpoons tipped with a grenade containing a charge of 30-g penthrite. The grenade detonates 60-70 cm inside the animal. The present study was undertaken to characterize the neuropathological changes caused by the penthrite blast and evaluate its role in the loss of consciousness and death in hunted whales. The study included 37 minke whales that were examined shipboard. The brains were later subjected to gross and light microscopy examination. The results showed that intra-body detonation of the grenade in near vicinity of the brain resulted in trauma similar to severe traumatic brain injury associated with a direct blow to the head. Detonation in more distant areas of the body resulted in injuries resembling acceleration-induced diffuse traumatic brain injury. The authors conclude that even if several vital organs were fatally injured in most whales, the neurotrauma induced by the blast-generated pressure waves were the primary cause for the immediate or very rapid loss of consciousness and death.

  7. Spectrophotometry of zonal cloud structure variations on Jupiter, 1988-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejfel, V. G.; Vdovichenko, V. D.; Sinyaeva, N. V.; Mosina, S. A.; Gajsina, W. N.; Kharitonova, G. A.; Aksenov, A. N.

    1994-04-01

    Global changes of zonal cloud structure on Jupiter have been observed and analyzed from data obtained with a 1-m telescope and a low-dispersion spectrograph in the spectral range wavelengths 400-680 nm, and with a 70-cm telescope and planetary three-channel spectrometer in the spectral range wavelengths 320-1100 nm during each Jovian apparition from 1988 to 1992. Variations of the observed meridional intensity profiles and relative spectrophotometric gradients are described as well as the changes of absolute spectral reflectivity of five main belts on Jupiter (North and South Equatorial belts, North and South Tropical zones, and Equatorial region). Some peculiarities in the behavior of spectrophotometric gradients may be interpreted as a result of increased Rayleigh scattering in the gas layer over the deeper effective cloud boundary within main dark belts. The polar limb darkening varies only slightly with wavelength and it may be considered as evidence for dark aerosols in the stratosphere at high latitudes. The intensity of the methane absorption band centered at 8860 A shows an increase from the equator to temperate latitudes throughout the 1988-1992 period, despite the large variations in belt and zone reflectivities observed during this period in the southern hemisphere.

  8. Update on UCO's advanced coating lab development of silver-based mirror coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Andrew C.; Fryauf, David M.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.; DuPraw, Brian; Cheleden, Spencer; Ratliff, Christopher; Bolte, Michael J.; Cowley, David

    2016-08-01

    We present progress in efforts underway at the University of California Observatories to develop high performance durable silver-based mirror coatings for telescope and instruments. Silver-based coatings are extremely prone to tarnish and/or corrosion, and successful coatings depend not only on the materials used but also the deposition processes employed. Our physical vapor deposition (PVD) chamber allows both sputtering and ion-assisted e-beam depositions for head-to-head comparison of deposition processes, and we present results of these comparisons. In this paper, we review the problem and discuss our recent activities and findings. We discuss a systematic study to determine which oxides, nitrides and fluorides provide the best protection in environmental tests. We present initial results into the effects of stress in our specific thin films, and thee effects of stress on mirror coating durability. We also discuss studies using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) over-coating of Ag, and we describe a large ALD research chamber currently under construction that will demonstrate ALD processes on larger substrates (70 cm diameter).

  9. Robust superhydrophobic PDMS/camphor based composite coatings with self-cleaning and self-healing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sushanta; Sahoo, Bichitra; Nanda, Sonil; Kozinski, Janusz

    2016-11-01

    We report a novel process for the preparation of self-cleaning polymer composite with self-healing ability to self-repair from chemical and mechanical damages using readily available materials like Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and camphor soot particles. When the camphor soot particles loading attained a critical level, the composite coating on glass and stainless steel surfaces reveals self-cleaning property with water contact angle of 1710. We also demonstrate that any degradation of its surface energy under the oxygen plasma etching can be recuperated, illustrating that the obtained superhydrophobic surface has a good self-healing ability. The fabricated PDMS/Camphor soot hybrid coating exhibited excellent retention of superhydrophobicity against impact of sand particles from a height of 10-70 cm. In addition, after being damaged chemically by strong acid treatment (2M HNO3 solution), the coating can also restore its properties after a short thermal cycle. Such versatile superhydrophobic surfaces can have wide applications ranging from under-water marine vessels to coating for surfaces to protect them from moisture and unwanted penetration of water.

  10. High resolution spectroscopic imaging of GABA at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Edden, Richard A E; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B

    2011-03-01

    A spin echo-based MRSI sequence was developed to acquire edited spectra of γ-aminobutyric acid in an entire slice. Water and lipid signals were suppressed by a dual-band presaturation sequence, which included integrated outer volume suppression pulses for additional lipid suppression. Experiments in three normal volunteers were performed at 3 T using a 32-channel head coil. High signal-to-noise ratio spectra and metabolic images of γ-aminobutyric acid were acquired from nominal 4.5 cm3 voxels (estimated actual voxel size 7.0 cm3) in a scan time of 17 min. The sequence is also expected to co-edit homocarnosine and macromolecules, giving a composite γ-aminobutyric acid+ resonance. The γ-aminobutyric acid+ to water ratio was measured using a companion water MRSI scan and was found to correlate linearly with the % gray matter (GM) of each voxel (γ-aminobutyric acid+/water=(1.5×GM+3.2)×10(-5), R=0.27), with higher γ-aminobutyric acid+ levels in gray matter compared with white. In conclusion, high signal-to-noise ratio γ-aminobutyric acid-MRSI is possible at 3 T within clinically feasible scan times.

  11. High Resolution Spectroscopic Imaging of GABA at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Edden, Richard A. E.; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    A spin echo-based MRSI sequence was developed to acquire edited spectra of γ-aminobutyric acid in an entire slice. Water and lipid signals were suppressed by a dual-band presaturation sequence, which included integrated outer volume suppression pulses for additional lipid suppression. Experiments in three normal volunteers were performed at 3 T using a 32-channel head coil. High signal-to-noise ratio spectra and metabolic images of γ-aminobutyric acid were acquired from nominal 4.5 cm3 voxels (estimated actual voxel size 7.0 cm3) in a scan time of 17 min. The sequence is also expected to co-edit homocarnosine and macromolecules, giving a composite γ-aminobutyric acid+ resonance. The γ-aminobutyric acid+ to water ratio was measured using a companion water MRSI scan and was found to correlate linearly with the % gray matter (GM) of each voxel (γ-aminobutyric acid+/water = (1.5 × GM + 3.2) × 10−5, R = 0.27), with higher γ-aminobutyric acid+ levels in gray matter compared with white. In conclusion, high signal-to-noise ratio γ-aminobutyric acid-MRSI is possible at 3 T within clinically feasible scan times. PMID:21337399

  12. The Effect of Magnesium Carbonate (Chalk) on Geometric Entropy, Force, and Electromyography During Rock Climbing.

    PubMed

    Kilgas, Matthew A; Drum, Scott N; Jensen, Randall L; Phillips, Kevin C; Watts, Phillip B

    2016-12-01

    Rock climbers believe chalk dries the hands of sweat and improves the static coefficient of friction between the hands and the surface of the rock. The purpose of this study was to assess whether chalk affects geometric entropy or muscular activity during rock climbing. Nineteen experienced recreational rock climbers (13 males, 6 females; 173.5 ± 7.0 cm; 67.5 ± 3.4 kg) completed 2 climbing trails with and without chalk. The body position of the climber and muscular activity of the finger flexors was recorded throughout the trial. Following the movement sequence participants hung from a standard climbing hold until they slipped from the climbing structure, while the coefficient of friction and the ratio of the vertical forces on the hands and feet were determined. Although there were no differences in the coefficient of friction (P = .748), geometric entropy (P = .359), the ratio of the vertical forces between the hands and feet (P = .570), or muscular activity (P = .968), participants were able to hang longer after the use of chalk 62.9 ± 36.7 s and 49.3 ± 25.2 s (P = .046). This is advantageous because it may allow for prolonged rests, and more time to plan the next series of climbing moves.

  13. An in vitro analysis of the effects of various topical antimicrobial agents on methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Michael; Gil, Joel; Treu, Ryan; Valdes, Jose; Davis, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Infections of acute and chronic wounds have a substantial negative impact on patient outcomes. Because bacterial resistance to traditional antimicrobials continues to increase, an in vitro study was conducted to examine current sensitivities of various methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA) to commonly used topical antimicrobial agents. Using fresh cultures of eight strains of MRSA and MSSA, the area of the zone of inhibition produced by various topical antimicrobials, including an aminoglycoside antibiotic, monocarboxylic acid antibiotic, pleuromutilin antibiotic, triple antibiotic ointment, and petrolatum ointment, was examined. Six culture plates per antimicrobial were prepared using the Kirby Bauer method; soy blood culture plates were inoculated with the bacteria, incubated for 24 hours at 37˚ C, and their zones of inhibition measured and calculated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA testing. Mupirocin treatment was the most effective antimicrobial, with areas of inhibition ranging from 30.34 cm2 to 61.70 cm2 (P <0.05), as compared to the next most effective, retapamulin, with areas of inhibition ranging from 11.97 cm2 to 23.54 cm2. This study provides current scientific data to help the development of a thoughtful rationale for the use of topical antimicrobials in wounds. Additional in vivo studies to substantiate these findings are needed.

  14. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: the relationship between ambient noise, hearing thresholds and sound spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Yan, H Y; Fine, M L

    2003-04-01

    Two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans live in shallow (5-70 cm) stony streams, and males of both species produce courtship sounds. A previous study demonstrated high noise levels near waterfalls, a quiet window in the noise around 100 Hz at noisy locations, and extremely short-range propagation of noise and goby signals. To investigate the relationship of this acoustic environment to communication, we determined audiograms for both species and measured parameters of courtship sounds produced in the streams. We also deflated the swimbladder in P. martensii to determine its effect on frequency utilization in sound production and hearing. Both species are maximally sensitive at 100 Hz and produce low-frequency sounds with main energy from 70 to 100-150 Hz. Swimbladder deflation does not affect auditory threshold or dominant frequency of courtship sounds and has no or minor effects on sound amplitude. Therefore, both species utilize frequencies for hearing and sound production that fall within the low-frequency quiet region, and the equivalent relationship between auditory sensitivity and maximum ambient noise levels in both species further suggests that ambient noise shapes hearing sensitivity.

  15. Diagenetic dolomite formation in a Holocene evaporitic lake

    SciTech Connect

    Coshell, L.; Scott, J. ); Rosen, M.; Turner, J.V. )

    1991-03-01

    Holocene dolomite forms in the sediment of Lake Hayward, a small, permanent, hypersaline lake in the Clifton-Preston Lakeland System, Western Australia. The Clifton-Preston Lakeland System is similar in climate, geography, and sedimentology to the Coorong Region of South Australia. However, dolomite in Lake Hayward is not a primary precipitate as in the Coorong but is of diagenetic origin. The diagenetic origin can be deduced from the combination of the following criteria: (1) the dolomite occurs only between 60-70 cm from the sediment water interface; (2) dolomite occurs as luminescing cement; and (3) dolomite has pristine well-formed rhomb-shaped crystals. The source of magnesium for dolomitization is probably from the concentration of inflowing groundwater by evaporation and the selective removal of calcium by aragonite/calcite precipitation. Although the mechanisms of dolomite formation in Lake Hayward are slightly different than in the Coorong, the presence of Holocene dolomite in an almost identical setting illustrates the importance of the 'Coorong model' for dolomite formation in modern coastal areas.

  16. Paleoclimatic reconstruction`s from Owens Lake core Ol-92, southeastern California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menking, K.M.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey cored Owens Lake to obtain a continuous paleoclimate record for the Sierra Nevada region. Owens Lake heads a chain of closed-basin lakes which are separated by a series of bedrock sills, received their water primarily from Sierra Nevadan precipitation, and overflowed during wet periods. The core records the histories of cyclic glaciation of the Sierra Nevada and water-balance of Owens Lake over the past 800 kyrs. A variety of paleoclimatic proxies have been studied, details of which may be found elsewhere. In this thesis, the author reports the results and interpretations of (1) grain-size and clay-mineralogical analyses performed on 3.5-m-long channel samples (%7500 years of sedimentation per sample) and point samples, (2) grain size, carbonate content, and oxygen isotopic measurements on 70-cm-long channel samples (%1500 years), and (3) a water-balance model used to infer the magnitude of runoff and evaporation changes necessary to fill the lakes in the Owens Lake system, and to determine the response time of the lake chain to climatic perturbations.

  17. Diagnostic imaging in thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Summaria, V; Salvatori, M; Rufini, V; Mirk, P; Garganese, M C; Romani, M

    1999-01-01

    In thyrotoxicosis, imaging mainly scintigraphy, color Doppler sonography and radioiodine uptake test are used in the differential diagnosis as well as in the morphofunctional evaluation of the thyroid before and after therapy (mainly pharmacological or with radioiodine). Radioiodine uptake test differentiates high uptake thyrotoxicosis (Graves'disease, toxic nodular goiter) and low uptake thyrotoxycosis (subacute or silent thyroiditis, ectopic thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism). In Graves'disease scintigraphy shows thyroid enlargement with intense homogeneous tracer uptake; rarely nodules with no uptake are present. On color Doppler sonography, a part from enlargement, typical findings are: diffuse structural hypoechogenicity (at times with echoic nodules), parenchymal hypervascularization ("thyroid inferno"), high systolic velocities (PSV > 70-100 cm/sec) in inferior thyroid arteries. Scintigraphy is the only method able to evidence an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule and stage it (in association to clinical findings and TSH, FT3, FT4 determination) as: toxic, non toxic (or pretoxic) and compensated, depending on whether there is inhibition of extranodular tissue. A scintigraphically "hot" nodule appears hypervascularized on color Doppler sonography (especially in the toxic or pre-toxic phase) with high PSV (> 50-70 cm/sec) in the ipsilateral inferior thyroid artery. The most reliable parameters in the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy are: decreases in thyroid (Graves'disease) or nodular (autonomously functioning nodule) volume; decreased radioiodine uptake (Graves'disease); functional recovery of suppressed parenchyma (autonomously functioning nodule); decreased PSV in the inferior thyroid arteries.

  18. Forty years of 90Sr in situ migration: importance of soil characterization in modeling transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J M; Piault, E; Macouillard, D; Juncos, C

    2006-01-01

    In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of (90)Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The (90)Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of (90)Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the (90)Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year(-1) in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined.

  19. Peripheral dose measurement for CyberKnife radiosurgery with upgraded linac shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Cynthia F.; Larson, David A.; Zytkovicz, Andrea; Smith, Vernon; Petti, Paula L.

    2008-04-15

    The authors investigated the peripheral dose reduction for CyberKnife radiosurgery treatments after the installation of a linac shielding upgrade. As in a previous investigation, the authors considered two treatment plans, one for a hypothetical target in the brain and another for a target in the thorax, delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom. The results of the prior investigation showed that the CyberKnife delivered significantly higher peripheral doses than comparable model C Gamma Knife or IMRT treatments. Current measurements, after the linac shielding upgrade, demonstrate that the additional shielding decreased the peripheral dose, expressed as a percentage of the delivered monitor units (MU), by a maximum of 59%. The dose reduction was greatest for cranial-caudal distances from the field edge less than 30 cm, and at these distances, the CyberKnife peripheral dose, expressed as a percentage of the delivered MU, is now comparable to that measured for the other treatment modalities in our previous investigation. For distances between 30 and 70 cm from the field edge, the additional shielding reduced the peripheral dose by between 20% and 55%. At these distances, the CyberKnife peripheral dose remains higher than doses measured in our previous study for the model C Gamma Knife and IMRT.

  20. Seasonal hyporheic dynamics control coupled microbiology and geochemistry in Colorado River sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danczak, Robert E.; Sawyer, Audrey H.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Stegen, James C.; Hobson, Chad; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    Riverbed microbial communities play an oversized role in many watershed ecosystem functions, including the processing of organic carbon, cycling of nitrogen, and alterations to metal mobility. The structure and activity of microbial assemblages depend in part on geochemical conditions set by river-groundwater exchange or hyporheic exchange. To assess how seasonal changes in river-groundwater mixing affect these populations in a snowmelt-dominated fluvial system, vertical sediment and pore water profiles were sampled at three time points at one location in the hyporheic zone of the Colorado River and analyzed by using geochemical measurements, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and ecological modeling. Oxic river water penetrated deepest into the subsurface during peak river discharge, while under base flow conditions, anoxic groundwater dominated shallower depths. Over a 70 cm thick interval, riverbed sediments were therefore exposed to seasonally fluctuating redox conditions and hosted microbial populations statistically different from those at both shallower and deeper locations. Additionally, microbial populations within this zone were shown to be the most dynamic across sampling time points, underlining the critical role that hyporheic mixing plays in constraining microbial abundances. Given such mixing effects, we anticipate that future changes in river discharge in mountainous, semiarid western U.S. watersheds may affect microbial community structure and function in riverbed environments, with potential implications for biogeochemical processes in riparian regions.

  1. Removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole from synthetic municipal waste water in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands: Start-up results.

    PubMed

    Nowrotek, Monika; Sochacki, Adam; Felis, Ewa; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the start-up removal of pharmaceutical compounds diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands and their effect on the performance of the studied constructed wetlands, and also to assess the effect of plants on the removal of these compounds. The experimental system that was used in this 86-day experiment consisted of 24 columns filled up to 70 cm with predominantly sandy material. Four types of columns were used (six replicates) depending on the presence of plants (Phalaris arundinacea L. var. picta L.) and the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the influent. The influent was synthetic municipal waste water to which a mixture of 5 mg/L of diclofenac and 5 mg/L of sulfamethoxazole was added. The observed removal of diclofenac was moderate (approx. 50%) and the removal of sulfamethoxazole was relatively low (24-30%). It was found that the removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole was not affected by the vegetation. The presence of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in the influent had significant effect on the effluent concentration of N-NO3 and the water loss in the columns, which in both cases were lower than in the control columns. The scope for further research was discussed.

  2. Effect of buffer, electric field, and separation time on detection of aptamer-ligand complexes for affinity probe capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Danielle D; Jameson, Emily E; Perlette, Jon; Malik, Abdul; Kennedy, Robert T

    2003-05-01

    The separation and detection of complexes of aptamers and protein targets by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced fluorescence was examined. Aptamer-thrombin and aptamer-immunoglobulin E (IgE) were used as model systems. Phosphate, 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid with phosphate, and tris(hydroxyamino)methane-glycine-potassium (TGK) buffer at pH 8.4 were tested as electrophoresis media. Buffer had a large effect with TGK providing the most stable complexes for both protein-aptamer complexes. Conditions that suppressed electroosmotic flow, such as addition of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose to the media or modification of the capillary inner wall with polyacrylamide, were found to prevent detection of complexes. The effect of separation time and electric field were evaluated by monitoring complexes with electric field varied from 150-2850 V/cm and effective column lengths of 3.5 and 7.0 cm. As expected, shorter times on the column greatly increased peak heights for the complexes due to a combination of less dilution by diffusion and less dissociation on the column. High fields were found to have a detrimental effect on detection of complexes. It is concluded that the best conditions for detection of noncovalent complexes involve use of the minimal column length and electric field necessary to achieve separation. The results will be of interest in developing affinity probe CE assays wherein aptamers are used as affinity ligands.

  3. Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1

    PubMed Central

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

  4. Moving thermal gradients in gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tolley, H Dennis; Tolley, Samuel E; Wang, Anzi; Lee, Milton L

    2014-12-29

    This paper examines the separation effects of a moving thermal gradient on a chromatographic column in gas chromatography. This movement of the gradient has a focusing effect on the analyte bands, limiting band broadening in the column. Here we examine the relationship between the slope of this gradient, the velocity of the gradient and the resulting band width. Additionally we examine how transport of analytes along the column at their analyte specific constant temperatures, determined by the gradient slope and velocity, affects resolution. This examination is based primarily on a theoretical model of partitioning and transport of analyte under low concentration conditions. Preliminary predictions indicate that analytes reach near constant temperatures, relative positions and resolutions in less than 100cm of column transport. Use of longer columns produces very little improvement in resolution for any fixed slope. Properties of the thermal gradient determine a fixed solute band width for each analyte. These widths are nearly reached within the first 40-70cm, after which little broadening or narrowing of the bands occur. The focusing effect of the thermal gradient corrects for broad injections, reduces effects of irregular stationary phase coatings and can be used with short columns for fast analysis. Thermal gradient gas chromatographic instrumentation was constructed and used to illustrate some characteristics predicted from the theoretical results.

  5. Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) onboard Rosetta/Philae: Comparison of experimental results and the theory behind the experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, Alberto; Krüger, Harald; Loose, Alexander; Sperl, Matthias; Jürgen Seidensticker, Klaus; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Arnold, Walter

    2013-08-01

    The Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) experiment on board the Rosetta spacecraft's lander, Philae, is a cube with three sides covered with piezo-electric (PZT) sensors (total sensitive area: ≈70cm2), aimed at measuring the physical properties of millimetric and sub-millimetric dust particles that move near the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov - Gerasimenko. In this work we study the performance of the DIM Flight Spare (FS) unit based on impact experiments and compare the measurements with the sensor's expected theoretical behavior as derived from Hertz' theory of elastic impact. We present the results of impact experiments performed with spherical particles of different densities and elastic properties. We performed two types of experiments: (a) we analyze the performance of the different sensor sides under identical impacts, and (b) we investigate the performance of DIM under impacts of different materials and different impact speeds. We discuss the possible influence of the microstructure of the PZT sensor on the signal strength and its variation with position of the impacting particles. Our results show that the signal strength and the contact times measured with the DIM PZT sensors can be well approximated by Hertz' contact mechanics.

  6. Horizontally separated 1-in-1 crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    Previous to this workshop, realistic lattices have been developed for vertically separated l-in-l (e.g., D.E. Johnson, A.A. Garren) and 2-in-1 (e.g., S. Heifets) magnets as well as for horizontally separated 2-in-l magnets (e.g., SSC RDS). Bringing together the widely separated ({approximately}60-70 cm) beams in a reasonable length of tunnel and keeping the dispersion zero at the interaction point has been difficult in the vertical l-in-l case. Most designs have required spacial 2-in-1 quadrupoles near the interaction point where the beams are separated by 15 cm or less. It is not clear that such magnets, as dictated by some of these lattice designs, can easily be built. The purpose of this exercise is to provide a crossing insertion for a realistic lattice which involves horizontally separated l-in-l magnets. The following horizontal crossing insertions, which incorporate the dispersion suppressors and phase trombones into the major arcs, need no special 2-in-1 magnets near the interaction point. The dispersion at the IP created by the horizontal crossing can be cancelled by the dispersion suppressor and one set of triplets.

  7. Application of the Prague C and M criteria for endoscopic description of columnar-lined esophagus in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jung Wan; Kim, Young Choon; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To ascertain whether the Prague circumferential (C) length and maximal (M) length criteria for grading the extent of Barrett’s esophagus can be applied prior to its widespread application in South Korea. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen consecutive cases with endoscopic columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) were included and classified according to the Prague C and M criteria. RESULTS: Of 213 cases with CLE, the distribution of maximum CLE lengths was: 0.5-0.9 cm in 99 cases (46.5%); 1.0-1.4 cm in 63 cases (29.6%); 1.5-1.9 cm in 15 cases (7.0%); 2.0-2.4 cm in 14 cases (6.6%); 2.5-2.9 cm in 1 case (0.5%); and 7.0 cm in 1 case (0.5%). Twenty cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. Two hundred and eight cases (97.7%) lacked the circumferential CLE component (C0Mx). Columnar islands were found in 70 cases (32.9%), of which 20 cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. CONCLUSION: In regions where most CLE patients display short or ultrashort tongue-like appearance, more detailed descriptions of CLE’s in < 1.0 cm lengths and columnar islands, as well as avoidance of repeating the prefix “C0” need to be considered in parallel with the widespread application of the Prague system in South Korea. PMID:27114749

  8. First principles calculations of enthalpy and O-H stretching frequency of hydrogen-bonded acid-base complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Mesfin; Bhatta, Ram; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the acid-base interactions is important in surface science as it helps to rationalize materials properties such as wetting, adhesion and tribology. Quantitative relation between changes in enthalpy (ΔH) and frequency shift (Δν) during the acid base interaction is particularly important. We investigate ΔH and Δν of twenty-five complexes of acids (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and phenol) with bases (benzene, pyridine, DMSO, Et2O and THF) in CCl4 using intermolecular perturbation theory calculations. ΔH and Δν of complexes of all alcohols with bases except benzene fall in the range from -14 kJ/mol to -28 kJ/mol and 215 cm-1 to 523 cm- 1 , respectively. Smaller values of ΔH (-2 to -6 kJ/mol) and Δν (23 to 70 cm-1) are estimated for benzene. For all the studied complexes, ΔH varies linearly (R2 ? 0.974) with Δν yielding the average slope and intercept of 0.056 and 1.5, respectively. Linear correlations were found between theoretical and experimental values of ΔH as well as Δν and are concurrent with the Badger-Bauer rule. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  9. A brief review of Badger-Bauer rule and its validation from a first-principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Ram S.; Iyer, Prasad P.; Dhinojwala, Ali; Tsige, Mesfin

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the acid-base interactions is important in chemistry, biology and material science as it helps to rationalize materials properties such as interfacial properties, wetting, adhesion and adsorption. Quantitative relation between changes in enthalpy (ΔH) and frequency shift (Δν) during the acid-base complexation is particularly important. We investigate ΔH and Δν of twenty-five complexes of acids (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and phenol) with bases (benzene, pyridine, DMSO, Et2O and THF) in CCl4 using intermolecular perturbation theory calculations. ΔH and Δν of complexes of all alcohols with bases except benzene fall in the range from -14 kJ mol-1 to -30 kJ mol-1 and 215 cm-1 to 523 cm-1, respectively. Smaller values of ΔH (-2 kJ mol-1 to -6 kJ mol-1) and Δν (23 cm-1 to 70 cm-1) are estimated for benzene. Linear correlations are found between theoretical and experimental values of ΔH as well as Δν. For all the studied complexes, ΔH varies linearly (R2 ≥ 0.97) with Δν concurrent with the Badger-Bauer rule yielding the average slope and intercept of 0.053(± 0.002) kJ mol-1 cm and 2.15(± 0.56) kJ mol-1, respectively.

  10. CO2 and sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

  11. Description, distribution, and paleoclimatic significance of relict periglacial features east of Waterton-Glacier parks, Alberta and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstrom, E.T. . Geography Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Periglacial wedges, involutions, patterned ground and soil wedges are locally preserved in pre-Wisconsinan outwash/alluvium and till on a series of erosion surfaces east of the Lewis Range mountain front and in Wisconsinan outwash near Cutbank, Montana. Ice-wedge casts, observed at six sites within 8 km of the Wisconsinan Laurentide glacier boundary, are 80 to 400 cm wide at the top and 95 to 240 cm deep. Host gravels are commonly foliated against wedge margins. Formation of these wedges required development of perennially frozen ground and mean annual temperatures at least 10 degrees C below those of today (5 degrees C). Soil wedges and tongues, 40 to 70 cm wide at the top and up to 55 cm deep, are developed in loess overlying the outwash/alluvial gravels, and in till and lacustrine deposits. They also occur at five sites within 8 km of the Wisconsinan Laurentide glacier boundary. Involutions and predominantly vertically-oriented gravels occur at eight more widely distributed sites without ice-wedge casts. Strongly weathered, 2+ m thick, pre-Illinoian paleosols, also preserved locally on the erosion surfaces, are truncated and/or completely stripped in the areas most affected by cryoturbation. Hence, most of the periglacial features postdate the paleosols. Stratigraphic and geomorphic relations suggest that the periglacial features formed during at least three glacial/periglacial episodes, probably including the Wisconsinan, Illinoian, and a pre-Illinoian glaciation.

  12. El Nino Activity During MIS 5e in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, B.; Sirocko, F.

    2004-12-01

    Oceanography and climate along the coast of Peru is fundamentally linked to ENSO variability with stronger lithic flux into the sea and reduced marine bioproductivity during El Nino events. A 19 m long piston core with laminated marine sediments has been recovered on the edge of the Peruvian shelf (12 03'S, 77 40W, 184 m waterdepth) during cruise Sonne-147 in 2000. We present the lower 6 meters of this core that cover the time between 100 to 130 kyr before the present (BP). SST has been estimated from alkenone analysis with a mean temporal resolution of 300 years. Color logging along the core at 2 mm intervals revealed high resolution proxy data (3 to 30 a) for the precipitation on the continent (fine-grained lithics) and marine bioproduction (photosynthesis pigments: chlorines, carotenoids). Proxy data show that a major change occurred around 123 kyr BP. Mean sedimentation rate which is largely controlled by lithics dropped from 40-70 cm/kyr to 18 cm/kyr after 123 kyr BP. Contemporaneously SST start to decline towards the early Glacial level that is reached between 118 to 116 ka during the time of glacial inception. We conclude that stronger El Nino floods occurred before 123 kyr BP and El Ninos were weaker during the second half of MIS 5e. The change to weaker ENSO activity in Peru is therewith roughly contemporaneous with the beginning cooling in Greenland.

  13. Variations in water storage in China over recent decades from GRACE observations and GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, X.; Wu, J. J.; Wang, Q.; Zhou, H.

    2016-02-01

    We applied Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Tellus products in combination with Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) simulations and data from reports, to analyze variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) in China as a whole and eight of its basins from 2003 to 2013. Amplitudes of TWS were well restored after scaling, and showed good correlations with those estimated from models at the basin scale. TWS generally followed variations in annual precipitation; it decreased linearly in the Huai River basin (-0.56 cm yr-1) and increased with fluctuations in the Changjiang River basin (0.35 cm yr-1), Zhujiang basin (0.55 cm yr-1) and southeast rivers basin (0.70 cm yr-1). In the Hai River basin and Yellow River basin, groundwater exploitation may have altered TWS's response to climate, and TWS kept decreasing until 2012. Changes in soil moisture storage contributed over 50 % of variance in TWS in most basins. Precipitation and runoff showed a large impact on TWS, with more explained TWS in the south than in the north. North China and southwest rivers region exhibited long-term TWS depletions. TWS has increased significantly over recent decades in the middle and lower reaches of Changjiang River, southeastern coastal areas, as well as the Hoh Xil, and the headstream region of the Yellow River in the Tibetan Plateau. The findings in this study could be helpful to climate change impact research and disaster mitigation planning.

  14. Distributions of labeled nitrogen in the profile of a fertilized sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mansell, R.S.; Fiskell, J.G.A.; Calvert, D.V.; Rogers, J.S.

    1986-02-01

    Isotopically labeled (/sup 15/N-depleted) ammonium sulfate (115 kg N ha/sup -1/) was applied to a Spodosol in a citrus grove, to determine the fate and subsequent distributions of NO/sub 3/-N and NH/sub 4/-N in the soil profile. The soil was tile-drained, and citrus trees were located on soil beds. The authors examined three soil management treatments: the original A1 horizon (ST): deep mixing of A1 and A2 horizons with the underlying Spodic horizon (DT); and incorporation of 56 Mg ha/sup -1/ of dolomitic limestone, along with deep mixing (DTL) of the profile. Soil samples were taken to the 70-cm depth in ST and to the 95-cm depth in DT and DTL soils and were extracted with 1 M KCl. Extracts were chemically analyzed for NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N concentrations and isotopic analysis was performed by mass spectroscopy. At 12 d after fertilization, both NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N values in the ST soil profile exceeded corresponding values for DT and DTL soils. This N was derived primarily from the fertilizer. With time, concentrations of both NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N decreased in profiles for all three soils; however, N concentrations in the ST soil consistently exceeded corresponding values for DT and DTL profiles.

  15. IBIS/PICsIT in-flight performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cocco, G.; Caroli, E.; Celesti, E.; Foschini, L.; Gianotti, F.; Labanti, C.; Malaguti, G.; Mauri, A.; Rossi, E.; Schiavone, F.; Spizzichino, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Traci, A.; Trifoglio, M.

    2003-11-01

    PICsIT (Pixellated Imaging CaeSium Iodide Telescope) is the high energy detector of the IBIS telescope on-board the INTEGRAL satellite. PICsIT operates in the gamma-ray energy range between 175 keV and 10 MeV, with a typical energy resolution of 10% at 1 MeV, and an angular resolution of 12 arcmin within a ~ 100 square degree field of view, with the possibility to locate intense point sources in the MeV region at the few arcmin level. PICsIT is based upon a modular array of 4096 independent CsI(Tl) pixels, ~ 0.70 cm2 in cross-section and 3 cm thick. In this work, the PICsIT on-board data handling and science operative modes are described. This work presents the in-flight performances in terms of background count spectra, sensitivity limit, and imaging capabilities. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  16. The first long-term all-sky imager observation of lunar sodium tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi

    2016-12-01

    The Moon possesses a long tail of neutral sodium atoms that are emitted from the lunar surface and transported anti-sunward by the solar radiation pressure. Since the earth crosses the lunar sodium tail for a few days around the new moon, the resonant light emission from sodium atoms can be detected from the ground. Here we show the first long-term (16 years) observation of the lunar sodium tail, using an all-sky imager at Shigaraki Observatory (35°N, 136°E), Japan. We have surveyed our database of all-sky sodium images at a wavelength of 589.3 nm to find more than 20 events in which a bright spot emerges around the anti-lunar point during the new moon periods. We could not find any clear correlation between the sodium brightness and solar wind parameters (density, speed, dynamic pressure, and F10.7 index). In particular, no enhancement of the sodium spot brightness is detected even under very high density solar wind conditions (70 cm-3; an order-of-magnitude higher than usual), which means that solar wind sputtering is not a principal mechanism of the formation of the lunar sodium tail.

  17. Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge is suggested to be an important pathway for contaminants from continents to coastal zones, but its significance depends on the volume of water and concentrations of contaminants that originate in continental aquifers. Ground water discharge to the Banana River Lagoon, Florida, was estimated by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of Cl− concentration profiles in the upper 230 cm of pore waters and was measured directly by seepage meters. Total submarine ground water discharge consists of slow discharge at depths > ∼70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) of largely marine water combined with rapid discharge of mixed pore water and estuarine water above ∼70 cmbsf. Cl− profiles indicate average linear velocities of ∼0.014 cm/d at depths > ∼70 cmbsf. In contrast, seepage meters indicate water discharges across the sediment-water interface at rates between 3.6 and 6.9 cm/d. The discrepancy appears to be caused by mixing in the shallow sediment, which may result from a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and convection. Wave and tidal pumping and convection would be minor because the tidal range is small, the short fetch of the lagoon limits wave heights, and large density contacts are lacking between lagoon and pore water. Mixing occurs to ∼70 cmbsf, which represents depths greater than previously reported. Mixing of oxygenated water to these depths could be important for remineralization of organic matter.

  18. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatments. The measured ecological diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, HꞋ; Simpson, D; and richness, S) of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene profiles also revealed differences between the treatments, with bacterial and fungal community dominance recorded in the presence of S. scrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments.

  19. Ionic-Liquid Gated Few-layer MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Meeghage; Lin, Ming-Wei; Chuang, Hsun-Jen; Chamlagain, Bhim; Wang, Chongyu; Tan, Xuebin; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng; Zhou, Zhixian

    2013-03-01

    We report the electrical characterization of ionic-liquid-gated bilayer and few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors. The extrinsic mobility of our ionic-liquid-gated devices exceeds 70 cm2V-1S-1 at 250 K, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that measured in the Si back-gate configuration (without ionic liquid). These devices also show ambipolar behavior with a high ON-OFF current ratio of > 107 for electrons and > 106 for holes, and a near ideal subthreshold swing (SS) of ~ 50 mV/decade at 250 K for the electron channel. More significantly, we show that the mobility increases from ~ 100 cm2V-1S-1 at 180 K to ~ 220 cm2V-1S-1 at 77K as the temperature decreases following a μ ~ T-γ dependence with γ ~ 1, indicating that the intrinsic phonon-limited mobility can be achieved in few-layer MoS2 FETs. We attribute the enhanced device performance to the drastic reduction of the Schottky barrier width (thus higher tunneling efficiency) via highly efficient band bending at the MoS2/metal interface afforded by the extremely large electrical double layer capacitance of the ionic liquid. This work was supported by NSF (No. ECCS-1128297).

  20. Beam Dump Design for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Reyes, S

    2006-05-02

    Beam dumps for the heavy ion beams of the fragmentation line of the Rare Isotope Accelerator have been designed. The most severe operational case involves a continuous U beam impacting the beam dump with a power of 295 kW and a nominal spot diameter size of 5 cm. The dump mechanically consists of two rotating barrels with a water cooled outer wall of 2 mm thick aluminum. The barrels are 70 cm in diameter and axially long enough to intercept a variety of other beams. The aluminum wall absorbs approximately 15% of the U beam power with the rest absorbed in the water downstream of the wall. The water acts as an absorber of the beam and as a coolant for the 2 mm aluminum wall. The barrel rotates at less than 400 RPM, maximum aluminum temperatures are less than 100 C and maximum thermal fatigue stresses are low at 3.5 x 10{sup 7} Pa (5 ksi). Rotation of the dump results in relatively low radiation damage levels with an operating lifetime of years for most beams.

  1. Endolithic community composition of Orbicella faveolata (Scleractinia) underneath the interface between coral tissue and turf algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Isaza, N.; Espinoza-Avalos, J.; León-Tejera, H. P.; González-Solís, D.

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the species composition, richness, and total abundance of the endolithic community in the skeleton of Orbicella faveolata under coral tissue and under turf algae using cores that were extracted at different distances (0.5, 2.5, and 7.0 cm) from both sides of the external coral tissue-turf algae competitive boundary. We found high endolith richness as never before reported for Orbicella species. Nineteen endolith taxa were found within the O. faveolata skeleton, seven below the coral tissue zone, and twelve exclusively below the turf algae zone. Significant differences existed in the community composition, species richness, and the total abundance of endoliths in the cores that were extracted from the turf algae zone compared with those of the coral tissue zone. The endolithic community composition and species richness changed abruptly across the coral-turf algae interface, forming a clear boundary between different endolithic communities just underneath the interface between the coral tissue and turf algae zones.

  2. [Characteristics of soil denitrifying enzyme activity in riparian zones with different land use types in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang-Liang; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Chang-Ming

    2013-10-01

    By using acetylene inhibition method, this paper studied the soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) and its affecting factors in the riparian zone with different land use types (cropland riparian, forested riparian, and grassy riparian zones) in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China. The riparian soil DEA was (0.69 +/- 0.11)--(134.93 +/- 33.72) microg N x kg(-1) x h(-1), which differed obviously among different land types, with a decreasing trend of forested riparian zone > cropland riparian zone > grassy riparian zone. The soil DEA was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 0-10 cm in 10-30, 30-50, and 50-70 cm layers. There were significant positive relationships between soil DEA and soil TOC, TN, and NO(3-)-N (P < 0.01). Land use change mainly altered the soil natural structure and soil physical and chemical properties, decreased the accumulation of soil organic carbon, and affected the soil nitrogen transformation, and thus, inhibited the occurrence of riparian soil denitrification.

  3. Morphology and physical properties of soil material in cryogenic cracks of permafrost-affected meadow-chernozemic soils of the Trans-Baikal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsybenov, Yu. B.; Chimitdorzhieva, G. D.; Chimitdorzhieva, E. O.; Egorova, R. A.; Mil'kheev, E. Yu.; Davydova, T. V.; Korsunova, Ts. D.-Ts.

    2016-08-01

    Meadow-chernozemic soils (Turbic Chernozems Molliglossic) in the western Trans-Baikal Region are dissected by large cryogenic cracks penetrating to the depth of 100-120 cm and filled with humified material. The depth of humus pockets is 50-80 cm, and their width in the upper part is 50-90 cm. The lower boundary of most of the humus pockets lies at the depth of 60-70 cm. The development of cryogenic cracks proceeded due to their penetration into the frozen ground, which is evidenced by their sharply narrowing lower part. The fraction of physical clay (<0.01 mm) constitutes a considerable part of the material filling the cracks, which explains the significant humus content in this material. The contents of humus and adsorbed bases sharply decrease down through the soil profile in the soil mass between the cracks and remain relatively stable in the material filling the cracks. The soil mass in humus pockets is less compact that that in the background soil mass at the same depth, which is explained by the higher humus content in the pockets. Humified soil material in the pockets is also characterized by a higher porosity and, hence, higher water permeability than the surrounding soil mass.

  4. Repeated in vivo inguinal measurements to estimate a single optimal mesh size for inguinal herniorrhaphy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inguinal hernia is a common condition and its repair (herniorrhaphy) is one of the most commonly performed procedures in general surgery. The Lichtenstein herniorrhaphy technique is a widely used and effective surgery that uses mesh to reinforce the area of weakness. Although a wide range of mesh sizes are available for use in hernia repair, in low-resource health care settings the provision of multiple products may not be supportable and it may be necessary for the provision and use of a single mesh size. This study aimed to determine whether the recommended 7.0 cm x 15.0 cm size is an appropriate single mesh size. Methods In order to determine the optimal mesh size according to recommended surgical practices, in vivo measurements of key dimensions of the inguinal floor were taken in patients undergoing herniorrhaphy. Results Measurements were taken in 43 patients: 40 men and 3 women, mean age 43 years (SD 13.6); 39 with indirect hernias, 4 with direct. Allowing for recommended mesh overlaps, the optimal mesh size for provision to be appropriate for the majority of patients was determined to be 8.5 cm x 14.0 cm, 21% wider than the mesh size currently recommended for use in Lichtenstein herniorrhaphy. Conclusions An appropriate size for routine provision in low-resource settings, or other settings where the provision of several mesh sizes is not supportable, may be 8.5 cm x 14.0 cm. PMID:23031606

  5. Simultaneous determination of naphazoline, diphenhydramine and phenylephrine in nasal solutions by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, A F; Williner, M R; Mantovani, V E; Robles, J C; Goicoechea, H C

    2003-02-05

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method has been developed to separate and quantitate naphazoline (NAPH), dyphenhydramine (DIP) and phenylephrine (PHE) in nasal solutions. Samples were diluted 1:25 in ultrapure water and injected at the anodic end. A central composite design has been used to optimise the experimental conditions for a complete and fast separation of the active ingredients studied. Critical parameters such as voltage, pH and buffer concentration have been studied to evaluate how they affect responses such as resolution and migration times. Separation was performed on a silica capillary with 75 microm I.D. and 70 cm total length at an applied voltage of 17.7 kV with a phosphate run buffer of pH 3.72 and 0.063 mol l(-1). Calibration curves were prepared for NAPH, DIP and PHE. For each analyte, the correlation coefficients were >0.999 (n=15). The RSD% of six replicate injections for each analyte were reasonably good. The method was applied to the quantitation of the three components in a commercial dosage form. The proposed method has the advantage of needing a very simple sample pretreatment and being faster than a typical HPLC chromatographic method.

  6. Prey size selection and distance estimation in foraging adult dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Olberg, R M; Worthington, A H; Fox, J L; Bessette, C E; Loosemore, M P

    2005-09-01

    To determine whether perching dragonflies visually assess the distance to potential prey items, we presented artificial prey, glass beads suspended from fine wires, to perching dragonflies in the field. We videotaped the responses of freely foraging dragonflies (Libellula luctuosa and Sympetrum vicinum-Odonata, suborder Anisoptera) to beads ranging from 0.5 mm to 8 mm in diameter, recording whether or not the dragonflies took off after the beads, and if so, at what distance. Our results indicated that dragonflies were highly selective for bead size. Furthermore, the smaller Sympetrum preferred beads of smaller size and the larger Libellula preferred larger beads. Each species rejected beads as large or larger than their heads, even when the beads subtended the same visual angles as the smaller, attractive beads. Since bead size cannot be determined without reference to distance, we conclude that dragonflies are able to estimate the distance to potential prey items. The range over which they estimate distance is about 1 m for the larger Libellula and 70 cm for the smaller Sympetrum. The mechanism of distance estimation is unknown, but it probably includes both stereopsis and the motion parallax produced by head movements.

  7. Maize leaves turn away from neighbors.

    PubMed

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J

    2002-11-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16-23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield.

  8. The Effects of Forcing Modes on the Simulations of Tidally Generated Internal Bores and Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacsek, S.; Warn-Varnas, A.; Smolarkiewicz, P.; Martin, P.

    2008-12-01

    Numerical experiments were performed on the generation of internal waves by barotropic tidal currents flowing over strongly varying topography, such as sills in straits. The studies concentrated on two aspects of the simulations: (a) the amplitude of the generated waves as functions of tidal velocities, and (b) amplitudes obtained with different modes of forcing prescriptions, such as boundary vs. volume forcing, or analytic vs. model-generated currents. The tidal velocities were obtained from three tidal components, the M2, K1 and O1 tides, and the model currents were computed with a hydrostatic model. In the boundary-forcing approach, the current variations are prescribed as normal inflow at the respective boundaries. In the volume-forcing approach, the currents are prescribed at all interior points, with the model currents already adapted to the interior topography, but the analytic sinusoidal currents had to undergo a flux-conservation modification. Simulations over both idealized topographies, and the sills of the Luzon Strait and South China Sea were carried out. Propagation comparisons were also made with those of the "shape-preserving", analytically constructed type solitons (solutions of the KDV equation).. For tidal currents in the 10-30 cm/sec range, the generated perturbation densities typically ranged peak-to-peak from 1.6 to 3.5 kg/m3, and the vertical velocities from 25 to 70 cm/sec. The analytic solitons maintained their amplitudes during propagation better than the tidally-generated signals.

  9. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of the lowest triplet state of thymine and thymidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Patrick M.; Middleton, Chris T.; Mertel, Kristin I.; Herbert, John M.; Kohler, Bern

    2008-05-01

    Vibrational spectra of the lowest energy triplet states of thymine and its 2'-deoxyribonucleoside, thymidine, are reported for the first time. Time-resolved infrared (TRIR) difference spectra were recorded over seven decades of time from 300 fs to 3 μs using femtosecond and nanosecond pump-probe techniques. The carbonyl stretch bands in the triplet state are seen at 1603 and ˜1700 cm -1 in room-temperature acetonitrile- d3 solution. These bands and additional ones observed between 1300 and 1450 cm -1 are quenched by dissolved oxygen on a nanosecond time scale. Density-functional calculations accurately predict the difference spectrum between triplet and singlet IR absorption cross sections, confirming the peak assignments and elucidating the nature of the vibrational modes. In the triplet state, the C4 dbnd O carbonyl exhibits substantial single-bond character, explaining the large (˜70 cm -1) red shift in this vibration, relative to the singlet ground state. Femtosecond TRIR measurements unambiguously demonstrate that the triplet state is fully formed within the first 10 ps after excitation, ruling out a relaxed 1nπ ∗ state as the triplet precursor.

  10. Characterization of a PET Camera Optimized for ProstateImaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.; Qi,Jinyi; Hu, Jicun; Wang, G.C.; Wilson, David; Oh, Sang; Huesman, RonaldH.; Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2005-11-11

    We present the characterization of a positron emission tomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair of external curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis). The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access and to position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivity with patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rows of 20 HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 detectors in the camera. The individual detectors are angled in the transaxial plane to point towards the prostate to reduce resolution degradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified HRRT data acquisition electronics. Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our dedicated-prostate camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less background (less randoms and lower scatter fraction) and a lower cost. We have completed construction of the camera. Characterization data and reconstructed images of several phantoms are shown. Sensitivity of a point source in the center is 946 cps/mu Ci. Spatial resolution is 4 mm FWHM in the central region.

  11. Estimation of satellite antenna phase center offsets for Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, P.; Fritsche, M.; Dach, R.; Schmid, R.; Montenbruck, O.; Uhlemann, M.; Prange, L.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite antenna phase center offsets for the Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites are estimated by two different analysis centers based on tracking data of a global GNSS network. The mean x- and y-offsets could be determined with a precision of a few centimeters. However, daily estimates of the x-offsets of the IOV satellites show pronounced systematic effects with a peak-to-peak amplitude of up to 70 cm that depend on the orbit model and the elevation of the Sun above the orbital plane. For the IOV y-offsets, no dependence on the orbit model exists but the scatter strongly depends on the elevation of the Sun above the orbital plane. In general, these systematic effects are significantly smaller for the FOC satellites. The z-offsets of the two analysis centers agree within the 10-15 cm level, and the time series do not show systematic effects. The application of an averaged Galileo satellite antenna model obtained from the two solutions results in a reduction of orbit day boundary discontinuities by up to one third—even if an independent software package is used.

  12. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Charles W; Thatcher, Wayne; Dzurisin, Daniel; Svarc, Jerry

    2006-03-02

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed approximately 640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected approximately 1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began approximately 16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from approximately 150,000 to approximately 70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of approximately 70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system.

  13. Percutaneous Cholangioscopy in the Management of Biliary Disease: Experience in 25 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Alexandrakis, George; Kouroumalis, Helias; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C.

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: To present our experience performing percutaneous cholangioscopy in the management of 25 patients with biliary disease.Methods: During the last 3 years, 26 percutaneous cholangioscopies were performed in 25 patients with common bile duct disease (n = 16), intrahepatic ducts disease (n = 6), and gallbladder disease (n = 4). Our patient population group included seven with common bile duct stones, three with intrahepatic lithiasis, and eight with benign strictures (six iatrogenic and two postinflammatory). In four patients malignancy was to be excluded, in two the tumor extent was to be evaluated, whereas in one case the correct placement of a metallic stent needed to be controlled. A 9.9 Fr flexible endoscope URF-P (Olympus, 1.2 mm working channel, 70-cm length) was used.Results: In total, percutaneous cholangioscopy answered 30 diagnostic questions, was technically helpful in 19 cases (performing lithotripsy or biopsy or guiding a wire), and of therapeutic help in 12 (performing stone retrieval). In 24 of 26 cases the therapeutic decision and the patient management changed because of the findings or because of the help of the method. In two cases biliary intervention failed to treat the cause of the disease. No major complication due to the use of the endoscopy was noted.Conclusions: Percutaneous cholangioscopy is a very useful tool in the management of patients with biliary disease. The method can help in diagnosis, in performing complex interventional procedures, and in making or changing therapeutic decisions.

  14. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 Ce-doped Gd–Al–Ga–garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for 133Ba at 0.356 MeV, 22Na at 0.511 MeV, 137Cs at 0.662 MeV, and 60Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm2. PMID:27338392

  15. Slow dynamics at Re =108 in turbulent Helium flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, Javier; Roche, Philippe; Rousset, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    The presence of slow dynamics is a recurrent feature of many turbulent flows. This behaviour can be created by instabilities of the mean flow or by other mechanisms. In this work we analyze the behavior of a highly turbulent flow (maximum Reynolds number Re =108 , with a Reynolds based on the Taylor microscale Reλ = 2000). The experimental cell consists on a closed cavity filled with liquid Helium (330 liters) close to the lambda point (between 1.8 and 2.5 K) where two inhomogeneous and strongly turbulent flows collide in a thin region. The cylindrical cavity has a diameter of 78cm and two impellers rotate in opposite directions with rotation frequencies up to 2 Hz. The distance between the propellers is 70 cm. Different experimental runs have been performed, both in the normal and superfluid phases. We have performed velocity measurements using home-made Pitot tubes. Here we would like to present preliminary results on this configuration. The analysis of the data series reveals that below the injection frequencies there are different dynamical regimes with time scales two orders of magnitude below the injection scale. We acknowledge support from the EuHIT network and the SHREK Collaboration.

  16. High mobility amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors formed by CO2 laser spike annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chen-Yang; Zhu, Bin; Ast, Dieter G.; Greene, Raymond G.; Thompson, Michael O.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO4 (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) hold great potential for large area and flexible electronics with current research focused on improving the mobility and stability. In this work, we report on properties of IGZO TFTs fabricated using laser spike annealing (LSA) with a scanned continuous wave CO2 laser. For peak annealing temperatures near 430 °C and a 1 ms dwell, TFTs exhibit saturation field-effect mobilities above 70 cm2/V-s (Von ˜ -3 V), a value over 4 times higher than furnace-annealed control samples (˜16 cm2/V-s). A model linking oxygen deficient defect structures with limited structural relaxation after the LSA anneal is proposed to explain the observed high mobility. This mobility is also shown to be comparable to the estimated trap-free mobility in oxide semiconductors and suggests that shallow traps can be removed by transient thermal annealing under optimized conditions.

  17. Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size

    PubMed Central

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Karr, Jered A.

    2012-01-01

    Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flying insects that have high metabolic oxygen demands. Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO2) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO2 rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO2 coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects. PMID:22665762

  18. Durability of organobentonite-amended liner for decelerating chloroform transport.

    PubMed

    He, Shichong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    Chloroform is added to landfill for suppressing methane generation, which however may transport through landfill liners and lead to contamination of groundwater. To decelerate chloroform transport, the enhanced sorption ability of clay liners following organobentonite addition was tested. In this study, we used batch sorption to evaluate sorption capacity of chloroform to organobentonite, followed by column tests and model simulations for assessing durability of different liners. Results show that adding 10% CTMAB-bentonite (organobentonite synthesized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) increased the duration of a bentonite liner by 88.5%. CTMAB-bentonite consistently showed the highest sorption capacity (Qm) among six typical organobentonites under various environmental conditions. The removal rate of chloroform by CTMAB-bentonite was 3.6-23 times higher than that by natural soils. According to the results derived by model simulation, a 70-cm 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibited much better durability than a 100-cm compact clay liner (CCL) and natural bentonite liner evidenced by the delayed and lower peak of eluent concentration. A minimum thickness of 65.8 cm of the 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner could completely sorb the chloroform in a 100-m-high landfill. The 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibiting much better durability has the promise for reducing environmental risk of chloroform in landfill.

  19. Multifrequency observations of KAZ 102 during ROSAT All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treves, A.; Fink, H. H.; Malkan, M.; Maraschi, L.; Ulrich, M. H.; Brinkmann, W.; de Martino, D.; Elvis, M.; Heidt, J.; McDowell, J.

    1992-03-01

    Results of X-ray observations, ultraviolet observations with the IUE camera, and optical photometry observations carried out with a 70 cm telescope, of Kaz 102, a close by radio quiet quasar, are presented. Optical and UV observations indicated that during the X-ray monitoring the source exhibited variability of 10 percent. Comments on the X-ray variability were not made due to systematic errors. It was hoped to be able to correlate the UV and optical photometry when all the optical data of the collaboration would be analyzed, the perspective of a cross correlation with X-rays are not good, because optical data indicated a modest variability. If the X-ray variability is similar, it is doubted that systematic errors could be reduced in such a way that the variability can show up. The X-ray spectrum indicates some soft excess, which is not unexpected in the PSPC (Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) energy range. Results are compared with the Einstein 1979 data.

  20. A Microstructural View of Burrowing with Roboclam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Kerstin; Dorsch, Dan; Losert, Wolfgang; Winter, V., Amos

    2014-03-01

    Roboclam is a burrowing technology inspired by Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam. The organism only has sufficient strength to burrow a few centimeters into the soil, yet razor clams dig to over 70 cm. The animal uses motions of its valves to contract and thereby locally fluidize the surrounding soil and reduce burrowing drag. Roboclam technology is valuable for subsea applications that could benefit from efficient burrowing, such as anchoring, mine detonation, and cable laying. We directly visualize the movement of soil grains during the contraction of Roboclam, using a novel index-matching technique along with particle tracking. We show that a previously developed mechanical theory for E. directus describes the size of the failure zone around contracting Roboclam, provided that the timescale of contraction is sufficiently large. We also show that the nonaffine motions of the grains are a small fraction of the motion within the fluidized zone, affirming the relevance of a continuum model for this system, even though the grain size is comparable to the size of Roboclam.

  1. The design, testing, and performance of RoboClam, a robot inspired by the burrowing mechanisms of Atlantic razor clams (Ensis directus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Hosoi, Anette; Slocum, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    In this work we present the design, testing, and performance of RoboClam, a robot that mimics digging methods employed by the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus). Ensis is one of nature's most adept burrowing organisms, able to dig to 70cm at nearly 1cm/s using only 0.21J/cm. We have found that Ensis reduces burrowing drag by using motions of its shell to fluidize a thin layer of substrate around its body. Although these shell motions have an energetic cost, moving through fluidized rather than packed soil results in dramatically lower overall energy consumption. RoboClam was constructed to understand the limits of razor clam-inspired burrowing, how the relevant parameters scale for different environments and conditions, and how this understanding can be transferred into engineering applications. Through experimental data gathered in idealized granular, as well as real ocean substrates, we show that RoboClam exploits localized fluidization to attain nearly the same burrowing energy savings as Ensis.

  2. Localized fluidization burrowing mechanics of Ensis directus.

    PubMed

    Winter, Amos G; Deits, Robin L H; Hosoi, A E

    2012-06-15

    Muscle measurements of Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam, indicate that the organism only has sufficient strength to burrow a few centimeters into the soil, yet razor clams burrow to over 70 cm. In this paper, we show that the animal uses the motions of its valves to locally fluidize the surrounding soil and reduce burrowing drag. Substrate deformations were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a novel visualization system that enabled us to see through the soil and watch E. directus burrow in situ. PIV data, supported by soil and fluid mechanics theory, show that contraction of the valves of E. directus locally fluidizes the surrounding soil. Particle and fluid mixtures can be modeled as a Newtonian fluid with an effective viscosity based on the local void fraction. Using these models, we demonstrate that E. directus is strong enough to reach full burrow depth in fluidized soil, but not in static soil. Furthermore, we show that the method of localized fluidization reduces the amount of energy required to reach burrow depth by an order of magnitude compared with penetrating static soil, and leads to a burrowing energy that scales linearly with depth rather than with depth squared.

  3. Microstructural view of burrowing with a bioinspired digging robot.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, K N; Dorsch, D S; Losert, W; Winter, A G

    2015-10-01

    RoboClam is a burrowing technology inspired by Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam. Atlantic razor clams should only be strong enough to dig a few centimeters into the soil, yet they burrow to over 70 cm. The animal uses a clever trick to achieve this: by contracting its body, it agitates and locally fluidizes the soil, reducing the drag and energetic cost of burrowing. RoboClam technology, which is based on the digging mechanics of razor clams, may be valuable for subsea applications that could benefit from efficient burrowing, such as anchoring, mine detonation, and cable laying. We directly visualize the movement of soil grains during the contraction of RoboClam, using a novel index-matching technique along with particle tracking. We show that the size of the failure zone around contracting RoboClam can be theoretically predicted from the substrate and pore fluid properties, provided that the timescale of contraction is sufficiently large. We also show that the nonaffine motions of the grains are a small fraction of the motion within the fluidized zone, affirming the relevance of a continuum model for this system, even though the grain size is comparable to the size of RoboClam.

  4. A simple capillary electrophoresis method for the rapid separation and determination of intact low molecular weight and unfractionated heparins.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rahul P; Narkowicz, Christian; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Hilder, Emily F; Jacobson, Glenn A

    2008-01-07

    A simple, selective and accurate capillary electrophoresis (CE) method has been developed for the rapid separation and identification of various low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) and unfractionated heparin. Separation and operational parameters were investigated using dalteparin sodium as the test LMWH. The developed method used a 70 cm fused silica capillary (50 microm i.d.) with a detection window 8.5 cm from the distal end. Phosphate electrolyte (pH 3.5; 50 mM), an applied voltage of -30 k V, UV detection at 230 nm and sample injection at 20 mbar for 5s were used. The method performance was assessed in terms of linearity, selectivity, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the European Pharmacopeia LMWH standard, dalteparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium and heparin sodium with a significant reduction in the run time and increased resolution compared with previously reported CE methods. Different CE separation profiles were obtained for various LMWHs and unfractionated heparin showing significant structural diversity. The current methodology was sensitive enough to reveal minor constituent differences between two different batches of enoxaparin sodium. This CE method also clearly showed chemical changes that occurred to LMWHs under different stress conditions. The sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity of the developed method allow its application in research or manufacturing for the identification, stability analysis, characterization and monitoring of batch-to-batch consistency of different low molecular weight and unfractionated heparins.

  5. Quinoa: An emerging new crop with potential for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlick, Greg; Bubenheim, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is being considered as a new crop for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) because of its high protein values (12 - 18%) and unique amino acid composition. Lysine, and essential amino acid that is deficient in many grain crops, is found in quinoa approaching Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) standards set for humans. This 'new' crop, rich in protein and with desirable proportions of important amino acids, may provide greater versatility in meeting the needs of humans on long-term space missions. Initially, the cultivars CO407 x ISLUGA, CO407 Heat Tolerant Population 1, and Real' (a Bolivian variety) were examined. The first cultivar showed the most promise in greenhouse studies. When grown hydroponically in the greenhouse, with no attempt to maximize productivity, this cultivar produced 202 g m(exp -2) with a harvest index of 37%. None of the cultivars were greater than 70 cm in height. Initial results indicate that quinoa could be an excellent crop for CELSS because of the high concentration of protein, ease of use, versatility in preparation, and potential for greatly increased yields in controlled environments.

  6. Cobalt(II) sheet-like systems based on diacetic ligands: from subtle structural variances to different magnetic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Oscar; Pasán, Jorge; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Delgado, Fernando S; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2009-07-06

    The preparation, X-ray crystallography, and magnetic investigation of the compounds [Co(H(2)O)(2)(phda)](n) (1), [Co(phda)](n) (2), and [Co(chda)](n) (3) [H(2)phda = 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid and H(2)chda = 1,1-cyclohexanediacetic acid] are described herein. The cobalt atoms in this series are six- (1) and four-coordinated (2 and 3) in distorted octahedral (CoO(6)) and tetrahedral (CoO(4)) environments. The structures of 1-3 consists of rectangular-grids which are built up by sheets of cobalt atoms linked through anti-syn carboxylate bridges, giving rise to either a three-dimensional structure across the phenyl ring (1 and 2) or to regularly stacked layers with the cyclohexyl groups acting as organic separators (3). The magnetic properties of 1-3 were investigated as a function of the temperature and the magnetic field. Ferromagnetic coupling between the six-coordinate cobalt(II) ions across the anti-syn carboxylate bridge occurs in 1 (J = +1.2 cm(-1)) whereas antiferromagnetic coupling among the tetrahedral cobalt(II) centers within the sheets is observed in 2 and 3 [J = -1.63 (2) and -1.70 cm(-1) (3)] together with a spin-canted structure in 3 giving rise a long-range magnetic ordering (T(c) = 7.5 K).

  7. Optimization of the beam shaping assembly in the D-D neutron generators-based BNCT using the response matrix method.

    PubMed

    Kasesaz, Y; Khalafi, H; Rahmani, F

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of the Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been performed using the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code to shape the 2.45 MeV neutrons that are produced in the D-D neutron generator. Optimal design of the BSA has been chosen by considering in-air figures of merit (FOM) which consists of 70 cm Fluental as a moderator, 30 cm Pb as a reflector, 2mm (6)Li as a thermal neutron filter and 2mm Pb as a gamma filter. The neutron beam can be evaluated by in-phantom parameters, from which therapeutic gain can be derived. Direct evaluation of both set of FOMs (in-air and in-phantom) is very time consuming. In this paper a Response Matrix (RM) method has been suggested to reduce the computing time. This method is based on considering the neutron spectrum at the beam exit and calculating contribution of various dose components in phantom to calculate the Response Matrix. Results show good agreement between direct calculation and the RM method.

  8. The vibrational Stokes shift of water (HOD in D2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Pang, Yoonsoo; Dlott, Dana D.

    2004-05-01

    The vibrational Stokes shift of the OH stretching transition νOH of water is the shift between the ground-state absorption and the excited-state (v=1) emission. A recent measurement on HOD in D2O solvent [S. Woutersen and H. J. Bakker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2077 (1999)] of a 70 cm-1 redshift, and a subsequent calculation of a 57 cm-1 redshift using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations [C. P. Lawrence and J. L. Skinner, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 8847 (2002)] were in good agreement. We now report extensive measurements of the vibrational Stokes shift in HOD/D2O using an ultrafast IR pump, Raman probe method. The vibrational Stokes shift is seen to depend on the pump pulse frequency and on time delay; by varying these parameters it can be made to range from 112 to -32 cm-1 (negative values indicate a blueshift in the excited state). The equilibrium vibrational Stokes shift is actually a negative rather than a positive quantity. Possible reasons for the disagreement between experiment and theory are briefly discussed.

  9. Nested patterns in hyporheic meta-communities: the role of body morphology and penetrability of sediment.

    PubMed

    Omesová, Marie; Horsák, Michal; Helesic, Jan

    2008-10-01

    Nestedness has been regarded as a common pattern of species distribution especially in terrestrial systems and vertebrate faunas. However, a significantly lower degree of nestedness has been reported for aquatic invertebrates. We analyzed the vertical distribution patterns of taxa in the upper 70 cm of the hyporheic zone. This biotope is abundantly inhabited by epigean fauna, which is morphologically pre-adapted to life within the limited space of sediment interstices. We tested the hypotheses that in the vertical profile of the hyporheic zone sediment acts as a physical barrier (filter), allowing only the morphologically pre-adapted and adapted (i.e., smaller, narrower, more flexible) taxa to penetrate to deeper layers. We demonstrated that this mechanism can promote a strongly nested and colonization-driven pattern at higher taxa levels. The sediment filter (1) constricted the body width: 0.50 mm appeared to be the upper limit for successful sediment colonization at the study site, and (2) favored elongated taxa against small sized taxa. We tested also the assumption that distribution of fine sediment affects the accessibility of hyporheic zone for fauna ("filter density") and thereby influences nestedness. However, we found that nestedness could be sufficiently explained by the depth itself. Our study offers a possible explanation of depth patterns in hyporeic meta-communities as a result of morphological characteristics promoting nestedness at higher taxa level.

  10. Process of inorganic nitrogen transformation and design of kinetics model in the biological aerated filter reactor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Gang; Xu, Xia; Yao, Lirong; Lu, Liqiao; Zhao, Tingting; Zhang, Wenyi

    2011-04-01

    As one of the plug-flow reactors, biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor was divided into four sampling sectors to understand the characteristics of elemental nitrogen transformation during the reaction process, and then the different characteristics of elemental nitrogen transformation caused by different NH(3)-N loadings, biological quantities and activities in each section were obtained. The results showed that the total transformation ratio in the nitrifying reactor was more than 90% in the absence of any organic carbon resource, at the same time, more than 65% NH(3)-N in the influent were nitrified at the filter height of 70 cm below under the conditions of the influent runoff 9-19 L/h, the gas-water ratio 4-5:1, the dissolved oxygen 3.0-5.8 mg/L and the NH(3)-N load 0.28-0.48 kg NH(3)-N/m(3) d. On the base of the Eckenfelder mode, the kinetics equation of the NH(3)-N transformation along the reactor was S(e)=S(0) exp(-0.0134D/L(1.2612)).

  11. Microstructural view of burrowing with a bioinspired digging robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, K. N.; Dorsch, D. S.; Losert, W.; Winter, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    RoboClam is a burrowing technology inspired by Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam. Atlantic razor clams should only be strong enough to dig a few centimeters into the soil, yet they burrow to over 70 cm. The animal uses a clever trick to achieve this: by contracting its body, it agitates and locally fluidizes the soil, reducing the drag and energetic cost of burrowing. RoboClam technology, which is based on the digging mechanics of razor clams, may be valuable for subsea applications that could benefit from efficient burrowing, such as anchoring, mine detonation, and cable laying. We directly visualize the movement of soil grains during the contraction of RoboClam, using a novel index-matching technique along with particle tracking. We show that the size of the failure zone around contracting RoboClam can be theoretically predicted from the substrate and pore fluid properties, provided that the timescale of contraction is sufficiently large. We also show that the nonaffine motions of the grains are a small fraction of the motion within the fluidized zone, affirming the relevance of a continuum model for this system, even though the grain size is comparable to the size of RoboClam.

  12. Microstructural view of burrowing with a bioinspired digging robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Kerstin; Dorsch, Dan; Losert, Wolfgang; Winter, V., Amos

    RoboClam is a burrowing technology inspired by Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam. Atlantic razor clams should only be strong enough to dig a few centimeters into the soil, yet they burrow to over 70 cm. The animal uses a clever trick to achieve this: by contracting its body, it agitates and locally fluidizes the soil, reducing the drag and energetic cost of burrowing. RoboClam technology, which is based on the digging mechanics of razor clams, may be valuable for subsea applications that could benefit from efficient burrowing, such as anchoring, mine detonation, and cable laying. We directly visualize the movement of soil grains during the contraction of RoboClam, using a novel index-matching technique along with particle tracking. We show that the size of the failure zone around contracting RoboClam can be theoretically predicted from the substrate and pore fluid properties, provided that the timescale of contraction is sufficiently large. We also show that the nonaffine motions of the grains are a small fraction of the motion within the fluidized zone, affirming the relevance of a continuum model for this system, even though the grain size is comparable to the size of RoboClam.

  13. Approach to the diagnosis of sialadenosis using sialography.

    PubMed

    Ino, C; Matsuyama, K; Ino, M; Yamashita, T; Kumazawa, T

    1993-01-01

    Since parotid swelling is the most informative symptom of sialadenosis, we examined parotid swelling with sialography as a means of diagnosing sialadenosis. An X-ray was taken from a fixed position relative to the body, using a focus film distance (FFD) of 70 cm. To determine an "index" of parotid swelling, the distance between the submandibular bone ridge and the end of the main duct was measured on X-ray. After examination of 30 normal parotids, abnormal swelling was defined as an "index" exceeding 1.9 cm. Sixteen of 24 patients suspected of having sialadenosis showed swelling exceeding 1.9 cm. Six of 7 patients who were histologically diagnosed with sialadenosis showed swelling in excess of 1.9 cm. Our method is reproducible and recurrence of parotid swelling correlating with sialadenosis can be objectively demonstrated. Furthermore, serum amylase levels in patients who were diagnosed with sialadenosis were measured before and after sialography. After sialography serum amylase levels increased remarkably higher than those of normal subjects. Thus if a patient with underlying diseases has an "index" over 1.9 cm and his serum amylase level after sialography increases remarkably, a diagnosis of sialadenosis is likely.

  14. Quantification of the vertical translocation rate of soil solid-phase material by the magnetic tracer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkin, A. P.; Gennadiev, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Approaches to the quantification of the vertical translocation rate of soil solid-phase material by the magnetic tracer method have been developed; the tracer penetration depth and rate have been determined, as well as the radial distribution of the tracer in chernozems (Chernozems) and dark gray forest soils (Luvisols) of Belgorod oblast under natural steppe and forest vegetation and in arable lands under agricultural use of different durations. It has been found that the penetration depth of spherical magnetic particles (SMPs) during their 150-year-occurrence in soils of a forest plot is 68 cm under forest, 58 cm on a 100-year old plowland, and only 49 cm on a 150-year-old plowland. In the chernozems of the steppe plot, the penetration depth of SMPs exceeds the studied depth of 70 cm both under natural vegetation and on the plowlands. The penetration rates of SMPs deep into the soil vary significantly among the key plots: 0.92-1.32 mm/year on the forest plot and 1.47-1.63 mm/year on the steppe plot, probably because of the more active recent turbation activity of soil animals.

  15. On the East Australian Current: Variability, encroachment, and upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughan, Moninya; Middleton, Jason H.

    2004-07-01

    Observations from an intensive oceanographic field program which took place in 1998-1999 about the separation point of the East Australian Current (EAC) show significant spatial and temporal variability of the EAC. Upstream of the separation point, southward flowing currents are strong, with subinertial velocities of up to 130 cm s-1 in the near-surface waters, whereas downstream currents are highly variable in both strength (1-70 cm s-1) and direction. Upwelling is observed to occur through both wind-driven and current-driven processes, with wind effects playing a lesser role. By contrast, the encroachment of the EAC upon the coast has a profound effect on the coastal waters, accelerating the southward (alongshore) currents and decreasing the temperature in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) by up to 5°C. As the axis of the jet moves onshore, negative vorticity increases in association with an increase in nonlinear acceleration. During this time, bottom friction is increased, the Burger number is reduced, and the BBL shut-down time lengthens. The observed upwelling is attributed to enhanced onshore Ekman pumping through the BBL resulting from increased bottom stress as the southerly flow accelerates when the EAC encroaches across the continental shelf.

  16. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas.

  17. A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter

    2016-09-01

    A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of 12CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm-1. The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement.

  18. Geodetic surveys in Messina straits area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, P.; Achilli, V.; Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.

    1983-03-01

    By using the fit of theoretical displacements on a fault according to Mindlin and Cheng (1950) dislocation theory, the vertical deformation field (maximum subsidence of 70 cm) associated to the Dec. 28 1908 Messina M=7.0 earthquake is compared to the results of a spirit levelling survey that we performed in the Messina Straits area in 1981 1982. The differences in level from the last levelling campaign in the area, completed in 1970, show that the coastlines have undergone a moderate differential subsidence of about 1 mm/year in the last decade. This is in agreement with the trend observed around 1908 and with the data of the Messina tide-gauge relative to the period 1897 1908 and 1910 1918. The lack of data in the period 1918 1970 does not allow definite conclusions about the vertical tectonic deformations in the area. Recent data on planimetric deformations have shown a South-North relative motion of Sicily. A comparison with the theoretical displacements indicates that a pure dip-slip of 4 cm on the 1908 fault system does explain the observed vertical deformation, but not the horizontal.

  19. Design of ultrasonic attenuation sensor with focused transmitter for density measurements of a slurry in a large steel pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret Stautberg

    2015-12-01

    To design an ultrasonic sensor to measure the attenuation and density of a slurry carried by a large steel pipeline (diameter up to 70 cm) is the goal of this research. The pitch-catch attenuation sensor, placed in a small section of the pipeline, contains a send unit with a focused transducer that focuses the ultrasound to a small region of the receive unit on the opposite wall. The focused transducer consists of a section of a sphere (base ~12 cm) on the outer side of the send unit and a 500 kHz piezoelectric shell of PZT5A epoxied to it. The Rayleigh surface integral is used to calculate the pressure in steel and in water (slurry). An incremental method to plot the paths of ultrasonic rays shows that the rays focus where expected. Further, there is a region where the parallel rays are perpendicular to the wall of the receive unit. Designs for pipeline diameters of 25 cm and 71 cm show that the pressure in water at the receive transducer is about 17 times that for a pitch-catch system using 5 cm diameter disk transducers. The enhanced signal increases the sensitivity of the measurements and improves the signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Dilatant shear band formation and diagenesis in calcareous, arkosic sandstones, Vienna Basin (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Lommatzsch, Marco; Exner, Ulrike; Gier, Susanne; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines deformation bands in calcareous arkosic sands. The investigated units can be considered as an equivalent to the Matzen field in the Vienna Basin (Austria), which is one of the most productive oil reservoirs in central Europe. The outcrop exposes carbonate-free and carbonatic sediments of Badenian age separated by a normal fault. Carbonatic sediments in the hanging wall of the normal fault develop dilation bands with minor shear displacements (< 2 mm), whereas carbonate-free sediments in the footwall develop cataclastic shear bands with up to 70 cm displacement. The cataclastic shear bands show a permeability reduction up to 3 orders of magnitude and strong baffling effects in the vadose zone. Carbonatic dilation bands show a permeability reduction of 1-2 orders of magnitude and no baffling structures. We distinguished two types of deformation bands in the carbonatic units, which differ in deformation mechanisms, distribution and composition. Full-cemented bands form as dilation bands with an intense syn-kinematic calcite cementation, whereas the younger loose-cemented bands are dilatant shear bands cemented by patchy calcite and clay minerals. All analyzed bands are characterized by a porosity and permeability reduction caused by grain fracturing and cementation. The changed petrophysical properties and especially the porosity evolution are closely related to diagenetic processes driven by varying pore fluids in different diagenetic environments. The deformation band evolution and sealing capacity is controlled by the initial host rock composition. PMID:26300577

  1. Congenital solitary kidney with multiple renal arteries: case report using MDCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Matusz, Petru; Miclăuş, Graţian Dragoslav; Banciu, Christian Dragoş; Sas, Ioan; Joseph, Shamfa C; Pirtea, Laurenţiu Cornel; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    A congenital solitary kidney with multiple renal arteries is a rare congenital abnormality that can occur in the presence of multiple other anomalies. We describe an atypical case of a right congenital solitary kidney with three renal arteries (RA) one main RA and two additional renal arteries in a 75-year-old woman with uterine didelphys. The main RA had an intraluminal diameter larger than the diameter of the additional renal arteries (AdRAs) at the origin (0.53 cm for the main RA; 0.49 cm and 0.32 cm for the two AdRAs). Both the AdRAs had a greater length than the main RA (3.51 cm for the main RA; 3.70 cm and 4.77 cm for the two AdRAs). The calculated volume of the kidney was 283 cm³, while the volume of the renal parenchyma was 258 cm³. Knowledge of this variant is extremely important in clinical practice as it has been found to be associated with proteinuria, hypertension and renal insufficiency.

  2. Glass formation and Raman spectra of CaO-SiO2 glasses towards the orthosilicate limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsinas, A.; Kalampounias, A. G.; Papatheodorou, G. N.

    2016-12-01

    A series of silicate glasses formed in the binary system (1-X)CaO-XSiO2with silica mole fractions X ranging from 0.61to 0.38have been prepared using container-less aerodynamic levitation techniques and CO2-laser heating. Glasses with X<0.45were prepared for the first time but, no glass formation was possible at compositions X<0.38. Ambient temperature polarized and depolarized Raman spectra were measured for all these glasses. Qi-speciation analysis of the isotropic Raman spectra shows that near X∼0.38the predominant structures present are the SiO44- tetrahedra and the single bridged Q1species. Oxygen bridging was present at all compositions studied while at X<0.45 small amounts of free oxygen anions was present. The data are compared with the resent NMR measurements obtained with the same glass samples used in the present study. Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra were measured in low frequencies revealing the Boson peak (BP) at ∼50 and ∼70 cm-1 for the corresponding polarized and depolarized configurations. On the Stokes side the BP frequencies exhibit a fictional shift due to contributions from the low frequency vibrational modes of the glass.

  3. Low Reynolds Number Drag Alteration Inspired by Butterfly Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforte, Brent; Kronenberger, Courtney; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Biomimetics is the process of looking towards nature's adaptations for answers to today's engineering obstacles. An age-old engineering dilemma is trying to find new methods to reduce the amount of drag over a body. This research finds inspiration from butterfly scales which are hypothesized to alter surface friction over the wings. Drop testing was performed on axisymmetric, streamlined, teardrop models which were rapid-prototyped such that the surface was covered with either streamwise or transverse cavities modeled after the Monarch butterfly. The drop tank contained silicone oil with a viscosity two hundred times that of water insuring flow similarity between the model cavities (2.5 mm cavity depth) and the butterfly scale structures (about 30 microns cavity depth). A variation in Reynolds number was achieved by altering the model weight such that terminal speeds ranged from 5 to 70 cm/s. Results showed a reduction in surface friction for the transverse cavity configurations based on the roller-bearing effect. These findings suggest that the cavity shape and ratio is directly correlated to the amount of drag alteration. Funded by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  4. Determining the frequency, depth and velocity of preferential flow by high frequency soil moisture monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus; Lisson, Shaun; Doyle, Richard; Cotching, William

    2013-01-01

    Preferential flow in agricultural soils has been demonstrated to result in agrochemical mobilisation to shallow ground water. Land managers and environmental regulators need simple cost effective techniques for identifying soil - land use combinations in which preferential flow occurs. Existing techniques for identifying preferential flow have a range of limitations including; often being destructive, non in situ, small sampling volumes, or are subject to artificial boundary conditions. This study demonstrated that high frequency soil moisture monitoring using a multi-sensory capacitance probe mounted within a vertically rammed access tube, was able to determine the occurrence, depth, and wetting front velocity of preferential flow events following rainfall. Occurrence of preferential flow was not related to either rainfall intensity or rainfall amount, rather preferential flow occurred when antecedent soil moisture content was below 226 mm soil moisture storage (0-70 cm). Results indicate that high temporal frequency soil moisture monitoring may be used to identify soil type - land use combinations in which the presence of preferential flow increases the risk of shallow groundwater contamination by rapid transport of agrochemicals through the soil profile. However use of high frequency based soil moisture monitoring to determine agrochemical mobilisation risk may be limited by, inability to determine the volume of preferential flow, difficulty observing macropore flow at high antecedent soil moisture content, and creation of artificial voids during installation of access tubes in stony soils.

  5. The use of impact force as a scale parameter for the impact response of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The building block approach is currently used to design composite structures. With this approach, the data from coupon tests is scaled up to determine the design of a structure. Current standard impact tests and methods of relating test data to other structures are not generally understood and are often used improperly. A methodology is outlined for using impact force as a scale parameter for delamination damage for impacts of simple plates. Dynamic analyses were used to define ranges of plate parameters and impact parameters where quasi-static analyses are valid. These ranges include most low velocity impacts where the mass of the impacter is large and the size of the specimen is small. For large mass impacts of moderately thick (0.35 to 0.70 cm) laminates, the maximum extent of delamination damage increased with increasing impact force and decreasing specimen thickness. For large mass impact tests at a given kinetic energy, impact force and hence delamination size depends on specimen size, specimen thickness, boundary conditions, and indenter size and shape. If damage is reported in terms of impact force instead of kinetic energy, large mass test results can be applied directly to other plates of the same size.

  6. Study on lumbar kinematics and the risk of low back disorder in female university students by using shoes of different heel heights.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Rauf; De, Amitabha; Mishra, Wricha; Maulik, Shreya; Chandra, A M

    2012-01-01

    The study was taken up to investigate the effects of heel heights on lumbar kinematics and the risk of Low Back Disorder (LBD) in females. Nineteen female university students (24.5 ± 3.36 yrs) volunteered in the study. Lumbar kinematics was measured by using Industrial Lumbar Motion Monitor (iLMM). The volunteers were asked to walk for a distance of 50 meters in 3 different given conditions i.e bare foot (Heel 0), with flat heels (Heel 1) and with high heels (Heel 2). Heights of Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 1.5 ± 0.84 cm and 5.5 ± 1.70 cm respectively. The Lumbar kinematic parameters studied were- Average Twisting Velocity (ATV), Maximum Sagital Flexion (MSF) and Maximum Lateral Velocity (MLV). It was observed that all the above mentioned Lumbar kinematics - ATV, MSF and MLV increases with increase of heel heights, which in turn increases the risk of LBD. As a result of increase in Lumbar kinematic values with increase in heel heights, LBD risk has also increased. Mean and SD of the LBD risk with Heel 0, Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 16.79 ± 6.04%, 19.00 ± 7.38% and 22.11 ± 6.98% respectively. Lower stature with high heels showed higher risk of LBD than the higher stature with high heels.

  7. Characteristics of charged dust inferred from the Cassini RPWS measurements in the vicinity of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, V. V.; Ratynskaia, S.; Olson, J.; Brenning, N.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Morooka, M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Morfill, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    The data obtained by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument during the shallow (17.02.2005) and the steep (14.07.2005) crossings of the E-ring revealed a considerable electron depletion in proximity to Enceladus's orbit (the difference between the ion and electron densities can reach ˜70cm-3). Assuming that this depletion is a signature of the presence of charged dust particles, the main characteristics of dust down to submicron sized particles are derived. The differential size distribution is found to be well described by a power law with an index μ˜5.5-6 for the lower size limit amin=0.03μm and μ˜7.3-8 for amin=0.1μm. The calculated average integral dust number density is weakly affected by values of μ and amin. For a≳0.1μm, both flybys gave the maximum dust density about 0.1-0.3cm-3 in the vicinity of Enceladus. Our results imply that the dust structure near Enceladus is characterized by approximately the same vertical length scale of 8000 km and reaches a maximum at the same radial distance (displaced outward of the orbit of Enceladus) as found by Kempf et al. [2008. The E-ring in the vicinity of Enceladus. Spatial distribution and properties of the ring particles. Icarus 193, 420-437], from the dust impact data.

  8. One-step venous reconstruction using the donor's round ligament in right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Toshima, Takeo; Ikegami, Toru; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Yoshiya, Shohei; Harimoto, Norifumi; Yamashita, Yo-ichi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    We herein report the use of an opened round ligament as a venous patch graft for inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) reconstruction and anastomosis to the inferior vena cava (IVC) in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using a right-lobe (RL) graft. After laparotomy, the donor's round ligament was harvested and opened, and the semi-transparent umbilical vein, which was 7.0 cm in length and 3.0 cm in width, was carefully trimmed on the back table for use as a patch graft. The right hepatic vein of the graft was anastomosed to the harvested patch, and the IRHV was anastomosed to an independent hole made in the wall on the other side of the patch, to form a bridged vascular patch for anastomosis to the IVC. The interposition graft filled promptly and provided a good outflow from the posterior segment. This is the first report of venous reconstruction using a donor's round ligament graft in RL-LDLT.

  9. Soil retention of hexavalent chromium released from construction and demolition waste in a road-base-application scenario.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Trapp, Stefan; Astrup, Thomas F; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-11-15

    We investigated the retention of Cr(VI) in three subsoils with low organic matter content in laboratory experiments at concentration levels relevant to represent leachates from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) reused as unbound material in road construction. The retention mechanism appeared to be reduction and subsequent precipitation as Cr(III) on the soil. The reduction process was slow and in several experiments it was still proceeding at the end of the six-month experimental period. The overall retention reaction fit well with a second-order reaction governed by actual Cr(VI) concentration and reduction capacity of the soil. The experimentally determined reduction capacities and second-order kinetic parameters were used to model, for a 100-year period, the one-dimensional migration of Cr(VI) in the subsoil under a layer of C&DW. The resulting Cr(VI) concentration would be negligible below 7-70 cm depth. However, in rigid climates and with high water infiltration through the road pavement, the reduction reaction could be so slow that Cr(VI) might migrate as deep as 200 cm under the road. The reaction parameters and the model can form the basis for systematically assessing under which scenarios Cr(VI) from C&DW could lead to an environmental issue for ground- and receiving surface waters.

  10. Controllable synthesis of nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres using ionic liquids as template for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aibing; Li, Yunqian; Liu, Lei; Yu, Yifeng; Xia, Kechan; Wang, Yuying; Li, Shuhui

    2017-01-01

    We have demonstrated a facile and controllable synthesis of monodispersed nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres (N-HMCSs) using resorcinol/formaldehyde resin as a carbon precursor, tetraethyl orthosilicate as a structure-assistant agent, ionic liquids (ILs) as soft template, partial carbon sources, and nitrogen sources. The sizes and the architectures including hollow and yolk-shell of resultant carbon spheres can be efficiently controlled through the adjustment of the content of ILs. Alkyl chain length of the ILs also has an important effect on the formation of N-HMCSs. With proper alkyl chain length and content of ILs, the resultant N-HMCSs show monodispersed hollow spheres with high surface areas (up to 1158 m2 g-1), large pore volumes (up to 1.70 cm3 g-1), and uniform mesopore size (5.0 nm). Combining the hollow mesoporous structure, high porosity, large surface area, and nitrogen functionality, the as-synthesized N-HMCSs have good supercapacitor performance with good capacitance (up to 159 F g-1) and favorable capacitance retention (88% capacitive retention after 5000 cycles).

  11. Three Dimensional Characterization of the Mundrabilla Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Carpenter, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    The differentiated meteorite, Mundrabilla, exhibits a rare structure of primary kamacite/taenite, and at least 25 volume % of sulfide (troilite and daubreelite). The structure has been investigated in three dimensions using the technique of gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) with a radioactive (60)Co isotope as the source of the flux. Using CT, a 50 kg slab with dimensions 12.6 x 8.2 x approx. 70 cm has been sectioned at 1 mm intervals over 50 cm length, and the three dimensional structure is at present being evaluated. These data revealed, in addition to the metallic and troilite-rich phases, the presence and distribution of graphite-rich cones (up to 5 cm long), and small (1-2 mm), low density particles. The graphite cones are readily visible on the surfaces of many of the sections of Mundrabilla, while the smaller phases have a density (determined from CT) of approximately 2.9 g/cc, and are assumed to be silicate inclusions. CT spatial resolution is not adequate to elucidate the shapes of these particles. One can only state that they show no directionality and are equiaxed.

  12. The effect of stimulus height on visual discrimination in horses.

    PubMed

    Hall, C A; Cassaday, H J; Derrington, A M

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus height on the ability of horses to learn a simple visual discrimination task. Eight horses were trained to perform a two-choice, black/white discrimination with stimuli presented at one of two heights: ground level or at a height of 70 cm from the ground. The height at which the stimuli were presented was alternated from one session to the next. All trials within a single session were presented at the same height. The criterion for learning was four consecutive sessions of 70% correct responses. Performance was found to be better when stimuli were presented at ground level with respect to the number of trials taken to reach the criterion (P < 0.05), percentage of correct first choices (P < 0.01), and repeated errors made (P < 0.01). Thus, training horses to carry out tasks of visual discrimination could be enhanced by placing the stimuli on the ground. In addition, the results of the present study suggest that the visual appearance of ground surfaces is an important factor in both horse management and training.

  13. Study on the origin of kaolin tonsteins in North China and its processing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojie; Liu Qinfu; Li Qijun

    1998-12-31

    Kaolin Tonstein, occurring in Permo-Carboniferous Coal measures in North China, is a kind of kaolinitic clay material, which is different from that in Germany, France, Russia, US. and other European-American Countries, featuring thick-bedded, wide-spread and good quality coal. The thickness of kaolin tonsteins in North China is 70 cm or so, but that in the above-mentioned countries only 3 cm. From Hunjiang County, Jilin Province to Handan County, Gansu Province, from Huainan and Huaibei coal field to Inner Mongolia coalfield, kaolin tonstein deposits are scattered over vast areas on the North China Platform with great proved reserves of 1.6 billion tons. It is of great interest and high significance to study the mineralization mechanism of kaolin tonsteins for its processing and utilization. By means of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and organic chemistry, the origin of kaolin tonsteins has been systematically deliberated and the origin model of it has been proposed. On the basis of this, the processing technology of kaolin tonsteins has been put forward, which has been successfully employed in China.

  14. High performance thin film transistor (flex-TFT) with textured nanostructure ZnO film channel fabricated by exploiting electric double layer gate insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rishi Ram; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    We report a flexible thin film transistor (flex-TFT) fabricated on a commonly available polyimide (Kapton®) tape with a channel of highly textured nanocrystalline ZnO film grown by pulsed laser deposition. The flex-TFT with an electric double layer (EDL) gate insulator shows a low threshold for operation (Vth ≤ 1 V), an ON/OFF ratio reaching ≈107 and a subthreshold swing ≈75 mV/dec. The superior performance is enabled by a high saturation mobility (μs ≈ 70 cm2/V s) of the highly textured nanocrystalline channel. The low Vth arises from large charge density (≈1014/cm2) induced into the channel by EDL gate insulator. The large charge density induced by the EDL gate dielectric also enhances the Hall mobility in the film and brings down the sheet resistance by nearly 2 orders, which leads to large ON/OFF ratio. The flex-TFT operation can be sustained with reproducibility when the TFT is bent down to a radius of curvature ≈2 cm.

  15. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Real-time measurement of rectus femoris muscle kinematics during drop jump using ultrasound imaging: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eranki, Avinash; Cortes, Nelson; Ferencek Gregurić, Zrinka; Kim, John J; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an office based vector tissue Doppler imaging (vTDI) that can be used to quantitatively measure muscle kinematics using ultrasound. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate if vTDI measures are repeatable and can be used robustly to measure and understand the kinematics of the rectus femoris muscle during a drop jump task. Data were collected from 8 healthy volunteers. Vector TDI along with a high speed camera video was used to better understand the dynamics of the drop jump. Our results indicate that the peak resultant vector velocity of the rectus femoris immediately following landing was repeatable across trials (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.9).The peak velocity had a relatively narrow range in 6 out of 8 subjects (48-62 cm/s), while in the remaining two subjects it exceeded 70 cm/s. The entire drop jump lasted for 1.45 0.27 seconds. The waveform of muscle velocity could be used to identify different phases of the jump. Also, the movement of the ultrasound transducer holder was minimal with peak deflection of 0.91 0.54 degrees over all trials. Vector TDI can be implemented in a clinical setting using an ultrasound system with a research interface to better understand the muscle kinematics in patients with ACL injuries.

  17. Finite-fault slip model of the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma earthquake from regional waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaodan; Hartzell, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    The slip model for the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake is inferred using a linear least squares methodology. Waveforms of six aftershocks recorded at 21 regional stations are used as empirical Green's functions (EGFs). The solution indicates two large slip patches: one located around the hypocenter with a depth range of 3-5.5 km; the other located to the southwest of the epicenter with a depth range from 7.5 to 9.5 km. The total moment of the solution is estimated at 3.37 × 1024 dyne cm (Mw 5.65). The peak slip and average stress drop for the source at the hypocenter are 70 cm and 90 bars, respectively, approximately one half the values for the Mw 5.8 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake. The stress drop averaged over all areas of slip is 16 bars. The relatively low peak slip and stress drop may indicate an induced component in the origin of the Prague earthquake from deep fluid injection.

  18. Paraglacial and postglacial debris flows on a Little Ice Age terminal moraine: Jamapa Glacier, Pico de Orizaba (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, David; Parrilla, Gemma; Zamorano, Jose J.

    1999-05-01

    The study area is located on the northern face of Pico de Orizaba (Mexico, 5700 m ASL), on the terminal moraine of Jamapa Glacier, which dates from the Little Ice Age. Large debris flows are recurrent on the proglacial ramp. The comparison of lichen colonies growing on the deposits of the flows reveals that two generations of flows are present: an old one and a very recent one that occurred between 1994 and 1995. Studies were made of the sedimentologic characteristics of the flows and ground temperatures were recorded to a depth of 70 cm on the floor of the channels. Comparison of the lichen-growth on the exposed surfaces of the deposits led to the relative dating of the older debris flow, which is associated with the beginning of the retreat of the glacier and the saturation of the terminal moraine deposits by meltwater. The more recent flow has less transport capacity and is identified with the formation of an impermeable layer of permafrost that covers the bottom of the channel of the old debris flow. The permafrost layer formed when snow accumulations on the bottom of the channel were covered by ash that fell from the slopes.

  19. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-21

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm³ Ce-doped Gd-Al-Ga-garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for (133)Ba at 0.356 MeV, (22)Na at 0.511 MeV, (137)Cs at 0.662 MeV, and (60)Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm².

  20. A reevaluation of the assignment of the vibrational fundamentals and the rotational analysis of bands in the high-resolution infrared spectra of trans- and cis- 1,3,5-hexatriene

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Leyden, Matthew C.; Moore, Michael C.; Patchen, Amie K.; van den Heuvel, Titus; Blake, Thomas A.; Masiello, Tony; Sams, Robert L.

    2010-07-01

    Assignments of the vibrational fundamentals of cis- and trans-1,3,5-hexatriene are reevaluated with new infrared and Raman spectra and with quantum chemical predictions of intensities and anharmonic frequencies. The rotational structure is analyzed in the high-resolution (0.0013-0.0018 cm -1) infrared spectra of three C-type bands of the trans isomer and two C-type bands of the cis isomer. The bands for the trans isomer are at 1010.96 cm-1 (v14), 900.908 cm-1 (v16), and 683.46 cm-1 (v17). Ground state (GS) rotational constants have been fitted to the combined ground state combination differences (GSCDs) for the three bands of the trans isomer. The bands for the cis isomer are at 907.70 cm-1 (v33) and 587.89 cm-1 (v35). GS rotational constants have been fitted to the combined GSCDs for the two bands of the cis isomer and compared with those obtained from microwave spectroscopy. Small inertial defects in the GSs confirm that both molecules are planar. Upper state rotational constants were fitted for all five bands.

  1. Extreme flows and unusual water levels near a Caribbean coral reef: was this a case of a "perfect storm"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezer, Tal; Heyman, William D.; Houser, Chris; Kjerfve, Björn

    2012-07-01

    Observations of currents aimed to study the flow near a spawning aggregation reef, Gladden Spit off the coast of Belize, reveal unusually strong currents on 19-20 October 2009 (the current speed was over 1 m s-1, when the mean and standard deviation are 0.2 ± 0.12 m s-1). During this short time, the water level was raised by 60-70 cm above normal in one place, but lowered by 10-20 cm in another location just 2 km away. The temperature dropped by over 2°C within a few hours. Analyses of local and remote sensing data suggest that a rare combination of an offshore Caribbean cyclonic eddy, a short-lived local tropical storm, and a Spring tide, all occurred at the same time and creating a "perfect storm" condition that resulted in the unusual event. High-resolution simulations and momentum balance analysis demonstrate how the unique shape of the coral reef amplified the coastal current through nonlinear flow-topography interactions. The suggested mechanism for the water level change is different than the classical wind-driven storm surge process. The study has implications for the influence of external forcing on mixing processes and physical-biological interactions near coral reefs.

  2. Immediate Microsurgical Bone and Nerve Reconstruction in the Irradiated Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tursun, Ramzey; Green, J Marshall

    2016-12-11

    Microsurgical reconstructive techniques have revolutionized the treatment of large head and neck defects. These defects were once forever life altering because of the considerable morbidity to both the form and function of the patient. As time has progressed, microsurgical technique has improved dramatically and has become institutionalized in our training programs. Free flap outcomes in head and neck reconstruction have improved dramatically, and optimization of these outcomes is now key. One overlooked area has been neurosensory reconstruction. In our practice we have focused on this detail, which has proved to be quite important to the patient. This case report details one such case in which a mandibular resection was performed to treat osteoradionecrosis. We, as the reconstructive team, elected to perform a double-barrel fibular free flap procedure with simultaneous inferior alveolar nerve reconstruction using a 70-cm processed nerve allograft. Normal neurosensory function returned in this patient. As the state of the art advances with continued successful osseous and soft tissue reconstruction in the head and neck, we propose concomitant neurosensory functional reconstruction always be considered.

  3. Variability and Period Analysis for BL Lac AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Kurtanidze, O.; Liu, Y.; Liu, X.; Yang, J. H.; Richter, G. M.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Wang, H. T.; Sasada, M.; Zhou, A. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Costantin, D.

    2017-03-01

    Variability is one of the extreme observational properties of BL Lacertae objects. AO 0235+164 is a well-studied BL Lac throughout all electromagnetic wavebands. In the present work, we show its optical R-band photometric observations carried out during the period from 2006 November to 2012 December using the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. During our monitoring period, it showed a large variation of {{Δ }}R=4.88 {mag} (14.19–19.07 mag) and a short timescale of {{Δ }}{T}v=73.5 {minutes}. During the period of 2006 December to 2009 November, we made radio observations of the source using the 25 m radio telescope at Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. By adopting a discrete correlation function to the optical and radio observations we found that the optical variation leads a radio variation of 23.2 ± 12.9 days.

  4. The use of impact force as a scale parameter for the impact response of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The building block approach is currently used to design composite structures. With this approach, the data from coupon tests are scaled up to determine the design of a structure. Current standard impact tests and methods of relating test data to other structures are not generally understood and are often used improperly. A methodology is outlined for using impact force as a scale parameter for delamination damage for impacts of simple plates. Dynamic analyses were used to define ranges of plate parameters and impact parameters where quasi-static analyses are valid. These ranges include most low-velocity impacts where the mass of the impacter is large, and the size of the specimen is small. For large-mass impacts of moderately thick (0.35-0.70 cm) laminates, the maximum extent of delamination damage increased with increasing impact force and decreasing specimen thickness. For large-mass impact tests at a given kinetic energy, impact force and hence delamination size depends on specimen size, specimen thickness, boundary conditions, and indenter size and shape. If damage is reported in terms of impact force instead of kinetic energy, large-mass test results can be applied directly to other plates of the same thickness.

  5. Variation in Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Nitrifier Populations in Relation to Nitrification in Organic Soils †

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    The occurrence of heterotrophic and autotrophic nitrifiers in Pahokee muck and the role of these organisms in the ecosystem were assessed by surveying their population densities under different field conditions and by observing the relationship of these populations with aerobic bacteria and soil moisture. Heterotrophic nitrifier populations varied from 2.0 × 105 to 3.8 × 106 bacteria per cm3 of muck in surface fallow (bare) Pahokee muck during the annual cycle. This population decreased 40-fold between the surface and the 60- to 70-cm depths of soil. Similar variations were noted with autotrophic nitrifier populations. Significant correlations were found between heterotrophic nitrifiers and both soil moisture and aerobic bacteria. These relationships did not exist for the autotrophic nitrifiers. In soil that had been heated to kill the autotrophic nitrifiers, while preserving a population of the heterotrophs, and then amended with sodium acetate or ammonium sulfate or both, no nitrate or nitrite accumulated, although significant increases in heterotrophic nitrifiers were detected. In unheated control soil, nitrate plus nitrite-N increased from 14.3 to 181 μg/g of wet soil, and 48 μg of nitrite-N per g was produced. These data suggest that the autotrophic nitrifiers were the sole population responsible for nitrification in Pahokee muck. PMID:16345599

  6. From the Cover: Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Karr, Jered A.

    2012-07-01

    Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flying insects that have high metabolic oxygen demands. Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO2) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO2 rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO2 coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects.

  7. Analysis of metalliferous, organic-rich shales of Pennsylvanian age in the midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Glascock, M.D.; Cruse, A.M.; Coveney, R.M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The chemistry of Pennsylvanian-age shales has long been of interest to geologists and geochemists. Pennsylvanian-age shales in the midcontinental United States, which vary in color from light gray to pitch black, are present in a thin layer averaging 70-cm thickness over an area of {approximately}600 000 km{sup 2}. The shales were deposited during the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian periods ({approximately}291 to 302 million yr ago) when the midcontinent was covered by a shallow sea. In many instances, the shales are anomalously enriched to near-ore grade levels in a variety of heavy metals including molybdenum (ranging from 100 to 2500 ppm), zinc (ranging from 200 ppm to 3%), uranium (ranging from 50 to 1000 ppm), vanadium (ranging from 200 to 3000 ppm), selenium (ranging from 25 to 600 ppm), and others. As a result of their widespread occurrence, these metalliferous shales are of environmental concern as possible sources of heavy metals for groundwater pollution. On the other hand, some of the highly carbonaceous black shales may be beneficial as absorbers of certain environmentally toxic elements such as molybdenum, selenium, vanadium, and uranium. Finally, geochemists are interested in developing petrogenetic models to explain depositional variations of the shales because these variations reflect shifts in redox conditions combined with post-depositional alteration occurring during diagenesis. This report describes the use of neutron activation analysis for the investigation of shales.

  8. Postlarval muscle growth in fish: a DNA flow cytometric and morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Alfei, L; Maggi, F; Parvopassu, F; Bertoncello, G; De Vita, R

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of postlarval fish myotomal growth was investigated in trout (Salmo gairdneri) by means of morphometric and cytofluorometric analysis. The mechanism by which new fibres are added during postlarval growth (hyperplasia) is not fully understood. In histological cross sections these new fibres have a small diameter which give the muscle a "mosaic" appearance. One hypothesis suggested that they could be derived from the proliferative activity of satellite cells. DNA cytofluorometric analysis of nuclei suspensions obtained from trout white myotomal muscle during different developmental stages (eleutherembyronic; alevin; yearling and adult) showed a consistently low S-cytometric phase during all stage in which myofibres of small diameters were present. The percentage of such small fibres, determined by morphometric analysis, suggested that satellite cells are the proliferative population. In fact, their percentages, as determined by morphometric analysis in histological section, bear a linear relationship with the S-cytometric phase percent nuclei (R = 0.927). Only in adults (67 cm in size) there was a significant decrease in the S-cytometric phase. At this stage, in histological sections, the myotomal muscle no longer had a "mosaic" appearance because of the disappearance of the small fibres. It may, therefore, be supposed that in the cm 67 adult specimens, the proliferative population is entering the G0 phase. It is known, in fact, that muscle growth proceeds only by fibre hypertrophy in trout longer than 70 cm in length (Stickland, 1983).

  9. Estimating Lunar Pyroclastic Deposit Depth from Imaging Radar Data: Applications to Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. A.; Stacy, N. J.; Campbell, D. B.; Zisk, S. H.; Thompson, T. W.; Hawke, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits represent one of the primary anticipated sources of raw materials for future human settlements. These deposits are fine-grained volcanic debris layers produced by explosive volcanism contemporaneous with the early stage of mare infilling. There are several large regional pyroclastic units on the Moon (for example, the Aristarchus Plateau, Rima Bode, and Sulpicius Gallus formations), and numerous localized examples, which often occur as dark-halo deposits around endogenic craters (such as in the floor of Alphonsus Crater). Several regional pyroclastic deposits were studied with spectral reflectance techniques: the Aristarchus Plateau materials were found to be a relatively homogeneous blanket of iron-rich glasses. One such deposit was sampled at the Apollo 17 landing site, and was found to have ferrous oxide and titanium dioxide contents of 12 percent and 5 percent, respectively. While the areal extent of these deposits is relatively well defined from orbital photographs, their depths have been constrained only by a few studies of partially filled impact craters and by imaging radar data. A model for radar backscatter from mantled units applicable to both 70-cm and 12.6-cm wavelength radar data is presented. Depth estimates from such radar observations may be useful in planning future utilization of lunar pyroclastic deposits.

  10. Reduction of bone resorption by the application of fibrin glue in the reconstruction of the alveolar cleft.

    PubMed

    Segura-Castillo, José L; Aguirre-Camacho, Humberto; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Michel-Perez, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    A major complication in 30% to 75% of cases of surgical treatment of alveolar cleft is resorption of the bone graft. A treatment alternative is the application of fibrin glue, which has the capacity to favor the integration of the graft. The main objective of the study was to evaluate if the use of the fibrin glue reduces bone resorption when it is applied locally. The authors designed a randomized clinical trial. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1, fibrin glue; and group 2, control. Pre- and postoperative graft volume, bone density, bone quality (Lekholm and Zarb, and Norton and Gamble classifications), and postoperative complications were evaluated. The follow-up for all patients was 3 months after discharge. Twenty-seven patients were surgically treated, 13 in group 1 and 14 in group 2. Group 1 had increased graft volume compared with group 2 (64.32 cm v 21.70 cm; P < 0.0001). Bone density was higher in group 1 than in group 2 (396.57 v 245.68; P > 0.076). Bone quality was type 1, 2 and 3 and 4 in group 1. Resorption in group 2 was 62.26%; in group 1, it was 29.72% (P > 0.081). The observed complications were infection and dehiscence of sutures (P > 0.537). The authors conclude that the fibrin glue significantly diminishes bone resorption, allowing improved graft integration and quality.

  11. [Soil moisture dynamics under artificial Caragana microphylla shrub].

    PubMed

    Alamusa; Jiang, Deming; Fan, Shixiang; Luo, Yongming

    2002-12-01

    Applying the methods of deducing time series from vegetation space alignment, we analyzed the spatial and temporal variation features of soil moisture under artificial Caragana microphylla shrubs built in 1984, 1987, 1995, 1999. The results showed that affected by mechanical composition of mobile sandy dunes, the soil of sandy land was mainly composed of sandy particle, and the particles of > 0.01 mm were accounted for 97%. The withered moisture was 1.55%. The field waterhold capacity was 5.5%, and the available moisture storage was 3.95%. With the increase of the dominance of fix-sand vegetation, the moisture content of soil under artificial Caragana microphylla shrubs was decreased. The soil moisture of vegetation built in 1984 was lower than that built in 1999. The soil moisture conditions of four stages vegetation were continued depressing from April to June in a year, the lowest point presenced in June, and then gradually increased from July to October. The vertical change of soil moisture showed the tendency of increasing with soil depth. The soil moisture decreased by the degrees of early built vegetation (1984, 1987). Especially in 70 cm soil depth, the moisture content of soil decreased obviously. Caragana microphylla shrubs absorbed water and aggravated the shortage of soil moisture content near the root system, which affected the component of vegetation in Caragana microphylla shrubs. The species of herbaceous plants and annual plants increased during the growth of Caragana microphylla shrub.

  12. In vitro percutaneous absorption of tenoxicam from pressure-sensitive adhesive matrices across the hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Gwak, H S; Chun, I K

    2001-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of developing a new tenoxicam plaster, the effects of vehicles and penetration enhancers on the in vitro permeation of tenoxicam from a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) matrices across the dorsal hairless mouse skin were studied. Vehicles employed in this study were propylene glycol (PG)-oleyl alcohol (OAI), PG-oleic acid (OA), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME)-propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) cosolvents with/without fatty acids. In this study, amines such as triethanolamine (TEA) and tromethamine (TM) were additionally used as a solubilizer. Among PSAs used, Duro-Tak 87-2510 showed much higher release rate than either Duro-Tak 87-2100 or Duro-Tak 87-2196. The relatively high flux rate was obtained with the formulation of DGME-PGML (40:60, v/v) with 3% OA and 5% TM, and the flux increased as a function of the dose; the initial flux up to 12 h was 4.98 +/- 1.38 microg/cm2/h at the tenoxicam dose of 50 mg/70 cm2. This flux was much higher than that of a commercial piroxicam patch (Trast) (1.24 +/- 0.73 microg/ cm2/hr) with almost only one-third that of the commercial patch. Therefore, these observations indicated that these composition of tenoxicam plaster may be practically applicable.

  13. Laboratory study of TLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, P.; Van Deursen, A.; Ebert, U.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are high-altitude kilometre-scale electrical discharges that happen above thundercloud. Pilot systems are pre-breakdown phenomena that usually attributed to stepped leader development. In Eindhoven University of Technology we investigate meter-scale laboratory discharges looking for similarities with natural lightning and its related phenomena. Negative lightning possesses step-like propagation behaviour which is associated with space leader formation in front of its main leader. Meter-scale laboratory sparks also develop via formation of a space stem that transforms into a pilot system and finally develops into a space leader in longer gaps. With ns-fast photography we investigated the pilot system formation and found striking similarities with high-altitude sprites. But sprites are different in size, environment and polarity. Laboratory pilot barely reaches 70 cm and develops in STP air, while high-altitude sprites reaches ionosphere stretching for dozens of kilometres. Also sprites are assumed to be of opposite to the pilot polarity. Besides that, the pilots are directly involved in x-ray generation in long laboratory sparks. The detailed pilot system development process will be shown, in particular focusing on similarities with natural sprites. Basic properties of the x-ray emission will be presented and discussed.

  14. Seasonal variability of soil-gas radon concentration in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, C.-Y.; Minissale, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured by the track-etch method in 60 shallow holes, each 70 cm deep and supported by a capped plastic tube, along several major faults in central California during 1975-1985. This set of data was analyzed to investigate the seasonal variability of soil-gas radon concentration in an area which has various geological conditions but similar climate. The results show several different patterns of seasonal variations, but all of which can be largely attributed to the water-saturation and moisture-retention characteristics of the shallow part of the soil. During the rainy winter and spring seasons, radon tended to be confined underground by the water-saturated surface soil which had much reduced gas permeability, while during the sunny summer and autumn seasons, it exhaled more readily as the soil became drier and more permeable. At several sites located on creeping faults, the radon-variation patterns changed with time, possibly because of disturbance of site condition by fault movement. ?? 1994.

  15. The importance of densitometric testing in the evaluation of regenerated bone during long bone lengthening by the Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Abdulwahab; Faflik, Jakub; Bik, Krzysztof

    2002-06-30

    Background. Lengthening a long bone by cutting it surgically and then stretching it a process laden with numerous complications. Among the greatest threats is surely the insufficient support strength of the lengthening limb due to inadequate calcification of the newly generated bone tissue. This leads to fractures, distortion of the axis, or lack of osseous consolidation around the newly formed bone. In order to reduce the number of such complications constant diligent monitoring of the entire process is necessary, from the moment treatment is commenced until the distraction apparatus is removed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of densitometric testing at various stages in the process of lengthening long bones.
    Material and method. The testing involved 17 children, in 20 limbs were lengthened by the Ilizarov method. The average shortening was 4,70 cm (range 3,5-13 cm). the article compares the results of density assessments of regenerated bone using ultrasonographic testing and densitometry.
    Conclusions. Densinometric testing constitutes an important supplement to the evaluation of regenerated bone. This is an easy test to perform and repeat, enabling the physician to evaluate the degree of mineralization of the regenerated bone, reach conclusions regarding its consolidation and mechanical strength, and make a decision regarding the removal of the external stabilizer.

  16. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products.

  17. Source complexity of the 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake from the inversion of strong motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Iida, M.

    1990-01-01

    Strong motion records for the Whittier Narrows earthquake are inverted to obtain the history of slip. Both constant rupture velocity models and variable rupture velocity models are considered. The results show a complex rupture process within a relatively small source volume, with at least four separate concentrations of slip. Two sources are associated with the hypocenter, the larger having a slip of 55-90 cm, depending on the rupture model. These sources have a radius of approximately 2-3 km and are ringed by a region of reduced slip. The aftershocks fall within this low slip annulus. Other sources with slips from 40 to 70 cm each ring the central source region and the aftershock pattern. All the sources are predominantly thrust, although some minor right-lateral strike-slip motion is seen. The overall dimensions of the Whittier earthquake from the strong motion inversions is 10 km long (along the strike) and 6 km wide (down the dip). The preferred dip is 30?? and the preferred average rupture velocity is 2.5 km/s. Moment estimates range from 7.4 to 10.0 ?? 1024 dyn cm, depending on the rupture model. -Authors

  18. Determining the frequency, depth and velocity of preferential flow by high frequency soil moisture monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardie, Marcus; Lisson, Shaun; Doyle, Richard; Cotching, William

    2013-01-01

    Preferential flow in agricultural soils has been demonstrated to result in agrochemical mobilisation to shallow ground water. Land managers and environmental regulators need simple cost effective techniques for identifying soil - land use combinations in which preferential flow occurs. Existing techniques for identifying preferential flow have a range of limitations including; often being destructive, non in situ, small sampling volumes, or are subject to artificial boundary conditions. This study demonstrated that high frequency soil moisture monitoring using a multi-sensory capacitance probe mounted within a vertically rammed access tube, was able to determine the occurrence, depth, and wetting front velocity of preferential flow events following rainfall. Occurrence of preferential flow was not related to either rainfall intensity or rainfall amount, rather preferential flow occurred when antecedent soil moisture content was below 226 mm soil moisture storage (0-70 cm). Results indicate that high temporal frequency soil moisture monitoring may be used to identify soil type - land use combinations in which the presence of preferential flow increases the risk of shallow groundwater contamination by rapid transport of agrochemicals through the soil profile. However use of high frequency based soil moisture monitoring to determine agrochemical mobilisation risk may be limited by, inability to determine the volume of preferential flow, difficulty observing macropore flow at high antecedent soil moisture content, and creation of artificial voids during installation of access tubes in stony soils.

  19. Dark gray soils on two-layered deposits in the north of Tambov Plain: Agroecology, properties, and diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidelman, F. R.; Nikiforova, A. S.; Stepantsova, L. V.; Volokhina, V. P.

    2012-05-01

    Dark gray soils in the Tambov Plain are developed from the light-textured glaciofluvial deposits underlain by the calcareous loam. Their morphology, water regime, and productivity are determined by the depth of the slightly permeable calcareous loamy layer, relief, and the degree of gleyzation. The light texture of the upper layer is responsible for its weak structure, high density, the low content of productive moisture, and the low water-holding capacity. If the calcareous loam is at a depth of 100-130 cm, dark gray soils are formed; if it lies at a depth of 40-70 cm, temporary perched water appears in the profile, and dark gray contact-gleyed soils are formed. Their characteristic pedofeatures are skeletans in the upper layers, calcareous nodules in the loamy clay layer, and iron nodules in the podzolized humus and podzolic horizons. The appearance of Fe-Mn concretions is related to gleyzation. The high yield of winter cereals is shown to be produced on the dark gray soils; the yields of spring crops are less stable. Spring cereals should not be grown on the contact-gleyed dark gray soils.

  20. Panoramic dental radiography image intensification employing minification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    Panoramic dental x-ray machine wherein an x-ray source-camera assembly orbits a seated patient is described. A slot in the camera assembly collimates the x-rays which are continuously generated by the x-ray source, which x-rays are converted to light images of the patient's dental arch structure by only a single intensifying screen which remains stationary. This screen comprises about 1/40 the area of conventional intensifying screens and is made thicker for providing improved detection efficiency. A fiber optic minifying lens reduces the size of the image from the screen while proportionately increasing the light intensity of the image, thus making it possible to provide useable film images at reduced x-ray exposures due to non-linear film exposure versus optical density characteristics. The resultant minified, light-intensified image may now be recorded on 35 mm roll film, for example, as opposed to standard radiographic film of 5'' X 12'' size, or 12.70 cm X 30.48 cm.

  1. Low-frequency spectra of the hexamethylbenzene/tetracyanoethylene electron donor-acceptor complexes in solution studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Kabir, Md Humayun; Hayashi, Michitoshi; Tominaga, Keisuke

    2005-05-07

    We have measured the frequency dependent extinction coefficients and refractive indices of electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes consisting of hexamethylbenzene (HMB; electron donor) and tetracyanoethylene (TCNE; electron acceptor) in the low-frequency region by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). A mixture of the 1:1 (DA) and 2:1 (D2A) EDA complexes exist in carbon tetrachloride solution, and we successfully obtained the spectral components of the 1:1 and 2:1 EDA complexes separately by analyzing the concentration dependence of the THz spectra. The 1:1 and 2:1 complexes show quite different THz spectra of the extinction coefficient, reflecting unique features of dynamics, fluctuations and intermolecular interactions of these complexes. Polarization-selective THz-TDS on the crystalline DA complex shows two peaks at 53 and 70 cm(-1) in the spectral component perpendicular to the crystal axis. On the other hand, the crystalline D2A complex exhibits peaks at 42 and 50 cm(-1) in the perpendicular spectral component. We compare the obtained spectra of the crystalline complex and the results of molecular orbital calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) level of theory to discuss the intermolecular vibrational modes of the complexes.

  2. Impact Cratering Physics al Large Planetary Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2007-06-01

    Present understanding of the physics controlling formation of ˜10^3 km diameter, multi-ringed impact structures on planets were derived from the ideas of Scripps oceanographer, W. Van Dorn, University of London's, W, Murray, and, Caltech's, D. O'Keefe who modeled the vertical oscillations (gravity and elasticity restoring forces) of shock-induced melt and damaged rock within the transient crater immediately after the downward propagating hemispheric shock has processed rock (both lining, and substantially below, the transient cavity crater). The resulting very large surface wave displacements produce the characteristic concentric, multi-ringed basins, as stored energy is radiated away and also dissipated upon inducing further cracking. Initial calculational description, of the above oscillation scenario, has focused upon on properly predicting the resulting density of cracks, and, their orientations. A new numerical version of the Ashby--Sammis crack damage model is coupled to an existing shock hydrodynamics code to predict impact induced damage distributions in a series of 15--70 cm rock targets from high speed impact experiments for a range of impactor type and velocity. These are compared to results of crack damage distributions induced in crustal rocks with small arms impactors and mapped ultrasonically in recent Caltech experiments (Ai and Ahrens, 2006).

  3. Local 3-D Toroidal Plasma Tomography Using the Phillips-Tikhonov Regularization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Junghee; Choe, Wonho

    2008-11-01

    Tomography is one of a powerful diagnostic method for obtaining the local information from the line-integrated plasma emission in fusion devices. The 3-D tomography is a complicated task compared to the 2-D tomography. Because of the limitation of the spatial distribution of the array detectors around a torus, the regularization algorithm such as the Phillips-Tikhonov method is advantageous to achieve more reliable reconstruction. In this work, we performed a feasibility study of 3-D tomography for toroidal plasmas. Four tangentially-viewing array detectors of each array consisting of 16x16 detector elements were assumed to be implemented. The reconstruction area is configured as 70 cm x 50 cm of poloidal cross-section and 40 toroidal layers, which has spatial resolution of 5 cm. We chose the phantoms which are KSTAR plasma-like profiles combined with the equilibrium flux surfaces with n = 0, 1, 2, 3 modes. The change of the emission peak in each layer in the reconstruction result agrees reasonably well with that of the phantom, with relative error of 5 - 10 %.

  4. Geologic implications and potential hazards of scour depressions on bering shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Nelson, H.; Thor, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Flat-bottomed depression 50-150 m in diameter and 60-80 cm deep occur in the floor of Norton Sound, Bering Sea. These large erosional bedforms and associated current ripples are found in areas where sediment grain size is 0.063-0.044 mm (4-4.5 ??), speeds of bottom currents are greatest (20-30 cm/s mean speeds under nonstorm conditions, 70 cm/s during typical storms), circulation of water is constricted by major topographic shoals (kilometers in scale), and small-scale topographic disruptions, such as ice gouges, occur locally on slopes of shoals. These local obstructions on shoals appear to disrupt currents, causing separation of flow and generating eddies that produce large-scale scour. Offshore artificial structures also may disrupt bottom currents in these same areas and have the potential to generate turbulence and induce extensive scour in the area of disrupted flow. The size and character of natural scour depressions in areas of ice gouging suggest that large-scale regions of scour may develop from enlargement of local scour sites around pilings, platforms, or pipelines. Consequently, loss of substrate support for pipelines and gravity structures is possible during frequent autumn storms. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  5. Determination of vanillin in vanilla perfumes and air by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Minematsu, Saaya; Xuan, Guang-Shan; Wu, Xing-Zheng

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated capillary electrophoretic detection of vanillin in vanilla perfume and air. An UV-absorbance detector was used in a home-made capillary electrophoretic instrument. A fused silica capillary (outer diameter: 364 μm, inner diameter: 50 μm) was used as a separation capillary, and a high electric voltage (20 kV) was applied across the two ends of the capillary. Total length of the capillary was 70 cm, and the effective length was 55 cm. Experimental results showed that the vanillin peak was detected at about 600, 450, and 500 seconds when pH of running buffers in CE were 7.2, 9.3, and 11.5, respectively. The peak area of vanillin was proportional to its concentration in the range of 0-10(-2) mol/L. The detection limit was about 10(-5) mol/L. Vanillin concentration in a 1% vanilla perfume sample was determined to be about 3×10(-4) mol/L, agreed well with that obtained by a HPLC method. Furthermore, determination of vanillin in air by combination of CE and active carbon adsorption method was investigated.

  6. Modification of the Fox method to predict maximum oxygen uptake in female university students of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed to develop a simple method, i.e. the modified Fox test protocol (MFT) to predict VO2(max) in female sedentary university students of Kolkata, India. One hundred and eleven (111) healthy untrained female students of the University of Calcutta (mean age, body height and body mass of 22.76 ± 1.72 years, 163.52 ± 4.70 cm and 53.03 ± 3.78 kg, respectively) were randomly sampled for the study. They were further randomly divided into the study group (n = 60) and confirmatory group (n = 51). Direct estimation of the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2(max)) comprised an incremental bicycle exercise followed by expired gas analysis by the Scholander micro-gas analyzer. The submaximal heart rate (HR(sub)) was measured at the completion of five min of exercise at 110W workload. HR(sub) exhibited significant negative correlation (r = -0.87, P < 0.001) with VO2(max). Application of the computed norm in the confirmatory group depicted insignificant difference between VO2(max) and predicted VO2(max) or PVO2(max). Limits of agreement between PVO2(max) and VO2(max) were substantially small. The standard error of estimate of the norm was also substantially small. From the present study, MFT is recommended for application in the sedentary female university students for accurate and reliable assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of VO2(max).

  7. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0–10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40–50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60–70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment. PMID:26840453

  8. A Search for Neutrinos from the Solar hep Reaction and the DiffuseSupernova Neutrino Background with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Anthony, A.E.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive,A.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boulay, M.G.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chen,X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress,F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Drouin,P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Evans,H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway,R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jagam,P.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Krueger, A.; Kraus,C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.Lawson.I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin,R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis,K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Nickel, B.G.; Noble, A.J.; Norman,E.B.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O'Keeffe, H.M.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser,S.M.; Ott, R.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Sims, C.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van Berg, R.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue,C.J.; Walker, T.J.; Wall, B.L.; Waller, D.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark,D.L.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters,J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2006-08-01

    A search has been made for neutrinos from the hep reactionin the Sun and from the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB)using data collected during the first operational phase of the SudburyNeutrino Observatory, with an exposure of 0.65 kilotonne-years. For thehep neutrino search, two events are observed in the effective electronenergy range of 14.3 MeV70 cm-2-1 is inferred at the 90 percent confidence level.This is an improvement by a factor of 6.5 on the previous best upperlimit on the hep neutrino flux and by two orders of magnitude on theprevious upper limit on the nu e component of the DSNB flux.

  9. Preparation and characterization of glass fibers - polymers (epoxy) bars (GFRP) reinforced concrete for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkjk, Saeed; Jabra, Rafee; Alkhater, Salem

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents some of the results from a large experimental program undertaken at the Department of Civil Engineering of Damascus University. The project aims to study the ability to reinforce and strengthen the concrete by bars from Epoxy polymer reinforced with glass fibers (GFRP) and compared with reinforce concrete by steel bars in terms of mechanical properties. Five diameters of GFRP bars, and steel bars (4mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm) tested on tensile strength tests. The test shown that GFRP bars need tensile strength more than steel bars. The concrete beams measuring (15cm wide × 15cm deep × and 70cm long) reinforced by GFRP with 0.5 vol.% ratio, then the concrete beams reinforced by steel with 0.89 vol.% ratio. The concrete beams tested on deflection test. The test shown that beams which reinforced by GFRP has higher deflection resistance, than beams which reinforced by steel. Which give more advantage to reinforced concrete by GFRP.

  10. Different Modes of Turbulence in the Active Regions of the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, L. V.; Kostik, R. I.; Cheremnykh, O. K.

    In work the range of different methods for the analysis of characteristics of turbulent processes in the active regions of the solar photosphere has been used. The changes of fluctuations distribution function and its moments were analyzed, spectral analysis was carried out.It was found out from the observations of active region carried out with the 70-cm vacuum tower telescope VTT in Isanie (Tenerife Island, Spain) that the turbulent processes in the sun photosphere are characterized by two different spectra of turbulence. The first one of them is well known Kolmohorov spectrum, which describes the plasma with zero mean magnetic field. The second one is the Kraichnan spectrum with a different from zero mean magnetic field. Transition from one spectrum type to another one occurs at scale of 3 Mm.We have to note that the scale 3 Mm corresponds to one of mesogranulation and testifies about non-zero mean magnetic fields for the consideration of regions exceeding the granulation in active regions of the photosphere. Besides, this clears the possibility of appearance of selforganizing magnetic plasma structures such as spots, active regions and complexes of activity.

  11. International Summer Schools "Rozhen" and Their Role in Astronomy Education for Students and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, V.

    2010-09-01

    For the past seven years teachers and students from different European countries have attended the International summer schools at the National Astronomical Observatory "Rozhen", Bulgaria. During the schools there is a cycle of theoretical astronomy education, a series of practical tasks and a rich observational program. In the observational program, whose completion is the primary task of the students, two professional telescopes are used - a 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope and a 60 cm telescope - together with astronomers from the National astronomical observatory. During the completion of the program, the students become familiar with the work of astronomers, they learn how to work with observational equipment, astronomical software for controlling CCD cameras and for image processing. The students make astrometric observations of comets and asteroids, they observe extrasolar planets, supernovas, star clusters, galaxies and nebulae with the goal to prepare a student Messier catalogue; they observe Saturn, Jupiter and its satellites, and the Moon, with the goal to register short-term lunar phenomena. The intensive training during the international astronomical observing summer schools contributes to the enrichment of the astronomical knowledge of the participants and the development of their skills in working with observing equipment and analytical software. A significant success of the schools is the large percentage of student-participants who continue their careers in the field of astronomy.

  12. Automated Quantitative Spectral Classification of Stars in Areas of the main Meridional Section of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvelidze, Teimuraz; Malyuto, Valeri

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative spectral classification of F, G and K stars with the 70-cm telescope of the Ambastumani Astrophysical Observatory in areas of the main meridional section of the Galaxy, and for which proper motion data are available, has been performed. Fundamental parameters have been obtained for several hundred stars. Space densities of stars of different spectral types, the stellar luminosity function and the relationships between the kinematics and metallicity of stars have been studied. The results have confirmed and completed the conclusions made on the basis of some previous spectroscopic and photometric surveys. Many plates have been obtained for other important directions in the sky: the Kapteyn areas, the Galactic anticentre, the main meridional section of the Galaxy and etc. Very rich collection of photographic objective spectral plates (30,000 were accumulated during last 60 years) is available at Abastumani Observatory-wavelength range 3900-4900 A, about 2A resolution. Availability of new devices for automatic registration of spectra from photographic plates as well as some recently developed classification techniques may allow now to create a modern system of automatic spectral classification and with expension of classification techniques to additional types (B-A, M spectral classes). The data can be treated with the same quantitative method applied here. This method may also be applied to other available and future spectroscopic data of similar resolution, notably that obtained with large format CCD detectors on Schmidt-type telescopes.

  13. Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) onboard Rosetta/Philae: Tests with ice particles as comet analog materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, Alberto; Krüger, Harald; Loose, Alexander; Albin, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

    2014-09-01

    In 2014 the European Space Agency's spacecraft Rosetta will encounter the short-period comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta carries the lander spacecraft Philae on board which will attempt to land on the comet's nucleus. Amongst Philae's instruments, the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) using piezoelectric sensors is aimed at measuring the physical properties (size and impact speed) of the millimetric and submillimetric dust and ice particles that move near the surface of comet 67P. Given that DIM has three orthogonal sensor sides (with about 70 cm2) total area), it will also be able to collect dynamical data, like an estimation of the particle flux in three dimension, that will help to derive daily and secular variations in the surface activity. We show the results of a series of calibration experiments with the goal to extend the performance tests of DIM. We tested DIM under particle impacts of densities similar to and larger than that of water ice (0.92-7.80 g/cm3) and at speeds from 0.3 to 1.9 m/s. Then, we performed experiments with spherical water ice particles between -40 °C and -20 °C. Finally, we measured the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the impacting particles. These data show that there is a loss mechanism in the impact which is caused by plastic deformation in the contact zones of both the impinging particle and the PZT sensor.

  14. Mechanical Design of a Heavy Ion Beam Dump for the RIA Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Conner, D L

    2005-04-28

    The RIA fragmentation line requires a beam stop for the primary beam downstream of the first dipole magnet. The beam may consist of U, Ca, Sn, Kr, or O ions. with a variety of power densities. The configuration with highest power density is for the U beam, with a spot size of 3 cm x 3 cm and a total power of up to 300 kW. The mechanical design of the dump that meets these criteria consists of a 70 cm diameter aluminum wheel with water coolant channels. A hollow drive shaft supplies the coolant water and connects the wheel to an electrical motor located in an adjacent air space. The beam strikes the wheel along the outer perimeter and passes through a thin window of aluminum where 15% of its power is absorbed and the remainder of the beam is absorbed in flowing water behind the window. Rotation of the wheel at 400 RPM results in maximum aluminum temperatures below 100 C and acceptably low thermal stresses of 3 ksi. Rotating the wheel also results in low radiation damage levels by spreading the damage out over the whole perimeter of the wheel. For some of the other beams, a stationary dump consisting of a thin aluminum window with water acting as a coolant and absorber appears to be feasible.

  15. The Quickest, Lowest-cost Lunar Resource Assessment Program: Integrated High-tech Earth-based Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1992-01-01

    Science and technology applications for the Moon have not fully kept pace with technical advancements in sensor development and analytical information extraction capabilities. Appropriate unanswered questions for the Moon abound, but until recently there has been little motivation to link sophisticated technical capabilities with specific measurement and analysis projects. Over the last decade enormous technical progress has been made in the development of (1) CCD photometric array detectors; (2) visible to near-infrared imaging spectrometers; (3)infrared spectroscopy; (4) high-resolution dual-polarization radar imaging at 3.5, 12, and 70 cm; and equally important (5) data analysis and information extraction techniques using compact powerful computers. Parts of each of these have been tested separately, but there has been no programmatic effort to develop and optimize instruments to meet lunar science and resource assessment needs (e.g., specific wavelength range, resolution, etc.) nor to coordinate activities so that the symbiotic relation between different kinds of data can be fully realized. No single type of remotely acquired data completely characterizes the lunar environment, but there has been little opportunity for integration of diverse advanced sensor data for the Moon. Two examples of technology concepts for lunar measurements are given. Using VIS/near-IR spectroscopy, the mineral composition of surface material can be derived from visible and near-infrared radiation reflected from the surface. The surface and subsurface scattering properties of the Moon can be analyzed using radar backscattering imaging.

  16. The Infrared Imaging Surveyor (Iris) Project: Astro-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibai, H.

    IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) is the first Japanese satellite dedicated solely to infrared astronomy. The telescope has 70-cm aperture, and is cooled down to 6 K with super-fluid helium assisted by two-stage Stirling cycle coolers. On the focal plane, the two instruments, the InfraRed Camera (IRC) and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), are mounted. IRC is a near- and mid-infrared camera for deep imaging-surveys in the wavelength region from 2 to 25 microns. FIS is a far-infrared instrument for a whole sky survey in the wavelength region from 50 to 200 microns. The diffraction-limited spatial resolution is achieved except in the shortest waveband. The point source sensitivity and the survey coverage are significantly improved compared to previous missions. The primary scientific objective is to investigate birth and evolution of galaxies in the early universe by surveys of young normal galaxies and starburst galaxies. IRIS is thrown by a Japanese M-V rocket into a sun-synchronous orbit, in which the cooled telescope can avoid huge emissions from the Sun and the Earth. The expected holding time of the super-fluid helium is more than one year. After consumption of the helium, the near-infrared observation can be continued by the mechanical coolers

  17. Dilatant shear band formation and diagenesis in calcareous, arkosic sandstones, Vienna Basin (Austria).

    PubMed

    Lommatzsch, Marco; Exner, Ulrike; Gier, Susanne; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines deformation bands in calcareous arkosic sands. The investigated units can be considered as an equivalent to the Matzen field in the Vienna Basin (Austria), which is one of the most productive oil reservoirs in central Europe. The outcrop exposes carbonate-free and carbonatic sediments of Badenian age separated by a normal fault. Carbonatic sediments in the hanging wall of the normal fault develop dilation bands with minor shear displacements (< 2 mm), whereas carbonate-free sediments in the footwall develop cataclastic shear bands with up to 70 cm displacement. The cataclastic shear bands show a permeability reduction up to 3 orders of magnitude and strong baffling effects in the vadose zone. Carbonatic dilation bands show a permeability reduction of 1-2 orders of magnitude and no baffling structures. We distinguished two types of deformation bands in the carbonatic units, which differ in deformation mechanisms, distribution and composition. Full-cemented bands form as dilation bands with an intense syn-kinematic calcite cementation, whereas the younger loose-cemented bands are dilatant shear bands cemented by patchy calcite and clay minerals. All analyzed bands are characterized by a porosity and permeability reduction caused by grain fracturing and cementation. The changed petrophysical properties and especially the porosity evolution are closely related to diagenetic processes driven by varying pore fluids in different diagenetic environments. The deformation band evolution and sealing capacity is controlled by the initial host rock composition.

  18. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avşar, Ulaş; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Avşar, Özgür; Schmidt, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Earthquake-triggered landslides amplify erosion rates in catchments, i.e., catchment response (CR) to seismic shocks. In addition to historical eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers implying CRs after large earthquakes, several studies have quantitatively reported increased sediment concentrations in rivers after earthquakes. However, only a few paleolimnological studies could detect CRs within lacustrine sedimentary sequences as siliciclastic-enriched intercalations within background sedimentation. Since siliciclastic-enriched intercalations can easily be of nonseismic origin, their temporal correlation with nearby earthquakes is crucial to assign a seismic triggering mechanism. In most cases, either uncertainties in dating methods or the lack of recent seismic activity has prevented reliable temporal correlations, making the seismic origin of observed sedimentary events questionable. Here we attempt to remove this question mark by presenting sedimentary traces of CRs in the 370-year-long varved sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ~20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations, while CRs seem only to be triggered by PGA levels higher than 70 cm/s2. In Köyceğiz Lake, CRs produce Cr- and Ni-enriched sedimentation due to the seismically mobilized soils derived from ultramafic rocks in the catchment. Given the varve chronology, the residence time of the seismically mobilized material in the catchment is determined to be 5 to 10 years.

  19. Dissociation energies of six NO2 isotopologues by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and zero point energy of some triatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Michalski, G; Jost, R; Sugny, D; Joyeux, M; Thiemens, M

    2004-10-15

    We have measured the rotationless photodissociation threshold of six isotopologues of NO2 containing 14N, 15N, 16O, and 18O isotopes using laser induced fluorescence detection and jet cooled NO2 (to avoid rotational congestion). For each isotopologue, the spectrum is very dense below the dissociation energy while fluorescence disappears abruptly above it. The six dissociation energies ranged from 25 128.56 cm(-1) for 14N16O2 to 25 171.80 cm(-1) for 15N18O2. The zero point energy for the NO2 isotopologues was determined from experimental vibrational energies, application of the Dunham expansion, and from canonical perturbation theory using several potential energy surfaces. Using the experimentally determined dissociation energies and the calculated zero point energies of the parent NO2 isotopologue and of the NO product(s) we determined that there is a common De = 26 051.17+/-0.70 cm(-1) using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The canonical perturbation theory was then used to calculate the zero point energy of all stable isotopologues of SO2, CO2, and O3, which are compared with previous determinations.

  20. Short- and long-term sedimentation on Montportail Brouage intertidal mudflat, Marennes Oléron Bay (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouleau, D.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Weber, O.; Sauriau, P. G.

    2000-09-01

    deposit, easily resuspended by wave action. 210Pbexc measurements showed a long-term sedimentation rate which was 4 times higher in the lower part (0.97 cm yr -1) of the mudflat (near oyster reefs and mussel "bouchots") than in the upper part (0.26 cm yr -1). In the middle mudflat, ridges and runnels exhibited a large difference of the long-term sedimentation rates, 0.70 cm yr -1 on ridges and only 0.07 cm yr -1 in runnels, that could be considered as a passageway for fluid mud transport. In the middle mudflat, where ridges and runnels occured, synopsis of observations indicated that a 30 yr old and 18 cm thick ridge layed on a more than 100 yr old basement mudflat. This bedform is maintened through short- and long-term sedimentations. In the runnels, always flooded by water even at low tide, the short-term sedimentation was 21.04 cm yr -1, but these sediments can be easily resuspended by tidal currents, inducing a weak long-term sedimentation (0.07 cm yr -1). In the ridges, the short-term sedimentation was 7.27 cm yr -1; however, due to potential impacts of drying processes, along biostabilization by epipelic diatoms during subaerial exposure at low tide, the short-term sedimentation contributed to a long-term sedimentation of 0.70 cm yr -1.

  1. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function1 2

    PubMed Central

    Leksrisompong, N.; Romero-Sanchez, H.; Oviedo-Rondón, E. O.; Brake, J.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen-day egg production in combination with 10.4 cm/pullet rearing but not with 7.0 cm/pullet rearing space. In a similar manner, hen mortality was greater in the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female feeder space combination that the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination. PMID:24864293

  2. Comparative Metagenomic Analysis Of Microbial Communities From Active Layer And Permafrost After Short-Term Thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chauhan, A.; Saarunya, G.; Murphy, J.; Williams, D.; Layton, A. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Sanders, R.; Lau, C. M.; myneni, S.; Phelps, T. J.; Fountain, A. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    .Permafrost areas occupy 20-25% of the Earth and extend of 1 km depths. The total number of prokaryotes and their biomass in cold regions are estimated to be 1 x 1030 cells and 140 x1015 g of C, respectively. Thus these environments serve as a reservoir of microbial and biogeochemical activity, which is likely to increase upon thawing. We are currently performing long-term thawing experiments at 4o C on 18, geochemically well-characterized, 1 meter long, intact cores consisting of active-layer (0-70 cm depth) and permafrost, collected from a 7 meter diameter ice-wedge polygon located at the McGill Arctic Research Station on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. The organic carbon content of these cores averages ~1% at depth but increases to 5.4% in the top 10 cm. The cores were subdivided into four treatment groups: saturated cores (thawed while receiving artificial rain), drained cores (being thawed under natural hydrological conditions), dark cores (thawed under natural hydrological conditions with no light input) and control cores (maintain permafrost table at 70 cm depth). Over the course of 10 weeks the cores were progressively thawed from -4oC to 4oC from the top down to simulate spring thaw conditions in the Arctic. The temperatures at 5 cm, 35 cm, 65 cm, and below the permafrost table in the core were recorded continuously. Pore water and gas samples from 4 depths in each core were collected every two weeks and analyzed for pH, anions, cations, H2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, CO2 and δ13C of CO2. Headspace gas samples were collected weekly and analyzed for the same gases as the pore gases. Sediment sub-samples from the 4 depths were collected and total community genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated using FastDNA SPIN kit followed by Qiagen column purification. The average yield of gDNA was ~3.5 μg/g of soil for the upper 5 cm active layers and decreased to ~1.5 μg/g of soil in the permafrost. The bacterial 16S copy numbers estimated by real-time quantitative PCR

  3. Depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed (Late Duckmantian), Eastern Kentucky, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    More than 3800 coal thickness measurements, proximate analyses from 97 localities, and stratigraphic and sedimentological analyses from more than 300 outcrops and cores were used in conjunction with previously reported palynological and petrographic studies to map individual benches of the coal and document bench-scale variability in the Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed across a 1860 km2 area of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The bench architecture of the Fire Clay coal bed consists of uncommon leader benches, a persistent but variable lower bench, a widespread, and generally thick upper bench, and local, variable rider benches. Rheotrophic conditions are inferred for the leader benches and lower bench based on sedimentological associations, mixed palynomorph assemblages, locally common cannel coal layers, and generally high ash yields. The lower bench consistently exhibits vertical variability in petrography and palynology that reflects changing trophic conditions as topographic depressions infilled. Infilling also led to unconfined flooding and ultimately the drowning of the lower bench mire. The drowned mire was covered by an air-fall volcanic-ash deposit, which produced the characteristic flint clay parting. The extent and uniform thickness of the parting suggests that the ash layer was deposited in water on a relatively flat surface without a thick canopy or extensive standing vegetation across most of the study area. Ash deposits led to regional ponding and establishment of a second planar mire. Because the topography had become a broadly uniform, nutrient-rich surface, upper-bench peats became widespread with large areas of the mire distant to clastic sources. Vertical sections of thick (> 70 cm), low-ash yield, upper coal bench show a common palynomorph change from arborescent lycopod dominance upward to fern and densospore-producing, small lycopod dominance, inferred as a shift from planar to ombrotrophic mire phases. Domed mires appear to have been

  4. Predicted Canopy Height Retrieval Errors for the ICESat-2 mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.; Peterson, B.; Nelson, R.

    2010-12-01

    Plans are underway at NASA to launch the ICESat-2 (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimeter in late 2015. While ICESat-2 is primarily designed to monitor changes in the cryosphere, it will also collect data over much of the Earth’s vegetated surfaces. ICESat-2 will be a photon-counting laser ranging system that requires not only new technology to collect the measurements but also new analysis techniques to extract information from the data. Under the current configuration, ICESat-2 will be collecting photon ranging information along 9 cross-track beams arranged in 3 sets of three triplets. The triplets, or 3-beam clusters, will be spaced approximately three kilometers apart, and within each triplet the 3 beams will be spaced 45-60 m apart. Combined with the satellite velocity and laser pulse repetition frequency, the satellite moves along-track approximately 70 cm, the next pulse is emitted, and photons collected. Effectively, photons from 10 m diameter footprints are collected every 70 cm along-track, building up a collection of laser photons that have reflected preferentially from the target relative to the ambient noise level. It is noted, however, that this mission is in design phase and that the characteristics described in this paper may change. Due to budget constraints, some of these changes may be significant. The new instrument design presents new challenges for collecting data specific to vegetation height. The ecosystem science goal for ICESat-2 is the production of a global vegetation height surface with 3 m accuracy at a 1 km resolution. Because ICESat-2 will utilize new laser detection technology, airborne photon counting data sets were used to assess whether this design will meet the mission science goals. Airborne data were collected over two forest types: an open coniferous forest in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and a dense broadleaf forest in the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Maryland. The airborne data were

  5. A hillslope scale comparison of tree species influence on soil moisture dynamics and runoff processes during intense rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Georg; Schume, Helmut; Hager, Herbert; Markart, Gerhard; Kohl, Bernhard

    2012-02-01

    SummaryThis study investigates how different tree species influence soil hydrological properties that are relevant for the rainfall-runoff response of a given soil type. We hypothesize that for the same soil type, tree species that differ in rooting system, water consumption and associated soil fauna and soil flora lead to different soil moisture dynamics and lateral flow processes during rainfall and hence to different runoff responses. To test this hypothesis, we compare soil moisture patterns and interflow at different soil depths in a Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst) forest and in a European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forest during sprinkling experiments on two 6 × 10 m hillslope segments with the same soil type. Spruce with a shallow rooting system and sinkers that remain very shallow on poorly aerated soils and beech with a heart shaped, often deeper rooting system are two of the most important tree species in Central Europe. At each hillslope, volumetric soil water contents were measured in 6 min intervals with 48 TDR waveguides during and after sprinkling with intensities of 100 mm/h and 60 mm/h (for 1 h). The waveguides were installed in 12 soil pits, whereby a single soil pit consisted of four 20 cm buriable waveguides installed in 10 cm, 30 cm, 50 cm and 70 cm soil depth. Surface and shallow interflow at 10 cm soil depth and interflow at soil depths of 30 cm and 60 cm was automatically recorded. Despite the high rainfall intensities, no surface flow was observed in any of the experiments and only small amounts of shallow interflow were measured. Soil moisture patterns of lateral cross sections during and after the sprinkling reveal how tree species can alter runoff dynamics: under spruce, coinciding with rooting patterns, a water table develops in approximately 30 cm soil depth while the soil water content in 50 and 70 cm depth remains low. At the beech site, where coarse roots are found in deeper soil horizons, more water is directed towards

  6. Design for a compact CW atom laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Erik; Raithel, Georg

    2011-05-01

    We present a design for a compact continuous-wave atom laser on a chip. A 2D spiral-shaped quadrupole guide is formed by two 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm wires carrying 5 A each embedded in a Si wafer; a 1.5 mm × 0.5 mm wire on the bottom layer carries -10 A, producing a horizontal B-field that pushes the guiding channel center above the chip surface. The center-to-center separation between the top wires is varied from 1.6 mm at the start of the guide to 1 mm at the end, decreasing the guide height from ~ 500 μm to ~ 25 μm above the surface as the atoms travel the 70 cm-long guide. The magnetic gradient of the guiding channel gradually increases from ~ 100 G /cm to ~ 930 G /cm . These features result in continuous surface adsorption evaporative cooling and progressive magnetic compression. Spin flip losses are mitigated by a solenoid sewn around the guide to produce a longitudinal B-field. 87Rb atoms are gravitationally loaded into the guide. A far off-resonant light shift barrier at the end of the guide traps the atoms and allows formation of a BEC. Tuning the barrier height to create a non-zero tunneling rate equal to the loading rate completes the implementation of a CW atom laser. Two options for atom interferometry are implemented on the first-generation chip (matter-wave Fabry-Perot interferometer and guide-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer). Current construction status and challenges will be discussed, along with preliminary results.

  7. A System for Simple Real-Time Anastomotic Failure Detection and Wireless Blood Flow Monitoring in the Lower Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Rothfuss, Michael A.; Franconi, Nicholas G.; Unadkat, Jignesh V.; Gimbel, Michael L.; STAR, Alexander; Mickle, Marlin H.

    2016-01-01

    Current totally implantable wireless blood flow monitors are large and cannot operate alongside nearby monitors. To alleviate the problems with the current monitors, we developed a system to monitor blood flow wirelessly, with a simple and easily interpretable real-time output. To the best of our knowledge, the implanted electronics are the smallest in reported literature, which reduces bio-burden. Calibration was performed across realistic physiological flow ranges using a syringe pump. The device’s sensors connected directly to the bilateral femoral veins of swine. For each 1 min, blood flow was monitored, then, an occlusion was introduced, and then, the occlusion was removed to resume flow. Each vein of four pigs was monitored four times, totaling 32 data collections. The implant measured 1.70 cm3 without battery/encapsulation. Across its calibrated range, including equipment tolerances, the relative error is less than ±5% above 8 mL/min and between −0.8% and +1.2% at its largest calibrated flow rate, which to the best of our knowledge is the lowest reported in the literature across the measured calibration range. The average standard deviation of the flow waveform amplitude was three times greater than that of no-flow. Establishing the relative amplitude for the flow and no-flow waveforms was found necessary, particularly for noise modulated Doppler signals. Its size and accuracy, compared with other microcontroller-equipped totally implantable monitors, make it a good candidate for future tether-free free flap monitoring studies. PMID:27730016

  8. Effects of the bench shirt on sagittal bar path.

    PubMed

    Silver, Tobin; Fortenbaugh, Dave; Williams, Ryan

    2009-07-01

    Powerlifting, like many sports, uses specialized equipment to enhance performance and decrease the chance of injury. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine whether wearing a bench press shirt would alter the natural mechanics of the bench press, causing a more efficient lift when pressing the same weight as without the bench shirt. Participants (n = 5) completed 2 series of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press tests, with 1 week of rest in between 1 series without the bench shirt (no-shirt), and 1 series with a bench shirt (bench shirt). Results revealed that the vertical bar path ranges were significantly less in the bench shirt condition (35.7 +/- 4.8 cm) compared with the no-shirt condition (40.2 +/- 7.0 cm) (p < 0.05). Significant differences were found between the bar's optimal (81.4 +/- 14.2 cm) and observed (96.7 +/- 19.1 cm) total distances traveled in the no-shirt condition (p < 0.01), but no significant differences were found between the bar's optimal (71.6 +/- 12.7 cm) and observed (86.3 +/- 10.5 cm) total distances traveled in the bench shirt condition. These findings suggest that the bar path in bench shirt trials is more efficient and consistent than in the no-shirt trials. This pattern demonstrates that a bench shirt can improve load capacity. It is also possible that the bench shirt decreases the forces that act on the shoulder for a given weight and, thus, may decrease the risk of injury.

  9. The ICESat-2 Mission: Concept, Pre-Launch Activities, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Tom; Csatho, Beata M.

    2011-01-01

    Ice sheet and sea level changes have been explicitly identified as a priority in the President's Climate Change Science Program, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the 4th Assessment Report of the IPee and other national and international policy documents. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for launch in early 2016. The primary aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea-ice thickness change, and ice sheet elevation changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet as established by ICES at. In contrast to ICES at, ICESat-2 will employ a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. The current concept uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; equivalent to 70 cm on the ground) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure range using approximately 532nm (green) light. The concept will enable the generation of seasonal maps of ice sheet elevation of Greenland and Antarctica, monthly maps of sea ice thickness of the polar ocean, a dense map of land elevation (2 km track spacing at the equator after two years) enabling the determination of canopy height, as well as ocean heights. While the mission has been optimized for cryospheric science and vast amount of high precision elevation measurements taken over land and over the ocean as well as of the atmosphere will provide scientists with a wealth of opportunities to explore the utility of ICESat-2. Those will range from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land use changes and more. The presentation will review the measurement concept and physical principles of ICESat-2, current and planned activities to assess instrument performance and develop geophysical algorithms, as well as potential opportunities outside the main objectives of ICESat-2.

  10. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn.

    PubMed

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR (P < 0.05) and greater rest time (10.2 and 7.8 h/day in SAMM and STLM, respectively). The RT did not differ (38.89 ± 0.29 and 38.88 ± 0.33°C in STLM and SAMM r,espectively). In conclusion, our research suggests that the cooling system using fans plus misters with mild wetting in rest areas with sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  11. Dust Impact Monitor DIM onboard Rosetta/Philae: Laboratory Calibration with Impact Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, H.; Ossowski, T.; Seidensticker, K.; Apathy, I.; Fischer, H.-H.; Hirn, A.; Jünemann, M.; Loose, A.; Peter, A.; Sperl, M.

    2011-10-01

    The Rosetta lander spacecraft Philae, which will land on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko in late 2014, is equipped with the Dust Impact Monitor instrument (DIM). The DIM sensor, which is part of the SESAME instrument package [Seidensticker et al., 2007], consists of three piezoelectric detectors, each one mounted on the outer side of a cube facing in three orthogonal directions. The total sensor area is approximately 70 cm2. DIM will measure impacts of sub-millimeter and millimeter sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma by the escaping gas flow. A grain-size dependent fraction of the emitted grains is expected to fall back to the nucleus surface due to gravity. DIM will be able to detect both these components, the backfalling particles as well as the grains hitting the detector on direct trajectories from the surface. With DIM we will be able to measure fluxes, impact directions as well as the speed and size of the impacting cometary particles. Two particle acceleration devices for impact calibration experiments are presently available at Max- Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung (MPS), Katlenburg-Lindau: With (a) a dedicated dropping device and (b) a small air gun we can simulate impacts with particles of different materials (steel, glass, ruby, polyethylen, etc.), radii between 0.2 and 1mm and impact speeds up to 2msec-1. We have performed a large number of impact experiments with two flight spare units of the DIM sensor at MPS. We present the results from our impact experiments and discuss their implications for the calibration of the DIM flight instrument.

  12. The Dust Impact Monitor on board the Rosetta Lander PHILAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Harald; Seidensticker, Klaus; Apathy, Istvan; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Hetzel, Mareike; Hirn, Attila; Loose, Alexander; Peter, Attila; Podolak, Morris

    The Rosetta spacecraft -launched in 2004 -carries the lander spacecraft PHILAE on board which is supposed to land on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. The instrument package SESAME is one of the scientific instruments on board PHILAE. The main objectives of SESAME are measurements of the mechanical and electrical properties of the cometary surface and sub-surface material as well as measurements of ice and dust particles emitted from the nucleus. The Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) is a subinstrument of SESAME and is mounted on PHILAE's balcony. The DIM sensor consists of three piezoelectric detectors, each one mounted on the outer side of a cube facing in orthogonal directions (the direction normal to the nucleus surface and two horizontal directions) so that information on the impact direction of the particles can be obtained. The total sensor area of all three detectors is approximately 70cm2 . DIM measures impacts of sub-millimeter and millimeter sized particles. Ice and dust particles emitted from the nucleus couple to the cometary gas flow and are accelerated away from the nucleus surface. Depending on particle size, a fraction of the emitted grains falls back to the surface after some time due to gravity while the rest is being ejected into the cometary coma. DIM will be able to detect these backfalling particles (with its sensor pointing normal to the nucleus surface) as well as grains leaving the nucleus on direct trajectories (with the two sensors facing in horizontal directions). The DIM instrument will measure dust fluxes, impact directions as well speed and size of the impacting particles. We are performing a laboratory calibration program by simulating particle impacts on the sensors and we are presenting our preliminary results from these laboratory experiments.

  13. Effect of Pressure-Induced Changes in the Ionization Equilibria of Buffers on Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gayán, Elisa; Condón, Santiago; Álvarez, Ignacio; Nabakabaya, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Survival rates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus after high-pressure treatment in buffers that had large or small reaction volumes (ΔV°), and which therefore underwent large or small changes in pH under pressure, were compared. At a low buffer concentration of 0.005 M, survival was, as expected, better in MOPS (morpholinepropanesulfonic acid), HEPES, and Tris, whose ΔV° values are approximately 5.0 to 7.0 cm3 mol−1, than in phosphate or dimethyl glutarate (DMG), whose ΔV° values are about −25 cm3 mol−1. However, at a concentration of 0.1 M, survival was unexpectedly better in phosphate and DMG than in MOPS, HEPES, or Tris. This was because the baroprotective effect of phosphate and DMG increased much more rapidly with increasing concentration than it did with MOPS, HEPES, or Tris. Further comparisons of survival in solutions of salts expected to cause large electrostriction effects (Na2SO4 and CaCl2) and those causing lower electrostriction (NaCl and KCl) were made. The salts with divalent ions were protective at much lower concentrations than salts with monovalent ions. Buffers and salts both protected against transient membrane disruption in E. coli, but the molar concentrations necessary for membrane protection were much lower for phosphate and Na2SO4 than for HEPES and NaCl. Possible protective mechanisms discussed include effects of electrolytes on water compressibility and kosmotropic and specific ion effects. The results of this systematic study will be of considerable practical significance in studies of pressure inactivation of microbes under defined conditions but also raise important fundamental questions regarding the mechanisms of baroprotection by ionic solutes. PMID:23624471

  14. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with a Gas-Cooled System: Initial Clinical Results with 107 Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ziemlewicz, Timothy J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Alexander, Marci L.; Agarwal, Parul; Lee, Fred T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively review the results of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment with a high-power, gas-cooled, multiantenna-capable microwave device. Materials and Methods A total of 107 HCCs in 75 patients (65 men) with a mean age of 61 years (range, 44–82 y) were treated via percutaneous approach. Combination microwave ablation and transarterial chemoembolization was performed for 22 tumors in 19 patients with tumors larger than 4 cm (n = 10), tumors larger than 3 cm with ill-defined margins (n = 7), or lesions not identified with ultrasonography (n = 5). Mean tumor size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.5–4.2 cm), with median follow-up of 14 months, for ablation alone; compared with 3.7 cm (range, 1.0–7.0 cm) and 12 months, respectively, for combination therapy. All procedures were performed with a single microwave system (Certus 140) with one to three 17-gauge antennas. Results Mean ablation time was 5.3 minutes (range, 1–11.5 min). All treatments were considered technically successful in a single session. Primary technique effectiveness rates were 91.6% (98 of 107) overall, 93.7% (89 of 95) for tumors 4 cm or smaller, and 75.0% (nine of 12) for tumors larger than 4 cm; and 91.8% (78 of 85) for ablation alone and 90.9% (20 of 22) for combination therapy. There was no major complication or procedure-related mortality. The overall survival rate was 76.0% at a median 14-month clinical follow-up, with most deaths related to end-stage liver disease (n = 11) or multifocal HCC (n = 5). Conclusions Treating HCC with a gas-cooled, multiantenna-capable microwave ablation device is safe, with promising treatment effectiveness. PMID:25446425

  15. Diatoms as an aid in identifying late-holocene tsunami deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill-Haley, E.

    1996-01-01

    Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) help identify the onshore deposits of tsunamis from earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone along the Pacific coast of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, and on faults high in the North American plate in the Puget Sound area of Washington. At the Copalis River, Washington, diatom analyses suggest that a tsunami deposit about 300 calendric years old (300 yr BP) originated from sandy shoals of the lower estuary rather than nearby beaches or coastal dunes. At Cultus Bay and West Point, Washington, well-preserved benthic estuarine diatoms in sand sheets overlying tidal-marsh peat indicate that the deposits came from intertidal or nearshore areas of Puget Sound. On an abruptly uplifted mudflat at the landward end of Hood Canal at Lynch Cove, Washington, tidal-flat diatoms refute the possibility of a terrestrial source for the sand. Diatoms in 300- yr-BP tsunami deposits on the Niawiakum River, Washington, confirm that the sand in these deposits had a marine source, and help to identify the landward extent of tsunami inundation. Diatom assemblages in deposits of the 300 yr BP and AD 1964 tsunamis at Port Alberni. British Columbia, consist of different dominant taxa, but both indicate that the sand units originated from Alberni Inlet. Diatoms add to stratigraphic evidence that tsunamis flooded Bradley Lake, a freshwater lake on the south-central Oregon coast, three times during the past 1700 years. Planktonic marine diatoms only found above 1-70-cm- thick sand layers in otherwise claycy lacustrine sediment imply tsunami inundation.

  16. Nitrogen-isotope analysis of groundwater nitrate in carbonate aquifers: Natural sources versus human pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitler, Charles W.; Browning, Lawrence A.

    1983-02-01

    Results of nitrogen-isotope analyses of nitrate in the waters of the Cretaceous Edwards aquifer in Texas, U.S.A., indicate that the source of the nitrate is naturally-occurring nitrogen compounds in the recharge streams. In contrast, nitrogen isotopes of nitrate in the fresh waters of the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation on Grand Cayman Island, West Indies, indicate that human wastes are the source of the nitrate. The Cretaceous Edwards Limestone is a prolific aquifer that produces principally from fracture porosity along the Balcones Fault Zone. Recharge is primarily by streams crossing the fault zone. Rainfall is ˜ 70 cm yr. -1, and the water table is generally deeper than 30 m below land surface. The δ15 N of 73 samples of nitrate from Edwards waters ranged from + 1.9 to + 10‰ with an average of + 6.2‰. This δ15 N range is within the range of nitrate in surface water in the recharge streams ( δ 15N range = + 1 to + 8.3‰ ) and within the range of nitrate in surface water from the Colorado River, Texas, ( δ 15N range = + 1 to + 11‰ ). No sample was found to be enriched in 15N, which would suggest the presence of nitrate from animal waste ( δ 15N range = + 10 to + 22‰ ). The Ironshore Formation contains a small freshwater lens that is recharged entirely by percolation through the soil. Average rainfall is 165 cm yr. -1, and the water table is within 3 m of land surface. The δ15 N of four nitrate samples from water samples of the Ironshore Formation ranged from + 18 to + 23.9‰, which indicates a cesspool/septictank source of the nitrate. Limestone aquifers in humid environments that are recharged by percolation through the soil appear to be more susceptible to contamination by septic tanks than are aquifers in subhumid environments that feature thick unsaturated sections and are recharged by streams.

  17. Defining the Location of the Adductor Canal Using Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wan Yi; Bjørn, Siska; Strid, Jennie Maria Christin; Børglum, Jens; Bendtsen, Thomas Fichtner

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives The precise location of the adductor canal remains controversial among anesthesiologists. In numerous studies of the analgesic effect of the so-called adductor canal block for total knee arthroplasty, the needle insertion point has been the midpoint of the thigh, determined as the midpoint between the anterior superior iliac spine and base of patella. “Adductor canal block” may be a misnomer for an approach that is actually an injection into the femoral triangle, a “femoral triangle block.” This block probably has a different analgesic effect compared with an injection into the adductor canal. We sought to determine the exact location of the adductor canal using ultrasound and relate it to the midpoint of the thigh. Methods Twenty-two volunteers were examined using ultrasound. The proximal end of the adductor canal was identified where the medial border of the sartorius muscle intersects the medial border of the adductor longus muscle. The distal end of the adductor canal is the adductor hiatus, which was also visualized ultrasonographically. Results The mean distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the midpoint of the thigh was 22.9 cm (range, 20.3–24.9 cm). The mean distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the proximal end of the adductor canal was 27.4 cm (range, 24.0–31.4 cm). Consequently, the mean distance from the midpoint of the thigh to the proximal end of the adductor canal was 4.6 cm (range, 2.3–7.0 cm). Conclusions In all volunteers, the midpoint of the thigh was proximal to the beginning of the adductor canal, suggesting that an injection performed at this level is in fact a femoral triangle block. PMID:28002228

  18. Measuring Total Surface Moisture with the COSMOS Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrisman, B. B.; Zreda, M.; Franz, T. E.; Rosolem, R.

    2012-12-01

    The COSMOS rover is the mobile application of the cosmic-ray soil moisture probe. By quantifying the relative amount of the hydrogen molecules within the instrument's support volume (~335 m radius in air, 10-70 cm depth in soil) the instrument makes an area-average surface moisture measurement. We call this measurement "total surface moisture". Quantifying hydrogen in all major stocks (soils, infrastructure, vegetation, and water vapor) allows for an isolation of the volumetric fraction of the exchangeable surface moisture. By isolating the hydrogen molecule we can measure the exchangeable surface moisture over all land cover types including those with built-up infrastructure and dense vegetation; two environments which have been challenging to existing technologies. . The cosmic-ray rover has the capability to improve hydrologic, climate, and weather models by parameterizing the exchangeable surface moisture status over complex landscapes. It can also fill a gap in the verification and development processes of surface moisture satellite missions, such as SMOS and SMAP. In our current research program, 2D transects are produced twice a week and 3D maps are produced once a week during the 2012 monsoon season (July-September) within the Tucson Basin. The 40 km x 40 km area includes four land cover classes; developed, scrub (natural Sonoran Desert), crops, and evergreen forest. The different land cover types show significant differences in their surface moisture behavior with irrigation acting as the largest controlling factor in the developed and crop areas. In addition we investigated the use of the cosmic-ray rover data to verify/compare with satellite derived soil moisture. A Maximum Entropy model is being used to create soil moisture profiles from shallow surface measurements (SMOS data). With the cosmic-ray penetration depth and weighting function known, the satellite measurement can be interpolated, weighted and compared with the cosmic-ray measurement when the

  19. Swimming performance studies on the eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis, a close relative of the tunas (family Scombridae) I. Energetics.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, C A; Dickson, K A; Graham, J B

    2003-08-01

    A large swim tunnel respirometer was used to quantify the swimming energetics of the eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis (tribe Sardini) (45-50 cm fork length, FL) at speeds between 50 and 120 cm s(-1) and at 18+/-2 degrees C. The bonito rate of oxygen uptake ((O(2)))-speed function is U-shaped with a minimum (O(2)) at 60 cm s(-1), an exponential increase in (O(2)) with increased speed, and an elevated increase in (O(2)) at 50 cm s(-1) where bonito swimming is unstable. The onset of unstable swimming occurs at speeds predicted by calculation of the minimum speed for bonito hydrostatic equilibrium (1.2 FL s(-1)). The optimum swimming speed (U(opt)) for the bonito at 18+/-2 degrees C is approximately 70 cm s(-1) (1.4 FL s(-1)) and the gross cost of transport at U(opt) is 0.27 J N(-1) m(-1). The mean standard metabolic rate (SMR), determined by extrapolating swimming (O(2)) to zero speed, is 107+/-22 mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1). Plasma lactate determinations at different phases of the experiment showed that capture and handling increased anaerobic metabolism, but plasma lactate concentration returned to pre-experiment levels over the course of the swimming tests. When adjustments are made for differences in temperature, bonito net swimming costs are similar to those of similar-sized yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (tribe Thunnini), but the bonito has a significantly lower SMR. Because bonitos are the sister group to tunas, this finding suggests that the elevated SMR of the tunas is an autapomorphic trait of the Thunnini.

  20. A System for Simple Real-Time Anastomotic Failure Detection and Wireless Blood Flow Monitoring in the Lower Limbs.

    PubMed

    Rothfuss, Michael A; Franconi, Nicholas G; Unadkat, Jignesh V; Gimbel, Michael L; Star, Alexander; Mickle, Marlin H; Sejdic, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    Current totally implantable wireless blood flow monitors are large and cannot operate alongside nearby monitors. To alleviate the problems with the current monitors, we developed a system to monitor blood flow wirelessly, with a simple and easily interpretable real-time output. To the best of our knowledge, the implanted electronics are the smallest in reported literature, which reduces bio-burden. Calibration was performed across realistic physiological flow ranges using a syringe pump. The device's sensors connected directly to the bilateral femoral veins of swine. For each 1 min, blood flow was monitored, then, an occlusion was introduced, and then, the occlusion was removed to resume flow. Each vein of four pigs was monitored four times, totaling 32 data collections. The implant measured 1.70 cm3 without battery/encapsulation. Across its calibrated range, including equipment tolerances, the relative error is less than ±5% above 8 mL/min and between -0.8% and +1.2% at its largest calibrated flow rate, which to the best of our knowledge is the lowest reported in the literature across the measured calibration range. The average standard deviation of the flow waveform amplitude was three times greater than that of no-flow. Establishing the relative amplitude for the flow and no-flow waveforms was found necessary, particularly for noise modulated Doppler signals. Its size and accuracy, compared with other microcontroller-equipped totally implantable monitors, make it a good candidate for future tether-free free flap monitoring studies.

  1. On-line two-dimensional capillary strong anion exchange/reversed phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for comprehensive lipid analysis.

    PubMed

    Bang, Dae Young; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2013-10-04

    An on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was developed for comprehensive lipid profiling by coupling strong anion exchange (SAX) and nanoflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography (nRPLC) prior to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-SAX/nRPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Lipids can be classified into four different types according to the electrical propensities of the lipids: anionic, weak anionic, neutral polar, and special lipids. In 2D-SAX/nRPLC, various lipids can be fractionated in the first dimension (SAX: 5 μm to 100 Å, 5.0 cm × 75 μm i.d.) by step elution (methanol and salt solution), followed by the molecular separation of lipids in the second dimension (RP: 3 μm to 100 Å, 7.0 cm × 75 μm i.d.) with binary gradient LC. Since the elution of lipids from SAX can be achieved with a very small volume of eluent delivered from an autosampler, it can be simply implemented with an LC-ESI-MS instrument for full automation, and the salt step elution, including the two-step injection procedure, can be used for the selective analysis of the desired lipid fraction. For nRPLC-ESI-MS/MS run in either positive or negative ion mode, a common ionization modifier (0.05% ammonium hydroxide with 5mM ammonium formate) was introduced into the binary mobile phase solutions so that 2D-LC-MS could be operated in both ion modes without changing the mobile phase solutions. The developed on-line 2D-SAX/nRPLC-ESI-MS/MS was evaluated with 22 different standard lipids for the optimization of the salt step elution and was applied to a healthy human plasma lipid extract, resulting in the identification of a total of 303 plasma lipids, including 14 different classes.

  2. Active-layer thickness estimation from X-band SAR backscatter intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widhalm, Barbara; Bartsch, Annett; Leibman, Marina; Khomutov, Artem

    2017-02-01

    The active layer above the permafrost, which seasonally thaws during summer, is an important parameter for monitoring the state of permafrost. Its thickness is typically measured locally, but a range of methods which utilize information from satellite data exist. Mostly, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from optical satellite data is used as a proxy. The applicability has been demonstrated mostly for shallow depths of active-layer thickness (ALT) below approximately 70 cm. Some permafrost areas including central Yamal are, however, characterized by larger ALT. Surface properties including vegetation structure are also represented by microwave backscatter intensity. So far, the potential of such data for estimating ALT has not been explored. We therefore investigated the relationship between ALT and X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter of TerraSAR-X (averages for 10 × 10 m window) in order to examine the possibility of delineating ALT with continuous and larger spatial coverage in this area and compare it to the already-established method of using NDVI from Landsat (30 m). Our results show that the mutual dependency of ALT and TerraSAR-X backscatter on land cover types suggests a connection of both parameters. A range of 5 dB can be observed for an ALT range of 100 cm (40-140 cm), and an R2 of 0.66 has been determined over the calibration sites. An increase of ALT with increasing backscatter can be determined. The root mean square error (RMSE) over a comparably heterogeneous validation site with maximum ALT of > 150 cm is 20 cm. Deviations are larger for measurement locations with mixed vegetation types (especially partial coverage by cryptogam crust) with respect to the spatial resolution of the satellite data.

  3. Extracellular Matrix Mediated Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiac Monolayer Structure and Electrophysiological Function

    PubMed Central

    Herron, Todd J.; Rocha, Andre Monteiro Da; Campbell, Katherine; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Willis, B. Cicero; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Liu, Qinghua; Klos, Matt; Musa, Hassan; Zarzoso, Manuel; Bizy, Alexandra; Furness, Jamie; Anumonwo, Justus; Mironov, Sergey; Jalife, José

    2016-01-01

    Background Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs) monolayers generated to date display an immature embryonic-like functional and structural phenotype that limits their utility for research and cardiac regeneration. In particular, the electrophysiological function of hPSC-CM monolayers and bioengineered constructs used to date are characterized by slow electrical impulse propagation velocity and immature action potential profiles. Methods and Results Here we have identified an optimal extracellular matrix (ECM) for significant electrophysiological and structural maturation of hPSC-CM monolayers. hPSC-CM plated in the optimal ECM combination have impulse propagation velocities ~2X faster than previously reported (43.6±7.0 cm·s−1 n=9) and have mature cardiomyocyte action potential profiles including hyperpolarized diastolic potential and rapid action potential upstroke velocity (146.5±17.7 V/s, N=5 monolayers). In addition the optimal ECM promoted hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes and the expression of key mature sarcolemmal (SCN5A, Kir2.1 and Connexin43) and myofilament markers (cTroponin I). The maturation process reported here relies on activation of integrin signaling pathways: neutralization of β1 integrin receptors via blocking antibodies and pharmacological blockade of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation prevented structural maturation. Conclusions Maturation of human stem cell derived cardiomyocyte monolayers is achieved in a one week period by plating cardiomyocytes on PDMS coverslips rather than on conventional 2D cell culture formats such as glass coverslips or plastic dishes. Activation of integrin signaling and FAK are essential for significant maturation of human cardiac monolayers. PMID:27069088

  4. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  5. Comparison of the i-gel and the LMA-Unique laryngeal mask airway in patients with mild to moderate obesity during elective short-term surgery.

    PubMed

    Weber, U; Oguz, R; Potura, L A; Kimberger, O; Kober, A; Tschernko, E

    2011-06-01

    The aim of our study was to compare leakage pressure, ease and time of insertion of the i-gel and the LMA-Unique laryngeal mask airway in patients with mild to moderate obesity during elective short-term surgery. In this prospective, randomised crossover trial, we included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >25 and <35 kg.m(-2) , and , age >18 years, undergoing elective surgery in the supine position with an expected duration of surgery <2 h. Leakage pressures, insertion difficulty, time and number of insertion attempts were evaluated. We included 50 patients consisting of 29 mildly (BMI>25 and < 30 kg.mg(-2) ) and 21 moderately (BMI>30 and < 35 kg.mg(-2) ) obese patients. Mean (SD) leakage pressures were 23.7 (9.2) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.4 (7.0) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (p<0.01). Subgroup analyses showed leakage pressures of 22.2 (9.4) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.5 (7.5) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (p=0.013) in the mild subgroup, and 25.7 (8.6) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.0 (6.2) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (p<0.01), in the moderate subgroup. Insertion of the i-gel was associated with significantly higher leakage pressures compared with the LMA-Unique in mildly and moderately obese patients.

  6. The ICESat-2 Mission: Concept, pre-launch activities, and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, T.; Neumann, T.; Csatho, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ice sheet and sea level changes have been explicitly identified as a priority in the President's Climate Change Science Program, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the 4th Assessment Report of the IPCC and other national and international policy documents. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for launch in early 2016. The primary aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea-ice thickness change, and ice sheet elevation changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet as established by ICESat. In contrast to ICESat, ICESat-2 will employ a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. The current concept uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; equivalent to 70 cm on the ground) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure range using ~532nm (green) light. The concept will enable the generation of seasonal maps of ice sheet elevation of Greenland and Antarctica, monthly maps of sea ice thickness of the polar ocean, a dense map of land elevation (2 km track spacing at the equator after two years) enabling the determination of canopy height, as well as ocean heights. While the mission has been optimized for cryospheric science and vast amount of high precision elevation measurements taken over land and over the ocean as well as of the atmosphere will provide scientists with a wealth of opportunities to explore the utility of ICESat-2. Those will range from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land use changes and more. The presentation will review the measurement concept and physical principles of ICESat-2, current and planned activities to assess instrument performance and develop geophysical algorithms, as well as potential opportunities outside the main objectives of ICESat-2.

  7. The Relationship between Sarcopenia and Systemic Inflammatory Response for Cancer Cachexia in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Young Saing; Seo, Ja-Young; Park, Inkeun; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Nambeom

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic significance of sarcopenia, an important component of cancer cachexia, has been demonstrated in oncologic patients. Catabolic drivers have been suggested to be key features of cancer cachexia. Objective To determine the relationship between systemic inflammatory markers and CT-determined muscle mass in patients with SCLC. Methods Cross-sectional muscle areas were evaluated at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) using baseline CT images in 186 SCLC patients. Sarcopenia was defined as a L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) of < 55 cm2/m2 for men and of < 39 cm2/m2 for women. Systemic inflammatory markers investigated included serum white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin. Results Mean L3MI was 47.9 ± 9.7 cm2/m2 for men and 41.6 ± 7.0 cm2/m2 for women. Sarcopenia was present in 128 patients (68.8%), and sarcopenic patients had significant serum lymphocyte counts and albumin levels (p = 0.002 and 0.041, respectively), and higher NLRs and CRP levels (p = 0.011 and 0.026) than non-sarcopenic patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that CRP independently predicted L3MI (β = -0.208; 95% CI, -0.415 to -0.002; p = 0.048), along with gender and BMI (p values < 0.001) and performance status (p = 0.010). Conclusion The present study confirms a significant linear relationship exists between CT-determined muscle mass and CRP in SCLC patients. This association might provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cancer cachexia. PMID:27537502

  8. SU-E-T-517: Investigation of Factors Contributing to Extracranial Radiation Doses From Leksell Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Kon, D; Nakano, M; Nawa, K; Haga, A; Nakagawa, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate dominant factors for doses to extracranial sites in treatment with Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK). Methods Monte Carlo simulation was implemented using EGS5 version 1.4.401. The simulation was divided into two major steps for the purpose of efficiency. As the first step, phase-space files were obtained at a scoring plane located just below patient-side surface of the collimator helmet of LGK. Scored particles were classified into three groups, primary, leakage and scatter, using their history information until their arrival to the scoring plane. Then classification was used at the following second step simulation to investigate which type of particle is dominant in the deposited energy at extra-cranial sites. In the second stage, a cylindrical phantom with a semisphere shaped head was modeled such that the geometrical center of the phantom’s head corresponds to the unit center point (UCP) of LGK. Scoring regions were arranged at 10 cm intervals from the UCP to 70 cm away on the central axis of the phantom. Energy deposition from each type of particles and location of interaction were recorded. Results The dominant factor of deposited energy depended on the collimator size. In the case of smaller collimator size, leakage was dominant. However, contribution of leakage was relatively small in the case of larger collimator size. The contribution of internal scatter varied with the distance from the UCP. In the proximal areas, internal scatter was dominant, whereas in the distal areas, particles interacting with machine components became dominant factor. Conclusion The Result of this study indicates that the dominant factor to dose to an extracranial site can vary with the distance from UCP and with collimator size. This means that the variation of this contribution must be considered for modeling of the extracranial dose especially in the distal area. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program (No

  9. Quantitative determination of oxprenolol and timolol in urine by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maguregui, M I; Jiménez, R M; Alonso, R M; Akesolo, U

    2002-03-08

    A simple capillary zone electrophoretic method with UV detection has been developed for the quantitative determination of the beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) oxprenolol and timolol in human urine, preceded by a solid-phase extraction step. The electrophoretic separation was performed on a 78 cm x 75 microm I.D. fused-silica capillary (effective capillary length: 70 cm). The electrolyte consisted of a Na2B4O7-H3BO3 (50 mM), pH 9. The introduction of the sample was made hydrostatically for 20 s and the running voltage 25 kV at the injector end of the capillary. Photometric detection was used at a wavelength of 229 nm for oxprenolol and 280 nm for timolol. Under these conditions oxprenolol migrated at 4.76+/-0.05 min and timolol at 4.97+/-0.05 min. The solid-phase extraction methods were optimised for each beta-blocker and provided recoveries of 72.8% for timolol and 94.52% for oxprenolol. Good resolution from the endogenous compounds present in the urine matrix were achieved for both compounds. The method was applied to the determination of both beta-blockers in pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples obtained from hypertensive patients after the ingestion of a therapeutic dose (in a 24-h time interval after the ingestion). The quantitative results were compared with results previously obtained at our laboratories by HPLC and were found to be in good agreement. Good reproducibility, linearity, accuracy and quantitation limits (in urine) of 0.19 microg/ml for timolol and 0.20 microg/ml for oxprenolol were obtained, allowing the method to be applied to pharmacokinetic studies of these compounds.

  10. Stratigraphy and depositional environment of upper Cambrian Red Lion Formation, southwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.L.; Bush, J.H.

    1987-08-01

    The Red Lion Formation was examined along a northwest-southeast transect from Missoula to Bozeman, Montana. Lateral equivalents are the Snowy Range Formation east of Bozeman and the upper Fishtrap Dolomite in northwest Montana. The basal Dry Creek Member (0-5 m) consists of shale interbedded with quartz siltstones and sandstones. The overlying Sage Member, up to 115 meters in thickness, is characterized by ribbon carbonate beds containing lime mudstone and quartzose calcisiltite couplets arranged in fining-upward sequences 1-5 cm thick. Couplets are interlayered in places with thin (1-5 cm) to medium bedded (6-70 cm) units of laminated and non-laminated calcareous siltstones, flat-pebble conglomerates, trilobite packstones, cryptalgal boundstones, bioturbated lime mudstones and shales. In places, the upper Sage contains columnar and domal algal features. The Red Lion Formation is considered to be one Grand Cycle with the Dry Creek representing a lower inner detrital half-cycle and the Sage an upper carbonate half-cycle. The Dry Creek formed as the result of a westward clastic pulse from the inner detrital belt across an intrashelf basin onto outer middle carbonate peritidal complexes of the underlying Pilgrim Formation. Lower Sage ribbon rocks were deposited in storm-crossed, below wave-base areas. During deposition of the upper Sage, shallowing formed discontinuous algal-peritidal complexes over much of western and central Montana. These complexes were less extensive than earlier Cambrian buildups owing to slower rates of basin subsidence and clastic input suppressing carbonate production.

  11. Carbon Cycling in Restored Wisconsin Grasslands: Examining Linkages Between Plant Diversity, Microbial Communities and Ecosystem Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, K. N.; Kucharik, C. J.; Balser, T. C.; Foley, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    It is important to characterize the variability of carbon (C) fluxes and stocks and the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors and C sequestration, a proposed strategy to help mitigate climate change. An observation site to study C cycling was established on land enrolled in the USDA Conservation Reserve Program in southwestern Wisconsin in spring 2002 on silt-loam soil. The site was converted from intensive row-crop agriculture in 1987 to three adjacent land cover types: an assortment of native C4 grasses, two C3 grasses and a nitrogen-fixer, and a disk planted, no-tillage food plot rotation of maize and soybeans. Key goals of the study were to characterize the effect of plant species composition and microbial community characteristics on carbon cycling in an attempt to link above- and below-ground processes. Measurements of soil surface CO2 efflux were made on a near-weekly basis during the growing season using a LICOR-6400, concurrently with soil surface moisture adjacent to the CO2 collars. Thermocouples were installed to record hourly average air temperature and soil temperature at 5 depths, from 2 to 70 cm, and water content sensors made hourly average measurements at 15 and 30 cm. Leaf area index measurements were made weekly, aboveground vegetation biomass was collected monthly, and belowground root biomass was collected bimonthly. Monthly microbial measurements included an assessment of community physiological profiles using BiOLOG, and assays of community composition (lipid analysis) and activity. Preliminary results suggest that land cover types significantly altered carbon cycling and microbial community structure and function, leading to different rates of C sequestration.

  12. The fiber optic system for the advanced topographic laser altimeter system instrument (ATLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, W. Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm.[1] The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  13. Turtles to Terabytes: The Ongoing Revolution in Volcano Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Volcano geodesy is in the midst of a revolution. GPS and InSAR, together with extensive ground-based sensor networks, have enabled major advances in understanding how and why volcanoes deform. Surveying techniques that produced a few bytes of information per benchmark per year have been replaced by continuously operating deformation networks and imaging radar satellites that generate terabytes of data at resolutions unattainable only a few decades ago. These developments have enabled more detailed assessments of volcano hazards, more accurate forecasts of volcanic activity, and better insights into how volcanoes behave over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Forty years ago, repeated leveling surveys showed that the floor of the Yellowstone caldera had risen more than 70 cm in the past 5 decades. Today a network of GPS stations tracks surface movements continuously with millimeter-scale accuracy and the entire deformation field is imaged frequently by a growing number of SAR satellites, revealing a far more complex style of deformation than was recognized previously. At Mount St. Helens, the 1980-1986 eruption taught us that a seemingly quiescent volcano can suddenly become overtly restless, and that accurate eruption predictions are possible at least in some limited circumstances given sufficient observations. The lessons were revisited during the volcano's 2004-2008 eruption, during which a new generation of geodetic sensors and methods detected a range of co-eruptive changes that enabled new insights into the volcano's magma storage and transport system. These examples highlight volcano deformation styles and scales that were unknown just a few decades ago but now have been revealed by a growing number of data types and modeling methods. The rapid evolution that volcano geodesy is currently experiencing provides an ongoing challenge for geodesists, while also demonstrating that geodetic unrest is common, widespread, and illuminating. Vive la révolution!

  14. Field use of ultrasonography to characterize the reproductive tract and early pregnancy in a phocid, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Adams, Gregg P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    The utility of transrectal ultrasonography was tested in a field setting to characterize the reproductive tract and detect early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles < 3 mm in diameter) in 17 multiparous female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). Female Weddell seals give birth in October/November each year, followed by the breeding season (December) and embryonic diapause. Transrectal ultrasonography was attempted in January/February 2014 to examine the entire reproductive tract (uterine horns and body, ovaries with follicles and corpora lutea) using a 5-10 MHz linear-array probe with a 70 cm-long extension. A single pregnancy was detected in 14 of 17 seals (82.4%) as a circular or guitar-pick shaped nonechogenic (black) vesicle with a clearly visible echogenic border within the lumen of the uterus. The stage of embryonic development (ostensibly the gestational age) varied markedly among individuals, ranging from a vesicle with no embryo proper to a large fetus with an ocular orbit, nose/mouth, limb buds, spinal column, umbilical cord, and prominent vasculature. Two of the pregnant seals were re-examined 3-6 days after the initial examination to obtain longitudinal growth rates. Images of one or both ovaries were obtained in nine and seven of the 19 examinations, respectively. Numerous ovarian follicles (3 to 12 mm diameter) were detected and animals typically had a single well-perfused corpus luteum (determined by Doppler color-flow) ipsilateral to the uterine horn containing the pregnancy. We conclude that real-time transrectal ultrasonography is an effective tool for characterizing reproductive events in phocids including ovarian dynamics, and for elucidating the nature of embryonic diapause.

  15. Use of the simultaneous seismic, GPS and meteorological monitoring for the characterization of a large unstable mountain slope in the southern French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, Stéphane; Guglielmi, Yves; Cappa, Frédéric; Pambrun, Claude; Monfret, Tony; Amitrano, David

    2010-09-01

    The presence of unstable rock slopes in the mountainous regions makes these areas particularly prone to the development of sudden dramatic events, which may cause damage and injuries. The efficient disaster management requires a good understanding of the main causes of these mass movements, such as, increased fluid pressure and seismic shaking. In order to improve our understanding of the mechanics and dynamics of the mountain slope instabilities, we developed a monitoring system based on microseismic, geodetic and meteorological measurements. The system operated in the La Clapière rockslide in the southern French Alps. It was composed of four three-component seismological stations, four Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and three meteorological stations deployed together for a period of 4 months. This system was installed over the territory of ~1.5 km2 of the fractured gneissic terrain that moves at a mean velocity of about 70 cm yr-1. This passive measurement method may represent an interesting approach to the characterization of the landslides difficult to access, since it allows the use of the lighter instrumentation and easier processing tools. Our investigations were based on the H/V method to image shear wave contrasts that we correlated with slip surfaces. The analysis of the seismograms allowed us to point out a correlation between the thickness of the surface layers and the measured resonance frequencies. The results indicated that the H/V ratios are heterogeneous in the rockslide. Comparison between seismic and GPS data proved our monitoring approach to be promising for landslides characterization.

  16. Coronary heart disease incidence in women by waist circumference within categories of body mass index.

    PubMed

    Canoy, Dexter; Cairns, Benjamin J; Balkwill, Angela; Wright, F Lucy; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian; Beral, Valerie

    2013-10-01

    High body mass index (BMI) and large waist circumference are separately associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk but these measures are highly correlated. Their separate associations with incident CHD, cross-classifying one variable by the other, are less investigated in large-scale studies. We examined these associations in a large UK cohort (the Million Women Study), which is a prospective population-based study. We followed 496,225 women (mean age 60 years) with both waist circumference and BMI measurements who had no vascular disease or cancer. Adjusted relative risk and 20-year cumulative CHD incidence (first coronary hospitalization or death) from age 55 to 74 years were calculated using Cox regression. Plasma apolipoproteins were assayed in 6295 randomly selected participants. There were 10,998 incident coronary events after mean follow up of 5.1 years. Within each BMI category (<25, 25-29.9, ≥30 kg/m(2)), CHD risk increased with increasing waist circumference; within each waist circumference category (<70, 70-79.9, ≥79 cm), CHD risk increased with increasing BMI. The cumulative CHD incidence was lowest in women with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and waist circumference <70 cm, with 1 in 14 (95% confidence interval 1 in 12 to 16) women developing CHD in the 20 years from age 55 to 74 years, and highest in women with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and waist circumference ≥80 cm, with 1 in 8 (95% confidence interval 1 in 7 to 9) women developing CHD over the same period. Similar associations for apolipoprotein B to A1 ratio across adiposity categories were observed, particularly in non-obese women. Our conclusions were that both waist circumference and BMI are independently associated with incident CHD.

  17. The 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test: can it predict outcomes in field tests of anaerobic performance?

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan R; Hodson, Jacob A; Govus, Andrew D; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-07-16

    This study determined whether a composite assessment of intermittent fitness could be used to quantify performance in several anaerobic tasks. Fifty-two male recreational athletes (age: 24.3 ± 4.4 yr; body mass: 85.1 ± 12.2 kg; height: 180.5 ± 7.0 cm) were recruited from various team sports. Participants completed a battery of field tests to assess sprinting speed (40 m sprint), acceleration ability (10 m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), anaerobic capacity (300 m shuttle), lower body power (vertical jump) and repeated sprint ability, as well as the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test to determine the velocity of intermittent fitness (VIFT). Relationships between anaerobic tests and VIFT were quantified via Pearson product moment correlations, and a two-predictor model multiple linear regression estimated the predictive relationships between the exercise tests and the VIFT. Multiple linear regression showed VIFT significantly predicted 56%, 51%, 44%, 36%, 12% and 1% of the variance in the 300 m shuttle, repeated sprint, 505, 40 m sprint, vertical jump and 10 m sprint tests, respectively. The two-predictor model determined 300 m shuttle and repeated sprint performance accounted for 67% of the variance in VIFT. These findings highlight that various anaerobic characteristics contribute to the intermittent fitness qualities that are quantified through VIFT. More specifically, these data indicate that VIFT is useful for tracking performance in tasks largely determined by anaerobic capacity, but may not be a good predictor of brief all-out sprinting and jumping efforts.

  18. Effect of pressure-induced changes in the ionization equilibria of buffers on inactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Gayán, Elisa; Condón, Santiago; Álvarez, Ignacio; Nabakabaya, Maria; Mackey, Bernard

    2013-07-01

    Survival rates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus after high-pressure treatment in buffers that had large or small reaction volumes (ΔV°), and which therefore underwent large or small changes in pH under pressure, were compared. At a low buffer concentration of 0.005 M, survival was, as expected, better in MOPS (morpholinepropanesulfonic acid), HEPES, and Tris, whose ΔV° values are approximately 5.0 to 7.0 cm(3) mol(-1), than in phosphate or dimethyl glutarate (DMG), whose ΔV° values are about -25 cm(3) mol(-1). However, at a concentration of 0.1 M, survival was unexpectedly better in phosphate and DMG than in MOPS, HEPES, or Tris. This was because the baroprotective effect of phosphate and DMG increased much more rapidly with increasing concentration than it did with MOPS, HEPES, or Tris. Further comparisons of survival in solutions of salts expected to cause large electrostriction effects (Na2SO4 and CaCl2) and those causing lower electrostriction (NaCl and KCl) were made. The salts with divalent ions were protective at much lower concentrations than salts with monovalent ions. Buffers and salts both protected against transient membrane disruption in E. coli, but the molar concentrations necessary for membrane protection were much lower for phosphate and Na2SO4 than for HEPES and NaCl. Possible protective mechanisms discussed include effects of electrolytes on water compressibility and kosmotropic and specific ion effects. The results of this systematic study will be of considerable practical significance in studies of pressure inactivation of microbes under defined conditions but also raise important fundamental questions regarding the mechanisms of baroprotection by ionic solutes.

  19. The fiber optic system for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument.

    PubMed

    Ott, Melanie N; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-08-28

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm.[1] The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  20. Assessment of the feasibility of the use of conductive polymers in the fabrication of ion mobility spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Koimtzis, Theodoros; Goddard, Nick J; Wilson, Ian; Thomas, C L Paul

    2011-04-01

    The development of an ion mobility spectrometer with an injection molded plastic drift tube made from carbon-loaded nylon and the cyclo-olefinpolymer Zeonex is described. Thermogravimetric assessment combined with headspace analysis by ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that Zeonex encapsulated carbon-loaded nylon could be used to fabricate a snap-together injection molded stacked ring drift tube, 4.25 cm long that could be substituted for a conventional wire-wound heated ceramic drift tube of the same length into a high temperature ion mobility spectrometer. Temperature stability experiments indicated that such a combination of polymers produced stable water-based reactant ion peaks [(H(2)O)(n)H](+) up to a temperature of approximately 50 °C. Above this temperature, ammonia appeared to outgas, resulting in the production of [(H(2)O)(n)(NH(4))(m)H](+) type species before, at higher temperatures, the release of oligomeric entities suppressed resolved ion responses. Surface charging effects were also observed, and over a period of continuous operation of 4 h, these caused suppression of the signal intensity (1.11-0.954 V) and an apparent mobility shift in the observed responses (K(0) = 1.86-1.90 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). Substituting nylon, a polymer with a significantly lower surface resistivity, for the Zeonex demonstrated how surface charging phenomena could be managed though control of surface resistivity in future polymer formulations. The device was challenged successfully with test atmospheres of hexan-1-ol (K(0) = 1.66 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (monomer) and 1.32 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)(dimer)) and dimethylmethyl phosphonate (K(0) = 1.70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (monomer) and 1.44 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (dimer)). The potential advantages of developing polymeric systems using more advanced polymer formulations are discussed.

  1. The relative influence of land cover, hydrology, and in-stream processing on the composition of dissolved organic matter in boreal streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothawala, Dolly N.; Ji, Xing; Laudon, Hjalmar; Ögren, Anneli M.; Futter, Martyn N.; Köhler, Stephan J.; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2015-08-01

    Low-order boreal streams are particularly sensitive interfaces where dissolved organic matter (DOM) is transported from soils to inland waters. Disentangling the relative influence of key environmental factors suspected to influence stream water DOM composition is highly relevant to predicting the reactivity and fate of terrestrial DOM entering inland waters. Here we examined changes to DOM composition using absorbance and fluorescence, from 17 boreal streams ranging from first to fourth orders, over 14 months, including the rarely studied winter season, and two snowmelt periods (n = 836). We also analyzed soil pore water samples from three forest soil lysimeters to a depth of 70 cm (n = 60). Of five identified fluorescing parallel factor analysis components, two (C4 and C5) expressed a clear mire wetland or forest signature, providing distinct molecular markers of dominant land cover. In fact, land cover alone explained 49% of the variability in DOM composition. In contrast, seasonal fluctuations in hydrology only contributed to minor shifts (8%) in the composition of stream water DOM, while in-stream transformations to DOM composition were undetectable. These findings suggest that low-order boreal streams act as a passive pipe, since in-stream processing of DOM is restricted by short water residence times (6 h to 2 days). In addition, we demonstrated the sensitivity of optical approaches to distinguish between key terrestrial sources of DOM in the boreal landscape. By distinguishing the proportional leverage of key environmental controls on headwater stream DOM composition, we are better equipped to predict where and when key DOM transformations occur in the aquatic conduit.

  2. Di- versus Trinuclear Copper(II) Cryptate for the Uptake of Dicarboxylate Anions.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Catarina V; Mateus, Pedro; André, Vânia; Bandeira, Nuno A G; Calhorda, Maria José; Ferreira, Liliana P; Delgado, Rita

    2016-07-18

    Searching for receptors selective for the binding of dicarboxylate anions, the copper(II) complexes of the known ditopic octaazacryptand (t2pN8), derived from bistren [tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine] linked by p-xylyl spacers, were re-examined, with the expectation of observing a selective binding of oxalate or malonate by bridging the two copper centers of the [Cu2(t2pN8)(H2O)2](4+) receptor. Solution studies involving the supramolecular species formed by the receptor and oxalate (oxa(2-)), malonate (mal(2-)), and succinate (suc(2-)) anions are reported. The determined association constants revealed the unexpected formation of a 3:1:1 Cu/t2pN8/anion stoichiometry for the cascade species with oxa(2-) and mal(2-), and the single crystal X-ray structural characterization confirmed the presence of tricopper(II) complexes, with an unusual binding mode for the dicarboxylate anions. Each of the two copper atoms binds four nitrogen donor atoms of the t2pN8 cryptand and one additional hydroxide group, which bridges to the third copper. The square planar environment of this one is complete with two oxygen atoms from the oxalate (or the malonate). The two copper centers bound to the tren heads are ∼6.5 Å apart, each one at about 3.5 Å from the third Cu center. These studies were complemented by SQUID magnetization measurements and DFT calculations. The magnetic susceptibility measurements of the oxalate cascade complex showed a strong magnetic coupling (J = - 210 cm(-1)) between the Cu centers at a short distance (3.5 Å), while the coupling between the two equivalent Cu atoms (∼6.5 Å) was only -70 cm(-1). This result was well reproduced by DFT calculations.

  3. Relationships between glide efficiency and swimmers' size and shape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Naemi, Roozbeh; Psycharakis, Stelios G; McCabe, Carla; Connaboy, Chris; Sanders, Ross H

    2012-08-01

    Glide efficiency, the ability of a body to minimize deceleration over the glide, can change with variations in the body's size and shape. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between glide efficiency and the size and shape characteristics of swimmers. Eight male and eight female swimmers performed a series of horizontal glides at a depth of 70 cm below the surface. Glide efficiency parameters were calculated for velocities ranging from 1.4 to 1.6 m/s for female swimmers (and at the Reynolds number of 3.5 million) and from 1.6 to 1.8 m/s for male swimmers (and at the Reynolds number of 4.5 million). Several morphological indices were calculated to account for the shape characteristics, with the use of a photogrammetric method. Relationships between the variables of interest were explored with correlations, while repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess within-group differences between different velocities for each gender group. Glide efficiency of swimmers increased when velocity decreased. Some morphological indices and postural angles showed a significant correlation with glide efficiency. The glide coefficient was significantly correlated to the chest to waist taper index for both gender groups. For the male group, the glide coefficient correlated significantly to the fineness ratio of upper body, the chest to hip cross-section. For the female group the glide coefficient had a significant correlation with the waist to hip taper index. The findings suggested that gliding efficiency was more dependent on shape characteristics and appropriate postural angles rather than being dependent on size characteristics.

  4. Organic liquid scintillation detectors for on-the-fly neutron/gamma alarming and radionuclide identification in a pedestrian radiation portal monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Ruch, Marc L.; Poitrasson-Riviere, Alexis; Sagadevan, Athena; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara

    2015-07-01

    We present new experimental results from a radiation portal monitor based on the use of organic liquid scintillators. The system was tested as part of a 3He-free radiation portal monitor testing campaign at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, in February 2014. The radiation portal monitor was subjected to a wide range of test conditions described in ANSI N42.35, including a variety of gamma-ray sources and a 20,000 n/s 252Cf source. A false alarm test tested whether radiation portal monitors ever alarmed in the presence of only natural background. The University of Michigan Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Group's system triggered zero false alarms in 2739 trials. It consistently alarmed on a variety of gamma-ray sources travelling at 1.2 m/s at a 70 cm source to detector distance. The neutron source was detected at speeds up to 3 m/s and in configurations with up to 8 cm of high density polyethylene shielding. The success of on-the-fly radionuclide identification varied with the gamma-ray source measured as well as with which of two radionuclide identification methods was used. Both methods used a least squares comparison between the measured pulse height distributions to library spectra to pick the best match. The methods varied in how the pulse height distributions were modified prior to the least squares comparison. Correct identification rates were as high as 100% for highly enriched uranium, but as low as 50% for 241Am. Both radionuclide identification algorithms produced mixed results, but the concept of using liquid scintillation detectors for gamma-ray and neutron alarming in radiation portal monitor was validated.

  5. Reliability of intestinal temperature using an ingestible telemetry pill system during exercise in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Alan D; Tew, Garry A; Purvis, Alison J

    2014-03-01

    Ingestible telemetry pill systems are being increasingly used to assess the intestinal temperature during exercise in hot environments. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the interday reliability of intestinal temperature during an exercise-heat challenge. Intestinal temperature was recorded as 12 physically active men (25 ± 4 years, stature 181.7 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) performed two 60-minute bouts of recumbent cycling (50% of peak aerobic power [watts]) in an environmental chamber set at 35° C 50% relative humidity 3-10 days apart. A range of statistics were used to calculate the reliability, including a paired t-test, 95% limits of agreement (LOA), coefficient of variation (CV), standard error of measurement (SEM), Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cohen's d. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The method indicated a good overall reliability (LOA = ± 0.61° C, CV = 0.58%, SEM = 0.12° C, Cohen's d = 0.12, r = 0.84, ICC = 0.84). Analysis revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.02) mean systematic bias of -0.07 ± 0.31° C, and the investigation of the Bland-Altman plot suggested the presence of heteroscedasticity. Further analysis revealed the minimum "likely" change in intestinal temperature to be 0.34° C. Although the method demonstrates a good reliability, researchers should be aware of heteroscedasticity. Changes in intestinal temperature >0.34° C as a result of exercise or an intervention in a hot environment are likely changes and less influenced by error associated with the method.

  6. Long-Term Starspot Activity of Some Chromospherically Active Rs CVn and BY Dra Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikova, Alla; Ilya, Alekseev

    2016-10-01

    We present results of our long-term photometric observations of a sample of 15 chromospherically active BY Dra and RS CVn-type stars. Observations were carried out at a 70-cm telescope and multichannel photometer of Kourovka Astronomical Observatory of Ural Federal University and at a 1.25-m telescope of Crimean Astrophysical Observatory from 2003 to 2015 in Johnson B, V, R, I bands. We also use the previously published photometric data for all these stars to find the meaning of historical star's brightness, that we assume as a brightness of unspotted photosphere. Using a renewed zonal spot model for spotted stellar photospheres we determined spot parameters for all observational seasons, as our as published ones, that were spanning almost over 45 years for some stars (e.g. CG Cyg, WY Cnc, EV Lac, V 1396 Cyg). It is shown that the spots were located at low and middle latitudes up to 58 deg., are cooler than the surrounding photosphere by 200 - 2000 K according to the spectral class. The spotted area varied from season to season, comprising 13%-47% of the surface area of the star. Almost half of the stars display drifts of their spots towards the equator and poles during certain time intervals; however, the speeds of the spots' latitude drifts are lower than the analogous speeds for sunspots, by factors of 1.5-4, on average. Activity cycles lasting from 5 to 40 years have been determined or confirmed for majority of the studied stars. As a rule, cycles are expressed in synchronous variations of spot areas, spot latitudes and average photometric star's brightness.

  7. The Prospect for Remote Sensing of Cirrus Clouds with a Submillimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, Aaron H.; Nolt, Ira G.; Marshall, B. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Given the substantial radiative effects of cirrus clouds and the need to validate cirrus cloud mass in climate models, it is important to measure the global distribution of cirrus properties with satellite remote sensing. Existing cirrus remote sensing techniques, such as solar reflectance methods, measure cirrus ice water path (IWP) rather indirectly and with limited accuracy. Submillimeter/wave radiometry is an independent method of cirrus remote sensing based on ice particles scattering the upwelling radiance emitted by the lower atmosphere. A new aircraft instrument, the Far Infrared Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC), is described. The FIRSC employs a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). which measures the upwelling radiance across the whole submillimeter region (0.1 1.0-mm wavelength). This wide spectral coverage gives high sensitivity to most cirrus particle sizes and allows accurate determination of the characteristic particle size. Radiative transfer modeling is performed to analyze the capabilities of the submillimeter FTS technique. A linear inversion analysis is done to show that cirrus IWP, particle size, and upper-tropospheric temperature and water vapor may be accurately measured, A nonlinear statistical algorithm is developed using a database of 20000 spectra simulated by randomly varying most relevant cirrus and atmospheric parameters. An empirical orthogonal function analysis reduces the 500-point spectrum (20 - 70/cm) to 15 "pseudo-channels" that are then input to a neural network to retrieve cirrus IWP and median particle diameter. A Monte Carlo accuracy study is performed with simulated spectra having realistic noise. The retrieval errors are low for IWP (rms less than a factor of 1.5) and for particle sizes (rins less than 30%) for IWP greater than 5 g/sq m and a wide range of median particle sizes. This detailed modeling indicates that there is good potential to accurately measure cirrus properties with a submillimeter FTS.

  8. Fluxes of H2, COS, and CO2 across a temperate forest snowpack driven by below snow soil microbial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, L. K.; McLaren, J.; Commane, R.; Munger, J. W.; Prinn, R. G.; Wofsy, S. C.; Richardson, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Snowpack overlying temperate soils insulates soil microbial communities from wintertime subzero air temperatures that would otherwise halt most biogeochemical processes. Moreover, a porous snow matrix permits soil-atmosphere trace gas exchange to continue despite the snowpack cover. Consequently, below snow (subniveal) soil biogeochemical processes proceed throughout the winter season and continue to impact atmospheric trace gas composition. In this study, three atmospheric trace gases (H2, COS, CO2) that exhibit strong soil-atmosphere exchange are investigated to understand the following: 1) how snowpack properties affect the exchange of trace gases and 2) how different biogeochemical cycles behave throughout the low temperature subniveal winter. The selected trace gases represent largely decoupled and distinct biogeochemical cycles. Soil microorganisms act as a net sink for atmospheric hydrogen (H2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) by oxidation (hydrogenase) and hydrolysis (carbonic anhydrase) reactions, respectively. In contrast, soil microbial respiration is a strong source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). We present continuous, high frequency atmospheric flux measurements of H2, COS, and CO2 over the winter season in a temperate deciduous forest. Significant soil-atmosphere trace gas exchange was measured above the four-month snowpack, which reached 70 cm at peak accumulation. Additionally, we use a novel camera-based method to monitor snow depth, density, and fractional extent to understand how physical snowpack properties affect the exchange of these trace gases. The episodic nature of snow fall, snow melt, and snowpack ventilation events are also considered. By comparative analysis of the H2, COS, and CO2 fluxes, we investigate differences in subniveal biogeochemical processes at different soil temperature and moisture levels throughout the winter season. Projections for global change anticipate changes in the temperate snowpack; therefore, understanding the

  9. Free filet extremity flap: indications and options for reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tran, N V; Evans, G R; Kroll, S S; Miller, M J; Reece, G P; Ainsle, N; Robb, G L

    2000-01-01

    Radical and extended forequarter and hind limb amputations have been used for curative and palliative intents. Concerns regarding wound healing and closure, especially in irradiated fields, have occasionally limited the extent of ablation. This article reports an experience with coverage of these large defects by using the free filet extremity flap. A retrospective review was performed of 11 patients who had undergone immediate reconstruction with free filet extremity flaps between 1991 and 1998. There were nine men and two women with an average age of 43.9 years. All except three patients received preoperative radiotherapy. Resections included four hindquarter and seven forequarter amputations for palliation of intractable pain, tissue necrosis, and infections. Donor vessels included the brachial artery, its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and common femoral and popliteal vessels. Immediate reconstruction was successful in all cases by the use of the amputated limb as the free filet flap. All wounds healed despite irradiation inclusive of defects up to 50 cm x 70 cm (3500 cm2). The average follow-up time was 5 months with a mean survival of 3.5 months. Four patients currently are alive, and one patient died within 30 days of surgery. The remaining six patients have died of their disease within 9 months of the palliative procedures. Pain, tissue necrosis, and infections were improved in all patients after hospital discharge. Extensive defects can be reconstructed and healed successfully, even in irradiated wounds, with the use of the free filet extremity flap. Appropriate advanced preoperative and intraoperative planning is essential. Although survival was unchanged, this technique allowed healed wounds with an improvement in the quality of life.

  10. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  11. Elevated reefs and related Pleistocene stratigraphy of the southern Exuma Islands, Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, R.F. Caribbean Marine Research Center, San Diego, CA ); Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A.; Kindinger, J.L. ); Muhs, D.R. )

    1991-03-01

    At least seven elevated coral reefs are exposed on the lee side of an inner chain of low islands on the eastern margin of Great Bahama Bank in the Southern Exumas. Starting at Fowl Cay in the north, they extend at least to Pigeon Cay in the south, a distance of about 44 nautical mi (81 km). These reefs formed around preexisting Pleistocene core-islands and hardgrounds during a transgressive higher than present stand of sea level, prior to the Holocene. As sea level dropped, the reefs were karstedand capped by caliche crusts, a unique paleosol breccia containing land snails (Cerithidea. sp.) and a now lithified dune system with well-developed rhizomorphs. Shallow sea caves eroded into steep, clifflike notches are often located on ridges shoreward of the reef, with roof heights of up to 5 m above the top of the elevated reefs. The reefs form a 5- to 10-m wide terrace, approximately 1 m above present sea level. Shoreline exposures often exceed 300 m (1,000 ft). Most exposures have a base thicket of interwoven branches of Acropora cervicornus approximately 70-cm thick. The badly corroded branches are surrounded by a cemented matrix of ooid sands, marine cement, and coralline debris. The upper 30 cm is formed by a much more diverse reef community of broken shells and corals (Montastrea, Diploria Agaricia, Porites, and Acropora). Crustose coralline algae and colonial foraminifera (Homotrema) form a cementing crust around many corals. These reefs and their relationship to paleosols within subaerial dune deposits provide stratigraphic markers that play an important role in interpreting the development of Pleistocene deposits of the Great Bahama Bank.

  12. Effects of Buflomedil and Pentoxifylline on Hamster Skin-Flap Microcirculation: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Orthogonal Polarization Spectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Coelho da Mota, Denise Salles; Furtado, Eliane; Bottino, Daniel Alexandre; Bouskela, Eliete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the effects of buflomedil and pentoxifylline, both of which are used in reconstructive surgery of hamster skin flap microcirculation, and evaluated the skin flap survival rate by orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. METHOD Twenty-four adult male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into three groups: a control (C, 0.1 ml 0.9% saline), buflomedil (B, 3 mg/kg/day), and pentoxifylline group (P, 14.5 mg/kg/day). Treatments administered intraperitoneally were initiated 1 hour before skin flap preparation and continued for 7 days post-operatively at 12-hour intervals. Preparations (skin flaps) were divided into 12 fields, which were organized into six bands. Functional capillary density (FCD, in mm/mm2), distance from the skin flap base to blood flow cessation (Distwith flow, in cm), percentage of viable skin (VA, in%), and qualitative analysis of blood flow by orthogonal polarization spectral imaging were performed at 1 and 24 hours and on the seventh post-operative day. RESULT Bands IV, V, and VI presented no flow independent of time. The functional capillary density group B was higher than that of groups C and P, primarily after 24 hours. All groups showed an increase in D with time but reached similar final distances (C = 2.73, B = 2.78 and P = 2.70 cm). Moreover, the percentage of viable areas remained at approximately 50%. The orthogonal polarization spectral imaging was useful to assess viability by counting fields with and without blood flow. CONCLUSIONS Functional capillary density values were higher in the buflomedil group compared to the control and pentoxifylline groups in this model. Functional capillary density did not influence D or the percentage of VA, and the technique showed favorable potential to assess/predict the viability of skin flaps within 1 h after surgery. PMID:19690666

  13. Microbial Activity in Organic Soils as Affected by Soil Depth and Crop †

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    The microbial activity of Pahokee muck, a lithic medisaprist, and the effect of various environmental factors, such as position in the profile and type of plant cover, were examined. Catabolic activity for [7-14C]salicylic acid, [1,4-14C]succinate, and [1,2-14C]acetate remained reasonably constant in surface (0 to 10 cm) soil samples from a fallow (bare) field from late in the wet season (May to September) through January. Late in January, the microbial activity toward all three compounds decreased approximately 50%. The microbial activity of the soil decreased with increasing depth of soil. Salicylate catabolism was the most sensitive to increasing moisture deep in the soil profile. At the end of the wet season, a 90% decrease in activity between the surface and the 60- to 70-cm depth occurred. Catabolism of acetate and succinate decreased approximately 75% in the same samples. Little effect of crop was observed. Variation in the microbial activity, as measured by the catabolism of labeled acetate, salicylate, or succinate, was not significant between a sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) field and a fallow field. The activity with acetate was insignificantly different in a St. Augustine grass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt) Kuntz] field, whereas the catabolism of the remaining substrates was elevated in the grass field. These results indicate that the total carbon evolved from the different levels of the soil profile by the microbial community oxidizing the soil organic matter decreased as the depth of the soil column increased. However, correction of the amount of carbon yielded at each level for the bulk density of that level reveals that the microbial contribution to the soil subsidence is approximately equivalent throughout the soil profile above the water table. PMID:16345393

  14. The state of permafrost surrounding "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (Deception Island, Antarctica): Studying the possible degradation due to the infrastructures heating effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio, Cayetana; Ángel de Pablo, MIguel; Ramos, MIguel; Molina, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost degradation is one of the effects of the global warming. Many studies reveal the increase of active layer and reduction on permafrost table thickness, also in Antarctica. However, these trends on permafrost can be accelerated by the human activities, as the heating produced by the Antarctic stations infrastructures when they are not properly isolated from the ground. In Deception island, South Shetland Archipelago, we started 3 years ago a monitoring program at the 26 years old "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS), It is focused on charactering the state of permafrost, since in the coastal scarps at tens of meters from the station an increase on erosion had been detected. Although the main cause of the erosion of this coastal volcanoclastic materials is the 2 meters thick icefield which forms during the winter in the inner sea of this volcanic island, we want to detect any possible contribution to the coastal erosion caused by the permafrost degradation related to the SAS presence. We present our preliminary analysis based on three years of continuous ground temperature data, monitored at a shallow borehole (70 cm deep) in the SAS edge, together with the active layer thickness measured around the station and their vicinities in two thawing seasons. We complete this study with the analysis of the continuous temperature data taken inside the SAS and the air and ground temperatures below the station, acquired during the last Antarctic Campaign (December 2014-February 2015). These preliminary results are fundamental 1) to discard any contribution from the SAS presence, and to help to improve its thermal isolation, 2) to help improve our knowledge about the thermal state of permafrost in the area, and 3) to help to understand the causes of the coastal erosion in the volcanic Deception Island.

  15. Quantification of breast density with dual energy mammography: An experimental feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Breast density, the percentage of glandular breast tissue, has been shown to be a strong indicator of breast cancer risk. A quantitative method to measure breast density with dual energy mammography was investigated using physical phantoms. Methods: The dual energy mammography system used a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a 50 {mu}m rhodium beam filter for low energy images and a 300 {mu}m copper beam filter for high energy images. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Four different phantom studies were used to evaluate the technique. The first study consisted of phantoms with thicknesses of 2.5-8.5 cm in 0.5 cm steps with variable densities centered at a mean of 28%. The second study consisted of phantoms at a fixed thickness of 4.0 cm, which ranged in densities from 0% to 100% in increments of 12.5%. The third study consisted of 4.0 cm thick phantoms at densities of 25%, 50% and 75% each imaged at three areal sizes, approximately 62.5, 125, and 250 cm{sup 2}, in order to assess the effect of breast size on density measurement. The fourth study consisted of step phantoms designed to more closely mimic the shape of a female breast with maximal thicknesses from 3.0 to 7.0 cm at a fixed density of 50%. All images were corrected for x-ray scatter. Results: The RMS errors in breast density measurements were 0.44% for the variable thickness phantoms, 0.64% for the variable density phantoms, 2.87% for the phantoms of different areal sizes, and 4.63% for step phantoms designed to closely resemble the shape of a breast. Conclusions: The results of the phantom studies indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to measure breast density with an RMS error of approximately 5%.

  16. Two-octave spanning single pump parametric amplification at 1550 nm in a host lead-silicate binary multi-clad microstructure fiber: Influence of multi-order dispersion engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sudip K.; Khan, Saba N.; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2014-12-01

    An ultra-wide 1646 nm (1084-2730 nm), continuous-wave single pump parametric amplification spanning from near-infrared to short-wave infrared band (NIR-SWIR) in a host lead-silicate based binary multi-clad microstructure fiber (BMMF) is analyzed and reported. This ultra-broad band (widest reported to date) parametric amplification with gain more than 10 dB is theoretically achieved by a combination of low input pump power source ~7 W and a short-length of ~70 cm of nonlinear-BMMF through accurately engineered multi-order dispersion coefficients. A highly efficient theoretical formulation based on four-wave-mixing (FWM) is worked out to determine fiber's chromatic dispersion (D) profile which is used to optimise the gain-bandwidth and ripple of the parametric gain profile. It is seen that by appropriately controlling the higher-order dispersion coefficient (up-to sixth order), a great enhancement in the gain-bandwidth (2-3 times) can be achieved when operated very close to zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) in the anomalous dispersion regime. Moreover, the proposed theoretical model can predict the maximum realizable spectral width and the required pump-detuning (w.r.t ZDW) of any advanced complex microstructured fiber. Our thorough investigation of the wide variety of broadband gain spectra obtained as an integral part of this research work opens up the way for realizing amplification in the region (SWIR) located far from the pump (NIR) where good amplifiers currently do not exist.

  17. Development of a high brightness, ohmically generated thin film lithium ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Menge, P.R.; Cuneo, M.E.; Bernard, M.A.; Fowler, W.E.

    1997-12-31

    A pure lithium ion source with low source divergence capable of generating high current density beams ({approx}1,000 A/cm{sup 2}) is required for pursuing the goal of light ion inertial confinement fusion using pulsed power. It is believed that a uniform fully ionized lithium plasma at the anode surface ({approx}100 cm{sup 2}) created just before arrival of the main power pulse (5--30 MV, 0.1--1 MA, 40--60 ns) will be superior to flashover or field-threshold lithium sources. One method being pursued at Sandia is the development of an ohmically driven thin film lithium source, often termed EMFAPS. The EMFAPS process consists of an electrical pulse driven through a thin film coated with or bearing lithium in alloy or compound. The high current flowing through a thin film coated with or bearing lithium in alloy or compound. The high current flowing through the film increases its temperature and resistivity until the lithium is driven off as vapor. The resistive voltage drop across the film generates a plasma by a gas discharge. Low impedance, fast risetime pulsers provided by NRL and Pulse Sciences Inc. are being assembled and evaluated as film current drivers for full scale anodes ({approx}70 cm{sup 2}). Smaller scale ({approx}1 cm{sup 2}) tests are underway to optimize film composition, current contact engineering, anode construction, impedance dynamics, and energy disposition. Plasma discharge cleaning, bakeouts, film design and material selection issues are also being characterized to improve ion purity.

  18. Sedimentation processes and new age constraints on rifting stages in Lake Baikal: results of deep-water drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, M. I.; Karabanov, E. B.; Prokopenko, A. A.; Gelety, V. F.; Antipin, V. S.; Williams, D. F.; Gvozdkov, A. N.

    With this paper we present a first attempt to combine the direct results on lithology, composition and age dating in the boreholes BDP-93, BDP-96 and BDP-97 with geological and seismic data from the areas where those sections were drilled. The sedimentary environments represented by the BDP boreholes are markedly different and possess characteristic lithological features. The results of the deep drilling provide the essential means for testing numerous age models used in geological reconstructions of the Lake Baikal rifting dynamics. Neither the basin-wide unconformity interpreted from seismic data, nor the interpreted change from shallow-water to deep-water facies at the boundary of the seismic stratigraphic complexes were found in the BDP-96 boreholes on Academician Ridge. Also, lithology does not support the proposed reconstructions of intense lake level fluctuations and transgressions during the Pliocene at Academician Ridge. The continuous deep-water hemipelagic sedimentation at Academician Ridge has existed for the past 5Ma. The beginning of an intense rifting phase of the Neobaikalian sub-stage and related drastic changes in sedimentation processes were interpreted on seismic sections as the basin-wide unconformity B10. Different age estimates for this boundary ranged from Late Pliocene (3.5Ma) to Plio-Pleistocene boundary. As shown by BDP-96 borehole, B10 is associated with a lithological change from diatomaceous ooze to dense silty clay and not with an erosional contact. The new age for this boundary in BDP-96 is approximately 2.5Ma. This new age constraint suggests that the upper sedimentary strata of Northern Baikal (1.5-1.7km thick) have formed during the past 2.5Ma with average sedimentation rates of 60-70cm/ka. The BDP-93 boreholes at Buguldeika suggest that uplift in Primorsky Range took place prior to 1.07-1.31Ma, a date which exceeds the age of previous geological models.

  19. Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Hawkins, B.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Wang, J.; Pierce, M. E.; Rundle, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake Andrea Donnellan, Jay Parker, Brian Hawkins, Scott Hensley, Cathleen Jones, Susan Owen, Angelyn Moore Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Marlon Pierce, Jun Wang Indiana University John Rundle University of California, Davis The South Napa to Santa Rosa area has been observed with NASA's UAVSAR since late 2009 as part of an experiment to monitor areas identified as having a high probability of an earthquake. The M 6.0 South Napa earthquake occurred on 24 August 2014. The area was flown 29 May 2014 preceeding the earthquake, and again on 29 August 2014, five days after the earthquake. The UAVSAR results show slip on a single fault at the south end of the rupture near the epicenter of the event. The rupture branches out into multiple faults further north near the Napa area. A combined inversion of rapid GPS results and the unwrapped UAVSAR interferogram indicate nearly pure strike slip motion. Using this assumption, the UAVSAR data show horizontal right-lateral slip across the fault of 19 cm at the south end of the rupture and increasing to 70 cm northward over a distance of 6.5 km. The joint inversion indicates slip of ~30 cm on a network of sub-parallel faults is concentrated in a zone about 17 km long. The lower depths of the faults are 5-8.5 km. The eastern two sub-parallel faults break the surface, while three faults to the west are buried at depths ranging from 2-6 km with deeper depths to the north and west. The geodetic moment release is equivalent to a M 6.1 event. Additional ruptures are observed in the interferogram, but the inversions suggest that they represent superficial slip that does not contribute to the overall moment release.

  20. Birth size and adult size in same-sex siblings discordant for fetal growth in the Early Determinants of Adult Health study

    PubMed Central

    Lumey, L. H.; Susser, E.; Andrews, H.; Gillman, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have reported on relations between birth size and adult size but the findings to date are hard to compare due to the lack of uniform measures across studies. Interpretation of findings is also hampered by potential confounding by ethnic, socioeconomic and family factors. The purpose of this study is to explore these relationships in a comprehensive fashion, with multiple measures of birth size and adult size, using same-sex sibling controls discordant in birth weight to address potential confounding at the family level. Study subjects include pregnant women enrolled during 1959–1966 in the Child Health and Development Study in Oakland, CA and the Boston, MA, and providence, RI, sites of the Collaborative Perinatal Project in New England, currently combined into the New England Family Study. We assessed 392 offspring (mean age 43 years), the great majority as sibships as available. Our analyses confirm the positive association between birth weight and adult length reported in other studies, with a change in adult height of 1.25 cm (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.70 cm) for each quintile change in standardized birth weight. No associations were seen between birth weight and adult fatness for which findings in other studies are highly variable. As adult weight is likely to reflect recent variations in the adult nutritional environment rather than the early environment, it may be more useful for studies of birth size and adult size to focus on adult length rather than weight measures in evaluating the role of early influences on adult health. PMID:24683446

  1. Low relative error in consumer-grade GPS units make them ideal for measuring small-scale animal movement patterns

    PubMed Central

    Severns, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-grade GPS units are a staple of modern field ecology, but the relatively large error radii reported by manufacturers (up to 10 m) ostensibly precludes their utility in measuring fine-scale movement of small animals such as insects. Here we demonstrate that for data collected at fine spatio-temporal scales, these devices can produce exceptionally accurate data on step-length and movement patterns of small animals. With an understanding of the properties of GPS error and how it arises, it is possible, using a simple field protocol, to use consumer grade GPS units to collect step-length data for the movement of small animals that introduces a median error as small as 11 cm. These small error rates were measured in controlled observations of real butterfly movement. Similar conclusions were reached using a ground-truth test track prepared with a field tape and compass and subsequently measured 20 times using the same methodology as the butterfly tracking. Median error in the ground-truth track was slightly higher than the field data, mostly between 20 and 30 cm, but even for the smallest ground-truth step (70 cm), this is still a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and for steps of 3 m or more, the ratio is greater than 10:1. Such small errors relative to the movements being measured make these inexpensive units useful for measuring insect and other small animal movements on small to intermediate scales with budgets orders of magnitude lower than survey-grade units used in past studies. As an additional advantage, these units are simpler to operate, and insect or other small animal trackways can be collected more quickly than either survey-grade units or more traditional ruler/gird approaches. PMID:26312190

  2. Effects of Changing Cultivation System on Soil Carbon Dynamics in Cotton Field of Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Wang, X.; Tian, C.

    2010-12-01

    There has being a change in cotton cultivative practice in the northwestern China, i.e., from the traditional cultivation (TF) of no mulching with flood-irrigation to the modern cultivation (PM) of plastic film mulching with drip-irrigation. Little is known how this change affects soil carbon dynamics. This paper presents a field study that includes comparisons of soil organic carbon (SOC), soil CO2 concentration and soil surface CO2 efflux during cotton growing season. At the initial growing stage, SOC content was similar between TF and PM, showing a clear decreasing trend over depth (i.e., ~9 g/kg, ~7.5 g/kg and ~3 g/kg at 0-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-70 cm, respectively). After five months, SOC generally decreased at 0-20 cm but increased below 30 cm. Overal, SOC was higher in the surface soil in the PM than in the TF, particularly at 20-30 cm where SOC reached ~9 g/kg in the PM. In general, CO2 concentration in soil profile was higher in the PM (3107 - 9212 ppmv) than in the TF (1275 - 8994 ppmv). However, rate of CO2 efflux was lower in the PM than in the TF, primarily owing to plastic film covering. For the whole cotton growing season, accumulated rates of CO2 efflux were 300 g C m-2 and 394 g C m-2 in the PM and the TF, respectively. Fig. 1. Soil organic carbon (SOC) in (a) May (b) August and (c) October between plastic film mulching cultivation (PM) and traditional flooding cultivation (TF). Table 1. Soil surface CO2 efflux during different growing stages in different systems ADR: averaged daily rate during each stage; AE: accumulative efflux for each stage.

  3. The dark side of the hyporheic zone: Depth profiles of nitrogen and its processing in stream sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, R.S.; Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Strauss, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    1.Although it is well known that sediments can be hot spots for nitrogen transformation in streams, many previous studies have confined measurements of denitrification and nitrate retention to shallow sediments (<5cm deep). We determined the extent of nitrate processing in deeper sediments of a sand plains stream (Emmons Creek) by measuring denitrification in core sections to a depth of 25cm and by assessing vertical nitrate profiles, with peepers and piezometers, to a depth of 70cm. 2.Denitrification rates of sediment slurries based on acetylene block were higher in shallower core sections. However, core sections deeper than 5cm accounted for 68% of the mean depth-integrated denitrification rate. 3.Vertical hydraulic gradient and vertical profiles of pore water chloride concentration suggested that deep ground water upwelled through shallow sediments before discharging to the stream channel. The results of a two-source mixing model based on chloride concentrations suggested that the hyporheic zone was very shallow (<5cm) in Emmons Creek. 4.Vertical profiles showed that nitrate concentration in shallow ground water was about 10-60% of the nitrate concentration of deep ground water. The mean nitrate concentrations of deep and shallow ground water were 2.17 and 0.73mgNO3-NL-1, respectively. 5.Deep ground water tended to be oxic (6.9mgO2L-1) but approached anoxia (0.8mgO2L-1) after passing through shallow, organic carbon-rich sediments, which suggests that the decline in the nitrate concentrations of upwelling ground water was because of denitrification. 6.Collectively, our results suggest that there is substantial nitrate removal occurring in deep sediments, below the hyporheic zone, in Emmons Creek. Our findings suggest that not accounting for nitrate removal in deep sediments could lead to underestimates of nitrogen processing in streams and catchments. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Spinal cord tolerance to single-session uniform irradiation in pigs: implications for a dose-volume effect

    PubMed Central

    Medin, Paul M; Foster, Ryan D; van der Kogel, Albert J; Sayre, James W; McBride, William H; Solberg, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study was performed to test the hypothesis that spinal cord radiosensitivity is significantly modified by uniform versus laterally non-uniform dose distributions. Materials and Methods A uniform dose distribution was delivered to a 4.5–7.0cm length of cervical spinal cord in 22 mature Yucatan minipigs for comparison with a companion study in which a laterally non-uniform dose was given[1]. Pigs were allocated into four dose groups with mean maximum spinal cord doses of 17.5±0.1 Gy(n=7), 19.5±0.2 Gy(n=6), 22.0±0.1 Gy(n=5), and 24.1±0.2 Gy(n=4). The study endpoint was motor neurologic deficit determined by a change in gait within one year. Spinal cord sections were stained with a Luxol fast blue/periodic acid Schiff combination. Results Dose-response curves for uniform versus non-uniform spinal cord irradiation were nearly identical with ED50's (95% confidence interval) of 20.2 Gy(19.1–25.8) and 20.0 Gy(18.3–21.7), respectively. No neurologic change was observed for either dose distribution when the maximum spinal cord dose was ≤17.8 Gy while all animals experienced deficits at doses ≥21.8Gy. Conclusion No dose-volume effect was observed in pigs for the dose distributions studied and the endpoint of motor neurologic deficit; however, partial spinal cord irradiation resulted in less debilitating neurologic morbidity and histopathology. PMID:22985780

  5. Filtration coefficient of the axon membrane as measured with hydrostatic and osmotic methods.

    PubMed

    Vargas, F F

    1968-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of the membranes surrounding the giant axon of the squid, Dosidicus gigas, was measured. In some axons the axoplasm was partially removed by suction. Perfusion was then established by insertion of a second pipette. In other axons the axoplasm was left intact and only one pipette was inserted. In both groups hydrostatic pressure was applied by means of a water column in a capillary manometer. Displacement of the meniscus in time gave the rate of fluid flowing across the axon sheath. In both groups osmotic differences across the membrane were established by the addition of a test molecule to the external medium which was seawater. The hydraulic conductivity determined by application of hydrostatic pressure was 10.6 +/- 0.8.10(-8) cm/sec cm H(2)O in perfused axons and 3.2 +/- 0.6.10(-8) cm/sec cm H(2)O in intact axons. When the driving force was an osmotic pressure gradient the conductivity was 4.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-10) cm/sec cm H(2)O and 4.8 +/- 0.9 x 10(-10) cm/sec cm H(2)O in perfused and intact axons, respectively. A comparable result was found when the internal solution was made hyperosmotic. The fluid flow was a linear function of the hydrostatic pressure up to 70 cm of water. Glycerol outflux and membrane conductance were increased 1.6 and 1.1 times by the application of hydrostatic pressure. These increments do not give an explanation of the difference between the filtration coefficients. Other possible explanations are suggested and discussed.

  6. Relationship between initial treatment effect of recombinant human growth hormone and exon 3 polymorphism of growth hormone receptor in Chinese children with growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhangqian; Cao, Lingfeng; Pei, Zhou; Zhi, Dijing; Zhao, Zhuhui; Xi, Li; Cheng, Ruoqian; Luo, Feihong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency distribution of exon 3 deleted (d3-GHR) genetic polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in growth hormone deficient (GHD) Chinese children and to explore the correlation between the growth promoting effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and exon 3 genetic polymorphism of GHR in GHD children. In this study, 111 GHD (excluded small for gestational age) children were treated with rhGH (0.20 mg/kg/week) for six months. The body height (Ht), body weight, bone age (BA) and growth velocity (GV) were measured before and after six months of treatment. The d3-GHR and full length GHR (fl-GHR) were analyzed to detect the frequency distribution of two isoforms and their influence on growth promoting effect of rhGH. The results indicated that the frequencies of fl/fl, fl/d3 and d3/d3 GHR genotypes were 67.6%, 18.9% and 13.5%. After six months of GH therapy, there were significant differences of ΔGV (ΔGV: 10.77±3.40 cm/year vs 12.18±3.08 cm/year) (P<0.05) and ΔHt (ΔHt: 5.38±1.70 cm vs 6.09±1.54 cm) (P<0.05) were found among GHD children with different genotypes (fl/fl vs fl/d3 and d3/d3). In conclusion, the frequency distribution of three GHR genotypes in 111 Chinese GHD children was different from that reported in Caucasian, indicating the existence of ethnic difference of exon 3 GHR polymorphism. There was a closely relationship between GHR genotypes and growth-promoting effect of rhGH in Chinese GHD children. PMID:26221355

  7. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  8. Mapping the Near-Subsurface Structure of Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J.; Campbell, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Pyroclastic deposits on the Moon are associated with a variety of settings, including domes, fractured crater floors, and rilles. Many of the largest pyroclastics, such as Aristarchus and Sulpicius Gallus are associated with rille volcanism, and mapping changes in the near-subsurface structure of these deposits can provide insight into the formation of these large deposits. This type of mapping can also highlight possible source regions. A comparison of multiple radar wavelengths (Arecibo/Green Bank 12.6 cm and 70 cm wavelength radar, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF 12.6 cm wavelength radar) with other LRO datasets (LRO Diviner and LRO Camera) has revealed changes in deposit thickness and structure around lunar rilles, including those associated with the large lunar pyroclastic deposits. For example, areas of thicker, rock-poor pyroclastics are identified that may indicate longer duration eruptions from parts of the rille. In most cases, the thickest, most block-free parts of the deposit occur near the ends of rilles. For some rilles, pyroclastics identified with radar are not visible in Diviner thermal infrared products, suggesting that there is a regolith-like surface that prevents the thermal wave from detecting deeper fine-grained materials. This upper surface could be produced by a shallow burial of the pyroclastics by regolith, or perhaps by a shift in volcanic style. Rille pyroclastics display a wide variety of correlation behaviors between the different wavelengths of data, suggesting that they have very different near-surface vertical structures. In this presentation we will focus on near-side rilles and pyroclastics in the Mare Serenitatis, Mare Vaporum, and Sinus Aestuum regions.

  9. The simulation of a storm surge and wave due to Typhoon Sarah using an integrally coupled tide-surge-wave model of the Yellow and East China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, Jin-Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Byung Ho

    2015-12-01

    The Yellow and East China Seas are characterized by shallow shelf seas, seasonal monsoons and typhoons, especially the Korean Peninsula's western coastal area, which features large tides, a complex coastline and many islands. This study implemented an integrally coupled tide-surge-wave model based on an unstructured grid to evaluate the impact of Typhoon Sarah, which occurred in September of 1959, on the Yellow and East China Seas and, specifically, the southern coast of Korea in terms of waves and storm surges. The model results projected a significant wave height of 2-7 m, a mean wave period of 4-14 sec, and positive surge heights that were 0.3-1 m along the southern coast of Korea. Additional model runs included two independent model runs for waves and tides, and one tide-surge model run was conducted to investigate the interactions in the wave, tide and storm surge processes. The coupled tide-surgewave model reasonably reproduced wave properties and storm surges, but uncoupled models, i.e. independent models, slightly overestimated waves and surges. The wave forces associated with the gradient radiation stress resulted in water being elevated into coastal regions, thereby the water elevation increased onshore and the reverse happened offshore. A possible water level change due to a storm equivalent to Typhoon Sarah in the year 2100 was estimated by considering a mean sea level rise of 70 cm and was generally in the range of 70-100 cm in the Yellow and East China Seas and approximately 68 cm along the southern coast of Korea.

  10. Neutral atom lithography with metastable helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Claire Shean

    In this dissertation we describe our performance of resist assisted neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable 23S1 Helium (He*). Metastable Helium atoms have 20 eV of internal energy making them easy to detect and able to destroy a resist. The He* is produced by a reverse flow DC discharge source and then collimated with the bichromatic force, followed by three optical molasses velocity compression stages. The atoms in the resulting beam have a mean longitudinal velocity of 1125 m/s and a divergence of 1.1 mrad. The typical beam flux is 2 x 109 atoms/mm2s through a 0.1mm diameter aperture 70 cm away from the source. The internal energy of the atoms damages the molecules of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol. The undisturbed SAM protects a 200 A layer of gold that has been evaporated onto a prepared Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Two methods are used to pattern the He* atoms before they destroy the SAM. First, a Nickel micro mesh was used to protect the SAM. These experiments established an appropriate dosage and etch time for patterning. The samples were analyzed with an atomic force microscope and found to have an edge resolution of 63 nm. Then, patterning was accomplished using the dipole force the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of lambda = 1083nm light tuned 500MHz below the 23S 1 → 23P2 transition. Depending on the intensity of the light, the He* atoms are focused or channeled into lines separated by lambda/2. The lines cover the entire exposed length of the substrate, about 3 mm. They are about 3 mm long, corresponding to about twice the beam waist of the laser standing wave. Thus there are 6 x 10 3 lines of length 5500lambda. These results agree with our numerical simulations of the experiment.

  11. Upgrade of the BATMAN test facility for H{sup −} source development

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, B. Fröschle, M.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.

    2015-04-08

    The development of a radio frequency (RF) driven source for negative hydrogen ions for the neutral beam heating devices of fusion experiments has been successfully carried out at IPP since 1996 on the test facility BATMAN. The required ITER parameters have been achieved with the prototype source consisting of a cylindrical driver on the back side of a racetrack like expansion chamber. The extraction system, called “Large Area Grid” (LAG) was derived from a positive ion accelerator from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) using its aperture size (ø 8 mm) and pattern but replacing the first two electrodes and masking down the extraction area to 70 cm2. BATMAN is a well diagnosed and highly flexible test facility which will be kept operational in parallel to the half size ITER source test facility ELISE for further developments to improve the RF efficiency and the beam properties. It is therefore planned to upgrade BATMAN with a new ITER-like grid system (ILG) representing almost one ITER beamlet group, namely 5 × 14 apertures (ø 14 mm). Additionally to the standard three grid extraction system a repeller electrode upstream of the grounded grid can optionally be installed which is positively charged against it by 2 kV. This is designated to affect the onset of the space charge compensation downstream of the grounded grid and to reduce the backstreaming of positive ions from the drift space backwards into the ion source. For magnetic filter field studies a plasma grid current up to 3 kA will be available as well as permanent magnets embedded into a diagnostic flange or in an external magnet frame. Furthermore different source vessels and source configurations are under discussion for BATMAN, e.g. using the AUG type racetrack RF source as driver instead of the circular one or modifying the expansion chamber for a more flexible position of the external magnet frame.

  12. Sensitivity of lake ice regimes to climate change in the Nordic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre, S.; Boissy, T.; Alfredsen, K.

    2014-08-01

    A one-dimensional process-based multi-year lake ice model, MyLake, was used to simulate lake ice phenology and annual maximum lake ice thickness for the Nordic region comprising Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries. The model was first tested and validated using observational meteorological forcing on a candidate lake (Lake Atnsjøen) and using downscaled ERA-40 reanalysis data set. To simulate ice conditions for the contemporary period of 1961-2000, the model was driven by gridded meteorological forcings from ERA-40 global reanalysis data downscaled to a 25 km resolution using the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA). The model was then forced with two future climate scenarios from the RCA driven by two different general circulation models (GCMs) based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B. The two climate scenarios correspond to two future time periods namely the 2050s (2041-2070) and the 2080s (2071-2100). To take into account the influence of lake morphometry, simulations were carried out for four different hypothetical lake depths (5 m, 10 m, 20 m, 40 m) placed at each of the 3708 grid cells. Based on a comparison of the mean predictions in the future 30-year periods with the control (1961-1990) period, ice cover durations in the region will be shortened by 1 to 11 weeks in 2041-2070, and 3 to 14 weeks in 2071-2100. Annual maximum lake ice thickness, on the other hand, will be reduced by a margin of up to 60 cm by 2041-2070 and up to 70 cm by 2071-2100. The simulated changes in lake ice characteristics revealed that the changes are less dependent on lake depths though there are slight differences. The results of this study provide a regional perspective of anticipated changes in lake ice regimes due to climate warming across the study area by the middle and end of this century.

  13. Spawning characteristics of redband trout in a headwater stream in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2002-01-01

    I investigated the spawning characteristics of redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) during the spring of 1998 in Basin Creek, a third-order headwater stream located in the Kootenai River drainage in northwestern Montana. I examined the timing of spawning as related to discharge and water temperature and analyzed microhabitat selection of 30 completed redds in a low-gradient (0.5–1.5%) reach. Redband trout spawned as flow declined after peak runoff and as mean daily water temperature exceeded 6.0C and maximum daily temperature exceeded 7.0C. Redband trout began spawning on 6 June (mean daily discharge = 2.1 m3/s), 10 d after the peak discharge (8.7 m3/s) occurred. The last redd was completed on 24 June, when discharge was 1.5 m3/s. The mean total redd length was 53 cm (SD = 14; range = 31–91 cm), and the mean total area was 51 cm2 (SD = 8; range= 46– 76 cm2). Eighty percent of the redds were located in pool tailouts, 13% in runs, and 7% in riffles. Spawning redband trout selected redd sites based on substrate size and water depth but not water velocity. Fish selected substrate sizes of 2–6 mm, water depths of 20–30 cm, and water velocities of 40–70 cm/s. My results suggest that redband trout in a low-gradient, third-order mountain stream found suitable spawning habitat in pool tail-outs that contained abundant gravels.

  14. DBD atmospheric plasma-modified, electrospun, layer-by-layer polymeric scaffolds for L929 fibroblast cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Surucu, Seda; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported a study related to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) Ar + O2 and Ar + N2 plasma modifications to alter surface properties of 3D PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer-by-layer hybrid scaffolds and to improve mouse fibroblast (L929 ATCC CCL-1) cell attachment, proliferation, and growth. The scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning technique and each layer was electrospun sequentially on top of the other. The surface modifications were performed with an atmospheric pressure DBD plasma under different gas flow rates (50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 sccm) and for different modification times (0.5-7 min), and then the chemical and topographical characterizations of the modified samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples modified with Ar + O2 plasma for 1 min under 70 cm(3)/min O2 flow rate (71.077° ± 3.578) showed a 18.83% decrease compare to unmodified samples' CA value (84.463° ± 3.864). Comparing with unmodified samples, the average fiber diameter values for plasma-modified samples by Ar + O2 (1 min 70 sccm) and Ar + N2 (40 s 70 sccm) increased 40.756 and 54.295%, respectively. Additionally, the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decrease of 37.699 and 48.463% for the same Ar + O2 and Ar + N2 plasma-modified samples, respectively, compare to unmodified samples. Biocompatibility performance was determined with MTT assay, fluorescence, Giemsa, and confocal imaging as well as SEM. The results showed that Ar + O2-based plasma modification increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality of the surface, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds.

  15. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    van den Oever, Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2017-07-25

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of bio-based plastics were presented, together with economic considerations. The present paper discusses the mechanical and thermal properties of a range of commercially available bio-based plastics based on polylactic acid (PLA), cellulose esters, starch and polyamides, and the feasibility of replacing fossil-based counterparts based on performance. The evaluation is approached from an end user perspective. First, potentially suitable bio-based plastics are selected based on manufacturers' specifications in technical data sheets, then a first experimental evaluation is performed on injection moulded ISO specimens, and finally a further selection of plastics is tested on large 50×70cm panels. This technical feasibility study indicates that so far bio-based plastics do not completely match the properties of high performance materials like flame retardant V-0 PC/ABS blends used in electronic devices. The performance gap is being decreased by the development of stereocomplex PLA and hybrid PLA blends with polycarbonate, which offer clearly improved properties with respect to maximum usage temperature and toughness. In addition, several materials meet the V-0 flammability requirements needed in specific durable applications. On the other hand, improving these properties so far has negative consequences for the bio-based content. This study also shows that replacement of bulk polymers like PS is feasible using PLA compounds with a bio-based content as high as 85%.

  16. A study of systematic errors in the PMD CamBoard nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Jacky C. K.; Lichti, Derek D.

    2013-04-01

    Time-of-flight-based three-dimensional cameras are the state-of-the-art imaging modality for acquiring rapid 3D position information. Unlike any other technology on the market, it can deliver 2D images co-located with distance information at every pixel location, without any shadows. Recent technological advancements have begun miniaturizing such technology to be more suitable for laptops and eventually cellphones. This paper explores the systematic errors inherent to the new PMD CamBoard nano camera. As the world's most compact 3D time-of-flight camera it has applications in a wide domain, such as gesture control and facial recognition. To model the systematic errors, a one-step point-based and plane-based bundle adjustment method is used. It simultaneously estimates all systematic errors and unknown parameters by minimizing the residuals of image measurements, distance measurements, and amplitude measurements in a least-squares sense. The presented self-calibration method only requires a standard checkerboard target on a flat plane, making it a suitable candidate for on-site calibration. In addition, because distances are only constrained to lie on a plane, the raw pixel-by-pixel distance observations can be used. This makes it possible to increase the number of distance observations in the adjustment with ease. The results from this paper indicate that amplitude dependent range errors are the dominant error source for the nano under low scattering imaging configurations. Post user self-calibration, the RMSE of the range observations reduced by almost 50%, delivering range measurements at a precision of approximately 2.5cm within a 70cm interval.

  17. Variations of common riverine contaminants in reservoir sediments.

    PubMed

    Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Hofmann, T

    2013-08-01

    Organic molecules in reservoir sediments can be used as tracers of contaminant inputs into rivers. Vertical variations in the molecular records can be ascribed to pre-depositional alteration within the water column, or in situ post-depositional alteration. We report the molecular stratigraphy of four common riverine contaminant groups in sediment of the largest reservoir on the Danube River, the Iron Gate I Reservoir. Sediments were rapidly deposited, with little variation in texture and, as revealed by analytical pyrolysis, in the concentration and composition of natural sedimentary organic matter. However, a detailed molecular inspection did reveal differences in distribution and organic carbon (OC)-normalized concentrations of contaminants. The OC-normalized concentrations of nonylphenol increased by one order of magnitude with depth down the 70 cm sediment core. There is a strong correlation between sediment depth and the ratio of nonylphenol to its precursor (nonylphenol monoethoxylate). This indicated that nonylphenol was produced in situ. While the relative proportions of C10-C14 linear alkylbenzenes remained constant with increasing depth, they exhibited variations in isomer distribution. These variations, which are due to different degrees of degradation, appear to have occurred within the water column prior to sedimentation of suspended solids. The distribution of 40 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons revealed origins from both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The differences in their compositions were not depth-related, but rather were associated with variations in the sorption capacities of texturally different sediments. Perylene showed slightly higher concentrations at greater depths, while the OC-normalized concentration of retene systematically increased with sediment depth. This is consistent with formation of retene and perylene via very early diagenetic transformation. The presence of petroleum biomarkers indicated minor contamination by fossil

  18. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - Phase 2 Hardware System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; McFadin, L.; Bruninga, B.; Watarikawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) ham radio system has been on-orbit for over 3 years. Since its first use in November 2000, the first seven expedition crews and three Soyuz taxi crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the Functional Cargo Block (also referred to as the FGB or Zarya module) to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early on, the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) international team devised a multi-phased hardware development approach for the ISS ham radio station. Three internal development Phases. Initial Phase 1, Mobile Radio Phase 2 and Permanently Mounted Phase 3 plus an externally mounted system, were proposed and agreed to by the ARISS team. The Phase 1 system hardware development which was started in 1996 has since been delivered to ISS. It is currently operational on 2 meters. The 70 cm system is expected to be installed and operated later this year. Since 2001, the ARISS international team have worked to bring the second generation ham system, called Phase 2, to flight qualification status. At this time, major portions of the Phase 2 hardware system have been delivered to ISS and will soon be installed and checked out. This paper intends to provide an overview of the Phase 1 system for background and then describe the capabilities of the Phase 2 radio system. It will also describe the current plans to finalize the Phase 1 and Phase 2 testing in Russia and outlines the plans to bring the Phase 2 hardware system to full operation.

  19. Firn and percolation conditions in the vicinity of recently formed high elevation supra-glacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet assessed by airborne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Peña, S.; Howat, I. M.; Chen, C.; Price, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The western region of the Greenland Ice Sheet around and above the equilibrium line is characterized by relatively high accumulation rates with short-lasting melt events of variable intensity during the summer months. During melt season, supra-glacial lakes are formed at least temporarily in depressions found in the topography of the ice. These ponds can form and drain rapidly, affecting the dynamics of the ice below. Recent warming trends have gradually increased the amount of meltwater found every summer over the ice sheet, with melt regimes migrating to higher altitudes. Consequentially, supra-glacial lakes are being found at higher elevations, yet it is unclear what mechanisms control their formation over firn. We used data from different radar systems acquired by Operation Icebridge around and over lakes formed above the equilibrium line of the Greenland Ice Sheet to study internal features of identified frozen/drained supra-glacial lakes, and to investigate near-surface snow and firn conditions in the vicinity of the ponds by radar-mapping internal snowpack structure. Airborne radar and additional field observations revealed extensive and impermeable ice layers 20-70 cm thick formed at elevations between 1500 m and 2200 m. Buried by winter accumulation, these ice layers prevent further meltwater to percolate deeper during melt season, limiting firn capacity to absorb meltwater and causing near-surface snowpack saturation, thus facilitating the transport of meltwater to newly-formed basins above the equilibrium line. Ice penetrating capabilities from the different radar systems allow the survey of different firn layers and internal features created by refrozen meltwater. IceBridge data is acquired in early spring, when no liquid water content is found over this region ensuring adequate radar response.

  20. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR ( P < 0.05) and greater rest time (10.2 and 7.8 h/day in SAMM and STLM, respectively). The RT did not differ (38.89 ± 0.29 and 38.88 ± 0.33°C in STLM and SAMM r,espectively). In conclusion, our research suggests that the cooling system using fans plus misters with mild wetting in rest areas with sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  1. The role of prokaryotes in subsurface weathering of hydrothermal sediments: A combined geochemical and microbiological investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severmann, Silke; Mills, Rachel A.; Palmer, Martin R.; Telling, Jon P.; Cragg, Barry; John Parkes, R.

    2006-04-01

    A detailed geochemical and microbiological study of a ˜2 m sediment core from the inactive Alvin mounds within the TAG hydrothermal field was conducted to examine, for the first time, the role of prokaryotes in subsurface weathering of hydrothermal sediments. Results show that there has been substantial post-depositional remobilisation of metal species and diagenetic overprinting of the original high-temperature hydrothermal minerals, and aspects have involved prokaryotic processes. Prokaryotic enumeration demonstrates the presence of a population smaller than the average for deep sea sediments, probably due to the low organic carbon content, but not inhibited by (and hence adapted to) the metal rich environment. There was a small but significant increase in population size associated with the active redox boundary in an upper metal sulphide layer (50-70 cm) around which active metal remobilisation was concentrated (Cu, Au, Cd, Ag, U, Zn and Zn). Hence, subsurface prokaryotes were potentially obtaining energy from metal metabolism in this near surface zone. Close association of numbers of culturable Mn and Fe reducing prokaryotes with subsurface Fe 2+ and Mn 2+ pore water profiles suggested active prokaryotic metal reduction at depth in core CD102/43 (to ˜175 cm). In addition, a prokaryotic mechanism, which is associated with bacterial sulphate reduction, is invoked to explain the U enrichment on pyrite surfaces and Zn and Pb remobilisation in the upper sediment. Although prokaryotic populations are present throughout this metalliferous sediment, thermodynamic calculations indicated that the inferred low pH of pore waters and the suboxic/anoxic conditions limits the potential energy available from Fe(II) oxidation, which may restrict prokaryotic chemolithotrophic biomass. This suggests that intense prokaryotic Fe oxidation and weathering of seafloor massive sulphide deposits may be restricted to the upper portion of the deposit that is influenced by near neutral

  2. [Meckel's diverticulum duplication. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Blando-Ramírez, Juan Salvador; Ocádiz-Carrasco, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Padilla, Ruth Alicia; Vicencio-Tovar, Alfredo; Ricardez-García, José Abenamar

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el divertículo de Meckel es la anomalía congénita más común del tubo digestivo. El diagnóstico preoperatorio es difícil de establecer, por su variable presentación clínica. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 61 años de edad, con antecedente de cuadros de oclusión intestinal repetitivos ocho meses antes de nuestra valoración. En el último internamiento tuvo: desequilibrio hidroelectrolítico, dolor persistente y falta de respuesta al tratamiento médico; por esto se le realizó una laparotomía exploradora que descartó el síndrome adherencial, y como hallazgo dos defectos diverticulares a 40 y 70 cm de la válvula ileocecal, con torsión sobre su eje. El reporte histopatológico confirmó la existencia de dos divertículos de Meckel con cambios de tipo inflamatorio hemorrágico y mucosa gástrica heterotópica de tipo antral. Conclusión: la duplicación del divertículo de Meckel es un hallazgo raro, con solo nueve casos publicados en la bibliografía internacional. El diagnóstico se realiza, frecuentemente, como hallazgo transoperatorio. El tratamiento del divertículo sintomático es quirúrgico; sin embargo, en el asintomático existe controversia y depende del criterio del cirujano y de las características propias de cada paciente.

  3. Volumetric analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Kevin M.; Kusnick, Catherine A.; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Lang, Elvira V.; Corson, J. D.; Stanford, William; Thompson, Brad H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms, using volumetric analysis of x-ray computed tomographic data. This study evaluates illustrative cases, and compares measurements of AAA phantoms, using standard 2D versus volumetric methods. To validate the volumetric analysis, four phantom aneurysms were constructed in a range of diameters (4.5 - 7.0 cm) which presents the greatest management challenge to the clinician. These phantoms were imaged using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical CT. Separate scans were obtained at conventional (10 mm X 10 mm) and thin slice (5 mm X 5 mm) collimations. The thin slices were reconstructed at 2 mm intervals. Data from each of the 96 scans were interpreted using a standard 2D approach, then analyzed using task-oriented volumetric software. We evaluate patient assessments, and compare greatest outer diameters of phantoms, by standard versus volumetric methods. Qualitative differences between solutions based on standard versus volumetric analysis of illustrative patient cases are substantial. Expert radiologists' standard measurements of phantom aneurysms are highly reliable (r2 equals 0.901 - 0.958; p < 0.001), but biased toward significant overestimation of aneurysm diameters in the range of clinical interest. For the same phantoms, volumetric analysis was both more reliable (r2 equals 0.986 - 0.996; p < 0.001), and more accurate, with no significant bias in the range of interest. Volumetric analysis promotes selection of more valid management strategies, by providing vital information not otherwise available, and allowing more reliable and accurate assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is particularly valuable in the presence of aortic tortuosity, vessel eccentricity, and uncertain involvement of critical vessels.

  4. A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Nathalie; Jalil, Nour-Eddine; de Lapparent de Broin, France; Germain, Damien; Lambert, Olivier; Amaghzaz, Mbarek

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250–65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles. Principal Findings A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles. Conclusion/Significance The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late

  5. Upgrade of the BATMAN test facility for H- source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, B.; Fröschle, M.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.

    2015-04-01

    The development of a radio frequency (RF) driven source for negative hydrogen ions for the neutral beam heating devices of fusion experiments has been successfully carried out at IPP since 1996 on the test facility BATMAN. The required ITER parameters have been achieved with the prototype source consisting of a cylindrical driver on the back side of a racetrack like expansion chamber. The extraction system, called "Large Area Grid" (LAG) was derived from a positive ion accelerator from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) using its aperture size (ø 8 mm) and pattern but replacing the first two electrodes and masking down the extraction area to 70 cm2. BATMAN is a well diagnosed and highly flexible test facility which will be kept operational in parallel to the half size ITER source test facility ELISE for further developments to improve the RF efficiency and the beam properties. It is therefore planned to upgrade BATMAN with a new ITER-like grid system (ILG) representing almost one ITER beamlet group, namely 5 × 14 apertures (ø 14 mm). Additionally to the standard three grid extraction system a repeller electrode upstream of the grounded grid can optionally be installed which is positively charged against it by 2 kV. This is designated to affect the onset of the space charge compensation downstream of the grounded grid and to reduce the backstreaming of positive ions from the drift space backwards into the ion source. For magnetic filter field studies a plasma grid current up to 3 kA will be available as well as permanent magnets embedded into a diagnostic flange or in an external magnet frame. Furthermore different source vessels and source configurations are under discussion for BATMAN, e.g. using the AUG type racetrack RF source as driver instead of the circular one or modifying the expansion chamber for a more flexible position of the external magnet frame.

  6. SU-D-201-01: Attenuation of PET/CT Gantries with 511 KeV Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: PET shielding requires the use of large amounts of lead because of the penetrating nature of 511 keV photons. While the uptake rooms generally require the thickest lead, the scan room often requires substantial shielding. Attenuation by the PET/CT gantry is normally assumed to be zero, but may be significant in directions perpendicular to the scanner axis. Methods: A 5 mL tube was filled with between 14.7 and 20.5 mCi of F-18 and inserted into a phantom (70 cm NEMA PET Scatter Phantom). Exposure rates were recorded at several distances and 15° intervals with a pressurized ionization chamber (Ludlum 9DP) both with the phantom outside the gantry and centered in the CT and PET acquisition positions. These measurements were repeated with three scanners: Siemens Biograph TruePoint 6, GE Optima 560, and Philips Gemini 64. Measurements were decay corrected and normalized to exposure rates outside the gantry to calculate percent transmission. Results: Between 45° to 135° (measured from the patient bed at 0°), average transmission was about 20% for GE, 35% for Philips, and 30% for Siemens. The CT gantry was roughly twice as attenuating as the PET gantry at 90° for all three manufacturers, with about 10% transmission through the CT gantry and 20% through the PET gantry. Conclusion: The Philips system is a split-gantry and therefore has a narrower angle of substantial attenuation. For the GE and Siemens systems, which are single-gantry design, transmission was relatively constant once the angle was sufficient to block line-of-sight from the phantom. While the patient may spend a greater fraction of time at the PET position of the scanner, transmission characteristics of the two components are similar enough to be treated collectively. For shielding angles between 45° and 135°, a reasonably conservative assumption would be to assume gantry transmission of 50%.

  7. Geodynamic modeling of the capture and release of a plume conduit by a migrating mid-ocean ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    plates over the relatively stationary, long-lived conduits of mantle plumes. However, paleomagnetic data from the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain suggests that the Hawaiian hotspot moved rapidly (~40 mm/yr) between 81 - 47 Ma [Tarduno et al., 2003]. Recently, Tarduno et al. [2009] suggested that this period of rapid motion might be the surface expression of a plume conduit returning to a largely vertical orientation after having been captured and tilted as the result of being "run over" by migrating mid-ocean ridge. I report on a series of analog geodynamic experiments designed to characterize the evolution of a plume conduit as a mid-ocean ridge migrates over. Experiments were conducted in a clear acrylic tank (100 cm x 70 cm x 50 cm) filled with commercial grade high-fructose corn syrup. Plate-driven flow is modeled by dragging two sheets of Mylar film (driven by independent DC motors) in opposite directions over the surface of the fluid. Ridge migration is achieved by moving the point at which the mylar sheets diverge using a separate motor drive. Buoyant plume flow is generated using a small electrical heater placed at the bottom of the tank. Plate velocities and ridge migration rate are controlled and plume temperature monitored using LabView software. Experiments are recorded using digital video which is then analyzed using digital image analysis software to track the position and shape of the plume conduit throughout the course of the experiment. The intersection of the plume conduit with the surface of the fluid is taken as an analog for the locus of hotspot volcanism and tracked as a function of time to obtain a hotspot migration rate. Results show that the plume conduit experiences significant tilting immediately following the passage of the migrating ridge.

  8. Repeated sedimentation and exposure of glacial Lake Missoula sediments: A lake-level history at Garden Gulch, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Larry N.

    2017-01-01

    Glaciolacustrine sediments record lake transgression, regression, and subaerial modification of the silty lake-bottom of glacial Lake Missoula in the Clark Fork River valley. The sequence preserved at Garden Gulch, MT documents lake-level fluctuations at >65% of its full-pool volume. Twelve sedimentary cycles fine upwards from (1) very fine-grained sandy silt to (2) silt with climbing ripples to (3) rhythmically laminated silt and some clay. The cycles are fine-grained turbidites capped locally by thin layers of angular gravel derived from local bedrock outcrops. The gravels appear to be the toes of mass wasting lobes carried onto the exposed lakebed surface during repeated lake-level lowerings. Periglacial wedges, small rotational faults, involutions, and clastic dikes deform the tops of eleven cycles. The wedges are 10-30 cm wide, penetrate 30-70 cm deep, are spaced <1 m apart, and contain vertically oriented gravel and massive to laminated sediment. Wedges split and taper in plan view. A few thin silt-filled dikes, which branch and taper downwards from wedges, are interpreted as filled frost cracks. One 10-20 cm-wide sand-filled dike protrudes upward from a sand bed; it is interpreted as a liquefaction feature consistent with a filling and draining lake. The deformed cycle tops preserve evidence of periglacial cold, subaerial exposure, seasonal frost heave, and the incipient formation of sorted polygons. The lowest five cycles are thicker and display more periglacial modification at their tops than the upper seven cycles. The Garden Gulch section may represent as few as seven and as many as twelve substantial fillings and partial to complete drainings of glacial Lake Missoula.

  9. Soil matrix and macropore biodegradation of 2,4-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pivetz, B.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Preferential flow of pesticides in macropores can lead to decreased travel times through the vadose zone and increased groundwater contamination. Macropores, however, may present a favorable environment for biodegradation because of greater oxygen, nutrient, and substrate supply, and higher microbial populations in earthworm burrows, compared to the soil matrix. The biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was measured in macropores and soil matrix of packed soil columns (7.0-cm diam., 10-cm length) and undisturbed cores contained as well-defined artificial macropore and the undisturbed cores contained earthworm-burrow macropores. A 50 {mu}g/L 2,4-D solution was continuously applied to the unsaturated soil surface and breakthrough curves (BTCs) indicating pesticide loss in the effluent were obtained from the soil matrix and macropore flow paths. Biodegradation rates were calculated separately for each flow path by comparing the BTCs to BTCs representing abiotic conditions, and dividing the 2,4-D loss by the travel time through each flow path. The biodegradation rates increased with time in both flow paths, and the final biodegradation rate in the macropore region surpassed that of the matrix, presumably because of increased microbial populations in the macropore. Complete loss of the 2,4-D in both flow paths was observed after continuous application of 2,4-D for 400 h, with maximum column-averaged 2,4-D loss rates of 0.879 {mu}g/(L h) in the matrix and 1.073 {mu}g/(L h) in the macropore. Biodegradation of 2,4-D was also observed in the macropore and matrix regions of the undisturbed soil cores. 19 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Capillary permeability of /sup 131/I-albumin in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Sejrsen, P.; Paaske, W.P.; Henriksen, O.

    1985-05-01

    Capillary permeability of /sup 131/I-albumin in skeletal muscle was determined by applying the ''single injection, residue detection'' method to the autoperfused cat gastrocnemius muscle preparation. Experiments at zero venous pressure gave an average capillary extraction fraction, E, of 0.028 at a plasma flow of about 3 ml X (100 g)-1 X min-1. The permeability-surface area product, PS, was on average 0.075 ml X (100 g)-1 X min-1. Experiments at a venous pressure of 10 mm Hg gave essentially the same PS product (0.070 ml X (100 g)-1 X min-1. Further experiments demonstrated that stagnant intravascular pools of /sup 131/I-albumin were not present. The free diffusion coefficient in water at 37 degrees of the purified /sup 131/I-albumin was 0.0631 X 10-5 cm2 X sec-1). The distribution volume for /sup 131/I-albumin in the interstitial space was 3.5 ml X (100 g)-1 X sec-1. Assuming a capillary surface area of 70 cm2 X g-1 the permeability coefficient was calculated to be 18 X 10(-8) cm X sec-1 which is about 3 to 10 times higher than values obtained by lymph sampling methods. The results indicate that the predominant transcapillary transport mechanism for /sup 131/I-albumin is diffusion. When analyzed according to the theory of restricted diffusion the results are compatible with transcapillary diffusion through pores with an effective equivalent pore radius of 145 A.

  11. The transcriptional response of microbial communities in thawing Alaskan permafrost soils.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Marco J L; Orsi, William D

    2015-01-01

    Thawing of permafrost soils is expected to stimulate microbial decomposition and respiration of sequestered carbon. This could, in turn, increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and create a positive feedback to climate warming. Recent metagenomic studies suggest that permafrost has a large metabolic potential for carbon processing, including pathways for fermentation and methanogenesis. Here, we performed a pilot study using ultrahigh throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing of reverse transcribed messenger RNA to obtain a detailed overview of active metabolic pathways and responsible organisms in up to 70 cm deep permafrost soils at a moist acidic tundra location in Arctic Alaska. The transcriptional response of the permafrost microbial community was compared before and after 11 days of thaw. In general, the transcriptional profile under frozen conditions suggests a dominance of stress responses, survival strategies, and maintenance processes, whereas upon thaw a rapid enzymatic response to decomposing soil organic matter (SOM) was observed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, ascomycete fungi, and methanogens were responsible for largest transcriptional response upon thaw. Transcripts indicative of heterotrophic methanogenic pathways utilizing acetate, methanol, and methylamine were found predominantly in the permafrost table after thaw. Furthermore, transcripts involved in acetogenesis were expressed exclusively after thaw suggesting that acetogenic bacteria are a potential source of acetate for acetoclastic methanogenesis in freshly thawed permafrost. Metatranscriptomics is shown here to be a useful approach for inferring the activity of permafrost microbes that has potential to improve our understanding of permafrost SOM bioavailability and biogeochemical mechanisms contributing to greenhouse gas emissions as a result of permafrost thaw.

  12. Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Shuntaro; Hirotani, Masako; Koike, Takahiko; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Takahashi, Haruka K.; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    People’s behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction—two individuals influencing one another—or in one direction—one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another’s head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR), the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one’s postural sway is explained by that of the other’s and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded) interacts with paired participants’ postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the behavioral

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Long-term photometry of pre-MS stars (Poljancic Beljan+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poljancic Beljan, I.; Jurdana-Sepic, R.; Semkov, E. H.; Ibryamov, S.; Peneva, S. P.; Tsvetkov, M. K.

    2014-06-01

    We carried out a CCD BVRI photometric observational program for 17 stars (finding chart in Fig. 1) in the field of V2493 Cyg ("Gulf of Mexico"). The star sample was extracted from the SIMBAD astronomical database. The observational material comes from (i) the whole photographic plate stack preserved at Asiago Observatory (Italy) and the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen (Bulgaria); from (ii) digitized plates from the Palomar Schmidt telescope; and (iii) several scanned plates from the Schmidt telescope of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (Armenia). The CCD photometric observations were performed with the 2m RCC, the 50/70cm Schmidt and the 60cm Cassegrain telescopes of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen (Bulgaria) and the 1.3m RC telescope of the Skinakas Observatory1 of the Institute of Astronomy, University of Crete (Greece). More observational and technical details are given in Semkov et al. (2012, Cat. J/A+A/542/A43). All frames were exposed through a set of standard Johnson-Cousins filters. The time span covers almost 60 years, from 1954 to 2013; see table 2: -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Observatory/Telescope Medium Nobs Time span -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Asiago Schmidt 67/92 & 40/50 photogr. plates 198 30/08/1962-18/11/1998 Palomar Schmidt photogr. plates 6 5/07/1954-12/09/1994 Byurakan Schmidt 100/130 photogr. plates 6 28/08/1973-22/06/1977 Rozhen Schmidt 50/70 photogr. plates 4 18/06/1980-11/01/1991 Rozhen Schmidt and Cass. CCD 105 29/10/2000-06/03/2013 Skinakas 1.3m CCD 91 14/06/2000-22/09/2012 Rozhen 2m RCC CCD 35 1/06/1997-04/05/2013 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3 data files).

  14. SU-E-T-148: Efficient Verification Method for Modulated Electron Radiotherapy Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Henzen, D; Chatelain, C; Manser, P; Frei, D; Volken, W; Joosten, A; Loessl, K; Aebersold, D M; Fix, M K; Neuenschwander, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For shallow tumors, modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) promises a reduction of dose to distal organs at risk. At our institution a framework was developed in order to create treatment plans for MERT employing both forward and inverse optimization. In this work, an efficient quality assurance (QA) process is established. Methods: Treatment plans for three different tumor sites were created using an inverse optimization. These plans consist of 6–12 segments and energies between 6 and 18 MeV. An already established QA process for photon IMRT plans is now extended to additionally handle MERT plans. First, the dose distributions are calculated in a homogenous water phantom. For this task a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) framework for MERT is used. Second, the segments are applied on a stand-alone amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) using a source-to-surface distance of 70 cm. This device was calibrated for electron beams in a previous work. An in-house developed analysis software, is then utilized for comparisons and evaluation of the measured and calculated dose distributions. Results: For all three plans the calculated dose distributions agree well with the measured ones. Using a 2D gamma comparison (2% of dose max/2 mm and 10% dose threshold) passing rates >98% are achieved.The dose calculation for each plan on the water phantom, using voxels of 0.2×0.2×0.2 cm{sup 3}, takes at maximum 30 min on a single core Pentium 2.66 GHz system with 6 GB RAM, to reach a statistical uncertainty of 2% (1 std. dev.). Conclusion: An already established QA procedure for IMRT photon plans was applied for MERT. The dedicated MC framework and the use of EPID measurements allow an efficient QA procedure in a clinical environment. This work was supported by Varian Medical Systems.

  15. Modified Open-door Laminoplasty Using Hydroxyapatite Spacers and Miniplates

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Bum-Joon; Choi, Jong-Il; Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Lim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cervical laminoplasty has been widely accepted as one of the major treatments for cervical myelopathy and various modifications and supplementary procedures have been devised to achieve both proper decompression and stability of the cervical spine. We present the retrospectively analyzed results of a modified unilateral open-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers and malleable titanium miniplates. Methods From June 2008 to May 2012, among patients diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, the patients who received laminoplasty were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed using Frankel grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. The radiologic parameters were obtained from plain films, 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Results A total of 125 cervical laminae were operated in 38 patients. 11 patients received 4-level laminoplasty and 27 patients received 3-level laminoplasty. Postoperatively, the mean Frankel grade and JOA score were significantly improved from 3.97 to 4.55 and from 12.76 to 14.63, respectively (p<0.001). Radiologically, cervical curvature was worsened from 19.09 to 15.60 (p=0.025). The percentage of range of motion preservation was 73.32±22.39%. The axial dimension of the operated spinal canal was increased from 1.75 to 2.70 cm2 (p<0.001). Conclusion In the presenting study, unilateral open-door laminoplasty using HA spacers and miniplates appears to be a safe, rapid and easy procedure to obtain an immediate and rigid stabilization of the posterior elements of the cervical spine. This modified laminoplasty method showed effective expansion of the spinal canal and favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:25346767

  16. Pneumatic and Percussive Penetration Approaches for Heat Flow Probe Emplacement on Robotic Lunar Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Nagihara, S.; Hedlund, M.; Paulsen, G.; Shasho, J.; Mumm, E.; Kumar, N.; Szwarc, T.; Chu, P.; Craft, J.; Taylor, P.; Milam, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the development of heat flow probes for measuring the geothermal gradient and conductivity of lunar regolith are presented. These two measurements are the required information for determining the heat flow of a planetary body. Considering the Moon as an example, heat flow properties are very important information for studying the radiogenic isotopes, the thermal evolution and differentiation history, and the mechanical properties of the interior. In order to obtain the best measurements, the sensors must be extended to a depth of at least 3 m, i.e. beyond the depth of significant thermal cycles. Two approaches to heat flow deployment and measurement are discussed in this paper: a percussive approach and a pneumatic approach. The percussive approach utilizes a high frequency hammer to drive a cone penetrometer into the lunar simulant. Ring-like thermal sensors (heaters and temperature sensors) on the penetrometer rod are deployed into the simulant every 30 cm as the penetrometer penetrates to the required 3 m depth. Once the target depth has been achieved, the deployment rod is removed from the simulant, eliminating any thermal path to the lander. The pneumatic approach relies on pressurized gas to excavate, using a cone-shaped nozzle to penetrate the simulant. The nozzle is attached to a coiled stem with thermal sensors embedded along the length of the stem. As the simulant is being lofted out of the hole by the escaping gas, the stem is progressively reeled out from a spool, thus moving the cone deeper into the hole. Thermal conductivity is measured using a needle probe attached to the end of the cone. Breadboard prototypes of these two heat flow probe systems have been constructed and successfully tested under lunar-like conditions to approximately 70 cm, which was the maximum possible depth allowed by the size of the test bin and the chamber.

  17. Focal Hydrothermal Ablation: Preliminary Investigation of a New Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sumit

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo determine whether focal tissue ablation is possible with interstitial instillation of steam.MethodsFresh swine livers were used. Through a 20 gauge needle, steam was instilled every 5 s, 3 (n = 5), 6 (n = 5), 9 (n = 5), or 12 (n = 5 + 5) times in a liver lobe. The ablated zones were sectioned parallel (n = 20) or perpendicular (n = 5) to the needle track. The longitudinal long and short axis diameters, or transverse long and short axis diameters of areas with discoloration on macroscopic examination, were measured. The experiment was repeated in vivo on a pig. Steam instillation was performed once every 5 s for 5 min in the liver (n = 3) and in muscle (n = 4), and temperature changes at three neighboring sites were monitored. Long and short axis diameters of the discolored areas were measured.ResultsA well-defined area of discoloration was invariably present at the site of steam instillation. The median longitudinal long axis diameter were 2.0, 2.5, 2.5, and 3.5 cm for 3, 6, 9, and 12 steam instillations in vitro, while median short axis diameters were 1.0, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.5 cm, respectively. Six attempts at ablation in vivo could be successfully completed. The long axis diameters of the ablated zones in the liver were 7.0 and 8.0 cm, while in muscle it ranged from 5.5 to 7.0 cm.ConclusionInstillation of steam in the liver in vitro and in vivo, and in muscle in vivo rapidly leads to circumscribed zones of coagulation necrosis.

  18. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p < 4.3 × 10(-5), standard t-test) in distance estimation. Each sensor unit can detect an object with a surface area as small as 1 cm(2) (1 cm × 1 cm) located 70 cm away. Our results showed that the walking speed for an obstacle course was increased by 23% on average when subjects used the Wearable Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test).

  19. OPTICAL MONITORING OF TWO BRIGHTEST NEARBY QUASARS, PHL 1811 AND 3C 273

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, Y. H.; Kurtanidze, O.; Chanishvili, R.; Richter, G. M.

    2014-08-01

    Variability is one of the most observable characteristics of active galactic nuclei, and it is important when considering the emission mechanism. In this paper, we report optical photometry monitoring of two nearby brightest quasars, PHL 1811 and 3C 273, using the ST-6 camera attached to the Newtonian focus and the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at the Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. PHL 1811 was monitored during the period from 2002 September to 2012 December, while 3C 273 was monitored during the period from 1998 February to 2008 May. During our monitoring period, the two sources did not show any significant intra-day variability. The largest detected variations are ΔR = 0.112 ± 0.010 mag. for PHL 1811, ΔB = 0.595 ± 0.099 mag, ΔV = 0.369 ± 0.028 mag, ΔR = 0.495 ± 0.076 mag, and ΔI = 0.355 ± 0.009 mag for 3C 273. When the periodicity analysis methods are adopted for the observations of the sources, a period of p = 5.80 ± 1.12 yr is obtained for PHL 1811 in the R light curve in the present work, and periods of p = 21.10 ± 0.14, 10.00 ± 0.14, 7.30 ± 0.09, 13.20 ± 0.09, 2.10 ± 0.06, and 0.68 ± 0.05 yr are obtained for 3C 273 based on the data in the present work combined with historical works.

  20. Measuring Deformation in Jakarta through Long Term Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustan; Sulaiman, Albertus; Ito, Takeo

    2016-11-01

    Jakarta as a home for more than 10 millions habitant facing complex environmental problems due to physical development that cause physical deformation. Physical deformation issues such as decreasing environmental carrying capacity, land cover changes and land subsidence have occurred. Recent studies shows that the long of shoreline changes in a span of 13 years from 2002 to 2015 around 14 km due to land reclamation in Jakarta bay. Previous studies also concluded that Jakarta suffer a sinking phenomena due to its rapid subsidence rate, approximately 260 mm/year in northern part of Jakarta. During the 2007 to 2011, the land subsidence phenomena in Jakarta was observed by InSAR based on ALOS-PALSAR data and found that the subsided areas only occurred in certain areas, mainly in Pluit and Cengkareng regions, with a subsidence of approximately 70 cm for 4 years. Land subsidence is generally related to geological subsidence i.e. sediment consolidation due to its own weight and tectonic movements; or related to human activities such as withdrawal of ground water and geothermal fluid, oil and gas extraction from underground reservoirs, and collapse of underground mines. The amount of subsidence or uplift can be estimated from the number of concentric fringes that appear in the interferogram. This research utilizes Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data observed from ALOS-2 (L-band) and Sentinel-1 (C-band) satellites. By interfering two single look complex (SLC) images from different observation epoch, it is found that the subsided area that has been identified before continues to subside. This occurs especially in Pluit region and has been revealed by interfering ALOS-2 data up to year 2016. The deformation in this area is approximately 12 cm from November 2015 to September 2016. The process of land reclamation also clearly identified by Sentinel-1 image by series data processing in Sentinels Application Platform (SNAP) software.

  1. Pattern and dynamics of biomass stock in old growth forests: The role of habitat and tree size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zuoqiang; Gazol, Antonio; Wang, Xugao; Lin, Fei; Ye, Ji; Zhang, Zhaochen; Suo, YanYan; Kuang, Xu; Wang, Yunyun; Jia, Shihong; Hao, Zhanqing

    2016-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play a fundamental role in the global carbon cycle. However, how stand-level changes in tree age and structure influence biomass stock and dynamics in old-growth forests is a question that remains unclear. In this study, we quantified the aboveground biomass (AGB) standing stock, the coarse woody productivity (CWP), and the change in biomass over ten years (2004-2014) in a 25 ha unmanaged broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in northeastern China. In addition, we quantified how AGB stock and change (tree growth, recruitment and mortality) estimations are influenced by the variation in habitat heterogeneity, tree size structure and subplot size. Our analysis indicated that Changbai forest had AGB of 265.4 Mg ha-1 in 2004, and gained1.36 Mg ha-1 y-1 between 2004 and 2014. Despite recruitment having better performance in nutrient rich habitat, we found that there is a directional tree growth trend independent of habitat heterogeneity for available nutrients in this old growth forest. The observed increases in AGB stock (∼70%) are mainly attributed to the growth of intermediate size trees (30-70 cm DBH), indicating that this forest is still reaching its mature stage. Meanwhile, we indicated that biomass loss due to mortality reduces living biomass, not increment, may be the primary factor to affect forest biomass dynamics in this area. Also, spatial variation in forest dynamics is large for small sizes (i.e. coefficient of variation in 20 × 20 m subplots is 53.2%), and more than 90 percent of the inherent variability of these coefficients was predicted by a simple model including plot size. Our result provides a mean by which to estimate within-plot variability at a local scale before inferring any directional change in forest dynamics at a regional scale, and information about the variability of forest structure and dynamics are fundamental to design effective sampling strategies in future study.

  2. Thermographic analysis and autonomic response in the hands of patients with leprosy*

    PubMed Central

    Cavalheiro, Aretusa Lopes; da Costa, Debora Tacon; de Menezes, Ana Luiza Ferro; Pereira, Janser Moura; de Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Low temperatures and slow blood flow may result from peripheral neuropathy caused by leprosy, and the simple detection of cold fingers could already be a preliminary classification for these patients. Objective To investigate whether infrared thermography would be able to measure this change in temperature in the hands of people with leprosy. Method The study assessed 17 leprosy patients who were under treatment at the National Reference Center for Sanitary Dermatology and Leprosy, Uberlândia/MG, and 15 people without leprosy for the control group. The infrared camera FLIR A325 and Therma CAM Researcher Professional 2.9 software were used to measure the temperature. The room was air-conditioned, maintaining the temperature at 25°C; the distance between the camera and the limb was 70 cm. The vasomotor reflex of patients was tested by a cold stress on the palm. Results The study showed a significant interaction between the clinical form of leprosy and temperature, where the control group and the borderline-borderline form revealed a higher initial temperature, while borderline-lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy showed a lower temperature. Regarding vasomotor reflex, lepromatous leprosy patients were unable to recover the initial temperature after cold stress, while those with the borderline-tuberculoid form not only recovered but exceeded the initial temperature. Conclusion Thermography proved a potential tool to assist in the early detection of neuropathies, helping in the prevention of major nerve damage and the installation of deformities and disabilities that are characteristic of leprosy. PMID:27438192

  3. Coronary flow and oxidative stress during local anaphylactic reaction in isolated mice heart: the role of nitric oxide (NO).

    PubMed

    Milicic, Vesna; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Jeremic, Nevena; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Djuric, Dragan; Jakovljevic, Vladimir Lj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cardiac anaphylaxis regarding changes in coronary reactivity and oxidative status of the mice heart. The animals were divided into two groups: experimental group (CBA, iNOS(-/-) mice) and control group: wild-type mice (CBA/H). The hearts of male mice (n = 24; 6-8 weeks old, body mass 20-25 g, 12 in each experimental group) were excised and retrogradely perfused according to the Langendorff technique at a constant perfusion pressure (70 cm H2O). Cardiac anaphylaxis was elicited by injection of solution (1 mg/1 ml) of ovalbumin into the aortic cannula. For the next 10 min, in intervals of 2 min (0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10 min) coronary flow (CF) rates were measured and samples of coronary effluent were collected. Markers of oxidative stress including index of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), NO measured in the form of nitrites (NO2(-)), superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the coronary venous effluent were assessed spectrophotometrically. After the ovalbumin challenge, CF was significantly lower in the wild mice group. NO and H2O2 release were significantly higher in iNOS(-/-) mice group. TBARS and O2(-) values did not vary significantly between wild and iNOS(-/-) mice groups. Our results indicate that coronary vasoconstriction during cardiac anaphylaxis does not necessarily depend on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO activity and that iNOS/NO pathway may not be an only influential mediator of redox changes in this model of cardiac anaphylaxis.

  4. Fluid flow in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera: Implications from thermal data and deep electrical sounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribnow, D.F.C.; Schutze, C.; Hurter, S.J.; Flechsig, C.; Sass, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Temperatures of 100??C are measured at 3 km depth in a well located on the resurgent dome in the center of Long Valley Caldera, California, despite an assumed >800??C magma chamber at 6-8 km depth. Local downflow of cold meteoric water as a process for cooling the resurgent dome is ruled out by a Pecle??t-number analysis of temperature logs. These analyses reveal zones with fluid circulation at the upper and lower boundaries of the Bishop Tuff, and an upflow zone in the metasedimentary rocks. Vertical Darcy velocities range from 10 to 70 cm a-1. A 21-km-long geoelectrical profile across the caldera provides resistivity values to the order of 100 to >103 ??m down to a depth of 6 km, as well as variations of self-potential. Interpretation of the electrical data with respect to hydrothermal fluid movement confirms that there is no downflow beneath the resurgent dome. To explain the unexpectedly low temperatures in the resurgent dome, we challenge the common view that the caldera as a whole is a regime of high temperatures and the resurgent dome is a local cold anomaly. Instead, we suggest that the caldera was cooled to normal thermal conditions by vigorous hydrothermal activity in the past, and that a present-day hot water flow system is responsible for local hot anomalies, such as Hot Creek and the area of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. The source of hot water has been associated with recent shallow intrusions into the West Moat. The focus of planning for future power plants should be to locate this present-day flow system instead of relying on heat from the old magma chamber. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal variations of radon concentration in the saturated soil of Alpine grassland: the role of groundwater flow.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe

    2009-03-15

    Radon concentration has been monitored from 1995 to 1999 in the soil of the Sur-Frêtes ridge (French Alps), covered with snow from November to April. Measurements were performed at 70 cm depth, with a sampling time of 1 h, at two points: the summit of the ridge, at an altitude of 1792 m, and the bottom of the ridge, at an altitude of 1590 m. On the summit, radon concentration shows a moderate seasonal variation, with a high value from October to April (winter), and a low value from May to September (summer). At the bottom of the ridge, a large and opposite seasonal variation is observed, with a low value in winter and a high value in summer. Fluctuations of the radon concentration seem to be associated with temperature variations, an effect which is largely delusory. Indeed, these variations are actually due to water infiltration. A simplified mixing model is used to show that, at the summit of the ridge, two effects compete in the radon response: a slow infiltration response, rich in radon, with a typical time scale of days, and a fast infiltration of radon-poor rainwater. At the bottom of the ridge, similarly, two groundwater contributions compete: one slow infiltration response, similar to the response seen at the summit, and an additional slower response, with a typical time scale of about a month. This second slower response can be interpreted as the aquifer discharge in response to snow melt. This study shows that, while caution is necessary to properly interpret the various effects, the temporal variations of the radon concentration in soil can be understood reasonably well, and appear to be a sensitive tool to study the subtle interplay of near surface transfer processes of groundwater with different transit times.

  6. Comparison of the effect of simple and complex acquisition trajectories on the 2D SPR and 3D voxelized differences for dedicated breast CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jainil P.; Mann, Steve D.; McKinley, Randolph L.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2014-03-01

    The 2D scatter-to-primary (SPR) ratios and 3D voxelized difference volumes were characterized for a cone beam breast CT scanner capable of arbitrary (non-traditional) 3D trajectories. The CT system uses a 30x30cm2 flat panel imager with 197 micron pixellation and a rotating tungsten anode x-ray source with 0.3mm focal spot, with an SID of 70cm. Data were acquired for two cylindrical phantoms (12.5cm and 15cm diameter) filled with three different combinations of water and methanol yielding a range of uniform densities. Projections were acquired with two acquisition trajectories: 1) simple-circular azimuthal orbit with fixed tilt; and 2) saddle orbit following a +/-15° sinusoidal trajectory around the object. Projection data were acquired in 2x2 binned mode. Projections were scatter corrected using a beam stop array method, and the 2D SPR was measured on the projections. The scatter corrected and uncorrected data were then reconstructed individually using an iterative ordered subsets convex algorithm, and the 3D difference volumes were calculated as the absolute difference between the two. Results indicate that the 2D SPR is ~7-15% higher on projections with greatest tilt for the saddle orbit, due to the longer x-ray path length through the volume, compared to the 0° tilt projections. Additionally, the 2D SPR increases with object diameter as well as density. The 3D voxelized difference volumes are an estimate of the scatter contribution to the reconstructed attenuation coefficients on a voxel level. They help visualize minor deficiencies and artifacts in the volumes due to correction methods.

  7. Comparative study of electron transport mechanisms in epitaxial and polycrystalline zinc nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiang; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Naoomi

    2016-01-01

    Zn3N2 has been reported to have high electron mobility even in polycrystalline films. The high mobility in polycrystalline films is a striking feature as compared with group-III nitrides. However, the origins of the high mobility have not been elucidated to date. In this paper, we discuss the reason for high mobility in Zn3N2. We grew epitaxial and polycrystalline films of Zn3N2. Electron effective mass (m*) was determined optically and found to decrease with a decrease in electron density. Using a nonparabolic conduction band model, the m* at the bottom of the conduction band was derived to be (0.08 ± 0.03)m0 (m0 denotes the free electron mass), which is comparable to that in InN. Optically determined intra-grain mobility (μopt) in the polycrystalline films was higher than 110 cm2 V-1 s-1, resulting from the small m*. The Hall mobility (μH) in the polycrystalline films was significantly smaller than μopt, indicating that electron transport is impeded by scattering at the grain boundaries. Nevertheless, μH higher than 70 cm2 V-1 s-1 was achievable owing to the beneficial effect of the high μopt. As for the epitaxial films, we revealed that electron transport is hardly affected by grain boundary scattering and is governed solely by ionized impurity scattering. The findings in this study suggest that Zn3N2 is a high-mobility semiconductor with small effective mass.

  8. Sedimentation rates measurements in former channels of the upper Rhône river using Chernobyl 137Cs and 134Cs as tracers.

    PubMed

    Rostan, J C; Juget, J; Brun, A M

    1997-01-30

    Former river channels are aquatic ecosystems with a different geomorphology generated by fluvial dynamics more or less linked to the main channel. They present different ecological successions to become terrestrial ecosystems and are thus supposed to have different sedimentation rates. The aim of this paper is to assess this sedimentation rate using radioactive tracer methodology commonly used in lake studies. Chernobyl impacts, expressed in 137Cs concentration and 137Cs/134Cs ratio, were determined in sediment cores. Sites (21) were sampled in the alluvial plain of the Upper Rhône River from 1989 to 1994. The contamination presented a high spatial heterogeneity. The maximum values encountered by site ranged between 34 and 541 Bq/kg of dry matter. The method generally gave good core profiles. Sedimentation rate ranged between 0.14 and 0.70 cm/year for the former meanders and between 0.14 and 2.86 cm/year for the braided channels. The sediment accumulation rates ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 g/cm2 per year and 0.03 to 2.26 g/cm2 per year, respectively. These values are similar to those found for Lake Geneva. The importance of the former channels in relation to the main channel is enhanced by the higher contamination and radionuclides retention. The sediment accumulation rate is related to the organic carbon content in the sediment. A comparison between two former channels with different productivity showed that the the allogenous driven system presents a high organic sediment accumulation rate with a low organic content in the sediment and inversely, a low organic sediment accumulation rate with a high organic carbon content was found for the autogenous drive system.

  9. Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993-2009.

    PubMed

    Xi, B; Liang, Y; He, T; Reilly, K H; Hu, Y; Wang, Q; Yan, Y; Mi, J

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the trends in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-27.49 kg m(-2) ), general obesity (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg m(-2) ) and abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women) among Chinese adults from 1993 to 2009. Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, which was conducted from 1993 to 2009 and included a total of 52,621 Chinese adults. During the period of 1993-2009, mean BMI values increased by 1.6 kg m(-2) among men and 0.8 kg m(-2) among women; mean WC values increased by 7.0 cm among men and 4.7 cm among women. The prevalence of overweight increased from 8.0 to 17.1% among men (P < 0.001) and from 10.7 to 14.4% among women (P < 0.001); the prevalence of general obesity increased from 2.9 to 11.4% among men (P < 0.001) and from 5.0 to 10.1% among women (P < 0.001); the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased from 8.5 to 27.8% among men (P < 0.001) and from 27.8 to 45.9% among women (P < 0.001). Similar significant trends were observed in nearly all age groups and regions for both men and women. The prevalence of overweight, general obesity and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults has increased greatly during the past 17 years.

  10. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (< 1-34 ng/g). PCBs are first detected in sediment deposited during the 1930's in Richardson Bay, about a decade earlier than the onset of detectable levels of DDTs. PCB inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  11. Reconstructing Oceanographic Conditions From the Holocene to the Last Glacial Maximum in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Dekens, P. S.; Weber, M. E.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.

    2015-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 354 drilled 7 sites in the Bay of Bengal, providing a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the link between glacial cycles, tropical oceanographic changes, and monsoon strength. Deep-sea sediment cores of the Bengal Fan fluctuate between sand, hemipelagic and terrestrial sediment layers. All but one of the sites (U1454) contain a layer of calcareous clay in the uppermost part of the core that is late Pleistocene in age. During Expedition 354 site U1452C was sampled at high resolution (every 2cm) by a broad group of collaborators with the goal of reconstructing monsoon strength and oceanographic conditions using a variety of proxies. The top 480 cm of site U1452C (8ºN, 87ºE, 3671m water depth) contains primarily nannofossil rich calcareous clay. The relatively high abundance of foraminifera will allow us to generate a high resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) using standard foraminifera proxies. We will present oxygen isotopes (δ18O) and Mg/Ca data of mixed layer planktonic foraminifera from the top 70cm of the core, representing the Holocene to the last glacial maximum. δ18O of planktonic foraminifera records global ice volume and local SST and SSS, while Mg/Ca of foraminifera is a proxy for SST. The paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements on the same samples of foraminifera, together with published estimates with global ocean δ18O, can be used to reconstruct both SST and local δ18O of seawater, which is a function of the evaporation/precipitation balance. In future work, the local SSS and SST during the LGM will be paired with terrestrial and other oceanic proxies to increase our understanding of how global climate is connected to monsoon strength.

  12. Investigating the stratigraphy of Mare Imbrium flow emplacement with Earth-based radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, G. A.; Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Hawke, B. R.

    2016-08-01

    The lunar maria are the product of extensive basaltic volcanism that flooded widespread portions of the Moon's surface. Constraining mare volcanic history therefore provides a window into the endogenic processes responsible for shaping the Moon. Due to the low magma viscosity and the associated thin nature of lava units, the majority of mare surface structures are masked and subdued by impact regolith. Subtle individual mare flow morphologies, coupled with spatial limitations in the use of crater size distributions to distinguish surface units close in age, restrict our understanding of mare stratigraphy. Earth-based 70 cm wavelength (P band) radar can reveal features beneath the regolith and highlight very subtle changes in the ilmenite content of the flows, providing a unique means to map mare units. Here we map volcanic units in Mare Imbrium using high-resolution (200 m/pixel), Earth-based P band data. Situated within the heat-producing potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus terrane, Mare Imbrium experienced some of the most long-lived (and recent) lunar volcanism, and its surface exhibits a significant diversity of basaltic chemistry. Our investigation identifies at least four distinct stages of volcanic activity, originating from multiple sources within Imbrium. The most recent of these stages comprises extensive, yet relatively thin volcanic flow units that left remnant kipukas of older mare material distributed across much of the basin. From a future mission perspective, it may be possible to collect samples expressing a wide range in age from small areas of Mare Imbrium. Our map also places important constraints on the interpretation of the Chang'e-3 Lunar Penetrating Radar measurements.

  13. A Robust Cooling Platform for NIS Junction Refrigeration and sub-Kelvin Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B.; Atlas, M.; Lowell, P.; Moyerman, S.; Stebor, N.; Ullom, J.; Keating, B.

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in Normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions (Clark et al. Appl Phys Lett 86: 173508, 2005, Appl Phys Lett 84: 4, 2004) have proven these devices to be a viable technology for sub-Kelvin refrigeration. NIS junction coolers, coupled to a separate cold stage, provide a flexible platform for cooling a wide range of user-supplied payloads. Recently, a stage was cooled from 290 to 256 mK (Lowell et al. Appl Phys Lett 102: 082601 2013), but further mechanical and electrical improvements are necessary for the stage to reach its full potential. We have designed and built a new Kevlar suspended cooling platform for NIS junction refrigeration that is both lightweight and well thermally isolated; the calculated parasitic loading is pW from 300 to 100 mK. The platform is structurally rigid with a measured deflection of 25 m under a 2.5 kg load and has an integrated mechanical heat switch driven by a superconducting stepper motor with thermal conductivity G W/K at 300 mK. An integrated radiation shield limits thermal loading and a modular platform accommodates enough junctions to provide nanowatts of continuous cooling power. The compact stage size of 7.6 cm 8.6 cm 4.8 cm and overall radiation shield size of 8.9 cm 10.0 cm 7.0 cm along with minimal electrical power requirements allow easy integration into a range of cryostats. We present the design, construction, and performance of this cooling platform as well as projections for coupling to arrays of NIS junctions and other future applications.

  14. The transcriptional response of microbial communities in thawing Alaskan permafrost soils

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Orsi, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Thawing of permafrost soils is expected to stimulate microbial decomposition and respiration of sequestered carbon. This could, in turn, increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and create a positive feedback to climate warming. Recent metagenomic studies suggest that permafrost has a large metabolic potential for carbon processing, including pathways for fermentation and methanogenesis. Here, we performed a pilot study using ultrahigh throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing of reverse transcribed messenger RNA to obtain a detailed overview of active metabolic pathways and responsible organisms in up to 70 cm deep permafrost soils at a moist acidic tundra location in Arctic Alaska. The transcriptional response of the permafrost microbial community was compared before and after 11 days of thaw. In general, the transcriptional profile under frozen conditions suggests a dominance of stress responses, survival strategies, and maintenance processes, whereas upon thaw a rapid enzymatic response to decomposing soil organic matter (SOM) was observed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, ascomycete fungi, and methanogens were responsible for largest transcriptional response upon thaw. Transcripts indicative of heterotrophic methanogenic pathways utilizing acetate, methanol, and methylamine were found predominantly in the permafrost table after thaw. Furthermore, transcripts involved in acetogenesis were expressed exclusively after thaw suggesting that acetogenic bacteria are a potential source of acetate for acetoclastic methanogenesis in freshly thawed permafrost. Metatranscriptomics is shown here to be a useful approach for inferring the activity of permafrost microbes that has potential to improve our understanding of permafrost SOM bioavailability and biogeochemical mechanisms contributing to greenhouse gas emissions as a result of permafrost thaw. PMID:25852660

  15. Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of Tephra Fallout and Surge Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, S.; Martin, K.; Connor, C.; Mora, R.; Ramirez, C.; Alvarado, G.

    2005-05-01

    GPR profiles on Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, and Poás, Irazú, and Arenal volcanoes, Costa Rica, show this method has utility for mapping tephra blanket and surge deposit thicknesses, as well as ballistics distributions. These data are useful for estimating eruption volumes, particularly close to vents where deposits may be thicker than trenching depths. In the dry, highly resistive tephra of the Cerro Negro basaltic cinder cone, distinct deposits are clearly imaged between 2 and 20 m depth. The lowermost coherent reflection is presumed to be the contact with underlying pre-Cerro Negro lavas and weathered tephra deposits. Within the 2-20 m package, individual reflecting horizons are clearly resolved, and reflection attributes, particularly phase, may contain useful information on the nature of contacts, such as abrupt changes in granulometry. Because of the very high velocities at Cerro Negro (0.14 m/ns), even with 200 MHz antennas strata shallower than 2 m are difficult to resolve. In contrast, wetter ash, pumice, paleosol, and surge deposits on Irazú and Poás volcanoes show velocities as low as 0.045 m/ns. The corresponding shorter wavelengths permit strata as shallow as 40-70 cm to be imaged with 200 MHz antennas, with depth penetration typically 5 to 8 m. Comparison of trench observations and radar profiles indicates that strong radar reflections are produced by iron-rich zones at the water table and soil-ash contacts. Other features visible in the profiles are small (tens of cm) sub-vertical offsets of nearly horizontal units, and diffractions or disruptions in horizontal units presumed to reflect >30 cm blocks.

  16. Predicting organic floc transport dynamics in shallow aquatic ecosystems: insights from the field, laboratory, and numerical modeling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Judson W.; Noe, Gregory B.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Transport of particulate organic material can impact watershed sediment and nutrient budgets and can alter the geomorphologic evolution of shallow aquatic environments. Prediction of organic aggregate (“floc”) transport in these environments requires knowledge of how hydraulics and biota affect the entrainment, settling, and aggregation of particles. This study evaluated the aggregation and field transport dynamics of organic floc from a low-gradient floodplain wetland with flow-parallel ridges and sloughs in the Florida Everglades. Floc dynamics were evaluated in a rotating annular flume and in situ in the field. Under present managed conditions in the Everglades, floc is not entrained by mean flows but is suspended via biological production in the water column and bioturbation. Aggregation was a significant process affecting Everglades floc at high flume flow velocities (7.0 cm s-1) and during recovery from high flow; disaggregation was not significant for the tested flows. During moderate flows when floc dynamics are hydrodynamically controlled, it is possible to model floc transport using a single “operative floc diameter” that accurately predicts fluxes downstream and to the bed. In contrast, during high flows and recovery from high flows, aggregation dynamics should be simulated. When entrained by flow in open-water sloughs, Everglades floc will be transported downstream in multiple deposition and reentrainment events but will undergo net settling when transported onto ridges of emergent vegetation. We hypothesize that net transport of material from open to vegetated areas during high flows is critical for forming and maintaining distinctive topographic patterning in the Everglades and other low-gradient floodplains.

  17. Predicting organic floc transport dynamics in shallow aquatic ecosystems: Insights from the field, the laboratory, and numerical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, L.G.; Harvey, J.W.; Noe, G.B.; Crimaldi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Transport of particulate organic material can impact watershed sediment and nutrient budgets and can alter the geomorphologic evolution of shallow aquatic environments. Prediction of organic aggregate ("floc") transport in these environments requires knowledge of how hydraulics and biota affect the entrainment, settling, and aggregation of particles. This study evaluated the aggregation and field transport dynamics of organic floc from a low-gradient floodplain wetland with flow-parallel ridges and sloughs in the Florida Everglades. floc dynamics were evaluated in a rotating annular flume and in situ in the field. Under present managed conditions in the Everglades, floc is not entrained by mean flows but is suspended via biological production in the water column and bioturbation. Aggregation was a significant process affecting Everglades floc at high flume flow velocities (7.0 cm s-1) and during recovery from high flow; disaggregation was not significant for the tested flows. During moderate flows when floc dynamics are hydrodynamically controlled, it is possible to model floc transport using a single "operative floc diameter" that accurately predicts fluxes downstream and to the bed. In contrast, during high flows and recovery from high flows, aggregation dynamics should be simulated. When entrained by flow in open-water sloughs, Everglades floc will be transported downstream in multiple deposition and reentrainment events but will undergo net settling when transported onto ridges of emergent vegetation. We hypothesize that net transport of material from open to vegetated areas during high flows is critical for forming and maintaining distinctive topographic patterning in the Everglades and other low-gradient floodplains. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Paper-based chromatographic chemiluminescence chip for the detection of dichlorvos in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Kou, Juan; Xing, Huizhong; Li, Baoxin

    2014-02-15

    Paper chromatography was a big breakthrough in the early of 20th century but it is rarely used due to the long separation time and the diffusion on the sample spots. In this work, for the first time, a paper-based chemiluminescence (CL) analytical device combined with paper chromatography was developed for the determination of dichlorvos (DDV) in vegetables without complicated sample pretreatment. The paper chromatography separation procedure can be accomplished in 12 min on a paper support (0.8 × 7.0 cm(2)) by using 5 µL sample spotted on it. After sample developing, the detection area (0.8 × 1.0 cm(2)) was cut and inserted between two layers of water-impermeable single-sided adhesive tapes. The paper-based chip was made by attaching the middle layer of paper onto the bottom layer. Then it was covered by another tape layer, which was patterned by the cutting method to form a square hole (0.8 × 1.0 cm(2)) in it. 10 μL mixed solution of luminol and H2O2 was dropped on the detection area to produce CL. A linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentrations of DDV in the range between 10.0 ng mL(-1) and 1.0 μg mL(-1)and the detection limit was 3.6 ng mL(-1). Water-soluble metal ions and vitamins can be developed at different spatial locations relative to DDV, eliminating interference with DDV during detection. The paper-based chromatographic chip can be successfully used for the determination of DDV without complicated sample preparation in vegetables. This study should, therefore, be suitable for rapid and sensitive detection of trace levels of organophosphate pesticides in environmental and food samples.

  19. Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shuntaro; Hirotani, Masako; Koike, Takahiko; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Takahashi, Haruka K; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    People's behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction--two individuals influencing one another--or in one direction--one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another's head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR), the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one's postural sway is explained by that of the other's and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded) interacts with paired participants' postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the behavioral results.

  20. The discrete regime of flame propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew

    The propagation of laminar dust flames in iron dust clouds was studied in a low-gravity envi-ronment on-board a parabolic flight aircraft. The elimination of buoyancy-induced convection and particle settling permitted measurements of fundamental combustion parameters such as the burning velocity and the flame quenching distance over a wide range of particle sizes and in different gaseous mixtures. The discrete regime of flame propagation was observed by substitut-ing nitrogen present in air with xenon, an inert gas with a significantly lower heat conductivity. Flame propagation in the discrete regime is controlled by the heat transfer between neighbor-ing particles, rather than by the particle burning rate used by traditional continuum models of heterogeneous flames. The propagation mechanism of discrete flames depends on the spa-tial distribution of particles, and thus such flames are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the fuel concentration. Constant pressure laminar dust flames were observed inside 70 cm long, 5 cm diameter Pyrex tubes. Equally-spaced plate assemblies forming rectangular chan-nels were placed inside each tube to determine the quenching distance defined as the minimum channel width through which a flame can successfully propagate. High-speed video cameras were used to measure the flame speed and a fiber optic spectrometer was used to measure the flame temperature. Experimental results were compared with predictions obtained from a numerical model of a three-dimensional flame developed to capture both the discrete nature and the random distribution of particles in the flame. Though good qualitative agreement was obtained between model predictions and experimental observations, residual g-jitters and the short reduced-gravity periods prevented further investigations of propagation limits in the dis-crete regime. The full exploration of the discrete flame phenomenon would require high-quality, long duration reduced gravity environment

  1. Pore morphologies of root induced biopores from single pore to network scale investigated by XRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peth, Stephan; Wittig, Marlen C.; Uteau Puschmann, Daniel; Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Haas, Christoph; Holthusen, Dörthe; Horn, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Biopores are assumed to be an important factor for nutrient acquisition by providing biologically highly active soil-root interfaces to re-colonizing roots and controlling oxygen and water flows at the pedon scale and within the rhizosphere through the formation of branching channel networks which potentially enhance microbial turnover processes. Characteristic differences in pore morphologies are to be expected depending on the genesis of biopores which, for example, can be earthworm-induced or root-induced or subsequently modified by one of the two. Our understanding of biophysical interactions between plants and soil can be significantly improved by quantifying 3D biopore architectures across scales ranging from single biopores to pedon scale pore networks and linking pore morphologies to microscale measurements of transport processes (e.g. oxygen diffusion). While a few studies in the past have investigated biopore networks on a larger scale yet little is known on the micro-morphology of root-induces biopores and their associated rhizosphere. Also little data is available on lateral transport of oxygen through the rhizosphere which will strongly influence microbial turnover processes and consequently control the release and uptake of nutrients. This paper highlights results gathered within a research unit on nutrient acquisition from the subsoil. Here we focus on X-ray microtomography (XRCT) studies ranging from large soil columns (70 cm length and 20 cm diameter) to individual biopores and its surrounding rhizosphere. Samples were collected from sites with different preceding crops (fescue, chicory, alfalfa) and various cropping durations (1-3 years). We will present an approach for quantitative image analysis combined with micro-sensor measurements of oxygen diffusion and spatial gradients of O2 partial pressures to relate pore structure with transport functions. Implications of various biopore architectures for the accessibility of nutrient resources in

  2. CyberKnife radiosurgery for the treatment of orbital metastases.

    PubMed

    Klingenstein, A; Kufeld, M; Wowra, B; Muacevic, A; Fürweger, C; Schaller, U C

    2012-10-01

    Purpose of this study is to evaluate radiographic therapy response, clinical outcome and adverse effects of CyberKnife radiosurgery in patients suffering from orbital metastases. Sixteen orbital metastases originating from different solid cancers in fourteen patients were treated by single fraction CyberKnife radiosurgery. Radiographic response and clinical outcome were evaluated. The treated tumor volume ranged from 0.2 to 35 cm3 (median 2.3 cm3, mean 7.0 cm3, SD 6 10.4 cm3, CI 0.9-9.4 cm3). The prescription dose ranged from 16.5-21 Gy (median 18 Gy, mean 18.2 Gy, SD 6 1.2 Gy, CI 17.0-18.4 Gy). A no change situation was observed in nine lesions, partial remission in four as well as complete remission in one metastasis. Tumor growth was stabilized or regressive following CyberKnife therapy in 87% of the cases. Recurrence was observed in two cases (13%). Before therapy, three patients suffered from visual disturbance and five patients reported diplopia. Six patients had no initial symptoms. After therapy, one patient indicated improvement of the present visual deficit and two patients no change. Out of the two patients with persistent diplopia, two reported improvement after therapy and three no change. No progression of symptoms was noted in any of the cases. Fourteen out of sixteen treated lesions were stable or regressive following CyberKnife radiosurgery (87%). As no serious adverse effects were reported in this series, CyberKnife therapy was shown to be of great value for local management of orbital metastases.

  3. Mineral resources of the Cranberry Wilderness Study Area, Webster and Pocahontas Counties, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, C.R. Jr.; Windolph, J.F. Jr.; Mory, P.C.; Harrison, D.K.; Cameron, C.C.; Grosz, A.E.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Lesure, F.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Cranberry Wilderness Study Area comprises 14,702 ha in the Monongahela National Forest, Webster and Pocahontas Counties, east-central West Virginia. The area is in the Yew Mountains of the Appalachian Plateaus and is at the eastern edge of the central Appalachian coal fields. Cranberry Glades, a peatland of botanical interest, lies at the southern end of the study area. All surface rights in the area are held by the US Forest Service; nearly 90% of the mineral rights are privately owned or subordinate to the surface rights. Bituminous coal of coking quality is the most economically important mineral resource in the Cranberry Wilderness Study Area. Estimated resources in beds 35 cm thick or more are about 100 million metric tons in nine coal beds. Most measured-indicated coal, 70 cm thick or more (reserve base), is in a 7-km-wide east-west trending belt extending across the center of the study area. The estimated reserve base is 34,179 thousand metric tons. Estimated reserves in seven of the coal beds total 16,830 thousand metric tons and are recoverable by underground mining methods. Other mineral resources, all of which have a low potential for development in the study area, include peat, shale, and clay suitable for building brick and lightweight aggregate, sandstone for low-quality glass sand, and sandstone suitable for construction material. Evidence derived from drilling indicates little possibility for oil and gas in the study area. No evidence of economic metallic deposits was found during this investigation.

  4. Land drainage system detection using IR and visual imagery taken from autonomous mapping airship and evaluation of physical and spatial parameters of suggested method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin; Pospíšil, Jiří; Jirka, Vladimír.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental approach to the land drainage system detection and its physical and spatial parameters evaluation by the form of pilot project is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is partly based on using of unique unmanned aerial vehicle - airship with some specific properties. The most important parameters are carrying capacity (15 kg) and long flight time (3 hours). A special instrumentation was installed for physical characteristic testing in the locality too. The most important is 30 meter high mast with 3 meter length bracket at the top with sensors recording absolute and comparative temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction in several heights of the mast. There were also installed several measuring units recording local condition in the area. Recorded data were compared with IR images taken from airship platform. The locality is situated around village Domanín in the Czech Republic and has size about 1.8 x 1.5 km. There was build a land drainage system during the 70-ties of the last century which is made from burnt ceramic blocks placed about 70 cm below surface. The project documentation of the land drainage system exists but real state surveying haveńt been never realized. The aim of the project was land surveying of land drainage system based on infrared, visual and its combination high resolution orthophotos (10 cm for VIS and 30 cm for IR) and spatial and physical parameters evaluation of the presented procedure. The orthophoto in VIS and IR spectrum and its combination seems to be suitable for the task.

  5. Sea Ice Friction: The Effect of Ice Rubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourfield, S.; Sammonds, P. R.; Lishman, B.; Riska, K.; Marchenko, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Ice deformation processes in the Arctic often generate ice rubble, and situations arise where ice fragments of varying size separate sea ice floes. While the shear forces between sea ice floes in direct contact with each other are controlled by ice-ice friction, what is not known is how the slip of the floes is affected by the presence of rubble between the sliding surfaces. We present the result of field experiments undertaken on fjord ice in Svea, Svalbard, which investigated the velocity and hold time dependence of sea ice friction involving ice gouge. Average air temperature for the duration of time in which experiments were run was -12.4°C, and the thickness of the level fjord ice was 70 cm. A double-direct-shear experiment was done on floating sea ice in the field, with the addition of rubble ice between the sliding surfaces. This was achieved by moving a floating ice block through a channel of open water whilst subjected to normal loading, which was transferred through regions of ice rubble on both sides of the mobile block. The ice rubble regions were 30 cm deep and 50 cm wide. The displacement of the block and the force needed to move the block were measured. The rate dependence of friction was investigated for speeds of 10-3 to 10-2 ms-1. To investigate the state dependence of friction, slide-hold-slide (SHS) tests were conducted for hold times ranging from 1 second to 18 hours. When comparing the results from these experiments with a model for ice friction presented by Schulson and Fortt (2013), similar behaviour is seen at low hold times, where the peak coefficient of friction has a linear relationship with the logarithm of hold time. This is not the case for long hold times, however, and we attribute this to thermal consolidation of the ice rubble region.

  6. Combining Radiography and Passive Measurements for Radiological Threat Localization in Cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Wittman, Richard A.

    2015-10-01

    Detecting shielded special nuclear material (SNM) in a cargo container is a difficult problem, since shielding reduces the amount of radiation escaping the container. Radiography provides information that is complementary to that provided by passive gamma-ray detection systems: while not directly sensitive to radiological materials, radiography can reveal highly shielded regions that may mask a passive radiological signal. Combining these measurements has the potential to improve SNM detection, either through improved sensitivity or by providing a solution to the inverse problem to estimate source properties (strength and location). We present a data-fusion method that uses a radiograph to provide an estimate of the radiation-transport environment for gamma rays from potential sources. This approach makes quantitative use of radiographic images without relying on image interpretation, and results in a probabilistic description of likely source locations and strengths. We present results for this method for a modeled test case of a cargo container passing through a plastic-scintillator-based radiation portal monitor and a transmission-radiography system. We find that a radiograph-based inversion scheme allows for localization of a low-noise source placed randomly within the test container to within 40 cm, compared to 70 cm for triangulation alone, while strength estimation accuracy is improved by a factor of six. Improvements are seen in regions of both high and low shielding, but are most pronounced in highly shielded regions. The approach proposed here combines transmission and emission data in a manner that has not been explored in the cargo-screening literature, advancing the ability to accurately describe a hidden source based on currently-available instrumentation.

  7. Airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli in a dairy cattle farm and its environment.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Martínez-Olarte, Roberto; Navajas-Benito, Enrique V; Alonso, C Andrea; Hidalgo-Sanz, Sara; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2015-03-16

    There are multiple ways bacteria can be transported from its origin to another area or substrate. Water, food handlers, insects and other animals are known to serve as a vehicle for bacterial dispersion. However, the importance of the air in open areas as a possible way of bacterial dissemination has not been so well analyzed. In this study, we investigated the airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli from the inside of a dairy cattle farm to the immediate environment. The air samples were taken inside the farm (area 0) and from the immediate outside farm surroundings at distance of 50, 100 and 150m in four directions (north, south, east, and west). At each point, the air was collected at different heights: 40cm, 70cm and 1m. The sampling was carried out in two weather seasons (November and July). E. coli was isolated in both inside and outside air, even in samples taken 150m from the farm. A seasonal effect was observed with more bacterial isolates when temperature was higher. Regarding the distribution of the isolates, wind direction appeared as a determining factor. In order to verify that E. coli strains isolated from animal housing facilities were identical to those isolated from the air of the immediate farm environment, their genomic DNA profiles were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with the endonuclease XbaI. The comparison of genetic profiles suggested that the strains isolated from inside and outside the farm were related, leading to the conclusion that the air is an important vehicle for E. coli dissemination.

  8. Microbial Dynamics during Aerobic Exposure of Corn Silage Stored under Oxygen Barrier or Polyethylene Films▿

    PubMed Central

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm3 m−2 per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log10 CFU g−1, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure. PMID:21821764

  9. Microbial dynamics during aerobic exposure of corn silage stored under oxygen barrier or polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm³ m⁻² per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log₁₀ CFU g⁻¹, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure.

  10. SU-E-I-20: Comprehensive Quality Assurance Test of Second Generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT Simulator Based On AAPM TG-66 Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM radiation therapy committee task group No. 66 (TG-66) published a report which described a general approach to CT simulator QA. The report outlines the testing procedures and specifications for the evaluation of patient dose, radiation safety, electromechanical components, and image quality for a CT simulator. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly evaluate the performance of a second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator with 90 cm bore size (Toshiba, Nasu, JP) based on the TG-66 criteria. The testing procedures and results from this study provide baselines for a routine QA program. Methods: Different measurements and analysis were performed including CTDIvol measurements, alignment and orientation of gantry lasers, orientation of the tabletop with respect to the imaging plane, table movement and indexing accuracy, Scanogram location accuracy, high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity, CT number accuracy, mA linearity and mA reproducibility using a number of different phantoms and measuring devices, such as CTDI phantom, ACR image quality phantom, TG-66 laser QA phantom, pencil ion chamber (Fluke Victoreen) and electrometer (RTI Solidose 400). Results: The CTDI measurements were within 20% of the console displayed values. The alignment and orientation for both gantry laser and tabletop, as well as the table movement and indexing and scanogram location accuracy were within 2mm as specified in TG66. The spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity and CT number accuracy were all within ACR’s recommended limits. The mA linearity and reproducibility were both well below the TG66 threshold. Conclusion: The 90 cm bore size second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator that comes with 70 cm true FOV can consistently meet various clinical needs. The results demonstrated that this simulator complies with the TG-66 protocol in all aspects including electromechanical component

  11. The effect of an official match on repeated sprint ability in junior basketball players.

    PubMed

    Caprino, Davide; Clarke, Neil David; Delextrat, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an official basketball match on repeated sprint ability indices in male junior players. Ten (16 ± 1 years old; 183.6 ± 7.0 cm; 76.6 ± 8.0 kg) starting players for their teams performed three repeated sprint ability tests, before, at half-time and immediately after an official match. Each repeated sprint ability test consisted of 10 shuttle-run sprints of 30 m (15 + 15 m) separated by 30 seconds of passive recovery. The matches were video-taped to determine the frequency of eight types of movement patterns, and blood lactate concentration was measured before and immediately after each repeated sprint ability test. Differences in total time, ideal time and percentage decrement between tests was assessed by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, while a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to identify differences in blood lactate concentration. The main results indicated a significant decrease in total movement frequency (-9.9%), high-intensity activity frequency (-13.3%), run frequency (-13.0%) and sprint frequency (-23.3%) in the second compared to the first half, and significantly worse total time and ideal time at the end of the match, compared to the start and half-time (differences ranging from -2.1% to -2.9%, P < 0.05). The practical implications of these findings suggest that regional basketball players should participate in conditioning sessions that focus on the improvement of repeated sprint ability.

  12. Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe Soil Water Measurements over Complex Terrain in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Weltin, Georg; Kheng Heng, Lee; Wahbi, Ammar; Oismueller, Markus; Dercon, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    The importance of surface soil water (rooting zone) has become evident with climate change affecting rainfall patterns and crop production. The use of Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) for measuring surface soil water has become increasingly popular. The advantage of CRNP is that it is a non-invasive technique for measuring soil water content at an area-wide scale, in contrast to more conventional, techniques which measure mainly at field scale (point level). The CRNP integrates over a circular area of ca. 600 meters in diameter, to a depth of 70 cm, giving an average value for soil water content. Cosmic radiation interacting with the Earth's atmosphere continuously generates neutrons. At Earth's surface, these neutrons interact with surface water, and are slowed down. At sub-micrometer geometrics, these neutrons affect semiconductor devices, so they can be counted, slow and fast ones separately. From the difference in numbers between fast and slow neutrons, soil water content is calculated. As first in Austria, a CRNP (CRS 1000/B model) consisting of two neutron counters (one tuned for slow, the other one for fast neutrons), data logger and an Iridium modem, has been installed at Petzenkirchen research station of the Doctoral Programme for Water Resource Systems (TU Vienna) at 48.14 latitude and 15.17 longitude, 100 km west of Vienna, in late autumn 2013. The research station is located in an undulating agricultural landscape, characterized by heavy Cambisols and Planosols, and winter wheat and barley as main crops in winter, and maize and sunflower in summer. In addition, an in-situ soil moisture network consisting of 32 stations of Time Domain Transmissivity (TDT) sensors measuring soil water at 4 depths (0.05, 0.10,0.20 and 0.50 m) over an area of 64 ha has been established. This TDT network is currently being used to validate the use of the innovative CRNP technique. First results will be shown at the EGU 2014.

  13. ASPIRE: A Data Reduction Project for the Japanese Astro-F Far-Infrared All-Sky Survey; its value to SIRTF, SOFIA, FIRST and other missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, M. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Nakagawa, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Shibai, H.; ASPIRE Collaboration

    1999-12-01

    The ASPIRE mission will provide the international astronomical community with data from an unbiased all-sky survey by the Far Infrared Surveyer (FIS) onboard the Japanese Astro-F (IRIS) satellite. An all-sky survey is very efficient in producing scientific results. It allows to detect intrinsically rare objects that would be missed by limited sky surveys. ASPIRE will provide target lists in time for efficient follow-up pointed observations with narrow field-of-view telescopes like SIRTF, SOFIA and FIRST at a low cost to the US community. The Astro-F satellite contains a 70 cm telescope cooled to 6 K with super-fluid liquid helium and Stirling-cycle coolers. The FIS instrument uses state-of-the-art 2D stressed and unstressed Ge:Ge detector arrays and cold readout electronics. Astro-F is scheduled to be launched in August 2003 by an ISAS M-V rocket into a sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 750 km. The FIS operates between 50-200μm at a diffraction limited spatial resolution of 30-50 " in four bands at sensitivities of approximately 18, 25, 110, and 90 mJy between 50-70, 50-110, 150-200, and 110-200 μm . These sensitivities are up to 20x higher than IRAS. The final data products will consist of point source catalogs, images and small scale maps. We expect to detect in excess of 10 million far-IR sources, from solar system objects to ultra-luminous galaxies at cosmological distances. The science objectives include important astrophysical topics, like large scale structure, evolution of galaxies, systematic investigation of the star formation process, and the evolution of planets and brown dwarfs.

  14. Astro-F: Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, T.

    2000-11-01

    The Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS) is the second infrared satellite mission of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan. It is scheduled to be launched in the middle of 2003 with the M-V rocket of ISAS. It has a 70-cm aperture telescope of SiC mirrors and is cooled to 6 K with Stirling-cycle coolers and 170 liters of liquid helium. It is planned as a second generation infrared sky survey mission. Two scientific instruments share the focal plane. The infrared camera (IRC) covers the 2 to 26 μm range with large 2-dimensional arrays in the imaging and low-resolution spectroscopic modes. The IRC will perform deep sky surveys of selected areas of the sky with a wide field of view (10' × 10') at unprecedented sensitivity, at least 10 times deeper than ISOCAM, and will also provide low-resolution spectra of a large number of objects. The far-infrared Surveyor (FIS) covers the 50 to 200 μm range, consisting of an imaging scanner and a Fourier transform spectrometer. The FIS will make a whole sky survey in four far-infrared bands, which is higher by more than 10 in sensitivity (20-110 mJy), better by several in the spatial resolution (30 arcsec-50 arcsec), and longer in the spectral coverage (200 μm) than the IRAS survey. IRIS will provide a significant data base for future observatory-type missions, such as SIRTF, SOFIA, FIRST, NGST, and HII/L2. A brief description of the IRIS mission is presented.

  15. Greater glucose uptake heterogeneity in knee muscles of old compared to young men during isometric contractions detected by [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Benson, John-Michael; Tracy, Brian L; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-01-01

    We used positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and [(18)F]-FDG to test the hypothesis that glucose uptake (GU) heterogeneity in skeletal muscles as a measure of heterogeneity in muscle activity is greater in old than young men when they perform isometric contractions. Six young (26 ± 6 years) and six old (77 ± 6 years) men performed two types of submaximal isometric contractions that required either force or position control. [(18)F]-FDG was injected during the task and PET/CT scans were performed immediately after the task. Within-muscle heterogeneity of knee muscles was determined by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV) of GU in PET image voxels within the muscles of interest. The average GU heterogeneity (mean ± SD) for knee extensors and flexors was greater for the old (35.3 ± 3.3%) than the young (28.6 ± 2.4%) (P = 0.006). Muscle volume of the knee extensors were greater for the young compared to the old men (1016 ± 163 vs. 598 ± 70 cm(3), P = 0.004). In a multiple regression model, knee extensor muscle volume was a predictor (partial r = -0.87; P = 0.001) of GU heterogeneity for old men (R (2) = 0.78; P < 0.001), and MVC force predicted GU heterogeneity for young men (partial r = -0.95, P < 0.001). The findings demonstrate that GU is more spatially variable for old than young men and especially so for old men who exhibit greater muscle atrophy.

  16. Physical and chemical properties of feedlot pen surfaces located on moderately coarse- and moderately fine-textured soils in southern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A; Olson, Barry M

    2008-01-01

    Southern Alberta has the highest density of feedlot cattle in Canada, and there is a concern that leaching of water and contaminants may be greater for feedlots located on coarser-textured than finer-textured soils. Our objective was to determine if infiltration and leaching were greater for a 4-yr-old feedlot located on a moderately coarse-textured (MC) soil compared with two feedlots located on moderately fine-textured (MF) soils (5- and 52-yr-old pens). Various soil physical properties of feedlot pen surfaces were measured, including field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(fs)) and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity at -0.9 and -3.9 cm water potential. Selected chemical properties of feedlot soil layers were measured, as well as the chloride content of the soil profile (0-100 cm). Mean K(fs), K(-0.9), and K(-3.9) values were not significantly (P > 0.10) greater at the MC site than the two MF sites, indicating no evidence of greater infiltration on coarser-textured soils. In addition, mean K(fs), K(-0.9), and K(-3.9) values of soils within feedlot pens at all three sites were significantly (P < or = 0.10) reduced by 46 to 78% compared with soil outside the pens. Depth of chloride accumulation was greatest at the 52-yr-old feedlot on MF soil (60-70 cm), followed by 4-yr-old feedlot on MC soil (40-50 cm) and 5-yr-old feedlot on MF soil (30-40 cm). Visual inspection determined that the black interface layer formed within 2 mo of cattle stocking at all three sites.

  17. Soils of slopes in the taiga zone of the Middle Ob reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavaeva, N. A.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    The morphology, chemical properties, composition of phyllosilicates, as well as their transformation in loamy soils developing on slopes of ridges of the Vakh Upland in Western Siberia, are discussed. Data on two soil profiles-gleyic svetlozem of the middle slope and podzolized gleyzem of the footslope—are presented. Both soils have an acid reaction. The textural differentiation is weakly pronounced in the gleyic svetlozem and more pronounced in the podzolized gleyzem. The soils differ in their cryological conditions. The thawing depth in the svetlozem is about 60-70 cm, and the lower part of the profile to a depth of 3.2 m largely remains in the frozen state. Its complete thawing is only possible during the warm climatic cycles. This is a seasonally frozen soil with the long-lasting frozen state. It is characterized by the thick cryometamorphic (CRM) horizon. The gleyzem is a "normal" seasonally frozen soil with complete thawing of seasonal frost in summer. The CRM horizon is absent in its profile. The alteration of clay minerals in the soil profiles includes their partial dissolution, the formation of soil chlorites, and the transformation of illite into more labile structures. In the upper horizons of both soils, this transformation proceeds through the stage of mixed-layered illite-smectites. In the gleyzem, it reaches a more advanced stage of the formation of beidellite. The cryometamorphic horizons are specified by some amorphization of phyllosilicates and, probably, by the partial dissolution of their crystal lattices under the impact of frequent zero-temperature transitions and cryogenesis in the frozen state.

  18. The impacts of selective logging and clear-cutting on woody plant diversity after 40years of natural recovery in a tropical montane rain forest, south China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Zang, Runguo; Lu, Xinghui; Huang, Jihong

    2017-02-01

    Historically, clear-cutting and selective logging have been the commercial logging practices. However, the effect of these pervasive timber extraction methods on biodiversity in tropical forests is still poorly understood. In this study, we compared abiotic factors, species diversity, community composition, and structure between ca. 40-year-old clear-cut (MCC); ca. 40-year-old selectively logged (MSL); and tropical old growth montane rain forests (MOG) on Hainan Island, China. Results showed that there were a large number of trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) <30cm in the two logged forests. Additionally, the two logged forests only had 40% of the basal area of the large trees (DBH≥30cm) found in the old growth forest. The species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices generally showed no difference among the three forest types. MCC had 70% of the species richness of the large trees in the MOG, whereas MSL and MOG had similar species richness. High value timber species had similar species richness among the three forest types, but a lower abundance and basal area of large trees in MCC. The species composition was distinct between the three forests. Large trees belonging to the family Fagaceae dominated in the logged forests and played a more important role in the old growth forest. Huge trees (DBH≥70cm) were rare in MCC, but were frequently found in MSL. Most abiotic factors varied inconsistently among the three forest types and few variables related to species diversity, community structure and composition. Our study indicated that MSL had a relatively faster recovery rate than MCC in a tropical montane rain forest after 40years, but both logged forests had a high recovery potential over a long-term.

  19. Determination of bedform resolution necessary to accurately resolve the flow field by comparing numerical simulations with field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margelowsky, G.; Foster, D.; Traykovski, P.; Felzenberg, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The dynamics of wave-current and tidal flow bottom boundary layers are evaluated with a quasi-three-dimensional non-hydrostatic phase-resolving wave-current bottom boundary layer model, Dune. In each case, the model is evaluated with field observations of velocity profiles and seabed geometry. For wave-current boundary layers, the observations were obtained over a 26-day period in 13 m of water at the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO, Edgartown, MA) in 2002 - 2003. Bedforms were orbital-scale ripples with wavelengths of 50-125 cm and heights of 5-20 cm with peak root-mean-square orbital velocities and mean flows typically ranging from 50-70 cm/s and 10-20 cm/s, respectively. The observations for tidal flows were obtained over a 3-day period in 13-16 m of water in Portsmouth Harbor (Portsmouth, NH) in 2008. Bedforms were dunes with wavelengths on the order of 1 m and heights on the order of 10 cm with typical peak tidal currents of approximately 1 m/s. The flow field is simulated with a finite volume approach to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a k-ω 2nd order turbulence closure scheme. The model simulations are performed for a range of theoretical and observed bedforms to examine the boundary layer sensitivity to the resolution of the bottom roughness. The observed and predicted vertical velocity profiles are evaluated with correlations and Briar’s Skill scores over the range of data sets.

  20. Determination of in Situ Rates of Methane Production and Oxidation From Terrestrial Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Schrag, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    Wetlands are responsible for over 70% of non-anthropogenic methane emissions. We present a method, using the δ13C of CO2 in pore water, to obtain the in situ rates of methanogenesis occurring beneath the wetland surface. This method allows us to distinguish methanogenesis from methane oxidation during escape, both of which contribute to the net methane flux. The δ13C of CO2(aq) - the dominant form of DIC in acidic natural waters - reflects the processes occurring at that location modified by transport of gas from surrounding depths. Methane production and oxidation are imprinted in the δ13C signature of the aqueous CO2 with heaviest values at depth resulting from the fractionation associated with methane production. We measured δ13C profiles with depth along with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from Sallie's Fen in Barrington, NH. Although the δ13C profiles varied considerably between locations and seasons, the logarithmic shape of the curves showed that methane production was restricted below a certain depth in the sediment - sometimes as shallow as 30 cm. Using a one-dimensional diffusion-reaction model, we are able to estimate rates of methane oxidation and successfully reproduce features present in the data's seasonal cycle. Features of the data not reproducible by the model indicate the importance of alternate gas transport routes such as ebullition and plant-mediated transport. The model also provides evidence for low-level oxygen availability during the winter-spring transition and narrow zones of very high productivity at depths of 60-70cm during the winter. We suggest that this method provides insight directly into the processes that determine methane fluxes from natural wetlands and has great potential for improving our understanding of the biogeochemistry of these systems.

  1. Swimming performance and physiological responses to exhaustive exercise in radio-tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have declined in the Columbia River basin. One factor that may have contributed to this reduction in population size is an excessive use of energy by adult lampreys as they negotiate fishways at dams during spawning migrations. To gain an understanding of the performance capacity of Pacific lampreys, we estimated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and documented physiological responses of radio-tagged and untagged adult lampreys exercised to exhaustion. The mean (??SD) Ucrit of untagged lampreys was 86.2 ?? 7.5 cm/s at 15??C, whereas the Ucrit for radio-tagged lampreys was 81.5 ?? 7.0 cm/s, a speed that was significantly lower than that of untagged fish. The physiological responses of tagged and untagged lampreys subjected to exhaustive exercise included decreases in blood pH of 0.3-0.5 units, a 40% decrease in muscle glycogen levels, a 22% increase in hematocrit for untagged fish only, and a 4- to 5-fold increase in muscle and a 40- to 100-fold increase in plasma lactate concentrations. These physiological changes were significant compared with resting control fish and usually returned to resting levels by 1-4 h after fatigue. Our estimates of Ucrit for Pacific lampreys are the first quantitative measures of their swimming performance and suggest that these fish may have difficulty negotiating fishways at dams on the Columbia River, which can have water velocities approaching 2 m/s. Our physiological results indicate that tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys show similar metabolic dysfunction after exhaustive exercise but recover quickly from a single exposure to such a stressor.

  2. Fluid flow in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera: implications from thermal data and deep electrical sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribnow, Daniel F. C.; Schütze, Claudia; Hurter, Suzanne J.; Flechsig, Christina; Sass, John H.

    2003-10-01

    Temperatures of 100°C are measured at 3 km depth in a well located on the resurgent dome in the center of Long Valley Caldera, California, despite an assumed >800°C magma chamber at 6-8 km depth. Local downflow of cold meteoric water as a process for cooling the resurgent dome is ruled out by a Peclét-number analysis of temperature logs. These analyses reveal zones with fluid circulation at the upper and lower boundaries of the Bishop Tuff, and an upflow zone in the metasedimentary rocks. Vertical Darcy velocities range from 10 to 70 cm a -1. A 21-km-long geoelectrical profile across the caldera provides resistivity values to the order of 10 0 to >10 3 Ωm down to a depth of 6 km, as well as variations of self-potential. Interpretation of the electrical data with respect to hydrothermal fluid movement confirms that there is no downflow beneath the resurgent dome. To explain the unexpectedly low temperatures in the resurgent dome, we challenge the common view that the caldera as a whole is a regime of high temperatures and the resurgent dome is a local cold anomaly. Instead, we suggest that the caldera was cooled to normal thermal conditions by vigorous hydrothermal activity in the past, and that a present-day hot water flow system is responsible for local hot anomalies, such as Hot Creek and the area of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. The source of hot water has been associated with recent shallow intrusions into the West Moat. The focus of planning for future power plants should be to locate this present-day flow system instead of relying on heat from the old magma chamber.

  3. Active layer thermal monitoring of a Dry Valley of the Ellsworth Mountains, Continental Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Souza, Karoline; Senra, Eduardo; Bremer, Ulisses

    2015-04-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains occur along the southern edge of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and are subdivided by the Minnesota Glacier into the Heritage Range to the east and the Sentinel Range to the West. The climate of the Ellsworth Mountains is strongly controlled by proximity to the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and elevation. The mean annual air temperature at the 1,000 m level is estimated to be -25°C, and the average annual accumulation of water-equivalent precipitation likely ranges from 150 to 175 mm yr-1 (Weyant, 1966). The entire area is underlain by continuous permafrost of unknown thickness. Based on data collected from 22 pits, 41% of the sites contained dry permafrost below 70 cm, 27% had ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, 27% had bedrock within 70 cm, and 5% contained an ice-core (Bockheim, unpublished; Schaefer et al., 2015). Dry-frozen permafrost, which may be unique to Antarctica, appears to form from sublimation of moisture in ice-cemented permafrost over time. Active-layer depths in drift sheets of the Ellsworth Mountains range from 15 to 50 cm (Bockheim, unpublished); our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially at the continent. The active layer monitoring sites were installed at Edson Hills, Ellsworth_Mountains, in the summer of 2012, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) installed at 1 m above ground for air temperature measurements at two soil profiles on quartzite drift deposits, arranged in a vertical array (Lithic Haplorthel 886 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm and Lithic Anyorthel 850 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm). All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from January 2nd 2012 until December 29th 2013. We calculated the thawing days (TD), freezing days (FD); isothermal days (ID), freeze thaw days (FTD), thawing degree days (TDD) and freezing degree days (FDD); all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). Temperature at 5 cm reaches a maximum

  4. Impact of model developments on present and future simulations of permafrost in a global land-surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadburn, S. E.; Burke, E. J.; Essery, R. L. H.; Boike, J.; Langer, M.; Heikenfeld, M.; Cox, P. M.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2015-03-01

    There is a large amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost in the northern high latitudes, which may become vulnerable to microbial decomposition under future climate warming. In order to estimate this potential carbon-climate feedback it is necessary to correctly simulate the physical dynamics of permafrost within global Earth System Models (ESMs) and to determine the rate at which it will thaw. Additional new processes within JULES, the land surface scheme of the UK ESM (UKESM), include a representation of organic soils, moss and bedrock, and a modification to the snow scheme. The impact of a higher vertical soil resolution and deeper soil column is also considered. Evaluation against a large group of sites shows the annual cycle of soil temperatures is approximately 25 % too large in the standard JULES version, but this error is corrected by the model improvements, in particular by deeper soil, organic soils, moss and the modified snow scheme. Comparing with active layer monitoring sites shows that the active layer is on average just over 1 m too deep in the standard model version, and this bias is reduced by 70 cm in the improved version. Increasing the soil vertical resolution allows the full range of active layer depths to be simulated, where by contrast with a poorly resolved soil, at least 50% of the permafrost area has a maximum thaw depth at the centre of the bottom soil layer. Thus all the model modifications are seen to improve the permafrost simulations. Historical permafrost area corresponds fairly well to observations in all simulations, covering an area between 14-19 million km2. Simulations under two future climate scenarios show a reduced sensitivity of permafrost degradation to temperature, with the near-surface permafrost lost per degree of warming reduced from 1.5 million km2 °C-1 in the standard version of JULES to between 1.1 and 1.2 million km2 °C-1 in the new model version. However, the near-surface permafrost area is still projected

  5. Impact of model developments on present and future simulations of permafrost in a global land-surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadburn, S. E.; Burke, E. J.; Essery, R. L. H.; Boike, J.; Langer, M.; Heikenfeld, M.; Cox, P. M.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2015-08-01

    There is a large amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost in the northern high latitudes, which may become vulnerable to microbial decomposition under future climate warming. In order to estimate this potential carbon-climate feedback it is necessary to correctly simulate the physical dynamics of permafrost within global Earth system models (ESMs) and to determine the rate at which it will thaw. Additional new processes within JULES, the land-surface scheme of the UK ESM (UKESM), include a representation of organic soils, moss and bedrock and a modification to the snow scheme; the sensitivity of permafrost to these new developments is investigated in this study. The impact of a higher vertical soil resolution and deeper soil column is also considered. Evaluation against a large group of sites shows the annual cycle of soil temperatures is approximately 25 % too large in the standard JULES version, but this error is corrected by the model improvements, in particular by deeper soil, organic soils, moss and the modified snow scheme. A comparison with active layer monitoring sites shows that the active layer is on average just over 1 m too deep in the standard model version, and this bias is reduced by 70 cm in the improved version. Increasing the soil vertical resolution allows the full range of active layer depths to be simulated; by contrast, with a poorly resolved soil at least 50 % of the permafrost area has a maximum thaw depth at the centre of the bottom soil layer. Thus all the model modifications are seen to improve the permafrost simulations. Historical permafrost area corresponds fairly well to observations in all simulations, covering an area between 14 and 19 million km2. Simulations under two future climate scenarios show a reduced sensitivity of permafrost degradation to temperature, with the near-surface permafrost loss per degree of warming reduced from 1.5 million km2 °C-1 in the standard version of JULES to between 1.1 and 1.2 million km2 °C-1

  6. ESTIMATION OF TROPICAL FOREST STRUCTURE AND BIOMASS FROM FUSION OF RADAR AND LIDAR MEASUREMENTS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Dubayah, R.; Clark, D. B.; Chazdon, R.

    2009-12-01

    Radar and Lidar instruments are active remote sensing sensors with the potential of measuring forest vertical and horizontal structure and the aboveground biomass (AGB). In this paper, we present the analysis of radar and lidar data acquired over the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Radar polarimetry at L-band (25 cm wavelength), P-band (70 cm wavelength) and interferometry at C-band (6 cm wavelength) and VV polarization were acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) system. Lidar images were provided by a large footprint airborne scanning Lidar known as the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). By including field measurements of structure and biomass over a variety of forest types, we examined: 1) sensitivity of radar and lidar measurements to forest structure and biomass, 2) accuracy of individual sensors for AGB estimation, and 3) synergism of radar imaging measurements with lidar imaging and sampling measurements for improving the estimation of 3-dimensional forest structure and AGB. The results showed that P-band radar combined with any interformteric measurement of forest height can capture approximately 85% of the variation of biomass in La Selva at spatial scales larger than 1 hectare. Similar analysis at L-band frequency captured only 70% of the variation. However, combination of lidar and radar measurements improved estimates of forest three-dimensional structure and biomass to above 90% for all forest types. We present a novel data fusion approach based on a Baysian estimation model with the capability of incorporating lidar samples and radar imagery. The model was used to simulate the potential of data fusion in future satellite mission scenarios as in BIOMASS (planned by ESA) at P-band and DESDynl (planned by NASA) at L-band. The estimation model was also able to quantify errors and uncertainties associated with the scale of measurements, spatial variability of forest structure, and differences in radar and lidar

  7. Modeling relationships between water table depth and peat soil carbon loss in Southeast Asian plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Goodman, Lael K.; May-Tobin, Calen C.

    2015-07-01

    Plantation-associated drainage of Southeast Asian peatlands has accelerated in recent years. Draining exposes the upper peat layer to oxygen, leading to elevated decomposition rates and net soil carbon losses. Empirical studies indicate positive relationships between long-term water table (WT) depth and soil carbon loss rate in peatlands. These correlations potentially enable using WT depth as a proxy for soil carbon losses from peatland plantations. Here, we compile data from published research assessing WT depth and carbon balance in tropical plantations on peat. We model net carbon loss from subsidence studies, as well as soil respiration (heterotrophic and total) from closed chamber studies, as a function of WT depth. WT depth across all 12 studies and 59 sites is 67 ± 20 cm (mean ± standard deviation). Mean WT depth is positively related to net carbon loss, as well as soil respiration rate. Our models explain 45% of net carbon loss variation and 45-63% of soil respiration variation. At a 70 cm WT depth, the subsidence model suggests net carbon loss of 20 tC ha-1 yr-1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 18-22 tC ha-1 yr-1) for plantations drained for >2 yr. Closed chamber-measured total soil respiration at this depth is 20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 17-24 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1) while heterotrophic respiration is 17 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 14-20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1), ˜82% of total respiration. While land use is not a significant predictor of soil respiration, WT depths are greater at acacia (75 ± 16 cm) than oil palm (59 ± 15 cm) sample sites. Improved spatio-temporal sampling of the full suite of peat soil carbon fluxes—including fluvial carbon export and organic fertilizer inputs—will clarify multiple mechanisms leading to carbon loss and gain, supporting refined assessments of the global warming potential of peatland drainage.

  8. Signal information available for plume source tracking with and without surface waves and learning by undergraduates assisting with the research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Megan Beth

    Autonomous vehicles have had limited success in locating point sources of pollutants, chemicals, and other passive scalars. However, animals such as stomatopods, a mantis shrimp, track odor plumes easily for food, mates, and habitat. Laboratory experiments using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence measured odor concentration downstream of a diffusive source with and without live stomatopods to investigate their source-tracking strategies in unidirectional and "wave-affected" (surface waves with a mean current) flows. Despite the dearth of signal, extreme temporal variation, and meandering plume centerline, the stomatopods were able to locate the source, especially in the wave-affected flow. Differences in the two plumes far from the source (>160 cm) appeared to help the animals in the wave-affected flow position themselves closer to the source (<70 cm) at times with relatively large amounts of odor and plume filaments of high concentration. At the height of the animals' antennules, the site of their primary chemosensors, the time-averaged Reynolds stresses in the two flows were approximately the same. The temporal variation in stresses over the wave cycle may be responsible for differences in the two plumes. The antennule height falls between a region of large peaks in Reynolds stress in phase with peaks in streamwise acceleration, and a lower region with a smaller Reynolds stress peak in phase with maximum shear during flow reversal. Six undergraduate students assisted with the research. We documented their daily activities and ideas on plume dispersion using open-ended interviews. Most of their time was spent on tasks that required no understanding of fluid mechanics, and there was little evidence of learning by participation in the RAship. One RA's conceptions of turbulence did change, but a group workshop seemed to support this learning more than the RAship. The documented conceptions could aid in curriculum design, since situating new information within current

  9. Spatial variation in recruitment of native and invasive sessile species onto oyster reefs in a temperate soft-bottom lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. S.; Silliman, B. R.; McGlathery, K. J.

    2007-03-01

    Although spatial variability in recruitment is a strong force structuring many marine communities, relatively few data exist on recruitment variability in sessile oyster reef communities. In a soft-bottom lagoon in Virginia, we tested if recruitment differed among three reefs situated across a mainland-lagoon-barrier-island transect and among elevations (>90-80, >80-70, >70-55 and >55-20 cm below MSL) on the lagoon reef. The most abundant taxa (the invasive algae Gracilaria vermiculophylla and Codium fragile and the indigenous oyster Crassostrea virginica and algae Ulva curvata) had highest recruitment at the lagoon reef, where propagule supply was likely highest. The mainland reef had lowest algal richness (1.4-3.1 panel -1) and abundances (<4% cover) compared to lagoon and island reefs (3.3-6.5 panel -1, 14-20%), but there were no differences between sites for animals. Overall, animals and algae were equally dominant at the mainland reef, whereas algae dominated at lagoon and island reefs. High water turbidity and suspended solids are typical algal stressors at mainland reefs, and these may account for the low algal abundance in that region. For many species (at least 9 out of 14) differences in recruitment success were observed over elevation differences as small as 10-30 cm, e.g. G. vermiculophylla and C. fragile mainly recruited up to >70-55 and >80-70 cm respectively (probably limited upward by desiccation), U. curvata down to >70-55 cm (probably limited downward by grazing or competition), whereas C. virginica recruited at all elevations. Animal richness was highest at the two lowest elevations (2.0-2.5 vs. 1.1-1.8 panel -1), but there was no effect of elevation on algae (3-6 panel -1) because of species substitutions between elevation levels. Thus, as in rocky intertidal systems, spatial variability in recruitment is important for community structure on oyster reefs, and if biodiversity is considered an important reef conservation goal, managers should

  10. Experimental assessment of out-of-field dose components in high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    M Alabdoaburas, Mohamad; Mege, Jean-Pierre; Chavaudra, Jean; Vũ Bezin, Jérémi; Veres, Atilla; De Vathaire, Florent; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2015-11-08

    The purpose of this work was to experimentally investigate the out-of-field dose in a water phantom, with several high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy (RT). The study was carried out for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV electron beams, on three different linear accelerators, each equipped with a specific applicator. Measurements were performed in a water phantom, at different depths, for different applicator sizes, and off-axis distances up to 70 cm from beam central axis (CAX). Thermoluminescent powder dosimeters (TLD-700) were used. For given cases, TLD measurements were compared to EBT3 films and parallel-plane ionization chamber measurements. Also, out-of-field doses at 10 cm depth, with and without applicator, were evaluated. With the Siemens applicators, a peak dose appears at about 12-15 cm out of the field edge, at 1 cm depth, for all field sizes and energies. For the Siemens Primus, with a 10 × 10 cm(²) applicator, this peak reaches 2.3%, 1%, 0.9% and 1.3% of the maximum central axis dose (Dmax) for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron beams, respectively. For the Siemens Oncor, with a 10 × 10 cm(²) applicator, this peak dose reaches 0.8%, 1%, 1.4%, and 1.6% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 14 MeV, respectively, and these values increase with applicator size. For the Varian 2300C/D, the doses at 12.5 cm out of the field edge are 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.5%, and 1.1% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV, respectively, and increase with applicator size. No peak dose is evidenced for the Varian applicator for these energies. In summary, the out-of-field dose from electron beams increases with the beam energy and the applicator size, and decreases with the distance from the beam central axis and the depth in water. It also considerably depends on the applicator types. Our results can be of interest for the dose estimations delivered in healthy tissues outside the treatment field for the RT patient, as well as in studies exploring RT long-term effects.

  11. Annual Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the Period October 1999-October 2000

    SciTech Connect

    D. F. Emer

    2001-03-01

    This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 1999-October 2000 period. Inspections of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in August 2000. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began seven years ago. The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that maybe indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. Precipitation for the period October 1999 through October 2000 was 10.44 centimeters (cm) (4.11 inches [in.]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2000). The prior year annual rainfall (January 1999 through December 1999) was 10.13cm (3.99 in.). The highest 30-day cumulative rainfall occurred on March 8, 2000, with a total of 6.63 cm (2.61 in.). The heaviest daily precipitation occurred on February 23,2000, with a total of 1.70 cm (0.67 in.) falling in that 24-hour period. The recorded average annual rainfall for this site, from 1972 to January 1999, is 15.06 cm (5.93 in.). All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the

  12. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on maximal strength and strength endurance.

    PubMed

    Painelli, Vitor S; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Del-Favero, Serena; Benatti, Fabiana B; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Lancha, Antonio H

    2011-09-01

    It has been previously reported that carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse can improve exercise performance. The proposed mechanism involves increased activation of brain regions believed to be responsible for reward/motivation and motor control. Since strength-related performance is affected by central drive to the muscles, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that the positive CNS response to oral CHO sensing may counteract the inhibitory input from the muscle afferent pathways minimizing the drop in the central drive. The purpose of the current study was to test if CHO mouth rinse affects maximum strength and strength endurance performance. Twelve recreationally strength-trained healthy males (age 24.08 ± 2.99 years; height 178.09 ± 6.70 cm; weight 78.67 ± 8.17 kg) took part in the study. All of the tests were performed in the morning, after an 8 h overnight fasting. Subjects were submitted to a maximum strength test (1-RM) and a strength endurance test (six sets until failure at 70% of 1-RM), in separate days under three different experimental conditions (CHO mouth rinse, placebo-PLA mouth rinse and control-CON) in a randomized crossover design. The CHO mouth rinse (25 ml) occurred before every attempt in the 1-RM test, and before every set in the endurance strength test. Blood glucose and lactate were measured immediately before and 5 min post-tests. There were no significant differences in 1-RM between experimental conditions (CHO 101 ± 7.2 kg; PLA 101 ± 7.4 kg; CON 101 ± 7.2 kg; p = 0.98). Furthermore, there were no significance between trial differences in the number of repetitions performed in each set (p = 0.99) or the total exercise volume (number of repetitions × load lifted [kg]) (p = 0.98). A main effect for time (p < 0.0001) in blood lactate concentration was observed in both tests (1-RM and strength endurance). Blood glucose concentration did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, CHO mouth rinse does not affect maximum strength or strength

  13. New instruments for soil physics class: Improving the laboratory and field seminars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Jankovec, Jakub; Snehota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    Teaching soil science and soil physics is an important part of the curriculum of many programs with focus on technical and natural sciences. Courses of soil science and namely soil physics have a long tradition at the faculty of Civil Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Students receive the theoretical foundations about soil classification, soil physics, soil chemistry and soil hydraulic characteristics in the course. In practical seminars students perform measurements of physical, hydraulic and chemical characteristics of soils, thus a comprehensive survey of soil is done in the given site. So far, students had the opportunity to use old, manually operated instrumentation. The project aims to improve the attractiveness of soil physics course and to extend the practical skills of students by introducing new tasks and by involving modern automated equipment. New instruments were purchased with the support of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the project FRVS No. 1162/2013 G1. Specifically, two tensiometers T8 with multi-functional handheld read-out unit (UMS, GmbH) and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (Decagon Devices, Inc.) were purchased and incorporated into the course. In addition, newly designed MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (CTU in Prague) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT sensor TMS 2 (TOMST®, s.r.o.), were made freely available for soil physics classes and included into the courses. Online tutorials and instructional videos were developed. Detailed multimedia teaching materials were introduced so that students are able to work more independently. Students will practice operating the digital tensiometer T8 with integrated temperature sensor and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (diameter disk: 4.4 cm, suction range: 0.5 to 7.0 cm of suction) and MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (see Klipa et al., EGU2014-7230) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT sensor TMS2. The tutorials cover the measurements process from installation to the data processing. The introduction of new instruments into to the courses is not only attractive for students but also useful in terms of gaining practical experience and new skills with advanced measurement devices for PhD students who participate on class teaching. Students will be able to use newly gain skills as well as the equipment for their projects and theses. This work has been supported by student grant FRVS number: 1162/2013 G1.

  14. Ambient neutrons of natural origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. Neutron flux in the energy range of 0.02 eV - 10 MeV is registered with two sets of proportional ^{3}He tubes placed into cylindrical paraffin thermalizers: an {bf outdoor detector }of 250 cm² area and {bf indoor detector }of 70 cm² area located on the second floor of a concrete building. The counter efficiency for thermal neutrons is 80%. The characteristics of the observed flux variation are quite different from those inherent to the neutrons of the cosmic ray origin. {bf Four types of the outdoor flux variations }are observed: 1) {bf seasonal }with a maxima in wet seasons; 2) {bf diurnal }with maximum at about 6 h local time and an amplitude up to several dozens; 3) {bf abrupt transient} ( 1 min) increases with magnitudes up to two orders higher than the mean daily flux; 4) short (several days) {bf quasi-periodic enhancements }with amplitudes up to several times higher than the mean daily flux. A large variation of the outdoor flux and its phase synchronism with that of the radon decay products means with a high probability their common origin. An apparent source of the neutrons observed is nuclear reactions of decay α-particles with the ground matter. In this case the dynamics of the outdoor flux variations of the first two types is controlled by those of the meteorological parameters in the locality. The third type events correlate with lightning strokes in the vicinity (<200 m) of the detector. The more rare fourth type correlate neither with geomagnetic disturbances nor with meteorological phenomena and are probably a result of natural radon release from the Earth's crust triggered by minor seismological activity. The indoor flux is quite stable with a possible weak maximum at16 h not exceeding 0.1.

  15. Ocean Domains and Maximum Degree of Spherical Harmonic and Orthonormal Expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, R.

    1999-01-01

    Ocean domains used for the orthonormal (ON) systems are studied to determine the maximum degree of spherical harmonic and orthonormal expansions that can be constructed. Although it was shown that one domain was restricted to degree 24, others were shown could be constructed to determine expansions to at least degree 36. Since 1991 the maximum degree expansion used for several Ohio State studies has been 24. In this report it is shown that the maximum degree for the ocean domain used by Wang and Rapp [1994] was 32 and 29 for the domain used by Rapp, Zhang, Yi [1996]. A modification of the former domain was developed (D1e) that enabled a solution to degree 36 to be determined. A modification of the Rapp, Zhang, Yi domain (D7d) enabled a degree 30 solution to be made. Combination coefficients were developed for domain D1e, to degree 36, and to degree 30 for domain D7d. The degree 30 spherical harmonic expansion provided by Pavlis [1998] of the POCM_4B dynamic ocean topography (DOT), and the degree 30 part of the degree 360 expansion [Rapp. 1998] of the POCM_4B model was converted to an ON expansion valid for the D7d domain. The degree 36 part of the degree 360 expansion was converted to the ON expansion for the D1e domain. The square root of the degree variances of the various solutions were compared. The root mean square value of DOT from the Pai,lis expansion, after conversion to the ON system, was + or - 66.52 cm (D7d domain). The value from the degree 30 part of the 360 expansion was + or - 66.65 cm. The value based on the actual POCM-4B data, in the D7d domain, was + or - 66.74 cm showing excellent agreement with the ON results. If the spherical harmonic coefficients had been used the implied root mean square value was + or - 60.76 cm [Pavlis] and + or -59.70 cm [Rapp].

  16. Partitioning of soil water among canopy trees in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, F C; Andrade, José Luis; Goldstein, Guillermo; Holbrook, N Michele; Cavelier, Jaime; Wright, S Joseph

    1999-11-01

    Little is known about partitioning of soil water resources in species-rich, seasonally dry tropical forests. We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of soil water utilization in several canopy tree species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, during the 1997 dry season. Stable hydrogen isotope composition (δD) of xylem and soil water, soil volumetric water content (θv), and sap flow were measured concurrently. Evaporative fractionation near the soil surface caused soil water δD to decrease from about -15‰ at 0.1 m to -50 to -55‰ at 1.2 m depth. Groundwater sampled at the sources of nearby springs during this period yielded an average δD value of -60‰. θv increased sharply and nearly linearly with depth to 0.7 m, then increased more slowly between 0.7 and 1.05 m. Based on xylem δD values, water uptake in some individual plants appeared to be restricted largely to the upper 20 cm of the soil profile where θv dropped below 20% during the dry season. In contrast, other individuals appeared to have access to water at depths greater than 1 m where θv remained above 45% throughout the dry season. The depths of water sources for trees with intermediate xylem δD values were less certain because variation in soil water δD between 20 and 70 cm was relatively small. Xylem water δD was also strongly dependent on tree size (diameter at breast height), with smaller trees appearing to preferentially tap deeper sources of soil water than larger trees. This relationship appeared to be species independent. Trees able to exploit progressively deeper sources of soil water during the dry season, as indicated by increasingly negative xylem δD values, were also able to maintain constant or even increase rates of water use. Seasonal courses of water use and soil water partitioning were associated with leaf phenology. Species with the smallest seasonal variability in leaf fall were also able to tap increasingly deep sources of soil water as the dry season progressed

  17. Forest leaf litter decomposition in the vicinity of a zinc smelter.

    PubMed

    Strojan, Carl L

    1978-01-01

    Concentrations of about 26,000 ppm Zn, 10,000 ppm Fe, 2,300 ppm Pb, 900 ppm Cd, 340 ppm Cu, and 0.40% S were measured in the O2 litter horizon about 1 km from a zinc smelter at Palmerton, Pennsylvania. Samples taken about 6 km east of the smelter had concentrations of about 15,000 ppm Zn, 6,500 ppm Fe, 970 ppm Pb, 250 ppm Cd, 170 ppm Cu, and 0.26% S. Samples from a control area about 40 km east of the smelter had concentrations of 2,800 ppm Fe, 650 ppm Zn, 260 ppm Pb, 50 ppm Cu, 9 ppm Cd, and 0.13% S.Litter bags were used to estimate first-year weight loss in sassafras leaves and a mixture of chestnut oak/red oak leaves in the three sites. At the end of one year, average weight loss for sassafras was 39.3% in the control site, 21.8% at 6 km, and 17.5% at the 1 km site. For the chestnut oak/red oak mixture, average weight loss was 36.8% (40 km), 25.7% (6 km), and 19.1% (1 km). Numbers and diversity of soil microarthropods inhabiting the litter bags showed a corresponding decline at sites near the smelter. Concentrations of Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S and Zn in the decomposing litter were also measured.The average amount of organic matter on the forest floor was estimated to be 3.8 kg/m(2) in the control site, about 3.8 kg/m(2) at 6 km, and about 8.1 kg/m(2) 1 km from the smelter. Average thickness of the litter horizons in these three sites was 6.0 cm (40 km), 7.0 cm (6 km), and 12.4 cm (1 km), suggesting a long-term depression of decomposition and mineral cycling near the smelter.

  18. Surface Changes Observed at Greeley Haven during Opportunity's Fifth Martian Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Arvidson, R. E.; Herman, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    due to lighting variations with time. Further, several of these events compare favorably to minor dust cleaning episodes documented by the changes in power from the rover's solar cells. This is additional evidence for the influence of winds at both the surface boundary layer and the 70 cm elevation of the rover deck. Fig. 1. False-color scene of wheel tracks in front of rover (Sol 2882, P2551).

  19. Columnar Jointing Thermo-Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iddon, Fiona; Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Wadsworth, Fabian; von Aulock, Felix; Lavallée, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Thermo-mechanical effects, common to a wide range of geological phenomena, are integral to the formation of columnar joints during cooling and crystallisation of lava flows. The process, and resultant geometry, relies on a complex inter-play between heat distribution, contraction and tensile strength, yet the kinetics of their formation remains elusive. Results are presented from a combination of field survey, thermo-analytical characterisation and mechanical investigation to constrain conditions favourable for columnar jointing. Columnar joints from Seljavallir, Iceland, produce quadratic to heptagonal cross sectional patterns with column widths ranging from 20 to 70 cm in size. The fracture surfaces are characterised by striae of which spacing (between 1 to 6 cm) appear to share a positive linear relationship to the joint spacing. The striae exhibit both a smooth and rough portion, interpreted to express a change in deformation regime from fully brittle, mode-I fracture propagation to an increasingly ductile response of the lava with tensile fracture dissipation as the fracture event wanes. The contraction of the basalts has been investigated via the expansion coefficient determined in a dilatometer (at 3mN of normal stress and a rate of 2 °C/min). The expansion coefficient has been constrained to 10-5/°C and the onset of melting (and completion of natural crystallisation) at 1150°C. Experiments are currently being conducted to assess the effect of cooling rate and normal stress on the properties of the Seljavallir basalts. The mechanical properties of the rock in tension have been tested at room temperature in a uniaxial press (high-temperature tests are also scheduled). During true-tension pull test at a strain rate of 10-4 s-1, elastic deformation agrees to a Young's modulus of 6.3 GPa. Tensile failure initiated after 0.35% strain with the generation of a large crack at a peak stress of 2.2 MPa. The fracture induced a stress drop and upon stress build-up to

  20. Characterization of a subtropical hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmocheyles imbricata) assemblage utilizing shallow water natural and artificial habitats in the Florida Keys.

    PubMed

    Gorham, Jonathan C; Clark, David R; Bresette, Michael J; Bagley, Dean A; Keske, Carrie L; Traxler, Steve L; Witherington, Blair E; Shamblin, Brian M; Nairn, Campbell J

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information to better inform management decisions and direct further research, vessel-based visual transects, snorkel transects, and in-water capture techniques were used to characterize hawksbill sea turtles in the shallow marine habitats of a Marine Protected Area (MPA), the Key West National Wildlife Refuge in the Florida Keys. Hawksbills were found in hardbottom and seagrass dominated habitats throughout the Refuge, and on man-made rubble structures in the Northwest Channel near Cottrell Key. Hawksbills captured (N = 82) were exclusively juveniles and subadults with a straight standard carapace length (SSCL) ranging from 21.4 to 69.0cm with a mean of 44.1 cm (SD = 10.8). Somatic growth rates were calculated from 15 recaptured turtles with periods at large ranging from 51 to 1188 days. Mean SSCL growth rate was 7.7 cm/year (SD = 4.6). Juvenile hawksbills (<50 cm SSCL) showed a significantly higher growth rate (9.2 cm/year, SD = 4.5, N = 11) than subadult hawksbills (50-70 cm SSCL, 3.6 cm/year, SD = 0.9, N = 4). Analysis of 740 base pair mitochondrial control region sequences from 50 sampled turtles yielded 12 haplotypes. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different compared to four other Caribbean juvenile foraging aggregations, including one off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Many-to-one mixed stock analysis indicated Mexico as the primary source of juveniles in the region and also suggested that the Refuge may serve as important developmental habitat for the Cuban nesting aggregation. Serum testosterone radioimmunoassay results from 33 individuals indicated a female biased sex ratio of 3.3 females: 1 male for hawksbills in the Refuge. This assemblage of hawksbills is near the northern limit of the species range, and is one of only two such assemblages described in the waters of the continental United States. Since this assemblage resides in an MPA with intensive human use, basic information on the

  1. The role of some agricultural practices and fertilizer type on both the incidence of stem borers infestation and corn yield in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; Massoud, M A; Abd el-Aziz, A A

    2002-01-01

    Maize, Zea mays, L. is one of the most important field crops in Egypt. It is used mainly for human, animal and poultry feeding. Corn plants are usually attacked by several injourious insect pests at different stages of development. Out of them, the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon (Bles.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.); which cause great damage and yield losses. It is profitable to adopt an effective and sustainable strategy for controlling these insect-pests. In this concern, sowing dates, planting spaces, foliar fertilizers (macro and micro-nutrients), mineral and/or biofertilization, were investigated to evaluate their role as tools in the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of corn pests. In general, the used planting spaces of 60 and 70 cm apart between furrows insignificantly affected the level of stem borers infestation. It was clearly observed that the sowing dates have a role in the incidence of stem borers infestation throughout the corn growing seasons of 1994 and 1995. Moreover, The biofertilized corn plants were more tolerant to the infestation by the stem borers than the minerally fertilized ones. Application of Polytrin significantly decreased the mean numbers of larvae. The tested nutrients preparations affected to less extent, the infestation levels. Concerning the interaction effect of applied nutrients preparations, used sowing dates and/or fertilizer type on the deduced means of larval numbers, it was revealed that: (i) the application of the nutrients preparations decreased to a great extent the effect of the studied sowing dates on the stem borers infestation; particularly in case of spraying ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex, coppersulphate & Potasin-F, (ii) the dressing of corn grains with the biofertilizers Phosphorin & Rhizobacterin before sowing, lowered to some extent the levels of infestation by Ch. agamemnon and O. nubilalis, in

  2. The 2009 and 2010 eruptions and shallow intrusions at Piton de la Fournaise, La Réunion Island, seen by cGPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudacher, Thomas; Peltier, Aline; Boissier, Patrice; di Muro, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Piton de la Fournaise volcano at La Réunion Island in the western Indian Ocean is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Its average eruption rate over the last 2 centuries is one eruption every 9 months. Between 1998 and 2010 thirty eruptions occurred and produced some 300×106 m3 of lava flows. Since the 2007 collapse of 340 m of the Dolomieu caldera, the eruptive activity of the volcano changed with mainly the occurrence of numerous shallow intrusions preceding days or weeks small summit eruptions. In 2009-2010, Piton de la Fournaise erupted successively in November 5, December 14, 2009 and in January 2, 2010. The one day lasting November and December 2009 eruptions started from en echelon fissures close to the summit around its eastern and southern rims, respectively, whereas the January 2010 eruptive fissure opened on the western flank inside of the Dolomieu crater. These three eruptions produced less than 106 m3 of lava, but generated large ground deformation, of up to 70 cm, recorded by the cGPS network of the volcano observatory and by cinematic GPS measurements. The long term survey showed a small extent of the ground deformation field and the small ratios of base/summit displacements and vertical/horizontal displacements reveal the involvement of shallow dykes to fed these successive eruptions. The cGPS network allowed us to follow up precisely the pre eruptive ground deformations, the 40 to 90 minutes dyke propagation toward the surface, as well as the ground deformations after the vent opening. For the November and December 2009 eruptions, the dyke started below the western part of the Dolomieu crater, before propagating to the east and the south, respectively. For the January eruption, the dyke propagated along a more or less vertical pathway directly to the western part of the Dolomieu crater. The two previous dyke injections of November and December had increased the horizontal compressive stress of the eastern side of the Dolomieu

  3. Final height in central precocious puberty after long term treatment with a slow release GnRH agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Oostdijk, W; Rikken, B; Schreuder, S; Otten, B; Odink, R; Rouwé, C; Jansen, M; Gerver, W J; Waelkens, J; Drop, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the resumption of puberty and the final height achieved in children with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with the GnRH agonist triptorelin. PATIENTS: 31 girls and five boys with CPP who were treated with triptorelin 3.75 mg intramuscularly every four weeks. Girls were treated for a mean (SD) of 3.4 (1.0) years and were followed up for 4.0 (1.2) years after the treatment was stopped. RESULTS: The rate of bone maturation decreased during treatment and the predicted adult height increased from 158.2 (7.4) cm to 163.9 (7.5) cm at the end of treatment (p < 0.001). When treatment was stopped bone maturation accelerated, resulting in a final height of 161.6 (7.0) cm, which was higher than the predicted adult height at the start of treatment (p < 0.001). Height at the start of treatment was the most important factor positively influencing final height (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Bone age at cessation of treatment negatively influenced final height (r = -0.52, p = 0.03). A negative correlation between bone age and height increment after discontinuation of treatment was observed (r = -0.85, p = 0.001). Residual growth capacity was optimal when bone age on cessation of treatment was 12 to 12.5 years. Body mass index increased during treatment and remained high on cessation. At final height, the ratio of sitting height to subischial leg length was normal. Menarche occurred at 12.3 (1.1) years, and at a median (range) of 1.1 (0.4 to 2.6) years after treatment was stopped. The ovaries were normal on pelvic ultrasonography. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of CPP with triptorelin increases final height, with normal body proportions, and seems to increase body mass index. The best results were achieved in girls who were taller at the start of treatment. Puberty was resumed after treatment, without the occurrence of polycystic ovaries. PMID:8984913

  4. Thermographic inspection of bond defects in Fiber Reinforced Polymer applied to masonry structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Aiello, M. A.; Capozzoli, L.; Vasanelli, E.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, externally bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) are extensively used for strengthening and repairing masonry and reinforced concrete existing structures; they have had a rapid spread in the area of rehabilitation for their many advantages over other conventional repair systems, such as lightweight, excellent corrosion and fatigue resistance, high strength, etc. FRP systems applied to masonry or concrete structures are typically installed using a wet-layup technique.The method is susceptible to cause flaws or defects in the bond between the FRP system and the substrate, which may reduce the effectiveness of the reinforcing systems and the correct transfer of load from the structure to the composite. Thus it is of primary importance to detect the presence of defects and to quantify their extension in order to eventually provide correct repair measurements. The IR thermography has been cited by the several guidelines as a good mean to qualitatively evaluate the presence of installation defects and to monitor the reinforcing system with time.The method is non-destructive and does not require contact with the composite or other means except air to detect the reinforcement. Some works in the literature have been published on this topic. Most of the researches aim at using the IR thermography technique to characterize quantitatively the defects in terms of depth, extension and type in order to have an experimental database on defect typology to evaluate the long term performances of the reinforcing system. Nevertheless, most of the works in the literature concerns with FRP applied to concrete structures without considering the case of masonry structures. In the present research artificial bond defects between FRP and the masonry substrate have been reproduced in laboratory and the IR multi temporal thermography technique has been used to detect them. Thermographic analysis has been carried out on two wall samples having limited dimensions (100 x 70 cm) both

  5. Psychometric properties of the Polish language version of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 for patients treated surgically due to herniated lumbar discs and spondylotic changes

    PubMed Central

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of a pain-management program tailored to the specific needs of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) requires the proper assessment of psychosocial factors affecting each individual. The Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) refers to coping strategies, which are commonly defined as the cognitive and behavioral techniques an individual may resort to in stressful or demanding situations. Evidence from a number of sources suggests that differences in pain coping strategies may significantly affect how an individual deals with chronic pain. We aimed to adapt the CPCI-42 to Polish cultural conditions (PL-CPCI-42) and then verify its psychometric properties based on a group of patients treated surgically due to herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes. Material/Methods The average age of the study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). The average duration of chronic low back pain (CLBP) was 49.37 months (SD 64.71). Lumbosacral spine X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed and all patients completed the PL-CPCI-42 and the Polish versions of the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS-PL) twice. Internal consistency of the PL-CPCI-42, floor and ceiling effects, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity were analyzed. Results Resting, guarding, and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies both in the test and in the retest, in contrast to relaxation and exercise/stretch. The NPRS-PL result was 5.70 cm in the test and 5.66 in the retest. Cronbach’s alpha values were recorded for the asking for assistance, coping self-statements, and seeking social support domains (0.83, 0.80, 0.83, respectively). Test-retest reliability of the PL-CPCI-42 varied from 0.53 (relaxation domain) to 0.84 (asking for assistance and coping self-statements domains). Conclusions The present study provides evidence of the validity of the PL-CPCI-42 and supports its usefulness in assessing chronic

  6. Vibronic spectra of jet-cooled 2-aminopurine·H2O clusters studied by UV resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajeev K; Lobsiger, Simon; Trachsel, Maria; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2011-06-16

    For understanding the major- and minor-groove hydration patterns of DNAs and RNAs, it is important to understand the local solvation of individual nucleobases at the molecular level. We have investigated the 2-aminopurine·H(2)O monohydrate by two-color resonant two-photon ionization and UV/UV hole-burning spectroscopies, which reveal two isomers, denoted A and B. The electronic spectral shift δν of the S(1) ← S(0) transition relative to bare 9H-2-aminopurine (9H-2AP) is small for isomer A (-70 cm(-1)), while that of isomer B is much larger (δν = -889 cm(-1)). B3LYP geometry optimizations with the TZVP basis set predict four cluster isomers, of which three are doubly H-bonded, with H(2)O acting as an acceptor to a N-H or -NH2 group and as a donor to either of the pyrimidine N sites. The "sugar-edge" isomer A is calculated to be the most stable form with binding energy D(e) = 56.4 kJ/mol. Isomers B and C are H-bonded between the -NH2 group and pyrimidine moieties and are 2.5 and 6.9 kJ/mol less stable, respectively. Time-dependent (TD) B3LYP/TZVP calculations predict the adiabatic energies of the lowest (1)ππ* states of A and B in excellent agreement with the observed 0(0)(0) bands; also, the relative intensities of the A and B origin bands agree well with the calculated S(0) state relative energies. This allows unequivocal identification of the isomers. The R2PI spectra of 9H-2AP and of isomer A exhibit intense low-frequency out-of-plane overtone and combination bands, which is interpreted as a coupling of the optically excited (1)ππ* state to the lower-lying (1)nπ* dark state. In contrast, these overtone and combination bands are much weaker for isomer B, implying that the (1)ππ* state of B is planar and decoupled from the (1)nπ* state. These observations agree with the calculations, which predict the (1)nπ* above the (1)ππ* state for isomer B but below the (1)ππ* for both 9H-2AP and isomer A.

  7. The ICESat-2 mission: design, status, applications and pre-launch performance assessments for monitoring cryopsheric changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, T.; Markus, T.; Csatho, B. M.; Martino, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is the next-generation orbiting laser altimeter, following the ICESat mission, which operated between 2003 and 2009. Its primary aim is to monitor sea-ice thickness and ice sheet elevation change at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet, and enable global assessment of vegetation canopy height as established by ICESat. ICESat-2 is now in Phase C (Design and Development). It is scheduled to launch in 2016 on a Delta II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. ICESat-2 will carry the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) and collect data to a latitudinal limit of 88 degrees. In contrast to Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on ICESat, ATLAS employs a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. It uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; resulting in 70 cm footprint spacing on the ground along the direction of travel) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure ranges using 532 nm (green) laser light. In the polar regions, the 91-day repeat orbit pattern with a roughly monthly sub-cycle is designed to monitor seasonal and interannual variations of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet elevations and monthly sea ice thickness changes. Dense ground-tracks over the rest of the globe achieved through a systematic sequence of off-nadir pointing (resulting in < 2 km ground-track spacing at the equator after two years) will enable measurements of land topography and vegetation canopy heights, allowing estimates of biomass and carbon in above-ground vegetation. While the ICESat-2 mission was optimized for cryospheric science, elevation measurements will be collected over land and oceans as well as histograms of backscatter from the atmosphere. These observations will provide a wealth of opportunities in addition to the primary science objectives, ranging from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land

  8. Multipath fading analysis of telemetry signals power fluctuations from Universitetsky microsatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhparonov, Vladimir; Millán Adán, Espinoza; Vicente Vivas, Esaú

    2012-03-01

    The article deals with the results of the fading fluctuations analysis for telemetry signals in the 2 m and 70 cm bands from the first Moscow State University microsatellite better known as "Universitetsky". Radio telemetry signals were received from the microsatellite for around 2 years, collecting and recording the power signal data of almost 7500 satellite overpasses. The received signals from about 2300 satellite overpasses had a very low signal to noise ratio (SNR) that caused high transmission losses. The rest of the signals had a SNR high enough to complete the transmission without losses. The main objective of this paper was to find the fading fluctuations caused both by diffusion and by the presence of Gaussian and non Gaussian noise in telemetry signal power data. The purpose was both to characterize the communication channel as well as to elaborate solutions both to improve the communication quality as well as to identify no homogeneous zones in the ionosphere environment. The signal power analysis was based in the observation of statistical characteristics from different power signal components, in particular the components influenced by diffusion and non Gaussian noise. The employed methodology follows the next steps: removing the power signal envelope; taking away the Gaussian noise; obtaining the statistical characteristics from non Gaussian noise, Gaussian noise and envelope; finally identifying the LOS and NLOS signal fading components. For this purpose, the wavelet technique was used to perform the signal decomposition. In particular, the discrete wavelet transform DWT was utilized to carry out the signal de-noising. Then, the results were statistically treated in order to obtain a diffusion index for Rician fading, which are associated with fading in atmosphere and ionosphere layers. In this way the communications channel among satellite and ground station was characterized and a BER parameter was obtained for every satellite overpass, which

  9. The Henize sample of S stars --- III. Uncovering the binary intruders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eck, S.; Jorissen, A.

    2000-08-01

    a volume-limited sample, this proportion is subject to large uncertainties mainly because of uncertain luminosities. There are probably as many as 40% extrinsic stars among S stars in a volume-limited sample. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile) and at the Swiss 70 cm telescope (La Silla, Chile)

  10. Ground and excited state infrared spectroscopy of jet-cooled radicals: Exploring the photophysics of trihydronaphthyl and inden-2-ylmethyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Nathanael M.; Mehta-Hurt, Deepali N.; Korn, Joseph A.; Sibert, Edwin L.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The alkyl and aromatic CH stretch infrared spectra of inden-2-ylmethyl (I2M, C10H9) and trihydronaphthyl (THN, C10H11) radicals have been recorded under jet-cooled conditions in the ground (D0) and first electronically excited (D1) states using resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectroscopy. Previously, the vibronic spectroscopy of a series of C10H9 and C10H11 hydronaphthyl radicals were investigated and their thermochemical properties were evaluated with isomer specificity [J. A. Sebree et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 11, 6255-6262 (2010)]. We show here that one of the m/z 129 spectral carriers characterized in that work was misidentified as 2-hydronaphthyl (2-HN) radical, appearing in a discharge of 1,2-dihydronaphthalene in close proximity to 1-hydronaphthyl radical. The D0-RIDIR spectrum in the alkyl CH stretch region positively identifies the m/z 129 isomer as I2M, whose two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2C-R2PI) spectrum was recently reported by Schmidt and co-workers [T. P. Troy et al., Chem. Sci. 2, 1755-1765 (2011)]. Here, we further characterize the I2M and THN radicals by recording their gas phase IR spectra in the alkyl and aromatic CH stretch regions, and explore the spectroscopic consequences of electronic excitation on the CH stretch absorptions. A local-mode CH stretch Hamiltonian incorporating cubic stretch-bend coupling between anharmonic CH stretches and CH2 scissor modes is utilized to describe their Fermi resonance interactions. Excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results facilitates the interpretation of the D0- and D1-state RIDIR spectra of I2M, revealing that upon excitation the alkyl CH stretches decrease in frequency by 70 cm-1, while the allyl-like CH stretches experience a modest blueshift. In comparison, the photophysics of THN are strikingly different in that the IR transitions that possess vibrational motion along the CβH and CδH bonds are absent in the D1-RIDIR spectrum yet are predicted to be present from

  11. Effects of Natural Bioactive Products on the Growth and Ginsenoside Contents of Panax ginseng Cultured in an Aeroponic System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geum-Soog; Lee, Seung-Eun; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Hyuck; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kim, Seung-Yu; Kim, Yong-Bum

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural bioactive products such as Manda enzyme (T1), Yangmyeongwon (T2), effective microorganisms (T3), and Kelpak (T4) on the growth and ginsenoside contents of Panax ginseng cultured in an aeroponic system using a two-layer vertical type of nutrient bath under natural light conditions. The growth of ginseng plants showed specific characteristics according to the positions in which they were cultured due to the difference of light transmittance and temperature in the upper and lower layers during aeroponic culture in a two-layer vertical type of system. The growth of the aerial part of the leaves and stems of ginseng plants cultured in the lower layer (4,000 to 6,000 lx, 23℃ to 26℃) of the nutrient bath was observed to be superior to that of the ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer (12,000 to 15,000 lx, 25℃ to 28℃). The leaf area was significantly larger in the treatment of T2 and T4 (46.70 cm2) than with other treatments. Conversely, the values of the root weight and root diameter were higher in ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. The root weight was significantly heavier in the treatment of T4 (6.46 g) and T3 (6.26 g) than with other treatments. The total ginsenoside content in the leaves and roots was highest in the ginseng plants cultured by the treatment of T1, at 16.20%, while the total ginsenoside content obtained by other treatments decreased in the order of T4, T5 (control), T2, and T3, at 13.21%, 12.30%, 14.84%, and 14.86%, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves was found to be significantly higher in the treatment of T1 in the lower layer of the nutrient bath, at 15.30%, while the content of the ginseng roots in the treatments of T3 and T4, at 1.27% and 1.23%, respectively, was significantly higher than in other treatments in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. PMID:23717147

  12. Assesment of water elevation measurement quality from multi nadir altimetry missions over a 'small' river: the Garonne River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancamaria, S.; Leleu, A. S.; Frappart, F.; Blumstein, D.; Marieu, V.; Sottolichio, A.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2015-12-01

    For two decades, nadir altimetry mission measurements have been used to derive water elevation over rivers. It has been proven to be a powerful tool to estimate water elevation over big rivers (> 500 m), providing useful complementary data to in-situ gage networks. More recently, nadir altimetry data have been used successfully for some smaller rivers. It is therefore needed to assess potential errors from these measurements for these kind of river, using a well gaged basin.That's why we have investigated water elevations estimates from three altimetry missions (ENVISAT, Jason-2 and SARAL) over the Garonne River (South West of France). River width at studied river goes from 160 to 230 m.By comparison to nearby in-situ gages (IG), it has been shown that measurements from ENVISAT and Jason-2 virtual stations (VS) 100 km upstream of the estuary have errors between 20 to 70 cm for water anomaly, whereas most of the bias comes from river slope between IG and VS. 160 km upstream, the few usable ENVISAT VS have errors spanning from 80 to 160 cm. SARAL/AltiKa however, does not provide any water elevation information: there are rather no data in the record or measurements have huge bias with no correlation with water level variations. This is mainly due to high reliefs surrounding the river valley (up to 100 m difference between the valley and the top of the hills over few 10 km). SARAL/AlitKa, compared to previous instruments, has higher pulse bandwidth which results in a smaller range detection window of 30 m. It allows a higher vertical accuracy, but causes loss of data or to be 'locked' on the top of the hill even when it flies over the river valley, when there are important soil elevation variation over 'short' distance. This fact could also be observed for some Jason-2 and ENVISAT VS but to a much lower extent.Besides, water elevations time series has high frequencies due to local and upstream precipitation events. Therefore, it is more difficult to discriminate only

  13. The orbital volume measurement in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Min; Chang, Moo-Hwan; Kyung, Sungeun E

    2015-01-01

    Enophthalmos occurs from the increased bony volume or decreased soft tissue volume in the orbit and can be caused in patients with long-term ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. This study tried to find out the change of orbital volume by measuring the orbital volume before and after operation in adult patients who underwent VP shunt for hydrocephalus. The 2 evaluators measured orbital volume by using ITK-SNAP 2.4 program with double-blind test for computed tomography images before and after operation targeting 36 patients over the age of 18 who underwent VP shunt with pressure-controlled valve from 2003 to 2011. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test of GraphPad software was used to statistically analyze the difference in orbital volume change before and after operation. In case of mean pre-op orbital volume of total 36 patients, the right was measured as 23.72 ± 4.65 cm(3), the left as 23.47 ± 4.61 cm(3), the post-op right as 24.67 ± 4.70 cm(3), and the left as 24.18 ± 4.63 cm(3), showing no statistically significant difference (P = 0.106). The mean pre-op orbital volume of 14 people (28 eyes) followed for more than 11 months was 25.06 ± 4.58 cm(3) in the right and 24.4 ± 5.02 cm(3) in the left and the mean post-op orbital volume was 27.0 ± 4.28 cm(3) in the right and 25.76 ± 3.92 cm(3) in the left, showing statistically significant differences in the change of the volume before and after shunt operation (P = 0.0057). In patients who maintain long-term shunt devices after VP shunt, remodeling of matured orbital bone may be caused due to the change in pressure gradient between cranial cavity and orbit and the possible occurrence of resulting secondary enophthalmos by increased orbital volume should be considered.

  14. Unsaturated flow dynamics during irrigation with wastewater: field and modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hernandez, V.; de Miguel, A.; Meffe, R.; Leal, M.; González-Naranjo, V.; de Bustamante, I.

    2012-04-01

    To deal with water scarcity combined with a growing water demand, the reuse of wastewater effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for industrial and agricultural purposes is considered as a technically and economically feasible solution. In agriculture, irrigation with wastewater emerges as a sustainable practice that should be considered in such scenarios. Water infiltration, soil moisture storage and evapotranspiration occurring in the unsaturated zone are fundamental processes that play an important role in soil water balance. An accurate estimation of unsaturated flow dynamics (during and after irrigation) is essential to improve wastewater management (i.e. estimating groundwater recharge or maximizing irrigation efficiency) and to avoid possible soil and groundwater affections (i.e. predicting contaminant transport). The study site is located in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Seville, Spain). Here, treated wastewater is irrigated over the soil to enhance plants growth. To obtain physical characteristics of the soil (granulometry, bulk density and water retention curve), soil samples were collected at different depths. A drain gauge passive capillary lysimeter was installed to determine the volume of water draining from the vadose zone. Volumetric water content of the soil was monitored by measuring the dielectric constant using capacitance/frequency domain technology. Three soil moisture probes were located at different depths (20, 50 and 70 cm below the ground surface) to control the variation of the volumetric water content during infiltration. The main aim of this study is to understand water flow dynamics through the unsaturated zone during irrigation by using the finite element model Hydrus-1D. The experimental conditions were simulated by a 90 cm long, one dimensional solution domain. Specific climatic conditions, wastewater irrigation rates and physical properties of the soil were introduced in the model as input parameters

  15. Retrieval of ice thickness from radar-altimeter data based on empirical relation between ice thickness and freeboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, V.; Sandven, S.

    2009-04-01

    The basic technique of computing sea ice thickness by satellite altimetry is to measure freeboard (that is the height of the ice or snow surface above water) from the difference between the surface height of the larger ice floes, and the height of the thin ice or water surface in the major leads. The ice freeboard measurements are then converted to ice thickness by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and using fixed densities of ice, sea water and snow, as well as snow depth [Laxon et al., 2003]. Our studies revealed that the natural variability of sea ice density results in a significant uncertainty of ice thickness retrieval, which can reach ± 70 cm for thick first-year ice and multiyear ice. It was found that the interannual and regional variability of snow depth, which is less than 10 cm in most regions, cause uncertainty of ice thickness calculation of ± 20 cm for multiyear ice, and ± 30 cm - for first-year ice. The present knowledge on parameterization of ice density and, to some degree snow depth and density, as well as their dependence on ice thickness, precludes accurate calculation of ice thickness from measured ice freeboard values using isostatic equilibrium equation. Another possible approach for ice thickness retrieval from radar-altimeter data can be based on empirical relations between ice thickness and freeboard. The most extensive data set, containing sea ice and snow measurements, was collected during aircraft landings associated with the Soviet Union's historical Sever airborne and North Pole drifting station programs. The data set contains measurements of 23 parameters, including ice thickness, ice freeboard and snow depth, which were measured at the same time in 688 landings in 1980 - 1982, 1984 - 1986, and 1988. The following regression equation, relating average ice thickness and average ice freeboard has been derived from these data: Hice= 8.3098 Fest + 35.739 Obtained regression dependence allows estimation of ice thickness from measured

  16. Diatom paleoecology Pass Key core 37, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyle, Laura; Cooper, S.R.; Huvane, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    During the 20th century, there have been large-scale anthropogenic modifications to the South Florida ecosystem. The effects of these changes on Florida Bay and its biological communities are currently of political and scientific interest. This study is part of a larger effort to reconstruct the history of environmental changes in the bay, using paleoecological techniques. We are using diatom indicators preserved in Florida Bay sediments to infer long-term water quality, productivity, nutrient, and salinity changes. We are also obtaining information concerning the natural variability of the ecosystem. Diatoms are microscopic algae, the remains of which are generally well preserved in sediments, and their distributions are closely linked to water quality. Diatoms were extracted from a 70-cm sediment core collected from the Pass Key mudbank of Florida Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey. Between 300-500 diatom valves from each of 15 core samples were identified and counted. Estimates of absolute abundance, species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity, and centric:pennate ratios were calculated for each sample that was counted. Information on the ecology of the diatom species is presented, and changes in diatom community composition are evaluated. Samples contained an average of four million diatom valves per gram of sediment. Major changes in the diatom community are evident down core. These include increases in the percent abundance of marine diatoms in the time period represented by the core, probably the result of increasing salinity at Pass Key. Benthic diatoms become less abundant in the top half of the core. This may be related to a number of factors including the die-off of sea grass beds or increased turbidity of the water column. Once the chronology of the Pass Key core 37 is established, these down-core changes can be related to historical events and compared with other indicators in the sedimentary record that are currently being investigated by U.S Geological

  17. Sulfate reduction and microbial abundance in saline, alkaline Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey) - ICDP Expedition 5034

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Glombitza, C.; PaeloVAN Scientific Party

    2012-04-01

    Lake Van is the fourth lagest terminal lake in the world. It is located on the Eastern Anatolian High Plateau (Turkey) and surrounded by two semi-active vulcanos (Nemruth Dagi and Syphan Dagi). Evaporation processes, chemical weathering of vulcanic rocks and hydrothermal activity have created an environment of extreme alkalinity (155 m eql-1, pH 9.81) and salinity (21.4 ‰) (Kempe et al., 1991). Sediments of saline and highly alkaline soda lakes, such as Lake Van, represent one of the most extreme environments on Earth (Stam et al., 2010). These sediments host extremophilic microorganisms (alkaliphiles and halophiles) that have adapted their metabolism to these peculiar environmental conditions (Oren et al., 2002) In summer 2010 the ICDP Expedition 5034 (ICDP project PALEOVAN) retrieved long sediment cores at two sites at Lake Van, Northern Basin (5 km offshore, 245 meters below lake level, mbll) and Ahlat Ridge (12 km offshore, 357 mbll) [2]. At both sites, samples from optically undisturbed core catcher material were collected on site to investigate microbial abundance and activity. Close to both drill sites two short gravity cores (ca. 70 cm long) were retrieved to sample the sediment/water interface. We here report the first results from microbiological investigations (porewater chemistry, cell abundance and sulfate reduction rates, SRR) in samples from the two sites at Lake Van. Although the two sites are relatively close to each other, SRR differ significantly. The sedimentary microbial ecosystem in Lake Van is apparently more sensitive to environmental conditions like water depth and sedimentation rate than marine systems. The shallower Northern Basin site exhibits significantly higher SRR than Ahlat Ridge, which is located 7 km further offshore and ~100 m deeper. Microbial sedimentary abundance is similar at both sites, but cell abundance decreases linearly with depth, as compared to a logarithmic decrease with depth in marine sites. Due to the lack of

  18. Soil properties in high-elevation ski slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Freppaz, Michele; Letey, Stéphanie; Corti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Stefania; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    The development of winter sports determines an increasing impact on the high altitude ecosystems, as a consequence of increased participation and an increasing demand of high quality standards for skiable areas. The construction of a ski slope is associated with a certain impact on soil, which varies as a function of the degree of human-induced disturbance to the native substrata. In this work, we provide a description of the characteristics of alpine tundra ski-slope soils and their nutrient status, contrasted with undisturbed areas. The study site is located in the Monterosaski Resort, Aosta Valley, NW Italy (45°51' N; 7°48' E). We chose 5 sites along an altitudinal gradient between 2700 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Per each site, one plot was established on the ski slope, while a control plot was chosen under comparable topographic conditions a few meters apart. Soils were described and samples were collected and analysed for main chemical-physical properties. In addition an evaluation of N forms, organic matter fractionation and microbial biomass was carried out. Soil depth ranged between 10 to more than 70 cm, both on the ski slope and in the undisturbed areas. A true organo-mineral (A) horizon was firstly identified at 2500 m a.s.l., while a weathering horizon (Bw) was detected at 2400 m a.s.l.. However, a Bw horizon thick enough to be recognised as diagnostic for shifting soil classification order from Entisols to Inceptisols (USDA-Soil Taxonomy) was detected only below 2400 m a.s.l.. Lithic Cryorthents were predominant in the upper part of the sequence (above 2500 m a.s.l.), both in the ski slope and the undisturbed areas; Typic Cryorthents were identified between 2500 and 2400 m a.s.l., while Inceptisols were predominant between 2400 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Chemical-physical properties will be discussed focusing on the main differences between ski slope and undisturbed soils, as determined by the ski slope construction. Pedogenetic processes at high altitude are

  19. Crop residue incorporation for increasing SOC stock. Is it worth it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pituello, Chiara; Berti, Antonio; Morari, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In the last fifty years, soil organic carbon (SOC) in North-Eastern Italy decreased at rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.58 t ha/year as a consequence of the intensification and simplification of cropping systems. Most recently, the removal of crop residue for bioenergy production raises concerns about its potential impact on SOC evolution. Crop residue incorporation has been included in the Recommended Management Practices (RMPs) for climate change mitigation, however, several doubts still remain on its actual effectiveness. Indeed, long term effects of residue incorporation on SOC stocks have been studied by many authors with apparently contrasting findings. Thus, given the pivotal role played by SOC on ecosystem services, investigating the effects of residues incorporation on soil quality constitutes a key step towards understanding soil processes and will help establish a rationale bioenergy production policy. For this purpose, soil samples were taken from a long-term field experiment started in 1970, with three types of soil: sand, silt-loam and clay. The experiment design adopted implied a crop rotation including maize, wheat, and potatoes with only two types of residues management: incorporation and removal. The levels of nitrogen application were six (0, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kg ha-1) with a factorial combination with the residues management. Residue incorporation affected significantly the carbon stock within the profile (0-70cm), with an average increase in carbon content from 60 to 67 t C ha-1 in 42 years (0.16 t C ha-1 y-1). In clay and silt-loam soils the C stock varied within the whole profile, with an increase in the upper layer (0-20 cm) ranging from 29% (silt-loam) to 60% (clay soil) of the total increment. Conversely, in sand soil the effect was found only in the upper horizon, where the incorporation of residues increased SOC of only 1.9 t ha-1. This indicates that in sand soil the increase of C is mainly attributable to the direct effect of residues

  20. Spatial variability of detrended soil plow layer penetrometer resistance transect in a sugarcane field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Luis D.; Cumbrera, Ramiro; Mato, Juan; Millán, Humberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil properties is relevant for identifying those zones with physical degradation. In this sense, one has to face the problem of identifying the origin and distribution of spatial variability patterns (Brouder et al., 2001; Millán et al., 2012). The objective of the present work was to quantify the spatial structure of soil penetrometer resistance (PR) collected from a transect data consisted of 221 points equidistant. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 70 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm (Pérez, 2012). The study was conducted on a Vertisol (Typic Hapludert) dedicated to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production during the last sixty years (Pérez et al., 2010). Recently, scaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Tarquis et al., 2008; Millán et al., 2012; Pérez, 2012). We focus in the Hurst analysis to characterize the data variability for each depth. Previously a detrended analysis was conducted in order to better study de intrinsic variability of the series. The Hurst exponent (H) for each depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating PR evolution in depth. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Millán, H; AM Tarquís, Luís D. Pérez, Juan Mato, Mario González-Posada, 2012. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil and Tillage Research, 120, 76-84. Pérez, Luís D. 2012. Influencia de la maquinaria agrícola sobre la variabilidad espacial de la compactación del suelo. Aplicación de la metodología geoestadística-fractal. PhD thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Pérez, Luís D., Humberto Millán, Mario González-Posada 2010. Spatial complexity of soil plow layer penetrometer resistance as influenced by sugarcane harvesting: A prefractal approach. Soil and Tillage

  1. Study of PET scanner designs using clinical metrics to optimize the scanner axial FOV and crystal thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surti, S.; Werner, M. E.; Karp, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the trade-off between crystal thickness and scanner axial field-of-view FOV (AFOV) for clinical PET imaging. Clinical scanner design has evolved towards 20-25 mm thick crystals and 16-22 cm long scanner AFOV, as well as time-of-flight (TOF) imaging. While Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that longer AFOV and thicker crystals will lead to higher scanner sensitivity, cost has prohibited the building of commercial scanners with >22 cm AFOV. In this study, we performed a series of system simulations to optimize the use of a given amount of crystal material by evaluating the impact on system sensitivity and noise equivalent counts (NEC), as well as image quality in terms of lesion detectability. We evaluated two crystal types (LSO and LaBr3) and fixed the total crystal volume used for each type (8.2 L of LSO and 17.1 L of LaBr3) while varying the crystal thickness and scanner AFOV. In addition, all imaging times were normalized so that the total scan time needed to scan a 100 cm long object with multiple bed positions was kept constant. Our results show that the highest NEC cm-1 in a 35 cm diameter ×70 cm long line source cylinder is achieved for an LSO scanner with 10 mm long crystals and AFOV of 36 cm, while for LaBr3 scanners, the highest NEC cm-1 is obtained with 20 mm long crystals and an AFOV of 38 cm. Lesion phantom simulations show that the best lesion detection performance is achieved in scanners with long AFOV (≥36 cm) and using thin crystals (≤10 mm of LSO and ≤20 mm of LaBr3). This is due to a combination of improved NEC, as well as improved lesion contrast estimation due to better spatial resolution in thinner crystals. Alternatively, for lesion detection performance similar to that achieved in standard clinical scanner designs, the long AFOV scanners can be used to reduce the total scan time without increasing the amount of crystal used in the scanner. In addition, for LaBr3 based scanners, the reduced lesion

  2. APT: An Autonomous Tool for Measuring Acceleration, Pressure, and Temperature with Large Dynamic Range and Bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Davis, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new tool developed to facilitate the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a novel tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc, a pressure sensor developed by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter and data logger built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors, counters, and loggers are housed in a 7 cm o.d., 70 cm long pressure case designed for use in up to 12 km of water. Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.1 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 30 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously (1 s.p.s. or higher) and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW at 1 sample per min.). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of download and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., 4000 m water depth, 1 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.1 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient at a level of roughly 2 cm; long-term variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt at a level of 0.01 μRad. With these sensitivities and the broad bandwidth (5 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms and seismic waves, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation normally studied by disparate instruments can be observed with a single tool. The first c. 1-year deployment with the instrument connected to the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE observatory cable is underway to study interseismic deformation of the Cascadia subduction zone. It will then be deployed at the Hikurangi subduction zone to study episodic slow slip. Deployment of the tool for the initial test was accomplished by pushing the tool vertically below the seafloor with the remotely operated vehicle Jason, with no profile

  3. A Multi-Peaked Mid-Holocene Relative Sea-Level Highstand on the Sunda Shelf, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzner, A. J.; Switzer, A.; Horton, B.; Qiu, Q.; Hill, E.; Hill, D. F.; Bradley, S. L.; Majewski, J. M.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Natawidjaja, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Details of relative sea level (RSL) since the mid-Holocene in Southeast Asia are poorly determined. We have developed mid-Holocene RSL records at two sites on Belitung Island, Indonesia, on the Sunda Shelf, based on slabbed coral microatolls. At both sites, RSL reached its initial peak at ~6750 yr BP. RSL then fell ~70 cm, remaining at a lowstand for 60-100 years, before rising ~60 cm to a second peak at ~6550 yr BP. Evidence at both sites suggests that this was followed by at least one additional oscillation and one additional RSL peak over the following ~300 yr. On southeastern Belitung, the amplitude of the first RSL peak was more than +1.0 m above 2013 levels, the lowstand was at +0.6 m, and the second RSL peak was at +1.2 m. On northwestern Belitung, the first RSL peak, the lowstand, and the second peak were at +1.9 m, +1.2 m, and +1.7 m, respectively. The similarities in the records from the two sites, which are 80 km apart, argue that none of the oscillations are artifacts of local factors, e.g., ponding of corals. Notwithstanding these similarities, there is a uniform shift in elevations between the two sites: elevations at the NW site are consistently 0.5-0.6 m higher than contemporaneous elevations at the SE site. This difference might be explained by spatial variability in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), by changes over time in tidal range at one or both sites, and/or by a bias in elevations at the SE site if the modern "reference" corals were ponded. Decimetric fluctuations in RSL have also been suggested based on microatolls from southern China (Yu et al., 2009), but few other studies have the temporal and vertical resolution necessary to assess the geographic extent of such fluctuations. These RSL fluctuations across the South China Sea might be linked to oscillations in the strength of the monsoon.

  4. Separation of H2S and NH3 gases from tofu waste water-based biogas using activated carbon adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harihastuti, Nani; Purwanto, P.; Istadi, I.

    2015-12-01

    Research on the separation of H2S and NH3 gases from tofu waste water-based biogas has been conducted to improve the content of CH4 of biogas in order to increase calorific value. Biogas from tofu waste water contained many kinds of gases such as: CH4 of 53-64%, CO2 of 36-45%, H2S of 3,724-5,880 mg/Nm3, NH3 of 0.19-70.36 mg/Nm3, and H2O of 33,800-19,770,000 mg/Nm3. In fact, CO2, H2S, NH3, and moisture are impurities that have disturbance to human and environment, so that they are necessary to be separated from biogas. Particularly, H2S and NH3 have high toxicity to people, particularly the workers in the tofu industry. Therefore, separation of H2S and NH3 from biogas to increase calorific value is the focus of this research. The method used in this research is by adsorption of H2S and NH3 gases using activated carbon as adsorbent. It also used condensation as pretreatment to remove moisture content in biogas. Biogas was flowed to adsorption column (70 cm height and 9 cm diameter containing activated carbon as much as 500 g) so that the H2S and NH3 gases were adsorbed. This research was conducted by varying flow rate and flow time of biogas. From this experiment, it was found that the optimum adsorption conditions were flow rate of 3.5 l/min and 4 hours flow time. This condition could reach 99.95% adsorption efficiency of H2S from 5,879.50 mg/Nm3 to 0.67 mg/Nm3, and 74.96% adsorption efficiency of NH3 from 2.93 mg/Nm3 to 0.73 mg/Nm3. The concentration of CH4 increased from 63.88% to 76.24% in the biogas.

  5. Dynamics of organic and inorganic arsenic in the solution phase of an acidic fen in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.-H.; Matzner, E.

    2006-04-01

    Wetland soils play a key role for the transformation of heavy metals in forested watersheds, influencing their mobility, and ecotoxicity. Our goal was to investigate the mechanisms of release from solid to solution phase, the mobility, and the transformation of arsenic species in a fen soil. In methanol-water extracts, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, trimethylarsine oxide, arsenobetaine, and two unknown organic arsenic species were found with concentrations up to 14 ng As g -1 at the surface horizon. Arsenate is the dominant species at the 0-30 cm depth, whereas arsenite predominated at the 30-70 cm depth. Only up to 2.2% of total arsenic in fen was extractable with methanol-water. In porewaters, depth gradient spatial variation of arsenic species, pH, redox potentials, and the other chemical parameters along the profile was observed in June together with high proportion of organic arsenic species (up to 1.2 μg As L -1, 70% of total arsenic). Tetramethylarsonium ion and an unknown organic arsenic species were additionally detected in porewaters at deeper horizons. In comparison, the arsenic speciation in porewaters in April was homogeneous with depth and no organic arsenic species were found. Thus, the occurrence of microbial methylation of arsenic in fen was demonstrated for the first time. The 10 times elevated total arsenic concentrations in porewaters in June compared to April were accompanied by elevated concentrations of total iron, lower concentrations of sulfate and the presence of ammonium and phosphate. The low proportion of methanol-water extractable total arsenic suggests a generally low mobility of arsenic in fen soils. The release of arsenic from solid to solution phases in fen is dominantly controlled by dissolution of iron oxides, redox transformation, and methylation of arsenic, driven by microbial activity in the growing season. As a result, increased concentrations of total arsenic and potentially toxic arsenic species in fen

  6. Palaeoseismic evidence for a medieval earthquake, and preliminary estimate of late Pleistocene slip-rate, on the Firouzkuh strike-slip fault in the Central Alborz region of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, H.; Ritz, J.-F.; Walker, R. T.; Salamati, R.; Rizza, M.; Patnaik, R.; Hollingsworth, J.; Alimohammadian, H.; Jalali, A.; Kaveh Firouz, A.; Shahidi, A.

    2014-03-01

    The ˜55 km-long Firouzkuh fault is located in the Central Alborz Mountains of Iran. It is a left-lateral fault, which dips to the south, and possesses a small dip-slip component of motion that we interpret to result from exten