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Sample records for 70-cm azt-8 crao

  1. 70-cm radar observations of 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Pettengill, G. H.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1976-01-01

    Radar observations of 433 Eros were made at the Arecibo Observatory using a wavelength of 70 cm during the close approach of Eros to earth in mid-January, 1975. A peak radar cross section of plus or minus 15 sq km was observed. The spectral broadening obtained was approximately 30 Hz, which is consistent with a value of 16 km for the maximum radius of the asteroid. The surface of Eros appears to be relatively rough at the scale of a wavelength as compared to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets and the moon. The composition of the surface is not well determined, except that it cannot be a highly conducting metal. A single measurement each of round-trip echo times delay and Doppler shift was made.

  2. CRAO: a compact and refractive adaptive-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, Naofumi; Kitao, Eiji; Shimizu, Tomo; Matsui, Takuya; Ikeda, Yuji; Kawakita, Hideyo; Oya, Shin

    2014-08-01

    CRAO is a demonstrator of a compact and low-cost adaptive-optics (AO) with a double-pass lens configuration. Owing to its compact optical layout compared to conventional reflective AOs, the instrument size can be reduced to only 0.03 square meters. We plan to apply this miniaturization technique into future AOs on a variety of telescopes ranging from 1m- to 30m-class. CRAO is installed at a Nasmyth focus of the 1.3m Araki telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory in Kyoto Sangyo University. CRAO adopts a closed-loop single-conjugate system with wavelength coverage of 400 - 700 nm and the field of view of 30 arcsec. For low cost, we also employ commercial products on its wavefront sensor (WFS), deformable mirror (DM), and tip-tilt (TT) stage. CRAO is designed to improve the atmospheric seeing from 2.5 to 0.6arcsec under a typical condition at Koyama Astronomical Observatory with 12x12 subapertures in the WFS, 48 electrodes in the membrane DM and the control bandwidth of 200Hz. In order to examine key issues inherent in refractive optical system such as chromatic aberration, temperature aberration and ghost images, room and on-sky experiments are currently underway. CRAO has seen first light in May 2014, and we have confirmed that effects of chromatic aberration and ghost images induced by its refractive optics are negligible for at least TT correction. In this paper, we present experimental results as well as the design of optics, opto-mechanics and control system.

  3. Blazar B2 1156+29 is in a flaring state in optical.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorstad, S.; Larionov, V.; Blinov, D.; Morozova, D.; Kopatskaya, E.; Konstantinova, T.; Pavlova, Yu.; Mokrushina, A.

    2012-04-01

    We perform optical photometric and R-band polarimetric monitoring of FSRQ B2 1156+29 = 4C +29.45 = Ton 599 using 1.8-m Perkins telescope (Az,USA), 70-cm AZT-8 (CrAO, Ukraine) and 0.4-m LX-200 (St.Petersburg, Russia) telescopes, partly in the frames of GASP project. Our data show that starting from 2012 April 2 this blazar entered a phase of violent optical activity.

  4. Radar Images of the Ice Deposits at Mercury's North Pole at 70-cm Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Gregory J.; Campbell, D. B.; Harmon, J. K.

    2009-09-01

    Radar imaging of Mercury's north polar region was done using the Arecibo Observatory's 70-centimeter wavelength radar system during the inferior conjunction of July 1999. We have clearly detected the highly reflective region at Mercury's north pole first identified in radar images at the shorter wavelengths 3.6-cm and 13-cm [1,2]. The average 70-cm wavelength reflectivity of this polar region is similar to that measured at the other wavelengths over a comparable area, and the polarization ratio of 0.87 is only slightly lower. This ratio is formed from echo power returned in both circular polarizations when only one polarization is transmitted, and the observed depolarization is indicative of a multiple scattering mechanism. High resolution delay-Doppler radar maps at 3.5-cm and 13-cm wavelengths (most recently [3,4]) have demonstrated that these enhancements are located within craters near the pole, suggesting they result from ice deposits in these cold permanently shadowed depressions. Characterizing these areas is also a key goal of the current MESSENGER mission. The low absorption coefficient of ice at radio wavelengths can permit sub-surface multiple scattering mechanisms and enhance radar backscattering. Persistence of this effect over more than an order of magnitude in wavelength scale has implications for the depth and thickness of the deposits. A strong effect at the shortest wavelength implies a thin attenuating overburden. Since multiple scattering mechanisms generally require a medium many wavelengths thick, the strong effect at the long wavelength may set a minimum depth of the deposits. We acknowledge support from the NASA PG&G Program. Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the NSF. [1] Slade et al., 1992, Science 258, 635; [2] Harmon & Slade, 1992, Science 258, 640; [3] Harmon et al., 1994, Nature 369, 213; [4] Harcke, 2005, PhD Thesis, Stanford.

  5. Optical activity of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V.; Blinov, D.; Konstantinova, T.

    2012-04-01

    We perform optical photometric and R-band polarimetric monitoring of BL Lac using 70-cm AZT-8 (CrAO, Ukraine) and 0.4-m LX-200 (St.Petersburg, Russia) telescopes, as a part of GASP project. As reported in Atel#4028, this blazar was found by Fermi LAT in active state on 2012 April 9. Our data show that a sharp optical maximum was reached on the date 2012-04-08UT02:20, R=13.10, while on 2012-04-11UT01:30 R=13.40.

  6. The multicolour optical monitoring of the High Mass X-ray Binary CI Cam/XTE J0421+560

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstsntinova, T.; Larionov, V.; Kopatskaya, E.; Larionova, E.; Efimova, N.

    2014-07-01

    We analyse the photometric behaviour of the high-mass X-ray binary system CI Cam/XTE J0421+560. Our observations cover the time interval 1999-2014. The source was monitored with 70-cm AZT-8 (CrAO, Ukraine) and 0.4-m LX-200 (St.Petersburg, Russia) telescopes. During the monitoring period, CI Cam displayed two significant increases of brightness in the optical photometric bands. The first one follows the X-ray outburst that occurred in 1998 March. The second one started in 2013 and lasts until January - February of 2014.

  7. Liver acquisition with volume acceleration flex on 70-cm wide-bore and 60-cm conventional-bore 3.0-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hashido, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the uniformity of fat suppression and image quality between liver acquisition with volume acceleration flex (LAVA-Flex) and LAVA on 60-cm conventional-bore and 70-cm wide-bore 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The uniformity of fat suppression by LAVA-Flex and LAVA was assessed as the efficiency of suppression of superficial fat at the levels of the liver dome, porta, and renal hilum. Percentage standard deviation (%SD) was calculated using the following equation: %SD (%) = 100 × SD of the regions of interest (ROIs)/mean value of the signal intensity (SI) in the ROIs. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast ratio (CR) were calculated. In the LAVA sequence, the %SD in all slices on wide-bore 3.0-T MRI was significantly higher than that on conventional-bore 3.0-T MRI (P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in fat signal uniformity between the conventional and wide-bore scanners when LAVA-Flex was used. In the liver, there were no significant differences in SNR between the two sequences. However, the SNR in the pancreas was lower for the wide-bore scanner than for the conventional-bore scanner for both sequences (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in CR for the liver and fat between LAVA-Flex and LAVA in both scanners. The CR in the LAVA-Flex images obtained by wide-bore MRI was significantly higher than that in the LAVA-Flex images recorded by conventional-bore MRI (P < 0.001). LAVA-Flex offers more homogenous fat suppression in the upper abdomen than LAVA for both conventional and wide-bore 3.0-T MRI. PMID:26739299

  8. Blazars S5 0716+71 and B3 1633+38 in unprecedented outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkharov, A. A.; Borman, G. A.; Di Paola, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Morozova, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    We perform optical and near-infrared monitoring of selected gamma-bright blazars using 40-cm LX-200 (optical, St.Petersburg, Russia), 70-cm AZT-8 (optical, Crimea) and 1.1-m AZT-24 (near-infrared, Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of WEBT/GASP project.

  9. ATel 7474: Optical brightening of the blazar B2 1156+29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V.; Efimova, N.; Savchenko, S.; Grishina, T.

    2015-05-01

    We perform optical photometric and R-band polarimetric monitoring of FSRQ B2 1156+29 = 4C +29.45 = Ton 599 using 70-cm AZT-8 (Crimea, Russia) and two 0.4-m telescopes LX-200 telescopes in the environs of St.Petersburg, partly in the frames of GASP project. ...

  10. Quasar S5 0836+710 active in near-infrared and optical bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N. V.; Klimanov, S. A.; Di Paola, A.

    2015-11-01

    As reported in ATels #8223, #8266, #8271, quasar S5 0836+710 (4C 71.07) is in enhanced state of activity. We perform optical and near-infrared monitoring of this object using 40-cm LX-200 (optical, St.Petersburg, Russia), 70-cm AZT-8 (optical, Crimea) and 1.1-m AZT-24 (near-infrared, Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of WEBT/GASP project.

  11. Digital version of the CrAO archive of spectral observations of the Sun, carried out with the KG-2 coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursiak, Yu. A.

    2012-11-01

    With the development of computer technology a topical problem to digitize the astronomical data stored on various media, for their preservation and accessibility for further faster and more accurate processing has arisen. Creation of a digital archive of observational data obtained with the KG-2 coronagraph and stored on photographic films has been started at the Department of the Solar Physics of the Scientific Research Institute ``Crimean Astrophysical Observatory''. We obtained satisfactory results in comparing a part of the spectrum digitized with EPSON Expression 10000XL scanner and with the MF-2 type scanning microphotometer which was used before. This allows the scanner to be used in the future to create the archive. We also developed a special software, which speeds up the processing of scanned data, and tried to minimize and eliminate potential errors.

  12. The ISON international campaigns for monitoring of faint high altitude objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotov, Igor; Agapov, Vladimir; Rumyantsev, Vasiliy; Biryukov, Vadim; Schildknecht, Thomas; Bakhtigaraev, Nail; Ibrahimov, Mansur; Papushev, Pavel; Minikulov, Nasredin; Andrievsky, Sergei

    The research of the space debris fragments at high orbits is one of the main directions of the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) activities. Therefore the dedicated ISON subsystem for high altitude faint space debris observations is arranged with the aim of detection and continuous tracking of as large number of unknown high altitude faint objects as possible. The subsystem includes the number of large telescopes that are able to detect the objects down to 20m-21m and the middle-size telescopes for the observations of the space objects of 15m-18m. The 1-m ZIMLAT in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, 1.5-m AZT-33IK in Mondy, Siberia, 64-cm AT- 64 in Nauchniy, Crimea, 60-cm RK-600 in Mayaki near Odessa, Ukraine, 60-cm Zeiss-600 in Maidanak, Uzbekistan, 70-cm AZT-8 in Gissar, Tajikistan are regularly participating in ISON observing campaigns in collaboration with 1-m Zeiss-1000 ESA space debris telescope in Teide, Canaries islands. 2.6-m ZTSh in Nauchniy, Crimea, 2-m Zeiss-2000 in Terskol, North Caucasus, 1-m Zeiss-1000 in Simeiz, Crimea, 1-m Zeiss-1000 in Arkhyz, North Caucasus are joining during few nights per month. The 60-cm Zeiss-600 in Arkhyz, 70-cm AZT-8 in Evpatoria, Crimea, 60-cm Zeiss-600 in Tarija, Bolivia, 80-cm RK-800 in Mayaki, 80-cm K-800 in Terskol, 50-cm in Ussuriysk, Far East will be added to the subsystem during 2008. The observing campaigns are coordinates by the Center on space debris data collection, processing and analysis of the KIAM RAS in cooperation with the AIUB space debris team. 353 faint objects are discovered in GEO region surveys during the last 3 years (about 100000 measurements were collected for this time), including objects with high AMR. Results are publishing monthly by KIAM in High Geocentric Orbit Space Debris Circular. We will discuss the most interesting of obtained results. Many of discovered fragments are associated with space debris clouds appeared as a result of known or suspected fragmentations occurred in GEO region

  13. Manifestations of central retinal artery occlusion revealed by fundus fluorescein angiography are associated with the degree of visual loss

    PubMed Central

    GONG, HONGXIA; SONG, QIUYING; WANG, LANHUI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between central visual impairment and the characteristics of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) in patients with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). A total of 63 patients were diagnosed with CRAO by FFA. The visual dysfunction was classified into severe, mild and light degrees. Tropicamide was administered for mydriasis. FFA examination was performed using Heidelberg retinal tomography. The associations of age, gender and disease course with CRAO type were analyzed. Three types of manifestations were identified by FFA in 63 eyes, including poor perfusion (18 cases), exudation (22 cases) and mixed types (23 cases) of CRAO. No significant difference was found in age (F=0.171, P=0.844) and disease course (F=0.016, P=0.984) among the three types of CRAO. Similarly, no significant difference was found in gender among the three types of CRAO (χ2=0.176, P=0.916). The damage to vision caused by the exudation type of CRAO was not as severe as that caused by the poor perfusion and mixed types of CRAO. The distributions of damage severity caused by the poor perfusion and mixed types of CRAO were similar. In conclusion, the FFA observations for CRAO can be classified into three types of manifestations. The damage to vision in patients with CRAO is likely to be associated with poor perfusion in the retinal artery rather than exudation affecting the retina or optic disc. The patterns of clinical manifestations are not associated with age, gender or disease course. PMID:27313672

  14. Collecting Texts in Craho and Portuguese for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Sueli Maria

    The Crao are an indigenous group of Tocantins in Brazil who speak a Je language of the Timbira group. In the Aldeias, Crao students often use the same materials as other Brazilian students. The Indians often do not consider these educational materials good because textbook content does not pertain to their culture and they cannot make sense out of…

  15. Databases of publications and observations as a part of the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyapnikov, A.; Bondar', N.; Gorbunov, M.

    We describe the main principles of formation of databases (DBs) with information about astronomical objects and their physical characteristics derived from observations obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and published in the ``Izvestiya of the CrAO'' and elsewhere. Emphasis is placed on the DBs missing from the most complete global library of catalogs and data tables, VizieR (supported by the Center of Astronomical Data, Strasbourg). We specially consider the problem of forming a digital archive of observational data obtained at the CrAO as an interactive DB related to database objects and publications. We present examples of all our DBs as elements integrated into the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory. We illustrate the work with the CrAO DBs using tools of the International Virtual Observatory: Aladin, VOPlot, VOSpec, in conjunction with the VizieR and Simbad DBs.

  16. ACUTE RETINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental study shows that CRAO for 97 minutes produces no detectable permanent retinal damage but there is a progressive ischemic damage thereafter, and by 4 hours the retina has suffered irreversible damage. In the clinical section, I discuss at length various controversies on acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Classification of acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders These are of 4 types: CRAO, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), cotton wools spots and amaurosis fugax. Both CRAO and BRAO further comprise multiple clinical entities. Contrary to the universal belief, pathogenetically, clinically and for management, CRAO is not one clinical entity but 4 distinct clinical entities – non-arteritic CRAO, non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, arteritic CRAO associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and transient non-arteritic CRAO. Similarly, BRAO comprises permanent BRAO, transient BRAO and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), and the latter further consists of 3 distinct clinical entities - non-arteritic CLRAO alone, non-arteritic CLRAO associated with central retinal vein occlusion and arteritic CLRAO associated with GCA. Understanding these classifications is essential to comprehend fully various aspects of these disorders. Central retinal artery occlusion The pathogeneses, clinical features and management of the various types of CRAO are discussed in detail. Contrary to the prevalent belief, spontaneous improvement in both visual acuity and visual fields does occur, mainly during the first 7 days. The incidence of spontaneous visual

  17. Violent activity of quasar 3C 454.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Arkharov, A. A.; Klimanov, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    We perform optical and NIR monitoring of a sample of gamma-bright blazars using 0.7-m AZT-8 telescope (Crimean Astrophysical Observatory) and 1.1-m AZT-24 telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of WEBT/GASP project.

  18. Observation of Comet C/2013 US (Catalina) in Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buriev, Anvardzhon

    2016-07-01

    Kh. I. Ibadinov, A.M. Buriev Institute of Astrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan E-mail: ibadinov@mail.ru, anvar10@mail.ru The position, magnitude in BVRI filters and diameter of the nucleus of comet C/ 2013 US 10 (CANALINA) on the basis of CCD observations with AZT-8 telescope Hissar Astronomical observatory in 2016 were founded.

  19. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Mason, John O; Patel, Shyam A; Feist, Richard M; Albert, Michael A; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Thomley, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV) rate in eyes with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) or a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), and to study factors that may influence the ONV rate secondary to CRAO. Methods This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients (286 total eyes: 83 CRAOs and 203 BRAOs) who were diagnosed with a retinal artery occlusion from 1998 to 2013 at the Retina Consultants of Alabama and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between hypothesized risk factors and ONV development. Results Twelve (14.5%) of the 83 eyes with a CRAO developed ONV. Eleven of 12 eyes (91.7%) had iris neovascularization, ten of 12 eyes (83.3%) had neovascular glaucoma, and two of 12 eyes (16.7%) had neovascularization of the optic disc. The average time for ONV development secondary to CRAO was 30.7 days, ranging from the date of presentation to 137 days. Only two (<1.0%) of the 203 eyes with a BRAO developed iris neovascularization. Diabetes mellitus type 2 was a risk factor for ONV development following a CRAO with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–19.8) (P=0.02). Conclusion ONV is an important complication of CRAO and is a less-frequent complication of BRAO. Patients with a CRAO, especially those with diabetes mellitus type 2, should be closely monitored for the first 6 months for ONV. PMID:26089631

  20. Ocular vascular occlusive disorders: Natural history of visual outcome☆

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Ocular vascular occlusive disorders collectively constitute the most common cause of visual disability. Before a disease can be managed, it is essential to understand its natural history, so as to be able to assess the likely effectiveness of any intervention. I investigated natural history of visual outcome in prospective studies of 386 eyes with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION), 16 eyes with non-arteritic posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, 697 eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), 67 eyes with hemi-CRVO (HCRVO), 216 eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), 260 eyes with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), 151 eyes with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) and 61 eyes with cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO). My studies have shown that every one of these disorders consists of multiple distinct clinical sub-categories with different visual findings. When an ocular vascular occlusive disorder is caused by giant cell arteritis, which is an ophthalmic emergency, it would be unethical to do a natural history study of visual outcome in them, because in this case early diagnosis and immediate, intensive high-dose steroid therapy is essential to prevent any further visual loss, not only in the involved eye but also in the fellow, normal eye. In NA-AION in eyes seen ≤2 weeks after the onset, visual acuity (VA) improved in 41% of those with VA 20/70 or worse, and visual field (VF) improved in 26% of those with moderate to severe VF defect. In non-ischemic CRVO eyes with VA 20/70 or worse, VA improved in 47% and in ischemic CRVO in 23%; moderate to severe VF defect improved in 79% in non-ischemic CRVO and in 27% in ischemic CRVO. In HCRVO, overall findings demonstrated that initial VA and VF defect and the final visual outcome were different in non-ischemic from ischemic HCRVO – much better in the former than the latter. In major BRVO, in eyes with initial VA of 20/70 or worse, VA improved in 69%, and moderate to

  1. The association of central retinal artery occlusion and extracranial carotid artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, D J; Schuler, J J; Buchbinder, D; Dillon, B C; Flanigan, D P

    1988-01-01

    To determine the incidence of associated carotid artery disease and the effect of carotid endarterectomy on subsequent neurologic sequelae, a retrospective study of 66 patients with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) was undertaken. Ipsilateral extracranial carotid artery disease was present in 23 of 33 patients (70%) who had carotid arteriography. Sixteen patients had carotid endarterectomy following their CRAO (Group I) and 50 did not (Group II). Seven of the 40 patients available for follow-up in Group II had a subsequent stroke (mean follow-up: 54 months). Of the seven Group II patients shown to have associated carotid disease (Group IIs), three (43%) had a subsequent stroke during follow-up (mean: 28.3 months) compared to zero in Group I (p = 0.033; mean follow-up: 18.7 months). Because of the strong association between CRAO and ipsilateral carotid artery disease and because of the significantly higher incidence of subsequent ipsilateral stroke in CRAO patients with carotid disease who did not undergo endarterectomy, thorough evaluation of the carotid arteries followed by carotid endarterectomy, if indicated, is warranted in CRAO patients who have no other obvious etiology for the occlusion. PMID:3389947

  2. Blazar AO 0235+164 brightens in optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Borman, G. A.; Jorstad, S. G.

    2014-08-01

    We perform optical photometric and polarimetric monitoring of selected gamma-ray blazars using 0.7-m AZT-8 telescope (Crimean Obs.,, Russia), LX-200 0.4-m telescope (St.Petersburg Univ., Russia) (see http://vo.astro.spbu.ru/program ) and 1.8-m Perkins telescope (Lowell Obs., AZ, USA) (http://www.bu.edu/blazars/VLBAproject.html ), partly in the frames of WEBT/GASP project.

  3. Intra-arterial thrombolysis of central retinal artery occlusion following percutaneous atrial septal defect closure.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Cho, Young Dae; Han, Moon Hee

    2016-07-01

    Use of percutaneous devices for atrial septal defect (ASD) closure is growing, given the minimally invasive nature and the long-term durability of this approach. The reported rate of thrombus formation after catheter closure is 1.2%. Thrombotic risk varies according to closure device and Dacron-covered nitinol Amplatzer devices carry a 0-0.3% rate of thrombus formation; but central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is rarely implicated as an adverse event. Herein, we report the first successful intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment of CRAO developing after ASD closure via Amplatzer device. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26153142

  4. Combined Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion Associated with Factor V Leiden Mutation and Treated with Hyperbaric Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, José Alberto; Teixeira, Carla; Carvalho, Rui; Fernandes, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    Background Combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is an uncommon retinal vascular disease which causes sudden visual acuity loss and is associated with poor prognosis and the development of severe complications. We report a very rare case of combined CRAO and CRVO in a patient with factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation (only 3 cases published). To our knowledge, this is the first case of combined CRAO and CRVO treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Case and Results A 49-year-old woman presented with complaints of sudden loss of vision in her left eye (LE), with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 1/20. A complete ophthalmic evaluation with fundus angiography showed combined CRAO and CRVO. The patient was urgently treated with HBOT (she completed a total of 9 sessions in 7 days), with marked visual acuity and angiographic improvement (BCVA of 10/10). Forty-five days later, she developed a new LE CRVO, and BCVA decreased to 5/10 and later to <1/20 because of significant macular edema. A detailed investigation showed an abnormal resistance to activated protein C, and a genetic study showed homozygosity for FVL mutation. The patient was submitted to 3 monthly injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. After 10 months, the patient is in a stable condition with BCVA of 6/10. Conclusions Combined CRAO and CRVO in young adults should be investigated thoroughly for embolic sources, thrombophilic disorders and local ocular conditions. This is the first case of this severe disease that was treated with HBOT, and the visual result was very good. PMID:26955350

  5. Central retinal artery occlusion following orbital tumor resection: Is rapid intervention effective?

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Naderan, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Seyed Ziaeddin Tabatabaei; Rajabi, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-08-01

    A 52-year-old male patient presented at our hospital with unilateral proptosis and vision loss in his left eye. Imaging evaluations showed orbital tumor, so the patient underwent surgery. About an hour later after tumor removal, patient developed sudden vision loss and became no light perception. Fundus evaluation revealed central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). The patient was treated immediately with ocular massage and anterior chamber paracentesis as well as systemic therapy with mannitol and intravenous administration of acetazolamide. After thirty minutes, he recovered perception to light and then hand motion and 2 h later, it was improved to 1 m counting finger. CRAO following orbital tumor has not been reported before. We recommend ocular examination in all patients that undergo orbital surgery immediately to 2-3 h after surgery. PMID:26576528

  6. Spectrophotometric evolution of Nova Delphini 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, T. N.; Shakhovskoi, D. N.

    2013-09-01

    We continue spectrophotometric observations with the 2.6 m telescope of CrAO (the first results were reported in our previous telegram ATel5291). We carried out observations on August 19 and on September 1 with low resolution spectrograph (R=1000) in the wavelength interval 3300-7575A and on August 20 with high resolution echelle spectrograph (R=33000) in the wavelength interval 4300-7200A.

  7. Cockroach-allergen study: allergen patterns of three common cockroach species probed by allergic sera collected in two cities.

    PubMed

    Kang, B C; Wilson, M; Price, K H; Kambara, T

    1991-06-01

    Antigens/allergens of three common cockroach extracts, crude whole body extract of the American cockroach (CRa-A), crude whole body extract of the German cockroach (CRa-G), and crude whole body extract of the Oriental cockroach (CRa-O), were studied with crossed immunoelectrophoresis, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis, and Western blot analysis. Sera of cockroach-allergic patients with asthma, 10 from Chicago, Ill. (C group) and six patients from Lexington, Ky. (L group), were used; results were then compared with sera of control subjects with asthma. Qualitative differences in protein bands were noted among CRa-A, CRa-G, and CRa-O by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allergen bands on Western blot were analyzed for distribution by molecular weight (MW) with relative intensity scores. Results were compared by species and by geography. Two to 12 allergenic bands of variable MW (14 kd to greater than 116 kd) were identified by 13 of 16 individual sera from cockroach-allergic patients from all three extracts. CRa-A demonstrated 55 bands with an intensity score of 125; CRa-G, 58 bands with an intensity score of 100; and CRa-O, 51 bands with an intensity score of 108. Allergenic bands of CRa-A were identified by six sera of the C group and one sera of the L group, whereas bands of both CRa-G and CRa-O were noted by nine sera of the C group and four sera of the L group. All three species had an allergen band in MW range of 40 to 45 kd that reacted to most sera from cockroach-allergic patients with asthma. PMID:2045612

  8. Anterior chamber paracentesis after central retinal artery occlusion: a tenable therapy?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to investigate the visual outcome of acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) after current standard therapy with and without paracentesis. In addition, we investigated whether there was a dependence of the resulting visual acuity on the time between first symptoms and implementation of paracentesis. Finally, we analysed risk factors for CRAO. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of data from patients with CRAO who received standard in-patient therapy with and without paracentesis at the Dr. Horst Schmidt Clinics in Wiesbaden, Germany between 2000 and 2012. The primary endpoint was the change of visual acuity 3 days after the initiation of intervention. Results Data from 74 patients with CRAO were included in the study. Fifteen patients were treated conservatively and 59 patients received additional paracentesis. Clinically significant improvement of BCVA (logMAR ≥ 0.3) after 3 days was observed in 26.7% of patients without paracentesis, 36.4% of patients with paracentesis within 6 hours, 20% of patients with paracentesis within 7–24 hours, and 23.1% of patients with paracentesis more than 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was no significant difference in the outcome between patients with (BCVA 1.9 ± 0.31) and without paracentesis (BCVA 1.75 ± 0.32) (p = 0.9), nor among the groups with paracentesis (p = 0.8). One patient suffered a lens injury due to the paracentesis, with subsequent need for cataract surgery. Conclusions There was no added gain in visual acuity by performing a paracentesis, independent of the time elapsed between first symptoms and the implementation of paracentesis. In the absence of any tangible effectiveness of paracentesis and the inherent risks of paracentesis such as intraocular infection and injury, paracentesis does not appear to be warranted as a treatment of CRAO. PMID:24612658

  9. Prevalent misconceptions about acute retinal vascular occlusive disorders.

    PubMed

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2005-07-01

    Acute retinal vascular occlusive disorders collectively constitute one of the major causes of blindness or seriously impaired vision, and yet there is marked controversy on their pathogeneses, clinical features and particularly their management. This is because the subject is plagued by multiple misconceptions. These include that: (i) various acute retinal vascular occlusions represent a single disease; (ii) estimation of visual acuity alone provides all the information necessary to evaluate visual function; (iii) retinal venous occlusions are a single clinical entity; (iv) retinal vein occlusion is essentially a disease of the elderly and is not seen in the young; (v) central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is one disease; (vi) fluorescein fundus angiography is the best test to differentiate ischemic from nonischemic CRVO; (vii) the site of occlusion in CRVO is invariably at the lamina cribrosa; (viii) clinical picture of CRVO is often due to compression or strangulation of the central retinal vein (CRV) in the lamina cribrosa and not its occlusion; (ix) an eye can develop both CRVO and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) simultaneously; (x) every eye with CRVO is at risk of developing neovascular glaucoma; (xi) lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) helps to improve retinal circulation in an eye with CRVO; (xii) every patient with retinal vein occlusion should have complete hematologic and coagulation evaluation; (xiii) the natural history of CRVO does not usually involve spontaneous visual improvement; (xiv) management of CRVO is similar to that of venous thrombosis anywhere else in the body, i.e. with aspirin and/or anti-coagulants; (xv) fibrinolytic agents can dissolve an organized thrombus in the CRV; (xvi) it is beneficial to lower blood pressure in patients with CRVO; (xvii) panretinal photocoagulation used in ischemic retinal venous occlusive disorders has no deleterious side-effects; (xviii) glaucoma or ocular hypertension can cause branch retinal vein

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Eight transiting light curves of WASP-43b (Jiang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, I.-G.; Lai, C.-Y.; Savushkin, A.; Mkrtichian, D.; Antonyuk, K.; Griv, E.; Hsieh, H.-F.; Yeh, L.-C.

    2016-07-01

    In this project, two telescopes were employed to observe the transits of WASP-43b. One is the 1.25m telescope (AZT-11) at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) in Nauchny, Crimea, and another is the 60 inch telescope (P60) at Palomar Observatory in California, USA. We successfully performed one complete transit observation with AZT-11 in 2012 and seven with P60 in 2014 and 2015. A summary of the above observations is presented in Table1. (2 data files).

  11. Optical Observations Of Fermi LAT Monitored Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kyle; Carini, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    For the past 8 years the Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University has been conducting R band monitoring of the variability of approximately 50 Blazars. A subset of these objects are being routinely observed with the LAT instrument on-board the Fermi Space Telescope. Adding the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak National Observatory and observations with the AZT-11 telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CRAO), we are intensively monitoring the Blazars on the Lat monitoring list. We present the results of our long term monitoring of the LAT monitored Blazars, as well as the recent contemporaneous optical R band observations we have obtained of the LAT Blazars.

  12. On the origin of the 22 years solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2015-02-01

    Measurements of the general magnetic field of the Sun seen as a star were performed over last 45 years by the CrAO and five other observatories (1968-2012, nearly 23 thousand daily strengths B). Analysis of the B time series showed that the most substantial long-term period of the field variation is the Hale's cycle 22 years, which cannot be explained by dynamo theory. It reveals a saw-edged profile, indicating perhaps a cosmic origin of the cycle.

  13. Unusual Radar Backscatter Properties Along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    In general, radar backscatter from the lunar terrae is 2-4 times that of the maria. One exception to this is the terra terrain along the northern rim of Imbrium Basin. The highlands that surround Sinus Iridum and crater Plato have long-wavelength (70-cm) radar backscatter that is comparable to or lower than that from the adjacent maria. We are studying new 70-cm radar images and earlier multispectral data to better constrain the regional geology.

  14. Analysis of the activity of the blazar BL Lacertae over the period 1998-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigunov, K. S.; Zhovtan, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    In 1998-2011 the blazar (active galactic nucleus) BL Lacertae was observed at Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) with the second-generation GT-48 Cherenkov telescope at energies >1 TeV with a total significance of 11.8σ. More than 20 flares and a fourfold change in yearly mean fluxes (>1 TeV) were recorded. The optical ( B band) data obtained at CrAO and the TeV data are shown to correlate in some time intervals. The optical data are also compared with the X-ray RXTE/ASM (2-10 keV) data. In addition, the data from GT-48 are compared with the gamma-ray fluxes recorded by the Fermi LAT space telescope (0.1-300 GeV). The 2009 flare at TeV and Fermi energies has been studied. As a result, it has been found that as the activity rises the increase in flux at high energies exceeds its increase at low energies. This conclusion may be related to the conversion mechanism of particle acceleration. This is consistent with the results of studies for a similar object, 1ES 1426+428.

  15. Simulataneous occlusion of the central retinal artery and vein.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R D

    1979-01-01

    Combined CRAO/CRVO in our patients occurred with rapid visual loss, usually over a few hours, associated with evidence of inflammation and/or cellular infiltration of the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve. The ophthalmoscopic appearance was characteristic, with papilledema and hemorrhages of various types in the posterior pole. The retina also showed ischemic changes, with a milky-white color and cherry-red macula. Fluorescein angiography, when possible, showed no retinal vascular flow, and normal choroidal flow. After six to eight weeks, optic atrophy was evident and the retinal vessels were markedly narrowed or obliterated. The macula showed typical cystic changes. Neovascularization often developed, leading to neovascular glaucoma as the end result. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B PMID:583535

  16. Spectral photographic archives of observatories of Ukraine: digital versions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, L.; Shlyapnikov, A.; Rosenbush, A.; Gorbunov, M.

    Photographic archives of Ukrainian observatories contain a large number of plates in collections of spectral observations. First attempts to digitize them and to make them available via VO formats and protocols of data transfer and processing were undertaken during last years. The involved observatories are Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Main Astronomical observatory NAS of Ukraine (MAO NASU).The project of spectral archive digitizing is carried out within the framework of Ukrainian Virtual Observatory - UkrVO. The core of UkrVO is a Joint Digital Archive (JDA) of photographic and CCD observations. On-line databases of spectral photographic collections and their fitting for VO tools set are the further enhancement of the idea of JDA.

  17. Vision Loss due to Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Following Embolization in a Case of a Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mihir; Desai, Roshani J; Potdar, Nayana A; Shinde, Chhaya A; Ukirde, Vivek; Bhuta, Maunil; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan

    2015-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a benign, vascular, and locally aggressive tumor that arises in the nasal cavity, extending into the nasopharynx and often in to the orbit. It may rarely present to the ophthalmologist with proptosis and optic neuropathy. Preoperative embolization of JNA is done before surgical resection. In this communication, the authors report a rare occurrence of ipsilateral central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) following embolization with polyvinyl alcohol in a 13-year-old boy with right-sided JNA. Retrospective review of the angiograms pointed out to a suspicious communication between the external carotid artery and the ophthalmic vessels. Pre-embolization detailed study of the angiograms is necessary to avoid such devastating complications. Although rare, vision loss is a possible complication arising from embolization of nasopharyngeal and intracranial tumors, and all patients undergoing these procedures should be informed of the risk of visual loss because it has a lasting impact on the quality of life. PMID:26167999

  18. Unusual Radar Backscatter along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Ghent, Rebecca R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Leverington, David W.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of the unusual radar backscatter properties along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin is shown. The contents include: 1) Visual and Infrared Observations of Moon; 2) Radar Observations of Moon; 3) Lunar Orbiter Photographs Geologic Setting; 4) 70-cm Radar Data; 5) .70-cm Radar Dark Halo Craters; 6) 3.8-cm Radar Data; 7) 7.5-m Radar Data; 8) 70cm, 3.8 cm and 7.5-m Radar Data; 9) Optical and Infrared Data; 10) Plato Rilles; 11) Isopachs of Crater Ejecta; 12) Plato-like Craters; 13) Observation Summary; 14) Interpretation Matrix; 15) Dark Halo Diameters vs. Crater Size; and 16) Radar Geologic Column.

  19. Motion of Dust Structures in the Circumnuclear Region of Comet Hale-Bopp and Rotation of the Cometary Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Evtushevskii, A. M.; Kravtsov, F. I.

    2001-01-01

    The motion of dust structures in the circumnuclear region of comet Hale-Bopp is studied. About 270 envelope images were obtained with the AZT-8 reflector (D = 0.7 m, F = 28 m) and the Filin-3 image intensifier. We carried out our observations at the observational station of the Astronomical Observatory of Shevchenko Kiev State University in the village of Lesniki (near Kiev). The recording from the image-intensifier screen was made on Foto-100 film during 23 nights from March 24 to May 10, 1997. The circumnuclear region was imaged both in white light (without filters) and with IHW CO^+ (λ_ef = 426 nm), C_3 (λ_ef = 496 nm), C_2 (λ_ef = 514 nm), and RC (red continuum, λ_ef = 684 nm) narrow-band interference filters. Based on our measurements of the radial expansion of dust structures, we determined the velocities, 0.61-1.99 km s^-1 accelerations, from -18.3 × 10^-3 to 4.0 × 10^-3 m s^-2 and rotation period of the cometary nucleus, 111.41^h +/- 0.05^h.

  20. Perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spine surgery occurs in from 0.013% to 1% of cases and is variously attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION: anterior ION or posterior ION [reported in 1.9/10,000 cases: constitutes 89% of all POVL cases], central retinal artery occlusion [CRAO], central retinal vein occlusion [CRVO], cortical blindness [CB], direct compression [horseshoe, prone pillows, and eye protectors Dupaco Opti-Gard]), and acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG). Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged operative times, long-segment spinal instrumentation, anemia, intraoperative hypotension, diabetes, obesity, male sex, using the Wilson frame, microvascular pathology, decreased the percent of colloid administration, and extensive intraoperative blood loss. Risk factors for CRAO more typically include improper positioning during the surgery (e.g., cervical rotation), while those for CB included prone positioning and obesity. Results: POVL may be avoided by greater utilization of crystalloids versus colloids, administration of α-2 agonists (e.g., decreases intraocular pressure), avoidance of catecholamines (e.g., avoid vasoconstrictors), avoiding intraoperative hypotension, and averting anemia. Patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects may undergo preoperative evaluation by ophthalmologists to determine whether they require prophylactic treatment prior to prone spinal surgery and whether and if prophylactic treatment is warranted. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL is to recognize its multiple etiologies and limit the various risk factors that contribute to this devastating complication of prone spinal surgery. Furthermore, routinely utilizing a 3-pin head holder will completely avoid ophthalmic compression, while maintaining the neck in a neutral posture, largely avoiding the risk of jugular vein and/or carotid artery compromise and thus avoiding increasing IOP. PMID:27274409

  1. How to avoid perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In a prior article, “Perioperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spinal surgery: A review,” Epstein documented that postoperative visual loss (POVL) occurs in from 0.013% to 0.2% of spine procedures performed in the prone position. POVL is largely attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), cortical blindness (CB), direct compression (prone pillows/horseshoe, eye protectors), and rarely, acute angle closure glaucoma. Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged surgery, extensive fusions, anemia, hypotension, hypovolemia, diabetes, obesity, use of the Wilson frame, male sex, and microvascular pathology. CRAO may result from improper prone positioning (e.g., eye compression or rotation contributing to jugular/venous or carotid compression), while CB more typically results from both direct compression and obesity. Results: Several preventive/prophylactic measures should limit the risk of POVL. The routine use of an arterial line and continuous intraoperative monitoring document intraoperative hypotension/hypovolemia/anemia that can be immediately corrected with appropriate resuscitative measures. Application of a 3-pin head holder completely eliminates direct eye compression and maintains the neck in a neutral posture, thus avoiding rotation that can contribute to jugular/venous obstruction and/or inadvertent carotid compression. In addition, elevating the head 10° from the horizontal directly reduces intraocular pressure. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL following prone spine surgery is to prevent it. Routine use of an arterial line, intraoperative monitoring, a 3-pin head holder, and elevation of the head 10° from the horizontal should limit the risk of encountering POVL after spinal procedures performed in the prone position.

  2. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  3. Unusual Radar Backscatter Properties Along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Earth-based radar backscatter from the lunar terrae is 2-4 times that of the maria. The largest (most conspicuous) exception is the terra along the northern rim of Imbrium Basin, where highlands that surround Sinus Iridium and crater Pluto have long wavelength (70-cm) radar backscatter that is comparable to (and sometimes weaker) the mare.

  4. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  5. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  6. UBV observations of the flickering of T CrB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanov, R.; Semkov, E.; Stoyanov, K.; Tomov, T.

    2016-02-01

    In 2015 the recurrent nova T Coronae Borealis has entered a super-active state (Munari, Dallaporta & amp; Cherini, 2016, NewA, in press). On February 7, 2016, we observed the flickering of T CrB in three filters (UBV) using the 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen (Bulgaria).

  7. On the Nature of EXor Accretion Events: An Infrequent Manifestation of a Common Phenomenology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Ventura, P.; Arkharov, A. A.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Larionov, V. M.; Di Paola, A.; Nisini, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of a comparison between classical and newly identified EXor based on literature data and aimed at recognizing possible differences or similarities between the categories. Optical and near-IR two-color diagrams, modalities of fluctuations, and derived values of the mass accretion rates are indicative of strong similarities between the two samples. We demonstrate how the difference between the outburst and the quiescence spectral energy distribution of all EXor can be well fitted with a single blackbody, as if an additional thermal component appears during the outbursting phase. Temperatures of this additional component span between 1000 and 4500 K, while the radii of the emitting regions (assumed to be a uniform disk) span between 0.01 and 0.1 AU, sizes typical of the inner portions of the circumstellar disk. Spots persisting up to 50% of the outburst duration, not exceeding 10% of the stellar surface, and with temperatures compatible with the EXor mass accretion rates, are able to account for both the appearance of the additional thermal component and the dust sublimation in the inner structures of the disk. We also compare the EXor events with the most significant color and magnitude fluctuations of active T Tauri stars finding that (1) burst accretion phenomena should also be important for this latter class and (2) EXor events could be more frequent than those accidentally discovered. A remarkable case is that of the source V2493 Cyg, a T Tauri star recently identified as a strong outbursting object: New optical and near-IR photometric and spectroscopic data are presented in an attempt to clarify its EXor or FUor nature. Based on observations collected at AZT-24 telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), AZT-8 (Crimea, Ukraine), and LX-200 (St. Petersburg, Russia).

  8. Long-Term Effect of Agricultural Reclamation on Soil Chemical Properties of a Coastal Saline Marsh in Bohai Rim, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Feng, Xiaoping; Guo, Changcheng; Chen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Over the past six decades, coastal wetlands in China have experienced rapid and extensive agricultural reclamation. In the context of saline conditions, long-term effect of cultivation after reclamation on soil chemical properties has not been well understood. We studied this issue using a case of approximately 60-years cultivation of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China. The results showed that long-term reclamation significantly decreased soil organic carbon (SOC) (−42.2%) and total nitrogen (TN) (−25.8%) at surface layer (0–30 cm) as well as their stratification ratios (SRs) (0–5 cm:50–70 cm and 5–10 cm:50–70 cm). However, there was no significant change in total phosphorus (TP) as well as its SRs under cultivation. Cultivation markedly reduced ratios of SOC to TN, SOC to TP and TN to TP at surface layer (0–30 cm) and their SRs (0–5 cm:50–70 cm). After cultivation, electrical conductivity and salinity significantly decreased by 60.1% and 55.3% at 0–100 cm layer, respectively, suggesting a great desalinization. In contrast, soil pH at 20–70 cm horizons notably increased as an effect of reclamation. Cultivation also changed compositions of cations at 0–10 cm layer and anions at 5–100 cm layer, mainly decreasing the proportion of Na+, Cl− and SO42−. Furthermore, cultivation significantly reduced the sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in plow-layer (0–20 cm) but not residual sodium carbonate, suggesting a reduction in sodium harm. PMID:24695526

  9. Long-term effect of agricultural reclamation on soil chemical properties of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Feng, Xiaoping; Guo, Changcheng; Chen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Over the past six decades, coastal wetlands in China have experienced rapid and extensive agricultural reclamation. In the context of saline conditions, long-term effect of cultivation after reclamation on soil chemical properties has not been well understood. We studied this issue using a case of approximately 60-years cultivation of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China. The results showed that long-term reclamation significantly decreased soil organic carbon (SOC) (-42.2%) and total nitrogen (TN) (-25.8%) at surface layer (0-30 cm) as well as their stratification ratios (SRs) (0-5 cm:50-70 cm and 5-10 cm:50-70 cm). However, there was no significant change in total phosphorus (TP) as well as its SRs under cultivation. Cultivation markedly reduced ratios of SOC to TN, SOC to TP and TN to TP at surface layer (0-30 cm) and their SRs (0-5 cm:50-70 cm). After cultivation, electrical conductivity and salinity significantly decreased by 60.1% and 55.3% at 0-100 cm layer, respectively, suggesting a great desalinization. In contrast, soil pH at 20-70 cm horizons notably increased as an effect of reclamation. Cultivation also changed compositions of cations at 0-10 cm layer and anions at 5-100 cm layer, mainly decreasing the proportion of Na+, Cl- and SO4(2-). Furthermore, cultivation significantly reduced the sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in plow-layer (0-20 cm) but not residual sodium carbonate, suggesting a reduction in sodium harm. PMID:24695526

  10. The Influence of Chain Dynamics on theFar-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.N.; Wiedemann, H.; ,

    2005-07-11

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular interactions in liquid methanol. Using an intense source of far-infrared radiation, modes are elucidated at approximately 30 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in the absorption spectrum. These modes are believed to arise from intermolecular bending and librational motions respectively and are successfully reproduced in an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of methanol.

  11. Asteroid lightcurve analysis at the NAO Rozhen: 2014 March - December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolovska, Gordana; Kostov, Andon; Donchev, Zahary; Kuzmanovska, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    Lightcurve analysis of five main belt asteroids 339 Dorothea, 549 Jessonda, 2445 Blazhko, 4528 Berg and 5317 Vero-lacqua observed at Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory (NAO) Rozhen since March to December 2014 is presented. The choice of the asteroids was made according to their visibility in allocated observing time on the 50/70cm Schmidt and 60cm Cassegrain telescope and in the frame of our long term photometry program for determining the shape and poles of asteroids.

  12. Submarine sand dunes and sedimentary environments in Oceanographer Canyon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Cooper, R.A.; Uzmann, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Reveals an extensive field of large sand dunes on the canyon floor. The dunes are medium to coarse sand, are oriented across the axis, and the largest of them are as high as 3m and have wavelengths up to 15m. Their asymmetry, grain size, and height suggest that they are formed by axial currents flowing up- and downcanyon and that the largest dunes require flows of at least 70 cm/sec.-from Authors

  13. Confinement of high-density pellet-fueled discharges in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Milora, S.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Bush, C.E.; Combs, S.K.; England, A.; Fredrickson, E.; Goldston, R.J.; Grek, B.

    1986-01-01

    TFTR pellet injection results reported by Schmidt have been extended to higher density and ntau in plasmas limited by a graphite inner-wall belt limiter. Increased pellet penetration and larger density increases were achieved by operation at reduced plasma current (1.6 MA), minor radius (70 cm), and major radius (235 cm). Under these conditions, beam heating results have been extended to 7 MW.

  14. MRI-based Selection for Intra-arterial Stroke Therapy: Value of Pre-treatment DWI Lesion Volume in Selecting Acute Stroke Patients Who Will Benefit from Early Recanalization

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Albert J.; Verduzco, Luis A.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; Hirsch, Joshua A.; Rabinov, James D.; González, R. Gilberto

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent studies demonstrate that an acute diffusion weighted imaging(DWI) lesion volume >70cm3 predicts poor outcome in stroke patients. We sought to determine if this threshold could identify patients treated with intra-arterial therapy(IAT) who would do poorly despite reperfusion. In patients with initial infarcts <70cm3, we sought to determine what effect recanalization and time to recanalization had on infarct growth and functional outcome. Methods We retrospectively studied 34 consecutive anterior circulation stroke patients who underwent pre-treatment DWI and perfusion weighted imaging(PWI) and subsequent IAT. Recanalization success and time to recanalization were recorded. Initial DWI and MTT lesion and final infarct volumes were determined. Patients were stratified based on initial infarct volume, recanalization status and time to recanalization. Statistical tests were performed to assess differences in clinical and imaging outcomes. Good clinical outcome was defined as a 3-month mRS≤2. Results Among patients with initial infarcts >70cm3, all had poor outcomes despite a 50% recanalization rate, with mean infarct growth of 114cm3. These patients also had the largest MTT volumes(p<0.04). Patients with initial infarct volumes <70cm3 who recanalized early had the best clinical outcomes(p<0.008) with a 64% rate of mRS≤2 and the least infarct growth(p<0.03), with mean growth of 18cm3. Conclusion This study supports the use of an acute DWI lesion volume threshold as an imaging selection criterion for IAT. It also confirms the importance of early reperfusion in selected patients. PMID:19359641

  15. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun

    2016-06-01

    Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD.We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software.A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24-1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12-3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03-1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD.Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  16. Narrowband Radio Emission As A Possible Feature of Before CMEs Onset Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, V.; Sheiner, O.; Grechin, S.

    The narrow band events in microwave radio emission were discovered during the ob- servations by RT-22 CrAO on August 12, 1989 before CMEs registration has been done. The observations were carried out using the sweeping spectrograph in 13-17 GHz range with frequency resolution of 100 MHz and sweeping time of less then 1 sec. It is well known that the period preceding the CMEs formation is characterized by sporadic radio emission of different types. We have found the existence of fast changes in temporal behavior of radio emission during the burst. They are character- ized by consistent origin of narrow-band (<1 GHz) components of emission with flux amplitude of about 1 sfu, moving from high to low frequencies in 1-3 seconds. We detected the shift of spectral maximum to short waves and appearance of narrow-band (<800 MHz) features during the CMEs formation. The results are being discussed within the framework of known models of radioemission of active region and bursts. Their application to possible conditions in formation of CMEs is also addressed in this research. This work is being supported by the Federal Science and Technology Programme "Astronomy" and the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research.

  17. A case report and brief review of the literature on bilateral retinal infarction following cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative visual loss is a devastating perioperative complication. The commonest aetiologies are anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION), posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (PION), and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). These appear to be related to certain types of operation, most commonly spinal and cardiac bypass procedures; with the rest divided between: major trauma causing excessive blood loss; head/neck and nasal or sinus surgery; major vascular procedures (aortic aneurysm repair, aorto-bifemoral bypass); general surgery; urology; gynaecology; liposuction; liver transplantation and duration of surgery. The non-surgical risk factors are multifactorial: advanced age, prolonged postoperative anaemia, positioning (supine v prone), alteration of venous drainage of the retina, hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, hypercoagulability, hypotension, blood loss and large volume resuscitation. Other important cardiac causes are septic emboli from bacterial endocarditis and emboli caused by atrial myxomata. The majority of AION cases occur during CPB followed by head/neck surgery and prone spine surgery. CPB is used to allow coronary artery bypass grafting on a motionless heart. It has many side-effects and complications associated with its use and we report here a case of bilateral retinal infarction during routine coronary artery bypass grafting in a young male patient with multiple risk factors for developing this complication despite steps to minimise its occurrence. PMID:22104114

  18. Perioperative visual loss in ocular and nonocular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kathleen T; Harrison, Andrew R; Lee, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Incidence estimates for perioperative vision loss (POVL) after nonocular surgery range from 0.013% for all surgeries up to 0.2% following spine surgery. The most common neuro-ophthalmologic causes of POVL are the ischemic optic neuropathies (ION), either anterior (AION) or posterior (PION). We identified 111 case reports of AION following nonocular surgery in the literature, with most occurring after cardiac surgery, and 165 case reports of PION following nonocular surgery, with most occurring after spine surgery or radical neck dissection. There were an additional 526 cases of ION that did not specify if the diagnosis was AION or PION. We also identified 933 case reports of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), 33 cases of pituitary apoplexy, and 245 cases of cortical blindness following nonocular surgery. The incidence of POVL following ocular surgery appears to be much lower than that seen following nonocular surgery. We identified five cases in the literature of direct optic nerve trauma, 47 cases of AION, and five cases of PION following ocular surgery. The specific pathogenesis and risk factors underlying these neuro-ophthalmic complications remain unknown, and physicians should be alert to the potential for loss of vision in the postoperative period. PMID:20596508

  19. New results of the spectral observations of CP stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N. S.; Shavrina, A. V.; Drake, N. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2010-04-01

    The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars has been, for a long time, a subject of debate. Individual characteristics of CP stars, such as high abundance of the rare-earth elements presence of magnetic fields, complicate structure of the surface distribution of chemical elements, rapid oscillations of some CP-stars, make the detection of the lithium lines and the determination of the lithium abundance, a difficult task. During the International Meeting in Slovakia in 1996, the lithium problem in Ap-CP stars was discussed. The results of the Li study carried out in CrAO Polosukhina (1973-1976), the works of Hack & Faraggiana (1963), Wallerstein & Hack (1964), Faraggiana et al. (1992-1996) formed the basis of the International project ‘Lithium in the cool CP-stars with magnetic fields’. The main goal of the project was, using systematical observations of Ap-CP stars with phase rotation in the spectral regions of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å and subordinate 6104 Å lithium lines with different telescopes, to create a database, which will permit to explain the physical origin of anomalous Li abundance in the atmospheres of these stars.

  20. New Results of Spectral Observations of CP Stars in the Li I 6708 Å Spectral Region with the 6-m BTA Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Drake, N.; Kudryavtsev, D.; Smirnova, M.

    The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars has for a long time been a subject of debates. Individual characteristics of CP stars, such as a high abundance of rare-earth elements, the presence of magnetic fields, complex structures of the surface distribution of chemical elements, rapid oscillations of some CP stars, make the detection of lithium lines, and determination of lithium abundance a challenging task. The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars was discussed during the meeting in Slovakia in 1996. The results of the Li study, carried out in CrAO (Polosukhina, 1973 - 1976), the works of Faraggiana & Hack (1963), Wallerstein & Hack (1964), Faraggiana et al. (1992 - 1996) formed the basis of the international project, called Lithium in the Cool CP Stars with Magnetic Fields. The main goal of the project was, using systematical observations of Ap-CP stars with phase rotation in the spectral regions of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å and subordinate 6104 Å lithium lines with different telescopes, to create a database, which will permit to explain the physical origin of the anomalous Li abundance in the atmospheres of these stars.

  1. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  2. Astropol: Russian pilot project on coordinated observations of hazardous celestial objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahimov, Mansur

    Cooperative graund-based ASTROPOL (ASTeRoid and cOmet POLice) project had been started in June 2012. ASTROPOL was initiated and currently advised by the Institute of Astronomy RAS (INASAN). It is believed to be a long-term dedicated Russian pilot project on coordinated observations of hazardous celestial objects - potentially hazardous asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. Basic facility of ASTROPOL is its (permanently enlarged) observational network which presently incorporates 12 academical and university observatories. Network includes all the largest Russian optical telescopes (SAO RAS 6m, INASAN TB 2m, ISTP SSO 1.6m) and a number of 1-1.5m telescopes located around Russia (Uzbek UBAI MAO 1.5m, Russian-Turkish 1.5m RTT150 in Antalya, Turkey, Latvian IAUL BAO 1.2m Schmidt, and Ukrainian CrAO Simeiz 1m). All mentioned telescopes together with a number of 0.4-0.6m ones have been using to get low-resolution spectroscopy, photometry, and astrometry of hazardous objects. By the end of 2013 two successful coordinated sessions had been undertaken by ASTROPOL cooperation: observations of Apophis in Jan13-Feb28 and 2010 CF19 in Aug16-Sep02 2013. Observation and reduction methods and results obtained during the both coordinated sessions as well as some current problem and prospects of the ASTROPOL cooperation are analysed and discussed in the talk.

  3. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24–1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03–1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD. Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  4. The Role of Central and Enteric Nervous Systems in the Control of the Retrograde Giant Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Ivan M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The role of the enteric (ENS) and central (CNS) nervous systems in the control of the retrograde giant contraction (RGC) associated with vomiting is unknown. Methods The effects of myotomy or mesenteric nerve transection (MNT) on apomorphine-induced emesis were investigated in 18 chronically instrumented dogs Results Neither surgery affected the RGC orad of the surgical site or the velocity of the RGC over the entire small intestine. Myotomy blocked the RGC for 17 ± 5 cm aborad of the myotomy, and the velocity of the RGC from 100 to 70 cm from the pylorus slowed (18.1 ± 3.0 to 9.0 ± 0.8 cm/sec) such that the RGC orad and aborad of the myotomy occurred simultaneously. After MNT, the RGC was unchanged up to 66 ± 6 cm from the pylorus, and the sequence of the RGC across the denervated intestine was unaltered. The velocity of the RGC from 100 to 70 cm from the pylorus increased from 12.8 ± 1.6 to 196 ± 116 cm/sec. After myotomy or MNT, the percent occurrence and magnitude of the RGC across the intestine 100 to 70 cm from the pylorus decreased. Conclusions The CNS activates the RGC 10 to 20 cm aborad of its innervation of the intestine and controls the RGC sequence. On the other hand, the ENS plays a role in initiation and generation of the RGC. PMID:26645249

  5. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  6. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation (p = 0.037). A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm3 had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction (p = 0.045). Conclusion The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm3. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm3 should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation. PMID:26929456

  7. New very high resolution radar studies of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Campbell, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    As part of an effort to further understand the geologic utility of radar studies of the terrestrial planets, investigators at the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics are collaborating with NEROC Haystack Observatory, MIT and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the analysis of existing 3.8 and 70 cm radar images of the Moon, and in the acquisition of new data for selected lunar targets. The intent is to obtain multi-polarization radar images at resolutions approaching 75 meters (3.8 cm wavelength) and 400 meters (70 cm wavelength) for the Apollo landing sites (thereby exploiting available ground truth) or regions covered by the metric camera and geochemical experiments onboard the command modules of Apollos 15, 16 and 17. These data were collected in both like- and cross-polarizations, and, in the case of the 70 cm data, permit the phase records to be used to assess the scattering properties of the surface. The distribution of surface units on the Moon that show a mismatch between the surface implied by like- and cross-polarized scattering data is being analyzed, based on the scattering models of Evans and Hagfors.

  8. Optical Properties of High Area-to-Mass Objects at GEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Schildknecht, Thomas; Musci, Reto; Flohrer, Tim; Barker, Ed; Stansbery, Eugene; Agapov, Vladimir; Rumyantsev, Vasilij; Biryukov, Vadym; Abercromby, Kira; Rodriguez, Heather; Liou, J.-C.; Kelecy, Thomas; Africano, John

    2007-01-01

    There exists at GEO a significant population of faint debris (R > 15th magnitude) with high area-to-mass ratios (AMR) (1 to 30 sq m/kg). Their orbital elements (particularly eccentricity and inclination) are observed to change on the time-scale of a week. The consensus is that these objects may be fragments of multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets. Their orbits are primarily perturbed by solar radiation pressure. In this paper we will report preliminary results from an international collaboration to investigate the unresolved optical properties of these objects. This population was originally discovered by the ESA Space Debris Telescope, and the bulk of the objects to be described here are based on discoveries made with this telescope. Additional objects were supplied by both Russia and the US Air Force. Follow-up optical observations were obtained for a sample of a dozen objects by MODEST (the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope) located at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. Sequences of calibrated observations in filters B, V, Broad R, and I were obtained under photometric conditions. Multi-color photometric observations in B, V, R, and I band of the same objects were also acquired at the Zimmerwald 1-meter telescope, located near Bern, Switzerland. Light curves of selected high AMR objects will be shown with a temporal resolution of a few seconds and typically span about 10 minutes. Photometric observations of these objects were acquired at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO). This data set includes light curves of objects having high variability of brightness and observed with 2.6 m and 0.64 m class instruments. We will present an analysis of the observed magnitudes and colors, and their correlations (or lack of correlation) with orbital elements, and with predicted values for MLI fragments. This represents the first such collaborative observational program on faint debris at GEO.

  9. Evaluation of Soil Moisture, Storm Characteristics, and Their Influence on Storm Runoff and Water Yield at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. W.; Aulenbach, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors that control runoff processes is important for many aspects of water supply and ecosystem protection, especially during climatic extremes that result in flooding or droughts; potentially impacting human safety. Furthermore, having knowledge of the conditions during which runoff occurs contributes to the conceptual understanding of the hydrologic cycle and may improve parameterization of hydrologic models. We evaluated soil moisture, storm characteristics, and the subsequent runoff and water yield for 297 storms over an eight-year period at Panola Mountain Research Watershed to better understand runoff generation processes. Panola Mountain Research Watershed is a small (41-hectare), relatively undisturbed forested watershed near Atlanta, GA, U.S.A. Strong relations were observed between total precipitation for a given storm, deep (70 cm below surface) antecedent soil moisture content and the volume of runoff. However, the strength of the relations varied based on occurrence during the growing (April - September; 172 storms) or dormant (October - March; 125 storms) period. In general, soil moisture responded at a minimum of 15 cm depth for all but 18 events. In addition, we found storms that initiated a response of deep soil moisture (70 cm below surface) to be an important factor relating to storm runoff and water yield. Seventy percent of the dormant period storms generated a response at 70 cm depth compared to 58% of growing period storms. A stronger relation between soil moisture and water yield was noted during the dormant period and indicated that all storms that produced a water yield >12% occurred when deep pre-event soil moisture was >20%. Similar patterns were also present during the growing season with occasional intense thunderstorms also generating higher water yields even in the absence of high soil moisture. The importance of deep soil moisture likely reflects the overall status of watershed storage conditions.

  10. Exothermic furnace module development. [space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, R. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    An exothermic furnace module was developed to rapidly heat and cool a 0.820-in. (2.1 cm) diameter by 2.75-in. (7.0 cm) long TZM molybdenum alloy crucible. The crucible contains copper, oxygen, and carbon for processing in a low-g environment. Peak temperatures of 1270 C were obtainable 3.5 min after start of ignition, and cooling below 950 C some 4.5 min later. These time-temperature relationships were conditioned for a foam-copper experiment, Space Processing Applications Rocket experiment 77-9, in a sounding rocket having a low-g period of 5 min.

  11. Radar Probing of Planetary Regoliths: An Example from the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Ghent, Rebecca R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Leverington, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging radar measurements at long wavelengths (e.g., >30 cm) allow deep (up to tens of meters) probing of the physical structure and dielectric properties of planetary regoliths. We illustrate a potential application for a Mars orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR) using new Earth-based 70-cm wavelength radar data for the Moon. The terrae on the northern margin of Mare Imbrium, the Montes Jura region, have diffuse radar backscatter echoes that are 2-4 times weaker at 3.8-cm, 70-cm, and 7.5-m wavelengths than most other lunar nearside terrae. Possible geologic explanations are (1) a pyroclastic deposit associated with sinuous rilles in this region, (2) buried mare basalt or a zone of mixed highland/basaltic debris (cryptomaria), or (3) layers of ejecta associated with the Iridum and Plato impacts that have fewer meter-sized rocks than typical highlands regolith. While radar data at 3.8-cm to 7.5-m wavelengths suggest significant differences between the Montes Jura region and typical highlands, the surface geochemistry and rock abundance inferred from Clementine UV-VIS data and eclipse thermal images are consistent with other lunar terrae. There is no evidence for enhanced iron abundance, expected for basaltic pyroclastic deposits, near the source vents of the sinuous rilles radial to Plato. The regions of low 70-cm radar return are consistent with overlapping concentric ''haloes'' about Iridum and Plato and do not occur referentially in topographically low areas, as is observed for radar-mapped cryptomaria. Thus we suggest that the extensive radar-dark area associated with the Montes Jura region is due to overlapping, rock-poor ejecta deposits from Iridum and Plato craters. Comparison of the radial extent of low-radar-return crater haloes with a model for ejecta thickness shows that these rock-poor layers are detected by 70-cm radar where they are on the order of 10 m and thicker. A SAR in orbit about Mars could use similar deep probing to reveal the nature of

  12. Radiometric and geometric characteristics of Pleiades images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.; Topan, H.; Cam, A.; Özendi, M.; Oruc, M.

    2014-11-01

    Pleiades images are distributed with 50 cm ground sampling distance (GSD) even if the physical resolution for nadir images is just 70 cm. By theory this should influence the effective GSD determined by means of point spread function at image edges. Nevertheless by edge enhancement the effective GSD can be improved, but this should cause enlarged image noise. Again image noise can be reduced by image restoration. Finally even optimized image restoration cannot improve the image information from 70 cm to 50 cm without loss of details, requiring a comparison of Pleiades image details with other very high resolution space images. The image noise has been determined by analysis of the whole images for any sub-area with 5 pixels times 5 pixels. Based on the standard deviation of grey values in the small sub-areas the image noise has been determined by frequency analysis. This leads to realistic results, checked by test targets. On the other hand the visual determination of image noise based on apparently homogenous sub-areas results in too high values because the human eye is not able to identify small grey value differences - it is limited to just approximately 40 grey value steps over the available gray value range, so small difference in grey values cannot be seen, enlarging results of a manual noise determination. A tri-stereo combination of Pleiades 1A in a mountainous, but partially urban, area has been analyzed and compared with images of the same area from WorldView-1, QuickBird and IKONOS. The image restoration of the Pleiades images is very good, so the effective image resolution resulted in a factor 1.0, meaning that the effective resolution corresponds to the nominal resolution of 50 cm. This does not correspond to the physical resolution of 70 cm, but by edge enhancement the steepness of the grey value profile across the edge can be enlarged, reducing the width of the point spread function. Without additional filtering edge enhancement enlarges the image

  13. An asymmetric oligomer based on thienoacene for solution processed crystal organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hongkun; Han, Yang; Bao, Cheng; Yan, Donghang; Geng, Yanhou; Wang, Fosong

    2012-04-11

    A novel thienoacene-based conjugated oligomer, i.e.BTTT-T-C12, was designed and synthesized. Its highly asymmetric structural feature enables the preparation of two-dimensional single-crystalline thin films in millimetre size and ~100 nm thick by a solution processing method directly on the Si/SiO(2) substrate. Single crystal organic thin film transistors exhibit a mobility of 0.70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off ratio of 5.7 × 10(4). PMID:22389169

  14. Enhanced dispersion compensation capability of angular elements based on beam expansion.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui; Jiang, Runhua; Fu, Ling

    2009-09-14

    We demonstrate that beam size manipulation plays an important role in dispersion compensation. With expanded beam, the maximal negative group delay dispersion (GDD) provided by angular elements increases by an order of magnitude compared with original beam. Both calculation and experimental results show that a modest 2 x and 4 x expanded beams can improve dispersion compensation capability of prisms or acousto-optical deflectors: the restored minimal pulse width decreases by 50% and the corresponding distance between angular elements is shortened more than 70 cm. These findings will be helpful for designing dispersion compensation schemes for femtosecond pulse laser application systems such as multiphoton microscopy or laser micromachining. PMID:19770855

  15. A comparison of thunderstorm reflectivities measured at the VHF and UHF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.; Rottger, J.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of thunderstorms made with two radars operating at different wavelengths of 70 cm and 5.67 m are compared. The first set of observations was made with the UHF radar at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, and the second set was made with the Max-Planck-Institut fur Aeronomie VHF radar in the Harz Mountains in West Germany. Both sets of observations show large echo strengths in the convective region above the -10 C isothem. At UHF, there appears to be a contribution from both the precipitation echoes and the normal echoes due to scatter from turbulent variations in the refractive index.

  16. Polarized target for nucleon-nucleon experiments at Saturne II

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. |; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Sans, J.

    1995-09-01

    Continuous improvements of SATURNE polarized target resulted in a flexible and reliable facility for spin physics. For polarized neutron target, two cartridges loaded with {sup 6}{ital LiD} and {sup 6}{ital LiH} are set in the refrigerator and can be quickly inserted in the beam. The polarized proton target is a 70 cm{sup 3} cartridge loaded with Pentanol-2, a promising material according to the results obtained. Angular distribution as a function of a kinematically conjugate angle and coplanarity in nucleon-nucleon scattering is shown for different targets. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Radio tracking of a fin whale /Balaenoptera physalus/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, G. C.; Wartzok, D.; Mitchell, E. D.; Kozicki, V. M.; Maiefski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Tracking of a fin whale tagged with an implantable beacon transmitter (IBT) is described. The IBT, which was fired from a modified 12-gauge shotgun, weighs 517 g and is 70 cm long, including a 46-cm antenna. Data on whale movement and breathing are presented. Contact was lost after 27.8 hours of intermittent tracking, presumably as a result of battery leakage. Potential range and duration of IBT transmission are considered, and the significance of transmitter location and orientation in the whale blubber is considered.

  18. An unusual case of retrovesical ectopic prostate tissue accompanied by primary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fu-Qing; Xu, Xin; Shen, Bo-Hua; Qin, Jie; Sun, Ke; You, Qihan; Shang, De-Sheng; Zheng, Xiang-Yi

    2012-01-01

    We report an unusual case of retrovesical ectopic prostate tissue in a 73-year-old man with primary prostate cancer. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 24.66 ng/ml.Transabdominal ultrasonography, pelvic computed tomography,and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a heterogeneous 8.5 × 8.0 × 7.0 cm mass in contact with the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. The patient underwent a retropubic radical prostatectomy and resection of tumor. Pathological examination of prostate revealed a prostatic adenocarcinoma, Gleason score of 4 + 5 = 9, and the retrovesical tumor was confirmed to be a benign prostate tissue. PMID:22966979

  19. Search for anomalous deuterons in the reaction /sup 3/He+C. -->. d+X at p3He = 10. 8 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Ableev, V.G.; Vorob'ev, G.G.; Gasparyan, A.P.; Grigalashvili, N.S.; Dzhmukhadze, S.V.; Zaporozhets, S.A.; Nomofilov, A.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Sitnik, I.M.; Strokovskii, E.A.

    1985-07-01

    The Alpha apparatus in a beam of 10.78-GeV/c /sup 3/He nuclei has been used to search for anomalous deuterons (demons) in the reaction /sup 3/He+C ..-->.. d+X. The deuteron yield was measured at angles theta< or approx. =20 mrad as a function of the target thickness, which varied from 0.6 to 70 cm. The data obtained exclude the production of demons in this reaction over a wide range of expected values of the cross sections for their production and interaction with matter. The technique used can be applied also to beams of relativistic nuclei in experiments to search for anomalons.

  20. Comments on ocean circulation with regard to satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturges, W.

    1972-01-01

    Basic features of sea surface topography are reviewed, to show those oceanographic results which may be of value to a geodetic satellite program: (1) the shape and magnitude of the large scale features of the mean sea surface, relative to a level surface; (2) the position and magnitude of the slopes across the western boundary currents, from a variety of data; (3) an estimate of the position of the geoid, tied into the U.S. leveling network; and (4) a documented change of 60 to 70 cm in mean sea level, with respect to the geoid, between the U.S. east and west coasts.

  1. Near-Subsurface Science from a Digital Beamforming Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Rincon, R. F.

    2015-10-01

    Many important questions in planetary science depends on our ability to detect and map surface and subsurface layers of planetary bodies. We are developing a P-band (435 MHz, 70 cm wavelength) digital beamforming radar, called Space Exploration SAR (SESAR), capable of providing the measurement flexibility needed to address multiple types of science goals. SESAR will provide high spatial resolution imaging, full polarimetry, multibeam scatterometry and altimetry of planetary targets such as the Moon and Mars by using beamforming technology that can adjust the radar experiment to meet the specific science goals of each target.

  2. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  3. BR-confirmation of the probable nova M31 2016-07c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcheva, A.; Kurtenkov, A.; Ovcharov, E.; Kostov, A.; Minev, M.; Nedialkov, P.

    2016-07-01

    We report BR-photomerty of the probable nova M31 2016-07c (PNV J00435768+4134528) located at RA(2000) = 00h43m57.94s, Dec(2000) = +41d34'54.6", which is 830.0" east and 1126.1" north of the center of M31. The coordinates uncertainties are 0''.24 in RA and 0''.12 in DEC. The images are obtained with the 50/70cm Schmidt telescope at Rozhen NAO, Bulgaria.

  4. [Model of regularity of ammonia transformation along marine biological aerated filter].

    PubMed

    Luo, Rong-Qiang; Hou, Sha-Sha; Shen, Jia-Zheng; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the biological aerated filter (BAF) of a marine recirculating aquaculture system, which is important to remove harmful ammonia and organics. A model, characterizing the ammonia transformation along the BAF, was established on the basis of the principle of adsorption and the first order reaction bio-film. Experiments were performed and verified the effectiveness of the proposed model. The target BAF was packed with bamboo ring for 70 cm high. Study under the conditions [pH 7.1-7.6, DO 5-7 mg x L(-1), gas water ratio about 20 : 1, organic load about 4 g x (m3 x h)(-1)] shows that ammonia is removed significantly under the 10 cm height of medium, while less ammonia is removed between 10-70 cm. Experimental results confirm that the model predicts the ammonia concentration along the BAF accurately with a low influent ammonia concentration, but the predicted value is slightly lower than the true value with a high influent ammonia concentration. Study on ammonia concentration along the BAF reveals that the effluent ammonia concentration increases along with either the increment of the influent ammonia concentration or the reduction of the hydraulic retention time. PMID:23243879

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Characterization of Non-Organized Soils at Gusev Crater with the Spirit Rover Data; Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions; Analysis of the Lunar Surface with Global Mineral and Mg-Number Maps ALH77005: The Magmatic History from Rehomogenized Melt Inclusions; New 70-cm Radar Mapping of the Moon; Cryptomare Deposits Revealed by 70-cm Radar; Construction of a PZT Sensor Network for Low and Hypervelocity Impact Detection; Palmer Quest: A Feasible Nuclear Fission "Vision Mission" to the Mars Polar Caps; Physical Properties of Volcanic Deposits on Venus from Radar Polarimetry; Science Alert Demonstration with a Rover Traverse Science Data Analysis System; Earth and Mars, Similar Features and Parallel Lives? Didactic Activities; Expected Constraints on Rhea s Interior from Cassini; Microbially Induced Precipitates: Examples from CO3, Si-, Mn- and Fe-rich Deposits; Li, B - Behavior in Lunar Basalts During Shock and Thermal Metamorphism: Implications for H2O in Martian Magmas; Evaluation of CO Self-Shielding as a Possible Mechanism for Anomalous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Early Solar System Materials; Effect of Ground Ice on Apparent Thermal Inertia on Mars; Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparative Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars; Newly Discovered Meteor Crater Metallic Impact Spherules: Report and Implications; and Evidence of Very Young Glacial Processes in Central Candor Chasma, Mars.

  6. Distribution of glacial deposits, soils, and permafrost in Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bockheim, J.G.; Prentice, M.L.; McLeod, M.

    2008-01-01

    We provide a map of lower and central Taylor Valley, Antarctica, that shows deposits from Taylor Glacier, local alpine glaciers, and grounded ice in the Ross Embayment. From our electronic database, which includes 153 sites from the coast 50 km upvalley to Pearse Valley, we show the distribution of permafrost type and soil subgroups according to Soil Taxonomy. Soils in eastern Taylor Valley are of late Pleistocene age, cryoturbated due to the presence of ground ice or ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, and classified as Glacic and Typic Haploturbels. In central Taylor Valley, soils are dominantly Typic Anhyorthels of mid-Pleistocene age that have dry-frozen permafrost within the upper 70 cm. Salt-enriched soils (Salic Anhyorthels and Petrosalic Anhyorthels) are of limited extent in Taylor Valley and occur primarily on drifts of early Pleistocene and Pliocene age. Soils are less developed in Taylor Valley than in nearby Wright Valley, because of lesser salt input from atmospheric deposition and salt weathering. Ice-cemented permafrost is ubiquitous on Ross Sea, pre-Ross Sea, and Bonney drifts that occur within 28 km of the McMurdo coast. In contrast, dry-frozen permafrost is prevalent on older (???115 ky) surfaces to the west. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  7. Minimizing Residual Pressure within a Windowless Gas Target System - JENSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Orlando; Browne, Justin; Kontos, Antonios; Montes, Fernando; Jensa Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear reactions between light gases and radioactive isotope beams are essential to address open questions in nuclear structure and astrophysics. Pure light gas targets are critical for the measurements of proton- and alpha-induced reactions. J _ et E _ xperiments in N _ uclear S _ tructure and A _ strophysics (JENSA) is the world's most dense (~ 1019 atoms/cm2) windowless gas target system. Most of the gas flow is localized; however, escaping gas creates a pressure gradient which degrades experimental measurements and contaminates the beam line. JENSA contains a differential pumping system to maintain a vacuum. The previous design configuration was not optimized for experiments (pressure measurements 70 cm downstream from the jet were ~ 10-3 torr; optimal is less than 10-4 torr). We have altered the current differential pumping system to minimize the residual pressure profile. Several configurations of two gas-receiving catchers were tested, and the most efficient ones identified using Enhanced Pirani and Cold Cathode gauges. We have determined the 30 mm outer and 20 mm inner gas-receiving cones minimize JENSA central chamber pressure to 200 millitorr at 16,000 torr of discharge pressure. Altering the tubing configuration has additionally lowered the pressure 70 cm downstream to 10-5 torr. The new residual pressure allows operation of JENSA with planned expansion of a recoil mass separator SECAR.

  8. Array Automated Assembly Task for the Low Cost Solar Array Project, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Seman, E. J.; Rohatgi, A.; Davis, J. R.; Ostroski, J.; Stapleton, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using silk screened evaporated and sputtered Al as the metal source, the formation of Al back surface fields was studied. The most satisfactory results were those obtained with the sputtered A1 and in which open circuit voltages (V sub oc) of 0.585 v (12 ohm cm FZ silicon) were achieved. The ultrasonic interconnect process is discussed. The process is shown to be satisfactory, but increased pull-strength may be obtained if some form of sintering is carried out on the metallized contacts. Plasma etching is shown to be feasible as a replacement for wet chemical cleaning prior to diffusion. Initial results on cells prepared by using electroless Pd/Ni plus either electroplated Ag or Cu show slightly poor performance than cells with the baseline evaporated Ti/Pd/Ag system. A mask designed for the 1.6 x 7.0 cm and 2.0 x 7.0 cm cells is described. This mask has a lower area coverage and total lower resistive loss than the previous mask design. It is also shown that the cell width should not exceed 2.0 - 3.0 cm for optimum efficiency.

  9. Engineering and design of a CO{sub 2} phase contrast interferometer system for DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.D.; Coda, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the development of a CO{sub 2} laser interferometer system, the engineering, design and installation of the hardware, and the selection of materials specific to the requirements of a CO{sub 2} laser diagnostic. A brief description of system operation is included. A phase contrast interferometer diagnostic has been designed and installed on the DIII-D tokamak to enhance studies of the physical characteristics of plasma turbulence, and specifically to analyze plasma density fluctuations in the boundary region of the plasma. A 20 watt CO{sub 2} laser beam, operating at the 10.6 micron wavelength, is expanded to a diameter of 76 mm and directed through a series of mirrors which provide for entry of the beam into the vessel at a point 70 cm above the midplane at the 285 degree toroidal location. After being reflected from a mirror inside the vessel, the beam is directed downward so that it passes through the edge of the plasma immediately in front of a four-strap fast wave current drive rf antenna. The laser beam is then reflected by a second internal mirror and exits the vessel 70 cm below the midplane (also at 285 degrees) returning to an optical table through a final series of external steering mirrors.

  10. Overtone-induced dissociation and isomerization dynamics of the hydroxymethyl radical (CH2OH and CD2OH). II. Velocity map imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Ryazanov, M; Rodrigo, C; Reisler, H

    2012-02-28

    The dissociation of the hydroxymethyl radical, CH(2)OH, and its isotopolog, CD(2)OH, following excitation in the 4ν(1) region (OH stretch overtone, near 13,600 cm(-1)) was studied using sliced velocity map imaging. A new vibrational band near 13,660 cm(-1) arising from interaction with the antisymmetric CH stretch was discovered for CH(2)OH. In CD(2)OH dissociation, D atom products (correlated with CHDO) were detected, providing the first experimental evidence of isomerization in the CH(2)OH ↔ CH(3)O (CD(2)OH ↔ CHD(2)O) system. Analysis of the H (D) fragment kinetic energy distributions shows that the rovibrational state distributions in the formaldehyde cofragments are different for the OH bond fission and isomerization pathways. Isomerization is responsible for 10%-30% of dissociation events in all studied cases, and its contribution depends on the excited vibrational level of the radical. Accurate dissociation energies were determined: D(0)(CH(2)OH → CH(2)O + H) = 10,160 ± 70 cm(-1), D(0)(CD(2)OH → CD(2)O + H) = 10,135 ± 70 cm(-1), D(0)(CD(2)OH → CHDO + D) = 10,760 ± 60 cm(-1). PMID:22380040

  11. Contribution of Geodetic Datum in GNSS Networks to Monitored Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Alpay; Dogan, Ugur; Aydin, Cuneyt

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of datum definition on the monitored displacements of GNSS networks. The datum definition is a significant problem in terms of reliable deformation analysis and interpretation on determining the deformation in GNSS networks. The observations have been analyzed to show the reliability analysis of a group of station in the network and the influence of datum definition on the deformations of GNSS monitoring networks. For this purpose, we studied GPS observations in the CORS-TR network collected on a set of 13 station to detect co-seismic deformation of the 23 October 2011 (Mw=7.2) Van earthquake in the eastern of Turkey. The GPS observations were processed in the ITRF 2008 reference frame using the Bernese 5.2 GNSS software. Seven datum configuration modes which depend on the number of datum stations, which are selected from 9 IGS stations, were defined to determine co-seismic deformation of the Van earthquake and the deformations of GPS stations were computed for every datum definition. Our results indicate that each station showed different temporal behavior and significant relative motions with respect to datum definition. On the other hand, the distribution of the datum stations around the monitored region seems to be very important factor for determining the displacements. To show the effect of datum station distribution, we compare the displacements obtained from two different datum configuration modes (mode 1: 4 datum station "BUCU, GRAZ, MATE, SOFI" located at Eurasian plate, which are far away from the region, and mode 2: 9 datum station "BUCU, GRAZ, MATE, SOFI, TUBI, CRAO, ZECK, NICO, DRAG" located around the region). For instance, co-seismic displacements for station MURA, which is the closest station to the earthquake epicenter (˜43 km), amounted to -82.24 ± 0.60 mm for the north component, 12.01 ± 0.76 mm for the east component and -25.19 ± 2.49 mm for the up component with respect to mode 1, -89

  12. Pulkovo Observatory and its Former Branches in the Crimea and Nikolaev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A. V.; Abalakin, V. K.; Pinigin, G. I.; Rostopchina, A. N.

    2012-09-01

    The Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo was founded in 1839 for ``providing permanent and, as far as possible, the most perfect observations aimed at the prosperity of Astronomy and necessary for geographic undertakings of the Russian Empire and for ends of the Practical Astronomy as well''. The first director of the Pulkovo was the prominent astronomer F.G.W. Struve (1793--1864). The Observatory was designed by the well-known architect Alexander Brüllow. The three-dome Pulkovo style was propagated over the world. Widely-used methods of astrometric observations along with famous fundamental star catalogs were developed in Pulkovo. The Observatory has kept the leading position in Russia up to date, conducting research in all major areas of astronomy -- astrophysics, solar physics, radio astronomy, astrometry, celestial mechanics, etc. In 1908, the south branch of Pulkovo Observatory in Simeiz (Crimea) was organized, where both systematic observations in search of new comets and minor planets, photometric and spectroscopic observations of stars and galaxies were started. These observations yielded fundamental results concerning rotation of stars, structure of galaxies, the role of magnetic field in interstellar medium. In 1945 Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of USSR Academy of Science (now Scientific Research Institute ``Crimean Astrophysical Observatory'', Ukraine) was founded on the base of the Simeiz department. Now it is a leading astronomical institution in Ukraine. Areas of research at CrAO are solar physics, chemical composition and activity of stars and their surroundings, extragalactic studies, geo-dynamics, small bodies in the Solar System and in the near-Earth space, instrumentation for ground-based and space astronomy. In 1912, Nikolaev branch of Pulkovo Observatory was organized on the basis of the oldest in Russia Naval Observatory in Nikolaev, which was founded in 1821 by Admiral A. Greig, chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Regular

  13. The simultaneous low state spectral energy distribution of 1ES 2344+514 from radio to very high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jankowski, F.; Kadenius, V.; Klepser, S.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Pilia, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; AGILE Team; Bastieri, D.; Sbarra, C.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Nestoras, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Sievers, A.; Zensus, J. A.; F-GAMMA program; Antonyuk, K. A.; Baumgartner, W.; Berduygin, A.; Carini, M.; Cook, K.; Gehrels, N.; Kadler, M.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krauss, F.; Krimm, H. A.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lister, M. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pasanen, M.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Sainio, J.; Shakhovskoy, D. N.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Tornikoski, M.; Tueller, J.; Weidinger, M.; Wilms, J.

    2013-08-01

    Context. BL Lacertae objects are variable at all energy bands on time scales down to minutes. To construct and interpret their spectral energy distribution (SED), simultaneous broad-band observations are mandatory. Up to now, the number of objects studied during such campaigns is very limited and biased towards high flux states. Aims: We present the results of a dedicated multi-wavelength study of the high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae (HBL) object and known TeV emitter 1ES 2344+514 by means of a pre-organised campaign. Methods: The observations were conducted during simultaneous visibility windows of MAGIC and AGILE in late 2008. The measurements were complemented by Metsähovi, RATAN-600, KVA+Tuorla, Swift and VLBA pointings. Additional coverage was provided by the ongoing long-term F-GAMMA and MOJAVE programs, the OVRO 40-m and CrAO telescopes as well as the Fermi satellite. The obtained SEDs are modelled using a one-zone as well as a self-consistent two-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. Results: 1ES 2344+514 was found at very low flux states in both X-rays and very high energy gamma rays. Variability was detected in the low frequency radio and X-ray bands only, where for the latter a small flare was observed. The X-ray flare was possibly caused by shock acceleration characterised by similar cooling and acceleration time scales. MOJAVE VLBA monitoring reveals a static jet whose components are stable over time scales of eleven years, contrary to previous findings. There appears to be no significant correlation between the 15 GHz and R-band monitoring light curves. The observations presented here constitute the first multi-wavelength campaign on 1ES 2344+514 from radio to VHE energies and one of the few simultaneous SEDs during low activity states. The quasi-simultaneous Fermi-LAT data poses some challenges for SED modelling, but in general the SEDs are described well by both applied models. The resulting parameters are typical for TeV emitting HBLs

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVRI Photometry of 14 PMS stars (Ibryamov+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibryamov, S. I.; Semkov, E. H.

    2016-02-01

    BVRI photometric data of 14 pre-main sequence stars (V521 Cyg, V752 Cyg, V1538 Cyg, V1539 Cyg, V1716 Cyg, V1957 Cyg, V2051 Cyg, LkHa 186, LkHa 187, LkHa 189, LkHa 191, [KW97] 53-11, [Kw97] 53-23 and [KW97] 53-36 during the period from 2013 April to 2015 September are presented. The CCD observations were performed in two astronomical observatories, with four telescopes. These are the 2-m Ritchey-Chretien-Coude (RCC), the 50/70-cm Schmidt and the 60-cm Cassegrain telescopes of the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the 1.3-m Ritchey-Chretien (RC) telescope of the Skinakas Observatory of the University of Crete (Greece). The observations were performed with four different types of CCD cameras - VersArray 1300B at the 2-m RCC telescope; ANDOR DZ436-BV at the 1.3-m RC telescope; FLI PL16803 at the 50/70-cm Schmidt telescope; FLI PL09000 at the 60-cm Cassegrain telescope. All frames were taken through a standard Johnson-Cousins (BVRcIc) set of filters. The total number of the nights used for observations is 84. The photometric limit of our data obtained with the 2-m RCC and the 1.3-m RC telescopes in B- and V-band is about 20.5 mag and for the data collected with the 50/70-cm Schmidt and the 60-cm Cassegrain telescopes is about 19.50mag. All data were analyzed using the same aperture, which was chosen to have a 4-arcsec radius, while the background annulus was taken from 9-arcsec to 14-arcsec. The photometric data were reduced by IDL package (standard subroutine DAOPHOT) and as a reference, the BVRI comparison sequence reported in Semkov et. al. (2010A&A...523L...3S) was used. The average value of the errors in the reported magnitudes are 0.01-0.02mag for I- and R-band data, 0.02-0.06mag for V-band data and 0.02-0.09mag for B-band data. (15 data files).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Long-Term Multicolour Photometry of YSOs (Ibryamov+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibryamov, S.; Semkov, E.; Peneva, S.

    2015-05-01

    BVRI photometric data of five young stellar objects (FHO 26, FHO 27, FHO 28, FHO 29, and V1929 Cygni) during the period from 1997 June to 2014 December are presented. The CCD observations were performed in two astronomical observatories, with four telescopes. These are the 2-m Ritchey-Chretien- Coude (RCC), the 50/70-cm Schmidt and the 60-cm Cassegrain telescopes of the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the 1.3-m Ritchey-Chretien (RC) telescope of the Skinakas Observatory of the University of Crete (Greece). The observations were performed with eight different types of CCD cameras - Photometrics AT200 and VersArray 1300B at the 2-m RCC telescope; Photometrics CH360 and ANDOR DZ436-BV at the 1.3-m RC telescope; SBIG ST-8, SBIG STL-11000M and FLI PL16803 at the 50/70-cm Schmidt telescope; FLI PL09000 at the 60-cm Cassegrain telescope. All frames were taken through a standard Johnson-Cousins set of filters. The total number of the nights used for observations is 292. The photometric limit of our data obtained with the 2-m RCC and the 1.3-m RC telescopes in B- and V-band is about 20.5mag and for the data collected with the 50/70-cm Schmidt and the 60-cm Cassegrain telescopes is about 19.5mag. All data were analyzed using the same aperture, which was chosen to have a 4-arcsec radius, while the background annulus was taken from 9-arcsec to 14-arcsec. The photometric data were reduced by IDL package (standard subroutine DAOPHOT) and as a reference, the BVRI comparison sequence reported in Semkov et. al. (2010A&A...523L...3S) was used. The average value of the errors in the reported magnitudes are 0.01-0.05mag for I- and R-band data, 0.02-0.08 mag for V-band data and 0.03-0.11mag for B-band data. (6 data files).

  16. Resonances in rotationally inelastic scattering of NH3 and ND3 with H2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qianli; van der Avoird, Ad; Loreau, Jérôme; Alexander, Millard H; van de Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y T; Dagdigian, Paul J

    2015-07-28

    We present theoretical studies on the scattering resonances in rotationally inelastic collisions of NH3 and ND3 molecules with H2 molecules. We use the quantum close-coupling method to compute state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the NH3/ND3-H2 system for collision energies between 5 and 70 cm(-1), using a previously reported potential energy surface [Maret et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 399, 425 (2009)]. We identify the resonances as shape or Feshbach resonances. To analyze these, we use an adiabatic bender model, as well as examination at the scattering wave functions and lifetimes. The strength and width of the resonance peaks suggest that they could be observed in a crossed molecular beam experiment involving a Stark-decelerated NH3 beam. PMID:26233134

  17. A Case of Post-Traumatic Pseudocyst in the Spleen Successfully Treated with Alcohol Sclerotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Sang Wook; Lim, Taek-Jin; Hwang, Eun Ha; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Jeon, Ung Bae

    2015-01-01

    This report details a case of post-traumatic pseudocyst in the spleen that was successfully treated with sclerotherapy using ethanol. A sixteen-year-old boy visited our hospital for a follow-up examination of a splenic cyst. He had experienced blunt trauma to the abdomen three years prior to presentation. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a large cyst of the lower pole of the spleen. The cyst was 6.8×9.5×7.0 cm and conservative management was tried. A follow-up ultrasonographic examination three years later revealed that the size of the cyst was unchanged and another treatment was needed to prevent complications. One session of sclerosis with ethanol (90 mL of 99% ethanol) percutaneously was applied to the cyst. A follow-up after four months revealed that the cyst had completely resolved. PMID:26770903

  18. A novel technique to detect special nuclear material using cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomay, C.; Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Davies, J.; Glaysher, P.; Quillin, S.; Robertson, S.; Steer, C.; Vassallo, C.; Velthuis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPCs) are widely used in high energy physics for both tracking and triggering purposes, due to their excellent time resolution, rate capability, and good spatial resolution. RPCs can be produced cost-effectively on large scales, are of rugged build, and have excellent detection efficiency for charged particles. Our group has successfully built a muon scattering tomography (MST) prototype, using 12 RPCs to obtain tracking information of muons going through a target volume of ∼ 50 cm × 50 cm × 70 cm, reconstructing both the incoming and outgoing muon tracks. The required spatial granularity is achieved by using 330 readout strips per RPC with 1.5 mm pitch. The RPCs have shown an efficiency above 99% and an estimated intrinsic resolution below 1.1 mm. Due to these qualities, RPCs serve as excellent candidates for usage in volcano radiography.

  19. PLEIADES-HR 1A&1B image quality commissioning: innovative geometric calibration methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greslou, Daniel; de Lussy, Françoise; Amberg, Virginie; Dechoz, Cécile; Lenoir, Florie; Delvit, Jean-Marc; Lebègue, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    PLEIADES earth observing system consists of two satellites designed to provide optical 70cm resolution images to civilian and defense users. The first Pleiades satellite 1A was launched on December 2011 while the second satellite Pleiades 1B was placed on orbit, one year after, on December 2012. The calibration operations and the assessment of the image of the two satellites have been performed by CNES Image Quality team during the called commissioning phase which took place after each launch and lasted each time less than 6 months. The geometric commissioning activities consist in assessing and improving the geometric quality of the images in order to meet very demanding requirements. This paper deals with the means used and methods applied, mainly the innovative ones, in order to manage these activities. It describes both their accuracy and their operational interest. Finally it gives the main results for geometric image quality performances of the PHR system.

  20. Star-Based Methods for Pleiades HR Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourest, S.; Kubik, P.; Lebègue, L.; Déchoz, C.; Lacherade, S.; Blanchet, G.

    2012-07-01

    PLEIADES is the highest resolution civilian earth observing system ever developed in Europe. This imagery program is conducted by the French National Space Agency, CNES. It has been operating since 2012 a first satellite PLEIADES-HR launched on 2011 December 17th, a second one should be launched by the end of the year. Each satellite is designed to provide optical 70 cm resolution colored images to civilian and defense users. Thanks to the extreme agility of the satellite, new calibration methods have been tested, based on the observation of celestial bodies, and stars in particular. It has then been made possible to perform MTF measurement, re-focusing, geometrical bias and focal plane assessment, absolute calibration, ghost images localization, micro-vibrations measurement, etc… Starting from an overview of the star acquisition process, this paper will discuss the methods and present the results obtained during the first four months of the commissioning phase.

  1. An experimental trap net fishery, Lake Oahe, South Dakota, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabel, James A.

    1974-01-01

    Large trap nets were evaluated as a commercial gear for capturing buffalo fish during July-September 1965. During the 72-day fishing period, 13,171 fish weighing 21,669 kg were taken. Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus) and smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) dominated the catch (78.2% by weight). Eight sport species accounted for 3.6% of the total catch. Both 7.0-cm and 12.7-cm mesh (extended measure) were used in the back of the bailing crib of the nets to determine the effect of the 12.7-cm mesh in reducing the catch of sport species and nonmarketable size groups of commercial species. The 12.7-cm mesh reduced the catch of nonmarketable bigmouth buffalo 29%, smallmouth buffalo 11%, river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) 18%, carp (Cyprinus carpio) 8%, freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) 35%, and sport species 68%.

  2. Telemetry Data Collection from Oscar Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Paul C.; Horan, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, configuration, and operation of a satellite station built for the Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Laboratory in the Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Engineering at New Mexico State University (NMSU). This satellite station consists of a computer-controlled antenna tracking system, 2m/70cm transceiver, satellite tracking software, and a demodulator. The satellite station receives satellite,telemetry, allows for voice communications, and will be used in future classes. Currently this satellite station is receiving telemetry from an amateur radio satellite, UoSAT-OSCAR-11. Amateur radio satellites are referred to as Orbiting Satellites Carrying Amateur Radio (OSCAR) satellites as discussed in the next section.

  3. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. S.; Qiu, S. R.; Zheng, L. L.; Schaffers, K. I.; Tassano, J. B.; Caird, J. A.; Zhang, H.

    2008-08-01

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb 3+:Sr 5(PO 4) 3F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF 2-rich melts often encounters cracks during the post-growth cool-down stage. To suppress cracking during cool-down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool-down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented, which produced high-quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  4. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H; Qiu, S; Kheng, L; Schaffers, K; Tassano, J; Caird, J; Zhang, H

    2007-08-20

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF{sub 2}-rich melts often encounter cracks during the post growth cool down stage. To suppress cracking during cool down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented and produced high quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  5. Design, fabrication, and calibration of a cryogenic search-coil array for harmonic analysis of quadrupole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Barale, P.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Nelson, D.H.; O'Neill, J.W.; Schafer, R.V.; Taylor, C.E.

    1987-09-01

    A cryogenic search-coil array has been fabricated at LBL for harmonic error analysis of SSC model quadrupoles. It consists of three triplets of coils; the center-coil triplet is 10 cm long, and the end coil triplets are 70 cm long. Design objectives are a high bucking ratio for the dipole and quadrupole signals and utility at cryogenic operating currents (approx.6 kA) with sufficient sensitivity for use at room-temperature currents (approx.10 A). the design and fabrication are described. Individual coils are mechanically measured to +-5 ..mu..m, and their magnetic areas measured to 0.05%. A computer program has been developed to predict the quadrupole and dipole bucking ratios from the mechanical and magnetic measurements. The calibration procedure and accuracy of the array are specified. Results of measurements of SSC model quadrupoles are presented. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  6. Geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Wilson, Lionel

    1988-01-01

    Geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data on Rima Mozart are analyzed to study the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles. The results show that it is unlikely that a complete lava tube could have existed along the Rima Mozart rille. A total eruptive volume of 6372 cu km has been determined for an open channel or tube with an eruption rate of about 80,000 cu m/s and a duration of 947 days. Near-infrared spectral reflectance data and 2.8-cm and 70-cm radar observations indicate that volcanic activity was responsible for the formation of the rille and that pyroclastic deposits are present around Kathleen and Ann as well as at the base of the Apennines.

  7. Optical design of Lyman/FUSE. [Far UV Spectroscopic Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D. A.; Davila, P. M.; Osantowski, J. F.; Saha, T. T.; Wilson, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    The optical system for the proposed Lyman/Far UV Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) orbiting observatory is described and illustrated with drawings and graphs of predicted performance. The system comprises (1) an FUV channel based on a 1.84-m-diameter Rowland circle spectrograph with five high-density modified ellipsiodal near-normal-incidence gratings and an array of four MAMA detectors; (2) an EUV channel with ellipsoidal mirror, planar varied-line-space grating, microchannel-plate array, and wedge-and-strip anode detector; (3) a 70-cm Wolter II glancing-incidence telescope; and (4) a CCD-detector fine-error sensor to provide accurate pointing (within 200 marcsec rms). The resolving powers of the spectrographs are 30,000 in the FUV and 300-600 (wavelength-dependent) in the EUV.

  8. Simbol-X mirror module design scientific optimization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, V.; Basso, S.; Pareschi, G.

    The Simbol-X hard X-ray mission will be based on Wolter I focused telescope with multilayer mirrors. The formation flight concept allows a large flexibility in the focal length (FL) choice, while the use of multilayers makes possible the optimization of the mirror coating aiming at covering a very wide energy band (0.1 - 80 keV). On the other hand, there are other limiting parameters to be considered as e.g. the maximum mirror diameter for the Ni electroforming technology (70 cm) and the maximum size of the focal plane that should not exceed 8 cm. We will discuss the activities carried out to optimize the mirror module design, in order to achieve the best response in terms of effective area and field of view (FOV).

  9. Electron Temperature Measurements on BCTX using Thomson Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, E.; Coomer, E.

    1997-11-01

    The Berkeley Compact Toroid Experiment (BCTX) is a spheromak configuration with a 70 cm diameter flux conserver. Studies have been undertaken to determine the core energy transport in the spheromak by investigation of the scaling of the core electron temperature (as measured by single point Thomson scattering) with various parameters. Elevated temperatures have been observed with lower core electron densities, as observed by the Thomson system. Careful studies of the magnetic decay have been undertaken using ten edge magnetic field B -dot coils. Density control has been achieved using a Penning discharge mode for the initial gas breakdown in the Marshall gun. A 20 MW lower hybrid heating pulse ( 430 MHz ) was used to study tranisent heating effects on the core plasma. Methods of controlling breakdown at the antenna will be presented, along with data for RF-heated plasma experiments. Comparison with recent theoretical work on spheromak energy transport by T. K. Fowler will be presented.

  10. The development of a compact positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Qi, Jinyi; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.; Huesman, Ronald H.; Budinger, Thomas F.

    2002-12-17

    We give design details and expected image results of a compact positron tomograph designed for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair of external curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis). The bottom bank is fixed below the patient bed, and the top bank moves upward for patient access and downward for maximum sensitivity. Each bank is composed of two rows (axially) of 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors, forming two arcs that can be tilted to minimize attenuation. Compared to a conventional PET system, our camera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and has almost two times higher solid angle coverage for a central point source, because the detectors are close to the patient. The detectors are read out by modified CTI HRRT data acquisition electronics. The individual detectors are angled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize reso

  11. Specific features of soil water exchange and chemistry of pore and ground waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muromtsev, N. A.; Pylenok, P. I.; Semenov, N. A.; Anisimov, K. B.

    2015-07-01

    The regularities of water infiltration and evaporation of groundwater at different depths of the groundwater table were established for soddy-podzolic and dark gray forest soils. The recharge of the soils with moisture from the groundwater decreased with a lowering of its table, and the infiltration increased. At the high groundwater table (70 cm from the surface), the moisture recharge of the soddy-podzolic soil amounted to 86 mm and the infiltration amounted to 17 mm; at the groundwater table of 145 cm, these values were 13 and 51 mm, respectively. The concentrations of chemical elements in the lysimeters with the high groundwater table were 2-4 times greater than those in the lysimeters with the low groundwater table.

  12. Particle properties and processes in Uranus' rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.; Brahic, A.; Burns, J. A.; Marouf, Essam A.

    1991-01-01

    The particle properties and processes in the Uranian rings are analyzed from Voyager observations and ground-based data. Occultation observations of the epsilon ring are interpreted to yield an effective size of the ring particles that exceeds 70 cm, a surface mass density that exceeds 80 g/sq cm, and a ring vertical thickness greater than tens of meters for solid ice particles. The particles forming the classic rings are dark and gray, with albedo of 0.014 +/-0.004. It is argued that the small amount of dust that exists in the classical rings and between the rings in bands is created by erosion of ring particles and unseen satellites resulting from collisions and micrometeoroid bombardment. As proposed for regions of the other known ring systems, new ring material can be continually created by the destruction of small moons near the rings, which may explain the youthful appearance of the Uranian rings.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ION INJECTION INTO AN EXTENDED TRAP OF THE BNL EBIS.

    SciTech Connect

    PIKIN,A.; ALESSI,J.; BEEBE,E.; KPONOU,A.; PRELEC,K.

    2001-09-02

    Experiments on the BNL EBIS Test Stand (EBTS) with the ion trap extending beyond the edges of the superconducting solenoid had the main goal to study ion trap operation with a trap length exceeding that of the normal EBTS trap. Preliminary results indicate that the ion trap with length 107 cm is stable and controllable in the same fashion as our normal 70 cm trap with a multiampere electron beam. EBTS operation with ion trap 145 cm long and with electron current up to 3 A in earlier experiments also was stable and yielded more ions than from the basic ''short'' trap. These results increased our confidence in operation of the proposed RHIC in a stable mode and in the correctness of linear scaling of ion intensity with the length of the ion trap.

  14. Si surface passivation by SiOx : H films deposited by a low-frequency ICP for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. P.; Wei, D. Y.; Xu, S.; Xiao, S. Q.; Xu, L. X.; Huang, S. Y.; Guo, Y. N.; Khan, S.; Xu, M.

    2012-10-01

    Hydrogenated silicon suboxide (SiOx : H) thin films are fabricated by a low-frequency inductively coupled plasma of hydrogen-diluted SiH4 + CO2 at a low temperature (100 °C). Introduction of a small amount of oxygen into the film results in a predominantly amorphous structure, wider optical bandgap, increased H content, lower conductivity and higher activation energy. The minority carrier lifetime in the SiOx : H-passivated p-type Si substrate is up to 428 µs with a reduced incubation layer at the interface. The associated surface recombination velocity is as low as 70 cm s-1. The passivation behaviour dominantly originates from the H-related chemical passivation. The passivation effect is also demonstrated by the excellent photovoltaic performance of the heterojunction solar cell with the SiOx : H-based passivation and emitter layers.

  15. Air stable n-doping of WSe{sub 2} by silicon nitride thin films with tunable fixed charge density

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kevin; Kiriya, Daisuke; Hettick, Mark; Tosun, Mahmut; Ha, Tae-Jun; Madhvapathy, Surabhi Rao; Desai, Sujay; Sachid, Angada; Javey, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Stable n-doping of WSe{sub 2} using thin films of SiN{sub x} deposited on the surface via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is presented. Positive fixed charge centers inside SiN{sub x} act to dope WSe{sub 2} thin flakes n-type via field-induced effect. The electron concentration in WSe{sub 2} can be well controlled up to the degenerate limit by simply adjusting the stoichiometry of the SiN{sub x} through deposition process parameters. For the high doping limit, the Schottky barrier width at the metal/WSe{sub 2} junction is significantly thinned, allowing for efficient electron injection via tunneling. Using this doping scheme, we demonstrate air-stable WSe{sub 2} n-MOSFETs with a mobility of ∼70 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  16. Anomalous Iridium Enrichment at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary, Blomidon Formation, Fundy Basin, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We present new analyses that confirm Ir enrichment (up to 0.31 ng/g) in close proximity to the palynological Triassic-Jurassic boundary in strata near the top of the Blomidon Formation at Partridge Island, Nova Scotia. High Ir concentrations have been found in at least two samples within the uppermost 70 cm of the formation. Ratios of other PGEs and Au to Ir are generally higher by an order of magnitude than in ordinary chondrites. No impact-related materials have been identified at #is horizon in the Blomidon Formation, therefore we cannot confirm an extraterrestrial source for the anomalous Ir levels. We consider, however, the possibility that regional basaltic volcanism is a potential source for the Ir in these sediments. The elevated Ir concentrations are found in reduced, grey colored mudstones, so redox concentration is a possible explanation for the distribution of Ir in these strata.

  17. [Hypodynamic respiratory insufficiency. Diagnostic investigation].

    PubMed

    Wiis, Jørgen; Mortensen, Jann; Jacobsen, Erik

    2002-12-30

    Patients with restrictive lung disease, owing to respiratory muscle dysfunction, have no parenchymal involvement. Their vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC) are reduced to less than 50% and can lead to pneumonia and nocturnal hypercapnia and hypoxia. Their diffusion capacity is normal. With maximal static mouth pressure (Pimax) < 80 cm H2O and/or Pemax < 100 cm H2O, patients are referred to the national centres. Here, inspiratory muscular insufficiency is confirmed by sniff nasal inspiratory pressure and oesophageal pressure < 70 cm H2O. Expiratory muscular insufficiency is confirmed by a cough peak flow < 3-4 L/sec. and cough gastric pressure < 100 cm H2O. Sleep studies reveal nocturnal hypoventilation. Phrenic nerve stimulation is to be introduced in the diagnostic approach. Twitch mouth or oesophageal pressure < 10 cm H2O and twitch gastric pressure < 7 cm H2O are pathognomonic for neuromuscular respiratory insufficiency. PMID:12529942

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture" contained the following reports:Approaches for Approximating Topography in High Resolution, Multispectral Data; Verification of Quality and Compatibility for the Newly Calibrated Clementine NIR Data Set; Near Infrared Spectral Properties of Selected Nearside and Farside Sites ; Global Comparisons of Mare Volcanism from Clementine Near-Infrared Data; Testing the Relation Between UVVIS Color and TiO2 Composition in the Lunar Maria; Color Reflectance Trends in the Mare: Implications for Mapping Iron with Multispectral Images ; The Composition of the Lunar Megaregolith: Some Initial Results from Global Mapping; Global Images of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data; The Origin of Lunar Crater Rays; Properties of Lunar Crater Ejecta from New 70-cm Radar Observations ; Permanent Sunlight at the Lunar North Pole; and ESA s SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals, Status and First Results.

  19. Resonances in rotationally inelastic scattering of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} with H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Qianli; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Avoird, Ad van der Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T. van de; Loreau, Jérôme

    2015-07-28

    We present theoretical studies on the scattering resonances in rotationally inelastic collisions of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} molecules with H{sub 2} molecules. We use the quantum close-coupling method to compute state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the NH{sub 3}/ND{sub 3}–H{sub 2} system for collision energies between 5 and 70 cm{sup −1}, using a previously reported potential energy surface [Maret et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 399, 425 (2009)]. We identify the resonances as shape or Feshbach resonances. To analyze these, we use an adiabatic bender model, as well as examination at the scattering wave functions and lifetimes. The strength and width of the resonance peaks suggest that they could be observed in a crossed molecular beam experiment involving a Stark-decelerated NH{sub 3} beam.

  20. Lunar radar mapping: Correlation between radar reflectivity and stratigraphy in north-western mare imbrium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Eggleton, R.E.; Thompson, T.W.

    1970-01-01

    DELAY-DOPPLER radar maps of the Moon obtained with the 430 MHz (70 cm wavelength) radar of the Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in Puerto Rico (Thompson, unpublished) are at present being studied to correlate geological information with the radar reflexion characteristics of the lunar surface. Preliminary evaluation of the radar data for the Sinus Iridum quadrangle (32??-48?? N; 14??-38?? W) has revealed that the lowest values of radar reflectivity are closely correlated with the mare materials of lowest albedo mapped by Schaber1 as of most recent volcanic origin. These radar data were obtained with a surface resolution of 50 to 100 km2 on January 24 and April 17, 1967. A detailed account of the delay-doppler radar mapping technique can be found in unpublished reports by Thompson. ?? 1970 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Density profile control in a large diameter, helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cluggish, B.P.; Anderegg, F.A.; Freeman, R.L.; Gilleland, J.; Hilsabeck, T.J.; Isler, R.C.; Lee, W.D.; Litvak, A.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ohkawa, T.; Putvinski, S.; Umstadter, K.R.; Winslow, D.L.

    2005-05-15

    Plasmas with peaked radial density profiles have been generated in the world's largest helicon device, with plasma diameters of over 70 cm. The density profiles can be manipulated by controlling the phase of the current in each strap of two multistrap antenna arrays. Phase settings that excite long axial wavelengths create hollow density profiles, whereas settings that excite short axial wavelengths create peaked density profiles. This change in density profile is consistent with the cold-plasma dispersion relation for helicon modes, which predicts a strong increase in the effective skin depth of the rf fields as the wavelength decreases. Scaling of the density with magnetic field, gas pressure, and rf power is also presented.

  2. Compression Wave Velocity of Cylindrical Rock Specimens: Engineering Modulus Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Minsu; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we experimentally assess which elastic modulus — Young’s modulus or the constraint modulus — is appropriate for application to the compression wave velocity of rock cores measured via an ultrasonic pulse technique and a point-source travel-time method. Experimental tests are performed at pulse frequencies between 50 kHz and 1 MHz, the ratio of diameter (D) to wavelength (λ) is between 0.6 and 25.6, and the specimen length is between 10 and 70 cm. It is found that compression wave velocities obtained from the two methods are constrained wave velocities, and thus the constraint modulus should be applied in the wave equation. Also, the effect of the frequency of the ultrasonic pulse, D/λ, and specimen length on compression wave velocity is negligble within the ranges explored in this study.

  3. Feasibility of the preparation of silica monoliths for gas chromatography: fast separation of light hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Imadeddine; Essoussi, Anouar; Fleury, Joachim; Haudebourg, Raphael; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jerome

    2015-02-27

    The preparation conditions of silica monoliths for gas chromatography were investigated. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns based on sol-gel process were tested in the course of high-speed gas chromatographic separations of light hydrocarbons mixture (C1-C4). The impact of modifying the amount of porogen and/or catalyst on the monolith properties were studied. At the best precursor/catalyst/porogen ratio evaluated, a column efficiency of about 6500 theoretical plates per meter was reached with a very good resolution (4.3) for very light compounds (C1-C2). The test mixture was baseline separated on a 70cm column. To our knowledge for the first time a silica-based monolithic capillary column was able to separate light hydrocarbons from methane to n-butane at room temperature with a back pressure in the range of gas chromatography facilities (under 4.1bar). PMID:25622518

  4. [Surgical Treatment of Large Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect nearby the Moderator Band Using the Sandwich Method;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Motokawa, Mamika; Sasahara, Akihiro; Terakawa, Katsunari; Miyamoto, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    We describe the rare case of a 1-year-old girl who had large muscular ventricular defect (VSD) nearby the moderator band. We experienced the patch closure using sandwich method. A 1-month-old girl was referred to our institution for treatment of muscular VSD. At the age of 2 month, she underwent the pulmonary artery banding to control the pulmonary high flow. After follow up, the patient have reached 70 cm tall and weighed 7 kg. One year after the "sandwich operation", cardiac catheterization revealed the tiny residual shunt. Nevertheless, the cardiac function was good and the growth was in fine fettle. Sandwich method is a useful surgical technique to close the muscular VSD without resect the right ventricular trabeculation. PMID:27586318

  5. Surface Roughness of the Moon Derived from Multi-frequency Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, W.

    2011-12-01

    Surface roughness of the Moon provides important information concerning both significant questions about lunar surface processes and engineering constrains for human outposts and rover trafficabillity. Impact-related phenomena change the morphology and roughness of lunar surface, and therefore surface roughness provides clues to the formation and modification mechanisms of impact craters. Since the Apollo era, lunar surface roughness has been studied using different approaches, such as direct estimation from lunar surface digital topographic relief, and indirect analysis of Earth-based radar echo strengths. Submillimeter scale roughness at Apollo landing sites has been studied by computer stereophotogrammetry analysis of Apollo Lunar Surface Closeup Camera (ALSCC) pictures, whereas roughness at meter to kilometer scale has been studied using laser altimeter data from recent missions. Though these studies shown lunar surface roughness is scale dependent that can be described by fractal statistics, roughness at centimeter scale has not been studied yet. In this study, lunar surface roughnesses at centimeter scale are investigated using Earth-based 70 cm Arecibo radar data and miniature synthetic aperture radar (Mini-SAR) data at S- and X-band (with wavelengths 12.6 cm and 4.12 cm). Both observations and theoretical modeling show that radar echo strengths are mostly dominated by scattering from the surface and shallow buried rocks. Given the different penetration depths of radar waves at these frequencies (< 30 m for 70 cm wavelength, < 3 m at S-band, and < 1 m at X-band), radar echo strengths at S- and X-band will yield surface roughness directly, whereas radar echo at 70-cm will give an upper limit of lunar surface roughness. The integral equation method is used to model radar scattering from the rough lunar surface, and dielectric constant of regolith and surface roughness are two dominate factors. The complex dielectric constant of regolith is first estimated

  6. Indium-cadmium-oxide films having exceptional electrical conductivity and optical transparency: clues for optimizing transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Babcock, J R; Edleman, N L; Metz, A W; Lane, M A; Asahi, R; Dravid, V P; Kannewurf, C R; Freeman, A J; Marks, T J

    2001-06-19

    Materials with high electrical conductivity and optical transparency are needed for future flat panel display, solar energy, and other opto-electronic technologies. In(x)Cd(1-x)O films having a simple cubic microstructure have been grown on amorphous glass substrates by a straightforward chemical vapor deposition process. The x = 0.05 film conductivity of 17,000 S/cm, carrier mobility of 70 cm2/Vs, and visible region optical transparency window considerably exceed the corresponding parameters for commercial indium-tin oxide. Ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal small conduction electron effective masses, a dramatic shift of the CdO band gap with doping, and a conduction band hybridization gap caused by extensive Cd 5s + In 5s mixing. PMID:11416196

  7. Studies on Physical Properties of Snow Based on Multi Channel Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Takeda, K.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the data observed over a snow field with a breadboard model of MSR (microwave scanning radiometer) to be installed in MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1) indicates that: (1) the influence of incident angle on brightness temperature is larger in horizontal polarization component than in vertical polarization component. The effect of incident angle depends upon the property of snow with larger value for dry snow; (2) the difference of snow surface configuration consisting of artifically made parallel ditches of 5 cm depth and 5 cm width with spacing of 10 and 30 cm respectively which are oriented normal to electrical axis do not affect brightness temperature significantly; and (3) there is high negative correlation between brightness temperature and snow depth up to the depth of 70 cm which suggests that the snow depth can be measured with a two channel microwave radiometer up to this depth.

  8. Habitat use by an endangered riverine fish and implications for species protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, B.J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated habitat specificity of the amber darter (Percina antesella Williams & Etnier 1977), an imperiled fish from restricted portions of 2 rivers in the southeastern United States. Foraging amber darters occupied a narrow range of riffle habitat, consistently avoiding areas < 20 cm deep and with velocity < 10 cm. s-1 near the substrate, occupying areas with cobble or gravel substrate and average water-column velocity of 30 to 70 cm. s-1. During low to moderate flows, approximately 20% or more of the study areas contained suitable habitat for the species. Amber darters appeared rare, and the numbers of individuals were uncorrelated with the concurrent availability of suitable habitat. Protecting the amber darter may require more than maintaining adequate depths and velocities over gravel-cobble substrates. Until we understand the potential importance of migration and dispersal for maintaining small populations, suitable habitat should be maintained over the longest contiguous stream segments possible.

  9. Evaluation of graphite composite materials for bearingless helicopter rotor application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulitchny, M. G.; Lucas, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Small scale combined load fatigue tests were conducted on twelve unidirectional graphite-glass scrim-epoxy composite specimens. The specimens were 1 in. (2.54 cm) wide by 0.1 in. (.25 cm) thick by 5 in. (12.70 cm) long. The fatigue data was developed for the preliminary design of the spar for a bearingless helicopter main rotor. Three loading conditions were tested. Combinations of steady axial, vibratory torsion, and vibratory bending stresses were chosen to simulate the calculated stresses which exist at the root and at the outboard end of the pitch change section of the spar. Calculated loads for 150 knots (77.1 m/sec) level flight were chosen as the baseline condition. Test stresses were varied up to 4.4 times the baseline stress levels. Damage resulted in reduced stiffness; however, in no case was complete fracture of the specimen experienced.

  10. Sojourner Rover View of Shark and Half Dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rounded knobs (arrows) up to 3 or 4 cm wide on Shark (left; approximately 70 cm wide)) and Half Dome (upper right) and in the foreground could be pebbles in a cemented matrix of clays, silts, and sands; such rocks are called conglomerates. Well-rounded objects like these were not seen at the Viking sites.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Tunable anti-Stokes Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.

    1984-12-04

    An anti-Stokes Raman laser is disclosed which is tunable over a range of 10-70 cm-/sup 1/. An alkali halide is used as the lasing medium and a metastable halide population inversion is created with respect to the ground state of the halide by selective photodissociation of the alkali halide. A pump laser is then employed to move the population from the metastable state to a region near an intermediate state of the halide. The population subsequently falls back to the initial ground state, thereby creating the anti-Stokes Raman emission. Since the intensity of the photodissociation is directly proportional to the amount of population inversion achieved, and hence, to the region the population may be pumped to, the tuning of the output anti-Stokes Raman lasing is a function of the intensity of the initial photodissoiation.

  12. A possible redesign of the SLAC SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.; Early, R.; Limberg, T.; Moshammer, H.; Spencer, J.

    1993-04-01

    We describe a possible replacement for the SLC damping rings that would generate beams with normalized horizontal emittances of {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} = 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} m-rad when uncoupled; this is more than three times smaller than that generated by the current rings. The primary difference between the new design and the current ring is the arc cell structure; the insertion regions, the kickers, and the RF are essentially unchanged. The new cell uses a single combined function bending magnet, roughly 70 cm in length, to replace the two bends, defocusing quadrupole, and defocusing sextupoles in the current FODO cell; the focusing quadrupole and sextupoles, used in the current cell, are also used in the new structure. The length of the new cell is identical to that of the current cell and thus nine of these new cells would simply replace the nine FODO cells in each arc of the rings.

  13. Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Scurlock, R. G.; Wu, Y. Y.; Goodyer, M. J.; Balcerek, K.; Eskins, J.; Britcher, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting electromagnetic suspension and balance system for an 8 x 8-ft, Mach 0.9 wind tunnel is presented. The system uses a superconducting solenoid as a model core 70 cm long and with a 11.5 cm OD, and a combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings to produce the required roll torque. The design, which uses an integral cold structure rather than separate cryostats for mounting all control magnets, has 14 external magnets, including 4 racetrack-shaped roll coils. Helium capacity of the system is 3.0 to 3.5 l with idling boiloff rate predicted at 0.147 to 0.2 l/h. The improvements yielded a 50-percent reduction in the system size, weight, and cost.

  14. Comparison of the clinical performance of i-gel, LMA Supreme and LMA ProSeal in elective surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Geoffrey Haw Chieh; Yu, Esther Dawen; Shah, Shitalkumar Sharad; Kothandan, Harikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The LMA Supreme™, i-gel® and LMA ProSeal™ are second-generation supraglottic airway devices. We tested the hypothesis that these devices differ in performance when used for spontaneous ventilation during anaesthesia. METHODS 150 patients who underwent general anaesthesia for elective surgery were randomly allocated into three groups. Data was collected on oropharyngeal leak pressures, ease and duration of device insertion, ease of gastric tube insertion, and airway safety. RESULTS Leak pressure, our primary outcome measure, was found to be higher for the i-gel than the Supreme and ProSeal (mean ± standard error of the mean: 27.31 ± 0.92 cmH2O, 23.60 ± 0.70 cmH2O and 24.44 ± 0.70 cmH2O, respectively; p = 0.003). Devices were inserted on the first attempt for 90%, 82% and 72% of patients in the i-gel, Supreme and ProSeal groups, respectively (p = 0.105); mean device placement times were 23.58 seconds, 25.10 seconds and 26.34 seconds, respectively (p = 0.477). Gastric tubes were inserted on the first attempt in 100% of patients in the Supreme group, and 94% of patients in the i-gel and ProSeal groups (p = 0.100). There was blood staining on removal in 9 (18%) patients in each of the Supreme and ProSeal groups, with none in the i-gel group (p = 0.007). The incidence of postoperative sore throat, dysphagia and hoarseness was lowest for the i-gel. CONCLUSION The three devices were comparable in terms of ease and duration of placement, but the i-gel had higher initial oropharyngeal leak pressure and lower airway morbidity compared with the ProSeal and Supreme. PMID:27549212

  15. Characterization of radiation beams used to determinate the correction factor for a CyberKnife® unit reference field using ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-Martínez, Nestor; Gómez-Muñoz, Arnulfo; Massillon-JL, Guerda

    2014-11-01

    This paper aimed to characterize a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian® iX linear accelerator in order to obtain the correction factors needed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism1. The experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom under different irradiation conditions: a) Calibration of the reference field of 10 cm × 10 cm at 90 cm SSD and 10 cm depth was carried out according to the TRS-398 protocol using three ionization chambers (IC) calibrated in different reference laboratory and b) Measurement of the absorbed dose rate at 70 cm SSD and 10 cm depth in a 10 cm × 10 cm and 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm fields was obtained in order to simulate the CyberKnife® conditions where maximum distance between the source and the detector is equal to 80 cm and the maximum field size is 6 cm diameter. Depending where the IC was calibrated, differences between 0.16% and 2.24% in the absorbed dose rate measured in the 10 cm × 10 cm field at 90 cm SSD were observed, while for the measurements at 70 cm SSD, differences between 1.27% and 3.88% were obtained. For the 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm field, the absorbed dose measured with the three ICs varies between 1.37% and 3.52%. The increase in the difference on the absorbed dose when decreasing the SSD could possibly be associated to scattering radiation generated from the collimators and/or the energy dependence of the ionization chambers to low-energy radiation. The results presented in this work suggest the importance of simulating the CyberKnife® conditions using other linear accelerator for obtaining the correction factors as proposed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism in order to measure the absorbed dose with acceptable accuracy.

  16. Fate and transport of plutonium-239 + 240 and Americium-241 in the soil of Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Litaor, M.I.; Barth, G.R.; Zika, E.M.

    1996-07-01

    Actinides contamination of soils around Rocky Flats, CO, resulted from leaking drums of Pu-contaminated oil stored at an outdoor site. The transport of these actinides through the soil to groundwater was studied using an advanced monitoring system (MS). The fully automated, remotely controlled MS gathered real-time data on soil water content, groundwater level, and timing of gravitationally flowing water. Controlled rain simulations coupled with measurements of volume flux and actinide activities provided essential information about the fate and transport of Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241. Volume fluxes at most sampling locations were similar, regardless of the antecedent moisture or the duration, frequency, and intensity of the simulated rain. Actinide activities were not correlated with the measured volume flux, or the duration, frequency, and intensity of the simulated rain. Flow was facilitated primarily via macropore channeling. The relatively short residence time precluded a continuous interaction between the soil and the flowing water, which minimized the movement of actinides in the soil. Actinide activities in the interstitial water collected from the upper 20 cm of the soil were significantly higher (P>0.001) than water collected at deeper sampling depths (20-70 cm). Actinide activity in water samples from the deepest sampling depth (40-70 cm) did not exceed 0.4 Bq/L. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the movement of actinides was restricted to the top 20 cm. A transport mechanism involving discrete Pu oxide particles, coupled with macropore channeling is proposed to explain the observed actinide activities in the soil. 31 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Soil Organic Carbon Beneath Croplands and Re-established Grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rebecca L.; Eken, Mikki R.; West, Mark S.

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  18. Comparison of measured Varian Clinac 21EX and TrueBeam accelerator electron field characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Samantha A M; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Gagne, Isabelle M

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetric comparisons of radiation fields produced by Varian's newest linear accelerator, the TrueBeam, with those produced by older Varian accelerators are of interest from both practical and research standpoints. While photon fields have been compared in the literature, similar comparisons of electron fields have not yet been reported. In this work, electron fields produced by the TrueBeam are compared with those produced by Varian's Clinac 21EX accelerator. Diode measurements were taken of fields shaped with electron applicators and delivered at 100 cm SSD, as well as those shaped with photon MLCs without applicators and delivered at 70 cm SSD for field sizes ranging from 5 × 5 to 25 × 25 cm² at energies between 6 and 20 MeV. Additionally, EBT2 and EBT3 radio-chromic film measurements were taken of an MLC-shaped aperture with closed leaf pairs delivered at 70 cm SSD using 6 and 20 MeV electrons. The 6 MeV fields produced by the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX were found to be almost indistinguishable. At higher energies, TrueBeam fields shaped by electron applicators were generally flatter and had less photon contamination compared to the Clinac 21EX. Differences in PDDs and profiles fell within 3% and 3 mm for the majority of measurements. The most notable differences for open fields occurred in the profile shoulders for the largest applicator field sizes. In these cases, the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX data differed by as much as 8%. Our data indicate that an accurate electron beam model of the Clinac 21EX could be used as a starting point to simulate electron fields that are dosimetrically equivalent to those produced by the TrueBeam. Given that the Clinac 21EX shares head geometry with Varian's iX, Trilogy, and Novalis TX accelerators, our findings should also be applicable to these machines. PMID:26219015

  19. Macroscopic x-ray fluorescence capability for large-scale elemental mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Volz, Heather M; Havrilla, George J; Aikin, Jr., Robert M; Montoya, Velma M

    2010-01-01

    A non-destructive method of determining segregation of constituent elements over large length-scales is desired. Compositional information to moderate resolution over centimeters will be powerful not only to validate casting models but also to understand large-scale phenomena during solidification. To this end, they have rebuilt their XRF capability in conjunction with IXRF Systems, Inc. (Houston, TX) to accommodate samples that are much larger than those that typically fit into an XRF instrument chamber (up to 70 cm x 70 cm x 25 cm). This system uses a rhodium tube with maximum power of 35 kV and 100 {mu}A, the detector is a liquid nitrogen cooled lithium drifted silicon detector, and the smallest spot size is approximately 0.4 mm. Reference standard specimens will enable quantitative elemental mapping and analysis. Challenges to modifying the equipment are described. Non-uniformities in the Inconel 718 system will be shown and discussed. As another example, segregation of niobium or molybdenum in depleted uranium (DU) castings has been known to occur based on wet chemical anslysis (ICP-MS), but this destructive and time-consuming measurement is not practical for routine inspection of ingots. The U-Nb system is complicated due to overlap of the Nb K-alpha line with the U L-beta. Preliminary quantitative results are included on the distribution of Nb across slices from DU castings with different cooling rates. They foresee this macro-XRF elemental mapping capability to prove invaluable to many in the materials processing industry.

  20. Characterization of radiation beams used to determinate the correction factor for a CyberKnife® unit reference field using ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Aragón-Martínez, Nestor Massillon-JL, Guerda; Gómez-Muñoz, Arnulfo

    2014-11-07

    This paper aimed to characterize a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian® iX linear accelerator in order to obtain the correction factors needed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism{sup 1}. The experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom under different irradiation conditions: a) Calibration of the reference field of 10 cm × 10 cm at 90 cm SSD and 10 cm depth was carried out according to the TRS-398 protocol using three ionization chambers (IC) calibrated in different reference laboratory and b) Measurement of the absorbed dose rate at 70 cm SSD and 10 cm depth in a 10 cm × 10 cm and 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm fields was obtained in order to simulate the CyberKnife® conditions where maximum distance between the source and the detector is equal to 80 cm and the maximum field size is 6 cm diameter. Depending where the IC was calibrated, differences between 0.16% and 2.24% in the absorbed dose rate measured in the 10 cm × 10 cm field at 90 cm SSD were observed, while for the measurements at 70 cm SSD, differences between 1.27% and 3.88% were obtained. For the 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm field, the absorbed dose measured with the three ICs varies between 1.37% and 3.52%. The increase in the difference on the absorbed dose when decreasing the SSD could possibly be associated to scattering radiation generated from the collimators and/or the energy dependence of the ionization chambers to low-energy radiation. The results presented in this work suggest the importance of simulating the CyberKnife® conditions using other linear accelerator for obtaining the correction factors as proposed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism in order to measure the absorbed dose with acceptable accuracy.

  1. Distribution and leaching of methyl iodide in soil following emulated shank and drip application.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Yates, Scott R

    2004-01-01

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is a promising alternative to methyl bromide in soil fumigation. The pest-control efficacy and ground water contamination risks of MeI as a fumigant are highly related to its gas-phase distribution and leaching after soil application. In this study, the distribution and leaching of MeI in soil following shank injection and subsurface drip application were investigated. Methyl iodide (200 kg ha(-1)) was directly injected or drip-applied at a 20-cm depth into Arlington sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic Haplic Durixeralfs) columns (12-cm i.d., 70-cm height) tarped with virtually impermeable film. Concentration profiles of MeI in the soil air were monitored for 7 d. Methyl iodide diffused rapidly after soil application, and reached a 70-cm depth within 2 h. Relative to shank injection, drip application inhibited diffusion, resulting in significantly lower concentration profiles in the soil air. Seven days after MeI application, fumigated soil was uncapped, aerated for 7 d, and leached with water. Leaching of MeI was significant from the soil columns under both application methods, with concentrations of >10 mug L(-1) in the early leachate. The leaching was greater following shank injection than drip application, with an overall potential of 33 g ha(-1) for shank injection and 19 g ha(-1) for drip application. Persistent residues of MeI remaining in soils after leaching were 50 to 240 ng kg(-1), and the contents were slightly higher following shank injection than drip application. The results suggest that fumigation with MeI may pose a risk of ground water contamination in vulnerable areas. PMID:15537937

  2. Effects of Climate and Soil Properties on U.S. Home Lawn Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selhorst, Adam; Lal, Rattan

    2012-12-01

    Following turfgrass establishment, soils sequester carbon (C) over time. However, the magnitude of this sequestration may be influenced by a range of climatic and soil factors. Analysis of home lawn turfgrass soils throughout the United States indicated that both climatic and soil properties significantly affected the soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and pool to 15-cm depth. Soil sampling showed that the mean annual temperature (MAT) was negatively correlated with SOC concentration. Additionally, a nonlinear interaction was observed between mean annual precipitation (MAP) and SOC concentration with optimal sequestration occurring in soils receiving 60-70 cm of precipitation per year. Furthermore, soil properties also influenced SOC concentration. Soil nitrogen (N) had a high positive correlation with SOC concentration, as a 0.1 % increase in N concentration led to a 0.99 % increase in SOC concentration. Additionally, soil bulk density (ρb) had a curvilinear interaction with SOC concentration, with an increase in ρb indicating a positive effect on SOC concentration until a ρb of ~1.4-1.5 Mg m-3 was attained, after which, inhibition of SOC sequestration occurred. Finally, no correlation between SOC concentration or pool was observed with texture. Based upon these results, highest SOC pools within this study are observed in regions of low MAT, moderate MAP (60-70 cm year-1), high soil N concentration, and moderate ρb (1.4-1.5 Mg m-3). In order to maximize the C storage capacity of home lawns, non C-intensive management practices should be used to maintain soils within these conditions.

  3. Long-Wavelength Imaging Radar - A Window on Near-Surface Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Freeman, A.

    2003-12-01

    Radar observations of the terrestrial planets and the Galilean satellites have often been used to study the roughness and dielectric properties of their surfaces and near-surface environments. Longer radar wavelengths are most effective for deep probing, and can reveal subtle variations in bulk chemistry, the population of suspended rocks or voids, and sub-surface geologic features. We report here on applications of new L- and P-band (24-70 cm wavelength) radar observations of the Moon and Mars-analog terrestrial sites. The new 70-cm lunar observations have a spatial resolution of 300 m, representing a 10-fold improvement over previous maps. Images of the lunar poles do not support the existence of thick, Mercury-like deposits of ice in permanently shadowed craters. Any ice within the radar-observable areas must thus occur as disseminated grains or thin interbedded layers within the regolith. The new images also provide much greater spatial detail of geochemical differences among the mare basalt flows, and regional variations across the southern highlands that appear to correlate with large basin ejecta deposits. L- and P-band AIRSAR images and L-band SIR-C images, for a number of arid or semi-arid regions (Hawaii, Death Valley, Northern Arizona, Egypt), are being used to test theoretical predictions of backscatter from volume scatterers and buried surfaces. We are supporting these imaging radar studies with field topography measurements, ground-penetrating radar surveys, and laboratory sample analysis to constrain the sources and expected polarimetric properties of surface and sub-surface echoes. This work is an important step in refining the requirements on orbital radar systems for Mars and the Galilean satellites. Part of the research described in this paper was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  4. Investigation of soil water changes under different land use types at a small Balaton catchment in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horel, Agota; Kasa, Ilona; Bakacsi, Zsofia; Dencso, Marton; Koos, Sandor; Gelybo, Gyorgyi; Toth, Eszter; Farkas, Csilla

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural lands are among the most sensitive ecosystems subject to climate change, which can have substantial effects on soil erosion rates. The present study is part of an on-going monitoring effort, which is being carried out on three reference watersheds around Lake Balaton, Hungary, where plot- and catchment scale processes are being monitored. The selected catchment presented in this study has an area of 21.3 km2, with land use types including forest, grassland, and agricultural land use of vineyard and wheat. Soil water content and soil temperature were continuously measured while weather data were obtained either from local measurements at the sites for precipitation, or from meteorological stations close to the pilot area for other meteorological variables. We investigated the effects of antecedent soil water (ASW) content on soil erosion rates and aggregate stability, also on the amount of total suspended sediments (TSS) leaving the catchment. HYDRUS-1D was used to simulate the soil water content, infiltration, evaporation, and percolation of water through soils under different land use types. Based on single rain events on a short term, the soil water contents stayed relatively constant at 15, 40, and 70 cm below surface in case when cumulative rainfall amounts were approximately 10 mm. During a month long period with no major rain events (precipitation < 0.5 mm), the largest change in VWC was observed in the soil cover under forest. In these soils the water content decreased by 14% at 70 cm depth, while in the 15 cm layer this change was much less pronounced, with only 7% decrease. Changes in TSS values during single rainfall events showed good correlation with initial soil moisture conditions; however we need further data collection to draw more precise conclusions. Preliminary data also suggests that ASW has a major effect on soil aggregate stability and TSS rate.

  5. Low dissolved organic carbon input from fresh litter to deep mineral soils

    SciTech Connect

    Froeberg, Mats J; Jardine, Philip M; Hanson, Paul J; Swanston, Christopher; Todd Jr, Donald E; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Garten Jr, Charles T

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from recent litter in the forest floor has been suggested to be an important source of C to the mineral soil of forest ecosystems. In order to determine the rate at which this flux of C occurs we have taken advantage of a local release of 14C at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Reservation, USA (latitude N 35 58'; longitude W 84 16'). Eight replicate 7x7 m plots were estab lished at four field sites on the reservation in an upland oak forest setting. Half of the plots were provided with 14C-enriched litter (∆14C ≈1000 ), and the other half with near-background litter (∆14C ≈220 ) over multiple years. Differences in the labeled leaf litter were used to quantify the movement of litter derived DOC through the soil profile. Soil solutions were collected over several years with tension lysimeters at 15 and 70 cm depth and measured for DOC concentration and 14C abundance. The net amount of DOC retained between 15 and 70 cm was 1.5-6 g m-2 y-1. There were significant effects of the litter additions on the 14C abundance in the DOC, but the net transport of 14C from the added litter was small. The difference in ∆14C between the treatments with enriched and near-background litter was only about 130 at both depths, which is small compared with the difference in Δ14C in the added litter. The primary source of DOC within the mineral soil must therefore have been either the Oe/Oa horizon or the organic matter in the mineral soil. Over a 2-year time frame, leaching of DOC from recent litter did not have a major impact on the C stock in the mineral soil below 15 cm in this ecosystem.

  6. Radiocarbon Dating and age Inversions in Lake Chapala Late Holocene Sediments, Western Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate-Del Valle, P.; Israde-Alcantara, I.; Ramírez-Sánchez, H.; Gómez-Salazar, S.; Ríos-Donato, N.

    2006-12-01

    Neotectonic Lake Chapala, the major Mexican freshwater reservoir lies at the north and northeast of the Citala Rift and is linked to history of the active Plio-Quaternary Transmexican Volcanic Belt geological province. Eight radiocarbon 14C dates were obtained on shallow sediment samples from a gravity corer (T46) of 5 cm in diameter and 1.7 m long. The core was collected from the western sector of Lake Chapala (103° 15.43' W, 20° 14.45' N) at water depth of 3.7 m (june 2000). In general, shallow sediments (<2m deep) in Lake Chapala are dark and silty with granulometric median ranging from 10 to 50 μm. Major oxides in sediments are: SiO2 (54.05%), Al2O3 (18.94%), Fe2O3 (6.75%) and CaO (2.57%). The major mineralogical composition of sediments is as follows: plagioclases (25.86%), quartz (20.92%), clays (38.5%), carbonates (2.99%) and TiO2 (1.05%). Radiocarbon ages were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and were obtained through the organic carbon fraction extracted from the bulk sediment samples sliced every 20 cm taken from the whole core. Stratigraphically ordered from highest to lowest, the eight ages reported are: 1) 2,000 ±40 yr on sediments at 30 cm deep; 2) 1,920 ±35 yr on sediments at 50 cm deep; 3) 1,900 ±35 yr on sediments at 70 cm deep; 4) 2,080 ±35 yr on sediments at 90 cm deep; 5) 2,090 ±50 yr on sediments at 110 cm deep; 6) 2,190 ±35 yr on sediments at 130 cm deep; 7) 2,050 ±35 yr on sediments at 150 cm deep and, 8) 1,500 ±35 yr on sediments at 170 cm deep. From the top until 70 cm and from 130 to bottom we observe two age inversions; the interval apparently with no age inversions is from 70cm to 130cm. As it is known the age inversions observed may be due to a) ancient carbon being incorporated into the sediment during deposition; b) unrecognized bioturbation, c) Postdepositional alteration and, d) variations in the apparent geological ages of the different chemical phases comprising the total sediment. Basically, the factors

  7. SU-E-T-516: Measurement of the Absorbed Dose Rate in Water Under Reference Conditions in a CyberKnife Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon-Martinez, N; Hernandez-Guzman, A; Gomez-Munoz, A; Massillon-JL, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to measure the absorbed-dose-rate in a CyberKnife unit reference-field (6cm diameter) using three ionization chambers (IC) following the new IAEA/AAPM formalism and Gafchromic film (MD-V3-55 and EBT3) protocol according to our work reported previously. Methods: The absorbed-dose-rates were measured at 90cm and 70cm SSD in a 10cmx10cm field and at 70cm SSD in a 5.4cmx5.4cm equivalent to 6cm diameter field using a linac Varian iX. All measurements were performed at 10cm depth in water. The correction factors that account for the difference between the IC response on the reference field and the CyberKnife reference field, k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref), were evaluated and Gafchromic film were calibrated using the results obtained above. Under the CyberKnife reference conditions, the factors were used to measure the absorbed-dose-rate with IC according to the new formalism and the calibrated film was irradiated in water. The film calibration curve was used to evaluate the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife unit. Results: Difference up to 2.56% is observed between dose-rate measured with IC in the reference 10cmx10cm field, depending where the chamber was calibrated, which was not reflected in the correction factor k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref ) where variations of ~0.15%-0.5% were obtained. Within measurements uncertainties, maximum difference of 1.8% on the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife reference field is observed between all IC and the films Conclusion: Absorbed-dose-rate to water was measured in a CyberKnife reference field with acceptable accuracy (combined uncertainties ~1.32%-1.73%, k=1) using three IC and films. The MD-V3-55 film as well as the new IAEA/AAPM formalism can be considered as a suitable dosimetric method to measure absorbed-dose-rate to water in small and non-standard CyberKnife fields used in clinical treatments However, the EBT3 film is not appropriated due to the high uncertainty provided (combined uncertainty ~9%, k=1

  8. Transparent megahertz circuits from solution-processed composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Wan, Da; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Xiangheng; Guo, Shishang; Jiang, Changzhong; Li, Jinchai; Chen, Tangsheng; Duan, Xiangfeng; Fan, Zhiyong; Liao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in large-area transparent electronics. However, due to its relative low carrier mobility (~10 cm2 V-1 s-1), the demonstrated circuit performance has been limited to 800 kHz or less. Herein, we report solution-processed high-speed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits with an operation frequency beyond the megahertz region on 4 inch glass. The TFTs can be fabricated from an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (a-IGZO/SWNT) composite thin film with high yield and high carrier mobility of >70 cm2 V-1 s-1. On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that these TFTs can deliver an unprecedented operation frequency in solution-processed semiconductors, including an extrinsic cut-off frequency (fT = 102 MHz) and a maximum oscillation frequency (fmax = 122 MHz). Ring oscillators further demonstrated an oscillation frequency of 4.13 MHz, for the first time, realizing megahertz circuit operation from solution-processed semiconductors. Our studies represent an important step toward high-speed solution-processed thin film electronics.Solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in large-area transparent electronics. However, due to its relative low carrier mobility (~10 cm2 V-1 s-1), the demonstrated circuit performance has been limited to 800 kHz or less. Herein, we report solution-processed high-speed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits with an operation frequency beyond the megahertz region on 4 inch glass. The TFTs can be fabricated from an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (a-IGZO/SWNT) composite thin film with high yield and high carrier mobility of >70 cm2 V-1 s-1. On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that these TFTs can deliver an unprecedented operation frequency in solution-processed semiconductors, including an extrinsic cut-off frequency (f

  9. Dose-Volume Parameters Predict for the Development of Chest Wall Pain After Stereotactic Body Radiation for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mutter, Robert W.; Liu Fan; Abreu, Andres; Yorke, Ellen; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Chest wall (CW) pain has recently been recognized as an important adverse effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We developed a dose-volume model to predict the development of this toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 126 patients with primary, clinically node-negative NSCLC received three to five fractions of SBRT to doses of 40-60 Gy and were prospectively followed. The dose-absolute volume histograms of two different definitions of the CW as an organ at risk (CW3cm and CW2cm) were examined for all 126 patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 16 months, the 2-year estimated actuarial incidence of Grade {>=} 2 CW pain was 39%. The median time to onset of Grade {>=} 2 CW pain (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0) was 9 months. There was no predictive advantage for biologically corrected dose over physical dose. Neither fraction number (p = 0.07) nor prescription dose (p = 0.07) were significantly correlated with the development of Grade {>=} 2 CW pain. Cox Proportional Hazards analysis identified significant correlation with a broad range of dose-volume combinations, with the CW volume receiving 30 Gy (V30) as one of the strongest predictors (p < 0.001). CW2cm consistently enabled better prediction of CW toxicity. When a physical dose of 30 Gy was received by more than 70 cm{sup 3} of CW2cm, there was a significant correlation with Grade {>=} 2 CW pain (p = 0.004). Conclusions: CW toxicity after SBRT is common and long-term follow-up is needed to identify affected patients. A volume of CW {>=} 70 cm{sup 3} receiving 30 Gy is significantly correlated with Grade {>=} 2 CW pain. We are currently applying this constraint at our institution for patients receiving thoracic SBRT. An actuarial atlas of our data is provided as an electronic supplement to facilitate data-sharing and meta-analysis relating to CW pain.

  10. Photogeology: Part W: Apollo 16 landing site: summary of Earth-based remote sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zisk, S.H.; Masursky, Harold; Milton, D.J.; Schaber, G.G.; Shorthill, R.W.; Thompson, T.W.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the infrared (IR) and radar study of the Apollo data is to establish lunar surface conditions in the vicinity of the orbital tracks of the Apollo command modules during the J-series missions. Correlations and comparisons between the Earth-based radar observations, IR observations, and other data will be plotted on photomaps produced from the mapping and panoramic cameras. In addition, the Apollo photography will be used to improve the classifications of the anomalous IR and radar features. The three sets of Earth-based data have already been obtained. The IR (11 μm) data (ref. 29-112) were obtained during a total lunar eclipse. More than a thousand thermally anomalous regions with an unusually high population of exposed boulders have been identified (ref. 29-113). The 70-cm radar backscatter observations made at the same resolution as the IR measurements show regions of anomalous backscatter. These regions have been explained as roughness caused by the boulders on the surface and below the surface. The high-resolution 3.8-cm radar backscatter measurements (ref. 29-114) reveal in great detail regions of anomalous radar backscatter. At this short radar wavelength, small-scale surface and subsurface roughness and boulders less than the order of 10 cm are responsible for the anomalous returns. Previous studies have revealed strong correlation between these three data sets (refs. 29-115 to 29-117). The strongest anomalies (anomalous at all three wavelengths) correspond to features interpreted geologically as young Copernican craters. There are, however, many combinations of enhancements from IR only, 70-cm radar only, 3.8-cm radar only, or combinations of two of these types but not a third. The variation of intensity in all combinations indicates a very complex set of features. These data provide information about the surface on a centimeter- and meter-sized scale although the basic instrumental resolution was 2 to 15 km. The Apollo orbital photography

  11. Evaluation of Plant- Compost -Microorganisms Synergy for the Remediation of Diesel contaminated Soil: Success Stories from the Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Imran; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Sessitsch, Angela; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contain a mixture of crude oil, gasoline, creosote and diesel is one of the most common groups of persistent organic pollutants. TPH enters into the ecosystem (soil, water and air) through leakage of underground storage tanks (LUST), accidental oil spills, transportation losses and industrial processes. Pollution associated with diesel oil and its refined products is of great concern worldwide due to its threats/damages for human and ecosystem health, soil structure and ground water quality. Extensive soils pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons results in extreme harsh surroundings, produce hydrophobic conditions and infertile soils that ultimately lead towards less plant and microorganisms growth. Among biological methods, bioremediation and phytoremediation are promising technologies that have both technical and ecological benefits as compared to convention methods. Within phytoremediation, rhizoremediation based on stimulation of degrading microorganism's population influenced by plant rhizospheric effect is known as main mechanism for phytoremediation of petroleum polluted soils. Composting along with rhizodegradtion was used to remediate freshly spilled soils at Lysimeter station Siebersdof, Austria. Experiment was started in July 2013 and will be monitored up to September 2016. Field station has 12 Lysimeter in total; each has length, width and depth of 100 cm respectively. Each Lysimeter was filled with normal agricultural soil from Siebersdof (0-70 cm), sand (70-85 cm) and stones (85-100cm). Sand and stones were added to support the normal leaching and percolation of water as we collected leachate samples after regular intervals. After filling, commercial diesel oil (2% w/w of 0-70 cm soil) was spilled on top of each Lysimeter as accidental spill occurs in filed. Compost was added at 0-15 cm layer (5% w/w of soil) to stimulate plant as well as microorganisms growth. Whole Lysimeter station was divided into three treatments

  12. DOSE–VOLUME PARAMETERS PREDICT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHEST WALL PAIN AFTER STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIATION FOR LUNG CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Mutter, Robert W.; Liu, Fan; Abreu, Andres; Yorke, Ellen; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chest wall (CW) pain has recently been recognized as an important adverse effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We developed a dose–volume model to predict the development of this toxicity. Methods and Materials A total of 126 patients with primary, clinically node-negative NSCLC received three to five fractions of SBRT to doses of 40–60 Gy and were prospectively followed. The dose–absolute volume histograms of two different definitions of the CW as an organ at risk (CW3cm and CW2cm) were examined for all 126 patients. Results With a median follow-up of 16 months, the 2-year estimated actuarial incidence of Grade ≥ 2 CW pain was 39%. The median time to onset of Grade ≥ 2 CW pain (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0) was 9 months. There was no predictive advantage for biologically corrected dose over physical dose. Neither fraction number (p = 0.07) nor prescription dose (p = 0.07) were significantly correlated with the development of Grade ≥ 2 CW pain. Cox Proportional Hazards analysis identified significant correlation with a broad range of dose-volume combinations, with the CW volume receiving 30 Gy (V30) as one of the strongest predictors (p < 0.001). CW2cm consistently enabled better prediction of CW toxicity. When a physical dose of 30 Gy was received by more than 70 cm3 of CW2cm, there was a significant correlation with Grade ≥ 2 CW pain (p = 0.004). Conclusions CW toxicity after SBRT is common and long-term follow-up is needed to identify affected patients. A volume of CW ≥ 70 cm3 receiving 30 Gy is significantly correlated with Grade ≥ 2 CW pain. We are currently applying this constraint at our institution for patients receiving thoracic SBRT. An actuarial atlas of our data is provided as an electronic supplement to facilitate data-sharing and meta-analysis relating to CW pain. PMID:21868173

  13. Modeling of water management and hydrological properties of orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A.; Tamás, J.; Soltész, M.

    2012-04-01

    Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Eastern part of Hungary and an 80 hectare Bosc and Williams pear orchard in the South Western part of Hungary. in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer and soil physical parameters on soil water regime, supporting the water management of the orchard on hillsides and to reduce the effect of high precipitation intensity on orchards. The total drainable water regime is 920 m3 ha-1 from the upper 40cm soil layer and 1460 m3 ha-1 from the upper 70 cm soil layer. This amount of water should have been drained several times in 2010 to prevent the orchard from the negative effect of surplus water. Since the conventional horizontal drainage system can damage the present apple orchard significantly, the harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by the loosening of the compacted soil layer in the 50-70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage. Therefore one, solo knife coulter is suggested to use at 80-90cm depth. In the case of the hillside a possible replantation of the orchard, pear trees should be planted along the contour lines, so as to avoid erosion and tree damage caused by water erosion. The irrigation of the orchard would be much easier in this case due to better establishment of the irrigation system and lower pipe-line pressure lost. To decrease the effect of erosion, the levels of the existing farm tracks have to be developed with reverse gradient. With the present situation, distributing small dosse of fertilizer should be utilized at the ridge spots, while in the case of convex parts of the valley, smaller doses of nutrients should be used. These digital data can be the basis for a precision spatial decision support system. This research was funded by TECH_08-A3/2-2008-0373 and TECH_08-A4/2-2008-0138 projects.

  14. Pleiades image quality: from users' needs to products definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubik, Philippe; Pascal, Véronique; Latry, Christophe; Baillarin, Simon

    2005-10-01

    Pleiades is the highest resolution civilian earth observing system ever developed in Europe. This imagery programme is conducted by the French National Space Agency, CNES. It will operate in 2008-2009 two agile satellites designed to provide optical images to civilian and defence users. Images will be simultaneously acquired in Panchromatic (PA) and multispectral (XS) mode, which allows, in Nadir acquisition condition, to deliver 20 km wide, false or natural colored scenes with a 70 cm ground sampling distance after PA+XS fusion. Imaging capabilities have been highly optimized in order to acquire along-track mosaics, stereo pairs and triplets, and multi-targets. To fulfill the operational requirements and ensure quick access to information, ground processing has to automatically perform the radiometrical and geometrical corrections. Since ground processing capabilities have been taken into account very early in the programme development, it has been possible to relax some costly on-board components requirements, in order to achieve a cost effective on-board/ground compromise. Starting from an overview of the system characteristics, this paper deals with the image products definition (raw level, perfect sensor, orthoimage and along-track orthomosaics), and the main processing steps. It shows how each system performance is a result of the satellite performance followed by an appropriate ground processing. Finally, it focuses on the radiometrical performances of final products which are intimately linked to the following processing steps : radiometrical corrections, PA restoration, image resampling and PAN-sharpening.

  15. Geodetic surveys in Messina straits area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, P.; Achilli, V.; Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.

    1983-03-01

    By using the fit of theoretical displacements on a fault according to Mindlin and Cheng (1950) dislocation theory, the vertical deformation field (maximum subsidence of 70 cm) associated to the Dec. 28 1908 Messina M=7.0 earthquake is compared to the results of a spirit levelling survey that we performed in the Messina Straits area in 1981 1982. The differences in level from the last levelling campaign in the area, completed in 1970, show that the coastlines have undergone a moderate differential subsidence of about 1 mm/year in the last decade. This is in agreement with the trend observed around 1908 and with the data of the Messina tide-gauge relative to the period 1897 1908 and 1910 1918. The lack of data in the period 1918 1970 does not allow definite conclusions about the vertical tectonic deformations in the area. Recent data on planimetric deformations have shown a South-North relative motion of Sicily. A comparison with the theoretical displacements indicates that a pure dip-slip of 4 cm on the 1908 fault system does explain the observed vertical deformation, but not the horizontal.

  16. High-resolution moisture profiles from full-waveform probabilistic inversion of TDR signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laloy, Eric; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Jacques, Diederik

    2014-11-01

    This study presents an novel Bayesian inversion scheme for high-dimensional undetermined TDR waveform inversion. The methodology quantifies uncertainty in the moisture content distribution, using a Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) prior as regularization operator. A spatial resolution of 1 cm along a 70-cm long TDR probe is considered for the inferred moisture content. Numerical testing shows that the proposed inversion approach works very well in case of a perfect model and Gaussian measurement errors. Real-world application results are generally satisfying. For a series of TDR measurements made during imbibition and evaporation from a laboratory soil column, the average root-mean-square error (RMSE) between maximum a posteriori (MAP) moisture distribution and reference TDR measurements is 0.04 cm3 cm-3. This RMSE value reduces to less than 0.02 cm3 cm-3 for a field application in a podzol soil. The observed model-data discrepancies are primarily due to model inadequacy, such as our simplified modeling of the bulk soil electrical conductivity profile. Among the important issues that should be addressed in future work are the explicit inference of the soil electrical conductivity profile along with the other sampled variables, the modeling of the temperature-dependence of the coaxial cable properties and the definition of an appropriate statistical model of the residual errors.

  17. Peripheral dose measurement for CyberKnife radiosurgery with upgraded linac shielding.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Cynthia F; Larson, David A; Zytkovicz, Andrea; Smith, Vernon; Petti, Paula L

    2008-04-01

    The authors investigated the peripheral dose reduction for CyberKnife radiosurgery treatments after the installation of a linac shielding upgrade. As in a previous investigation, the authors considered two treatment plans, one for a hypothetical target in the brain and another for a target in the thorax, delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom. The results of the prior investigation showed that the CyberKnife delivered significantly higher peripheral doses than comparable model C Gamma Knife or IMRT treatments. Current measurements, after the linac shielding upgrade, demonstrate that the additional shielding decreased the peripheral dose, expressed as a percentage of the delivered monitor units (MU), by a maximum of 59%. The dose reduction was greatest for cranial-caudal distances from the field edge less than 30 cm, and at these distances, the CyberKnife peripheral dose, expressed as a percentage of the delivered MU, is now comparable to that measured for the other treatment modalities in our previous investigation. For distances between 30 and 70 cm from the field edge, the additional shielding reduced the peripheral dose by between 20% and 55%. At these distances, the CyberKnife peripheral dose remains higher than doses measured in our previous study for the model C Gamma Knife and IMRT. PMID:18491544

  18. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of the lowest triplet state of thymine and thymidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Patrick M.; Middleton, Chris T.; Mertel, Kristin I.; Herbert, John M.; Kohler, Bern

    2008-05-01

    Vibrational spectra of the lowest energy triplet states of thymine and its 2'-deoxyribonucleoside, thymidine, are reported for the first time. Time-resolved infrared (TRIR) difference spectra were recorded over seven decades of time from 300 fs to 3 μs using femtosecond and nanosecond pump-probe techniques. The carbonyl stretch bands in the triplet state are seen at 1603 and ˜1700 cm -1 in room-temperature acetonitrile- d3 solution. These bands and additional ones observed between 1300 and 1450 cm -1 are quenched by dissolved oxygen on a nanosecond time scale. Density-functional calculations accurately predict the difference spectrum between triplet and singlet IR absorption cross sections, confirming the peak assignments and elucidating the nature of the vibrational modes. In the triplet state, the C4 dbnd O carbonyl exhibits substantial single-bond character, explaining the large (˜70 cm -1) red shift in this vibration, relative to the singlet ground state. Femtosecond TRIR measurements unambiguously demonstrate that the triplet state is fully formed within the first 10 ps after excitation, ruling out a relaxed 1nπ ∗ state as the triplet precursor.

  19. Pilot trial of yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation following rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone chemotherapy in patients with limited-stage, bulky diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Seok Jin; Kim, Jin Seok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Chung, Joo Seop; Oh, Sung Yong; Suh, Cheolwon; Lee, Je-Jung

    2012-05-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of yttrium-90 ((90)Y)-ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation treatment following rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy was investigated in patients with limited-stage and bulky diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This prospective, multi-center, pilot trial included 21 patients who were newly diagnosed with stage I/II, bulky DLBCL and achieved a complete or partial response after six cycles of R-CHOP. The median size of bulky disease was 10.0 × 7.0 cm. After a median follow-up of 28.8 months, the overall response rate after (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation treatment was 80.9%, including 4.8% partial response. However, six patients (28.6%) experienced a progression or relapse. The 3-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 85.0 ± 8.0% and 75.0 ± 9.7%, respectively. Grade 3-4 adverse events were mainly hematologic toxicities, such as thrombocytopenia (35%) and neutropenia (60%). One patient experienced grade 3 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. Thus, (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation following six cycles of R-CHOP resulted in an acceptable response with tolerable toxicity in patients with limited-stage and bulky DLBCL. PMID:22035417

  20. Unusual carbonate-rich dikes and lamprophyres in Porcupine Dome, east-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Doden, A.G.; Gold, D.P. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    Isolated carbonate dikes and lamprophyric plugs are exposed in Porcupine dome, a Laramide structure in east-central Montana. En echelon sets of carbonate dikes strike N70E, consistent with regional lineaments and local normal faults. Individual dikes are steeply dipping, only 30--70 cm in width, and up to 1 km in length. These dikes exhibit unequivocal magmatic characteristics, including chilled margins, flow-aligned micas, multiple intrusive stages, country rock xenoliths, and local small blows'' containing well-rounded carbonate autoliths. Spatially associated with the dikes are small plugs of olivine-phlogopite-garnet-carbonate-bearing silicate rocks and a diatreme of bedded tuffs with xenoliths of country rocks. The dikes consistent primarily of calcite and dolomite, phlogopite, and opaque oxides. Although the dikes are relatively homogeneous mineralogically along strike, some chemical variations are apparent in the vicinity of the plugs/diatreme. Phlogopites and carbonates, common to both dikes and plugs, may provide a genetic link between these spatially associated intrusions. These unusual associations of dikes, plugs and diatremes are not restricted to Porcupine dome, but extend at least as far as the Grassrange - Winnett area, 100 km to the NW. The regional distribution of these small carbonatite bodies suggests a different magmatic process from typical carbonatites and alkaline complexes. The closest analogy is the carbonate dikes in the Premier Diamond Mine, South Africa.

  1. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. PMID:27261732

  2. Potentiality of a table top plasma focus as X-ray source: Radiographic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavez, Cristian; Zambra, Marcelo; Veloso, Felipe; Moreno, José; Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    Images radiographic testing on different elements both in biological and inorganic samples are obtained using the X-ray radiation coming from a small plasma focus of at least 350J (880 nF, 40 nH, 28kV, T/4 ~ 300ns). The experimental device is operated using hydrogen as filling gas in a discharge region limited by a volume of around 70 cm3. The X-ray radiation is monitored shot by shot by means of a scintillator-photomultiplier system located outside of the vacuum chamber at 2.3m far away from the emission region. Angular distribution measurements of the accumulated X-ray dose are carried out using TLD-100 dosimeters which are radially distributed around the emission region center. There are two different arrays for the dosimeter which are placed in two different radial positions outside the discharge chamber. In each array, the TLDs dosimeters are uniformly located and distributed respect to the symmetry axis of the plasma column. An estimation of the energy spectrum of X-ray by means of the filters techniques is presented. The potential of this table top plasma focus is discussed according to its size, the quality of the radiographies, the effective equivalent energy and the dosimetric characteristics.

  3. Panoramic dental radiography image intensification employing minification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    Panoramic dental x-ray machine wherein an x-ray source-camera assembly orbits a seated patient is described. A slot in the camera assembly collimates the x-rays which are continuously generated by the x-ray source, which x-rays are converted to light images of the patient's dental arch structure by only a single intensifying screen which remains stationary. This screen comprises about 1/40 the area of conventional intensifying screens and is made thicker for providing improved detection efficiency. A fiber optic minifying lens reduces the size of the image from the screen while proportionately increasing the light intensity of the image, thus making it possible to provide useable film images at reduced x-ray exposures due to non-linear film exposure versus optical density characteristics. The resultant minified, light-intensified image may now be recorded on 35 mm roll film, for example, as opposed to standard radiographic film of 5'' X 12'' size, or 12.70 cm X 30.48 cm.

  4. Star-based defocus computing technique for PLEIADES-HR satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amberg, Virginie; Bernard, Laurent; Latry, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    PLEIADES-HR is an earth observing system developed by the French National Space Agency, CNES. It consists of two satellites launched on December 2011 (PHR-1A) and December 2012 (PHR-1B). Each satellite is designed to provide optical 70 cm resolution panchromatic and 2.80m colored images to civilian and defense users. During commissioning period of these satellites, thanks to their extreme agility, new calibration methods have been tested based on the observation of celestial bodies, and stars in particular. It has then been made possible to perform MTF and defocus measurement (in order to refocus), geometrical bias computation, focal plane assessment, absolute calibration, ghost images localization, micro-vibrations measurement, etc… This article deals with the problem of satellite refocusing. By using images of stars, the problem can be considered as a phase diversity inverse problem. Significant evolution has been brought to the previous method developed during the commissioning period in order to improve accuracy and reduce operating constraints of the method.

  5. Rare Primary Adenocarcinoma of the Broad Ligament: Report of Two Cases and a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Hara, Takeya; Komiya, Shinnosuke; Komura, Naoko; Tanaka, Asuka; Kanao, Serika; Takeda, Masumi; Mimura, Mayuko; Nagamatsu, Masaaki; Yamasaki, Masaru; Yokoi, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    Malignant primary tumors arising in the uterine broad ligament are extremely rare, and only 26 cases have been reported to date. We describe 2 new cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the broad ligament, and we review the previous literature on such rare tumors. In Case 1, a 71-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of increased yellow vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain during bowel movement. Transvaginal sonography revealed a 6.5 cm mass located on the dorsum of the uterus and a 7.0 cm mass (with cystic and solid parts) near the right adnexa. We postoperatively diagnosed the mass as a high-grade serous carcinoma of the broad ligament (pT3cNXM0). The patient is currently receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. In Case 2, during a complete medical checkup a 43-year-old woman was found to have a pelvic mass indicative of leiomyoma. Transvaginal sonography revealed a 3.8 cm mass located on the dorsum of the uterus. Following surgery, we diagnosed the mass as a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the broad ligament (pT2bN1M0). This patient is also now receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. PMID:26699941

  6. Estimation of turbulent kinetic energy using 4D phase-contrast MRI: Effect of scan parameters and target vessel size.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hojin; Hwang, Dongha; Kim, Guk Bae; Kweon, Jihoon; Lee, Sang Joon; Baek, Jehyun; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Namkug; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Quantifying turbulence velocity fluctuation is important because it indicates the fluid energy dissipation of the blood flow, which is closely related to the pressure drop along the blood vessel. This study aims to evaluate the effects of scan parameters and the target vessel size of 4D phase-contrast (PC)-MRI on quantification of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Comprehensive 4D PC-MRI measurements with various velocity-encoding (VENC), echo time (TE), and voxel size values were carried out to estimate TKE distribution in stenotic flow. The total TKE (TKEsum), maximum TKE (TKEmax), and background noise level (TKEnoise) were compared for each scan parameter. The feasibility of TKE estimation in small vessels was also investigated. Results show that the optimum VENC for stenotic flow with a peak velocity of 125cm/s was 70cm/s. Higher VENC values overestimated the TKEsum by up to six-fold due to increased TKEnoise, whereas lower VENC values (30cm/s) underestimated it by 57.1%. TE and voxel size did not significantly influence the TKEsum and TKEnoise, although the TKEmax significantly increased as the voxel size increased. TKE quantification in small-sized vessels (3-5-mm diameter) was feasible unless high-velocity turbulence caused severe phase dispersion in the reference image. PMID:26968139

  7. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0–10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40–50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60–70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment. PMID:26840453

  8. The Future of Ocean Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeebe, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    The oceans have absorbed about 40% of the carbon dioxide emitted by humans over the past two centuries. This equates to nearly 500 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, equivalent in weight to about 28 inches of water (ca. 70 cm) across the whole State of Texas. As a result, surface ocean pH has already dropped by 0.1 units relative to preindustrial levels and is expected to drop by 0.3 units until year 2100 under business as USual scenarios. This acidification process is expected to have detrimental consequences for a variety of marine organisms. I will present projections of ocean chemistry changes for various CO2 emission scenarios and discuss changes in parameters relevant to marine organisms such as pH and calcium carbonate saturation state. If alterations of ocean chemistry beyond certain threshold values are to be avoided in the future, specific CO2 emission targets will be required. I will suggest values for those emission targets based on results from carbon cycle modeling efforts. I will also address if enhanced weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks in a warmer climate will have the ability to mitigate impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on ocean chemistry. Finally, I will call attention to a surprising and hitherto largely unknown consequence of ocean acidification.

  9. Ascorbic acid enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum-impregnation.

    PubMed

    Hironaka, K; Kikuchi, M; Koaze, H; Sato, T; Kojima, M; Yamamoto, K; Yasuda, K; Mori, M; Tsuda, S

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vacuum-impregnation (VI) for enriching the ascorbic acid content of whole potatoes. Whole potatoes were immersed in a 10% ascorbic acid (AA) solution. A vacuum pressure of 70cm Hg was applied for 0-60min, following atmospheric pressure restoration for 3h, while samples remained in the VI solution. AA concentrations of potatoes were measured using HPLC. The effects of cooking and storage time in subsets of the fortified samples were also evaluated. Results indicated that the AA concentration of whole potatoes increased with vacuum time (max 150mg/100g fr. wt.). In addition, a steam-cooking study showed that 100g of the 25min steam-cooked VI potatoes could provide adults with 90-100% of the recommended daily allowance of AA (100mg). The storage study showed that VI whole potatoes had a relatively high AA concentration (50mg/100gfr. wt.), even at 14days of storage at 4°C. This study indicated that VI treatment of whole potatoes was useful for enriching the AA content. PMID:25214103

  10. Congenital solitary kidney with multiple renal arteries: case report using MDCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Matusz, Petru; Miclăuş, Graţian Dragoslav; Banciu, Christian Dragoş; Sas, Ioan; Joseph, Shamfa C; Pirtea, Laurenţiu Cornel; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    A congenital solitary kidney with multiple renal arteries is a rare congenital abnormality that can occur in the presence of multiple other anomalies. We describe an atypical case of a right congenital solitary kidney with three renal arteries (RA) one main RA and two additional renal arteries in a 75-year-old woman with uterine didelphys. The main RA had an intraluminal diameter larger than the diameter of the additional renal arteries (AdRAs) at the origin (0.53 cm for the main RA; 0.49 cm and 0.32 cm for the two AdRAs). Both the AdRAs had a greater length than the main RA (3.51 cm for the main RA; 3.70 cm and 4.77 cm for the two AdRAs). The calculated volume of the kidney was 283 cm³, while the volume of the renal parenchyma was 258 cm³. Knowledge of this variant is extremely important in clinical practice as it has been found to be associated with proteinuria, hypertension and renal insufficiency. PMID:26429179

  11. Soil retention of hexavalent chromium released from construction and demolition waste in a road-base-application scenario.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Trapp, Stefan; Astrup, Thomas F; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-11-15

    We investigated the retention of Cr(VI) in three subsoils with low organic matter content in laboratory experiments at concentration levels relevant to represent leachates from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) reused as unbound material in road construction. The retention mechanism appeared to be reduction and subsequent precipitation as Cr(III) on the soil. The reduction process was slow and in several experiments it was still proceeding at the end of the six-month experimental period. The overall retention reaction fit well with a second-order reaction governed by actual Cr(VI) concentration and reduction capacity of the soil. The experimentally determined reduction capacities and second-order kinetic parameters were used to model, for a 100-year period, the one-dimensional migration of Cr(VI) in the subsoil under a layer of C&DW. The resulting Cr(VI) concentration would be negligible below 7-70 cm depth. However, in rigid climates and with high water infiltration through the road pavement, the reduction reaction could be so slow that Cr(VI) might migrate as deep as 200 cm under the road. The reaction parameters and the model can form the basis for systematically assessing under which scenarios Cr(VI) from C&DW could lead to an environmental issue for ground- and receiving surface waters. PMID:26148961

  12. Outcomes following V-Y advancement flap reconstruction of large upper lip defects

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Garrett R.; Weber, Stephen; Baker, Shan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize revision surgery following V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap repair of large upper lip skin defects. Methods Retrospective review of upper lip skin defects ≥3.0 cm2 that were reconstructed with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap at an academic tertiary care center. Depth and area of the defect, as well as involvement of the vermilion and nasal ala, were recorded as independent variables. Revision techniques were analyzed to identify patterns. Results Thirty patients were identified with upper lip skin defects ranging from 3.0 to 14.0 cm2 (mean 7.0 cm2, median 6.25 cm2). The defect involved the nasal ala in four cases and the vermilion in three cases. At least one revision surgery was performed in 14/30 (47%) patients. Alar or vermilion involvement was a significant factor in revision by chi-square analysis (p=0.026). Larger defect size did not predict a need for revision, even among cases where the defect did not involve the ala or vermilion (p=0.68). Conclusion Reconstruction of large upper lip skin defects with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap is associated with a 47% revision rate, and when the defect involves the ala or vermilion, the revision rate is increased. Defect size alone cannot be used to predict the need for revision surgery. Revision techniques are demonstrated. PMID:22801764

  13. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Charles W; Thatcher, Wayne; Dzurisin, Daniel; Svarc, Jerry

    2006-03-01

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed approximately 640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected approximately 1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began approximately 16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from approximately 150,000 to approximately 70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of approximately 70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system. PMID:16511491

  14. Transparent megahertz circuits from solution-processed composite thin films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingqiang; Wan, Da; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Xiangheng; Guo, Shishang; Jiang, Changzhong; Li, Jinchai; Chen, Tangsheng; Duan, Xiangfeng; Fan, Zhiyong; Liao, Lei

    2016-04-21

    Solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in large-area transparent electronics. However, due to its relative low carrier mobility (∼10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), the demonstrated circuit performance has been limited to 800 kHz or less. Herein, we report solution-processed high-speed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits with an operation frequency beyond the megahertz region on 4 inch glass. The TFTs can be fabricated from an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (a-IGZO/SWNT) composite thin film with high yield and high carrier mobility of >70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that these TFTs can deliver an unprecedented operation frequency in solution-processed semiconductors, including an extrinsic cut-off frequency (f(T) = 102 MHz) and a maximum oscillation frequency (f(max) = 122 MHz). Ring oscillators further demonstrated an oscillation frequency of 4.13 MHz, for the first time, realizing megahertz circuit operation from solution-processed semiconductors. Our studies represent an important step toward high-speed solution-processed thin film electronics. PMID:27009830

  15. Comparison of S-NPP VIIRS and PLEIADES lunar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lachérade, Sophie; Aznay, Ouahid; Fougnie, Bertrand; Fulbright, Jon; Wang, Zhipeng

    2015-10-01

    The first VIIRS instrument was launched on-board the S-NPP satellite in October 2011. It has a total of 15 reflective solar bands (RSB), which include a day-night band (DNB). The VIIRS RSB are calibrated each orbit by an on-board solar diffuser and regularly scheduled lunar observations. With a few exceptions, regularly scheduled lunar observations have been made with the same phase angles from -51.5° to -50.5°. The PLEIADES system consists of two satellites, PLEIADES-1A and PLEIADES-1B, which were launched in December of 2011 and December of 2012, respectively. Each instrument has 5 RSB: four (blue, green, red and near-infrared) bands with a 2.8 m spatial resolution and one panchromatic band with a 70 cm vertical viewing resolution. PLEIADES RSB are calibrated using observations of Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) and the Moon. Both PLEIADES-1A and PLEIADES-1B lunar observations have been made over a wide range of phase angles. In this paper we provide an overview of S-NPP VIIRS and PLEIADES lunar observations and an analysis to qualify their lunar calibration differences. Results derived from different inter-comparison methodologies (or approaches) are illustrated. Also discussed in this paper are the challenging issues, lessons, and future effort to further improve sensor lunar calibration inter-comparisons.

  16. El Nino Activity During MIS 5e in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, B.; Sirocko, F.

    2004-12-01

    Oceanography and climate along the coast of Peru is fundamentally linked to ENSO variability with stronger lithic flux into the sea and reduced marine bioproductivity during El Nino events. A 19 m long piston core with laminated marine sediments has been recovered on the edge of the Peruvian shelf (12 03'S, 77 40W, 184 m waterdepth) during cruise Sonne-147 in 2000. We present the lower 6 meters of this core that cover the time between 100 to 130 kyr before the present (BP). SST has been estimated from alkenone analysis with a mean temporal resolution of 300 years. Color logging along the core at 2 mm intervals revealed high resolution proxy data (3 to 30 a) for the precipitation on the continent (fine-grained lithics) and marine bioproduction (photosynthesis pigments: chlorines, carotenoids). Proxy data show that a major change occurred around 123 kyr BP. Mean sedimentation rate which is largely controlled by lithics dropped from 40-70 cm/kyr to 18 cm/kyr after 123 kyr BP. Contemporaneously SST start to decline towards the early Glacial level that is reached between 118 to 116 ka during the time of glacial inception. We conclude that stronger El Nino floods occurred before 123 kyr BP and El Ninos were weaker during the second half of MIS 5e. The change to weaker ENSO activity in Peru is therewith roughly contemporaneous with the beginning cooling in Greenland.

  17. The Quickest, Lowest-cost Lunar Resource Assessment Program: Integrated High-tech Earth-based Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1992-01-01

    Science and technology applications for the Moon have not fully kept pace with technical advancements in sensor development and analytical information extraction capabilities. Appropriate unanswered questions for the Moon abound, but until recently there has been little motivation to link sophisticated technical capabilities with specific measurement and analysis projects. Over the last decade enormous technical progress has been made in the development of (1) CCD photometric array detectors; (2) visible to near-infrared imaging spectrometers; (3)infrared spectroscopy; (4) high-resolution dual-polarization radar imaging at 3.5, 12, and 70 cm; and equally important (5) data analysis and information extraction techniques using compact powerful computers. Parts of each of these have been tested separately, but there has been no programmatic effort to develop and optimize instruments to meet lunar science and resource assessment needs (e.g., specific wavelength range, resolution, etc.) nor to coordinate activities so that the symbiotic relation between different kinds of data can be fully realized. No single type of remotely acquired data completely characterizes the lunar environment, but there has been little opportunity for integration of diverse advanced sensor data for the Moon. Two examples of technology concepts for lunar measurements are given. Using VIS/near-IR spectroscopy, the mineral composition of surface material can be derived from visible and near-infrared radiation reflected from the surface. The surface and subsurface scattering properties of the Moon can be analyzed using radar backscattering imaging.

  18. Structural analysis of quaternary Se85-xSb10In5Agx bulk glassy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rita; Sharma, Shaveta; Kumar, Praveen; Chander, Ravi; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M.

    2015-08-01

    The physical properties of chalcogenide semiconductor have attracted much attention recently due to their applications in optical recording media and inorganic resist due to photo induced structural transformations observed in these materials. The bulk samples of Se85-xSb10In5Agx system are prepared by melt-quenching technique. X-ray diffraction technique and RAMAN spectroscopy have been used to study the role of Ag additive on the amorphous/crystalline nature and molecular structure of Se85Sb10In5 glassy alloys. The phases Sb2Se3, In-Sb and In2Se3 has been observed by X-ray diffraction. The formation of AgInSe2 phase along with the enhancement in intensity has been observed with the Ag addition.Three bands observed by raman spectroscopy for Se85Sb10In5 are at 70 cm-1, 212cm-1 and 252cm-1. The formation of small bands up to wavenumber 188cm-1 and shifting in second band along with the increase in intensity up to sample x=5 has been observed with the Ag addition. The enhancement in intensity in third band with Ag content has been observed.

  19. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:26560705

  20. Laboratory Study of MHD Effects on Stability of Free-surface Liquid Metal Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burin, M. J.; Ji, H.; McMurtry, K.; Peterson, L.; Giannakis, D.; Rosner, R.; Fischer, P.

    2006-10-01

    The dynamics of free-surface MHD shear flows is potentially important to both astrophysics (e.g. in the mixing of dense plasma accreted upon neutron star surfaces) and fusion reactors (e.g. in liquid metal ‘first walls’). To date however few relevant experiments exist. In order to study the fundamental physics of such flows, a small-scale laboratory experiment is being built using a liquid gallium alloy flowing in an open- channel geometry. The flow dimensions are nominally 10cm wide, 1cm deep, and 70cm long under an imposed magnetic field up to 7kG, leading to maximum Hartman number of 2000 and maximum Reynolds number of 4x10^5. Two basic physics issues will ultimately be addressed: (1) How do MHD effects modify the stability of the free surface? For example, is the flow more stable (through the suppression of cross-field motions), or less stable (through the introduction of new boundary layers)? We also investigate whether internal shear layers and imposed electric currents can control the surface stability. (2) How do MHD effects modify free-surface convection driven by a vertical and/or horizontal temperature gradient? We discuss aspects of both of these issues, along with detailed descriptions of the experimental device. Pertinent theoretical stability analyses and initial hydrodynamic results are presented in companion posters. This work is supported by DoE under contract #DE-AC02-76-CH03073.

  1. Description, distribution, and paleoclimatic significance of relict periglacial features east of Waterton-Glacier parks, Alberta and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstrom, E.T. . Geography Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Periglacial wedges, involutions, patterned ground and soil wedges are locally preserved in pre-Wisconsinan outwash/alluvium and till on a series of erosion surfaces east of the Lewis Range mountain front and in Wisconsinan outwash near Cutbank, Montana. Ice-wedge casts, observed at six sites within 8 km of the Wisconsinan Laurentide glacier boundary, are 80 to 400 cm wide at the top and 95 to 240 cm deep. Host gravels are commonly foliated against wedge margins. Formation of these wedges required development of perennially frozen ground and mean annual temperatures at least 10 degrees C below those of today (5 degrees C). Soil wedges and tongues, 40 to 70 cm wide at the top and up to 55 cm deep, are developed in loess overlying the outwash/alluvial gravels, and in till and lacustrine deposits. They also occur at five sites within 8 km of the Wisconsinan Laurentide glacier boundary. Involutions and predominantly vertically-oriented gravels occur at eight more widely distributed sites without ice-wedge casts. Strongly weathered, 2+ m thick, pre-Illinoian paleosols, also preserved locally on the erosion surfaces, are truncated and/or completely stripped in the areas most affected by cryoturbation. Hence, most of the periglacial features postdate the paleosols. Stratigraphic and geomorphic relations suggest that the periglacial features formed during at least three glacial/periglacial episodes, probably including the Wisconsinan, Illinoian, and a pre-Illinoian glaciation.

  2. Remote Sensing Studies of Lunar Crater Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Blewett, D. T.; Bell, J. F., III; Lucey, P. G.; Campbell, B. A.; Robinson, M. S.

    1996-03-01

    The nature and origin of lunar crater rays has long been the source of major controversy. Some lunar scientists have proposed that rays are dominated by primary crater ejecta, while others have emphasized the role of secondary craters in producing rays. Pieters et al. (1985) presented the results of a remote sensing study of a portion of the ray system north of Copernicus. They provided evidence that the present brightness of the Copernicus rays in this sector is due largely to the presence of a component of highland ejecta intimately mixed with local mare basalt and that an increasing component of local material is observed in the rays at progressively greater radial distances from the parent crater. These results have been questioned and the origin of lunar rays is still uncertain [e.g., Schultz and Gault (1985)]. In an effort to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar rays, we have utilized a variety of remote sensing data to study selected rays associated with Olbers A, the Messier crater complex, and Tycho. The data include near-IR reflectance spectra (0.6-2.5 um) and 3.8- and 70-cm radar maps.

  3. Age and growth of two deep-water fish species in the Azores Archipelago: Mora moro (Risso, 1810) and Epigonus telescopus (Risso, 1810)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Ana Rita; Figueiredo, Ivone; Figueiredo, Cátia; Menezes, Gui M.

    2013-12-01

    Age and growth of Mora moro and Epigonus telescopus were studied using 634 and 232 otoliths, respectively, from specimens caught in the Azores between 1999 and 2009. Otoliths of both species were sectioned through the nucleus, a preparation method that improved the age assignment. Marginal increment analysis showed that, for both species, growth increments (consisting of as single set of translucent and opaque growth increments) were formed annually. M. moro specimens ranged from 22 to 76cm fork length, were aged from 8 to 59 years, and showed a sexual dimorphism in growth. E. telescopus specimens ranged from 32 to 70cm fork length which corresponds to ages between 12 and 39 years. No differences in growth between sexes were observed. Growth behaviour of M. moro was better explained by the three parameter von Bertalanffy model. The five parameter model provided a better fit to the E. telescopus data. Under this model a change in growth at 26 years for females and 25 years for males may be related to the onset of sexual reproduction.

  4. Estimation of satellite antenna phase center offsets for Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, P.; Fritsche, M.; Dach, R.; Schmid, R.; Montenbruck, O.; Uhlemann, M.; Prange, L.

    2016-05-01

    Satellite antenna phase center offsets for the Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites are estimated by two different analysis centers based on tracking data of a global GNSS network. The mean x- and y-offsets could be determined with a precision of a few centimeters. However, daily estimates of the x-offsets of the IOV satellites show pronounced systematic effects with a peak-to-peak amplitude of up to 70 cm that depend on the orbit model and the elevation of the Sun above the orbital plane. For the IOV y-offsets, no dependence on the orbit model exists but the scatter strongly depends on the elevation of the Sun above the orbital plane. In general, these systematic effects are significantly smaller for the FOC satellites. The z-offsets of the two analysis centers agree within the 10-15 cm level, and the time series do not show systematic effects. The application of an averaged Galileo satellite antenna model obtained from the two solutions results in a reduction of orbit day boundary discontinuities by up to one third—even if an independent software package is used.

  5. Geologic implications and potential hazards of scour depressions on bering shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Nelson, H.; Thor, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Flat-bottomed depression 50-150 m in diameter and 60-80 cm deep occur in the floor of Norton Sound, Bering Sea. These large erosional bedforms and associated current ripples are found in areas where sediment grain size is 0.063-0.044 mm (4-4.5 ??), speeds of bottom currents are greatest (20-30 cm/s mean speeds under nonstorm conditions, 70 cm/s during typical storms), circulation of water is constricted by major topographic shoals (kilometers in scale), and small-scale topographic disruptions, such as ice gouges, occur locally on slopes of shoals. These local obstructions on shoals appear to disrupt currents, causing separation of flow and generating eddies that produce large-scale scour. Offshore artificial structures also may disrupt bottom currents in these same areas and have the potential to generate turbulence and induce extensive scour in the area of disrupted flow. The size and character of natural scour depressions in areas of ice gouging suggest that large-scale regions of scour may develop from enlargement of local scour sites around pilings, platforms, or pipelines. Consequently, loss of substrate support for pipelines and gravity structures is possible during frequent autumn storms. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  6. Buldir Depression - A Late Tertiary graben on the Aleutian Ridge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Scholl, D. W.; Buffington, E.C.; Boyce, R.E.; Alpha, T.R.; Smith, P.J.; Shipek, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    Buldir Depression is a large, rectilinear basin that lies on the northern edge of the Aleutian Ridge and is aligned with the arcuate chain of active volcanoes on the ridge crest. The depression appears to be a volcanic-tectonic feature, which began to form in Late Tertiary time and which is still forming. It is a graben formed by extensional rifting and accompanied by contemporaneous volcanism on the Aleutian Ridge. Subsidence rates for the depression are estimated at 20-70 cm/1,000 years. Sediments in the depression are 300 m thick and are probably pelagic and turbidite deposits of Pleistocene age. The turbidites were apparently derived from the plateau area of the Aleutian Ridge surrounding the depression. Older sediments on the northern slope of the Aleutian Ridge have a maximum thickness of 550 m and are deformed and slumped toward the Bering Sea. These sediments are postulated to overlie a mid-flank terrace on the northern Aleutian Ridge that titled to the north during the formation of Buldir Depression. ?? 1970.

  7. From the Cover: Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Karr, Jered A.

    2012-07-01

    Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flying insects that have high metabolic oxygen demands. Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO2) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO2 rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO2 coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects.

  8. Clinical Significance of Pregnancies Complicated by Velamentous Umbilical Cord Insertion Associated With Other Umbilical Cord/Placental Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Kato, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the clinical significance of pregnancies complicated by velamentous cord insertion (VCI) associated with other umbilical cord/placental abnormalities. Methods Data were collected from 168 deliveries complicated by VCI and from 16,797 unaffected controls. All placentae were screened identically by trained staff. In this study, we examined the presence of excessively long umbilical cord (longer than 70 cm), vasa previa, single umbilical artery, circumvallate placenta, succenturiate placenta, lobed placenta, placenta previa, low lying placenta and placenta accrete as the other umbilical cord/placental abnormalities. Results Using a multivariate analysis, the pregnancies complicated by VCI were independently associated with in vitro fertilization use (P < 0.01), maternal smoking (P = 0.03), preterm delivery (P = 0.03), fetal asphyxia (P = 0.01) and small-for-gestational-age infants (P = 0.02). It was also independently associated with vasa previa (P < 0.01), single umbilical artery (P = 0.04), lobed placenta (P = 0.01) and placenta previa (P = 0.03). However, these umbilical cord/placental abnormalities were not associated with the further adverse outcomes of the pregnancies complicated by VCI. Conclusion VCI is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes irrespective of the presence of other umbilical cord/placental abnormalities. Routine identification of the placental cord insertion site should be considered. PMID:26491497

  9. Lunar craters with radar bright ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Zisk, S. H.; Schultz, P. H.; Cutts, J. A.; Shorthill, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of the 3.8-cm radar-bright halos observed around certain lunar impact craters are compiled and compared with 70-cm radar, thermal infrared and photogeological data in order to address the nature of the halos. Diameters, positions, and radar and IR signal strengths are presented for 120 radar-bright ejecta regions of size greater than 20 km and twice the diameter of the crater. The 3.8-cm halos are noted to range in size up to 30 times that of the crater itself, although the strength of the signal from the crater and rim lies in a narrow range, while the IR halos are smaller in extent and variable in signal strength. The radar-bright ejecta are found to have a range of optical properties, and to be associated with fresh primary impact craters. Data are thus consistent with craters having radar-bright ejecta deposits having ages of less than 10 million to 1 billion years, with the radar and infrared signatures of the ejecta deposits produced by combinations of enhanced blockiness and roughness.

  10. Four-dimensional 1H and 23Na imaging using continuously oscillating gradients.

    PubMed

    Star-Lack, J M; Roos, M S; Wong, S T; Schepkin, V D; Budinger, T F

    1997-02-01

    A class of fast magnetic spectroscopic imaging methods using continuously oscillating gradients for four-dimensional (three spatial and one spectral) localization is introduced. Sampling may start immediately following the application of an RF excitation pulse, thus enabling measurement of spin density, chemical shift, and relaxation rates of short-T2 species. For spatial localization, steady-state sinusoidal gradient waveforms are used to sample a ball in k space. The two types of trajectories presented include: (1) continuously oscillating gradients with continuously rotating direction used for steady-state free-precession imaging and (2) continuously oscillating gradients followed by a spoiler directed along discrete projections. Design criteria are given and spatial-spectral and spatial-temporal reconstruction methods are developed. Theoretical point-spread functions and signal-to-noise ratios are derived while considering T2*, off-resonance effects, and RF excitation options. Experimental phantom, in vivo, and in vitro 1H and 23Na images collected at 2.35 T are presented. The 1H images were acquired with isotropic spatial resolution ranging from 0.03 to 0.27 cm3 and gradient-oscillation frequencies ranging from 600 to 700 Hz, thus allowing for the separation of water and lipid signals within a voxel. The 23Na images, acquired with 500 and 800 Hz gradient waveforms and 0.70 cm3 isotropic resolution, were resolved in the time domain, yielding spatially localized FIDs. PMID:9169223

  11. Remote sensing of regional pyroclastic deposits on the north central portion of the lunar nearside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Campbell, B. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.; Coombs, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution 3.0-cm radar data for the Rima Bode regional pyroclastic deposit and a number of UV-visible reflectance spectra for regional pyroclastic deposits on the north-central portion of the lunar nearside are analyzed and compared to existing data. The data obtained indicate that small craters in this deposit excavated loose unwelded pyroclastic particles, suggesting that welded layers or lenses do not exist at depths within the deposit's core area. The 70-cm radar data indicate that the Roma Bode deposit is thinner than the pyroclastic unit on the Aristarchus Plateau. The surfaces of all these regional pyroclastic deposits are dominated by ilmenite-rich black spheres, and contamination by low-Ti, nonpyroclastic debris appears to be minimal. The fine-grained block-free uncontaminated Rima Bode would be ideal for lunar mining operations and for rapidly covering lunar base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding material for protection from meteorite impact and space radiation.

  12. Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge is suggested to be an important pathway for contaminants from continents to coastal zones, but its significance depends on the volume of water and concentrations of contaminants that originate in continental aquifers. Ground water discharge to the Banana River Lagoon, Florida, was estimated by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of Cl− concentration profiles in the upper 230 cm of pore waters and was measured directly by seepage meters. Total submarine ground water discharge consists of slow discharge at depths > ∼70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) of largely marine water combined with rapid discharge of mixed pore water and estuarine water above ∼70 cmbsf. Cl− profiles indicate average linear velocities of ∼0.014 cm/d at depths > ∼70 cmbsf. In contrast, seepage meters indicate water discharges across the sediment-water interface at rates between 3.6 and 6.9 cm/d. The discrepancy appears to be caused by mixing in the shallow sediment, which may result from a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and convection. Wave and tidal pumping and convection would be minor because the tidal range is small, the short fetch of the lagoon limits wave heights, and large density contacts are lacking between lagoon and pore water. Mixing occurs to ∼70 cmbsf, which represents depths greater than previously reported. Mixing of oxygenated water to these depths could be important for remineralization of organic matter.

  13. Microstructural view of burrowing with a bioinspired digging robot.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, K N; Dorsch, D S; Losert, W; Winter, A G

    2015-10-01

    RoboClam is a burrowing technology inspired by Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam. Atlantic razor clams should only be strong enough to dig a few centimeters into the soil, yet they burrow to over 70 cm. The animal uses a clever trick to achieve this: by contracting its body, it agitates and locally fluidizes the soil, reducing the drag and energetic cost of burrowing. RoboClam technology, which is based on the digging mechanics of razor clams, may be valuable for subsea applications that could benefit from efficient burrowing, such as anchoring, mine detonation, and cable laying. We directly visualize the movement of soil grains during the contraction of RoboClam, using a novel index-matching technique along with particle tracking. We show that the size of the failure zone around contracting RoboClam can be theoretically predicted from the substrate and pore fluid properties, provided that the timescale of contraction is sufficiently large. We also show that the nonaffine motions of the grains are a small fraction of the motion within the fluidized zone, affirming the relevance of a continuum model for this system, even though the grain size is comparable to the size of RoboClam. PMID:26565232

  14. Nested patterns in hyporheic meta-communities: the role of body morphology and penetrability of sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omesová, Marie; Horsák, Michal; Helešic, Jan

    2008-10-01

    Nestedness has been regarded as a common pattern of species distribution especially in terrestrial systems and vertebrate faunas. However, a significantly lower degree of nestedness has been reported for aquatic invertebrates. We analyzed the vertical distribution patterns of taxa in the upper 70 cm of the hyporheic zone. This biotope is abundantly inhabited by epigean fauna, which is morphologically pre-adapted to life within the limited space of sediment interstices. We tested the hypotheses that in the vertical profile of the hyporheic zone sediment acts as a physical barrier (filter), allowing only the morphologically pre-adapted and adapted (i.e., smaller, narrower, more flexible) taxa to penetrate to deeper layers. We demonstrated that this mechanism can promote a strongly nested and colonization-driven pattern at higher taxa levels. The sediment filter (1) constricted the body width: 0.50 mm appeared to be the upper limit for successful sediment colonization at the study site, and (2) favored elongated taxa against small sized taxa. We tested also the assumption that distribution of fine sediment affects the accessibility of hyporheic zone for fauna (“filter density”) and thereby influences nestedness. However, we found that nestedness could be sufficiently explained by the depth itself. Our study offers a possible explanation of depth patterns in hyporeic meta-communities as a result of morphological characteristics promoting nestedness at higher taxa level.

  15. Adaptation of antennal neurons in moths is associated with cessation of pheromone-mediated upwind flight.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, T C; Hansson, B S; Löfstedt, C; Löfqvist, J

    1988-01-01

    A wind-borne plume of sex pheromone from a female moth or a synthetic source has a fine, filamentous structure that creates steep and rapid fluctuations in concentration for a male moth flying up the plume's axis. The firing rates from single antennal neurons on Agrotis segetum antennae decreased to nearly zero within seconds after the antennae were placed in a pheromone plume 70 cm downwind of a high-concentration source known from previous studies to cause in-flight arrestment of upwind progress. In a separate experiment, the fluctuating output from chilled neurons on Grapholita molesta antennae became attenuated in response to repetitive, experimentally delivered pheromone pulses. The attenuation was correlated with a previously reported higher percentage of in-flight arrestment exhibited by moths flying at cooler compared to warmer temperatures. These results indicate that two peripheral processes related to excessive concentration, complete adaptation of antennal neurons, or merely the attenuation of fluctuations in burst frequency, are important determinants of when upwind progress by a moth flying in a pheromone plume stops and changes to station keeping. Also, adaptation and attenuation may affect the sensation of blend quality by preferentially affecting cells sensitive to the most abundant components in airborne pheromone blends. PMID:3200859

  16. Slow and Trapped Rnb from a Projectile Fragment Separator and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Michiharu

    Aiming at efficient deceleration and cooling of the energetic radioactive ions, development of an rf ion guide system which comprises a large He gas cell and an rf funnel structure in the cell is under progress. A proof of the principle (pop) machine has been successfully tested on-line for collection of 70-MeV/u Li-8 ions. A compact gas cell of 70 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter with a He gas pressure of 30 Torr was placed after a variable wedge shaped energy degrader. The ions stopped in the gas were extracted orthogonally to the beam axis by the dc field penetrated from the rf funnel structure. The ions follow the line of electric force toward the surface of the electrode, while they do not hit the electrode due to the presence of the rf barrier field. The ions move on the surface of the funnel structure toward the exit nozzle. The overall efficiency of the pop system was 10-4, which can be separated into the gas stopping efficiency of 0.43% and the ion-guide efficiency of 2.4%. The former is limited by the volume of the cell and the pressure of the He gas. The latter is due to the present rf voltage limitation of 40 V. Both components could be increased up to 10% range by larger cell, higher pressure, and higher rf voltage, which would yield an expected overall efficiency of 1%.

  17. Spectrophotometry of zonal cloud structure variations on Jupiter, 1988-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejfel, V. G.; Vdovichenko, V. D.; Sinyaeva, N. V.; Mosina, S. A.; Gajsina, W. N.; Kharitonova, G. A.; Aksenov, A. N.

    1994-04-01

    Global changes of zonal cloud structure on Jupiter have been observed and analyzed from data obtained with a 1-m telescope and a low-dispersion spectrograph in the spectral range wavelengths 400-680 nm, and with a 70-cm telescope and planetary three-channel spectrometer in the spectral range wavelengths 320-1100 nm during each Jovian apparition from 1988 to 1992. Variations of the observed meridional intensity profiles and relative spectrophotometric gradients are described as well as the changes of absolute spectral reflectivity of five main belts on Jupiter (North and South Equatorial belts, North and South Tropical zones, and Equatorial region). Some peculiarities in the behavior of spectrophotometric gradients may be interpreted as a result of increased Rayleigh scattering in the gas layer over the deeper effective cloud boundary within main dark belts. The polar limb darkening varies only slightly with wavelength and it may be considered as evidence for dark aerosols in the stratosphere at high latitudes. The intensity of the methane absorption band centered at 8860 A shows an increase from the equator to temperate latitudes throughout the 1988-1992 period, despite the large variations in belt and zone reflectivities observed during this period in the southern hemisphere.

  18. Methane oxidation in a boreal climate in an experimental landfill cover composed from mechanically-biologically treated waste.

    PubMed

    Einola, J-K M; Sormunen, K M; Rintala, J A

    2008-12-15

    The present study evaluated microbial methane (CH4) oxidation in a boreally located outdoor landfill lysimeter (volume 112 m3, height 3.9 m) filled with mechanically-biologically treated waste (MBT residual) and containing a cover layer made from the same MBT residual. The calculations based on gas emission and pore gas measurements showed that, between April and October 2005, a significant proportion (> 96%) of the methane produced (< 23 l CH4 m(-2) d(-1)) in the lysimeter was oxidized. Methane was oxidized mainly at the depths of 35-75 cm, as indicated by the upward decrease both in the methane concentration and in the methane-to-carbon dioxide ratio in the pore gas. Lower methane oxidation (< 0.8 CH4 m(-2) d(-1); this was < 22% of the methane produced) was observed only during the coldest time of the year (January 2006), apparently due to the fall in temperature at the depths of 25-70 cm (from 9-25 degrees C during April to October to 2-9 degrees C in January). Unexpectedly, the highest methane oxidation potential (MOP) was observed in samples from the top layer where exposure to methane was low. Overall, the results show that MBT residual is a suitable support medium for methane oxidation in landfill covers in field conditions in a boreal climate. PMID:18823644

  19. Microstructural view of burrowing with a bioinspired digging robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, K. N.; Dorsch, D. S.; Losert, W.; Winter, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    RoboClam is a burrowing technology inspired by Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam. Atlantic razor clams should only be strong enough to dig a few centimeters into the soil, yet they burrow to over 70 cm. The animal uses a clever trick to achieve this: by contracting its body, it agitates and locally fluidizes the soil, reducing the drag and energetic cost of burrowing. RoboClam technology, which is based on the digging mechanics of razor clams, may be valuable for subsea applications that could benefit from efficient burrowing, such as anchoring, mine detonation, and cable laying. We directly visualize the movement of soil grains during the contraction of RoboClam, using a novel index-matching technique along with particle tracking. We show that the size of the failure zone around contracting RoboClam can be theoretically predicted from the substrate and pore fluid properties, provided that the timescale of contraction is sufficiently large. We also show that the nonaffine motions of the grains are a small fraction of the motion within the fluidized zone, affirming the relevance of a continuum model for this system, even though the grain size is comparable to the size of RoboClam.

  20. Microstructural view of burrowing with a bioinspired digging robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Kerstin; Dorsch, Dan; Losert, Wolfgang; Winter, V., Amos

    RoboClam is a burrowing technology inspired by Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam. Atlantic razor clams should only be strong enough to dig a few centimeters into the soil, yet they burrow to over 70 cm. The animal uses a clever trick to achieve this: by contracting its body, it agitates and locally fluidizes the soil, reducing the drag and energetic cost of burrowing. RoboClam technology, which is based on the digging mechanics of razor clams, may be valuable for subsea applications that could benefit from efficient burrowing, such as anchoring, mine detonation, and cable laying. We directly visualize the movement of soil grains during the contraction of RoboClam, using a novel index-matching technique along with particle tracking. We show that the size of the failure zone around contracting RoboClam can be theoretically predicted from the substrate and pore fluid properties, provided that the timescale of contraction is sufficiently large. We also show that the nonaffine motions of the grains are a small fraction of the motion within the fluidized zone, affirming the relevance of a continuum model for this system, even though the grain size is comparable to the size of RoboClam.

  1. Blast-induced neurotrauma in whales.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Siri K; Øen, Egil O

    2003-07-01

    A majority of investigations on primary blast injuries have focused on gas-containing organs, while the likelihood of blast-induced neurotrauma remains underrated. In Norway minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are hunted using small fishing boats rigged with harpoon guns, which fire harpoons tipped with a grenade containing a charge of 30-g penthrite. The grenade detonates 60-70 cm inside the animal. The present study was undertaken to characterize the neuropathological changes caused by the penthrite blast and evaluate its role in the loss of consciousness and death in hunted whales. The study included 37 minke whales that were examined shipboard. The brains were later subjected to gross and light microscopy examination. The results showed that intra-body detonation of the grenade in near vicinity of the brain resulted in trauma similar to severe traumatic brain injury associated with a direct blow to the head. Detonation in more distant areas of the body resulted in injuries resembling acceleration-induced diffuse traumatic brain injury. The authors conclude that even if several vital organs were fatally injured in most whales, the neurotrauma induced by the blast-generated pressure waves were the primary cause for the immediate or very rapid loss of consciousness and death. PMID:12804799

  2. Simulations of asteroid surfaces and interiors using geometric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkki, Anne; Muinonen, Karri; Penttilä, Antti

    2014-11-01

    We simulate electromagnetic scattering from a realistic model of an asteroid using an algorithm of geometric optics with Fresnelian reflection and refraction as well as diffuse scattering (Muinonen et al. 2009). The goal is to understand and constrain, which physical properties of the asteroid surface affect the radar parameters and how. The results show the simulated circular-polarization ratios and radar albedos compared to radar observations of asteroids.Two types of diffuse media will be studied: the first one is a uniform, internal diffuse medium inside a host body, and the second one is an external layer on the surface. The host body is large relative to the size of the diffuse scatterers and the wavelength (3-70 cm). Previously, we have utilized spheres and aggregates of spheres of different sizes as the diffuse scatterers. Now, we move on to more complex shapes, i.e., Gaussian random particles that mimic irregular boulders of 10-80 cm in size. In this study, we show how the type of the diffuse medium, including the mean free path or the optical thickness, affects the radar parameters. As for materials, we utilize the electric permittivities of solid and fractured rocks and ice. The applications of the study can be extended from asteroids also to comets and moons.References: Muinonen et al., Light scattering by Gaussian particles with internal inclusions and roughened surfaces using ray optics, JQSRT 110 (2009) 1628-1639.

  3. Initial results of a positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.S.; Choong, W.S.; Moses, W.W.; Qi, J.; Hu, J.; Wang,G.C.; Wilson, D.; Oh, S.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    2004-11-29

    We present the status and initial images of a positrontomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair ofexternal curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis).The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access andto position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivitywith patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rowsof 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 modules inthe camera. Compared to an ECAT HR PET system operating in 3D mode, ourcamera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and hasapproximately the same sensitivity for a central point source, becauseour detectors are close to the patient. The individual detectors areangled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize resolutiondegradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified CTIdata acquisition electronics. We have completed construction of thegantry and electronics, have developed detector calibration and dataacquisition software, and are taking coincidence data. We demonstratethat we can clearly visualize a "prostate" in a simple phantom.Reconstructed images of two phantoms are shown.

  4. Edge Biasing of SINP-Tokamak Plasma in High-Q Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rabindranath; Basu, Debjyoti

    2009-11-01

    In high q regime (qedge=5-7) of SINP-TOKAMAK [an iron-core device having major and minor radii of 30 and 7.5 cm, respectively and Btoroidal = 1.2 Tesla] fast edge biasing experiment is carried out introducing a Molybdenum electrode of 5mm in diameter, radially positioned at 7.0 cm. Biasing seems to cause a change in plasma current density profile forming a negative shear in the region 6.4-6.9 cm and it leads to better confinement and longer duration of plasma current as was observedfootnotetextGhosh J., Pal R., Chattopadhyay P. K. and Basu D. 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 331 also in very low q (VLQ) regimes of the same machine. The electrode current drawn in this regime is about 5-10 amp. Lowering of Hα signal and loop voltage is also observed indicating better confinement, independently confirmed by diamagnetic loop too. On applying bias, electron density and temperature profile develop sharper gradient near the edge. Interestingly, electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, observed by inserting electric and magnetic probes in the edge plasma, are suppressed in the inner region (6.4-6.8 cm) in the frequency range of 30-70 kHz by the effect of electrode biasing.

  5. Recent field studies of dry deposition to surfaces in plant canopies

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S.E.; Lovett, G.M.; Bondietti, E.A.; Davidson, C.I.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of field techniques were used to assess the dry deposition of sulfur. In a deciduous forest canopy in eastern Tennessee, inert petri plates and adjacent chestnut oak leaves showed similar SO/sub 4//sup -2/ deposition velocities of about 0.1 cm s/sup -1/. In the same forest, statistical analysis of throughfall yielded a deposition velocity of 0.48 cm s/sup -1/ for total sulfur (SO/sub 4//sup -2/ plus SO/sub 2/). The throughfall technique appears useful for scaling individual surface measurements to larger spatial and temporal scales. On a grassy field in Illinois, flat Teflon plates, petri dishes, and dustfall buckets were exposed side by side. Measured sulfate deposition increased with increasing rim height on the collection surface, and deposition velocities ranged from 0.14 to 0.70 cm s/sup -1/. Much of the deposition to these surfaces can be attributed to large-particle SO/sub 4//sup -2/. Dry season (summer) deposition velocities of /sup 7/Be in California were found to be similar to dry deposition velocities of /sup 212/Pb in Tennessee, ranging from 0.18 to 0.35 cm s/sup -1/. These natural radionuclides attach to submicron aerosols in the atmosphere and may be useful tracers of submicron SO/sub 4//sup -2/ deposition. 9 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Quantification of the vertical translocation rate of soil solid-phase material by the magnetic tracer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkin, A. P.; Gennadiev, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Approaches to the quantification of the vertical translocation rate of soil solid-phase material by the magnetic tracer method have been developed; the tracer penetration depth and rate have been determined, as well as the radial distribution of the tracer in chernozems (Chernozems) and dark gray forest soils (Luvisols) of Belgorod oblast under natural steppe and forest vegetation and in arable lands under agricultural use of different durations. It has been found that the penetration depth of spherical magnetic particles (SMPs) during their 150-year-occurrence in soils of a forest plot is 68 cm under forest, 58 cm on a 100-year old plowland, and only 49 cm on a 150-year-old plowland. In the chernozems of the steppe plot, the penetration depth of SMPs exceeds the studied depth of 70 cm both under natural vegetation and on the plowlands. The penetration rates of SMPs deep into the soil vary significantly among the key plots: 0.92-1.32 mm/year on the forest plot and 1.47-1.63 mm/year on the steppe plot, probably because of the more active recent turbation activity of soil animals.

  7. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: the relationship between ambient noise, hearing thresholds and sound spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Yan, H Y; Fine, M L

    2003-04-01

    Two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans live in shallow (5-70 cm) stony streams, and males of both species produce courtship sounds. A previous study demonstrated high noise levels near waterfalls, a quiet window in the noise around 100 Hz at noisy locations, and extremely short-range propagation of noise and goby signals. To investigate the relationship of this acoustic environment to communication, we determined audiograms for both species and measured parameters of courtship sounds produced in the streams. We also deflated the swimbladder in P. martensii to determine its effect on frequency utilization in sound production and hearing. Both species are maximally sensitive at 100 Hz and produce low-frequency sounds with main energy from 70 to 100-150 Hz. Swimbladder deflation does not affect auditory threshold or dominant frequency of courtship sounds and has no or minor effects on sound amplitude. Therefore, both species utilize frequencies for hearing and sound production that fall within the low-frequency quiet region, and the equivalent relationship between auditory sensitivity and maximum ambient noise levels in both species further suggests that ambient noise shapes hearing sensitivity. PMID:12665991

  8. Audiotactile interactions in near and far space.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Norimichi; Zampini, Massimiliano; Spence, Charles

    2005-10-01

    In this study we investigated audiotactile spatial interactions in the region behind the head. In experiment 1, participants made unspeeded temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding pairs of auditory and tactile stimuli presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. Electrocutaneous stimuli were presented to the left or right earlobe while auditory stimuli were presented from just behind the participant's head on either the same or opposite side. Participants responded significantly more accurately when the stimuli were presented from different sides rather than from the same side. In experiment 2, we used a distractor interference task to show that speeded left/right discrimination responses to electrocutaneous targets were also modulated by the spatial congruency of auditory distractors presented behind the head. Performance was worse (i.e. response latencies were slower and error rates higher) when the auditory distractors were presented on the opposite side to the electrocutaneous target than when they were presented on the same side. This crossmodal distractor interference effect was larger when white noise distractors were presented from close to the head (20 cm) than when they were presented far from the head (70 cm). By contrast, pure tone distractors elicited a smaller crossmodal distractor interference effect overall, and showed no modulation as a function of distance. Taken together, these results suggest that the spatial modulation of audiotactile interactions occurs predominantly for complex auditory stimuli (for example, white noise) originating from the region close to the back of the head. PMID:16091968

  9. Clinical and morphologic features of lipomatous hypertrophy ("massive fatty deposits") of the interatrial septum.

    PubMed

    Gay, J D; Guileyardo, J M; Townsend-Parchman, J K; Ross, K

    1996-03-01

    Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum ("massive fatty deposits in the atrial septum") may represent an incidental autopsy finding or may be associated with atrial arrhythmias, obstructive symptoms, or sudden death. Antemortem diagnosis is becoming much more common. In a literature review and in a review of our 12 cases, this condition was found to occur more frequently in obese middle-aged or elderly subjects, who frequently demonstrated atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. The unencapsulated mass generally occurred anterior or superior to the fossa ovalis, and histologically was characterized by mature fat with varying quantities of fetal fat, inflammation and fibrosis, and entrapment of myocardial fibers with cytologic atypia. Cases were included that had a minimum atrial septal thickness of 1.0 cm. The septum ranged up to 7.0 cm in maximum thickness (2.6 cm average). In our cases, no deaths were directly attributed to this disorder. It is important that forensic pathologists become more generally aware of this condition. To further delineate the true pathological significance, the atrial septum should be routinely examined by palpation and sectioning to determine its thickness and fat content. PMID:8838469

  10. Variations in water storage in China over recent decades from GRACE observations and GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, X.; Wu, J. J.; Wang, Q.; Zhou, H.

    2016-02-01

    We applied Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Tellus products in combination with Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) simulations and data from reports, to analyze variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) in China as a whole and eight of its basins from 2003 to 2013. Amplitudes of TWS were well restored after scaling, and showed good correlations with those estimated from models at the basin scale. TWS generally followed variations in annual precipitation; it decreased linearly in the Huai River basin (-0.56 cm yr-1) and increased with fluctuations in the Changjiang River basin (0.35 cm yr-1), Zhujiang basin (0.55 cm yr-1) and southeast rivers basin (0.70 cm yr-1). In the Hai River basin and Yellow River basin, groundwater exploitation may have altered TWS's response to climate, and TWS kept decreasing until 2012. Changes in soil moisture storage contributed over 50 % of variance in TWS in most basins. Precipitation and runoff showed a large impact on TWS, with more explained TWS in the south than in the north. North China and southwest rivers region exhibited long-term TWS depletions. TWS has increased significantly over recent decades in the middle and lower reaches of Changjiang River, southeastern coastal areas, as well as the Hoh Xil, and the headstream region of the Yellow River in the Tibetan Plateau. The findings in this study could be helpful to climate change impact research and disaster mitigation planning.

  11. Spectral sensitivity of the ctenid spider Cupiennius salei.

    PubMed

    Zopf, Lydia M; Schmid, Axel; Fredman, David; Eriksson, Bo Joakim

    2013-11-01

    The spectral sensitivity of adult male Cupiennius salei Keys, a nocturnal hunting spider, was studied in a behavioural test. As known from earlier behavioural tests, C. salei will walk towards a black target presented in front of a white background. In this study, a black target (size 42×70 cm) was presented in a white arena illuminated by monochromatic light in the range 365-695 nm using 19 monochromatic filters (half-width in the range 6-10 nm). In the first trial, the transmission of the optical filters was between 40% and 80%. In the second trial, the transmission was reduced to 5% using a neutral density filter. At the high intensity, the spiders showed a spectral sensitivity in the range 380-670 nm. In the second trial, the animals only showed directed walks if the illumination was in the range 449-599 nm, indicating a lower sensitivity at the margins of the spectral sensitivity. In previous intracellular recordings, the measured spectral sensitivity was between 320 and 620 nm. Interestingly, these results do not completely match the behaviourally tested spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors, where the sensitivity range is shifted to longer wavelengths. In order to investigate the molecular background of spectral sensitivity, we searched for opsin genes in C. salei. We found three visual opsins that correspond to UV and middle to long wavelength sensitive opsins as described for jumping spiders. PMID:23948480

  12. Estimation of mean sea surfaces in the north Atlantic, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean using GEOS-3 altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Martin, T. V.; Mccarthy, J. J.; Chovitz, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    The mean surfaces of several regions of the world's oceans were estimated using GEOS-3 altimeter data. The northwest Atlantic, the northeast Pacific off the coast of California, the Indian Ocean, the southwest Pacific, and the Phillipine Sea are included. These surfaces have been oriented with respect to a common earth center-of-mass system by constraining the separate solutions to conform to precisely determined laser reference control orbits. The same reference orbits were used for all regions assuring continuity of the separate solutions. Radial accuracies of the control orbits were in the order of one meter. The altimeter measured sea surface height crossover differences were minimized by the adjustment of tilt and bias parameters for each pass with the exception of laser reference control passes. The tilt and bias adjustments removed long wavelength errors which were primarily due to orbit error. Ocean tides were evaluated. The resolution of the estimated sea surfaces varied from 0.25 degrees off the east coast of the United States to about 2 degrees in part of the Indian Ocean near Australia. The rms crossover discrepancy after adjustment varied from 30 cm to 70 cm depending upon geographic location. Comparisons of the altimeter derived mean sea surface in the North Atlantic with the 5 feet x 5 feet GEM-8 detailed gravimetric geoid indicated a relative consistency of better than a meter.

  13. Restoration Technique for Pleiades-Hr Panchromatic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latry, C.; Fourest, S.; Thiebaut, C.

    2012-07-01

    17th of December 2011 from Kourou Space Centre, French Guyana. Like others high resolution optical satellites, it acquires both panchromatic images, with 70cm spatial resolution, and lower resolution multispectral images with 2.8m spatial resolution. Pleiades-HR is an optimized system, which means that the Modulation Transfer Function has a low value at Nyquist frequency, in order to reduce both the telescope diameter and aliasing effects. Shannon sampling condition is thus met at first order, which also makes classical ground processing, such as image matching or resampling, more justified for a mathematical point of view. Raw images are thus blurry which implies a deconvolution stage that restores sharpness but also increases the noise level in the high frequency domain. A denoising step, based upon wavelet packet coefficients thresholding/shrinkage technique, allows controlling the final noise level. Each of these methods includes numerous parameters that have to be assessed during the inflight commissioning period: deconvolution filter that depends on MTF assessment, instrumental noise model, noise level target for denoised images, wavelet packet decomposition level. This paper aims to precisely describe the deconvolution/denoising algorithms and how their main parameters have been set up during the inflight commissioning stage. Special attention will be given to structured noise induced by Pleiades-HR on board wavelet-based compression algorithm

  14. Seasonal variability of soil-gas radon concentration in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, C.-Y.; Minissale, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured by the track-etch method in 60 shallow holes, each 70 cm deep and supported by a capped plastic tube, along several major faults in central California during 1975-1985. This set of data was analyzed to investigate the seasonal variability of soil-gas radon concentration in an area which has various geological conditions but similar climate. The results show several different patterns of seasonal variations, but all of which can be largely attributed to the water-saturation and moisture-retention characteristics of the shallow part of the soil. During the rainy winter and spring seasons, radon tended to be confined underground by the water-saturated surface soil which had much reduced gas permeability, while during the sunny summer and autumn seasons, it exhaled more readily as the soil became drier and more permeable. At several sites located on creeping faults, the radon-variation patterns changed with time, possibly because of disturbance of site condition by fault movement. ?? 1994.

  15. Quinoa: An emerging new crop with potential for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlick, Greg; Bubenheim, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is being considered as a new crop for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) because of its high protein values (12 - 18%) and unique amino acid composition. Lysine, and essential amino acid that is deficient in many grain crops, is found in quinoa approaching Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) standards set for humans. This 'new' crop, rich in protein and with desirable proportions of important amino acids, may provide greater versatility in meeting the needs of humans on long-term space missions. Initially, the cultivars CO407 x ISLUGA, CO407 Heat Tolerant Population 1, and Real' (a Bolivian variety) were examined. The first cultivar showed the most promise in greenhouse studies. When grown hydroponically in the greenhouse, with no attempt to maximize productivity, this cultivar produced 202 g m(exp -2) with a harvest index of 37%. None of the cultivars were greater than 70 cm in height. Initial results indicate that quinoa could be an excellent crop for CELSS because of the high concentration of protein, ease of use, versatility in preparation, and potential for greatly increased yields in controlled environments.

  16. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    PubMed

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment. PMID:26840453

  17. Climatic/Hydrologic Oscillations since 155,000 yr B.P. at Owens Lake, California, Reflected in Abundance and Stable Isotope Composition of Sediment Carbonate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menking, K.M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Burdette, J.W.; Rye, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    Sediment grain size, carbonate content, and stable isotopes in 70-cm-long (???1500-yr) channel samples from Owens Lake core OL-92 record many oscillations representing climate change in the eastern Sierra Nevada region since 155,000 yr B.P. To first order, the records match well the marine ??18O record. At Owens Lake, however, the last interglaciation appears to span the entire period from 120,000 to 50,000 yr B.P., according to our chronology, and was punctuated by numerous short periods of wetter conditions during an otherwise dry climate. Sediment proxies reveal that the apparent timing of glacial-interglacial transitions, notably the penultimate one, is proxy-dependent. In the grain-size and carbonate-content records this transition is abrupt and occurs at ??? 120,000 yr B.P. In contrast, in the isotopic records the transition is gradual and occurs between 145,000 and 120,000 yr B. P. Differences in timing of the transition are attributed to variable responses by proxies to climate change. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Iwao; Tanida, Hajime; Kawauchi, Sigehiro; Harada, Makoto; Nomura, Masaharu

    1997-09-01

    An apparatus has been constructed for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of elements at air/aqueous solution interface. Its surface sensitivity is gained from glancing incidence of synchrotron radiation under total reflection condition. The absorption is detected by total conversion He ion-yield method. This apparatus was operated at the beam line 7C of Photon Factory, where the incident photon beam comes from a sagittal focus double-crystal monochromator via a 70-cm-long bent mirror. The mirror focuses the beam vertically and changes the beam direction downward by 1 mrad to irradiate solution surface. The essential requirement of this technique, ripple-free liquid surface at accurate position, was attained by introducing a trough on a floating boat, continuous surface level monitoring, and an automatic Z-stage control. The x-ray absorption edge jump demonstrated that surface concentration of bromide ion follows the Langmuir type adsorption for tetraalkylammonuim bromide solution. By comparing the jump values for surface-active and -inactive bromide salt solutions, the detecting depth of the present technique was determined to be 8.8 nm. An extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis of bromide ion segregated to the surface by stearyltrimethylammonium cation indicated that its solvation structure is different from that of bulk.

  19. Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Matthew E; Karr, Jered A

    2012-07-01

    Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flying insects that have high metabolic oxygen demands. Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO(2)) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO(2) rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO(2) coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects. PMID:22665762

  20. Generation of stable and narrow spacing dual-wavelength ytterbium-doped fiber laser using a photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Harith; Aizi Mat Salim, Muhammad; Soltanian, Mohammad Reza K.; Razalli Azzuhri, Saaidal; Wadi Harun, Sulaiman; Yasin, Moh.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the design and operation of novel narrow spacing and stable dual-wavelength fiber laser (DWFL). A 70-cm ytterbium-doped fiber has been chosen as the gain medium in a ring cavity arrangement. Our design includes a short length photonic crystal fiber, acting as a dual-wavelength stabilizer based on its birefringence coefficient and nonlinear behavior and tunable band pass filter (TBPF) to achieve narrow spacing spectrum lasing. Our laser output is considered to be highly stable, with power fluctuation less than 0.8 dB over a period of 15 min. The flexibility and tunability of TBPF, together with polarization controller enable the spacing tuning of the DWFL from 0.03 nm up to 0.07 nm for 1040 nm region, and 0.10 nm up to 0.40 nm for 1060 nm region. The tunable wavelength spacing shows the flexibility of the DWFL in addition to stable and reliable properties of fiber laser in 1-μm region.

  1. Horizontally separated 1-in-1 crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    Previous to this workshop, realistic lattices have been developed for vertically separated l-in-l (e.g., D.E. Johnson, A.A. Garren) and 2-in-1 (e.g., S. Heifets) magnets as well as for horizontally separated 2-in-l magnets (e.g., SSC RDS). Bringing together the widely separated ({approximately}60-70 cm) beams in a reasonable length of tunnel and keeping the dispersion zero at the interaction point has been difficult in the vertical l-in-l case. Most designs have required spacial 2-in-1 quadrupoles near the interaction point where the beams are separated by 15 cm or less. It is not clear that such magnets, as dictated by some of these lattice designs, can easily be built. The purpose of this exercise is to provide a crossing insertion for a realistic lattice which involves horizontally separated l-in-l magnets. The following horizontal crossing insertions, which incorporate the dispersion suppressors and phase trombones into the major arcs, need no special 2-in-1 magnets near the interaction point. The dispersion at the IP created by the horizontal crossing can be cancelled by the dispersion suppressor and one set of triplets.

  2. The effect of sea ice on the solar energy budget in the astmosphere-sea ice-ocean system: A model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, Knut; Weeks, W. F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1994-01-01

    A coupled one-dimensional multilayer and multistream radiative transfer model has been developed and applied to the study of radiative interactions in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system. The consistent solution of the radiative transfer equation in this coupled system automatically takes into account the refraction and reflection at the air-ice interface and allows flexibility in choice of stream numbers. The solar radiation spectrum (0.25 micron-4.0 micron) is divided into 24 spectral bands to account adequately for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere. The effects of ice property changes, including salinity and density variations, as well as of melt ponds and snow cover variations over the ice on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. The results show that for bare ice it is the scattering, determined by air bubbles and brine pockets, in just a few centimeters of the top layer of ice that plays the most important role in the solar energy absorption and partitioning in the entire system. Ice thickness is important to the energy distribution only when the ice is thin, while the absorption in the atmosphere is not sensitive to ice thickness exceeds about 70 cm. The presence of clouds moderates all the sensitivities of the absorptive amounts in each layer to the variations in the ice properties and ice thickness. Comparisons with observational spectral albedo values for two simple ice types are also presented.

  3. Fumigant activity of eleven essential oil compounds and their selected binary mixtures against Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Bin; Feng, Jun-Tao; Jiang, Zhi-Li; Wu, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Xing

    2014-10-01

    To seek natural products for the development of environment friendly mosquito control agents, fumigant activity of eleven essential oil compounds and the joint action of the active compounds were evaluated against Culex pipiens pallens adults. Fumigant bioassay demonstrated that carvacrol exhibited the highest fumigant activity followed by thymol and l-perillaldehyde, with LC50 values of 0.26, 0.28, and 0.34 mg/L air, respectively. Among the binary mixtures of four compounds with preferable performance, only the binary mixture of carvacrol and thymol (1:1, w/w) displayed a synergistic effect with the co-toxicity coefficient (CTC) value of 174.1 and LC50 value of 0.16 mg/L air. Furthermore, the actual efficacy of the binary mixture at 300 mg/mat (KT50 = 7.9, 15.8, and 22.0 min after 0, 2, and 4 h of preliminary heating, respectively) was comparable with that of d-allethrin at 30 mg/mat (KT50 = 8.7, 17.9, and 21.2 min after 0, 2, and 4 h of preliminary heating, respectively) tested in vaporizing mats by the glass chamber method (70 × 70 × 70 cm). These results revealed that carvacrol, thymol, and their binary mixture have potential for the development of natural fumigants for adult mosquito control. PMID:25015050

  4. Spectral Sensitivity of the ctenid spider Cupiennius salei Keys

    PubMed Central

    Zopf, Lydia M.; Schmid, Axel; Fredman, David; Eriksson, Bo Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Summary The spectral sensitivity of adult male Cupiennius salei Keys, a nocturnal hunting spider, was studied in a behavioural test. As known from earlier behavioural tests, C. salei walks towards a black target presented in front of a white background. In this study a black target (size 42 × 70 cm) was presented in a white arena illuminated by monochromatic light in the range of 365 to 695 nm using 19 monochromatic filters (HW in the range of 6 – 10 nm). In the first trial, the transmission of the optical filters was between 40 % and 80%. In a second trial the transmission was reduced to 5%, using a neutral density filter. At the high intensity the spiders showed a spectral sensivity in the range from 380 to 670 nm. In the second trial the animals only showed directed walks if the illumination was in the range of 449 to 599 nm, indicating a lower sensitivity at the margins of the spectral sensitivity. In previous intracellular recordings, the measured spectral sensitivity was between 320 and 620 nm. Interestingly, these results do not completely match the behaviourally tested spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors, where the sensitivity range is shifted to longer wavelengths. In order to investigate the molecular background of spectral sensitivity, we searched for opsin genes in C. salei. We found three visual opsins that correspond to UV and middle to long wavelength sensitive opsins as described for jumping spiders. PMID:23948480

  5. Thickness-dependent charge transport in few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Wei; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Fowlkes, Jason; Li, Xufan; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is currently under intensive study because of its exceptional optical and electrical properties in few-layer form. However, how charge transport mechanisms vary with the number of layers in MoS2 flakes remains unclear. Here, exfoliated flakes of MoS2 with various thicknesses were successfully fabricated into field-effect transistors (FETs) to measure the thickness and temperature dependences of electrical mobility. For these MoS2 FETs, measurements at both 295 K and 77 K revealed the maximum mobility for layer thicknesses between 5 layers (˜3.6 nm) and 10 layers (˜7 nm), with ˜70 cm2 V-1 s-1 measured for 5 layer devices at 295 K. Temperature-dependent mobility measurements revealed that the mobility rises with increasing temperature to a maximum. This maximum occurs at increasing temperature with increasing layer thickness, possibly due to strong Coulomb scattering from charge impurities or weakened electron-phonon interactions for thicker devices. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements for different gate voltages revealed a metal-to-insulator transition for devices thinner than 10 layers, which may enable new memory and switching applications. This study advances the understanding of fundamental charge transport mechanisms in few-layer MoS2, and indicates the promise of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides as candidates for potential optoelectronic applications.

  6. Mechanical Design of a Heavy Ion Beam Dump for the RIA Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Conner, D L

    2005-04-28

    The RIA fragmentation line requires a beam stop for the primary beam downstream of the first dipole magnet. The beam may consist of U, Ca, Sn, Kr, or O ions. with a variety of power densities. The configuration with highest power density is for the U beam, with a spot size of 3 cm x 3 cm and a total power of up to 300 kW. The mechanical design of the dump that meets these criteria consists of a 70 cm diameter aluminum wheel with water coolant channels. A hollow drive shaft supplies the coolant water and connects the wheel to an electrical motor located in an adjacent air space. The beam strikes the wheel along the outer perimeter and passes through a thin window of aluminum where 15% of its power is absorbed and the remainder of the beam is absorbed in flowing water behind the window. Rotation of the wheel at 400 RPM results in maximum aluminum temperatures below 100 C and acceptably low thermal stresses of 3 ksi. Rotating the wheel also results in low radiation damage levels by spreading the damage out over the whole perimeter of the wheel. For some of the other beams, a stationary dump consisting of a thin aluminum window with water acting as a coolant and absorber appears to be feasible.

  7. Boson mode, Medium Range Structure and Intermediate Phase (IP) in (Na2O)x(B2O3)1-x glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignarooban, K.; Boolchand, P.; Micoulaut, M.; Malki, M.

    2012-02-01

    Raman scattering of titled glasses are examined using a T64000 Dispersive system. Scattering strengths of the Boson mode (40 cm-1, 70 cm-1) and the Boroxyl ring (BR) mode (808 cm-1) are found to decrease with increasing x at the same rate in the 0 < x < 20% soda range. Apparently, the 2D character of BRs embedded in a 3D network gives rise to the Boson mode.ootnotetextM. Flores-Ruiz and G. Naumis, PRB, 2011. 83: p. 184204 The triad of modes (705, 740, 770 cm-1) near the 808 cm-1 mode are found to display a maximum in scattering strength near x = 37% (705 cm-1), 33% (740 cm-1) and 25% (770 cm-1), suggesting that these are also ring modes of Na-tripentaborate (STPB), Na-diborate (SDB) and Na-triborate (STB) super-structures. Variations in Raman scattering strengths also suggest that STB percolate near x = 20%, the stress transition, while the STPB and SDTB percolate near x = 40%, the rigidity transition. These transitions were inferred from m-DSC experiments that show an intermediate phase in the 20% < x < 40% range in dry and homogeneous glasses.

  8. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas. PMID:26821329

  9. Conformational relaxation of a low-temperature protein as probed by photochemical hole burning. Horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Zollfrank, J; Friedrich, J; Vanderkooi, J M; Fidy, J

    1991-01-01

    For the first time, conformational relaxation processes have been measured in a small protein, mesoporphyrin-horseradish peroxidase via their influence on spectral diffusion broadening of holes burnt in the fluorescence excitation spectrum of free base mesoporphyrin. Holes were burnt in three 0----0 bands of different tautomeric forms of the chromophore at 1.5 and 4 K, and the spectral diffusion broadening was measured in temperature cycling experiments between 4 and 30 K. The inhomogeneous linewidth for the tautomeric 0----0 bands was estimated to be 60-70 cm-1; the hole width was found narrow, being in the order of 350 MHz (10(-2) cm-1) at 1.5 K what allowed for an extremely sensitive detection of the conformational changes. Though proteins have many features in common with glasses, the spectral diffusion broadening of photochemical holes under temperature cycling conditions in mesoporphyrin horseradish peroxidase has a very different pattern as a function of temperature. Up to 12 K, the linewidth did not significantly change, then around 14 K; a steplike broadening was observed for all three tautomers, although to a different extent. The total magnitude of line broadening up to 30 K was large and also different for the tautomers. We argue that the difference between the behavior of this protein and that of glassy matrices originate from finite size effects; the protein may be characterized by a small number of TLS, and their distribution may bear discrete features. PMID:2009354

  10. Testing gravity with cold-atom interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, G. W.; Wu, X.; Deslauriers, L.; Roy, S.; Mahadeswaraswamy, C.; Kasevich, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present a horizontal gravity gradiometer atom interferometer for precision gravitational tests. The horizontal configuration is superior for maximizing the inertial signal in the atom interferometer from a nearby proof mass. In our device, we have suppressed spurious noise associated with the horizonal configuration to achieve a differential acceleration sensitivity of 4.2 ×10-9g /√{Hz } over a 70-cm baseline or 3.0 ×10-9g /√{Hz } inferred per accelerometer. Using the performance of this instrument, we characterize the results of possible future gravitational tests. We demonstrate a statistical uncertainty of 3 ×10-4 for a proof-of-concept measurement of the gravitational constant that is competitive with the present limit of 1.2 ×10-4 using other techniques. From this measurement, we provide a statistical constraint on a Yukawa-type fifth force at 8 ×10-3 near the poorly known length scale of 10 cm. Limits approaching 10-5 appear feasible. We discuss improvements that can enable uncertainties falling well below 10-5 for both experiments.

  11. Recent sedimentary facies in interdistributary basin, Mississippi delta

    SciTech Connect

    Hi, I.Y.; Kosters, E.; Moslow, T.F.

    1986-05-01

    Five sedimentary facies have been recognized from 23 vibracores in an abandoned interdistributary basin of the St. Bernard delta lobe, 15 km southeast of New Orleans. They are: (1) detrital clays containing shell fragments and lenticular laminations, interpreted as a bay facies; (2) laminated to massive-appearing, fine grained sandbeds averaging 10-20 cm in thickness, of possible overbank or crevasse splay origin; (3) thinly interbedded, parallel laminated and ripple laminated, sandy and clayey silts forming 50 to 70-cm-thick sequences that increase in clay content upwards, interpreted as flood events during overbank deposition; (4) extensively rooted detrital clays with less than 10% organic matter as disseminated plan material, representing a transitional, brackish-to-saline marsh facies; (5) organic-rich clays (35-75% organic matter) and peats (> 75% organic matter), interpreted as marsh and swamp facies. Major depositional environments observed on the present deltaic plain include irregular-shaped lakes, distributary channels, natural levees, overbank splays, small meandering channels, oyster reefs, and swamp, brackish and saline marshes.

  12. Durability of organobentonite-amended liner for decelerating chloroform transport.

    PubMed

    He, Shichong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    Chloroform is added to landfill for suppressing methane generation, which however may transport through landfill liners and lead to contamination of groundwater. To decelerate chloroform transport, the enhanced sorption ability of clay liners following organobentonite addition was tested. In this study, we used batch sorption to evaluate sorption capacity of chloroform to organobentonite, followed by column tests and model simulations for assessing durability of different liners. Results show that adding 10% CTMAB-bentonite (organobentonite synthesized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) increased the duration of a bentonite liner by 88.5%. CTMAB-bentonite consistently showed the highest sorption capacity (Qm) among six typical organobentonites under various environmental conditions. The removal rate of chloroform by CTMAB-bentonite was 3.6-23 times higher than that by natural soils. According to the results derived by model simulation, a 70-cm 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibited much better durability than a 100-cm compact clay liner (CCL) and natural bentonite liner evidenced by the delayed and lower peak of eluent concentration. A minimum thickness of 65.8 cm of the 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner could completely sorb the chloroform in a 100-m-high landfill. The 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibiting much better durability has the promise for reducing environmental risk of chloroform in landfill. PMID:26874063

  13. Source complexity of the 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake from the inversion of strong motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Iida, M.

    1990-01-01

    Strong motion records for the Whittier Narrows earthquake are inverted to obtain the history of slip. Both constant rupture velocity models and variable rupture velocity models are considered. The results show a complex rupture process within a relatively small source volume, with at least four separate concentrations of slip. Two sources are associated with the hypocenter, the larger having a slip of 55-90 cm, depending on the rupture model. These sources have a radius of approximately 2-3 km and are ringed by a region of reduced slip. The aftershocks fall within this low slip annulus. Other sources with slips from 40 to 70 cm each ring the central source region and the aftershock pattern. All the sources are predominantly thrust, although some minor right-lateral strike-slip motion is seen. The overall dimensions of the Whittier earthquake from the strong motion inversions is 10 km long (along the strike) and 6 km wide (down the dip). The preferred dip is 30?? and the preferred average rupture velocity is 2.5 km/s. Moment estimates range from 7.4 to 10.0 ?? 1024 dyn cm, depending on the rupture model. -Authors

  14. lLong-Term Outcomes after Proton Therapy, with Concurrent Chemotherapy, for Stage II-III Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh-Nhu; Ly, Ngoc Bui; Komaki, Ritsuko; Levy, Lawrence B.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Chang, Joe Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Mehran, Reza J.; Lu, Charles; Gillin, Michael; Liao, Zhongxing; Cox, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report long-term disease control, survival, and toxicity for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer prospectively treated with concurrent proton therapy and chemotherapy on a nonrandomized case-only obervational study. Methods All patients received passive-scatter proton therapy, planned with 4D-CT–based simulation; all received proton therapy concurrent with weekly chemotherapy. Endpoints were local and distant control, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results The 134 patients (21 stage II, 113 stage III; median age 69 years) had a median gross tumor volume (GTV) of 70 cm3 (range, 5-753 cm3); 77 patients (57%) received 74 Gy(RBE), and 57 (42% received 60–72 Gy(RBE) (range, 60-74.1 Gy(RBE)). At a median follow-up time of 4.7 years, median OS times were 40.4 months (stage II) and 30.4 months (stage III). Five-year DFS rates were 17.3% (stage II) and 18.0% (stage III). OS, DFS, and local and distant control rates at 5 years did not differ by disease stage. Age and GTV were related to OS and DFS. Toxicity was tolerable, with 1 grade 4 esophagitis and 16 grade 3 events (2 pneumonitis, 6 esophagitis, 8 dermatitis). Conclusion This report of outcomes after proton therapy for 134 patients indicated that this regimen produced excellent OS with tolerable toxicity. PMID:26028228

  15. Localized fluidization burrowing mechanics of Ensis directus.

    PubMed

    Winter, Amos G; Deits, Robin L H; Hosoi, A E

    2012-06-15

    Muscle measurements of Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam, indicate that the organism only has sufficient strength to burrow a few centimeters into the soil, yet razor clams burrow to over 70 cm. In this paper, we show that the animal uses the motions of its valves to locally fluidize the surrounding soil and reduce burrowing drag. Substrate deformations were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a novel visualization system that enabled us to see through the soil and watch E. directus burrow in situ. PIV data, supported by soil and fluid mechanics theory, show that contraction of the valves of E. directus locally fluidizes the surrounding soil. Particle and fluid mixtures can be modeled as a Newtonian fluid with an effective viscosity based on the local void fraction. Using these models, we demonstrate that E. directus is strong enough to reach full burrow depth in fluidized soil, but not in static soil. Furthermore, we show that the method of localized fluidization reduces the amount of energy required to reach burrow depth by an order of magnitude compared with penetrating static soil, and leads to a burrowing energy that scales linearly with depth rather than with depth squared. PMID:22623195

  16. Thickness-dependent charge transport in few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Wei; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Fowlkes, Jason; Li, Xufan; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2016-04-22

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is currently under intensive study because of its exceptional optical and electrical properties in few-layer form. However, how charge transport mechanisms vary with the number of layers in MoS2 flakes remains unclear. Here, exfoliated flakes of MoS2 with various thicknesses were successfully fabricated into field-effect transistors (FETs) to measure the thickness and temperature dependences of electrical mobility. For these MoS2 FETs, measurements at both 295 K and 77 K revealed the maximum mobility for layer thicknesses between 5 layers (∼3.6 nm) and 10 layers (∼7 nm), with ∼70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) measured for 5 layer devices at 295 K. Temperature-dependent mobility measurements revealed that the mobility rises with increasing temperature to a maximum. This maximum occurs at increasing temperature with increasing layer thickness, possibly due to strong Coulomb scattering from charge impurities or weakened electron-phonon interactions for thicker devices. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements for different gate voltages revealed a metal-to-insulator transition for devices thinner than 10 layers, which may enable new memory and switching applications. This study advances the understanding of fundamental charge transport mechanisms in few-layer MoS2, and indicates the promise of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides as candidates for potential optoelectronic applications. PMID:26963583

  17. Estimation of satellite antenna phase center offsets for Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, P.; Fritsche, M.; Dach, R.; Schmid, R.; Montenbruck, O.; Uhlemann, M.; Prange, L.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite antenna phase center offsets for the Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites are estimated by two different analysis centers based on tracking data of a global GNSS network. The mean x- and y-offsets could be determined with a precision of a few centimeters. However, daily estimates of the x-offsets of the IOV satellites show pronounced systematic effects with a peak-to-peak amplitude of up to 70 cm that depend on the orbit model and the elevation of the Sun above the orbital plane. For the IOV y-offsets, no dependence on the orbit model exists but the scatter strongly depends on the elevation of the Sun above the orbital plane. In general, these systematic effects are significantly smaller for the FOC satellites. The z-offsets of the two analysis centers agree within the 10-15 cm level, and the time series do not show systematic effects. The application of an averaged Galileo satellite antenna model obtained from the two solutions results in a reduction of orbit day boundary discontinuities by up to one third—even if an independent software package is used.

  18. Application of the Prague C and M criteria for endoscopic description of columnar-lined esophagus in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jung Wan; Kim, Young Choon; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To ascertain whether the Prague circumferential (C) length and maximal (M) length criteria for grading the extent of Barrett’s esophagus can be applied prior to its widespread application in South Korea. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen consecutive cases with endoscopic columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) were included and classified according to the Prague C and M criteria. RESULTS: Of 213 cases with CLE, the distribution of maximum CLE lengths was: 0.5-0.9 cm in 99 cases (46.5%); 1.0-1.4 cm in 63 cases (29.6%); 1.5-1.9 cm in 15 cases (7.0%); 2.0-2.4 cm in 14 cases (6.6%); 2.5-2.9 cm in 1 case (0.5%); and 7.0 cm in 1 case (0.5%). Twenty cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. Two hundred and eight cases (97.7%) lacked the circumferential CLE component (C0Mx). Columnar islands were found in 70 cases (32.9%), of which 20 cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. CONCLUSION: In regions where most CLE patients display short or ultrashort tongue-like appearance, more detailed descriptions of CLE’s in < 1.0 cm lengths and columnar islands, as well as avoidance of repeating the prefix “C0” need to be considered in parallel with the widespread application of the Prague system in South Korea. PMID:27114749

  19. Adaptation of antennal neurons in moths is associated with cessation of pheromone-mediated upwind flight.

    PubMed

    Baker, T C; Hansson, B S; Löfstedt, C; Löfqvist, J

    1988-12-01

    A wind-borne plume of sex pheromone from a female moth or a synthetic source has a fine, filamentous structure that creates steep and rapid fluctuations in concentration for a male moth flying up the plume's axis. The firing rates from single antennal neurons on Agrotis segetum antennae decreased to nearly zero within seconds after the antennae were placed in a pheromone plume 70 cm downwind of a high-concentration source known from previous studies to cause in-flight arrestment of upwind progress. In a separate experiment, the fluctuating output from chilled neurons on Grapholita molesta antennae became attenuated in response to repetitive, experimentally delivered pheromone pulses. The attenuation was correlated with a previously reported higher percentage of in-flight arrestment exhibited by moths flying at cooler compared to warmer temperatures. These results indicate that two peripheral processes related to excessive concentration, complete adaptation of antennal neurons, or merely the attenuation of fluctuations in burst frequency, are important determinants of when upwind progress by a moth flying in a pheromone plume stops and changes to station keeping. Also, adaptation and attenuation may affect the sensation of blend quality by preferentially affecting cells sensitive to the most abundant components in airborne pheromone blends. PMID:3200859

  20. Different Modes of Turbulence in the Active Regions of the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, L. V.; Kostik, R. I.; Cheremnykh, O. K.

    In work the range of different methods for the analysis of characteristics of turbulent processes in the active regions of the solar photosphere has been used. The changes of fluctuations distribution function and its moments were analyzed, spectral analysis was carried out.It was found out from the observations of active region carried out with the 70-cm vacuum tower telescope VTT in Isanie (Tenerife Island, Spain) that the turbulent processes in the sun photosphere are characterized by two different spectra of turbulence. The first one of them is well known Kolmohorov spectrum, which describes the plasma with zero mean magnetic field. The second one is the Kraichnan spectrum with a different from zero mean magnetic field. Transition from one spectrum type to another one occurs at scale of 3 Mm.We have to note that the scale 3 Mm corresponds to one of mesogranulation and testifies about non-zero mean magnetic fields for the consideration of regions exceeding the granulation in active regions of the photosphere. Besides, this clears the possibility of appearance of selforganizing magnetic plasma structures such as spots, active regions and complexes of activity.

  1. The historical seismicity and prediction of ground motion in northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Ramírez, Iván N.; Montalvo-Arrieta, Juan C.

    2008-02-01

    This work constitutes the first attempt to understand the seismic hazard in northeast Mexico. We present a compilation of regional seismicity in northeast Mexico (24-31°N, 97-106°W), finding 148 earthquakes for the 1787-2006 period. The study area lies within three morphotectonic provinces: Basin, Range, and Rio Grande rift; Sierra Madre Oriental; and Gulf coastal plain. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps were computed for three different scenarios: 1928 Parral, Chihuahua ( MW = 6.5); 1931 Valentine, Texas ( MW = 6.4); and a hypothetical earthquake located in central Coahuila. Ground motion values were computed using attenuation relations developed for central and eastern North America and the Basin and Range provinces. The earthquake in central Coahuila is considered a critical scenario for the main cities of northeast Mexico. The damage associated with this hypothetical earthquake could be severe because most buildings were constructed without seismic criteria. The expected PGA values in Monterrey, Saltillo, and Monclova are between 30 and 70 cm/s 2. This earthquake might also produce or trigger significant landslides and rock falls in the Sierra Madre Oriental, where several cities are located on the mountain range.

  2. Distributions of labeled nitrogen in the profile of a fertilized sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mansell, R.S.; Fiskell, J.G.A.; Calvert, D.V.; Rogers, J.S.

    1986-02-01

    Isotopically labeled (/sup 15/N-depleted) ammonium sulfate (115 kg N ha/sup -1/) was applied to a Spodosol in a citrus grove, to determine the fate and subsequent distributions of NO/sub 3/-N and NH/sub 4/-N in the soil profile. The soil was tile-drained, and citrus trees were located on soil beds. The authors examined three soil management treatments: the original A1 horizon (ST): deep mixing of A1 and A2 horizons with the underlying Spodic horizon (DT); and incorporation of 56 Mg ha/sup -1/ of dolomitic limestone, along with deep mixing (DTL) of the profile. Soil samples were taken to the 70-cm depth in ST and to the 95-cm depth in DT and DTL soils and were extracted with 1 M KCl. Extracts were chemically analyzed for NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N concentrations and isotopic analysis was performed by mass spectroscopy. At 12 d after fertilization, both NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N values in the ST soil profile exceeded corresponding values for DT and DTL soils. This N was derived primarily from the fertilizer. With time, concentrations of both NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N decreased in profiles for all three soils; however, N concentrations in the ST soil consistently exceeded corresponding values for DT and DTL profiles.

  3. Tracing Viable Bacteria in Wadden Sea Sediments Using Phospholipid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetters, H.; Sass, H.; Cypionka, H.; Rullkotter, J.

    2001-12-01

    Lipid analysis is a commonly used tool for chemotaxonomical characterization of bacterial strains. In particular, phospholipids - determined as polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA) - have proven to be appropriate biomarkers for viable bacterial cells. In this study the lipid content of different bacterial isolates from an intertidal mudflat (Wadden Sea, NW Germany) was investigated. To identify the phospholipids present in the isolated bacteria, fractionated lipid extracts were studied using HPLC-ESI-MS and -MS-MS. This technique gives information on types of phospholipids and their corresponding fatty acid substituents. It could be shown by cluster analyses that the combined information of phospholipid types and corresponding fatty acids allows a better differentiation of bacterial groups than fatty acid patterns determined after whole cell hydrolysis. Sedimentary microbial communities were studied by an interdisciplinary approach using microbiological as well as geochemical techniques. Characteristic phospholipids were traced in the sediment cores (0-70 cm) in order to estimate the relative contributions of different bacterial groups to the sedimentary microbial communities. Seasonal variations of environmental parameters (temperature, sulfate concentrations, oxygen availability etc.) and their influence on the microbial communities were studied.

  4. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    PubMed

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, p<0.05). Fractures patterns were found to be comparable to the PMHS for tests conducted with Synbones, however the input parameters were slightly varied to produce similar results. The fractures patterns with the Sawbones were not found to be as comparable to the PMHS. An ideal bone surrogate for ballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted. PMID:26867672

  5. Blue starters∷ Brief upward discharges from an intense Arkansas thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Sentman, D. D.; Heavner, M. J.; Hampton, D. L.; Osborne, D. L.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    This paper documents the first observations of a new stratospheric electrical phenomenon associated with thunderstorms. On the night of 30 June (UT 1 July) 1994, 30 examples of these events, which we have called “blue starters,” were observed in a 6 m 44 s interval above the very energetic Arkansas thunderstorm where blue jets were first observed. The blue starters are distinguished from blue jets by a much lower terminal altitude. They are bright and blue in color, and protrude upward from the cloud top (17-18 km) to a maximum 25.5 km (83,655 ft.) in altitude. All blue starters events were recorded from two small areas near Texarkana, Texas/Arkansas where hail 7.0 cm in diameter was falling. Comparison to cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes revealed: 1. Blue starters were not observed to be coincident with either positive or negative CG flashes, but they do occur in the same general area as negative CG flashes; 2. Cumulative distributions of the negative CG flashes in ±5 s before and after the starter and within a radius of 50 km shows a significant reduction for about 3 s following the event in the two cells where starters and jets were observed. The energy deficit is approximately 109 J. It is possible that blue starters are a short-lived streamer phenomenon.

  6. Paleoclimatic reconstruction`s from Owens Lake core Ol-92, southeastern California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menking, K.M.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey cored Owens Lake to obtain a continuous paleoclimate record for the Sierra Nevada region. Owens Lake heads a chain of closed-basin lakes which are separated by a series of bedrock sills, received their water primarily from Sierra Nevadan precipitation, and overflowed during wet periods. The core records the histories of cyclic glaciation of the Sierra Nevada and water-balance of Owens Lake over the past 800 kyrs. A variety of paleoclimatic proxies have been studied, details of which may be found elsewhere. In this thesis, the author reports the results and interpretations of (1) grain-size and clay-mineralogical analyses performed on 3.5-m-long channel samples (%7500 years of sedimentation per sample) and point samples, (2) grain size, carbonate content, and oxygen isotopic measurements on 70-cm-long channel samples (%1500 years), and (3) a water-balance model used to infer the magnitude of runoff and evaporation changes necessary to fill the lakes in the Owens Lake system, and to determine the response time of the lake chain to climatic perturbations.

  7. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. MR imaging findings in 76 consecutive surgically proven cases of pericardial disease with CT and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Young, Phillip M; Glockner, James F; Williamson, Eric E; Morris, Michael F; Araoz, Philip A; Julsrud, Paul R; Schaff, Hartzell V; Edwards, William D; Oh, Jae K; Breen, Jerome F

    2012-06-01

    To describe findings of patients with surgically confirmed pericardial disease on state of the art MR sequences. Retrospective review was performed for patients who underwent pericardiectomy and preoperative MR over a 5 year period ending in 2009. Patients' records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of chronic recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, or pericardial tumor. MR imaging findings of pericardial thickness, IVC diameter, presence or absence of pericardial or pleural effusion, pericardial edema, pericardial enhancement, and septal "bounce" were recorded. Patients with constriction had a larger IVC diameter (3.1 ± 0.4 cm) than patients with recurrent pain and no constriction (2.0 ± 0.4 cm). Mean pericardial thickness for the 16 patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis but no evidence of constriction was 4.8 ± 2.9 mm. Mean pericardial thickness for patients with constriction was 9.2 ± 7.0 cm with calcification, and 4.6 ± 2.1 cm without calcification. 94% of patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis had gadolinium enhancement of the pericardium, while 76% of patients with constriction had pericardial enhancement. Septal "bounce" was present in 19% of chronic recurrent pericarditis cases and 86% of constriction cases. 5 patients had a pericardial neoplasm, 1 of which was not identified preoperatively. State of the art MR techniques can identify significant and distinct findings in patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, and pericardial tumors. PMID:21735292

  9. Preparation and characterization of glass fibers - polymers (epoxy) bars (GFRP) reinforced concrete for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkjk, Saeed; Jabra, Rafee; Alkhater, Salem

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents some of the results from a large experimental program undertaken at the Department of Civil Engineering of Damascus University. The project aims to study the ability to reinforce and strengthen the concrete by bars from Epoxy polymer reinforced with glass fibers (GFRP) and compared with reinforce concrete by steel bars in terms of mechanical properties. Five diameters of GFRP bars, and steel bars (4mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm) tested on tensile strength tests. The test shown that GFRP bars need tensile strength more than steel bars. The concrete beams measuring (15cm wide × 15cm deep × and 70cm long) reinforced by GFRP with 0.5 vol.% ratio, then the concrete beams reinforced by steel with 0.89 vol.% ratio. The concrete beams tested on deflection test. The test shown that beams which reinforced by GFRP has higher deflection resistance, than beams which reinforced by steel. Which give more advantage to reinforced concrete by GFRP.

  10. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm³ Ce-doped Gd-Al-Ga-garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for (133)Ba at 0.356 MeV, (22)Na at 0.511 MeV, (137)Cs at 0.662 MeV, and (60)Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm². PMID:27338392

  11. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 Ce-doped Gd–Al–Ga–garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for 133Ba at 0.356 MeV, 22Na at 0.511 MeV, 137Cs at 0.662 MeV, and 60Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm2. PMID:27338392

  12. Low Reynolds Number Drag Alteration Inspired by Butterfly Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforte, Brent; Kronenberger, Courtney; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Biomimetics is the process of looking towards nature's adaptations for answers to today's engineering obstacles. An age-old engineering dilemma is trying to find new methods to reduce the amount of drag over a body. This research finds inspiration from butterfly scales which are hypothesized to alter surface friction over the wings. Drop testing was performed on axisymmetric, streamlined, teardrop models which were rapid-prototyped such that the surface was covered with either streamwise or transverse cavities modeled after the Monarch butterfly. The drop tank contained silicone oil with a viscosity two hundred times that of water insuring flow similarity between the model cavities (2.5 mm cavity depth) and the butterfly scale structures (about 30 microns cavity depth). A variation in Reynolds number was achieved by altering the model weight such that terminal speeds ranged from 5 to 70 cm/s. Results showed a reduction in surface friction for the transverse cavity configurations based on the roller-bearing effect. These findings suggest that the cavity shape and ratio is directly correlated to the amount of drag alteration. Funded by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  13. Optimal time duration for low-pressure controlled reperfusion to efficiently protect ischemic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Bopassa, J C; Nemlin, C; Sebbag, L; Rodriguez, C; Ovize, M; Ferrera, R

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have shown the capacity of low-pressure (LP) reperfusion to protect the ischemic heart. The present study sought to determine the optimal time for the application of LP reperfusion. Isolated rat hearts (n = 30) were exposed to 40 minutes of global warm ischemia followed by 70 minutes of reperfusion. Reperfusion was performed under LP (LP = 70 cm H(2)O) for 0 (control group), 5 (group LP-5), 10 (group LP-10), 30 (group LP-30), or 60 (group LP-60) minutes. Following the LP period the hearts were reperfused with normal pressure (100 cm H(2)O) until the end of reperfusion. Cardiac function was assessed during reperfusion using the Langendorff model. Myocardial necrosis was assessed by measuring LDH leakage in the coronary effluents. Functional recovery was reduced among the control and LP-5 groups with rate-pressure products (RPP) averaging 3788 +/- 499 and 5333 +/- 892 mm Hg/min, respectively. RPP was significantly improved in other groups with RPP averaging 7363 +/- 1159, 7441 +/- 863, and 7269 +/- 692 mm Hg/min in LP-10, LP-30, and LP-60 (P < .01). Similarly, necrosis measured by LDH leakage was significantly reduced in LP-10, LP-30, and LP-60 hearts (P < .01). This study demonstrated that LP reperfusion improves postischemic contractile dysfunction and attenuates necrosis when applied for at least 10 minutes. PMID:17954191

  14. Spatial resolution and chest nodule detection: an interesting incidental finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, R. J.; McEntee, M. F.; Ryan, J. T.; Evanoff, M. G.; Hayes, A.; Brennan, P. C.

    2010-02-01

    This study reports an incidental finding from a larger work. It examines the relationship between spatial resolution and nodule detection for chest radiographs. Twelve examining radiologists with the American Board of Radiology read thirty chest radiographs in two conditions - full (1500 × 1500 pixel) resolution, and 300 × 300 pixel resolution linearly interpolated to 1500 × 1500 pixels. All images were surrounded by a 10-pixel sharp grey border to aid in focussing the observer's eye when viewing the comparatively unsharp interpolated images. Fifteen of the images contained a single simulated pulmonary nodule. Observers were asked to rate their confidence that a nodule was present on each radiograph on a scale of 1 (least confidence, certain no lesion is present) to 6 (most confidence, certain a lesion was present). All other abnormalities were to be ignored. No windowing, levelling or magnification of the images was permitted and viewing distance was constrained to approximately 70cm. Images were displayed on a 3 megapixel greyscale monitor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to the results of the readings using the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz multiplereader, multiple-case method. No statistically significant differences were found with either readers and cases treated as random or with cases treated as fixed. Low spatial frequency information appears to be sufficient for the detection of chest lesion of the type used in this study.

  15. Beam Dump Design for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Reyes, S

    2006-05-02

    Beam dumps for the heavy ion beams of the fragmentation line of the Rare Isotope Accelerator have been designed. The most severe operational case involves a continuous U beam impacting the beam dump with a power of 295 kW and a nominal spot diameter size of 5 cm. The dump mechanically consists of two rotating barrels with a water cooled outer wall of 2 mm thick aluminum. The barrels are 70 cm in diameter and axially long enough to intercept a variety of other beams. The aluminum wall absorbs approximately 15% of the U beam power with the rest absorbed in the water downstream of the wall. The water acts as an absorber of the beam and as a coolant for the 2 mm aluminum wall. The barrel rotates at less than 400 RPM, maximum aluminum temperatures are less than 100 C and maximum thermal fatigue stresses are low at 3.5 x 10{sup 7} Pa (5 ksi). Rotation of the dump results in relatively low radiation damage levels with an operating lifetime of years for most beams.

  16. Effects of an apovincaminic acid derivative VA-045 on neuronal activity in rat brain stem reticular formation.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, S; Kawashima, N; Araki, H; Otomo, S; Shima, K

    1994-01-01

    Extracellular single unit and spontaneous cortical electroencephalographic (ECoG) recordings were made in the brain stem reticular formation (RF) and the frontal cortex, respectively, of urethane-anesthetized rats. VA-045, an apovincaminic acid derivative had no significant effects on the spontaneous firing rate of the RF neurons and ECoG. Closed head injury (CHI) was induced by dropping a 400 g weight through a tube from 70 cm on a steel helmet placed on the vertex. CHI led to a reduction in the firing rate of RF neurons and ECoG synchronization. VA-045 dose-dependently reversed the CHI-induced decrease in the firing rate of RF and led to ECoG desyncronization. Clonidine, an alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist, and scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, also reduced the firing rate of RF neurons and led to ECoG synchronization. VA-045 dose-dependently antagonized the effects of clonidine, but not the effects of scopolamine on RF neuronal activity and ECoG. Thus, VA-045 has an ameliorating effect on the CHI-induced depression of neuronal activity in the RF. A central alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonistic action may be involved. PMID:7968229

  17. Characterization of a PET Camera Optimized for ProstateImaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.; Qi,Jinyi; Hu, Jicun; Wang, G.C.; Wilson, David; Oh, Sang; Huesman, RonaldH.; Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2005-11-11

    We present the characterization of a positron emission tomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair of external curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis). The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access and to position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivity with patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rows of 20 HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 detectors in the camera. The individual detectors are angled in the transaxial plane to point towards the prostate to reduce resolution degradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified HRRT data acquisition electronics. Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our dedicated-prostate camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less background (less randoms and lower scatter fraction) and a lower cost. We have completed construction of the camera. Characterization data and reconstructed images of several phantoms are shown. Sensitivity of a point source in the center is 946 cps/mu Ci. Spatial resolution is 4 mm FWHM in the central region.

  18. International Summer Schools "Rozhen" and Their Role in Astronomy Education for Students and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, V.

    2010-09-01

    For the past seven years teachers and students from different European countries have attended the International summer schools at the National Astronomical Observatory "Rozhen", Bulgaria. During the schools there is a cycle of theoretical astronomy education, a series of practical tasks and a rich observational program. In the observational program, whose completion is the primary task of the students, two professional telescopes are used - a 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope and a 60 cm telescope - together with astronomers from the National astronomical observatory. During the completion of the program, the students become familiar with the work of astronomers, they learn how to work with observational equipment, astronomical software for controlling CCD cameras and for image processing. The students make astrometric observations of comets and asteroids, they observe extrasolar planets, supernovas, star clusters, galaxies and nebulae with the goal to prepare a student Messier catalogue; they observe Saturn, Jupiter and its satellites, and the Moon, with the goal to register short-term lunar phenomena. The intensive training during the international astronomical observing summer schools contributes to the enrichment of the astronomical knowledge of the participants and the development of their skills in working with observing equipment and analytical software. A significant success of the schools is the large percentage of student-participants who continue their careers in the field of astronomy.

  19. Design of ultrasonic attenuation sensor with focused transmitter for density measurements of a slurry in a large steel pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2015-12-15

    To design an ultrasonic sensor to measure the attenuation and density of a slurry carried by a large steel pipeline (diameter up to 70 cm) is the goal of this research. The pitch-catch attenuation sensor, placed in a small section of the pipeline, contains a send unit with a focused transducer that focuses the ultrasound to a small region of the receive unit on the opposite wall. The focused transducer consists of a section of a sphere (base ~12 cm) on the outer side of the send unit and a 500 kHz piezoelectric shell of PZT5A epoxied to it. The Rayleigh surface integral is used to calculate the pressure in steel and in water (slurry). An incremental method to plot the paths of ultrasonic rays shows that the rays focus where expected. Further, there is a region where the parallel rays are perpendicular to the wall of the receive unit. Designs for pipeline diameters of 25 cm and 71 cm show that the pressure in water at the receive transducer is about 17 times that for a pitch-catch system using 5 cm diameter disk transducers. The enhanced signal increases the sensitivity of the measurements and improves the signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Evaluation of the internal temperatures of an 8.6 kDa protein cation exposed to a hot dispenser cathode employed in electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Kim, Byungjoo; Ahn, Seonghee; So, Hun-Young; Lee, Sunyoung; Oh, Han Bin

    2006-01-01

    The 'effective' internal temperature of an 8.6 kDa ubiquitin cation was estimated under electron capture dissociation (ECD) conditions, in which a dispenser cathode electron source was mounted just outside an ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell, i.e., axially displaced at a distance less than 1 cm from the rear trap plate of the ICR cell. In this ECD configuration, thermal activation of the molecular ions stored in the ICR cell was anticipated since the heated dispenser cathode (T(cathode surface) > 1000 degrees C) emitted a large amount of (both visible and infrared) radiation as well as electrons. An evaluation of the internal temperature of ubiquitin 6+ and 7+ cations was made by comparing our ECD fragmentation patterns with those obtained by McLafferty et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002; 124: 6407) as a function of the ion temperature. In McLafferty's configuration, the heating (or thermal activation) effect of their filament source was minimal since the filament was displaced by a distance as far as 70 cm from their ICR cell. A careful comparison reveals that the fragmentation patterns obtained in this work are very similar to those previously measured at T approximately 125 degrees C. In terms of sequence coverage, our ECD configuration provides better results, and in particular without the aid of any other simultaneous activation method, such as thermal heating, infrared multiphoton irradiation, or collisional activation, except for the visible and infrared radiation from the heated cathode. PMID:16715464

  1. The effect of increase in baggage weight on elderly women's lower extremity muscle activation during gait.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Nam, Chan-Woo; Yong, Min-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of increased baggage weight on the muscle activation of elderly women's lower extremities during gait. A total of 24 elderly women who were residing in communities in Daegu, South Korea aged 79.6±6.2, 149.7±7.0cm in height, and 53.5±7.2kg in weight participated in this study. The muscle activation of each muscle was measured three times at 2kg, 3kg, and 4kg of baggage weight while the subjects were conducting treadmill walking wearing backpacks. Electrodes were placed on four muscles: the quadriceps muscle (rectus femoris), the hamstring muscle (semitendinosus), the tibialis anterior muscle, and the soleus muscle. The results show that the rates of increase in muscle activation in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles according to baggage weight increase were higher than those in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (<0.05). These results indicate that the heavier weight loads increase the activation of muscles that control the ankle joints causing muscle fatigue. Moreover, a decrease in balance ability through muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for falls. Thus, elderly people should be instructed not to carry heavy objects. PMID:25179442

  2. The LAPD Upgrade, Construction of a 18 meter plasma facility for Basic Physics Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Patrick; Gekelman, Walter; Leneman, David

    1998-11-01

    The LAPD (LArge Plasma Device) at UCLA is in the process of being upgraded to a 18m long, 70 cm diameter plasma column with background magnetic field strength up to 4 KiloGauss. (Plasma length ≈ 2X10^6 λ _Debye diameter ≈ 1600 R_cI, 160 c/ω_pe, 2 c/ω_pi) The plasma is produced using two Barium Oxide coated cathodes, one at each end. The chambers containing the cathodes have been designed to allow for the production of counterstreaming plasmas. The machine has 450 radial access ports and ten specially designed ports with nearly 360^o viewing access (for LIF and microwave tomography). Many of the ports will have vacuum interlock stations for rapid reconfiguration of the experiments. Helium plasmas will be fully ionized and are expected to have densities ≈ 5X10^12 cm^3, Te ≈ 20 e.V., Ti ≈ 3 e.V). The machine is designed for rapid turnaround of experiments and full 3 dimensional diagnostic access. It will be fully automated and networked to a state of the art data analysis and visualization network. Details of the construction of the machine, its diagnostics and its current status will be presented.

  3. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    PubMed

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (≤ 300 mg/kg as P₂O₅), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (≤ 80%), increased the Mg (≤ 101%) and Si (≤ 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing. PMID:22364593

  4. Full-system laboratory testing of the F/15 deformable secondary mirror for the new MMT adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcguire, Patrick C.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael; Angel, J. Roger P.; Angeli, George Z.; Johnson, Robert L.; Fitz-Patrick, Bruce C.; Davison, Warren B.; Sarlot, Roland J.; Bresloff, Cynthia J.; Hughes, John M.; Miller, Stephen M.; Schaller, Skip; Wildi, Francois P.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Cordova, Richard M.; Rademacher, Matthew J.; Rascon, Mario H.; Burge, James H.; Stamper, Brian L.; Zhao, Chunyu; Salinari, Piero; del Vecchio, Ciro; Riccardi, Armando; Brusa, Guido; Biasi, Roberto; Andrighettoni, Mario; Gallieni, Daniele; Franchini, Claudio; Sandler, David G.; Barrett, Todd K.

    1999-09-01

    We will present a system to perform closed-loop optical tests of the 64 cm diameter, 336 actuator adaptive secondary made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory. Testing will include Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing and modal correction of static and dynamic aberrated wavefronts. The test optical system is designed so that experiments can be made with both the focal plane instrument and secondary installed in their normal configuration at the MMT, or with the same 9 m spacing in a laboratory test tower. The convex secondary will be illuminated at normal incidence through two 70 cm diameter lenses mounted just below. The artificial, aberrated star is projected from near the wavefront sensor in the Cassegrain focus assembly. Computer generated holograms correct for spherical aberration in the really optics at the test wavelengths of 0.594 and 1.5 micrometers . Atmospheric turbulence is reproduced by two spinning transmission plates imprinted with Kolmogorov turbulence. The Shimmulator will give us the opportunity to test fully the adaptive optics system before installation at the new MMT, hence saving much precious telescope time.

  5. Performance of the LBL AECR source at various frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Lundgren, S.A.; Collins, D.

    1992-07-01

    To study the effects of frequency on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, the LBL Advanced ECR ion source (designed to operate at 14 GHz) has been tested at 6.4, 10, and 14 GHz with one plasma chamber (ID = 6.0 cm), a permanent sextuple magnet ( closed sextuple'') with a field strength of 0.84 Tesla at the chamber wall, and no radial vacuum pumping. Pure oxygen was used as the running gas for a fair comparison. The source was tested as a single stage, as well as with cold electron injection using an electron gun in place of a conventional microwave-driven first stage. Higher frequency, with a higher axial magnetic field to ensure a closed ECR zone for electron heating, does give better performance. As demonstrated before, at each frequency electron injection led to about a factor of two increase in the high charge state oxygen beam intensity. The 14 GHz performance of the AECR source with the closed sextuple magnet was compared to the slotted sextuple'' (a plasma chamber with radial pumping slots of 7.0-cm dia and a weaker magnet of 0.64 Tesla at the chamber wall). Results show that a stronger sextuple magnet alone does not automatically improve the source performance.

  6. Performance of the LBL AECR source at various frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Lundgren, S.A.; Collins, D.

    1992-07-01

    To study the effects of frequency on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, the LBL Advanced ECR ion source (designed to operate at 14 GHz) has been tested at 6.4, 10, and 14 GHz with one plasma chamber (ID = 6.0 cm), a permanent sextuple magnet (``closed sextuple``) with a field strength of 0.84 Tesla at the chamber wall, and no radial vacuum pumping. Pure oxygen was used as the running gas for a fair comparison. The source was tested as a single stage, as well as with cold electron injection using an electron gun in place of a conventional microwave-driven first stage. Higher frequency, with a higher axial magnetic field to ensure a closed ECR zone for electron heating, does give better performance. As demonstrated before, at each frequency electron injection led to about a factor of two increase in the high charge state oxygen beam intensity. The 14 GHz performance of the AECR source with the closed sextuple magnet was compared to the ``slotted sextuple`` (a plasma chamber with radial pumping slots of 7.0-cm dia and a weaker magnet of 0.64 Tesla at the chamber wall). Results show that a stronger sextuple magnet alone does not automatically improve the source performance.

  7. Effect of reactive skin decontamination lotion on skin wound healing in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Walters, Thomas J; Kauvar, David S; Reeder, Joanna; Baer, David G

    2007-03-01

    Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) is a proposed replacement for the existing skin and equipment decontamination kit. Because RSDL may need to be used to decontaminate wounded personnel, we conducted an assessment of the effect of this agent on wound healing. A skin incision model using male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 19 rats/group) was used. A 7.0-cm incision was made through the skin, and RSDL was (experimental group) or was not (control group) applied to the open wound; the wound edges were then approximated with sutures. Seven days later, animals were euthanized and wound samples were taken. Healing was assessed by measuring mechanical strength, collagen content, and histological appearance. RSDL-treated wounds had 23% lower tensile strength (p < 0.05) and 11% lower collagen content (p < 0.05) than did the untreated control wounds. Histological assessments did not differ significantly between groups. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the application of RSDL directly to an open wound impairs wound strength and decreases collagen content in the early phases of wound healing. This may have clinical implications for the treatment and outcomes of chemical casualty combat trauma. PMID:17436779

  8. Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald R.; Montgomery, David R.; Peterson, N. Phil; Crowley, Bruce

    2007-09-01

    An assemblage of fossil sockeye salmon was discovered in Pleistocene lake sediments along the South Fork Skokomish River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The fossils were abundant near the head of a former glacial lake at 115 m elevation. Large adult salmon are concentrated in a sequence of death assemblages that include individuals with enlarged breeding teeth and worn caudal fins indicating migration, nest digging, and spawning prior to death. The specimens were 4 yr old and 45-70 cm in total length, similar in size to modern sockeye salmon, not landlocked kokanee. The fossils possess most of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O. gorbuscha. This suggests the degree of divergence of these species at about 1 million yr ago, when geological evidence indicates the salmon were deposited at the head of a proglacial lake impounded by the Salmon Springs advance of the Puget lobe ice sheet. Surficial geology and topography record a complicated history of glacial damming and river diversion that implies incision of the modern gorge of the South Fork Skokomish River after deposition of the fossil-bearing sediments.

  9. The use of impact force as a scale parameter for the impact response of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The building block approach is currently used to design composite structures. With this approach, the data from coupon tests are scaled up to determine the design of a structure. Current standard impact tests and methods of relating test data to other structures are not generally understood and are often used improperly. A methodology is outlined for using impact force as a scale parameter for delamination damage for impacts of simple plates. Dynamic analyses were used to define ranges of plate parameters and impact parameters where quasi-static analyses are valid. These ranges include most low-velocity impacts where the mass of the impacter is large, and the size of the specimen is small. For large-mass impacts of moderately thick (0.35-0.70 cm) laminates, the maximum extent of delamination damage increased with increasing impact force and decreasing specimen thickness. For large-mass impact tests at a given kinetic energy, impact force and hence delamination size depends on specimen size, specimen thickness, boundary conditions, and indenter size and shape. If damage is reported in terms of impact force instead of kinetic energy, large-mass test results can be applied directly to other plates of the same thickness.

  10. The use of impact force as a scale parameter for the impact response of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The building block approach is currently used to design composite structures. With this approach, the data from coupon tests is scaled up to determine the design of a structure. Current standard impact tests and methods of relating test data to other structures are not generally understood and are often used improperly. A methodology is outlined for using impact force as a scale parameter for delamination damage for impacts of simple plates. Dynamic analyses were used to define ranges of plate parameters and impact parameters where quasi-static analyses are valid. These ranges include most low velocity impacts where the mass of the impacter is large and the size of the specimen is small. For large mass impacts of moderately thick (0.35 to 0.70 cm) laminates, the maximum extent of delamination damage increased with increasing impact force and decreasing specimen thickness. For large mass impact tests at a given kinetic energy, impact force and hence delamination size depends on specimen size, specimen thickness, boundary conditions, and indenter size and shape. If damage is reported in terms of impact force instead of kinetic energy, large mass test results can be applied directly to other plates of the same size.

  11. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avşar, Ulaş; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Avşar, Özgür; Schmidt, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Earthquake-triggered landslides amplify erosion rates in catchments, i.e., catchment response (CR) to seismic shocks. In addition to historical eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers implying CRs after large earthquakes, several studies have quantitatively reported increased sediment concentrations in rivers after earthquakes. However, only a few paleolimnological studies could detect CRs within lacustrine sedimentary sequences as siliciclastic-enriched intercalations within background sedimentation. Since siliciclastic-enriched intercalations can easily be of nonseismic origin, their temporal correlation with nearby earthquakes is crucial to assign a seismic triggering mechanism. In most cases, either uncertainties in dating methods or the lack of recent seismic activity has prevented reliable temporal correlations, making the seismic origin of observed sedimentary events questionable. Here we attempt to remove this question mark by presenting sedimentary traces of CRs in the 370-year-long varved sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ~20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations, while CRs seem only to be triggered by PGA levels higher than 70 cm/s2. In Köyceğiz Lake, CRs produce Cr- and Ni-enriched sedimentation due to the seismically mobilized soils derived from ultramafic rocks in the catchment. Given the varve chronology, the residence time of the seismically mobilized material in the catchment is determined to be 5 to 10 years.

  12. A Microstructural View of Burrowing with Roboclam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Kerstin; Dorsch, Dan; Losert, Wolfgang; Winter, V., Amos

    2014-03-01

    Roboclam is a burrowing technology inspired by Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam. The organism only has sufficient strength to burrow a few centimeters into the soil, yet razor clams dig to over 70 cm. The animal uses motions of its valves to contract and thereby locally fluidize the surrounding soil and reduce burrowing drag. Roboclam technology is valuable for subsea applications that could benefit from efficient burrowing, such as anchoring, mine detonation, and cable laying. We directly visualize the movement of soil grains during the contraction of Roboclam, using a novel index-matching technique along with particle tracking. We show that a previously developed mechanical theory for E. directus describes the size of the failure zone around contracting Roboclam, provided that the timescale of contraction is sufficiently large. We also show that the nonaffine motions of the grains are a small fraction of the motion within the fluidized zone, affirming the relevance of a continuum model for this system, even though the grain size is comparable to the size of Roboclam.

  13. Synchronous double primary malignancies of the liver and kidney: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SUN, JUN-JUN; YANG, TIAN-BAO; YANG, YAN-HUI; LIU, WEI-FENG; SONG, JUN-XIN

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old male patient was admitted to the Department of General Surgery of The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology (Luoyang, China) presenting with abdominal discomfort. Enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a 15.1×7.0-cm, enhanced, double-spherical, exogenous, solid tumor originating from the left lateral hepatic lobe, in addition to a 4.3×4.2-cm mass in the mid portion of the left kidney. Pre-operative imaging analysis resulted in the diagnosis of double cancer, consisting of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The patient subsequently underwent left hemihepatectomy and left nephrectomy. Histological examination confirmed that the tumor originating from the left lateral hepatic lobe was HCC, and the tumor arising from the mid portion of the left kidney was clear cell RCC (ccRCC). The post-operative follow-up was uneventful. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first of its kind to describe the resection of synchronous double cancer, consisting of primary HCC and ccRCC. PMID:26998121

  14. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatments. The measured ecological diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, HꞋ; Simpson, D; and richness, S) of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene profiles also revealed differences between the treatments, with bacterial and fungal community dominance recorded in the presence of S. scrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments. PMID:26654074

  15. Extranodal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: A clinicopathological report of four cases and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    WANG, RUI-FEN; HAN, WEI; QI, LEI; SHAN, LI-HUI; WANG, ZHENG-CAI; WANG, LI-FENG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), and to report the experience of the Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, China) with this entity. The clinicopathological findings of four cases that had recently been encountered and 142 previously reported cases in the English literature were evaluated. The current tumors were found in two male and two female patients, aged 49–76 years old, who exhibited a mean tumor size of 8.7 cm. Three of the four cases were misdiagnosed during the initial diagnosis and one experienced intra-abdominal recurrence six months after the first diagnosis. Assessment of all 142 cases in the literature revealed a mild female predominance. The tumors exhibited a mean tumor size of ~7.0 cm. Histologically, the tumors were composed of plump spindle- or oval-shaped cells that exhibited eosinophilic cytoplasm and were arranged in sheets, storiform patterns or whorls. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed at least one of the FDC markers. Among the 130 cases with follow-up data, the overall recurrence, metastasis and mortality rates were 49.2% (64 cases), 21.5% (28 cases), and 13.8% (18 cases), respectively. FDCS can appear deceptively similar to other soft-tissue tumors, even poorly-differentiated carcinomas. A correct diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion and immunohistochemical evaluation. PMID:25435998

  16. Seed composition of soybeans grown in the Harran region of Turkey as affected by row spacing and irrigation.

    PubMed

    Boydak, Erkan; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Hayta, Mehmet; Gerçek, Sinan; Simsek, Mehmet

    2002-07-31

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of row spacing (RS) and irrigation (IR) on protein content, oil content, and fatty acid composition of soybeans grown in the Harran region of Turkey. Oil content of the seed varied from 20.9 to 22.3%. Oil and protein contents were both affected by year. RS and IR affected protein and oil contents significantly (P < 0.01) in both years. RS of 70 cm had the highest protein content, followed by RS of 60, 40, and 50 cm, respectively. IR every 3rd day resulted in the highest level of protein, followed by 6th, 9th, and 12th day irrigation, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between protein and oil content was -0.791 in 1998 and -0.721 in 1999. RS (P < 0.01) and IR (P < 0.01) influenced oleic and linoleic acid contents significantly. Interactions of RS and IR were also found to be significant (P < 0.05) for the oleic and linoleic acid contents of soybeans. PMID:12137503

  17. Automated Quantitative Spectral Classification of Stars in Areas of the main Meridional Section of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvelidze, Teimuraz; Malyuto, Valeri

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative spectral classification of F, G and K stars with the 70-cm telescope of the Ambastumani Astrophysical Observatory in areas of the main meridional section of the Galaxy, and for which proper motion data are available, has been performed. Fundamental parameters have been obtained for several hundred stars. Space densities of stars of different spectral types, the stellar luminosity function and the relationships between the kinematics and metallicity of stars have been studied. The results have confirmed and completed the conclusions made on the basis of some previous spectroscopic and photometric surveys. Many plates have been obtained for other important directions in the sky: the Kapteyn areas, the Galactic anticentre, the main meridional section of the Galaxy and etc. Very rich collection of photographic objective spectral plates (30,000 were accumulated during last 60 years) is available at Abastumani Observatory-wavelength range 3900-4900 A, about 2A resolution. Availability of new devices for automatic registration of spectra from photographic plates as well as some recently developed classification techniques may allow now to create a modern system of automatic spectral classification and with expension of classification techniques to additional types (B-A, M spectral classes). The data can be treated with the same quantitative method applied here. This method may also be applied to other available and future spectroscopic data of similar resolution, notably that obtained with large format CCD detectors on Schmidt-type telescopes.

  18. Detection and initial characterisation of an exoplanet atmosphere with small aperture telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernt, I.; Müller, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Granzer, T.

    2013-09-01

    In the recent years atmospheres of exoplanets have been studied with space-based telescopes like the HST or large aperture ground-based telescopes like the Gran Telescopio Canarias. But as the number of suitable exoplanets is rising, comparative studies of atmospheres with a statistically meaningful amount of targets will follow, for which the observational time with large telescopes is limited and expensive. Our aim is to investigate whether it is possible to detect and initially characterise the atmosphere of an exoplanet with small aperture telescopes using chromatic variations in transit depths. We collected multi-color transits in the years 2011 to 2013 using the robotic 1.2m-telescope STELLA on Tenerife as well as the Nordic Optical Telescope and the 70cm-telescope at the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam. The highly inflated Hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b was chosen as target for our pilot study for its favorable large atmospheric scale height and therefore enhanced atmospheric detectability. Models of the atmospheric spectra of HAT-P-32 b indicate that the STELLA-data can be used to distinguish between a dusty and a cloud-free atmosphere using the gradient in transit depth of the observations in the blue band and in the visible band. Here we want to present our project together with the first results of the transit depth analysis.

  19. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicks, C.W.; Thatcher, W.; Dzurisin, D.; Svarc, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed ???640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected ???1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began ???16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from ???150,000 to ???70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of ???70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  20. University Satellite Featuring Latest OBC Core & Payload Data Processing Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickhoff, Jens; Roser, Hans-Peter; Stevenson, Dave; Habinc, Sandi

    2010-08-01

    As already published in diverse papers, University of Stuttgart, Germany, is running a small satellite development programme. The first satellite under development (Phase C) is a 3-axis stabilized LEO satellite with a box size of 60cm x 70cm x 80cm, deployable solar panels, ACS including star trackers, wheels and GPS and a mass of 120kg. Launch is envisaged 2013 on an ISRO PSLV launcher. The design is conceptualized to be suitable not only for this specific mission, but to serve as Future Lowcost Platform for diverse science smallsat missions. This paper presents the latest onboard computer technologies selected and defined for the spacecraft covering both the main OBC (CDMU) as well as the payload data processing unit (PMC). The key point is that although being a university project it has been achieved to implement onboard hardware and software design to be fully compliant to international space standards like CCSDS and PUS. The corresponding author is system engineering coach for the project from industry.

  1. Removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole from synthetic municipal waste water in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands: Start-up results.

    PubMed

    Nowrotek, Monika; Sochacki, Adam; Felis, Ewa; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the start-up removal of pharmaceutical compounds diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands and their effect on the performance of the studied constructed wetlands, and also to assess the effect of plants on the removal of these compounds. The experimental system that was used in this 86-day experiment consisted of 24 columns filled up to 70 cm with predominantly sandy material. Four types of columns were used (six replicates) depending on the presence of plants (Phalaris arundinacea L. var. picta L.) and the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the influent. The influent was synthetic municipal waste water to which a mixture of 5 mg/L of diclofenac and 5 mg/L of sulfamethoxazole was added. The observed removal of diclofenac was moderate (approx. 50%) and the removal of sulfamethoxazole was relatively low (24-30%). It was found that the removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole was not affected by the vegetation. The presence of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in the influent had significant effect on the effluent concentration of N-NO3 and the water loss in the columns, which in both cases were lower than in the control columns. The scope for further research was discussed. PMID:26247111

  2. Early-onset brain metastases in a breast cancer patient after pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Takashi; Yoneyama, Shuko; Kita, Kumiko; Narui, Kazutaka; Sugae, Sadayoshi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Tanabe, Mikiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Chishima, Takashi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Endo, Itaru

    2013-11-01

    Breast cancer patients who achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) usually have a favourable prognosis. We report on a patient with early metastases to the brain after achieving pCR. The primary tumour was 7.0 cm in diameter with axillary lymph node metastases, hormone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive (3+), and histological grade 2 with 60% of cells positive for Ki-67. The patient underwent NAC followed by surgery, and achieved pCR. Five months after surgery, during adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab, she developed headache and dizziness. Brain imaging revealed multiple metastatic brain tumours. She received whole-brain radiotherapy followed by lapatinib and capecitabine therapy. At 7 months after surgery, she remains alive with a persistent mild headache. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of early brain metastases, and consider new treatment strategies to prevent brain metastases in high-risk patients who achieve pCR. PMID:24222158

  3. Slow dynamics at Re =108 in turbulent Helium flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, Javier; Roche, Philippe; Rousset, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    The presence of slow dynamics is a recurrent feature of many turbulent flows. This behaviour can be created by instabilities of the mean flow or by other mechanisms. In this work we analyze the behavior of a highly turbulent flow (maximum Reynolds number Re =108 , with a Reynolds based on the Taylor microscale Reλ = 2000). The experimental cell consists on a closed cavity filled with liquid Helium (330 liters) close to the lambda point (between 1.8 and 2.5 K) where two inhomogeneous and strongly turbulent flows collide in a thin region. The cylindrical cavity has a diameter of 78cm and two impellers rotate in opposite directions with rotation frequencies up to 2 Hz. The distance between the propellers is 70 cm. Different experimental runs have been performed, both in the normal and superfluid phases. We have performed velocity measurements using home-made Pitot tubes. Here we would like to present preliminary results on this configuration. The analysis of the data series reveals that below the injection frequencies there are different dynamical regimes with time scales two orders of magnitude below the injection scale. We acknowledge support from the EuHIT network and the SHREK Collaboration.

  4. LASER TRIGGERED GAS SWITCHES UTILIZING BEAM TRANSPORT THROUGH 1 MO-cm DEIONIZED WATER.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, Joseph Ray; Lehr, Jane; Blickem, James R.; Wallace, Zachariah R.; Anaya, Victor Jr; Corley, John P; Lott, John; Hodge, Keith; Zameroski, Nathan D.

    2005-11-01

    We report on the successful attempts to trigger high voltage pressurized gas switches by utilizing beam transport through 1 MO-cm deionized water. The wavelength of the laser radiation was 532 nm. We have investigated Nd: YAG laser triggering of a 6 MV, SF6 insulated gas switch for a range of laser and switch parameters. Laser wavelength of 532 nm with nominal pulse lengths of 10 ns full width half maximum (FWHM) were used to trigger the switch. The laser beam was transported through 67 cm-long cell of 1 MO-cm deionized water constructed with anti reflection UV grade fused silica windows. The laser beam was then focused to form a breakdown arc in the gas between switch electrodes. Less than 10 ns jitter in the operation of the switch was obtained for laser pulse energies of between 80-110 mJ. Breakdown arcs more than 35 mm-long were produced by using a 70 cm focusing optic.

  5. Estimating Lunar Pyroclastic Deposit Depth from Imaging Radar Data: Applications to Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. A.; Stacy, N. J.; Campbell, D. B.; Zisk, S. H.; Thompson, T. W.; Hawke, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits represent one of the primary anticipated sources of raw materials for future human settlements. These deposits are fine-grained volcanic debris layers produced by explosive volcanism contemporaneous with the early stage of mare infilling. There are several large regional pyroclastic units on the Moon (for example, the Aristarchus Plateau, Rima Bode, and Sulpicius Gallus formations), and numerous localized examples, which often occur as dark-halo deposits around endogenic craters (such as in the floor of Alphonsus Crater). Several regional pyroclastic deposits were studied with spectral reflectance techniques: the Aristarchus Plateau materials were found to be a relatively homogeneous blanket of iron-rich glasses. One such deposit was sampled at the Apollo 17 landing site, and was found to have ferrous oxide and titanium dioxide contents of 12 percent and 5 percent, respectively. While the areal extent of these deposits is relatively well defined from orbital photographs, their depths have been constrained only by a few studies of partially filled impact craters and by imaging radar data. A model for radar backscatter from mantled units applicable to both 70-cm and 12.6-cm wavelength radar data is presented. Depth estimates from such radar observations may be useful in planning future utilization of lunar pyroclastic deposits.

  6. A reevaluation of the assignment of the vibrational fundamentals and the rotational analysis of bands in the high-resolution infrared spectra of trans- and cis- 1,3,5-hexatriene

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Leyden, Matthew C.; Moore, Michael C.; Patchen, Amie K.; van den Heuvel, Titus; Blake, Thomas A.; Masiello, Tony; Sams, Robert L.

    2010-07-01

    Assignments of the vibrational fundamentals of cis- and trans-1,3,5-hexatriene are reevaluated with new infrared and Raman spectra and with quantum chemical predictions of intensities and anharmonic frequencies. The rotational structure is analyzed in the high-resolution (0.0013-0.0018 cm -1) infrared spectra of three C-type bands of the trans isomer and two C-type bands of the cis isomer. The bands for the trans isomer are at 1010.96 cm-1 (v14), 900.908 cm-1 (v16), and 683.46 cm-1 (v17). Ground state (GS) rotational constants have been fitted to the combined ground state combination differences (GSCDs) for the three bands of the trans isomer. The bands for the cis isomer are at 907.70 cm-1 (v33) and 587.89 cm-1 (v35). GS rotational constants have been fitted to the combined GSCDs for the two bands of the cis isomer and compared with those obtained from microwave spectroscopy. Small inertial defects in the GSs confirm that both molecules are planar. Upper state rotational constants were fitted for all five bands.

  7. Relative sea-level response to Little Ice Age ice mass change in south central Alaska: Reconciling model predictions and geological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Natasha L. M.; Shennan, Ian; Long, Antony J.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of geological data and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling shows that it is possible to decouple complex mechanisms of relative sea-level (RSL) change in a tectonically active glacial environment. We model a simplest solution in which RSL changes in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska, are a combination of the interplay of tectonic and isostatic processes driven by the unique rheology of this tectonically active location. We calculate interseismic uplift during latter part of the penultimate earthquake cycle to vary from 0.3 to 0.7 mm/yr. Diatom based reconstructions of RSL from tidal marsh sediment sequences coupled with detailed age models, from AD 1400 to the AD 1964 great earthquake, show deviations from a purely tectonically driven model of regional RSL. Glacial isostatic modelling, constrained by GPS data, predicts up to 70 cm sea-level change due to mountain glacier mass balance changes during the Little Ice Age. Misfits between the GIA model predictions and RSL reconstructions in the 19th and 20th century highlight that the tidal marshes of upper Cook Inlet potentially record a hemispheric-wide acceleration in sea level and that other more complex Earth process combinations may contribute to regional RSL change.

  8. A Search for Neutrinos from the Solar hep Reaction and the DiffuseSupernova Neutrino Background with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Anthony, A.E.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive,A.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boulay, M.G.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chen,X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress,F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Drouin,P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Evans,H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway,R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jagam,P.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Krueger, A.; Kraus,C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.Lawson.I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin,R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis,K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Nickel, B.G.; Noble, A.J.; Norman,E.B.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O'Keeffe, H.M.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser,S.M.; Ott, R.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Sims, C.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van Berg, R.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue,C.J.; Walker, T.J.; Wall, B.L.; Waller, D.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark,D.L.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters,J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2006-08-01

    A search has been made for neutrinos from the hep reactionin the Sun and from the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB)using data collected during the first operational phase of the SudburyNeutrino Observatory, with an exposure of 0.65 kilotonne-years. For thehep neutrino search, two events are observed in the effective electronenergy range of 14.3 MeV70 cm-2-1 is inferred at the 90 percent confidence level.This is an improvement by a factor of 6.5 on the previous best upperlimit on the hep neutrino flux and by two orders of magnitude on theprevious upper limit on the nu e component of the DSNB flux.

  9. Endolithic community composition of Orbicella faveolata (Scleractinia) underneath the interface between coral tissue and turf algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Isaza, N.; Espinoza-Avalos, J.; León-Tejera, H. P.; González-Solís, D.

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the species composition, richness, and total abundance of the endolithic community in the skeleton of Orbicella faveolata under coral tissue and under turf algae using cores that were extracted at different distances (0.5, 2.5, and 7.0 cm) from both sides of the external coral tissue-turf algae competitive boundary. We found high endolith richness as never before reported for Orbicella species. Nineteen endolith taxa were found within the O. faveolata skeleton, seven below the coral tissue zone, and twelve exclusively below the turf algae zone. Significant differences existed in the community composition, species richness, and the total abundance of endoliths in the cores that were extracted from the turf algae zone compared with those of the coral tissue zone. The endolithic community composition and species richness changed abruptly across the coral-turf algae interface, forming a clear boundary between different endolithic communities just underneath the interface between the coral tissue and turf algae zones.

  10. Predicted Canopy Height Retrieval Errors for the ICESat-2 mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.; Peterson, B.; Nelson, R.

    2010-12-01

    Plans are underway at NASA to launch the ICESat-2 (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimeter in late 2015. While ICESat-2 is primarily designed to monitor changes in the cryosphere, it will also collect data over much of the Earth’s vegetated surfaces. ICESat-2 will be a photon-counting laser ranging system that requires not only new technology to collect the measurements but also new analysis techniques to extract information from the data. Under the current configuration, ICESat-2 will be collecting photon ranging information along 9 cross-track beams arranged in 3 sets of three triplets. The triplets, or 3-beam clusters, will be spaced approximately three kilometers apart, and within each triplet the 3 beams will be spaced 45-60 m apart. Combined with the satellite velocity and laser pulse repetition frequency, the satellite moves along-track approximately 70 cm, the next pulse is emitted, and photons collected. Effectively, photons from 10 m diameter footprints are collected every 70 cm along-track, building up a collection of laser photons that have reflected preferentially from the target relative to the ambient noise level. It is noted, however, that this mission is in design phase and that the characteristics described in this paper may change. Due to budget constraints, some of these changes may be significant. The new instrument design presents new challenges for collecting data specific to vegetation height. The ecosystem science goal for ICESat-2 is the production of a global vegetation height surface with 3 m accuracy at a 1 km resolution. Because ICESat-2 will utilize new laser detection technology, airborne photon counting data sets were used to assess whether this design will meet the mission science goals. Airborne data were collected over two forest types: an open coniferous forest in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and a dense broadleaf forest in the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Maryland. The airborne data were

  11. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function1 2

    PubMed Central

    Leksrisompong, N.; Romero-Sanchez, H.; Oviedo-Rondón, E. O.; Brake, J.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen-day egg production in combination with 10.4 cm/pullet rearing but not with 7.0 cm/pullet rearing space. In a similar manner, hen mortality was greater in the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female feeder space combination that the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination. PMID:24864293

  12. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2005-10-01

    higher AWC (3.15 {+-} 0.70 cm) than Tilton's Run (3.00 {+-} 0.43 cm) and Cumberland (2.78 {+-} 0.34 cm). In 30-50 cm depth Tilton's Run had higher AWC (4.31 {+-} 1.25 cm) than Switch Grass (3.18 {+-} 0.70 cm) and Cumberland (2.95 {+-} 1.07 cm). The volumes of transport and storage pores were fairly similar among sites up to 30 cm depth, but were variable for 30-50 cm depth. These preliminary results along with those reported earlier for the third quarter suggest that the management effects are important and indicative of these sources of variability.

  13. Spatial patterns of soil nutrients and groundwater levels within the Debre Mawi watershed of the Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Christian; Tilahun, Seifu; Dagnew, Dessalegn; Zegeye, Assefe; Tebebu, Tigist; Yitaferu, Birru; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Persistent patterns of erosion have emerged in the Ethiopian highlands leading to soil and water conservation practices being implemented throughout the countryside. A common concern is the loss of soil fertility and loss of soil water. This study investigates the spatial patterns of soil nutrients and water table depths in a small sub-watershed in the northwestern Ethiopian highlands. NPK, a particularly important group of nutrients for inorganic fertilizer considerations, did not follow a consistent trend as a group along and across slope and land use transects. Whereas nitrogen content was greatest in the upslope regions (~0.1% TN), available phosphorus had comparably similar content in the different slope regions throughout the watershed (~2.7 mg/kg). The exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg) did increase in content in a downslope direction (in most cases though, they were highest in the middle region) but not consistently later in the season. On average, calcium (40 cmol/kg), magnesium (5 cmol/kg), and potassium (0.5 cmol/kg) were orders of magnitudes different in content. The perched water table in different areas of the watershed showed a very distinct trend. The lower part of the sub-watershed had shallower levels of water table depths (less than 10 cm from the surface) than did the upper parts of the sub-watershed (usually greater than 120 cm from the surface). The middle part of the sub-watershed had water table depths located at 40 to 70 cm below the surface. These results show how the landscape slope position and land use may be important for planning where and when soil nutrients and water would be expected to be appropriately "conserved" or stored.

  14. Design for a compact CW atom laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Erik; Raithel, Georg

    2011-05-01

    We present a design for a compact continuous-wave atom laser on a chip. A 2D spiral-shaped quadrupole guide is formed by two 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm wires carrying 5 A each embedded in a Si wafer; a 1.5 mm × 0.5 mm wire on the bottom layer carries -10 A, producing a horizontal B-field that pushes the guiding channel center above the chip surface. The center-to-center separation between the top wires is varied from 1.6 mm at the start of the guide to 1 mm at the end, decreasing the guide height from ~ 500 μm to ~ 25 μm above the surface as the atoms travel the 70 cm-long guide. The magnetic gradient of the guiding channel gradually increases from ~ 100 G /cm to ~ 930 G /cm . These features result in continuous surface adsorption evaporative cooling and progressive magnetic compression. Spin flip losses are mitigated by a solenoid sewn around the guide to produce a longitudinal B-field. 87Rb atoms are gravitationally loaded into the guide. A far off-resonant light shift barrier at the end of the guide traps the atoms and allows formation of a BEC. Tuning the barrier height to create a non-zero tunneling rate equal to the loading rate completes the implementation of a CW atom laser. Two options for atom interferometry are implemented on the first-generation chip (matter-wave Fabry-Perot interferometer and guide-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer). Current construction status and challenges will be discussed, along with preliminary results.

  15. [Influence of dietotherapy enriched with conjugated linoleic acid on anthropometrical indicators and body composite structure in patients with an overweight].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, A R; Derbeneva, S A

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficiency of dietotherapy enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (3 g per day) in patients, suffering from the excess mass of a body and obesity of I and II degrees has been investigated. Dynamics of anthropometrical indicators and body composite structure before and after the treatment of patients from the main (n = 20) and control groups were estimated. Studied parameters were fixed in day 0, 14 and 28. Statistically significant reduction of the weight, body mass index (BMI), anthropometrical parameters (volumes of a waist, hips, a shoulder), indicators of body composite structure (fatty weight, area of splanchnic fat, muscular weight) has been revealed as a result of the carried-out course of treatment, and they were more expressed in patients of the main group. In particular, the waist size authentically decreased by 6.5% in patients from the main group, while in patients from the group of comparison the decrease reached only 4.2%. Average change of waist volume was--7.0 cm in the main group and--4.5 cm in the control group. The grasp of hips in the main group decreased by 4.2%, in the group of comparison for 2.8%. Absolute change of hips volume in the main group 1.67 fold exceeded that in the group of comparison (p < 0.005). The shin grasp in the main group decreased by 9.7%, while in the control group remained invariable. BMI decreased by 7.2% and 5%, respectively. Thus, the reduction of body fatty weight was 10% in patients from the main group and 4% in patients from the group of comparison. The body total liquid decreased by 1.4 l in the main group, and only by 0.3 l in the group of comparison. The received intergroup distinctions are statistically reliable (p < 0.05). PMID:24340933

  16. Quantify the loss of major ions induced by CO2 enrichment and nitrogen addition in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juxiu; Zhang, Deqiang; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhou, Guoyi; Li, Yuelin; Liu, Shizhong

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that atmospheric CO2 enrichment would increase the ion concentrations in the soil water. However, none of these studies could exactly quantify the amount of ion changes in the soil water induced by elevated CO2 and all of these experiments were carried out only in the temperate areas. Using an open-top chamber design, we studied the effects of CO2 enrichment alone and together with nitrogen (N) addition on soil water chemistry in the subtropics. Three years of exposure to an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 700 ppm resulted in accelerated base cation loss via leaching water below the 70 cm soil profile. The total of base cation (K+ + Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+) loss in the elevated CO2 treatment was higher than that of the control by 220%, 115%, and 106% in 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. The N treatment decreased the effect of high CO2 treatment on the base cation loss in the leachates. Compared to the control, N addition induced greater metal cation (Al3+ and Mn2+) leaching loss in 2008 and net Al3+ and Mn2+ loss in the high N treatment increased by 100% and 67%, respectively. However, the CO2 treatment decreased the effect of high N treatment on the metal cation loss. Changes of ion export followed by the exposure to the elevated CO2, and N treatments were related to both ion concentrations and leached water amount. We hypothesize that forests in subtropical China might suffer from nutrient limitation and some poisonous metal activation in plant biomass under future global change.

  17. Fluid flow in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera: Implications from thermal data and deep electrical sounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribnow, D.F.C.; Schutze, C.; Hurter, S.J.; Flechsig, C.; Sass, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Temperatures of 100??C are measured at 3 km depth in a well located on the resurgent dome in the center of Long Valley Caldera, California, despite an assumed >800??C magma chamber at 6-8 km depth. Local downflow of cold meteoric water as a process for cooling the resurgent dome is ruled out by a Pecle??t-number analysis of temperature logs. These analyses reveal zones with fluid circulation at the upper and lower boundaries of the Bishop Tuff, and an upflow zone in the metasedimentary rocks. Vertical Darcy velocities range from 10 to 70 cm a-1. A 21-km-long geoelectrical profile across the caldera provides resistivity values to the order of 100 to >103 ??m down to a depth of 6 km, as well as variations of self-potential. Interpretation of the electrical data with respect to hydrothermal fluid movement confirms that there is no downflow beneath the resurgent dome. To explain the unexpectedly low temperatures in the resurgent dome, we challenge the common view that the caldera as a whole is a regime of high temperatures and the resurgent dome is a local cold anomaly. Instead, we suggest that the caldera was cooled to normal thermal conditions by vigorous hydrothermal activity in the past, and that a present-day hot water flow system is responsible for local hot anomalies, such as Hot Creek and the area of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. The source of hot water has been associated with recent shallow intrusions into the West Moat. The focus of planning for future power plants should be to locate this present-day flow system instead of relying on heat from the old magma chamber. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the effect of simple and complex acquisition trajectories on the 2D SPR and 3D voxelized differences for dedicated breast CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jainil P.; Mann, Steve D.; McKinley, Randolph L.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2014-03-01

    The 2D scatter-to-primary (SPR) ratios and 3D voxelized difference volumes were characterized for a cone beam breast CT scanner capable of arbitrary (non-traditional) 3D trajectories. The CT system uses a 30x30cm2 flat panel imager with 197 micron pixellation and a rotating tungsten anode x-ray source with 0.3mm focal spot, with an SID of 70cm. Data were acquired for two cylindrical phantoms (12.5cm and 15cm diameter) filled with three different combinations of water and methanol yielding a range of uniform densities. Projections were acquired with two acquisition trajectories: 1) simple-circular azimuthal orbit with fixed tilt; and 2) saddle orbit following a +/-15° sinusoidal trajectory around the object. Projection data were acquired in 2x2 binned mode. Projections were scatter corrected using a beam stop array method, and the 2D SPR was measured on the projections. The scatter corrected and uncorrected data were then reconstructed individually using an iterative ordered subsets convex algorithm, and the 3D difference volumes were calculated as the absolute difference between the two. Results indicate that the 2D SPR is ~7-15% higher on projections with greatest tilt for the saddle orbit, due to the longer x-ray path length through the volume, compared to the 0° tilt projections. Additionally, the 2D SPR increases with object diameter as well as density. The 3D voxelized difference volumes are an estimate of the scatter contribution to the reconstructed attenuation coefficients on a voxel level. They help visualize minor deficiencies and artifacts in the volumes due to correction methods.

  19. Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe Soil Water Measurements over Complex Terrain in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Weltin, Georg; Kheng Heng, Lee; Wahbi, Ammar; Oismueller, Markus; Dercon, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    The importance of surface soil water (rooting zone) has become evident with climate change affecting rainfall patterns and crop production. The use of Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) for measuring surface soil water has become increasingly popular. The advantage of CRNP is that it is a non-invasive technique for measuring soil water content at an area-wide scale, in contrast to more conventional, techniques which measure mainly at field scale (point level). The CRNP integrates over a circular area of ca. 600 meters in diameter, to a depth of 70 cm, giving an average value for soil water content. Cosmic radiation interacting with the Earth's atmosphere continuously generates neutrons. At Earth's surface, these neutrons interact with surface water, and are slowed down. At sub-micrometer geometrics, these neutrons affect semiconductor devices, so they can be counted, slow and fast ones separately. From the difference in numbers between fast and slow neutrons, soil water content is calculated. As first in Austria, a CRNP (CRS 1000/B model) consisting of two neutron counters (one tuned for slow, the other one for fast neutrons), data logger and an Iridium modem, has been installed at Petzenkirchen research station of the Doctoral Programme for Water Resource Systems (TU Vienna) at 48.14 latitude and 15.17 longitude, 100 km west of Vienna, in late autumn 2013. The research station is located in an undulating agricultural landscape, characterized by heavy Cambisols and Planosols, and winter wheat and barley as main crops in winter, and maize and sunflower in summer. In addition, an in-situ soil moisture network consisting of 32 stations of Time Domain Transmissivity (TDT) sensors measuring soil water at 4 depths (0.05, 0.10,0.20 and 0.50 m) over an area of 64 ha has been established. This TDT network is currently being used to validate the use of the innovative CRNP technique. First results will be shown at the EGU 2014.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral Classes in Kapteyn areas 68-91 (Chargeishvili+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chargeishvili, K. B.; Bartaya, R. A.; Kharadze, E. K.

    2013-11-01

    The present catalogue is the third one of the four catalogues published according to programme of Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory of a massive two-dimensional MK classification of stars in 115 kapteyn Select Areas (KA) of Northen Sky (Bartaya, 1983, Cat. III/112; Bartaya, Kharadze, 1992, Cat. III/270). The catalogue lists the spectral types and luminosity classes for 3914 stars in 24 Kapteyn areas 68-91 through the declination circle of 0°. The catalogue is compiled on the basis of the spectral data obtained with the 70-cm meniscus telescope of Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory using the 8° objective prism (dispersion 166Å/mm near Hγ; in the short-wave region, the spectrum extends up to 3500Å). The field of the meniscus telescope is 4.5°x 4.5°. The photo material is taken on Kodak IIa-O, hyper-sensitized Kodak IIIa-J and in order to detect also Hα emission stars and M, S, C type stars in the surveyed KA's, hyper-sensitized Kodak IIIa-F plates were also taken. A limiting apparent magnitude in V for stars in question is 12.5 photographic mag. and for M ones - 15.0 mag. The data for all KA's are uniform not only in the sense of classification accuracy (the whole classification is done by one person - the author of the present catalogue), but also in the sense of penetration. The errors of our determinations are: +/-0.6 for spectral subtype and +/-0.5 for luminosity class. The stars in the KA's are arranged in the Catalogue by increasing right ascension. The stars are numbered according to zones of 1° in declination. The printed catalogue is provided with suitable stellar charts for separate KA's reproduced from the Lick Catalogue. The reference system on the charts refers to 1950 epoch and it is plotted according to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) catalogue. (1 data file).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral Classes in the Galaxy Anticenter (Chargeishsvili, 1988)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chargeishvili, K.

    2014-11-01

    The catalogue is compiled on the basis of the spectral data obtained with the 70-cm meniscus telescope of Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory using the 8° objective prism (dispersion 166Å/mm near Hγ; in the short-wave region, the spectrum extends up to 3500Å).The field of the meniscus telescope is 4.5x4.5°.The area of 140 square degrees, under study, was overlapped by nine centers. Kodak IIa-O, Kodak IIIa-J and Kodak IIIa-F plates were used. A limiting apparent magnitude in V for the stars is between 12.5 photographic mag. and 15.0 photographic mag. for M stars. The errors of our determinations are: ±0.6 for spectral subtype and ±0.5 for luminosity class. The catalogue contains 558 objects with peculiarities in the spectrum Ap, Am, BaII and composite spectrum stars, 86 emission stars O, B, M and objects with Hα-emission as well as 453 M and 36 C-stars.Among 558 peculiar stars an overwhelming majority, namely 549, are first found. The stars in the Catalogue are arranged in the order of increasing right ascension. The stars are numbered according to zones of 1° in declination. The printed catalogue is provided with suitable stellar charts reproduced from the Lick Catalogue. The reference system on the charts refers to 1950 epoch and it is plotted according to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) catalogue. Clusters NGC 2168, NGC 1969 and OLC 0436 Whose sites in the charts are denoted with the circles, are supplies with the charts reproduced from relatively large-scale plates taken on the meniscus telescope. (1 data file).

  2. Sea Ice Friction: The Effect of Ice Rubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourfield, S.; Sammonds, P. R.; Lishman, B.; Riska, K.; Marchenko, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Ice deformation processes in the Arctic often generate ice rubble, and situations arise where ice fragments of varying size separate sea ice floes. While the shear forces between sea ice floes in direct contact with each other are controlled by ice-ice friction, what is not known is how the slip of the floes is affected by the presence of rubble between the sliding surfaces. We present the result of field experiments undertaken on fjord ice in Svea, Svalbard, which investigated the velocity and hold time dependence of sea ice friction involving ice gouge. Average air temperature for the duration of time in which experiments were run was -12.4°C, and the thickness of the level fjord ice was 70 cm. A double-direct-shear experiment was done on floating sea ice in the field, with the addition of rubble ice between the sliding surfaces. This was achieved by moving a floating ice block through a channel of open water whilst subjected to normal loading, which was transferred through regions of ice rubble on both sides of the mobile block. The ice rubble regions were 30 cm deep and 50 cm wide. The displacement of the block and the force needed to move the block were measured. The rate dependence of friction was investigated for speeds of 10-3 to 10-2 ms-1. To investigate the state dependence of friction, slide-hold-slide (SHS) tests were conducted for hold times ranging from 1 second to 18 hours. When comparing the results from these experiments with a model for ice friction presented by Schulson and Fortt (2013), similar behaviour is seen at low hold times, where the peak coefficient of friction has a linear relationship with the logarithm of hold time. This is not the case for long hold times, however, and we attribute this to thermal consolidation of the ice rubble region.

  3. Spinal cord tolerance to single-session uniform irradiation in pigs: implications for a dose-volume effect

    PubMed Central

    Medin, Paul M; Foster, Ryan D; van der Kogel, Albert J; Sayre, James W; McBride, William H; Solberg, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study was performed to test the hypothesis that spinal cord radiosensitivity is significantly modified by uniform versus laterally non-uniform dose distributions. Materials and Methods A uniform dose distribution was delivered to a 4.5–7.0cm length of cervical spinal cord in 22 mature Yucatan minipigs for comparison with a companion study in which a laterally non-uniform dose was given[1]. Pigs were allocated into four dose groups with mean maximum spinal cord doses of 17.5±0.1 Gy(n=7), 19.5±0.2 Gy(n=6), 22.0±0.1 Gy(n=5), and 24.1±0.2 Gy(n=4). The study endpoint was motor neurologic deficit determined by a change in gait within one year. Spinal cord sections were stained with a Luxol fast blue/periodic acid Schiff combination. Results Dose-response curves for uniform versus non-uniform spinal cord irradiation were nearly identical with ED50's (95% confidence interval) of 20.2 Gy(19.1–25.8) and 20.0 Gy(18.3–21.7), respectively. No neurologic change was observed for either dose distribution when the maximum spinal cord dose was ≤17.8 Gy while all animals experienced deficits at doses ≥21.8Gy. Conclusion No dose-volume effect was observed in pigs for the dose distributions studied and the endpoint of motor neurologic deficit; however, partial spinal cord irradiation resulted in less debilitating neurologic morbidity and histopathology. PMID:22985780

  4. Effects of Compliance on Trunk and Hip Integrative Neuromuscular Training on Hip Abductor Strength in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMOTO, DAI; MYER, GREGORY D.; BUSH, HEATHER M.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2014-01-01

    Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the purpose was to investigate the compliance effects of a trunk and hip–focused INT exercises on hip abductor strength in young women athletes. In a controlled laboratory study design, 21 high school women volleyball players (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.4 years, weight = 64.0 ± 7.4 kg, height = 171.5 ± 7.0 cm) completed isokinetic hip abductor strength testing in pre- and postintervention, which consisted of 5 phases of supervised progressive trunk and hip–focused INT exercises twice a week for 10 weeks. The compliance effects were analyzed based on the changed hip abductor strength values between pre- and postintervention and 3 different compliance groups using 1-way analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The participants in the high-compliance group demonstrated significant hip abductor peak torque increases compared with noncompliance group (p = 0.02), but not between moderate-compliance and noncompliance groups (p = 0.27). The moderate correlation coefficient value (r = 0.56) was recorded between the isokinetic hip abductor peak torque changes and the 3 compliance groups. Because of the observed significant effects and moderate linear association, the effectiveness of a trunk and hip–focused INT protocol to improve hip abduction strength seems dependent on compliance. Compliance of trunk and hip–focused INT is an important aspect of increasing hip abductor strength increase in young women athletes. PMID:24751656

  5. Upgrade of the BATMAN test facility for H{sup −} source development

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, B. Fröschle, M.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.

    2015-04-08

    The development of a radio frequency (RF) driven source for negative hydrogen ions for the neutral beam heating devices of fusion experiments has been successfully carried out at IPP since 1996 on the test facility BATMAN. The required ITER parameters have been achieved with the prototype source consisting of a cylindrical driver on the back side of a racetrack like expansion chamber. The extraction system, called “Large Area Grid” (LAG) was derived from a positive ion accelerator from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) using its aperture size (ø 8 mm) and pattern but replacing the first two electrodes and masking down the extraction area to 70 cm2. BATMAN is a well diagnosed and highly flexible test facility which will be kept operational in parallel to the half size ITER source test facility ELISE for further developments to improve the RF efficiency and the beam properties. It is therefore planned to upgrade BATMAN with a new ITER-like grid system (ILG) representing almost one ITER beamlet group, namely 5 × 14 apertures (ø 14 mm). Additionally to the standard three grid extraction system a repeller electrode upstream of the grounded grid can optionally be installed which is positively charged against it by 2 kV. This is designated to affect the onset of the space charge compensation downstream of the grounded grid and to reduce the backstreaming of positive ions from the drift space backwards into the ion source. For magnetic filter field studies a plasma grid current up to 3 kA will be available as well as permanent magnets embedded into a diagnostic flange or in an external magnet frame. Furthermore different source vessels and source configurations are under discussion for BATMAN, e.g. using the AUG type racetrack RF source as driver instead of the circular one or modifying the expansion chamber for a more flexible position of the external magnet frame.

  6. The transcriptional response of microbial communities in thawing Alaskan permafrost soils.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Marco J L; Orsi, William D

    2015-01-01

    Thawing of permafrost soils is expected to stimulate microbial decomposition and respiration of sequestered carbon. This could, in turn, increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and create a positive feedback to climate warming. Recent metagenomic studies suggest that permafrost has a large metabolic potential for carbon processing, including pathways for fermentation and methanogenesis. Here, we performed a pilot study using ultrahigh throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing of reverse transcribed messenger RNA to obtain a detailed overview of active metabolic pathways and responsible organisms in up to 70 cm deep permafrost soils at a moist acidic tundra location in Arctic Alaska. The transcriptional response of the permafrost microbial community was compared before and after 11 days of thaw. In general, the transcriptional profile under frozen conditions suggests a dominance of stress responses, survival strategies, and maintenance processes, whereas upon thaw a rapid enzymatic response to decomposing soil organic matter (SOM) was observed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, ascomycete fungi, and methanogens were responsible for largest transcriptional response upon thaw. Transcripts indicative of heterotrophic methanogenic pathways utilizing acetate, methanol, and methylamine were found predominantly in the permafrost table after thaw. Furthermore, transcripts involved in acetogenesis were expressed exclusively after thaw suggesting that acetogenic bacteria are a potential source of acetate for acetoclastic methanogenesis in freshly thawed permafrost. Metatranscriptomics is shown here to be a useful approach for inferring the activity of permafrost microbes that has potential to improve our understanding of permafrost SOM bioavailability and biogeochemical mechanisms contributing to greenhouse gas emissions as a result of permafrost thaw. PMID:25852660

  7. Dedicated Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Radiotherapy Clinic

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Mikael Karlsson, Magnus G.; Nyholm, Tufve; Amies, Christopher; Zackrisson, Bjoern

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a novel technology arrangement in an integrated environment and outline the logistics model needed to incorporate dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the radiotherapy workflow. An initial attempt was made to analyze the value and feasibility of MR-only imaging compared to computed tomography (CT) imaging, testing the assumption that MR is a better choice for target and healthy tissue delineation in radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A 1.5-T MR unit with a 70-cm-bore size was installed close to a linear accelerator, and a special trolley was developed for transporting patients who were fixated in advance between the MR unit and the accelerator. New MR-based workflow procedures were developed and evaluated. Results: MR-only treatment planning has been facilitated, thus avoiding all registration errors between CT and MR scans, but several new aspects of MR imaging must be considered. Electron density information must be obtained by other methods. Generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for x-ray setup verification is not straight forward, and reliable corrections of geometrical distortions must be applied. The feasibility of MR imaging virtual simulation has been demonstrated, but a key challenge to overcome is correct determination of the skeleton, which is often needed for the traditional approach of beam modeling. The trolley solution allows for a highly precise setup for soft tissue tumors without the invasive handling of radiopaque markers. Conclusions: The new logistics model with an integrated MR unit is efficient and will allow for improved tumor definition and geometrical precision without a significant loss of dosimetric accuracy. The most significant development needed is improved bone imaging.

  8. Coronary flow and oxidative stress during local anaphylactic reaction in isolated mice heart: the role of nitric oxide (NO).

    PubMed

    Milicic, Vesna; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Jeremic, Nevena; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Djuric, Dragan; Jakovljevic, Vladimir Lj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cardiac anaphylaxis regarding changes in coronary reactivity and oxidative status of the mice heart. The animals were divided into two groups: experimental group (CBA, iNOS(-/-) mice) and control group: wild-type mice (CBA/H). The hearts of male mice (n = 24; 6-8 weeks old, body mass 20-25 g, 12 in each experimental group) were excised and retrogradely perfused according to the Langendorff technique at a constant perfusion pressure (70 cm H2O). Cardiac anaphylaxis was elicited by injection of solution (1 mg/1 ml) of ovalbumin into the aortic cannula. For the next 10 min, in intervals of 2 min (0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10 min) coronary flow (CF) rates were measured and samples of coronary effluent were collected. Markers of oxidative stress including index of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), NO measured in the form of nitrites (NO2(-)), superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the coronary venous effluent were assessed spectrophotometrically. After the ovalbumin challenge, CF was significantly lower in the wild mice group. NO and H2O2 release were significantly higher in iNOS(-/-) mice group. TBARS and O2(-) values did not vary significantly between wild and iNOS(-/-) mice groups. Our results indicate that coronary vasoconstriction during cardiac anaphylaxis does not necessarily depend on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO activity and that iNOS/NO pathway may not be an only influential mediator of redox changes in this model of cardiac anaphylaxis. PMID:26708221

  9. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p < 4.3 × 10(-5), standard t-test) in distance estimation. Each sensor unit can detect an object with a surface area as small as 1 cm(2) (1 cm × 1 cm) located 70 cm away. Our results showed that the walking speed for an obstacle course was increased by 23% on average when subjects used the Wearable Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test). PMID:26334037

  10. The state of permafrost surrounding "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (Deception Island, Antarctica): Studying the possible degradation due to the infrastructures heating effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio, Cayetana; Ángel de Pablo, MIguel; Ramos, MIguel; Molina, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost degradation is one of the effects of the global warming. Many studies reveal the increase of active layer and reduction on permafrost table thickness, also in Antarctica. However, these trends on permafrost can be accelerated by the human activities, as the heating produced by the Antarctic stations infrastructures when they are not properly isolated from the ground. In Deception island, South Shetland Archipelago, we started 3 years ago a monitoring program at the 26 years old "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS), It is focused on charactering the state of permafrost, since in the coastal scarps at tens of meters from the station an increase on erosion had been detected. Although the main cause of the erosion of this coastal volcanoclastic materials is the 2 meters thick icefield which forms during the winter in the inner sea of this volcanic island, we want to detect any possible contribution to the coastal erosion caused by the permafrost degradation related to the SAS presence. We present our preliminary analysis based on three years of continuous ground temperature data, monitored at a shallow borehole (70 cm deep) in the SAS edge, together with the active layer thickness measured around the station and their vicinities in two thawing seasons. We complete this study with the analysis of the continuous temperature data taken inside the SAS and the air and ground temperatures below the station, acquired during the last Antarctic Campaign (December 2014-February 2015). These preliminary results are fundamental 1) to discard any contribution from the SAS presence, and to help to improve its thermal isolation, 2) to help improve our knowledge about the thermal state of permafrost in the area, and 3) to help to understand the causes of the coastal erosion in the volcanic Deception Island.

  11. SU-E-T-148: Efficient Verification Method for Modulated Electron Radiotherapy Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Henzen, D; Chatelain, C; Manser, P; Frei, D; Volken, W; Joosten, A; Loessl, K; Aebersold, D M; Fix, M K; Neuenschwander, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For shallow tumors, modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) promises a reduction of dose to distal organs at risk. At our institution a framework was developed in order to create treatment plans for MERT employing both forward and inverse optimization. In this work, an efficient quality assurance (QA) process is established. Methods: Treatment plans for three different tumor sites were created using an inverse optimization. These plans consist of 6–12 segments and energies between 6 and 18 MeV. An already established QA process for photon IMRT plans is now extended to additionally handle MERT plans. First, the dose distributions are calculated in a homogenous water phantom. For this task a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) framework for MERT is used. Second, the segments are applied on a stand-alone amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) using a source-to-surface distance of 70 cm. This device was calibrated for electron beams in a previous work. An in-house developed analysis software, is then utilized for comparisons and evaluation of the measured and calculated dose distributions. Results: For all three plans the calculated dose distributions agree well with the measured ones. Using a 2D gamma comparison (2% of dose max/2 mm and 10% dose threshold) passing rates >98% are achieved.The dose calculation for each plan on the water phantom, using voxels of 0.2×0.2×0.2 cm{sup 3}, takes at maximum 30 min on a single core Pentium 2.66 GHz system with 6 GB RAM, to reach a statistical uncertainty of 2% (1 std. dev.). Conclusion: An already established QA procedure for IMRT photon plans was applied for MERT. The dedicated MC framework and the use of EPID measurements allow an efficient QA procedure in a clinical environment. This work was supported by Varian Medical Systems.

  12. The ICESat-2 Mission: Concept, Pre-Launch Activities, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Tom; Csatho, Beata M.

    2011-01-01

    Ice sheet and sea level changes have been explicitly identified as a priority in the President's Climate Change Science Program, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the 4th Assessment Report of the IPee and other national and international policy documents. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for launch in early 2016. The primary aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea-ice thickness change, and ice sheet elevation changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet as established by ICES at. In contrast to ICES at, ICESat-2 will employ a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. The current concept uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; equivalent to 70 cm on the ground) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure range using approximately 532nm (green) light. The concept will enable the generation of seasonal maps of ice sheet elevation of Greenland and Antarctica, monthly maps of sea ice thickness of the polar ocean, a dense map of land elevation (2 km track spacing at the equator after two years) enabling the determination of canopy height, as well as ocean heights. While the mission has been optimized for cryospheric science and vast amount of high precision elevation measurements taken over land and over the ocean as well as of the atmosphere will provide scientists with a wealth of opportunities to explore the utility of ICESat-2. Those will range from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land use changes and more. The presentation will review the measurement concept and physical principles of ICESat-2, current and planned activities to assess instrument performance and develop geophysical algorithms, as well as potential opportunities outside the main objectives of ICESat-2.

  13. Results of partial melting experiments on chondritic precursors of basaltic achondrites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesenberg, J. S.; Delaney, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Recent partial melting experiments on Murchison produced eucrite like glasses at reducing conditions. Although the glasses were remarkably similar to eucrites, the Fe/Mn ratio of the glasses was too high and the O isotopes cannot match eucrites. Mixing 70% H chondrite with 30% CM chondrite makes a potential precursor that satisfies the O isotope constraint on the eucrites. From experiments on both synthetic Murchison and a simplified version of the H70-CM30 mixture, simple partial melting of any individual or combination of known chondritic meteorites is incapable of producing eucritic glasses that have the appropriate Fe/Mn, Fe/(Fe + Mg), and O isotope ratios. In order to satisfy the Fe-Mn-Mg constraints imposed by the eucrites, both reduction of FeO to Fe-metal and olivine fractionation must occur in the precursor before partial melting is allowed to occur and produce the eucritic glass. To test this hypothesis, partial melting experiments on both Murchison and a mixture of 70% Allegan (H6)-30% Murchison (CM2) were conducted. The results of these new experiments show that to satisfy the O isotopes, Fe/Mn ratio, and Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio, approximately 12% reduction of FeO to Fe-metal (in the silicate portion) and 20% olivine fractionation is required within the H-CM precursor to permit the formation of eucrites by partial melting. The sequence of FeO reduction and mantle fractionation permits very eucritic glasses to be produced. The problem that many remain with the H-CM precursor, however, is an overabundance of alkali elements. Correlations between temperature, O fugacity, and composition have also been found within our experiments. A basaltic achondrite precursor formed by mixing H and CM chondrites and constrained by O isotopes and Fe-Mn-Mg is compatible with a model of natural eucrites having formed by partial melting after metal and olivine fractionation in that precursor.

  14. Airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli in a dairy cattle farm and its environment.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Martínez-Olarte, Roberto; Navajas-Benito, Enrique V; Alonso, C Andrea; Hidalgo-Sanz, Sara; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2015-03-16

    There are multiple ways bacteria can be transported from its origin to another area or substrate. Water, food handlers, insects and other animals are known to serve as a vehicle for bacterial dispersion. However, the importance of the air in open areas as a possible way of bacterial dissemination has not been so well analyzed. In this study, we investigated the airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli from the inside of a dairy cattle farm to the immediate environment. The air samples were taken inside the farm (area 0) and from the immediate outside farm surroundings at distance of 50, 100 and 150m in four directions (north, south, east, and west). At each point, the air was collected at different heights: 40cm, 70cm and 1m. The sampling was carried out in two weather seasons (November and July). E. coli was isolated in both inside and outside air, even in samples taken 150m from the farm. A seasonal effect was observed with more bacterial isolates when temperature was higher. Regarding the distribution of the isolates, wind direction appeared as a determining factor. In order to verify that E. coli strains isolated from animal housing facilities were identical to those isolated from the air of the immediate farm environment, their genomic DNA profiles were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with the endonuclease XbaI. The comparison of genetic profiles suggested that the strains isolated from inside and outside the farm were related, leading to the conclusion that the air is an important vehicle for E. coli dissemination. PMID:25555228

  15. Improvements in spinal alignment after high tibial osteotomy in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Dorj, Ariunzaya; Han, Ahreum; Kim, Kyungsoo; Nha, Kyung Wook

    2016-07-01

    Since the correlation between spinal and lower extremity alignments is high, high tibial osteotomy (HTO) surgery may also affect spinal alignment, where the spinal alignment parameters are the most important parameters for the evaluation of spinal disorders. In this study, the effect of HTO surgery on spinal alignment during gait was investigated by comparing spinal alignment parameters between patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy young controls. Eight patients (age, 55.0±5.1years; height, 160.3±7.0cm; weight, 71.3±14.1kg) with a medial compartment knee OA participated in the gait experiment two times approximately one week before and one year after HTO surgery and eight healthy young controls (age, 26.7±1.7years; height, 163.4±6.5cm; weight, 58.4±11.3kg) participated only once. Cervical curvature angle, thoracic curvature angle, lumbar curvature angle, coronal vertical axis, and coronal pelvic tilt in the coronal plane and cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, sagittal vertical axis, and sagittal pelvic tilt in the sagittal plane were estimated using motion analysis system with skin markers. All spinal alignment parameters after HTO surgery were significantly closer to those of healthy young subjects than those before HTO, especially in the coronal plane. These findings suggest that the HTO had a positive effect on spinal alignment, as well as lower extremity alignment, and moreover, reduced the abnormality that may result in spinal problems such as degeneration or pain. PMID:27236638

  16. CONTRIBUTION TO THE ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE CORTICOPERIOSTEAL FLAP OF THE MEDIAL FEMORAL CONDYLE

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Rômulo Guimarães; Bufáiçal, Henrique Gubert; Oliveira, Leandro Alves de; Souza, Fabiano Inácio de; Kuwae, Mário Yoshihide; Teixeira da Silva, João Alírio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to perform the anatomical study, in cadavers, of the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle, based on the medial genicular artery, evaluating challenges in dissection and the topographic patterns. Materials and methods: fifteen limbs from eight cadavers were studied, ages ranging from 19 to 74 years old. They were placed at supine position, and a longitudinal incision on the medial face of the lower part of the thigh was performed, exposing medial vastus and sartorius muscles, with descendent genicular vessels being also exposed. The distance between the descendent genicular artery and the medial articular line of the knee, the diameter of the vessel, the length of the pedicle, and the presence of the fasciocutaneous branch and its location were analyzed. Results: the distance between the origin of the descendent genicular artery and the medial articular line of the knee ranged from 11.2cm to 14.5cm, with an average of 12.63cm. The mean artery diameter was 2.5mm (from 2.25mm to 2.75mm). The distance between the descendent genicular artery and the fasciocutaneous branch ranged from 1.0 to 1.5cm. The mean length of the vascular pedicle was 7.01cm, ranging from 5.6cm to 8.6cm. Conclusion: the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle of the knee is easy to dissect, presents a constant vascular pedicle, with average length of 7.0cm and diameter of 2.5mm, enabling it to be indicated for microsurgical transplants. PMID:27004187

  17. Smaller tumor size is associated with poor survival in T4b colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ben; Feng, Yang; Mo, Shao-Bo; Cai, San-Jun; Huang, Li-Yong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To hypothesize that in patients with colon cancer showing heavy intestinal wall invasion without distant metastasis (T4bN0-2M0), small tumor size would correlate with more aggressive tumor behaviors and therefore poorer cancer-specific survival (CSS). METHODS: We analyzed T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. A preliminary analysis of T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center is also presented. RESULTS: A total of 1734 T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients from the SEER database were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed decreasing CSS with decreasing tumor size (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a significant association between poorer CSS with smaller tumor size in T4bN0 patients (P = 0.024), and a trend of association in T4bN1 (P = 0.182) and T4bN2 patients (P = 0.191). Multivariate analysis identified tumor size as an independent prognostic factor for CSS in T4bN0-2M0 patients (P = 0.024). Preliminary analysis of Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center samples suggested the 5-year CSS was 50.0%, 72.9% and 77.1% in patients with tumors ≤ 4.0 cm, 4.0-7.0 cm and ≥ 7.0 cm. CONCLUSION: Smaller tumor size is associated with poorer CSS in the T4bN0-2M0 subset of colon cancer, particularly in the T4bN0M0 subgroup. PMID:27547015

  18. Modified Open-door Laminoplasty Using Hydroxyapatite Spacers and Miniplates

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Bum-Joon; Choi, Jong-Il; Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Lim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cervical laminoplasty has been widely accepted as one of the major treatments for cervical myelopathy and various modifications and supplementary procedures have been devised to achieve both proper decompression and stability of the cervical spine. We present the retrospectively analyzed results of a modified unilateral open-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers and malleable titanium miniplates. Methods From June 2008 to May 2012, among patients diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, the patients who received laminoplasty were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed using Frankel grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. The radiologic parameters were obtained from plain films, 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Results A total of 125 cervical laminae were operated in 38 patients. 11 patients received 4-level laminoplasty and 27 patients received 3-level laminoplasty. Postoperatively, the mean Frankel grade and JOA score were significantly improved from 3.97 to 4.55 and from 12.76 to 14.63, respectively (p<0.001). Radiologically, cervical curvature was worsened from 19.09 to 15.60 (p=0.025). The percentage of range of motion preservation was 73.32±22.39%. The axial dimension of the operated spinal canal was increased from 1.75 to 2.70 cm2 (p<0.001). Conclusion In the presenting study, unilateral open-door laminoplasty using HA spacers and miniplates appears to be a safe, rapid and easy procedure to obtain an immediate and rigid stabilization of the posterior elements of the cervical spine. This modified laminoplasty method showed effective expansion of the spinal canal and favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:25346767

  19. Thermographic analysis and autonomic response in the hands of patients with leprosy*

    PubMed Central

    Cavalheiro, Aretusa Lopes; da Costa, Debora Tacon; de Menezes, Ana Luiza Ferro; Pereira, Janser Moura; de Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Low temperatures and slow blood flow may result from peripheral neuropathy caused by leprosy, and the simple detection of cold fingers could already be a preliminary classification for these patients. Objective To investigate whether infrared thermography would be able to measure this change in temperature in the hands of people with leprosy. Method The study assessed 17 leprosy patients who were under treatment at the National Reference Center for Sanitary Dermatology and Leprosy, Uberlândia/MG, and 15 people without leprosy for the control group. The infrared camera FLIR A325 and Therma CAM Researcher Professional 2.9 software were used to measure the temperature. The room was air-conditioned, maintaining the temperature at 25°C; the distance between the camera and the limb was 70 cm. The vasomotor reflex of patients was tested by a cold stress on the palm. Results The study showed a significant interaction between the clinical form of leprosy and temperature, where the control group and the borderline-borderline form revealed a higher initial temperature, while borderline-lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy showed a lower temperature. Regarding vasomotor reflex, lepromatous leprosy patients were unable to recover the initial temperature after cold stress, while those with the borderline-tuberculoid form not only recovered but exceeded the initial temperature. Conclusion Thermography proved a potential tool to assist in the early detection of neuropathies, helping in the prevention of major nerve damage and the installation of deformities and disabilities that are characteristic of leprosy. PMID:27438192

  20. Neutral atom lithography with metastable helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Claire Shean

    In this dissertation we describe our performance of resist assisted neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable 23S1 Helium (He*). Metastable Helium atoms have 20 eV of internal energy making them easy to detect and able to destroy a resist. The He* is produced by a reverse flow DC discharge source and then collimated with the bichromatic force, followed by three optical molasses velocity compression stages. The atoms in the resulting beam have a mean longitudinal velocity of 1125 m/s and a divergence of 1.1 mrad. The typical beam flux is 2 x 109 atoms/mm2s through a 0.1mm diameter aperture 70 cm away from the source. The internal energy of the atoms damages the molecules of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol. The undisturbed SAM protects a 200 A layer of gold that has been evaporated onto a prepared Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Two methods are used to pattern the He* atoms before they destroy the SAM. First, a Nickel micro mesh was used to protect the SAM. These experiments established an appropriate dosage and etch time for patterning. The samples were analyzed with an atomic force microscope and found to have an edge resolution of 63 nm. Then, patterning was accomplished using the dipole force the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of lambda = 1083nm light tuned 500MHz below the 23S 1 → 23P2 transition. Depending on the intensity of the light, the He* atoms are focused or channeled into lines separated by lambda/2. The lines cover the entire exposed length of the substrate, about 3 mm. They are about 3 mm long, corresponding to about twice the beam waist of the laser standing wave. Thus there are 6 x 10 3 lines of length 5500lambda. These results agree with our numerical simulations of the experiment.

  1. CO interaction with Au atoms adsorbed on terrace, edge and corner sites of the MgO(1 0 0) surface. Electronic structure and vibrational analysis from DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Fuente, Silvia A.; Belelli, Patricia G.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2009-05-01

    The interaction of CO with Au atoms adsorbed on terrace and low-coordinates sites (edge and corner) of the MgO(1 0 0) surface was studied using the density functional theory (DFT) in combination with embedded cluster models. Surface anionic (O 2-) and neutral oxygen vacancy (F s) sites were considered. In all the cases, the CO stretching frequencies are shifted with respect to free CO with values between -232 and -358 cm -1. In particular, the values for Au on F s at edge and corner are shifted to higher stretching frequencies by 100 and 59 cm -1, respectively, with respect to the value on a perfect MgO(1 0 0) surface. This result is in agreement with recent scanning tunneling microscopy and infrared spectroscopy experiments where a corresponding shift of 70 cm -1 was observed by comparing the measurements on perfect and O-deficient MgO(1 0 0) surfaces. However, these results are different than expected because Au atoms on F s centers are negatively charged and, therefore, according to the generally accepted scheme the CO frequency should be red-shifted with respect to the adsorption on anionic five-coordinated site where the Au atom is essentially neutral. The following picture emerges from the present results: the single occupied HOMO(α) of Au atom on F s at low-coordinated sites consists in two lobes extended sideward the Au atom. For symmetry reasons, this MO overlaps efficiently with the 2π ∗ MO of CO. This bonding contribution to the Au-CO link is counteracted by a Pauli repulsion between the 5σ MO of CO and more internal orbitals (the HOMO-1(α) and the HOMO(β)) centered on Au. In consequence, CO is forced to vibrate against a region with a high electron density. This is the so-called "wall effect" which by itself contributes to higher CO frequency values.

  2. PLEIADES-HR 1A&1B image quality commissioning: innovative radiometric calibration methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Vincent; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Kubik, Philippe; Lacherade, Sophie; Latry, Christophe; Lebegue, Laurent; Lenoir, Florie; Porez-Nadal, Florence

    2013-09-01

    PLEIADES is an earth observing system conducted by the French National Space Agency, CNES. It consists of two satellites launched on December 2011 (PHR-1A) and December 2012 (PHR-1B), both designed to provide optical pushbroom imagery on five spectral bands to civilian and defense users, with ground sample distance up to 70 cm. During inflight image quality commissioning, radiometric activities included inter-detector normalization coefficients computation, refocusing operations, MTF assessment and estimation of signal to noise ratios. This paper presents inflight results for both satellites. It focuses on several innovative methods that were implemented, taking advantage of the satellite platform great agility. These methods are based on processing images obtained through dedicated exotic guidance. In particular, slow-motion steering enables an efficient estimation of the instrumental noise model, since during acquisition each detector has been viewing a stable ground target along different time samples. Conversely, rotated retina guidance is used to guarantee that all different elementary detectors have successively viewed the same set of landscape samples during acquisition. Non-uniformity of detector sensitivities can then be characterized, and on-board coefficients used prior to compression can be calibrated in order to prevent vertical striping effects on operational images. Defocus control and Point Spread Function estimation can be easily obtained through processing acquisitions of stars associated to various spectral characteristics, for different adjustments of the refocusing system. All these methods allow an accurate estimation of radiometric performance on the whole range of specified spectral radiances, while drastically reducing the number of required acquisitions on natural targets.

  3. An Investigation of Regolith Cover on Ejecta Blocks: Implications for Regolith Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Carter, L. M.; Campbell, B. A.; Allen, C.; Hayne, P. O.; Paige, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    We present an investigation of the thickness of regolith covering lunar impact ejecta using LRO Diviner thermal infrared and both Earth-based and orbital radar observations. Blocky continuous ejecta associated with fresh impact craters show elevated values of radar circular polarization ratio (CPR) in observations acquired at a range of wavelengths. By contrast, many of these craters lack a corresponding enhancement in either calculated rock concentration or rock-free regolith temperature derived from Diviner observations, rendering their ejecta blankets thermally indistinguishable from the background regolith. The radar datasets are sensitive to rocks larger than ~1/10 the wavelength both on the surface and within the upper ~10 wavelengths of regolith, whereas the low-density, low-thermal conductivity upper regolith materials effectively shield rocks from Diviner at thicknesses on the mm- to cm-scale. Therefore, we interpret our observations as evidence that many craters' ejecta are covered by thermally insulating regolith material. In this work, we seek to constrain the thickness of this cover using Earth-based radar observations at 70-cm and 12.6-cm wavelengths, LRO Mini-RF radar observations at 12.6-cm wavelength, Diviner observations, and the results of one-dimensional analytical thermal models. As endmember cases, we investigate both mare and highlands craters whose ejecta are completely thermally insulated, and craters with exposed ejecta blocks, the latter of which show enhancements in calculated rock abundance and soil temperature that are broadly consistent with radar CPR enhancements. We also examine intermediate examples, for which enhancements in rock abundance and regolith temperature exist but are spatially limited relative to the regions of elevated radar CPR. The results of this work shed light on the mechanism(s) and rate of lunar regolith development.

  4. Deformation along the western Indian plate boundary: new constraints from differential and multi-aperture InSAR data inversion for the 2008, Baluchistan (Western Pakistan) seismic sequence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzo, Giuseppe; Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Atzori, Simone; Antonioli, Andrea; Salvi, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    We use Synthetic Aperture Radar Differential Interferometry (DInSAR) and Multi-Aperture Interferometry (MAI) to constrain the sources of the three largest events of the 2008 Baluchistan (western Pakistan) seismic sequence, namely two Mw 6.4 events only 12 hours apart and an Mw 5.7event occurred 40 days later. The sequence took place in the Quetta Syntaxis, the most seismically active region of Baluchistan, tectonically located between the colliding Indian Plate and the Afghan block of the Eurasian Plate. Elastic dislocation modelling of the surface displacements, derived from ascending and descending ENVISAT ASAR acquisitions, yields slip distributions with peak values of 80 cm and 70 cm for the two main events on a pair of strike-slip near-vertical faults, and values up to 50 cm for the largest aftershock on a NE-SW strike-slip fault. The MAI measurements, with their high sensitivity to the north-south motion component, are crucial in this area to resolve the fault plane ambiguity of moment tensors. We also studied the relationships between the largest earthquakes of the sequence by means of the Coulomb Failure Function to verify the agreement of our source modelling with the stress variations induced by the October 28 earthquake on the October 29 fault plane, and the stress variations induced by the two mainshocks on the December 09 fault plane. Our results provide insight into the deformation style of the Quetta Syntaxis, suggesting that right-lateral slip released at intermediate depths on large NW fault planes is compatible with contemporaneous left-lateral activation on NE-SW minor faults at shallower depths, in agreement with a bookshelf deformation mechanism.

  5. The Relationship between Sarcopenia and Systemic Inflammatory Response for Cancer Cachexia in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Young Saing; Seo, Ja-Young; Park, Inkeun; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Nambeom

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic significance of sarcopenia, an important component of cancer cachexia, has been demonstrated in oncologic patients. Catabolic drivers have been suggested to be key features of cancer cachexia. Objective To determine the relationship between systemic inflammatory markers and CT-determined muscle mass in patients with SCLC. Methods Cross-sectional muscle areas were evaluated at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) using baseline CT images in 186 SCLC patients. Sarcopenia was defined as a L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) of < 55 cm2/m2 for men and of < 39 cm2/m2 for women. Systemic inflammatory markers investigated included serum white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin. Results Mean L3MI was 47.9 ± 9.7 cm2/m2 for men and 41.6 ± 7.0 cm2/m2 for women. Sarcopenia was present in 128 patients (68.8%), and sarcopenic patients had significant serum lymphocyte counts and albumin levels (p = 0.002 and 0.041, respectively), and higher NLRs and CRP levels (p = 0.011 and 0.026) than non-sarcopenic patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that CRP independently predicted L3MI (β = -0.208; 95% CI, -0.415 to -0.002; p = 0.048), along with gender and BMI (p values < 0.001) and performance status (p = 0.010). Conclusion The present study confirms a significant linear relationship exists between CT-determined muscle mass and CRP in SCLC patients. This association might provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cancer cachexia. PMID:27537502

  6. Nitrogen-isotope analysis of groundwater nitrate in carbonate aquifers: Natural sources versus human pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitler, Charles W.; Browning, Lawrence A.

    1983-02-01

    Results of nitrogen-isotope analyses of nitrate in the waters of the Cretaceous Edwards aquifer in Texas, U.S.A., indicate that the source of the nitrate is naturally-occurring nitrogen compounds in the recharge streams. In contrast, nitrogen isotopes of nitrate in the fresh waters of the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation on Grand Cayman Island, West Indies, indicate that human wastes are the source of the nitrate. The Cretaceous Edwards Limestone is a prolific aquifer that produces principally from fracture porosity along the Balcones Fault Zone. Recharge is primarily by streams crossing the fault zone. Rainfall is ˜ 70 cm yr. -1, and the water table is generally deeper than 30 m below land surface. The δ15 N of 73 samples of nitrate from Edwards waters ranged from + 1.9 to + 10‰ with an average of + 6.2‰. This δ15 N range is within the range of nitrate in surface water in the recharge streams ( δ 15N range = + 1 to + 8.3‰ ) and within the range of nitrate in surface water from the Colorado River, Texas, ( δ 15N range = + 1 to + 11‰ ). No sample was found to be enriched in 15N, which would suggest the presence of nitrate from animal waste ( δ 15N range = + 10 to + 22‰ ). The Ironshore Formation contains a small freshwater lens that is recharged entirely by percolation through the soil. Average rainfall is 165 cm yr. -1, and the water table is within 3 m of land surface. The δ15 N of four nitrate samples from water samples of the Ironshore Formation ranged from + 18 to + 23.9‰, which indicates a cesspool/septictank source of the nitrate. Limestone aquifers in humid environments that are recharged by percolation through the soil appear to be more susceptible to contamination by septic tanks than are aquifers in subhumid environments that feature thick unsaturated sections and are recharged by streams.

  7. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (< 1-34 ng/g). PCBs are first detected in sediment deposited during the 1930's in Richardson Bay, about a decade earlier than the onset of detectable levels of DDTs. PCB inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  8. Who is in control? Competing influences of geology, land use and topography on soil moisture and soil temperature dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; Hassler, Sibylle; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Can we identify distinct signatures of landscape elements in the event response of soil moisture and soil temperature? Moisture and temperature dynamics in soils are largely controlled by the climatic boundary conditions of rainfall, evapotranspiration and radiation. However, certain landscape features also leave characteristic finger prints on soil moisture and soil temperature time series. The extent of these influences and their time variable relative importance are important in a number of contexts, such as landscape scale prediction of soil moisture patterns or runoff generation, process predictions in ungauged basins or the improvement of hydrological model structures for the mesoscale. The competing influences of geology, land use and topography on temperature and moisture characteristics in the vadose zone are explored at the CAOS hydrological observatory in Luxemburg (http://www.caos-project.de/) with a unique experimental setup of 45 sensor clusters. These sensor clusters cover three different geologies (schist, sandstone, marls), two land use classes (forest and grassland), five different landscape positions (plateau, top-, mid- and lower hillslope as well as near stream/floodplain locations), and contrasting expositions. At each of these sensor clusters three soil moisture profiles with sensors at depths from 10 to 70 cm, four soil temperature profiles as well as air temperature, relative humidity, global radiation, rainfall/throughfall, sapflow and shallow groundwater and stream water levels were measured continuously. Time series of up to 2 years for the schist region and up to 6 months for the complete set of sites allow for a first intercomparison of characteristic event response behavior.

  9. Gender, Vertical Height and Horizontal Distance Effects on Single-Leg Landing Kinematics: Implications for Risk of non-contact ACL Injury.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nicholas; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Robertson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of studies investigating gender differences in whole-body kinematics during single-leg landings from increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances. This study determined the main effects and interactions of gender, vertical height, and horizontal distance on whole-body joint kinematics during single-leg landings, and established whether these findings could explain the gender disparity in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rate. Recreationally active males (n=6) and females (n=6) performed single-leg landings from a takeoff deck of vertical height of 20, 40, and 60 cm placed at a horizontal distance of 30, 50 and 70 cm from the edge of a force platform, while 3D kinematics and kinetics were simultaneously measured. It was determined that peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and the ankle flexion angle exhibited significant gender differences (p=0.028, partial η(2)=0.40 and p=0.035, partial η(2)=0.37, respectively). Peak VGRF was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= -0.59, p=0.04), hip flexion angle (r= -0.74, p=0.006), and trunk flexion angle (r= -0.59, p=0.045). Peak posterior ground reaction force (PGRF) was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= -0.56, p=0.035), while peak knee abduction moment was significantly correlated to the knee flexion angle (r= -0.64, p=0.03). Rearfoot landings may explain the higher ACL injury rate among females. Higher plantar-flexed ankle, hip, and trunk flexion angles were associated with lower peak ground reaction forces, while higher knee flexion angle was associated with lower peak knee abduction moment, and these kinematics implicate reduced risk of non-contact ACL injury. PMID:24146702

  10. Swimming performance and physiological responses to exhaustive exercise in radio-tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have declined in the Columbia River basin. One factor that may have contributed to this reduction in population size is an excessive use of energy by adult lampreys as they negotiate fishways at dams during spawning migrations. To gain an understanding of the performance capacity of Pacific lampreys, we estimated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and documented physiological responses of radio-tagged and untagged adult lampreys exercised to exhaustion. The mean (??SD) Ucrit of untagged lampreys was 86.2 ?? 7.5 cm/s at 15??C, whereas the Ucrit for radio-tagged lampreys was 81.5 ?? 7.0 cm/s, a speed that was significantly lower than that of untagged fish. The physiological responses of tagged and untagged lampreys subjected to exhaustive exercise included decreases in blood pH of 0.3-0.5 units, a 40% decrease in muscle glycogen levels, a 22% increase in hematocrit for untagged fish only, and a 4- to 5-fold increase in muscle and a 40- to 100-fold increase in plasma lactate concentrations. These physiological changes were significant compared with resting control fish and usually returned to resting levels by 1-4 h after fatigue. Our estimates of Ucrit for Pacific lampreys are the first quantitative measures of their swimming performance and suggest that these fish may have difficulty negotiating fishways at dams on the Columbia River, which can have water velocities approaching 2 m/s. Our physiological results indicate that tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys show similar metabolic dysfunction after exhaustive exercise but recover quickly from a single exposure to such a stressor.

  11. Upgrade of the BATMAN test facility for H- source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, B.; Fröschle, M.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.

    2015-04-01

    The development of a radio frequency (RF) driven source for negative hydrogen ions for the neutral beam heating devices of fusion experiments has been successfully carried out at IPP since 1996 on the test facility BATMAN. The required ITER parameters have been achieved with the prototype source consisting of a cylindrical driver on the back side of a racetrack like expansion chamber. The extraction system, called "Large Area Grid" (LAG) was derived from a positive ion accelerator from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) using its aperture size (ø 8 mm) and pattern but replacing the first two electrodes and masking down the extraction area to 70 cm2. BATMAN is a well diagnosed and highly flexible test facility which will be kept operational in parallel to the half size ITER source test facility ELISE for further developments to improve the RF efficiency and the beam properties. It is therefore planned to upgrade BATMAN with a new ITER-like grid system (ILG) representing almost one ITER beamlet group, namely 5 × 14 apertures (ø 14 mm). Additionally to the standard three grid extraction system a repeller electrode upstream of the grounded grid can optionally be installed which is positively charged against it by 2 kV. This is designated to affect the onset of the space charge compensation downstream of the grounded grid and to reduce the backstreaming of positive ions from the drift space backwards into the ion source. For magnetic filter field studies a plasma grid current up to 3 kA will be available as well as permanent magnets embedded into a diagnostic flange or in an external magnet frame. Furthermore different source vessels and source configurations are under discussion for BATMAN, e.g. using the AUG type racetrack RF source as driver instead of the circular one or modifying the expansion chamber for a more flexible position of the external magnet frame.

  12. Feeding preferences of two detritivores related to size and metal content of leaves: the crustaceans Atyaephyra desmarestii (Millet) and Echinogammarus meridionalis (Pinkster).

    PubMed

    Quintaneiro, C; Ranville, J; Nogueira, A J A

    2014-11-01

    The equilibrium of the structure and functioning of freshwater ecosystems is dependent of detritivores that link all the other functional groups. The preference for feeding leaves with different diameters (particle size) and leaves with metal contamination (several concentrations of the essential metals copper and zinc) were determined for two detritivores, the decapod Atyaephyra desmarestii and the amphipod Echinogammarus meridionalis. Several no-choice and multi-choice assays were done to determinate which leaf diameter the amphipod and the decapod species would eat when they had or not had alternatives available and include a set of dual-choice assays with contaminated and uncontaminated foods. No significant preference was shown by either species relative to the diameter of leaves, either on no-choice or multi-choice assays. The presence of essential metals on food did not had any influence on the feeding choice of these organisms over the concentration range studied. Both showed no preference on ingesting food spiked with these essential metals, except E. meridionalis which preferred ingesting leaves with 2.19 μg.l(-1) of copper instead of uncontaminated leaves. For further works, despite no preference for leaves with a certain diameter, the leaves with 0.70 cm (0.385 cm(2)of area) and with 0.50 cm (1.767 cm(2) of area) should be used for A. desmarestii and E. meridionalis, respectively. Furthermore, to maintain E. meridionalis, the diet should include some percentage of copper in order to accomplish metabolic needs. PMID:24938812

  13. Quantification of breast density with dual energy mammography: An experimental feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Breast density, the percentage of glandular breast tissue, has been shown to be a strong indicator of breast cancer risk. A quantitative method to measure breast density with dual energy mammography was investigated using physical phantoms. Methods: The dual energy mammography system used a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a 50 {mu}m rhodium beam filter for low energy images and a 300 {mu}m copper beam filter for high energy images. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Four different phantom studies were used to evaluate the technique. The first study consisted of phantoms with thicknesses of 2.5-8.5 cm in 0.5 cm steps with variable densities centered at a mean of 28%. The second study consisted of phantoms at a fixed thickness of 4.0 cm, which ranged in densities from 0% to 100% in increments of 12.5%. The third study consisted of 4.0 cm thick phantoms at densities of 25%, 50% and 75% each imaged at three areal sizes, approximately 62.5, 125, and 250 cm{sup 2}, in order to assess the effect of breast size on density measurement. The fourth study consisted of step phantoms designed to more closely mimic the shape of a female breast with maximal thicknesses from 3.0 to 7.0 cm at a fixed density of 50%. All images were corrected for x-ray scatter. Results: The RMS errors in breast density measurements were 0.44% for the variable thickness phantoms, 0.64% for the variable density phantoms, 2.87% for the phantoms of different areal sizes, and 4.63% for step phantoms designed to closely resemble the shape of a breast. Conclusions: The results of the phantom studies indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to measure breast density with an RMS error of approximately 5%.

  14. Turtles to Terabytes: The Ongoing Revolution in Volcano Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Volcano geodesy is in the midst of a revolution. GPS and InSAR, together with extensive ground-based sensor networks, have enabled major advances in understanding how and why volcanoes deform. Surveying techniques that produced a few bytes of information per benchmark per year have been replaced by continuously operating deformation networks and imaging radar satellites that generate terabytes of data at resolutions unattainable only a few decades ago. These developments have enabled more detailed assessments of volcano hazards, more accurate forecasts of volcanic activity, and better insights into how volcanoes behave over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Forty years ago, repeated leveling surveys showed that the floor of the Yellowstone caldera had risen more than 70 cm in the past 5 decades. Today a network of GPS stations tracks surface movements continuously with millimeter-scale accuracy and the entire deformation field is imaged frequently by a growing number of SAR satellites, revealing a far more complex style of deformation than was recognized previously. At Mount St. Helens, the 1980-1986 eruption taught us that a seemingly quiescent volcano can suddenly become overtly restless, and that accurate eruption predictions are possible at least in some limited circumstances given sufficient observations. The lessons were revisited during the volcano's 2004-2008 eruption, during which a new generation of geodetic sensors and methods detected a range of co-eruptive changes that enabled new insights into the volcano's magma storage and transport system. These examples highlight volcano deformation styles and scales that were unknown just a few decades ago but now have been revealed by a growing number of data types and modeling methods. The rapid evolution that volcano geodesy is currently experiencing provides an ongoing challenge for geodesists, while also demonstrating that geodetic unrest is common, widespread, and illuminating. Vive la révolution!

  15. On-sky demonstration of optical polaroastrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, B.

    2015-08-01

    A method for measuring the difference between centroids of polarized flux and total flux of an astronomical object - polaroastrometry - is proposed. The deviation of the centroid of flux corresponding to Stokes parameter Q or U from the centroid of total flux multiplied by dimensionless Stokes parameter q or u, respectively, was used as a signal. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated on the basis of observations made in the V band by using an instrument combining features of a two-beam polarimeter with a rotating half-wave plate and a speckle interferometer. The polaroastrometric signal noise is 60-70 μas rms for a total number of accumulated photoelectrons Ne of 109 from a 70-cm telescope; this corresponds to a total integration time of 500 s and an object magnitude V = 6 mag. At smaller Ne, the noise increases as {≈} 1.7 arcsec/√{N_e}, while at larger Ne, it remains the same owing to imperfection of the half-wave plate. For main-sequence stars that are unpolarized and polarized by interstellar dust and the Mira-type variable R Tri the signal was undetectable. For the Mira-type variable χ Cyg the polaroastrometric signal is found to be 310 ± 70 and 300 ± 70 μas for Stokes Q and U, respectively; for o Cet these values are 490 ± 100 and 1160 ± 100 μas. The significant value of the polaroastrometric signal provides evidence of the asymmetry of the polarized flux distribution.

  16. The Prospect for Remote Sensing of Cirrus Clouds with a Submillimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, Aaron H.; Nolt, Ira G.; Marshall, B. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Given the substantial radiative effects of cirrus clouds and the need to validate cirrus cloud mass in climate models, it is important to measure the global distribution of cirrus properties with satellite remote sensing. Existing cirrus remote sensing techniques, such as solar reflectance methods, measure cirrus ice water path (IWP) rather indirectly and with limited accuracy. Submillimeter/wave radiometry is an independent method of cirrus remote sensing based on ice particles scattering the upwelling radiance emitted by the lower atmosphere. A new aircraft instrument, the Far Infrared Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC), is described. The FIRSC employs a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). which measures the upwelling radiance across the whole submillimeter region (0.1 1.0-mm wavelength). This wide spectral coverage gives high sensitivity to most cirrus particle sizes and allows accurate determination of the characteristic particle size. Radiative transfer modeling is performed to analyze the capabilities of the submillimeter FTS technique. A linear inversion analysis is done to show that cirrus IWP, particle size, and upper-tropospheric temperature and water vapor may be accurately measured, A nonlinear statistical algorithm is developed using a database of 20000 spectra simulated by randomly varying most relevant cirrus and atmospheric parameters. An empirical orthogonal function analysis reduces the 500-point spectrum (20 - 70/cm) to 15 "pseudo-channels" that are then input to a neural network to retrieve cirrus IWP and median particle diameter. A Monte Carlo accuracy study is performed with simulated spectra having realistic noise. The retrieval errors are low for IWP (rms less than a factor of 1.5) and for particle sizes (rins less than 30%) for IWP greater than 5 g/sq m and a wide range of median particle sizes. This detailed modeling indicates that there is good potential to accurately measure cirrus properties with a submillimeter FTS.

  17. [Biomass of Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in wetlands of Northeast Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Luciana Irene; Celeste Franceschini, María; Guadalupe Poi, Alicia Susana; Laura de Wysiecki, María

    2015-03-01

    The estimation of biomass in insect populations is a key factor to quantify the available resources and energy fluxes in ecosystems food webs. Cornops aquaticum is a common herbivore in Eichhornia plants in wetlands of Northeast Argentina. We aimed to analyse its biomass variation, related to the different grasshopper age categories populations in two host-plants: Eichhornia azurea and Eichhornia crassipes. For this, standard samplings of C. aquaticum populations were carried out with an entomological net of 70 cm diameter in two wetlands with E. azurea and E. crassipes, in Corrientes and Chaco Provinces; besides, dry weight was also obtained (directly and indirectly), and a regression model to indirectly estimate the biomass from a linear dimension measure (hind femur length) is proposed. A total of 2307 individuals were collected and separated in different age categories; their abundance and linear dimension data were obtained. The model proposed was InDM=lna+b*lnH (where DM=dry mass, a and b are constants and H=hind femur length) (R2 = 0.97). The population biomass variations of C. aquaticum were due to the relative abundance of each age category and the grasshopper individual dry weight. No significant differences were found between populations biomasses obtained by direct and indirect methods in E. azurea and E. crassipes floating meadows. This model made easier the C. aquaticum biomass calculation for both individuals and the population, and accelerated the processing of high number of samples. Finally, high biomass values of populations and individual age category (especially in adults) emphasize the importance of C. aquaticum as a consumer and a resource for predators on Eichhornia floating meadows food webs. PMID:26299119

  18. Mandibular ramus length as an indicator of chronological age and sex.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Soares, Mariana Quirino Silveira; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex estimation is crucial in forensic investigations, whether in legal situations that involve living people or to identify mortal remains. The aim of this study was to establish reference values in a Brazilian population to estimate age and sex by measuring the length of the mandibular ramus on lateral cephalometric radiographs, and to determine the probability that an individual being is 18 years or older, based on the results that were obtained. Two hundred and eighteen scanned lateral cephalograms of individuals between 6 and 20 years of age (101 males and 117 females) were measured with reference to mandibular ramus length (the distance between Condylion superior (Cs) and Gonion (Go)) using ImageJ 1.41 software (NIH, Bethesda, MA, USA). The results showed that sexual dimorphism was not observed until 16 years and, based on the ramus length measurements in this sample, it is possible to predict sex with an accuracy of only 54 %. There was a positive correlation between age and ramus length (r = 0.90; p < 0.001). From the linear regression analysis, one formula was derived; therefore, it was possible to calculate the individual's age, given his or her ramus length. The results showed that if an individual's ramus length is 7.0 cm or more, then there is an 81.25 % chance that the individual is 18 years old or older. In conclusion, the mandibular ramus length was not effective in discriminating sex. Mandibular length is strongly related to chronological age and can be used to predict whether an individual is 18 years or older with high degree of expected accuracy. PMID:25270589

  19. Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic activity of a dry extract of Maytenus ilicifolia Martius ex. Reiss produced by a jet spouted bed dryer.

    PubMed

    Tabach, R; Oliveira, W P

    2003-08-01

    We undertook the present study to evaluate the activity of the dried extract of Maytenus ilicifolia against stomach ulcers and in the increase of the volume and pH of the gastric juice of Wistar rats, as a model to evaluate the viability of the Jet Spouted Bed Dryer for the production of dry-extracts of medicinal Brazilian plants. The extract was obtained from the drying of a hydro-alcoholic extract with drying aid (40% of colloidal SiO2 related to solid content in the concentrated extract, at a concentration of 15.82% in water). The drying conditions employed were: Temperature of the spouting gas 150 degrees C, feed flow-rate of hydro-alcoholic extract 16.0 g/min, feed flow rate of the spouting gas 1.67 m3/min and static bed height 7.0 cm. Wistar rats received three different doses (140, 280 and 420 mg/kg) of the dried extract by intraperitoneal way and, after 60 minutes, were immobilized with wire screen and placed at temperature of 4 degrees C for two hours (cold-restraint stress). The animals were sacrificed and the stomach removed, examined and the volume and pH of the gastric secretion determined. A significant reduction in the ulceration index, was observed as well as a significant increase of the volume and of the pH of the gastric secretion for all doses administered. This is an indication that the preparation of dried extracts by the Jet spouted bed technique does not alter the biological activity of Maytenus ilicifolia. PMID:12967037

  20. Degradation of C2-C15 volatile organic compounds in a landfill cover soil.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Liccioli, Caterina; Moretti, Sandro; Nisi, Barbara

    2009-07-15

    The composition of non-methane volatile organic compounds (hereafter VOCs) in i) the cover soil, at depths of 30, 50 and 70 cm, and ii) gas recovery wells from Case Passerini landfill site, (Florence, Italy) was determined by GC-MS. The study, based on the analysis of interstitial gases sampled along vertical profiles within the cover soil, was aimed to investigate the VOC behaviour as biogas transits from a reducing to a relatively more oxidizing environment. A total of 48 and 63 different VOCs were identified in the soil and well gases, respectively. Aromatics represent the dominant group (71.5% of total VOC) in soil gases, followed by alkanes (6.8%), ketones (5.7%), organic acids (5.2%), aldehydes (3.0%), esters (2.6%), halogenated compounds (2.1%) and terpenes (1.3%). Cyclics, heterocyclics, S-bearing compounds and phenols are

  1. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR ( P < 0.05) and greater rest time (10.2 and 7.8 h/day in SAMM and STLM, respectively). The RT did not differ (38.89 ± 0.29 and 38.88 ± 0.33°C in STLM and SAMM r,espectively). In conclusion, our research suggests that the cooling system using fans plus misters with mild wetting in rest areas with sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  2. Use of the simultaneous seismic, GPS and meteorological monitoring for the characterization of a large unstable mountain slope in the southern French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, Stéphane; Guglielmi, Yves; Cappa, Frédéric; Pambrun, Claude; Monfret, Tony; Amitrano, David

    2010-09-01

    The presence of unstable rock slopes in the mountainous regions makes these areas particularly prone to the development of sudden dramatic events, which may cause damage and injuries. The efficient disaster management requires a good understanding of the main causes of these mass movements, such as, increased fluid pressure and seismic shaking. In order to improve our understanding of the mechanics and dynamics of the mountain slope instabilities, we developed a monitoring system based on microseismic, geodetic and meteorological measurements. The system operated in the La Clapière rockslide in the southern French Alps. It was composed of four three-component seismological stations, four Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and three meteorological stations deployed together for a period of 4 months. This system was installed over the territory of ~1.5 km2 of the fractured gneissic terrain that moves at a mean velocity of about 70 cm yr-1. This passive measurement method may represent an interesting approach to the characterization of the landslides difficult to access, since it allows the use of the lighter instrumentation and easier processing tools. Our investigations were based on the H/V method to image shear wave contrasts that we correlated with slip surfaces. The analysis of the seismograms allowed us to point out a correlation between the thickness of the surface layers and the measured resonance frequencies. The results indicated that the H/V ratios are heterogeneous in the rockslide. Comparison between seismic and GPS data proved our monitoring approach to be promising for landslides characterization.

  3. Dissipation of DDT in a heavily contaminated soil in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, Ricardo; de Carvalho Dores, Eliana Freire Gaspar; Carbo, Leandro; Cunha, Marcelo Luiz Ferreira

    2006-07-01

    After the prohibition of organochlorine-pesticide use in Brazil for controlling insect vector diseases, Mato Grosso State gathered the exceeding DDT and stored it irregularly in an open air area that belongs to the National Health Foundation, causing soil contamination. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination level and dissipation of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE in this area. For that, surface soil samples were collected on 19 September 2000, 15 December 2000, 4 April 2001 and soil samples 30-40 cm; 60-70 cm and 90-100 cm deep were taken from five points in the studied area on 17 July 2001. The contaminants were determined by a small scale method which consists on extraction and clean-up steps combined into one step by transferring soil samples mixed with neutral alumina to a chromatographic column prepacked with neutral alumina and elution with hexane:dichloromethane (7:3 v:v). The eluate was concentrated and the analytes were quantified by gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector. p,p'-DDT at surface soil ranged from 3,800 to 7,300 mg kg(-1). 30-40 cm deep soil sample concentrations varied from 0.036 to 440 mg kg(-1) while 90-100 cm deep samples varied from 0.069 to 180 mg kg(-1). Volatilization is probably the main dissipation process. The p,p'-DDT is moving slowly downward in the soil profile, however, the levels of this contaminant are high enough to present risk to underground waters. PMID:16442143

  4. OPTICAL MONITORING OF TWO BRIGHTEST NEARBY QUASARS, PHL 1811 AND 3C 273

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, Y. H.; Kurtanidze, O.; Chanishvili, R.; Richter, G. M.

    2014-08-01

    Variability is one of the most observable characteristics of active galactic nuclei, and it is important when considering the emission mechanism. In this paper, we report optical photometry monitoring of two nearby brightest quasars, PHL 1811 and 3C 273, using the ST-6 camera attached to the Newtonian focus and the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at the Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. PHL 1811 was monitored during the period from 2002 September to 2012 December, while 3C 273 was monitored during the period from 1998 February to 2008 May. During our monitoring period, the two sources did not show any significant intra-day variability. The largest detected variations are ΔR = 0.112 ± 0.010 mag. for PHL 1811, ΔB = 0.595 ± 0.099 mag, ΔV = 0.369 ± 0.028 mag, ΔR = 0.495 ± 0.076 mag, and ΔI = 0.355 ± 0.009 mag for 3C 273. When the periodicity analysis methods are adopted for the observations of the sources, a period of p = 5.80 ± 1.12 yr is obtained for PHL 1811 in the R light curve in the present work, and periods of p = 21.10 ± 0.14, 10.00 ± 0.14, 7.30 ± 0.09, 13.20 ± 0.09, 2.10 ± 0.06, and 0.68 ± 0.05 yr are obtained for 3C 273 based on the data in the present work combined with historical works.

  5. Diatoms as an aid in identifying late-holocene tsunami deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill-Haley, E.

    1996-01-01

    Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) help identify the onshore deposits of tsunamis from earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone along the Pacific coast of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, and on faults high in the North American plate in the Puget Sound area of Washington. At the Copalis River, Washington, diatom analyses suggest that a tsunami deposit about 300 calendric years old (300 yr BP) originated from sandy shoals of the lower estuary rather than nearby beaches or coastal dunes. At Cultus Bay and West Point, Washington, well-preserved benthic estuarine diatoms in sand sheets overlying tidal-marsh peat indicate that the deposits came from intertidal or nearshore areas of Puget Sound. On an abruptly uplifted mudflat at the landward end of Hood Canal at Lynch Cove, Washington, tidal-flat diatoms refute the possibility of a terrestrial source for the sand. Diatoms in 300- yr-BP tsunami deposits on the Niawiakum River, Washington, confirm that the sand in these deposits had a marine source, and help to identify the landward extent of tsunami inundation. Diatom assemblages in deposits of the 300 yr BP and AD 1964 tsunamis at Port Alberni. British Columbia, consist of different dominant taxa, but both indicate that the sand units originated from Alberni Inlet. Diatoms add to stratigraphic evidence that tsunamis flooded Bradley Lake, a freshwater lake on the south-central Oregon coast, three times during the past 1700 years. Planktonic marine diatoms only found above 1-70-cm- thick sand layers in otherwise claycy lacustrine sediment imply tsunami inundation.

  6. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  7. Di- versus Trinuclear Copper(II) Cryptate for the Uptake of Dicarboxylate Anions.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Catarina V; Mateus, Pedro; André, Vânia; Bandeira, Nuno A G; Calhorda, Maria José; Ferreira, Liliana P; Delgado, Rita

    2016-07-18

    Searching for receptors selective for the binding of dicarboxylate anions, the copper(II) complexes of the known ditopic octaazacryptand (t2pN8), derived from bistren [tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine] linked by p-xylyl spacers, were re-examined, with the expectation of observing a selective binding of oxalate or malonate by bridging the two copper centers of the [Cu2(t2pN8)(H2O)2](4+) receptor. Solution studies involving the supramolecular species formed by the receptor and oxalate (oxa(2-)), malonate (mal(2-)), and succinate (suc(2-)) anions are reported. The determined association constants revealed the unexpected formation of a 3:1:1 Cu/t2pN8/anion stoichiometry for the cascade species with oxa(2-) and mal(2-), and the single crystal X-ray structural characterization confirmed the presence of tricopper(II) complexes, with an unusual binding mode for the dicarboxylate anions. Each of the two copper atoms binds four nitrogen donor atoms of the t2pN8 cryptand and one additional hydroxide group, which bridges to the third copper. The square planar environment of this one is complete with two oxygen atoms from the oxalate (or the malonate). The two copper centers bound to the tren heads are ∼6.5 Å apart, each one at about 3.5 Å from the third Cu center. These studies were complemented by SQUID magnetization measurements and DFT calculations. The magnetic susceptibility measurements of the oxalate cascade complex showed a strong magnetic coupling (J = - 210 cm(-1)) between the Cu centers at a short distance (3.5 Å), while the coupling between the two equivalent Cu atoms (∼6.5 Å) was only -70 cm(-1). This result was well reproduced by DFT calculations. PMID:27355987

  8. Soil matrix and macropore biodegradation of 2,4-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pivetz, B.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Preferential flow of pesticides in macropores can lead to decreased travel times through the vadose zone and increased groundwater contamination. Macropores, however, may present a favorable environment for biodegradation because of greater oxygen, nutrient, and substrate supply, and higher microbial populations in earthworm burrows, compared to the soil matrix. The biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was measured in macropores and soil matrix of packed soil columns (7.0-cm diam., 10-cm length) and undisturbed cores contained as well-defined artificial macropore and the undisturbed cores contained earthworm-burrow macropores. A 50 {mu}g/L 2,4-D solution was continuously applied to the unsaturated soil surface and breakthrough curves (BTCs) indicating pesticide loss in the effluent were obtained from the soil matrix and macropore flow paths. Biodegradation rates were calculated separately for each flow path by comparing the BTCs to BTCs representing abiotic conditions, and dividing the 2,4-D loss by the travel time through each flow path. The biodegradation rates increased with time in both flow paths, and the final biodegradation rate in the macropore region surpassed that of the matrix, presumably because of increased microbial populations in the macropore. Complete loss of the 2,4-D in both flow paths was observed after continuous application of 2,4-D for 400 h, with maximum column-averaged 2,4-D loss rates of 0.879 {mu}g/(L h) in the matrix and 1.073 {mu}g/(L h) in the macropore. Biodegradation of 2,4-D was also observed in the macropore and matrix regions of the undisturbed soil cores. 19 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Hydrogeochemical niches associated with hyporheic exchange beneath an acid mine drainage-contaminated stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Lance N.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Singha, Kamini; Gooseff, Michael N.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William

    2013-09-01

    Biological low-pH Fe(II)-oxidation creates terraced iron formations (TIFs) that remove Fe(III) from solution. TIFs can be used for remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD), however, as sediment depth increases, Fe(III)-reduction in anoxic subsurface areas may compromise treatment effectiveness. In this study we used near-surface electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and in situ pore-water samplers to spatially resolve bulk conductivity changes within a TIF formed in a stream emanating from a large abandoned deep clay mine in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, USA. Because of the high fluid electrical conductivity of the emergent AMD (1860 μS), fresh water (42 μS) was added as a dilution tracer to visualize the spatial and temporal extent of hyporheic exchange and to characterize subsurface flow paths. Distinct hydrogeochemical niches were identified in the shallow subsurface beneath the stream by overlaying relative groundwater velocities (derived from ERI) with pore-water chemistry profiles. Niches were classified based on relatively “fast” versus “slow” rates of hyporheic exchange and oxic versus anoxic conditions. Pore-water concentrations and speciation of iron, pH, and redox potential differed between subsurface flow regimes. The greatest extent of hyporheic exchange was beneath the center of the stream, where a shallower (<10 cm) Fe(II)-oxidizing zone was observed. Meanwhile, less hyporheic exchange was observed near the channel banks, concurrent with a more pronounced, deeper (>70 cm) Fe(II)-oxidizing zone. At these locations, relatively slower groundwater exchange may promote biotic Fe(II)-oxidation and improve the long-term stability of Fe sequestered in TIFs.

  10. A Robust Cooling Platform for NIS Junction Refrigeration and sub-Kelvin Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B.; Atlas, M.; Lowell, P.; Moyerman, S.; Stebor, N.; Ullom, J.; Keating, B.

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in Normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions (Clark et al. Appl Phys Lett 86: 173508, 2005, Appl Phys Lett 84: 4, 2004) have proven these devices to be a viable technology for sub-Kelvin refrigeration. NIS junction coolers, coupled to a separate cold stage, provide a flexible platform for cooling a wide range of user-supplied payloads. Recently, a stage was cooled from 290 to 256 mK (Lowell et al. Appl Phys Lett 102: 082601 2013), but further mechanical and electrical improvements are necessary for the stage to reach its full potential. We have designed and built a new Kevlar suspended cooling platform for NIS junction refrigeration that is both lightweight and well thermally isolated; the calculated parasitic loading is pW from 300 to 100 mK. The platform is structurally rigid with a measured deflection of 25 m under a 2.5 kg load and has an integrated mechanical heat switch driven by a superconducting stepper motor with thermal conductivity G W/K at 300 mK. An integrated radiation shield limits thermal loading and a modular platform accommodates enough junctions to provide nanowatts of continuous cooling power. The compact stage size of 7.6 cm 8.6 cm 4.8 cm and overall radiation shield size of 8.9 cm 10.0 cm 7.0 cm along with minimal electrical power requirements allow easy integration into a range of cryostats. We present the design, construction, and performance of this cooling platform as well as projections for coupling to arrays of NIS junctions and other future applications.

  11. [The effects of pulmonary rehabilitation combined with inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function and inspiratory muscle strength in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Sudo, E; Ohga, E; Matsuse, T; Teramoto, S; Nagase, T; Katayama, H; Takizawa, H; Tanaka, M; Kikuchi, N; Kakurai, S; Fukuchi, Y; Ouchi, Y

    1997-11-01

    It has been suggested that pulmonary rehabilitation compined with inspiratory muscle training (IMT) might improve pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To test this hypothesis, inspiratory muscle strength (PImax), expiratory muscle strength (PEmax) and resting pulmonary function were measured in 13 elderly patients with COPD (aged 70.3 +/- 2.7 years). Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) was performed for 15 min twice a day, using a pressure threshold device, for a total of 12 weeks. The inspiratory threshold was set at 15% of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) for each individual. Pulmonary rehabilitation was performed for 12-h sessions over a 12-week period. Patients with COPD were assigned randomly to two groups: pulmonary rehabilitation combined with IMT (group A) (n = 7), and conventional pulmonary rehabilitation only (group B) (n = 6). Functional residual capacity (FRC) decreased significantly from 4.3 +/- 0.4 L at baseline to 3.9 +/- 0.4 L after rehabilitation (p < 0.01), Vp significantly increased from 4.6 +/- 0.8 L/sec at baseline to 5.1 +/- 0.7 L/sec after rehabilitation (p < 0.05) and the PImax increased significantly from 51.5 +/- 5.4 cmH2O at baseline to 80.9 +/- 7.0 cmH2O after rehabilitation (p < 0.02) in group A. However, these variables did not change in group B. There was no improvement in the 10-minutes walking distance of group A, but there was a significant increase in that of group B. It can be concluded that pulmonary rehabilitation combined with IMT improves pulmonary function and inspiratory muscle strength in elderly patients with COPD. PMID:9483953

  12. Combining Radiography and Passive Measurements for Radiological Threat Localization in Cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Wittman, Richard A.

    2015-10-01

    Detecting shielded special nuclear material (SNM) in a cargo container is a difficult problem, since shielding reduces the amount of radiation escaping the container. Radiography provides information that is complementary to that provided by passive gamma-ray detection systems: while not directly sensitive to radiological materials, radiography can reveal highly shielded regions that may mask a passive radiological signal. Combining these measurements has the potential to improve SNM detection, either through improved sensitivity or by providing a solution to the inverse problem to estimate source properties (strength and location). We present a data-fusion method that uses a radiograph to provide an estimate of the radiation-transport environment for gamma rays from potential sources. This approach makes quantitative use of radiographic images without relying on image interpretation, and results in a probabilistic description of likely source locations and strengths. We present results for this method for a modeled test case of a cargo container passing through a plastic-scintillator-based radiation portal monitor and a transmission-radiography system. We find that a radiograph-based inversion scheme allows for localization of a low-noise source placed randomly within the test container to within 40 cm, compared to 70 cm for triangulation alone, while strength estimation accuracy is improved by a factor of six. Improvements are seen in regions of both high and low shielding, but are most pronounced in highly shielded regions. The approach proposed here combines transmission and emission data in a manner that has not been explored in the cargo-screening literature, advancing the ability to accurately describe a hidden source based on currently-available instrumentation.

  13. Field use of ultrasonography to characterize the reproductive tract and early pregnancy in a phocid, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Adams, Gregg P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    The utility of transrectal ultrasonography was tested in a field setting to characterize the reproductive tract and detect early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles < 3 mm in diameter) in 17 multiparous female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). Female Weddell seals give birth in October/November each year, followed by the breeding season (December) and embryonic diapause. Transrectal ultrasonography was attempted in January/February 2014 to examine the entire reproductive tract (uterine horns and body, ovaries with follicles and corpora lutea) using a 5-10 MHz linear-array probe with a 70 cm-long extension. A single pregnancy was detected in 14 of 17 seals (82.4%) as a circular or guitar-pick shaped nonechogenic (black) vesicle with a clearly visible echogenic border within the lumen of the uterus. The stage of embryonic development (ostensibly the gestational age) varied markedly among individuals, ranging from a vesicle with no embryo proper to a large fetus with an ocular orbit, nose/mouth, limb buds, spinal column, umbilical cord, and prominent vasculature. Two of the pregnant seals were re-examined 3-6 days after the initial examination to obtain longitudinal growth rates. Images of one or both ovaries were obtained in nine and seven of the 19 examinations, respectively. Numerous ovarian follicles (3 to 12 mm diameter) were detected and animals typically had a single well-perfused corpus luteum (determined by Doppler color-flow) ipsilateral to the uterine horn containing the pregnancy. We conclude that real-time transrectal ultrasonography is an effective tool for characterizing reproductive events in phocids including ovarian dynamics, and for elucidating the nature of embryonic diapause. PMID:26340607

  14. Organic liquid scintillation detectors for on-the-fly neutron/gamma alarming and radionuclide identification in a pedestrian radiation portal monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Ruch, Marc L.; Poitrasson-Riviere, Alexis; Sagadevan, Athena; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara

    2015-07-01

    We present new experimental results from a radiation portal monitor based on the use of organic liquid scintillators. The system was tested as part of a 3He-free radiation portal monitor testing campaign at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, in February 2014. The radiation portal monitor was subjected to a wide range of test conditions described in ANSI N42.35, including a variety of gamma-ray sources and a 20,000 n/s 252Cf source. A false alarm test tested whether radiation portal monitors ever alarmed in the presence of only natural background. The University of Michigan Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Group's system triggered zero false alarms in 2739 trials. It consistently alarmed on a variety of gamma-ray sources travelling at 1.2 m/s at a 70 cm source to detector distance. The neutron source was detected at speeds up to 3 m/s and in configurations with up to 8 cm of high density polyethylene shielding. The success of on-the-fly radionuclide identification varied with the gamma-ray source measured as well as with which of two radionuclide identification methods was used. Both methods used a least squares comparison between the measured pulse height distributions to library spectra to pick the best match. The methods varied in how the pulse height distributions were modified prior to the least squares comparison. Correct identification rates were as high as 100% for highly enriched uranium, but as low as 50% for 241Am. Both radionuclide identification algorithms produced mixed results, but the concept of using liquid scintillation detectors for gamma-ray and neutron alarming in radiation portal monitor was validated.

  15. Filtration coefficient of the axon membrane as measured with hydrostatic and osmotic methods.

    PubMed

    Vargas, F F

    1968-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of the membranes surrounding the giant axon of the squid, Dosidicus gigas, was measured. In some axons the axoplasm was partially removed by suction. Perfusion was then established by insertion of a second pipette. In other axons the axoplasm was left intact and only one pipette was inserted. In both groups hydrostatic pressure was applied by means of a water column in a capillary manometer. Displacement of the meniscus in time gave the rate of fluid flowing across the axon sheath. In both groups osmotic differences across the membrane were established by the addition of a test molecule to the external medium which was seawater. The hydraulic conductivity determined by application of hydrostatic pressure was 10.6 +/- 0.8.10(-8) cm/sec cm H(2)O in perfused axons and 3.2 +/- 0.6.10(-8) cm/sec cm H(2)O in intact axons. When the driving force was an osmotic pressure gradient the conductivity was 4.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-10) cm/sec cm H(2)O and 4.8 +/- 0.9 x 10(-10) cm/sec cm H(2)O in perfused and intact axons, respectively. A comparable result was found when the internal solution was made hyperosmotic. The fluid flow was a linear function of the hydrostatic pressure up to 70 cm of water. Glycerol outflux and membrane conductance were increased 1.6 and 1.1 times by the application of hydrostatic pressure. These increments do not give an explanation of the difference between the filtration coefficients. Other possible explanations are suggested and discussed. PMID:5642470

  16. Focal Hydrothermal Ablation: Preliminary Investigation of a New Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sumit

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo determine whether focal tissue ablation is possible with interstitial instillation of steam.MethodsFresh swine livers were used. Through a 20 gauge needle, steam was instilled every 5 s, 3 (n = 5), 6 (n = 5), 9 (n = 5), or 12 (n = 5 + 5) times in a liver lobe. The ablated zones were sectioned parallel (n = 20) or perpendicular (n = 5) to the needle track. The longitudinal long and short axis diameters, or transverse long and short axis diameters of areas with discoloration on macroscopic examination, were measured. The experiment was repeated in vivo on a pig. Steam instillation was performed once every 5 s for 5 min in the liver (n = 3) and in muscle (n = 4), and temperature changes at three neighboring sites were monitored. Long and short axis diameters of the discolored areas were measured.ResultsA well-defined area of discoloration was invariably present at the site of steam instillation. The median longitudinal long axis diameter were 2.0, 2.5, 2.5, and 3.5 cm for 3, 6, 9, and 12 steam instillations in vitro, while median short axis diameters were 1.0, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.5 cm, respectively. Six attempts at ablation in vivo could be successfully completed. The long axis diameters of the ablated zones in the liver were 7.0 and 8.0 cm, while in muscle it ranged from 5.5 to 7.0 cm.ConclusionInstillation of steam in the liver in vitro and in vivo, and in muscle in vivo rapidly leads to circumscribed zones of coagulation necrosis.

  17. The simulation of a storm surge and wave due to Typhoon Sarah using an integrally coupled tide-surge-wave model of the Yellow and East China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, Jin-Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Byung Ho

    2015-12-01

    The Yellow and East China Seas are characterized by shallow shelf seas, seasonal monsoons and typhoons, especially the Korean Peninsula's western coastal area, which features large tides, a complex coastline and many islands. This study implemented an integrally coupled tide-surge-wave model based on an unstructured grid to evaluate the impact of Typhoon Sarah, which occurred in September of 1959, on the Yellow and East China Seas and, specifically, the southern coast of Korea in terms of waves and storm surges. The model results projected a significant wave height of 2-7 m, a mean wave period of 4-14 sec, and positive surge heights that were 0.3-1 m along the southern coast of Korea. Additional model runs included two independent model runs for waves and tides, and one tide-surge model run was conducted to investigate the interactions in the wave, tide and storm surge processes. The coupled tide-surgewave model reasonably reproduced wave properties and storm surges, but uncoupled models, i.e. independent models, slightly overestimated waves and surges. The wave forces associated with the gradient radiation stress resulted in water being elevated into coastal regions, thereby the water elevation increased onshore and the reverse happened offshore. A possible water level change due to a storm equivalent to Typhoon Sarah in the year 2100 was estimated by considering a mean sea level rise of 70 cm and was generally in the range of 70-100 cm in the Yellow and East China Seas and approximately 68 cm along the southern coast of Korea.

  18. A count-rate model for PET scanners using pixelated Anger-logic detectors with different scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surti, S.; Karp, J. S.

    2005-12-01

    A high count-rate simulation (HCRSim) model has been developed so that all results are derived from fundamental physics principles. Originally developed to study the behaviour of continuous sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors, this model is now applied to PET scanners based on pixelated Anger-logic detectors using lanthanum bromide (LaBr3), gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) and lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) scintillators. This simulation has been used to study the effect on scanner deadtime and pulse pileup at high activity levels due to the scintillator stopping power (μ), decay time (τ) and energy resolution. Simulations were performed for a uniform 20 cm diameter × 70 cm long cylinder (NEMA NU2-2001 standard) in a whole-body scanner with an 85 cm ring diameter and a 25 cm axial field-of-view. Our results for these whole-body scanners demonstrate the potential of a pixelated Anger-logic detector and the relationship of its performance with the scanner NEC rate. Faster signal decay and short coincidence timing window lead to a reduction in deadtime and randoms fraction in the LaBr3 and LSO scanners compared to GSO. The excellent energy resolution of LaBr3 leads to the lowest scatter fraction for all scanners and helps compensate for reduced sensitivity compared to the GSO and LSO scanners, leading to the highest NEC values at high activity concentrations. The LSO scanner has the highest sensitivity of all the scanner designs investigated here, therefore leading to the highest peak NEC value but at a lower activity concentration than that of LaBr3.

  19. Geodynamic modeling of the capture and release of a plume conduit by a migrating mid-ocean ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    plates over the relatively stationary, long-lived conduits of mantle plumes. However, paleomagnetic data from the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain suggests that the Hawaiian hotspot moved rapidly (~40 mm/yr) between 81 - 47 Ma [Tarduno et al., 2003]. Recently, Tarduno et al. [2009] suggested that this period of rapid motion might be the surface expression of a plume conduit returning to a largely vertical orientation after having been captured and tilted as the result of being "run over" by migrating mid-ocean ridge. I report on a series of analog geodynamic experiments designed to characterize the evolution of a plume conduit as a mid-ocean ridge migrates over. Experiments were conducted in a clear acrylic tank (100 cm x 70 cm x 50 cm) filled with commercial grade high-fructose corn syrup. Plate-driven flow is modeled by dragging two sheets of Mylar film (driven by independent DC motors) in opposite directions over the surface of the fluid. Ridge migration is achieved by moving the point at which the mylar sheets diverge using a separate motor drive. Buoyant plume flow is generated using a small electrical heater placed at the bottom of the tank. Plate velocities and ridge migration rate are controlled and plume temperature monitored using LabView software. Experiments are recorded using digital video which is then analyzed using digital image analysis software to track the position and shape of the plume conduit throughout the course of the experiment. The intersection of the plume conduit with the surface of the fluid is taken as an analog for the locus of hotspot volcanism and tracked as a function of time to obtain a hotspot migration rate. Results show that the plume conduit experiences significant tilting immediately following the passage of the migrating ridge.

  20. Gravity tests, differential accelerometry and interleaved clocks with cold atom interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Grant

    The remarkable success of light-pulse atom interferometer techniques has motivated competitive research in precision metrology. Gravimeters, gyroscopes and gradiometers based on these techniques are all at the forefront of their respective measurement classes. We show here the progress toward a compact gravity gradiometer for precision gravitational tests. It is well known that these devices suffer from environmental perturbations. Spurious noise may enter through beam steering effects which cause uncommon coupling to gravity in the two accelerometers. The horizontal configuration used here is particularly sensitive to this effect. Additionally, laser frequency noise may significantly limit the interferometer sensitivity. In our device, we have overcome these obstacles to achieve a differential acceleration sensitivity of 4.2 x 10-9g/ Hz over a 70 cm baseline. This corresponds to a phase noise of 3.1 mrad/ Hz inferred per interferometer which is the best performance achieved in such a system. Using this device, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept measurement of the gravitational constant with a precision of 3 x 10-4, which is competitive with the present limit of 1 x 10-4. I discuss improvements which can enable uncertainties falling below 10 -5. This experiment can also be interpreted as a test of the inverse square law which statistically constrains a putative Yukawa type fifth force to 8 x 10-3 near the poorly known length scale of 20 cm. Limits exceeding 10-4 appear to be feasible. We also perform an experiment which tests the atom interferometer in the context of a time-dependent gravity potential. Furthermore, we demonstrate a technique by which one may temporally link interferometer measurements together to provide continuous sampling. This can be used to eliminate the inertial sensor analog of the Dick effect and has important applications in the fields of optical and atomic clocks.

  1. Transport of carboxymethyl cellulose-coated zerovalent iron nanoparticles in a sand tank: Effects of sand grain size, nanoparticle concentration and injection velocity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Rajajayavel, Sai Rajasekar C; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    The transport of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles colloidally stabilized with 70,000 Da carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), through sands with mean grain diameters of 180, 340 and 1140 μm (referred to as fine, intermediate and coarse-sized sand, respectively) was investigated in a 70-cm long, two-dimensional tank. The effect of NZVI concentrations (1 and 3 g-Fe L(-1)) and CMC concentrations (1 and 2 g L(-1)) and injection velocities (0.96 and 0.40 cm min(-1)) on particle transport were also evaluated with the intermediate sand. The overall NZVI mass fractions eluted from the tank were 36%, 25% and 16% in the coarse, intermediate and fine sands, respectively, when injected with 1 g L(-1) NZVI stabilized in 1 g L(-1) CMC. However, the mass fraction eluted reduced to 2.33% when the injection velocity was reduced from 0.96 to 0.40 cm min(-1) in the intermediate-sized sand. Maximum transport efficiency (38% NZVI mass eluted) in the intermediate-sized sand was achieved with 3 g L(-1) NZVI suspended in 2 g L(-1) CMC at an injection velocity of 0.96 cm min(-1). The transport efficiency was substantially decreased (11% NZVI mass eluted) when 3 g L(-1) NZVI was stabilized with only 1 g L(-1) CMC. The NZVI mean particle diameters in the porewaters remained unchanged at different locations in the tank suggesting that straining or gravity settling did not influence NZVI deposition. After NZVI injection, the hydraulic conductivity in the tank reduced by 80%-96%, depending on the CMC concentration and injection velocity. PMID:26891351

  2. A monostatic microwave transmission experiment for line integrated precipitation and humidity remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, Christian; Kunstmann, Harald; Hipp, Susanne; Siart, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Near-surface water vapor and precipitation are central hydrometeorological observables which are still difficult to quantify accurately above the point scale. Both play an important role in modeling and remote sensing of the hydrologic cycle. We present details on the development of a new microwave transmission experiment that is capable of providing line integrated estimates of both humidity and precipitation near the surface. The system is located at a hydrometeorological test site (TERENO-prealpine) in Southern Germany. Path length is kept short at 660 m to minimize the likelihood of different precipitation types and intensities along the path. It uses a monostatic configuration with a combined transmitter/receiver unit and a 70 cm trihedral reflector. The transmitter/receiver unit simultaneously operates at 22.235 GHz and 34.8 GHz with a pulse repetition rate of 25 kHz and alternating horizontal and vertical polarization, which enable the analysis of the impact of the changing drop size distribution on the rain rate retrieval. Due to the coherence and the high phase stability of the system, it allows for a sensitive observation of the propagation phase delay. Thereof, time series of line integrated refractivity can be determined. This proxy is then post-processed to absolute humidity and compared to station observations. We present the design of the system and show an analysis of selected periods for both, precipitation and humidity observations. The theoretically expected dependence of attenuation and differential attenuation on the DSD was reproduced with experimental data. A decreased performance was observed when using a fixed A-R power law. Humidity data derived from the phase delay measurement showed good agreement with in situ measurements.

  3. Land drainage system detection using IR and visual imagery taken from autonomous mapping airship and evaluation of physical and spatial parameters of suggested method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin; Pospíšil, Jiří; Jirka, Vladimír.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental approach to the land drainage system detection and its physical and spatial parameters evaluation by the form of pilot project is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is partly based on using of unique unmanned aerial vehicle - airship with some specific properties. The most important parameters are carrying capacity (15 kg) and long flight time (3 hours). A special instrumentation was installed for physical characteristic testing in the locality too. The most important is 30 meter high mast with 3 meter length bracket at the top with sensors recording absolute and comparative temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction in several heights of the mast. There were also installed several measuring units recording local condition in the area. Recorded data were compared with IR images taken from airship platform. The locality is situated around village Domanín in the Czech Republic and has size about 1.8 x 1.5 km. There was build a land drainage system during the 70-ties of the last century which is made from burnt ceramic blocks placed about 70 cm below surface. The project documentation of the land drainage system exists but real state surveying haveńt been never realized. The aim of the project was land surveying of land drainage system based on infrared, visual and its combination high resolution orthophotos (10 cm for VIS and 30 cm for IR) and spatial and physical parameters evaluation of the presented procedure. The orthophoto in VIS and IR spectrum and its combination seems to be suitable for the task.

  4. The relationship between radar scattering and surface roughness of lunar volcanic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawin, Erica R.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Bussey, D. Benjamin J.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Dyar, M. Darby; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Spudis, Paul D.

    2014-11-01

    Lunar roughness measurements derived from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter are compared to 12.6 cm wavelength radar data collected by the Miniature Radio Frequency instrument and 70 cm wavelength radar data collected by the Arecibo Observatory. These data are compared to assess how surface and subsurface roughness are correlated and affected by parameters including age and composition at length scales between 0.1 and 100 m. A range of features are analyzed including volcanic domes (Marius Hills, Rümker Hills, Gruithuisen, and Mairan Domes); mare (Imbrium, Serenitatis, and Oceanus Procellarum); pyroclastic dark mantle deposits (Sinus Aestuum, Sulpicius Gallus, and Mare Vaporum); and two young craters (Copernicus and Tycho). Statistically significant positive correlations exist between topographic roughness and both P- and S-band circular polarization ratios. The strongest correlation is observed at the longest length scales. Correlations weaken as length scales become less similar, potentially due to distinct processes controlling surface modification. Roughness is not significantly correlated with local slope. Although the Marius Hills are compositionally distinct from the Gruithuisen and Mairan domes, they are indistinguishable in roughness characteristics. Conversely, the Rümker Hills, mare, and dark mantle deposits are smoother at the length scales examined, possibly due to fine-grained mantling of regolith or pyroclastic deposits. The floor and ejecta of Tycho are the roughest surfaces measured in this study, while the floor and ejecta of Copernicus overlap the roughness distribution of the volcanic features. This study shows that many factors control the evolution of roughness over time on various length scales.

  5. Low-frequency fluctuations in the Indonesian throughflow through Lombok Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arief, Dharma; Murray, Stephen P.

    1996-05-01

    A significant component of the Indonesian throughflow, apparently about 25%, passes through the Lombok Strait. Direct observations in 1985 reported a ˜2 Sv annual average, with an annual cycle of amplitude ˜2 Sv. There are also significant fluctuations in this transport in the 0.01-0.1 cpd frequency band. Shallow pressure gauge data (sea level) inside the strait during the current meter observations were of limited use in explaining the large fluctuations in currents. Sea level data at Cilacap, 720 km west (upcoast), however, overlap the current observations for 5 months and correlate exceedingly well (r = 0.87) with the observations inside the strait at these frequencies. These sea level oscillations in the Indian Ocean force fluctuations in the Lombok throughflow that reach 50-70 cm/s, equivalent to 2-3 Sv. Lagged regression analysis indicates Cilacap sea level leads Lombok currents by 1-2 days, suggesting a low-frequency, progressive wave. Simultaneous data in 1989 from four stations extending from the near-equatorial station at Padang at 1°S to Benoa in the Lombok Strait (2000 km downcoast) clearly show the persistent propagation of low-frequency waves of 20- to 40-cm range along this coast. Lagged correlation on station pairs indicates a phase speed consistent with coastally trapped internal Kelvin waves. We speculate that further eastward progression of these waves to the Timor Passage of Ombai Strait will further modulate the throughflow. The forcing of these waves is not yet identified, but it appears likely that intraseasonal oscillations in the equatorial Indian Ocean winds, as demonstrated by Enfield [1987] for the Pacific, are a probable mechanism. Improved wind data quality in 1991 due to the assimilation of satellite data (special sensor microwave/imager) will allow investigation of remote forcing on more recent data sets.

  6. A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Nathalie; Jalil, Nour-Eddine; de Lapparent de Broin, France; Germain, Damien; Lambert, Olivier; Amaghzaz, Mbarek

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250–65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles. Principal Findings A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles. Conclusion/Significance The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late

  7. Pattern and dynamics of biomass stock in old growth forests: The role of habitat and tree size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zuoqiang; Gazol, Antonio; Wang, Xugao; Lin, Fei; Ye, Ji; Zhang, Zhaochen; Suo, YanYan; Kuang, Xu; Wang, Yunyun; Jia, Shihong; Hao, Zhanqing

    2016-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play a fundamental role in the global carbon cycle. However, how stand-level changes in tree age and structure influence biomass stock and dynamics in old-growth forests is a question that remains unclear. In this study, we quantified the aboveground biomass (AGB) standing stock, the coarse woody productivity (CWP), and the change in biomass over ten years (2004-2014) in a 25 ha unmanaged broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in northeastern China. In addition, we quantified how AGB stock and change (tree growth, recruitment and mortality) estimations are influenced by the variation in habitat heterogeneity, tree size structure and subplot size. Our analysis indicated that Changbai forest had AGB of 265.4 Mg ha-1 in 2004, and gained1.36 Mg ha-1 y-1 between 2004 and 2014. Despite recruitment having better performance in nutrient rich habitat, we found that there is a directional tree growth trend independent of habitat heterogeneity for available nutrients in this old growth forest. The observed increases in AGB stock (∼70%) are mainly attributed to the growth of intermediate size trees (30-70 cm DBH), indicating that this forest is still reaching its mature stage. Meanwhile, we indicated that biomass loss due to mortality reduces living biomass, not increment, may be the primary factor to affect forest biomass dynamics in this area. Also, spatial variation in forest dynamics is large for small sizes (i.e. coefficient of variation in 20 × 20 m subplots is 53.2%), and more than 90 percent of the inherent variability of these coefficients was predicted by a simple model including plot size. Our result provides a mean by which to estimate within-plot variability at a local scale before inferring any directional change in forest dynamics at a regional scale, and information about the variability of forest structure and dynamics are fundamental to design effective sampling strategies in future study.

  8. Elevated reefs and related Pleistocene stratigraphy of the southern Exuma Islands, Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, R.F. Caribbean Marine Research Center, San Diego, CA ); Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A.; Kindinger, J.L. ); Muhs, D.R. )

    1991-03-01

    At least seven elevated coral reefs are exposed on the lee side of an inner chain of low islands on the eastern margin of Great Bahama Bank in the Southern Exumas. Starting at Fowl Cay in the north, they extend at least to Pigeon Cay in the south, a distance of about 44 nautical mi (81 km). These reefs formed around preexisting Pleistocene core-islands and hardgrounds during a transgressive higher than present stand of sea level, prior to the Holocene. As sea level dropped, the reefs were karstedand capped by caliche crusts, a unique paleosol breccia containing land snails (Cerithidea. sp.) and a now lithified dune system with well-developed rhizomorphs. Shallow sea caves eroded into steep, clifflike notches are often located on ridges shoreward of the reef, with roof heights of up to 5 m above the top of the elevated reefs. The reefs form a 5- to 10-m wide terrace, approximately 1 m above present sea level. Shoreline exposures often exceed 300 m (1,000 ft). Most exposures have a base thicket of interwoven branches of Acropora cervicornus approximately 70-cm thick. The badly corroded branches are surrounded by a cemented matrix of ooid sands, marine cement, and coralline debris. The upper 30 cm is formed by a much more diverse reef community of broken shells and corals (Montastrea, Diploria Agaricia, Porites, and Acropora). Crustose coralline algae and colonial foraminifera (Homotrema) form a cementing crust around many corals. These reefs and their relationship to paleosols within subaerial dune deposits provide stratigraphic markers that play an important role in interpreting the development of Pleistocene deposits of the Great Bahama Bank.

  9. Base surge deposits, eruption history, and depositional processes of a wet phreatomagmatic volcano in Central Anatolia (Cora Maar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gençalioğlu-Kuşcu, Gonca; Atilla, Cüneyt; Cas, Ray A. F.; Kuşcu, İlkay

    2007-01-01

    Cora Maar is a Quaternary volcano located to the 20 km northwest of Mount Erciyes, the largest of the 19 polygenetic volcanic complexes of the Cappadocian Volcanic Province in central Anatolia. Cora Maar is a typical example of a maar-diatreme volcano with a nearly circular crater with a mean diameter of c.1.2 km, and a well-bedded base surge-dominated maar rim tephra sequence up to 40 m in thickness. Having a diameter/depth ratio ( D/ d) of 12, Cora is a relatively "mature" maar compared to recent maar craters in the world. Cora crater is excavated within the andesitic lava flows of Quaternary age. The tephra sequence is not indurated, and consists of juvenile clasts up to 70 cm, non-juvenile clasts up to 130 cm, accretionary lapilli up to 1.2 cm in diameter, and ash to lapilli-sized tephra. Base surge layers display well-developed antidune structures indicating the direction of the transport. Both progressive and regressive dune structures are present within the tephra sequence. Wavelength values increase with increasing wave height, and with large wavelength and height values. Cora tephra display similarities to Taal and Laacher See base surge deposits. Impact sags and small channel structures are also common. Lateral and vertical facies changes are observed for the dune bedded and planar bedsets. According to granulometric analyses, Cora Maar tephra samples display a bimodal distribution with a wide range of Md φ values, characteristic for the surge deposits. Very poorly sorted, bimodal ash deposits generally vary from coarse tail to fine tail grading depending on the grain size distribution while very poorly sorted lapilli and block-rich deposits display a positive skewness due to fine tail grading.

  10. Low relative error in consumer-grade GPS units make them ideal for measuring small-scale animal movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Breed, Greg A; Severns, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-grade GPS units are a staple of modern field ecology, but the relatively large error radii reported by manufacturers (up to 10 m) ostensibly precludes their utility in measuring fine-scale movement of small animals such as insects. Here we demonstrate that for data collected at fine spatio-temporal scales, these devices can produce exceptionally accurate data on step-length and movement patterns of small animals. With an understanding of the properties of GPS error and how it arises, it is possible, using a simple field protocol, to use consumer grade GPS units to collect step-length data for the movement of small animals that introduces a median error as small as 11 cm. These small error rates were measured in controlled observations of real butterfly movement. Similar conclusions were reached using a ground-truth test track prepared with a field tape and compass and subsequently measured 20 times using the same methodology as the butterfly tracking. Median error in the ground-truth track was slightly higher than the field data, mostly between 20 and 30 cm, but even for the smallest ground-truth step (70 cm), this is still a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and for steps of 3 m or more, the ratio is greater than 10:1. Such small errors relative to the movements being measured make these inexpensive units useful for measuring insect and other small animal movements on small to intermediate scales with budgets orders of magnitude lower than survey-grade units used in past studies. As an additional advantage, these units are simpler to operate, and insect or other small animal trackways can be collected more quickly than either survey-grade units or more traditional ruler/gird approaches. PMID:26312190

  11. Evaluation of epiduroscopy for detection of vertebral canal and spinal cord lesions in dogs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pereira, Fernando L; Prange, Timo; Seller, Aaron; Obert, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the potential usefulness of epiduroscopy for clinical diagnosis and treatment of vertebral canal and spinal cord lesions in dogs. SAMPLE Cadavers of 6 mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were positioned in sternal recumbency, and an endoscope was introduced into the lumbosacral epidural space. A fiberscope (diameter, 0.9 mm; length, 30 cm) was used for 3 dogs, and a videoscope (diameter, 2.8 mm; length, 70 cm) was used for the other 3 dogs. Visibility and identities of anatomic structures were recorded, and maneuverability of the endoscopes was assessed. Extent of macroscopic tissue damage was evaluated by manual dissection of the vertebral canal at the end of the procedure. RESULTS Intermittent saline (0.9% NaCl) solution infusion, CO2 insufflation, and endoscope navigation improved visualization by separating the epidural fat from the anatomic structures of interest. Images obtained with the fiberscope were small and of poor quality, making identification of specific structures difficult. Maneuverability of the fiberscope was difficult, and target structures could not be reliably reached or identified. Maneuverability and image quality of the videoscope were superior, and spinal nerve roots, spinal dura mater, epidural fat, and blood vessels could be identified. Subsequent manual dissection of the vertebral canal revealed no gross damage in the spinal cord, nerve roots, or blood vessels. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2.8-mm videoscope was successfully used to perform epiduroscopy through the lumbosacral space in canine cadavers. Additional refinement and evaluation of the technique in live dogs is necessary before its use can be recommended for clinical situations. PMID:27347831

  12. The transcriptional response of microbial communities in thawing Alaskan permafrost soils

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Orsi, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Thawing of permafrost soils is expected to stimulate microbial decomposition and respiration of sequestered carbon. This could, in turn, increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and create a positive feedback to climate warming. Recent metagenomic studies suggest that permafrost has a large metabolic potential for carbon processing, including pathways for fermentation and methanogenesis. Here, we performed a pilot study using ultrahigh throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing of reverse transcribed messenger RNA to obtain a detailed overview of active metabolic pathways and responsible organisms in up to 70 cm deep permafrost soils at a moist acidic tundra location in Arctic Alaska. The transcriptional response of the permafrost microbial community was compared before and after 11 days of thaw. In general, the transcriptional profile under frozen conditions suggests a dominance of stress responses, survival strategies, and maintenance processes, whereas upon thaw a rapid enzymatic response to decomposing soil organic matter (SOM) was observed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, ascomycete fungi, and methanogens were responsible for largest transcriptional response upon thaw. Transcripts indicative of heterotrophic methanogenic pathways utilizing acetate, methanol, and methylamine were found predominantly in the permafrost table after thaw. Furthermore, transcripts involved in acetogenesis were expressed exclusively after thaw suggesting that acetogenic bacteria are a potential source of acetate for acetoclastic methanogenesis in freshly thawed permafrost. Metatranscriptomics is shown here to be a useful approach for inferring the activity of permafrost microbes that has potential to improve our understanding of permafrost SOM bioavailability and biogeochemical mechanisms contributing to greenhouse gas emissions as a result of permafrost thaw. PMID:25852660

  13. Microbial Dynamics during Aerobic Exposure of Corn Silage Stored under Oxygen Barrier or Polyethylene Films▿

    PubMed Central

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm3 m−2 per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log10 CFU g−1, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure. PMID:21821764

  14. Segmental reversal of the small bowel as an alternative to intestinal transplantation in patients with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Panis, Y; Messing, B; Rivet, P; Coffin, B; Hautefeuille, P; Matuchansky, C; Rambaud, J C; Valleur, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article reports the results of segmental reversal of the small bowel on parenteral nutrition dependency in patients with very short bowel syndrome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Segmental reversal of the small bowel could be seen as an acceptable alternative to intestinal transplantation in patients with very short bowel syndrome deemed to be dependent on home parenteral nutrition. METHODS: Eight patients with short bowel syndrome underwent, at the time of intestinal continuity restoration, a segmental reversal of the distal (n = 7) or proximal (n = 1) small bowel. The median length of the remnant small bowel was 40 cm (range, 25 to 70 cm), including a median length of reversed segment of 12 cm (range, 8 to 15 cm). Five patients presented with jejunotransverse anastomosis, and one each with jejunorectal, jejuno left colonic, or jejunocaecal anastomosis with left colostomy. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths. Three patients were reoperated early for wound dehiscence, acute cholecystitis, and sepsis of unknown origin. Three patients experienced transient intestinal obstruction, which was treated conservatively. Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2 to 108 months). One patient died of pulmonary embolism 7 months postoperatively. By the end of follow-up, three patients were on 100% oral nutrition, one had fluid and electrolyte infusions only, and, in the four other patients, parenteral nutrition regimen was reduced to four (range of 3 to 5) cyclic nocturnal infusions per week. Parenteral nutrition cessation was obtained in 3 of 5 patients at 1 years and in 3 of 3 patients at 4 years. CONCLUSION: Segmental reversal of the small bowel could be proposed as an alternative to intestinal transplantation in patients with short bowel syndrome before the possible occurrence of parenteral nutrition-related complications, because weaning for parenteral nutrition (four patients) or reduction of the frequency of infusions (four patients) was observed in the

  15. Quasi-static slip patch growth to 20 m on a geological fault inferred from acoustic emissions in a South African gold mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoi, Makoto; Nakatani, Masao; Kgarume, Thabang; Khambule, Sifiso; Masakale, Thabang; Ribeiro, Luiz; Philipp, Joachim; Horiuchi, Shigeki; Otsuki, Kenshiro; Miyakawa, Koji; Watanabe, Atsushi; Moriya, Hirokazu; Murakami, Osamu; Yabe, Yasuo; Kawakata, Hironori; Yoshimitsu, Nana; Ward, Anthony; Durrheim, Raymond; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Three months of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring in a South African gold mine down to Mw -5 revealed a newly emergent planar cluster of 7557 events -3.9 ≤ Mw ≤ -1.8 (typical rupture radius of 6-70 cm) that expanded with time to reach a size of 20 m on a preexisting geological fault near an active mining front 1 km beneath the ground. It had a sharply defined, planar configuration, with hypocenters aggregated within a thickness of only several decimeters. We infer that the zone defines an aseismic slip patch on the fault, wherein the individual AEs represent failures of very small asperities being loaded by the aseismic slip. Additional support for the interpretation was obtained by analyzing composite focal mechanisms and repeating events. The patch expansion over 2 months was likely quasistatic because all individual AEs ruptured much smaller areas than the cluster size at the corresponding time. The b values dropped gradually from 2.6 to 1.4, consistent with a significant increase in shear stress expected of the mining style. Another cluster with similar characteristics emerged later on a neighboring part of the same fault and grew to a 10 m extent in the last weeks of the study period. The quasi-static expansion of inferred localized slow-slip patches to sizes of 10-20 m suggests that the critical crack length on natural faults can be at least as large, much exceeding the decimeter range derived from laboratory stick-slip experiments on saw-cut rocks.

  16. Pneumatic and Percussive Penetration Approaches for Heat Flow Probe Emplacement on Robotic Lunar Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Nagihara, S.; Hedlund, M.; Paulsen, G.; Shasho, J.; Mumm, E.; Kumar, N.; Szwarc, T.; Chu, P.; Craft, J.; Taylor, P.; Milam, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the development of heat flow probes for measuring the geothermal gradient and conductivity of lunar regolith are presented. These two measurements are the required information for determining the heat flow of a planetary body. Considering the Moon as an example, heat flow properties are very important information for studying the radiogenic isotopes, the thermal evolution and differentiation history, and the mechanical properties of the interior. In order to obtain the best measurements, the sensors must be extended to a depth of at least 3 m, i.e. beyond the depth of significant thermal cycles. Two approaches to heat flow deployment and measurement are discussed in this paper: a percussive approach and a pneumatic approach. The percussive approach utilizes a high frequency hammer to drive a cone penetrometer into the lunar simulant. Ring-like thermal sensors (heaters and temperature sensors) on the penetrometer rod are deployed into the simulant every 30 cm as the penetrometer penetrates to the required 3 m depth. Once the target depth has been achieved, the deployment rod is removed from the simulant, eliminating any thermal path to the lander. The pneumatic approach relies on pressurized gas to excavate, using a cone-shaped nozzle to penetrate the simulant. The nozzle is attached to a coiled stem with thermal sensors embedded along the length of the stem. As the simulant is being lofted out of the hole by the escaping gas, the stem is progressively reeled out from a spool, thus moving the cone deeper into the hole. Thermal conductivity is measured using a needle probe attached to the end of the cone. Breadboard prototypes of these two heat flow probe systems have been constructed and successfully tested under lunar-like conditions to approximately 70 cm, which was the maximum possible depth allowed by the size of the test bin and the chamber.

  17. Hyporheic interactions under a hydropeaking scenario: a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas-Mulet, R.; Alfredsen, K.

    2012-04-01

    Sudden flow changes caused by hydropeaking are likely to become more frequent with increasing demand for renewable energy. These sudden fluctuations affect both the surface and subsurface flow regime and change the hydrological interaction patterns occurring in the hyporheic zone. The hyporheos plays an important role in freshwater ecology, especially for early stages of salmon embryo development. Hydrological hyporheic interactions and associated larger scale hydrological processes have hardly been investigated in a hydropeaking scenario. The works presented aim (i) to investigate detailed hydrological processes occurring in the hyporheic zone at the micro-scale during hydropeaking; (ii) to upscale the findings at the meso-scale by repeating the same detailed experiments in differentiated morphologies; and (iii) to use the outputs for establishing more environmentally sound hydropower operations at the catchment scale. An experimental set-up was started in December 2011 in the river Lundesokna (central Norway). A total of 14 pipes were buried at several depths (from 20 to 70 cm) across and along a 5 x 20 m side bar subject to regular drying out and dewatering due to hydropeaking operations. Water pressure sensors were placed in the pipes to monitor the hyporheic water level and flow with 1-2 minutes time resolution. In addition, temperature, conductivity and dissolved oxygen are collected at the same site for an expected period of 3 months, coinciding with early stages of salmonid egg development in this catchment. Results to date show sudden and high groundwater dominated inflow as a consequence of the quick surface water drop during dewatering episodes. But slow reaction spots where surface water remains for longer periods in form of water pockets has been observed. Such processes have the potential to influence the survival of salmon eggs at both smaller and larger scales.

  18. Soils of slopes in the taiga zone of the Middle Ob reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavaeva, N. A.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    The morphology, chemical properties, composition of phyllosilicates, as well as their transformation in loamy soils developing on slopes of ridges of the Vakh Upland in Western Siberia, are discussed. Data on two soil profiles-gleyic svetlozem of the middle slope and podzolized gleyzem of the footslope—are presented. Both soils have an acid reaction. The textural differentiation is weakly pronounced in the gleyic svetlozem and more pronounced in the podzolized gleyzem. The soils differ in their cryological conditions. The thawing depth in the svetlozem is about 60-70 cm, and the lower part of the profile to a depth of 3.2 m largely remains in the frozen state. Its complete thawing is only possible during the warm climatic cycles. This is a seasonally frozen soil with the long-lasting frozen state. It is characterized by the thick cryometamorphic (CRM) horizon. The gleyzem is a "normal" seasonally frozen soil with complete thawing of seasonal frost in summer. The CRM horizon is absent in its profile. The alteration of clay minerals in the soil profiles includes their partial dissolution, the formation of soil chlorites, and the transformation of illite into more labile structures. In the upper horizons of both soils, this transformation proceeds through the stage of mixed-layered illite-smectites. In the gleyzem, it reaches a more advanced stage of the formation of beidellite. The cryometamorphic horizons are specified by some amorphization of phyllosilicates and, probably, by the partial dissolution of their crystal lattices under the impact of frequent zero-temperature transitions and cryogenesis in the frozen state.

  19. Vertical distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the hyporheic zone of a eutrophic river in North China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Ziyuan; Huang, Caihong; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-04-01

    Nitrification plays a significant role in the global nitrogen cycle, and this concept has been challenged with the discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the environment. In this paper, the vertical variations of the diversity and abundance of AOA in the hyporheic zone of the Fuyang River in North China were investigated by molecular techniques, including clone libraries, phylogenetic analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The archaeal amoA gene was detected in all sediments along the profile, and all AOA fell within marine group 1.1a and soil group1.1b of the Thaumarchaeota phylum, with the latter being the dominant type. The diversity of AOA decreased with the sediment depth, and there was a shift in AOA community between top-sediments (0-5 cm) and sub-sediments (5-70 cm). The abundance of the archaeal amoA gene (1.48 × 10⁷ to 5.50 × 10⁷ copies g⁻¹ dry sediment) was higher than that of the bacterial amoA gene (4.01 × 10⁴ to 1.75 × 10⁵ copies g⁻¹ dry sediment) in sub-sediments, resulting in a log₁₀ ratio of AOA to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) from 2.27 to 2.69, whereas AOB outnumbered AOA in top-sediments with a low log10 ratio of (-0.24). The variations in the AOA community were primarily attributed to the combined effect of the nutrients (ammonium-N, nitrate-N and total organic carbon) and oxygen in sediments. Ammonium-N was the major factor influencing the relative abundance of AOA and AOB, although other factors, such as total organic carbon, were involved. This study helps elucidate the roles of AOA and AOB in the nitrogen cycling of hyporheic zone. PMID:24242890

  20. Fluid flow in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera: implications from thermal data and deep electrical sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribnow, Daniel F. C.; Schütze, Claudia; Hurter, Suzanne J.; Flechsig, Christina; Sass, John H.

    2003-10-01

    Temperatures of 100°C are measured at 3 km depth in a well located on the resurgent dome in the center of Long Valley Caldera, California, despite an assumed >800°C magma chamber at 6-8 km depth. Local downflow of cold meteoric water as a process for cooling the resurgent dome is ruled out by a Peclét-number analysis of temperature logs. These analyses reveal zones with fluid circulation at the upper and lower boundaries of the Bishop Tuff, and an upflow zone in the metasedimentary rocks. Vertical Darcy velocities range from 10 to 70 cm a -1. A 21-km-long geoelectrical profile across the caldera provides resistivity values to the order of 10 0 to >10 3 Ωm down to a depth of 6 km, as well as variations of self-potential. Interpretation of the electrical data with respect to hydrothermal fluid movement confirms that there is no downflow beneath the resurgent dome. To explain the unexpectedly low temperatures in the resurgent dome, we challenge the common view that the caldera as a whole is a regime of high temperatures and the resurgent dome is a local cold anomaly. Instead, we suggest that the caldera was cooled to normal thermal conditions by vigorous hydrothermal activity in the past, and that a present-day hot water flow system is responsible for local hot anomalies, such as Hot Creek and the area of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. The source of hot water has been associated with recent shallow intrusions into the West Moat. The focus of planning for future power plants should be to locate this present-day flow system instead of relying on heat from the old magma chamber.

  1. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J., Jr.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  2. Spontaneous intrauterine umbilical artery thrombosis leading to severe fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Klaritsch, P; Haeusler, M; Karpf, E; Schlembach, D; Lang, U

    2008-04-01

    Intrauterine thrombosis of umbilical cord vessels is a rare event (2.5-4.5/10,000) and usually followed by poor fetal outcome. We present the rare case of spontaneous intrauterine thrombosis of an umbilical artery leading to severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and provide clinical and pathological findings. A 28-year-old nulliparous third gravida was referred to our institution because of IUGR at 32+4 weeks of gestation. Fetal growth had been appropriate until the 31st week of gestation and had stopped thereafter. There were no signs of abruption of the placenta and no structural abnormalities except an absent paravesical colour Doppler flow in the region of the right umbilical artery. Other Doppler measurements, karyotype and TORCH serology were normal. Intermittent non-reassuring fetal heart rate led to cesarean section at 34+3 weeks of gestation. A healthy girl with measurements on the 3rd centile was born (weight of 1,590 g, length of 41 cm and head circumference of 29 cm). Gross examination displayed an elongated, highly twisted umbilical cord with a length of 70 cm, central insertion and three umbilical vessels. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of umbilical artery thrombosis along the entire length of the umbilical cord. Calcification within the thrombus and microcalcification in occluded chorionic vessels were observed as well as hemorrhagic endovasculitis and endangiopathia obliterans in the stem villi arteries. This fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) comprised about 40% of the parenchyma. The coagulation parameters and blood counts of the mother and the infant were normal apart from transient neonatal thrombocytopenia. The reason for thrombosis remained unclear but could be attributed to the elongated and highly twisted umbilical cord. Intrauterine arterial thrombosis may cause severe IUGR. This condition might be detectable by ultrasound in the course of an IUGR workup, especially when no other reasons can be found. PMID:18289672

  3. Pore morphologies of root induced biopores from single pore to network scale investigated by XRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peth, Stephan; Wittig, Marlen C.; Uteau Puschmann, Daniel; Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Haas, Christoph; Holthusen, Dörthe; Horn, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Biopores are assumed to be an important factor for nutrient acquisition by providing biologically highly active soil-root interfaces to re-colonizing roots and controlling oxygen and water flows at the pedon scale and within the rhizosphere through the formation of branching channel networks which potentially enhance microbial turnover processes. Characteristic differences in pore morphologies are to be expected depending on the genesis of biopores which, for example, can be earthworm-induced or root-induced or subsequently modified by one of the two. Our understanding of biophysical interactions between plants and soil can be significantly improved by quantifying 3D biopore architectures across scales ranging from single biopores to pedon scale pore networks and linking pore morphologies to microscale measurements of transport processes (e.g. oxygen diffusion). While a few studies in the past have investigated biopore networks on a larger scale yet little is known on the micro-morphology of root-induces biopores and their associated rhizosphere. Also little data is available on lateral transport of oxygen through the rhizosphere which will strongly influence microbial turnover processes and consequently control the release and uptake of nutrients. This paper highlights results gathered within a research unit on nutrient acquisition from the subsoil. Here we focus on X-ray microtomography (XRCT) studies ranging from large soil columns (70 cm length and 20 cm diameter) to individual biopores and its surrounding rhizosphere. Samples were collected from sites with different preceding crops (fescue, chicory, alfalfa) and various cropping durations (1-3 years). We will present an approach for quantitative image analysis combined with micro-sensor measurements of oxygen diffusion and spatial gradients of O2 partial pressures to relate pore structure with transport functions. Implications of various biopore architectures for the accessibility of nutrient resources in

  4. Sensitivity of lake ice regimes to climate change in the Nordic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre, S.; Boissy, T.; Alfredsen, K.

    2014-08-01

    A one-dimensional process-based multi-year lake ice model, MyLake, was used to simulate lake ice phenology and annual maximum lake ice thickness for the Nordic region comprising Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries. The model was first tested and validated using observational meteorological forcing on a candidate lake (Lake Atnsjøen) and using downscaled ERA-40 reanalysis data set. To simulate ice conditions for the contemporary period of 1961-2000, the model was driven by gridded meteorological forcings from ERA-40 global reanalysis data downscaled to a 25 km resolution using the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA). The model was then forced with two future climate scenarios from the RCA driven by two different general circulation models (GCMs) based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B. The two climate scenarios correspond to two future time periods namely the 2050s (2041-2070) and the 2080s (2071-2100). To take into account the influence of lake morphometry, simulations were carried out for four different hypothetical lake depths (5 m, 10 m, 20 m, 40 m) placed at each of the 3708 grid cells. Based on a comparison of the mean predictions in the future 30-year periods with the control (1961-1990) period, ice cover durations in the region will be shortened by 1 to 11 weeks in 2041-2070, and 3 to 14 weeks in 2071-2100. Annual maximum lake ice thickness, on the other hand, will be reduced by a margin of up to 60 cm by 2041-2070 and up to 70 cm by 2071-2100. The simulated changes in lake ice characteristics revealed that the changes are less dependent on lake depths though there are slight differences. The results of this study provide a regional perspective of anticipated changes in lake ice regimes due to climate warming across the study area by the middle and end of this century.

  5. Sensitivity of lake ice regimes to climate change in the nordic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre, S.; Boissy, T.; Alfredsen, K.

    2013-03-01

    A one-dimensional process-based multi-year lake ice model, MyLake, was used to simulate lake ice phenology and annual maximum lake ice thickness for the Nordic region comprising Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries. The model was first tested and validated using observational meteorological forcing on a candidate lake (Lake Atnsjøen) and using downscaled ERA-40 reanalysis data set. To simulate ice conditions for the contemporary period of 1961-2000, the model was driven by gridded meteorological forcings from ERA-40 global reanalysis data downscaled to a 25 km resolution using the Rossby Center Regional Climate Model (RCA). The model was then forced with two future climate scenarios from the RCA driven by two different GCMs based on the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The two climate scenarios correspond to two future time periods namely the 2050s (2041-2070) and the 2080s (2071-2100). To take into account the influence of lake morphometry, simulations were carried out for four different hypothetical lake depths (5 m, 10 m, 20 m, 40 m) placed at each of the 3708 grid cells. Based on a comparison of the mean predictions in the future 30 yr periods with the control (1961-1990) period, ice cover durations in the region will be shortened by 1 to 11 weeks in 2041-2070, and 3 to 14 weeks in 2071-2100. Annual maximum lake ice thickness, on the other hand, will be reduced by a margin of up to 60 cm by 2041-2070 and up to 70 cm by 2071-2100. The simulated changes in lake ice characteristics revealed that the changes are less dependent on lake depths though there are slight differences. The results of this study provide a~regional perspective of anticipated changes in lake ice regimes due to climate warming across the study area by the middle and end of this century.

  6. Swimming performance studies on the eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis, a close relative of the tunas (family Scombridae) I. Energetics.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, C A; Dickson, K A; Graham, J B

    2003-08-01

    A large swim tunnel respirometer was used to quantify the swimming energetics of the eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis (tribe Sardini) (45-50 cm fork length, FL) at speeds between 50 and 120 cm s(-1) and at 18+/-2 degrees C. The bonito rate of oxygen uptake ((O(2)))-speed function is U-shaped with a minimum (O(2)) at 60 cm s(-1), an exponential increase in (O(2)) with increased speed, and an elevated increase in (O(2)) at 50 cm s(-1) where bonito swimming is unstable. The onset of unstable swimming occurs at speeds predicted by calculation of the minimum speed for bonito hydrostatic equilibrium (1.2 FL s(-1)). The optimum swimming speed (U(opt)) for the bonito at 18+/-2 degrees C is approximately 70 cm s(-1) (1.4 FL s(-1)) and the gross cost of transport at U(opt) is 0.27 J N(-1) m(-1). The mean standard metabolic rate (SMR), determined by extrapolating swimming (O(2)) to zero speed, is 107+/-22 mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1). Plasma lactate determinations at different phases of the experiment showed that capture and handling increased anaerobic metabolism, but plasma lactate concentration returned to pre-experiment levels over the course of the swimming tests. When adjustments are made for differences in temperature, bonito net swimming costs are similar to those of similar-sized yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (tribe Thunnini), but the bonito has a significantly lower SMR. Because bonitos are the sister group to tunas, this finding suggests that the elevated SMR of the tunas is an autapomorphic trait of the Thunnini. PMID:12847119

  7. Palaeomagnetism of the Loch Doon Granite Complex, Southern Uplands of Scotland: The Late Caledonian palaeomagnetic record and an Early Devonian episode of True Polar Wander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, J. D. A.

    2007-03-01

    The Southern Uplands terrane is an Ordovician-Silurian back-arc/foreland basin emplaced at the northern margin of the Iapetus Ocean and intruded by granite complexes including Loch Doon (408.3 ± 1.5 Ma) during Early Devonian times. Protracted cooling of this 130 km 3 intrusion recorded magnetic remanence comprising a predominant ('A') magnetisation linked to initial cooling with dual polarity and mean direction D / I = 237 / 64° ( α95 = 4°, palaeopole at 316°E, 21°N). Subsidiary magnetisations include Mesozoic remanence correlating with extensional tectonism in the adjoining Irish Sea Basin ('B', D / I = 234/- 59°) and minority populations ('C', D / I = 106/- 2° and 'D', D / I = 199/1°) recording emplacement of younger (˜ 395 Ma) granites in adjoining terranes and the Variscan orogenic event. The 'A' directions have an arcuate distribution identifying anticlockwise rotation during cooling. A comparable rotation is identified in the Orthotectonic Caledonides to the north and the Paratectonic Caledonides to the south following closure of Iapetus. Continental motion from midsoutherly latitudes (˜ 40°S) at 408 Ma to equatorial palaeolatitudes by ˜ 395 Ma is identified and implies minimum rates of continental movement between 430 and 390 Ma of 30-70 cm/year, more than double maximum rates induced by plate forces and interpreted as a signature of true polar wander. Silurian-Devonian palaeomagnetic data from the British-Scandinavian Caledonides define a 430-385 Ma closed loop comparable to the distributed contemporaneous palaeomagnetic poles from Gondwana. They reconcile pre-430 Ma and post-380 Ma APW from this supercontinent and show that Laurentia-Baltica-Avalonia lay to the west of South America with a relict Rheic Ocean opening to the north which closed to produce Variscan orogeny by a combination of pivotal closure and right lateral transpression.

  8. SU-D-201-01: Attenuation of PET/CT Gantries with 511 KeV Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: PET shielding requires the use of large amounts of lead because of the penetrating nature of 511 keV photons. While the uptake rooms generally require the thickest lead, the scan room often requires substantial shielding. Attenuation by the PET/CT gantry is normally assumed to be zero, but may be significant in directions perpendicular to the scanner axis. Methods: A 5 mL tube was filled with between 14.7 and 20.5 mCi of F-18 and inserted into a phantom (70 cm NEMA PET Scatter Phantom). Exposure rates were recorded at several distances and 15° intervals with a pressurized ionization chamber (Ludlum 9DP) both with the phantom outside the gantry and centered in the CT and PET acquisition positions. These measurements were repeated with three scanners: Siemens Biograph TruePoint 6, GE Optima 560, and Philips Gemini 64. Measurements were decay corrected and normalized to exposure rates outside the gantry to calculate percent transmission. Results: Between 45° to 135° (measured from the patient bed at 0°), average transmission was about 20% for GE, 35% for Philips, and 30% for Siemens. The CT gantry was roughly twice as attenuating as the PET gantry at 90° for all three manufacturers, with about 10% transmission through the CT gantry and 20% through the PET gantry. Conclusion: The Philips system is a split-gantry and therefore has a narrower angle of substantial attenuation. For the GE and Siemens systems, which are single-gantry design, transmission was relatively constant once the angle was sufficient to block line-of-sight from the phantom. While the patient may spend a greater fraction of time at the PET position of the scanner, transmission characteristics of the two components are similar enough to be treated collectively. For shielding angles between 45° and 135°, a reasonably conservative assumption would be to assume gantry transmission of 50%.

  9. SU-E-I-20: Comprehensive Quality Assurance Test of Second Generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT Simulator Based On AAPM TG-66 Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM radiation therapy committee task group No. 66 (TG-66) published a report which described a general approach to CT simulator QA. The report outlines the testing procedures and specifications for the evaluation of patient dose, radiation safety, electromechanical components, and image quality for a CT simulator. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly evaluate the performance of a second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator with 90 cm bore size (Toshiba, Nasu, JP) based on the TG-66 criteria. The testing procedures and results from this study provide baselines for a routine QA program. Methods: Different measurements and analysis were performed including CTDIvol measurements, alignment and orientation of gantry lasers, orientation of the tabletop with respect to the imaging plane, table movement and indexing accuracy, Scanogram location accuracy, high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity, CT number accuracy, mA linearity and mA reproducibility using a number of different phantoms and measuring devices, such as CTDI phantom, ACR image quality phantom, TG-66 laser QA phantom, pencil ion chamber (Fluke Victoreen) and electrometer (RTI Solidose 400). Results: The CTDI measurements were within 20% of the console displayed values. The alignment and orientation for both gantry laser and tabletop, as well as the table movement and indexing and scanogram location accuracy were within 2mm as specified in TG66. The spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity and CT number accuracy were all within ACR’s recommended limits. The mA linearity and reproducibility were both well below the TG66 threshold. Conclusion: The 90 cm bore size second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator that comes with 70 cm true FOV can consistently meet various clinical needs. The results demonstrated that this simulator complies with the TG-66 protocol in all aspects including electromechanical component

  10. Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Hawkins, B.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Wang, J.; Pierce, M. E.; Rundle, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake Andrea Donnellan, Jay Parker, Brian Hawkins, Scott Hensley, Cathleen Jones, Susan Owen, Angelyn Moore Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Marlon Pierce, Jun Wang Indiana University John Rundle University of California, Davis The South Napa to Santa Rosa area has been observed with NASA's UAVSAR since late 2009 as part of an experiment to monitor areas identified as having a high probability of an earthquake. The M 6.0 South Napa earthquake occurred on 24 August 2014. The area was flown 29 May 2014 preceeding the earthquake, and again on 29 August 2014, five days after the earthquake. The UAVSAR results show slip on a single fault at the south end of the rupture near the epicenter of the event. The rupture branches out into multiple faults further north near the Napa area. A combined inversion of rapid GPS results and the unwrapped UAVSAR interferogram indicate nearly pure strike slip motion. Using this assumption, the UAVSAR data show horizontal right-lateral slip across the fault of 19 cm at the south end of the rupture and increasing to 70 cm northward over a distance of 6.5 km. The joint inversion indicates slip of ~30 cm on a network of sub-parallel faults is concentrated in a zone about 17 km long. The lower depths of the faults are 5-8.5 km. The eastern two sub-parallel faults break the surface, while three faults to the west are buried at depths ranging from 2-6 km with deeper depths to the north and west. The geodetic moment release is equivalent to a M 6.1 event. Additional ruptures are observed in the interferogram, but the inversions suggest that they represent superficial slip that does not contribute to the overall moment release.

  11. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika, East African, Rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Pflumio, Catherine; Castrec, Maryse; Boulégue, Jacques; Gente, Pascal; Rolet, Joël; Coussement, Christophe; Stetter, Karl O.; Huber, Robert; Buku, Sony; Mifundu, Wafula

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 °C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza,active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO3-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO3 thermal fluids from lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch off the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction off 219 and 179 °C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130 °N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north- south major rift trend. The source of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza.

  12. Lack of bedrock grain size influence on the soil production rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontier, Adrien; Rihs, Sophie; Chabaux, Francois; Lemarchand, Damien; Pelt, Eric; Turpault, Marie-Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Our study deals with the part played by bedrock grain size on soil formation rates. U- and Th-series disequilibria were measured in two soil profiles developed from two different facies of the same bedrock, i.e., fine and coarse grain size granites, in the geomorphically flat landscape of the experimental Breuil-Chenue forest site, Morvan, France. The U- and Th-series disequilibria of soil layers and the inferred soil formation rate (1-2 mm ky-1) are nearly identical along the two profiles despite differences in bedrock grain size, variable weathering states and a significant redistribution of U and Th from the uppermost soil layers. This indicates that the soil production rate is more affected by regional geomorphology than by the underlying bedrock texture. Such a production rate inferred from residual soil minerals integrated over the age of the soil is consistent with the flat and slowly eroding geomorphic landscape of the study site. It also compares well to the rate inferred from dissolved solutes integrated over the shorter time scale of solute transport from granitic and basaltic watersheds under similar climates. However, it is significantly lower than the denudation or soil formation rates previously reported from either cosmogenic isotope or U-series measurements from similar climates and lithologies. Our results highlight the particularly low soil production rates of flat terrains in temperate climates. Moreover, they provide evidence that the reactions of mineral weathering actually take place in horizons deeper than 1 m, while a chemical steady state of both concentrations and U-series disequilibria is established in the upper most soil layers, i.e., above ∼70 cm depth. In such cases, the use of soil surface horizons for determining weathering rates is precluded and illustrates the need to focus instead on the deepest soil horizons.

  13. Optimization of capillary electrophoresis?inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for species analysis of metallothionein-like proteins extracted from liver tissues of Elbe-bream and Roe deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröfrock, Daniel; Prange, Andreas; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Ruck, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    Species analysis of metallothionein-like proteins (MLP) in liver tissues from Elbe-Bream ( Abramis brama L.) and Roe Deer ( Capreolus capreolus L.) using capillary electrophoresis (CE) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection is described. In order to allow systematic development of the method, commercially available metallothionein (MT) preparations of rabbit liver were used. Optimum separation efficiency was obtained by investigating the influence of parameters such as voltage, capillary temperature, buffer concentration, buffer pH and the use of different buffer systems. Instrumental parameters such as CE capillary position, interface adjustment and contamination problems are also discussed. Separation was performed using uncoated fused silica capillaries with 75 μm i.d. and 70 cm length. The optimum conditions were found to be: Separation voltage 30 kV, positive polarity, capillary temperature 288.15 K and a buffer concentration of 100 mmol l -1 Tricine-NH 3 adjusted to pH 7.2. Sample preparation was performed so as to minimize oxidation and heavy metal contamination of the samples. The high molecular mass protein matrix was reduced by acetonitrile precipitation. For commercial MT preparations the relative standard deviations (R.S.D) in the retention times were 0.9% for MT-1 and 1.9% for MT-2; the R.S.D.'s in the peak areas were less than 6% for MT-1 and 16% for MT-2, respectively. Under optimized conditions the MLPs in the real samples could be separated efficiently in less than 10 min. By comparison with the migration times of commercially available MT preparations, two of the observed peaks could be assigned to MT-1 and MT-2.

  14. A count-rate model for PET scanners using pixelated Anger-logic detectors with different scintillators.

    PubMed

    Surti, S; Karp, J S

    2005-12-01

    A high count-rate simulation (HCRSim) model has been developed so that all results are derived from fundamental physics principles. Originally developed to study the behaviour of continuous sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors, this model is now applied to PET scanners based on pixelated Anger-logic detectors using lanthanum bromide (LaBr(3)), gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) and lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) scintillators. This simulation has been used to study the effect on scanner deadtime and pulse pileup at high activity levels due to the scintillator stopping power (mu), decay time (tau) and energy resolution. Simulations were performed for a uniform 20 cm diameter x 70 cm long cylinder (NEMA NU2-2001 standard) in a whole-body scanner with an 85 cm ring diameter and a 25 cm axial field-of-view. Our results for these whole-body scanners demonstrate the potential of a pixelated Anger-logic detector and the relationship of its performance with the scanner NEC rate. Faster signal decay and short coincidence timing window lead to a reduction in deadtime and randoms fraction in the LaBr(3) and LSO scanners compared to GSO. The excellent energy resolution of LaBr(3) leads to the lowest scatter fraction for all scanners and helps compensate for reduced sensitivity compared to the GSO and LSO scanners, leading to the highest NEC values at high activity concentrations. The LSO scanner has the highest sensitivity of all the scanner designs investigated here, therefore leading to the highest peak NEC value but at a lower activity concentration than that of LaBr(3). PMID:16306662

  15. Reconstructing Oceanographic Conditions From the Holocene to the Last Glacial Maximum in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Dekens, P. S.; Weber, M. E.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.

    2015-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 354 drilled 7 sites in the Bay of Bengal, providing a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the link between glacial cycles, tropical oceanographic changes, and monsoon strength. Deep-sea sediment cores of the Bengal Fan fluctuate between sand, hemipelagic and terrestrial sediment layers. All but one of the sites (U1454) contain a layer of calcareous clay in the uppermost part of the core that is late Pleistocene in age. During Expedition 354 site U1452C was sampled at high resolution (every 2cm) by a broad group of collaborators with the goal of reconstructing monsoon strength and oceanographic conditions using a variety of proxies. The top 480 cm of site U1452C (8ºN, 87ºE, 3671m water depth) contains primarily nannofossil rich calcareous clay. The relatively high abundance of foraminifera will allow us to generate a high resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) using standard foraminifera proxies. We will present oxygen isotopes (δ18O) and Mg/Ca data of mixed layer planktonic foraminifera from the top 70cm of the core, representing the Holocene to the last glacial maximum. δ18O of planktonic foraminifera records global ice volume and local SST and SSS, while Mg/Ca of foraminifera is a proxy for SST. The paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements on the same samples of foraminifera, together with published estimates with global ocean δ18O, can be used to reconstruct both SST and local δ18O of seawater, which is a function of the evaporation/precipitation balance. In future work, the local SSS and SST during the LGM will be paired with terrestrial and other oceanic proxies to increase our understanding of how global climate is connected to monsoon strength.

  16. Modeling water flow and bacterial transport in undisturbed lysimeters under irrigations of dairy shed effluent and water using HYDRUS-1D.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Pang, Liping; Buchan, Graeme D; Simůnek, Jirí; Noonan, Mike J; Close, Murray E

    2010-02-01

    HYDRUS-1D was used to simulate water flow and leaching of fecal coliforms and bromide (Br) through six undisturbed soil lysimeters (70 cm depth by 50 cm diameter) under field conditions. Dairy shed effluent (DSE) spiked with Br was applied to the lysimeters, which contained fine sandy loam layers. This application was followed by fortnightly spray or flood water irrigation. Soil water contents were measured at four soil depths over 171 days, and leachate was collected from the bottom. The post-DSE period simulations yielded a generally decreased saturated water content compared to the pre-DSE period, and an increased saturated hydraulic conductivity and air-entry index, suggesting that changes in soil hydraulic properties (e.g. via changes in structure) can be induced by irrigation and seasonal effects. The single-porosity flow model was successful in simulating water flow under natural climatic conditions and spray irrigation. However, for lysimeters under flood irrigation, when the effect of preferential flow paths becomes more significant, the good agreement between predicted and observed water contents could only be achieved by using a dual-porosity flow model. Results derived from a mobile-immobile transport model suggest that compared to Br, bacteria were transported through a narrower pore-network with less mass exchange between mobile and immobile water zones. Our study suggests that soils with higher topsoil clay content and soils under flood irrigation are at a high risk of bacteria leaching through preferential flow paths. Irrigation management strategies must minimize the effect of preferential flow to reduce bacterial leaching from land applications of effluent. PMID:19775719

  17. The adaptation of limb kinematics to increasing walking speeds in freely moving mice 129/Sv and C57BL/6.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Nadjet; Jamon, Marc

    2009-07-19

    The kinematics of locomotion was analyzed in two strains of great importance for the creation of mutated mice (C56BL/6 and 129/Sv). Different behavioral situations were used to trigger sequences of movement covering the whole range of velocities in the mice, and the variations of kinematic parameters were analyzed in relation with velocity. Both stride frequency and stride length contributed to the moving speed, but stride frequency was found to be the main contributor to the speed increase. A trot-gallop transition was detected at speed about 70 cm/s, in relation with a sharp shift in limb coordination. The results of this study were consistent with pieces of information previously published concerning the gait analyses of other strains, and provided an integrative view of the basic motor pattern of mice. On the other hand some qualitative differences were found in the movement characteristics of the two strains. The stride frequency showed a higher contribution to speed in 129/Sv than in C57BL/6. In addition, 129/Sv showed a phase shift in the forelimb and hindlimb, and a different position of the foot during the stance time that revealed a different gait and body position during walking. Overall, 129/Sv moved at a slower speed than C57BL/6 in any behavioral situation. This difference was related to a basal lower level of motor activity. The possibility that an alteration in the dopamine circuit was responsible for the different movement pattern in 129/Sv is discussed. PMID:19428617

  18. AMPTE lithium tracer releases in the solar wind: Observations inside the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Krimigis, S.M.; Haerendel, G.; Gloeckler, G.; Mcentire, R.W.; Shelley, E.G.; Decker, R.B.; Paschmann, G.; Valenzuela, A.; Potemra, T.A.; Scarf, F.L.

    1986-02-01

    A release of approximately 3.3 x 10/sup 25/ lithium atoms was made on September 11 and again on September 20, 1984, by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) Ion Release Module (IRM) spacecraft at a geocentric distance of roughly-equal18.8 R/sub e/ in the subsolar direction, creating an ion cloud approximately 4 R/sub e/ in diameter after one hour. Detailed modeling of ion propagation to the bow shock and transport through the magnetosheath shows that > or approx. =20% (September 11) and > or approx. =50% (September 20) of the ions mapped to a 36-R/sub e//sup 2/ area around the stagnation point on the magnetopause. The AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) satellite, located inside the magnetosphere with an apogee of 8.78 R/sub e/ and inclination of 4.8/sup 0/, at a local time of about 1300 MLT, was instrumented to detect lithium ions over the energy range from a few eV to > or approx. =6 MeV. Detailed analysis of the data for the several hours following the lithium releases shows that no measurable lithium ion fluxes reached the location of the CCE; upper limits to the lithium flux at L> or approx. =8 are about 50 to 70 (cm/sup 2/-sec-sr)/sup -1/ in the range 25--300 keV/e (Li/H> or approx. =2 x 10/sup -5/), and about 0.1 to 1 (cm/sup 2/-sec-sr)/sup -1/ in the range 45--100 keV/nucleon (Li/Hroughly-equal1 x 10/sup -6/). The implications of these results are discussed in the context of current theoretical models of plasma entry into and transport within the magnetosphere.

  19. Mineralisation studies of 14C-labelled metsulfuron-methyl, tribenuron-methyl, chlorsulfuron and thifensulfuron-methyl in one Danish soil and groundwater sediment profile.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S M; Hertz, P B; Holst, T; Bossi, R; Jacobsen, C S

    2001-11-01

    Bacterial mineralisation of four sulfonylurea herbicides at 20 microg kg(-1) in a sandy soil from nine different depths in a sandy soil horizon (5-780 cm) was investigated in laboratory studies. Metsulfuron-methyl, chlorsulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl were 14C-labelled in the sulfonamide ring, while thifensulfuron-methyl was labelled in the thiophene ring. The highest mineralised amount in 126 days was observed for metsulfuron-methyl (40%) followed by tribenuron-methyl (25%), and thifensulfuron-methyl (11%). Chlorsulfuron showed low mineralisation in all the soils tested (<4%). Mineralisation of the herbicides metsulfuron-methyl and tribenuron-methyl varied according to soil depth (upper profile: 5-70 cm, and lower profile: 165-780 cm) and were proven faster in soil taken from depths 5-7 and 30-35 cm, and slower in depths 45-50 and 70-75 cm. Mineralisation was absent in the lower profile (165-780 cm). As an indicator of microbial activity bacterial counts were taken at the experimental start; these counts grouped in three levels: highest in the surface layer (5-7 cm), slightly lower in the depths 30-75 cm, and lowest in the lower profile (165-780 cm). Residual concentrations of metsulfuron-methyl correlated to the accumulated amount mineralised, with high residual concentrations in soil showing low mineralisation. Also chlorsulfuron showed high residual concentrations with increasing depth in the upper profile, but the relatively high dissipation at 30-35 cm and lower one at 45-50 cm could not be related with the lack of mineralisation. This shows that hydrolysis occurs, but mineralisation of the chloro-substituted sulfonamide is restricted. Tribenuron-methyl and thifensulfuron-methyl could not be detected due to interference with other compounds. PMID:11695596

  20. Predicting organic floc transport dynamics in shallow aquatic ecosystems: insights from the field, laboratory, and numerical modeling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Judson W.; Noe, Gregory B.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Transport of particulate organic material can impact watershed sediment and nutrient budgets and can alter the geomorphologic evolution of shallow aquatic environments. Prediction of organic aggregate (“floc”) transport in these environments requires knowledge of how hydraulics and biota affect the entrainment, settling, and aggregation of particles. This study evaluated the aggregation and field transport dynamics of organic floc from a low-gradient floodplain wetland with flow-parallel ridges and sloughs in the Florida Everglades. Floc dynamics were evaluated in a rotating annular flume and in situ in the field. Under present managed conditions in the Everglades, floc is not entrained by mean flows but is suspended via biological production in the water column and bioturbation. Aggregation was a significant process affecting Everglades floc at high flume flow velocities (7.0 cm s-1) and during recovery from high flow; disaggregation was not significant for the tested flows. During moderate flows when floc dynamics are hydrodynamically controlled, it is possible to model floc transport using a single “operative floc diameter” that accurately predicts fluxes downstream and to the bed. In contrast, during high flows and recovery from high flows, aggregation dynamics should be simulated. When entrained by flow in open-water sloughs, Everglades floc will be transported downstream in multiple deposition and reentrainment events but will undergo net settling when transported onto ridges of emergent vegetation. We hypothesize that net transport of material from open to vegetated areas during high flows is critical for forming and maintaining distinctive topographic patterning in the Everglades and other low-gradient floodplains.

  1. Predicting organic floc transport dynamics in shallow aquatic ecosystems: Insights from the field, the laboratory, and numerical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, L.G.; Harvey, J.W.; Noe, G.B.; Crimaldi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Transport of particulate organic material can impact watershed sediment and nutrient budgets and can alter the geomorphologic evolution of shallow aquatic environments. Prediction of organic aggregate ("floc") transport in these environments requires knowledge of how hydraulics and biota affect the entrainment, settling, and aggregation of particles. This study evaluated the aggregation and field transport dynamics of organic floc from a low-gradient floodplain wetland with flow-parallel ridges and sloughs in the Florida Everglades. floc dynamics were evaluated in a rotating annular flume and in situ in the field. Under present managed conditions in the Everglades, floc is not entrained by mean flows but is suspended via biological production in the water column and bioturbation. Aggregation was a significant process affecting Everglades floc at high flume flow velocities (7.0 cm s-1) and during recovery from high flow; disaggregation was not significant for the tested flows. During moderate flows when floc dynamics are hydrodynamically controlled, it is possible to model floc transport using a single "operative floc diameter" that accurately predicts fluxes downstream and to the bed. In contrast, during high flows and recovery from high flows, aggregation dynamics should be simulated. When entrained by flow in open-water sloughs, Everglades floc will be transported downstream in multiple deposition and reentrainment events but will undergo net settling when transported onto ridges of emergent vegetation. We hypothesize that net transport of material from open to vegetated areas during high flows is critical for forming and maintaining distinctive topographic patterning in the Everglades and other low-gradient floodplains. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. A quantitative comparison of functional and anti-ischaemic effects of the phosphodiesterase-inhibitors, amrinone, milrinone and levosimendan in rabbit isolated hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Rump, A. F.; Acar, D.; Klaus, W.

    1994-01-01

    1. The functional and anti-ischaemic effects of the phosphodiesterase (PDE)-inhibitors, amrinone, milrinone and levosimendan, a new agent combining PDE-inhibitory with calcium-sensitizing properties, were investigated in rabbit isolated hearts (Langendorff, constant pressure: 70 cmH2O, Tyrode solution, Ca2+ 1.8 mmol l-1, 37 degrees C). Anti-ischaemic effects were studied in electrically-driven hearts (200 beats min-1). Acute regional ischaemia was induced by ligature of a branch of the circumflex coronary artery and quantified from epicardial NADH-fluorescence photography. 2. Cumulative concentration-response curves in spontaneously beating hearts in the presence of isoprenaline (10(-10) M), showed a higher inotropic and coronary vasodilator potency for levosimendan (EC50: 7 x 10(-7) M) compared to milrinone (EC50: 7.7 x 10(-6) M) or amrinone (EC50: 2 x 10(-5) M). Although the maximal coronary dilator activity was similar for the three agents, the maximal inotropic and chronotropic effects were lower for levosimendan than for amrinone or milrinone (P < 0.05). 3. In regionally ischaemic hearts, milrinone (10(-5) M) or levosimendan (5 x 10(-6) M) similarly enhanced the left ventricular pressure (+15-20%) (P < 0.05) and the global coronary flow (+40-50%) (P < 0.05). The epicardial NADH-fluorescence area was significantly diminished by milrinone or levosimendan (-20-30%) (P < 0.05) and there was no significant difference between the anti-ischaemic effects of either agent (P > 0.05). 4. It is concluded that amrinone and milrinone possess similar functional profiles in rabbit isolated hearts and a higher inotropic and chronotropic efficacy than levosimendan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921599

  3. Magnetic Mn and Co complexes with a large polycyclic aromatic substituted nitronylnitroxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaz, M. G. F.; Allao, R. A.; Akpinar, H.; Schlueter, J. A.; Santos, Jr., S.; Lahti, P. M.; Novak, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    2-(1'-Pyrenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PyrNN) was reacted with M(hfac){sub 2} (M = Mn(II) and Co(II), hfac = hexafluoracetylacetonate) to give two isostructural ML{sub 2} stoichiometry M(hfac){sub 2}(PyrNN){sub 2} complexes and a ML stoichiometry one-dimensional (1-D) polymer chain complex [Mn(hfac){sub 2}(PyrNN)]. The ML{sub 2} complexes have similar crystal structures with monoclinic unit cells, in which one NO unit from each PyrNN ligand is bonded to the transition metal on cis vertices of a distorted octahedron. The major magnetic interactions are intracomplex metal-to-radical exchange (J), and intermolecular exchange across a close contact between the uncoordinated NO units (J'). For M = Mn(II) an approximate chain model fit gives g = 2.0, J = (-)125 cm{sup -1} and J' = (-)49 cm{sup -1}; for M = Co(II), g = 2.4, J = (-)180 cm{sup -1}, and J' = (-)70 cm{sup -1}. Hybrid density functional theory (DFT) computations modeling the intermolecular exchange by using only the radical units across the close contact are in good accord with the estimated values of J'. The chain type complex structure shows solvent incorporation for overall structure [Mn(hfac){sub 2}(PyrNN)]{sub n} {center_dot} 0.5(CHCl{sub 3}) {center_dot} 0.5(C{sub 7}H{sub 16}). Both NO groups of the PyrNN ligand are complexed to form helical chains, with very strong metal to radical antiferromagnetic exchange that gives overall ferrimagnetic behavior.

  4. A study of systematic errors in the PMD CamBoard nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Jacky C. K.; Lichti, Derek D.

    2013-04-01

    Time-of-flight-based three-dimensional cameras are the state-of-the-art imaging modality for acquiring rapid 3D position information. Unlike any other technology on the market, it can deliver 2D images co-located with distance information at every pixel location, without any shadows. Recent technological advancements have begun miniaturizing such technology to be more suitable for laptops and eventually cellphones. This paper explores the systematic errors inherent to the new PMD CamBoard nano camera. As the world's most compact 3D time-of-flight camera it has applications in a wide domain, such as gesture control and facial recognition. To model the systematic errors, a one-step point-based and plane-based bundle adjustment method is used. It simultaneously estimates all systematic errors and unknown parameters by minimizing the residuals of image measurements, distance measurements, and amplitude measurements in a least-squares sense. The presented self-calibration method only requires a standard checkerboard target on a flat plane, making it a suitable candidate for on-site calibration. In addition, because distances are only constrained to lie on a plane, the raw pixel-by-pixel distance observations can be used. This makes it possible to increase the number of distance observations in the adjustment with ease. The results from this paper indicate that amplitude dependent range errors are the dominant error source for the nano under low scattering imaging configurations. Post user self-calibration, the RMSE of the range observations reduced by almost 50%, delivering range measurements at a precision of approximately 2.5cm within a 70cm interval.

  5. Gender, Vertical Height and Horizontal Distance Effects on Single-Leg Landing Kinematics: Implications for Risk of non-contact ACL Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nicholas; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Robertson, Gordon

    There is a lack of studies investigating gender differences in whole-body kinematics during single-leg landings from increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances. This study determined the main effects and interactions of gender, vertical height, and horizontal distance on whole-body joint kinematics during single-leg landings, and established whether these findings could explain the gender disparity in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rate. Recreationally active males (n=6) and females (n=6) performed single-leg landings from a takeoff deck of vertical height of 20, 40, and 60 cm placed at a horizontal distance of 30, 50 and 70 cm from the edge of a force platform, while 3D kinematics and kinetics were simultaneously measured. It was determined that peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and the ankle flexion angle exhibited significant gender differences (p=0.028, partial η 2 =0.40 and p=0.035, partial η 2 =0.37, respectively). Peak VGRF was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= −0.59, p=0.04), hip flexion angle (r= −0.74, p=0.006), and trunk flexion angle (r= −0.59, p=0.045). Peak posterior ground reaction force (PGRF) was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= −0.56, p=0.035), while peak knee abduction moment was significantly correlated to the knee flexion angle (r= −0.64, p=0.03). Rearfoot landings may explain the higher ACL injury rate among females. Higher plantar-flexed ankle, hip, and trunk flexion angles were associated with lower peak ground reaction forces, while higher knee flexion angle was associated with lower peak knee abduction moment, and these kinematics implicate reduced risk of non-contact ACL injury. PMID:24146702

  6. Rapid and frequent turbidite accumulation in the bottom of Izu-Ogasawara Trench: Chemical and radiochemical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Ohta, Yoichi

    1993-12-01

    Two sediment cores (pilot gravity and piston) were obtained from the bottom of the Izu-Ogasawara Trench at 9750 m and analyzed for various elements and radioisotopes. The results showed a history of complex and frequent turbidite deposition: In the gravity core, eight layers rich in manganese were observed, of which five are enriched in Cu and Co as well. The other three are also enriched in Mo but no other heavy metals, suggesting the presence of at least two mechanisms of formation. Trapping of iron manganese micronodules can account for the enrichment of Mn, Cu and Co. The other three layers rich in Mn and Mo appear to be formed by a post-depositional diagenetic process of Mn mobilization and redeposition in the sediment column. A strong correlation between Ra-226 and Cu in the gravity core suggests that the Ra-226 was also carried into the bottom of the trench in turbidites in association with Mn micronodules. Little excess of Pb-210 over Ra-226 was found at the top but the excess was significant at mid-depths from 30 to 70 cm, indicating that those sediments were deposited within the last 200 y. In the piston core there is a sharp discontinuity of chemical and radiochemical composition around a depth of 250 cm. Below that depth the sediments appear to be dominated by materials derived from terrestrial sources, as compared with those in the upper layer which are of contemporary marine origin. Ra-226 is deficient relative to Th-230 throughout the sediment column down to about 6 m. This finding is consistent with the finding that the average rate of sediment accumulation is 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than that in the western North Pacific abyssal plain, suggesting the convergence of materials into the bottom of the trench.

  7. Vagolytic atropine attenuates cerebral vasodilation response during acute orthostatic hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woo-Jong; Lee, Kichang; Kim, Young-Kug; Song, Kyo-Joon; Jeong, Sung-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Background Atropine is an anticholinergic drug which is commonly used in clinical practice. The effect of parasympathetic block with atropine on dynamic cerebrovascular regulation remains unclear. This study was aimed to identify effects of vagolytic atropine on cerebrovascular response during acute orthostatic hypotension in humans. Methods Continuous middle cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV, transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure (ABP, Finometer) were measured during a sit-to-stand procedure in 10 healthy subjects with placebo and vagolytic (10 µg/kg) doses of atropine. Cerebral vascular tone was assessed by cerebrovascular resistance (CVR = ABP / CBFV). Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was also assessed by transfer function analysis of ABP and CBFV. Results During the standing session, ABP fell to a similar extent in both groups by an average of 23 to 25 mmHg (26% to 29%). CBFV also fell in all subjects but significantly more in vagolytic atropine (-15.0 ± 7.0 cm/s) compared with placebo (-12.0 ± 5.8 cm/s, P < 0.05). CVR was decreased significantly in the placebo group during posture change (1.56 ± 0.44 vs. 1.38 ± 0.38, P < 0.05), in contrast, lesser decreased in the atropine group (1.60 ± 0.50 vs. 1.53 ± 0.42, P = 0.193). Transfer function coherence in the very-low-frequency range was significantly increased in the atropine group during the standing session (0.55 ± 0.14), compared with the sitting session (0.45 ± 0.14, P = 0.006). Conclusions These data present that vagolytic atropine attenuates cerebral vasodilation response to acute orthostatic hypotension, suggesting the use of atropine may need care in patients with cerebrovascular disease with vagal impairment. PMID:26634084

  8. The ICESat-2 Mission: Concept, pre-launch activities, and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, T.; Neumann, T.; Csatho, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ice sheet and sea level changes have been explicitly identified as a priority in the President's Climate Change Science Program, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the 4th Assessment Report of the IPCC and other national and international policy documents. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for launch in early 2016. The primary aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea-ice thickness change, and ice sheet elevation changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet as established by ICESat. In contrast to ICESat, ICESat-2 will employ a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. The current concept uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; equivalent to 70 cm on the ground) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure range using ~532nm (green) light. The concept will enable the generation of seasonal maps of ice sheet elevation of Greenland and Antarctica, monthly maps of sea ice thickness of the polar ocean, a dense map of land elevation (2 km track spacing at the equator after two years) enabling the determination of canopy height, as well as ocean heights. While the mission has been optimized for cryospheric science and vast amount of high precision elevation measurements taken over land and over the ocean as well as of the atmosphere will provide scientists with a wealth of opportunities to explore the utility of ICESat-2. Those will range from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land use changes and more. The presentation will review the measurement concept and physical principles of ICESat-2, current and planned activities to assess instrument performance and develop geophysical algorithms, as well as potential opportunities outside the main objectives of ICESat-2.

  9. Conformation of heparin studied with macromolecular hydrodynamic methods and X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Georges; Finet, Stéphanie; Tatarenko, Karine; Korneeva, Evgueniya; Ebel, Christine

    2003-08-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of heparin fractions in a 0.2 M NaCl solution have been determined. Experimental values varied over the following ranges: the sedimentation coefficient (at 20.0 degrees C), 1.370 cm3 g(-1); the translational diffusion coefficient, 3.9< D0x10(7)<15.4 cm2 s(-1); the intrinsic viscosity, 7.9<[eta]<40 cm3 g(-1). Combination of s0 with D0 using the Svedberg equation yielded molecular weights in the range 3.9

  10. Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Shuntaro; Hirotani, Masako; Koike, Takahiko; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Takahashi, Haruka K.; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    People’s behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction—two individuals influencing one another—or in one direction—one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another’s head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR), the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one’s postural sway is explained by that of the other’s and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded) interacts with paired participants’ postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the behavioral

  11. Microbial dynamics during aerobic exposure of corn silage stored under oxygen barrier or polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm³ m⁻² per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log₁₀ CFU g⁻¹, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure. PMID:21821764

  12. High-resolution Earth-based lunar radar studies: Applications to lunar resource assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, N. J. S.; Campbell, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    The lunar regolith will most likely be a primary raw material for lunar base construction and resource extraction. High-resolution radar observations of the Moon provide maps of radar backscatter that have intensity variations generally controlled by the local slope, material, and structural properties of the regolith. The properties that can be measured by the radar system include the dielectric constant, density, loss tangent, and wavelength scale roughness. The radar systems currently in operation at several astronomical observatories provide the ability to image the lunar surface at spatial resolutions approaching 30 m at 3.8 cm and 12.6 cm wavelengths and approximately 500 m at 70 cm wavelength. The radar signal penetrates the lunar regolith to a depth of 10-20 wavelengths so the measured backscatter contains contributions from the vacuum-regolith interface and from wavelength-scale heterogeneities in the electrical properties of the subsurface material. The three wavelengths, which are sensitive to different scale structures and scattering volumes, provide complementary information on the regolith properties. Aims of the previous and future observations include (1) analysis of the scattering properties associated with fresh impact craters, impact crater rays, and mantled deposits; (2) analysis of high-incidence-angle observations of the lunar mare to investigate measurement of the regolith dielectric constant and hence porosity; (3) investigation of interferometric techniques using two time-delayed observations of the same site, observations that require a difference in viewing geometry less than 0.05 deg and, hence, fortuitous alignment of the Earth-Moon system when visible from Arecibo Observatory.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Long-term photometry of pre-MS stars (Poljancic Beljan+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poljancic Beljan, I.; Jurdana-Sepic, R.; Semkov, E. H.; Ibryamov, S.; Peneva, S. P.; Tsvetkov, M. K.

    2014-06-01

    We carried out a CCD BVRI photometric observational program for 17 stars (finding chart in Fig. 1) in the field of V2493 Cyg ("Gulf of Mexico"). The star sample was extracted from the SIMBAD astronomical database. The observational material comes from (i) the whole photographic plate stack preserved at Asiago Observatory (Italy) and the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen (Bulgaria); from (ii) digitized plates from the Palomar Schmidt telescope; and (iii) several scanned plates from the Schmidt telescope of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (Armenia). The CCD photometric observations were performed with the 2m RCC, the 50/70cm Schmidt and the 60cm Cassegrain telescopes of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen (Bulgaria) and the 1.3m RC telescope of the Skinakas Observatory1 of the Institute of Astronomy, University of Crete (Greece). More observational and technical details are given in Semkov et al. (2012, Cat. J/A+A/542/A43). All frames were exposed through a set of standard Johnson-Cousins filters. The time span covers almost 60 years, from 1954 to 2013; see table 2: -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Observatory/Telescope Medium Nobs Time span -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Asiago Schmidt 67/92 & 40/50 photogr. plates 198 30/08/1962-18/11/1998 Palomar Schmidt photogr. plates 6 5/07/1954-12/09/1994 Byurakan Schmidt 100/130 photogr. plates 6 28/08/1973-22/06/1977 Rozhen Schmidt 50/70 photogr. plates 4 18/06/1980-11/01/1991 Rozhen Schmidt and Cass. CCD 105 29/10/2000-06/03/2013 Skinakas 1.3m CCD 91 14/06/2000-22/09/2012 Rozhen 2m RCC CCD 35 1/06/1997-04/05/2013 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3 data files).

  14. Effect of pressure-induced changes in the ionization equilibria of buffers on inactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Gayán, Elisa; Condón, Santiago; Álvarez, Ignacio; Nabakabaya, Maria; Mackey, Bernard

    2013-07-01

    Survival rates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus after high-pressure treatment in buffers that had large or small reaction volumes (ΔV°), and which therefore underwent large or small changes in pH under pressure, were compared. At a low buffer concentration of 0.005 M, survival was, as expected, better in MOPS (morpholinepropanesulfonic acid), HEPES, and Tris, whose ΔV° values are approximately 5.0 to 7.0 cm(3) mol(-1), than in phosphate or dimethyl glutarate (DMG), whose ΔV° values are about -25 cm(3) mol(-1). However, at a concentration of 0.1 M, survival was unexpectedly better in phosphate and DMG than in MOPS, HEPES, or Tris. This was because the baroprotective effect of phosphate and DMG increased much more rapidly with increasing concentration than it did with MOPS, HEPES, or Tris. Further comparisons of survival in solutions of salts expected to cause large electrostriction effects (Na2SO4 and CaCl2) and those causing lower electrostriction (NaCl and KCl) were made. The salts with divalent ions were protective at much lower concentrations than salts with monovalent ions. Buffers and salts both protected against transient membrane disruption in E. coli, but the molar concentrations necessary for membrane protection were much lower for phosphate and Na2SO4 than for HEPES and NaCl. Possible protective mechanisms discussed include effects of electrolytes on water compressibility and kosmotropic and specific ion effects. The results of this systematic study will be of considerable practical significance in studies of pressure inactivation of microbes under defined conditions but also raise important fundamental questions regarding the mechanisms of baroprotection by ionic solutes. PMID:23624471

  15. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - Phase 2 Hardware System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; McFadin, L.; Bruninga, B.; Watarikawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) ham radio system has been on-orbit for over 3 years. Since its first use in November 2000, the first seven expedition crews and three Soyuz taxi crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the Functional Cargo Block (also referred to as the FGB or Zarya module) to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early on, the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) international team devised a multi-phased hardware development approach for the ISS ham radio station. Three internal development Phases. Initial Phase 1, Mobile Radio Phase 2 and Permanently Mounted Phase 3 plus an externally mounted system, were proposed and agreed to by the ARISS team. The Phase 1 system hardware development which was started in 1996 has since been delivered to ISS. It is currently operational on 2 meters. The 70 cm system is expected to be installed and operated later this year. Since 2001, the ARISS international team have worked to bring the second generation ham system, called Phase 2, to flight qualification status. At this time, major portions of the Phase 2 hardware system have been delivered to ISS and will soon be installed and checked out. This paper intends to provide an overview of the Phase 1 system for background and then describe the capabilities of the Phase 2 radio system. It will also describe the current plans to finalize the Phase 1 and Phase 2 testing in Russia and outlines the plans to bring the Phase 2 hardware system to full operation.

  16. Lunar Impact ejecta: The View from Radar and Thermal Infrared Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, R. R.; Carter, L. M.; Tai Udovicic, C. J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Campbell, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The lunar regolith is derived from impact ejecta, and so understanding ejecta characteristics is a key element of regolith studies. Here we report on the physical properties of impact ejecta from Earth-based and orbital radar (Arecibo / Green Bank telescopes at 12.6- and 70-cm wavelengths, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF) and LRO Diviner thermal infrared observations. Diviner thermal IR data provide estimates of surface rock abundance, and the radar datasets reveal rocks buried beneath up to several meters of regolith. These four datasets represent a spectrum of observational wavelengths, and their intercomparison provides a means of constraining both ejecta block content and depth extent. We examine all craters on the lunar nearside that show evidence for blocky ejecta, whether buried or on the surface, in order to investigate spatial, crater size-, and time-dependent variations in ejecta block size distribution and spatial extent. Previous work has shown that it is possible to quantify the relationship between surface ejecta rock content and crater age for craters younger than ~1 Gyr; we will now present the results of our effort to extend the age range over which this relationship can be applied by investigating buried ejecta as well. Further, we report on the thermophysical characteristics of distal fine-grained ejecta that have previously been shown to exhibit unique radar characteristics (low radar return and circular polarization ratio). Our results constrain the physical properties of ejecta, and variations in those properties with time and depth, to an extent not possible from examination of visible-wavelength images and multispectral data alone.

  17. Multiple intestinal 'loops' provide an in vivo model to analyse multiple mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, V; Uwiera, R R; Mutwiri, G K; Wilson, D J; Bowersock, T; Kidane, A; Babiuk, L A; Griebel, P J

    2001-10-01

    Mucosal immunity plays an important role in preventing disease but the induction of protective mucosal immune responses remains a significant challenge. We describe a novel in vivo model to analyze the induction of multiple mucosal immune responses in the small intestine. A sterile segment of intestine ('intestinal-segment'; 2-3 m long) was surgically prepared in the jejunum of 4-6-month-old lambs. This 'intestinal-segment' was then subdivided into consecutive segments, designated as 'loops' (15-20 cm long), that included a Peyer's patch (PP), or 'interspaces' (15-70 cm long), that lacked a visible PP. All 'loops' were sterile when collected 1-4 weeks post-surgery and there was no macroscopic or histological evidence of altered lymph or blood flow. Flow cytometric analysis of cells isolated from PP, mucosal epithelium (IEL) and the lamina propria (LPL) revealed no significant alterations in the cell populations present in 'loop' tissues. The functional integrity of M-cell antigen uptake in sterile intestinal 'loops' was evaluated by comparing the immune response induced by varying doses of soluble versus particulate porcine serum albumin (PSA formulated in alginate microspheres). A dose-dependent, PSA-specific antibody-secreting cell response was restricted to PP present in 'loops' injected with particulate PSA. These observations suggested that PP present in sterile 'loops' were functional and this conclusion was confirmed by detecting cholera toxin-specific antibody-secreting cells and secreted antibody in PP and intestinal contents, respectively, of immunized 'loops.' Thus, each 'loop' provided an independent site to analyze antigen-uptake and the induction of mucosal immune responses by a variety of antigen or vaccine formulations. PMID:11516752

  18. Daily Variations of Methane Flux from Submarine Mud Volcanoes in Southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Yang, Tsanyao; Chen, Naichen; Lin, Saulwood; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are features that episodically emit gases, fluids, and mud onto the seafloor. Methane is the representative gas transport by mud volcanoes efficiently from deep buried sediment to the water column, and potentially to the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. An active mud volcano, site-G96, located at the upper slope of southwest Taiwan, has plume from the top of mud volcano (360 m) direct to the sea surface. We can observe the bubbles at the sea surface. This study was conducted during cruise OR3-1693 in June 2013. To understand the activity of gas emissions of mud volcano, we utilized the 38kz echo sounder to scan back and forth over the site-G96 and obtained 53 acoustic images of plumes. Five water column samples were collected above the venting of G96 at the tidal maximum and minimum. Three gravity cores were taken at the mudflow site of G96. The results show high concentration of methane (38,522ul/l) and shallow depth of sulfate methane transition zone (~70cm) in the cored sediment profiles. The C1/(C2+C3) ratios from cored sediments are in the range of 29-392, indicating that the methane gas is mostly thermogenic in origin. Calculated areas of the plumes from echo sounder images show good correlation with the tide variations during the survey on 1st -2nd June 2013. Flux of methane from the water column to atmosphere can be estimated by diffusive exchange equation, showing that gas emission from an active mud volcano could be largely various (0.065, 3.426, 3.414, 0, 41.739umol m-2 d-1) from time to time, at least, in this study.

  19. The discrete regime of flame propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew

    The propagation of laminar dust flames in iron dust clouds was studied in a low-gravity envi-ronment on-board a parabolic flight aircraft. The elimination of buoyancy-induced convection and particle settling permitted measurements of fundamental combustion parameters such as the burning velocity and the flame quenching distance over a wide range of particle sizes and in different gaseous mixtures. The discrete regime of flame propagation was observed by substitut-ing nitrogen present in air with xenon, an inert gas with a significantly lower heat conductivity. Flame propagation in the discrete regime is controlled by the heat transfer between neighbor-ing particles, rather than by the particle burning rate used by traditional continuum models of heterogeneous flames. The propagation mechanism of discrete flames depends on the spa-tial distribution of particles, and thus such flames are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the fuel concentration. Constant pressure laminar dust flames were observed inside 70 cm long, 5 cm diameter Pyrex tubes. Equally-spaced plate assemblies forming rectangular chan-nels were placed inside each tube to determine the quenching distance defined as the minimum channel width through which a flame can successfully propagate. High-speed video cameras were used to measure the flame speed and a fiber optic spectrometer was used to measure the flame temperature. Experimental results were compared with predictions obtained from a numerical model of a three-dimensional flame developed to capture both the discrete nature and the random distribution of particles in the flame. Though good qualitative agreement was obtained between model predictions and experimental observations, residual g-jitters and the short reduced-gravity periods prevented further investigations of propagation limits in the dis-crete regime. The full exploration of the discrete flame phenomenon would require high-quality, long duration reduced gravity environment

  20. Formation of sulfide-calcite veinlets in the Kupferschiefer Cu-Ag deposits in Poland by natural hydrofracturing during basin subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Jowett, E.C.

    1987-07-01

    Calcite and copper-(iron) sulfide veinlets in the Kupferschiefer ore deposits in southwestern Poland display many characteristics of antitaxial veinlets, including trails of wall-rock shards from wall to wall. Cross-cutting relationships demonstrate a change from sulfate to sulfide chemical stability and an evolution of stress orientation during ore-formation. Bedding-plane sulfate veinlets and later bedding-plane sulfide veinlets are superseded by vertical sulfide veinlets, suggesting tectonic extension during ore-formation. Thin bedding-plane calcite-(sulfide) veinlets record a return to pre-ore stress conditions after ore formation ceased. The vertical veinlets are thin and lens-shaped, typically 1-3 mm thick, 30-35 cm high, and 50-70 cm long, with orientations similar to Kimmerian-age (Triassic-Jurassic) directions. Sulfide replacement lenses cut across and are cut by vertical veinlets, suggesting contemporaneous formation after lithification. A mid-Triassic paleomagnetic age and cross-cutting Alpine-age faults and dikes suggest that the veinlets and other mineralization formed during rapid subsidence in the Triassic, and not during Alpine-age uplift. A genetic model is proposed whereby the fractures originated by natural hydrofracturing caused by (1) aquathermal pressuring and (2) generation of water, CO/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/ from the coal organic matter in the Kupferschiefer, aided by over-pressured pore fluid. It is inferred that the mineralization was accompanied by natural-gas generation and by opening of the Tethys. 61 references.

  1. Response of Ni/4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes to alpha-particle irradiation at different fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, E.; Meyer, W. E.; Auret, F. D.; Diale, M.; Ngoepe, P. N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation experiments have been carried out on 1.9×1016 cm-3 nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC at room temperature using 5.4 MeV alpha-particle irradiation over a fluence ranges from 2.6×1010 to 9.2×1011 cm-2. Current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been carried out to study the change in characteristics of the devices and free carrier removal rate due to alpha-particle irradiation, respectively. As radiation fluence increases, the ideality factors increased from 1.20 to 1.85 but the Schottky barrier height (SBHI-V) decreased from 1.47 to 1.34 eV. Free carrier concentration, Nd decreased with increasing fluence from 1.7×1016 to 1.1×1016 cm-2 at approximately 0.70 μm depth. The reduction in Nd shows that defects were induced during the irradiation and have effect on compensating the free carrier. The free carrier removal rate was estimated to be 6480±70 cm-1. Alpha-particle irradiation introduced two electron traps (E0.39 and E0.62), with activation energies of 0.39±0.03 eV and 0.62±0.08 eV, respectively. The E0.39 as attribute related to silicon or carbon vacancy, while the E0.62 has the attribute of Z1/Z2.

  2. Low relative error in consumer-grade GPS units make them ideal for measuring small-scale animal movement patterns

    PubMed Central

    Severns, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-grade GPS units are a staple of modern field ecology, but the relatively large error radii reported by manufacturers (up to 10 m) ostensibly precludes their utility in measuring fine-scale movement of small animals such as insects. Here we demonstrate that for data collected at fine spatio-temporal scales, these devices can produce exceptionally accurate data on step-length and movement patterns of small animals. With an understanding of the properties of GPS error and how it arises, it is possible, using a simple field protocol, to use consumer grade GPS units to collect step-length data for the movement of small animals that introduces a median error as small as 11 cm. These small error rates were measured in controlled observations of real butterfly movement. Similar conclusions were reached using a ground-truth test track prepared with a field tape and compass and subsequently measured 20 times using the same methodology as the butterfly tracking. Median error in the ground-truth track was slightly higher than the field data, mostly between 20 and 30 cm, but even for the smallest ground-truth step (70 cm), this is still a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and for steps of 3 m or more, the ratio is greater than 10:1. Such small errors relative to the movements being measured make these inexpensive units useful for measuring insect and other small animal movements on small to intermediate scales with budgets orders of magnitude lower than survey-grade units used in past studies. As an additional advantage, these units are simpler to operate, and insect or other small animal trackways can be collected more quickly than either survey-grade units or more traditional ruler/gird approaches. PMID:26312190

  3. Two-octave spanning single pump parametric amplification at 1550 nm in a host lead-silicate binary multi-clad microstructure fiber: Influence of multi-order dispersion engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sudip K.; Khan, Saba N.; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2014-12-01

    An ultra-wide 1646 nm (1084-2730 nm), continuous-wave single pump parametric amplification spanning from near-infrared to short-wave infrared band (NIR-SWIR) in a host lead-silicate based binary multi-clad microstructure fiber (BMMF) is analyzed and reported. This ultra-broad band (widest reported to date) parametric amplification with gain more than 10 dB is theoretically achieved by a combination of low input pump power source ~7 W and a short-length of ~70 cm of nonlinear-BMMF through accurately engineered multi-order dispersion coefficients. A highly efficient theoretical formulation based on four-wave-mixing (FWM) is worked out to determine fiber's chromatic dispersion (D) profile which is used to optimise the gain-bandwidth and ripple of the parametric gain profile. It is seen that by appropriately controlling the higher-order dispersion coefficient (up-to sixth order), a great enhancement in the gain-bandwidth (2-3 times) can be achieved when operated very close to zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) in the anomalous dispersion regime. Moreover, the proposed theoretical model can predict the maximum realizable spectral width and the required pump-detuning (w.r.t ZDW) of any advanced complex microstructured fiber. Our thorough investigation of the wide variety of broadband gain spectra obtained as an integral part of this research work opens up the way for realizing amplification in the region (SWIR) located far from the pump (NIR) where good amplifiers currently do not exist.

  4. The dark side of the hyporheic zone: Depth profiles of nitrogen and its processing in stream sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, R.S.; Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Strauss, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    1.Although it is well known that sediments can be hot spots for nitrogen transformation in streams, many previous studies have confined measurements of denitrification and nitrate retention to shallow sediments (<5cm deep). We determined the extent of nitrate processing in deeper sediments of a sand plains stream (Emmons Creek) by measuring denitrification in core sections to a depth of 25cm and by assessing vertical nitrate profiles, with peepers and piezometers, to a depth of 70cm. 2.Denitrification rates of sediment slurries based on acetylene block were higher in shallower core sections. However, core sections deeper than 5cm accounted for 68% of the mean depth-integrated denitrification rate. 3.Vertical hydraulic gradient and vertical profiles of pore water chloride concentration suggested that deep ground water upwelled through shallow sediments before discharging to the stream channel. The results of a two-source mixing model based on chloride concentrations suggested that the hyporheic zone was very shallow (<5cm) in Emmons Creek. 4.Vertical profiles showed that nitrate concentration in shallow ground water was about 10-60% of the nitrate concentration of deep ground water. The mean nitrate concentrations of deep and shallow ground water were 2.17 and 0.73mgNO3-NL-1, respectively. 5.Deep ground water tended to be oxic (6.9mgO2L-1) but approached anoxia (0.8mgO2L-1) after passing through shallow, organic carbon-rich sediments, which suggests that the decline in the nitrate concentrations of upwelling ground water was because of denitrification. 6.Collectively, our results suggest that there is substantial nitrate removal occurring in deep sediments, below the hyporheic zone, in Emmons Creek. Our findings suggest that not accounting for nitrate removal in deep sediments could lead to underestimates of nitrogen processing in streams and catchments. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Active layer thermal monitoring of a Dry Valley of the Ellsworth Mountains, Continental Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Souza, Karoline; Senra, Eduardo; Bremer, Ulisses

    2015-04-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains occur along the southern edge of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and are subdivided by the Minnesota Glacier into the Heritage Range to the east and the Sentinel Range to the West. The climate of the Ellsworth Mountains is strongly controlled by proximity to the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and elevation. The mean annual air temperature at the 1,000 m level is estimated to be -25°C, and the average annual accumulation of water-equivalent precipitation likely ranges from 150 to 175 mm yr-1 (Weyant, 1966). The entire area is underlain by continuous permafrost of unknown thickness. Based on data collected from 22 pits, 41% of the sites contained dry permafrost below 70 cm, 27% had ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, 27% had bedrock within 70 cm, and 5% contained an ice-core (Bockheim, unpublished; Schaefer et al., 2015). Dry-frozen permafrost, which may be unique to Antarctica, appears to form from sublimation of moisture in ice-cemented permafrost over time. Active-layer depths in drift sheets of the Ellsworth Mountains range from 15 to 50 cm (Bockheim, unpublished); our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially at the continent. The active layer monitoring sites were installed at Edson Hills, Ellsworth_Mountains, in the summer of 2012, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) installed at 1 m above ground for air temperature measurements at two soil profiles on quartzite drift deposits, arranged in a vertical array (Lithic Haplorthel 886 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm and Lithic Anyorthel 850 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm). All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from January 2nd 2012 until December 29th 2013. We calculated the thawing days (TD), freezing days (FD); isothermal days (ID), freeze thaw days (FTD), thawing degree days (TDD) and freezing degree days (FDD); all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). Temperature at 5 cm reaches a maximum

  6. The Composition and Origin of Selected Lunar Crater Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Blewett, D. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.; Bell, J. F., III; Campbell, B. A.; Robinson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    The nature and origin of lunar crater rays has long been a source of major controversy. Some lunar scientists have proposed that rays are dominated by primary crater ejecta, while others have emphasized the role of secondary craters in producing rays. Pieters et al. presented the results of a remote sensing study of a portion of the ray system north of Copernicus. They provided evidence that the present brightness of the Copernicus rays in this sector is due largely to the presence of a component of highland ejecta intimately mixed with local mare basalt, and that an increasing component of local material is observed in the rays at progressively greater radial distances from the parent crater. These results have been questioned, and the origin of lunar rays is still uncertain In an effort to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar rays, we have utilized a variety of remote-sensing data to study selected rays associated with Olbers A, Lichtenberg, the Messier Crater Complex, and Tycho. The data include near-IR reflectance spectra (0.6-2.5 micron) and 3.8-cm and 70-cm radar maps. In addition, Clementine UV-VIS images were used to produce high-resolution FeO, TiO, and maturity maps for the various rays using the methods presented by Lucey and et al. Messier (14 km in long dimension) and Messier A (diameter = 11 km) are located near 2S, 47E in Mare Fecunditatis. Major rays from these craters occur to the south and west of the parent craters. Spectra were obtained for portions of the rays west and south of the crater complex, as well as for Messier A and nearby mature mare regions.The spectrum of Messier A exhibits an extremely deep (29%) ferrous iron absorption band centered at 0.98 micron, and a fresh mare composition is indicated. Both the near-IR spectrum and the FeO image clearly demonstrate that Messier A did not penetrate the Fecunditatis mare fill. In addition, Messier A crater exhibits strong returns on both the 3.8-cm and 70-cm

  7. New instruments for soil physics class: Improving the laboratory and field seminars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Jankovec, Jakub; Snehota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    Teaching soil science and soil physics is an important part of the curriculum of many programs with focus on technical and natural sciences. Courses of soil science and namely soil physics have a long tradition at the faculty of Civil Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Students receive the theoretical foundations about soil classification, soil physics, soil chemistry and soil hydraulic characteristics in the course. In practical seminars students perform measurements of physical, hydraulic and chemical characteristics of soils, thus a comprehensive survey of soil is done in the given site. So far, students had the opportunity to use old, manually operated instrumentation. The project aims to improve the attractiveness of soil physics course and to extend the practical skills of students by introducing new tasks and by involving modern automated equipment. New instruments were purchased with the support of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the project FRVS No. 1162/2013 G1. Specifically, two tensiometers T8 with multi-functional handheld read-out unit (UMS, GmbH) and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (Decagon Devices, Inc.) were purchased and incorporated into the course. In addition, newly designed MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (CTU in Prague) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT sensor TMS 2 (TOMST®, s.r.o.), were made freely available for soil physics classes and included into the courses. Online tutorials and instructional videos were developed. Detailed multimedia teaching materials were introduced so that students are able to work more independently. Students will practice operating the digital tensiometer T8 with integrated temperature sensor and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (diameter disk: 4.4 cm, suction range: 0.5 to 7.0 cm of suction) and MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (see Klipa et al., EGU2014-7230) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT sensor TMS2. The tutorials cover the measurements process from installation to the data processing. The introduction of new instruments into to the courses is not only attractive for students but also useful in terms of gaining practical experience and new skills with advanced measurement devices for PhD students who participate on class teaching. Students will be able to use newly gain skills as well as the equipment for their projects and theses. This work has been supported by student grant FRVS number: 1162/2013 G1.

  8. Characterization of a Subtropical Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmocheyles imbricata) Assemblage Utilizing Shallow Water Natural and Artificial Habitats in the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    Gorham, Jonathan C.; Clark, David R.; Bresette, Michael J.; Bagley, Dean A.; Keske, Carrie L.; Traxler, Steve L.; Witherington, Blair E.; Shamblin, Brian M.; Nairn, Campbell J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information to better inform management decisions and direct further research, vessel-based visual transects, snorkel transects, and in-water capture techniques were used to characterize hawksbill sea turtles in the shallow marine habitats of a Marine Protected Area (MPA), the Key West National Wildlife Refuge in the Florida Keys. Hawksbills were found in hardbottom and seagrass dominated habitats throughout the Refuge, and on man-made rubble structures in the Northwest Channel near Cottrell Key. Hawksbills captured (N = 82) were exclusively juveniles and subadults with a straight standard carapace length (SSCL) ranging from 21.4 to 69.0cm with a mean of 44.1 cm (SD = 10.8). Somatic growth rates were calculated from 15 recaptured turtles with periods at large ranging from 51 to 1188 days. Mean SSCL growth rate was 7.7 cm/year (SD = 4.6). Juvenile hawksbills (<50 cm SSCL) showed a significantly higher growth rate (9.2 cm/year, SD = 4.5, N = 11) than subadult hawksbills (50–70 cm SSCL, 3.6 cm/year, SD = 0.9, N = 4). Analysis of 740 base pair mitochondrial control region sequences from 50 sampled turtles yielded 12 haplotypes. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different compared to four other Caribbean juvenile foraging aggregations, including one off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Many-to-one mixed stock analysis indicated Mexico as the primary source of juveniles in the region and also suggested that the Refuge may serve as important developmental habitat for the Cuban nesting aggregation. Serum testosterone radioimmunoassay results from 33 individuals indicated a female biased sex ratio of 3.3 females: 1 male for hawksbills in the Refuge. This assemblage of hawksbills is near the northern limit of the species range, and is one of only two such assemblages described in the waters of the continental United States. Since this assemblage resides in an MPA with intensive human use, basic information on the

  9. Characterization of a subtropical hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmocheyles imbricata) assemblage utilizing shallow water natural and artificial habitats in the Florida Keys.

    PubMed

    Gorham, Jonathan C; Clark, David R; Bresette, Michael J; Bagley, Dean A; Keske, Carrie L; Traxler, Steve L; Witherington, Blair E; Shamblin, Brian M; Nairn, Campbell J

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information to better inform management decisions and direct further research, vessel-based visual transects, snorkel transects, and in-water capture techniques were used to characterize hawksbill sea turtles in the shallow marine habitats of a Marine Protected Area (MPA), the Key West National Wildlife Refuge in the Florida Keys. Hawksbills were found in hardbottom and seagrass dominated habitats throughout the Refuge, and on man-made rubble structures in the Northwest Channel near Cottrell Key. Hawksbills captured (N = 82) were exclusively juveniles and subadults with a straight standard carapace length (SSCL) ranging from 21.4 to 69.0cm with a mean of 44.1 cm (SD = 10.8). Somatic growth rates were calculated from 15 recaptured turtles with periods at large ranging from 51 to 1188 days. Mean SSCL growth rate was 7.7 cm/year (SD = 4.6). Juvenile hawksbills (<50 cm SSCL) showed a significantly higher growth rate (9.2 cm/year, SD = 4.5, N = 11) than subadult hawksbills (50-70 cm SSCL, 3.6 cm/year, SD = 0.9, N = 4). Analysis of 740 base pair mitochondrial control region sequences from 50 sampled turtles yielded 12 haplotypes. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different compared to four other Caribbean juvenile foraging aggregations, including one off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Many-to-one mixed stock analysis indicated Mexico as the primary source of juveniles in the region and also suggested that the Refuge may serve as important developmental habitat for the Cuban nesting aggregation. Serum testosterone radioimmunoassay results from 33 individuals indicated a female biased sex ratio of 3.3 females: 1 male for hawksbills in the Refuge. This assemblage of hawksbills is near the northern limit of the species range, and is one of only two such assemblages described in the waters of the continental United States. Since this assemblage resides in an MPA with intensive human use, basic information on the

  10. A Radar Survey of Lunar Dome Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Bussey, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The near side of the Moon has several areas with a high concentration of volcanic domes. These low relief structures are considerably different in morphology from terrestrial cinder cones, and some of the domes may be similar to some terrestrial shields formed through Hawaiian or Strombolian eruptions from a central pipe vent or small fissure [1]. The domes are evidence that some volcanic lavas were more viscous than the mare flood basalts that make up most of the lunar volcanic flows. It is still not known what types of volcanism lead to the creation of specific domes, or how much dome formation may have varied across the Moon. Prior work has shown that some domes have unusual radar polarization characteristics that may indicate a surface or subsurface structure that is different from that of other domes. Such differences might result from different styles of late-stage volcanism for some of the domes, or possibly from differences in how the erupted materials were altered over time (e.g. by subsequent volcanism or nearby cratering events). For example, many of the domes in the Marius Hills region have high circular polarization ratios (CPRs) in S-band (12.6 cm wavelength) and/or P-band (70 cm wavelength) radar data [2]. The high CPRs are indicative of rough surfaces, and suggest that these domes may have been built from overlapping blocky flows that in some cases have been covered by meters of regolith [2, 3]. In other cases, domes have low circular polarization ratios indicative of smooth, rock-poor surfaces or possibly pyroclastics. The 12 km diameter dome Manilius 1 in Mare Vaporum [1], has a CPR value of 0.20, which is significantly below values for the surrounding basalts [4]. To better understand the range of surface properties and styles of volcanism associated with the lunar domes, we are currently surveying lunar dome fields including the Marius Hills, Cauchy/Jansen dome field, the Gruithuisen domes, and domes near Hortensius and Vitruvius.

  11. Signal information available for plume source tracking with and without surface waves and learning by undergraduates assisting with the research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Megan Beth

    Autonomous vehicles have had limited success in locating point sources of pollutants, chemicals, and other passive scalars. However, animals such as stomatopods, a mantis shrimp, track odor plumes easily for food, mates, and habitat. Laboratory experiments using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence measured odor concentration downstream of a diffusive source with and without live stomatopods to investigate their source-tracking strategies in unidirectional and "wave-affected" (surface waves with a mean current) flows. Despite the dearth of signal, extreme temporal variation, and meandering plume centerline, the stomatopods were able to locate the source, especially in the wave-affected flow. Differences in the two plumes far from the source (>160 cm) appeared to help the animals in the wave-affected flow position themselves closer to the source (<70 cm) at times with relatively large amounts of odor and plume filaments of high concentration. At the height of the animals' antennules, the site of their primary chemosensors, the time-averaged Reynolds stresses in the two flows were approximately the same. The temporal variation in stresses over the wave cycle may be responsible for differences in the two plumes. The antennule height falls between a region of large peaks in Reynolds stress in phase with peaks in streamwise acceleration, and a lower region with a smaller Reynolds stress peak in phase with maximum shear during flow reversal. Six undergraduate students assisted with the research. We documented their daily activities and ideas on plume dispersion using open-ended interviews. Most of their time was spent on tasks that required no understanding of fluid mechanics, and there was little evidence of learning by participation in the RAship. One RA's conceptions of turbulence did change, but a group workshop seemed to support this learning more than the RAship. The documented conceptions could aid in curriculum design, since situating new information within current

  12. Data and Analysis Methods of the Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. D.; Simons, F. J.; Nolet, G.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present, for the first time, the results from pilot deployments of the Son-O-Mermaid project, an autonomously drifting, oceangoing data-collection platform that can be cheaply deployed without the need for a costly research vessel, and that records and transmits hydroacoustic signals (with a target of those generated by teleseismic earthquakes) in near real-time. Both deployments employ three identical hydrophones spaced about 70 cm apart at the end of a 700 m long cable attached to a surface buoy that houses electronics, communications, and a GPS location package. The maiden voyage occurred October 8, 2012, in Exuma Bay, Bahamas and returned 25 hours of acoustic data. A second deployment is to take place in September 2014, with near-immediate data relay via Iridium modem. The experimental setup is different from the MERMAID instrument, which sinks to a midcolumn depth and surfaces to transmit waveforms when an event detection algorithm is triggered. MERMAIDs have recorded hundreds of seismic traces from 18 active floats in the Indian and Mediterranean Oceans with a signal-to-noise ratio suitable for global tomography. As with earthquake early-warning studies, both Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID benefit from rapid and accurate event detection, discrimination, and measurement technology. With this triple purpose in mind we continue to improve methods (in the time-domain, via spectrogram analysis and using wavelets) that we illustrate on the latest and some of the older data, as well. While hydroacoustic data have numerous other applications beyond seismology (whale calls, ice calving, weather patterns, and so on) the Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID instruments may potentially revolutionize seismic data collection in the oceans. Moreover, in the near future they will be fitted with more or different instruments, becoming multipurpose and multidisciplinary platforms for all types of scientific research in and of the oceans. In seismology we envision a future when the

  13. The effects of yoga training and a single bout of yoga on delayed onset muscle soreness in the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Colleen A; Sayers, Stephen P; Jensen, Barbara E; Headley, Samuel A; Manos, Tina M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of yoga training and a single bout of yoga on the intensity of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). 24 yoga-trained (YT; n = 12) and non-yoga-trained (CON; n = 12), matched women volunteers were administered a DOMS-inducing bench-stepping exercise. Muscle soreness was assessed at baseline, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after bench-stepping using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Groups were also compared on body awareness (BA), flexibility using the sit-and-reach test (SR), and perceived exertion (RPE). Statistical significance was accepted at p

  14. Recent Deposition of Trace Metals to Central (Summit) Greenland as Recorded in 3-Meter Snow Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overdier, J.; Shafer, M.; Schauer, J.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Hagler, G.; Bergin, M.

    2007-12-01

    During the summer 2005 and 2006 field seasons at Summit (3270 m) Greenland we collected snow core samples for comprehensive geochemical characterization. This sampling effort was one facet of our larger program with the overall objective of improving our understanding of the sourcing and post depositional diagenesis of organic carbon depositing on the Greenland ice sheet. From snow pits of 3-meter depth, representing ~4 years of recent accumulation, detailed profiles of a suite of chemical variables were obtained, including: total and water soluble organic carbon, particulate organic and elemental carbon, inorganic ions, and comprehensive elemental and isotopic analysis. The elemental characterization supports our source reconciliation efforts in providing sub-seasonal data on aerosol particulate matter chemistry from which sourcing vectors can be inferred. Elemental and isotopic analyses on the melted snow cores were carried-out using high-resolution (sector-field) ICP-MS (Finnegan Element 2). A large suite of elements were quantified, including: the major/crustal elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe. Na, Mg, Si), minor crustal elements (Ba, Cs, Li, Rb, Sc, Sr, Ti) light transition metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn), heavy transition metals (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, W), oxyanion metals (As, Mo, U, V), platinum group metals (Rh, Pd, Pt), rare earths (Ce, Er, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Y, Yb), as well as, Be, Sb, Sn, sulfur and phosphorus. Very large (>30x) temporal variation in snow core concentrations were measured for Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, P, Rb, Sr, Ti, U, Zn and all the rare earths, while low variation (~5x) is observed for the elements As, Cd, Hg, Mo, S and Sn. The later group is representative of the more mobile, anthropogenically dominated/sourced trace metals. Principal crustal elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na) and sulfate (S) present similar profiles, with significant burial peaks in spring. Major burial peaks are relatively uniformly spaced (~70 cm apart), indicating some consistency

  15. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on maximal strength and strength endurance.

    PubMed

    Painelli, Vitor S; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Del-Favero, Serena; Benatti, Fabiana B; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Lancha, Antonio H

    2011-09-01

    It has been previously reported that carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse can improve exercise performance. The proposed mechanism involves increased activation of brain regions believed to be responsible for reward/motivation and motor control. Since strength-related performance is affected by central drive to the muscles, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that the positive CNS response to oral CHO sensing may counteract the inhibitory input from the muscle afferent pathways minimizing the drop in the central drive. The purpose of the current study was to test if CHO mouth rinse affects maximum strength and strength endurance performance. Twelve recreationally strength-trained healthy males (age 24.08 ± 2.99 years; height 178.09 ± 6.70 cm; weight 78.67 ± 8.17 kg) took part in the study. All of the tests were performed in the morning, after an 8 h overnight fasting. Subjects were submitted to a maximum strength test (1-RM) and a strength endurance test (six sets until failure at 70% of 1-RM), in separate days under three different experimental conditions (CHO mouth rinse, placebo-PLA mouth rinse and control-CON) in a randomized crossover design. The CHO mouth rinse (25 ml) occurred before every attempt in the 1-RM test, and before every set in the endurance strength test. Blood glucose and lactate were measured immediately before and 5 min post-tests. There were no significant differences in 1-RM between experimental conditions (CHO 101 ± 7.2 kg; PLA 101 ± 7.4 kg; CON 101 ± 7.2 kg; p = 0.98). Furthermore, there were no significance between trial differences in the number of repetitions performed in each set (p = 0.99) or the total exercise volume (number of repetitions × load lifted [kg]) (p = 0.98). A main effect for time (p < 0.0001) in blood lactate concentration was observed in both tests (1-RM and strength endurance). Blood glucose concentration did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, CHO mouth rinse does not affect maximum strength or strength

  16. Study of PET scanner designs using clinical metrics to optimize the scanner axial FOV and crystal thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surti, S.; Werner, M. E.; Karp, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the trade-off between crystal thickness and scanner axial field-of-view FOV (AFOV) for clinical PET imaging. Clinical scanner design has evolved towards 20-25 mm thick crystals and 16-22 cm long scanner AFOV, as well as time-of-flight (TOF) imaging. While Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that longer AFOV and thicker crystals will lead to higher scanner sensitivity, cost has prohibited the building of commercial scanners with >22 cm AFOV. In this study, we performed a series of system simulations to optimize the use of a given amount of crystal material by evaluating the impact on system sensitivity and noise equivalent counts (NEC), as well as image quality in terms of lesion detectability. We evaluated two crystal types (LSO and LaBr3) and fixed the total crystal volume used for each type (8.2 L of LSO and 17.1 L of LaBr3) while varying the crystal thickness and scanner AFOV. In addition, all imaging times were normalized so that the total scan time needed to scan a 100 cm long object with multiple bed positions was kept constant. Our results show that the highest NEC cm-1 in a 35 cm diameter ×70 cm long line source cylinder is achieved for an LSO scanner with 10 mm long crystals and AFOV of 36 cm, while for LaBr3 scanners, the highest NEC cm-1 is obtained with 20 mm long crystals and an AFOV of 38 cm. Lesion phantom simulations show that the best lesion detection performance is achieved in scanners with long AFOV (≥36 cm) and using thin crystals (≤10 mm of LSO and ≤20 mm of LaBr3). This is due to a combination of improved NEC, as well as improved lesion contrast estimation due to better spatial resolution in thinner crystals. Alternatively, for lesion detection performance similar to that achieved in standard clinical scanner designs, the long AFOV scanners can be used to reduce the total scan time without increasing the amount of crystal used in the scanner. In addition, for LaBr3 based scanners, the reduced lesion

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral Classes in Kapteyn areas 44-67 (Bartaya+, 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartaya, R. A.; Kharadze, E. K.

    2013-11-01

    The present catalogue is the second one of the four catalogues published according to programme of Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory of a massive two-dimensional MK classification of stars in 115 kapteyn Select Areas (KA) of Northen Sky. The catalogue lists the spectral types and luminosity classes for 5888 stars in 24 Kapteyn areas 44-67 through the declination circle of 30°. The catalogue is compiled on the basis of the spectral data obtained with the 70-cm meniscus telescope of Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory using the 8° objective prism (dispersion 166Å/mm near Hγ; in the short-wave region, the spectrum extends up to 3500Å). The field of the meniscus telescope is 4.5°x4.5°. The photo material is taken on Kodak IIa-O, hyper-sensitized Kodak IIIa-J and in order to detect also Hα emission stars and M, S, C type stars in the surveyed Kapteyn areas (KA), hyper-sensitized Kodak IIIa-F plates were also taken. A limiting apparent magnitude in V for stars in question is 12.5 photographic mag. and for M ones - 15.0mag. The catalogue contains 94 stars with peculiarities in the spectrum, in particular Ap, Am, BaII and composite spectrum stars, as well as 9 emission objects, 381 M-type, 16 C and a few S and WC stars. The data for all KA's are uniform not only in the sense of classification accuracy (the whole classification is done by one person - the author of the present catalogue), but also in the sense of penetration. The errors of our determinations are: +/-0.6 for spectral subtype and+/-0.5 for luminosity class. The stars in the KA's are arranged in the Catalogue by increasing right ascension. The stars are numbered according to zones of 1° in declination. The printed catalogue is provided with suitable stellar charts for separate KA's reproduced from the Lick Catalogue. The reference system on the charts refers to 1950 epoch and it is plotted according to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) catalogue. (1 data file).

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral Classes in Kapteyn areas 92-115 (Kharadze+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharadze, E. K.; Bartaya, R. A.; Chargeishvili, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    The present catalogue is the last one of the four catalogues published according to programme of Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory of a massive two-dimensional MK classification of stars in 115 kapteyn Select Areas (KA) of Northen Sky. The catalogue lists the spectral types and luminosity classes for 3880 stars in 23 Kapteyn areas 92-115 through the declination circle of 0°. KA 95 was skipped because of poor quality of observational data. The catalogue is compiled on the basis of the spectral data obtained with the 70-cm meniscus telescope of Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory using the 8° objective prism (dispersion 166Å/mm near Hγ; in the short-wave region, the spectrum extends up to 3500Å). The field of the meniscus telescope is 4.5°x4.5°. The photo material is taken on Kodak IIa-O, hyper-sensitized Kodak IIIa-J and in order to detect also Hα emission stars and M, S, C type stars in the surveyed KA's, hyper-sensitized Kodak IIIa-F plates were also taken. A limiting apparent magnitude in V for stars in question is 12.5 photographic mag. and for M ones - 15.0mag. The data for all KA's are uniform not only in the sense of classification accuracy (the whole classification is done by one person - the author of the present catalogue), but also in the sense of penetration. The errors of our determinations are: ±0.6 for spectral subtype and ±0.5 for luminosity class. The stars in the KA's are arranged in the Catalogue by increasing right ascension. The stars are numbered according to zones of 1° in declination. The printed catalogue is provided with suitable stellar charts for separate KA's reproduced from the Lick Catalogue. The reference system on the charts refers to 1950 epoch and it is plotted according to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) catalogue. (1 data file).

  19. The 2009 and 2010 eruptions and shallow intrusions at Piton de la Fournaise, La Réunion Island, seen by cGPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudacher, Thomas; Peltier, Aline; Boissier, Patrice; di Muro, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Piton de la Fournaise volcano at La Réunion Island in the western Indian Ocean is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Its average eruption rate over the last 2 centuries is one eruption every 9 months. Between 1998 and 2010 thirty eruptions occurred and produced some 300×106 m3 of lava flows. Since the 2007 collapse of 340 m of the Dolomieu caldera, the eruptive activity of the volcano changed with mainly the occurrence of numerous shallow intrusions preceding days or weeks small summit eruptions. In 2009-2010, Piton de la Fournaise erupted successively in November 5, December 14, 2009 and in January 2, 2010. The one day lasting November and December 2009 eruptions started from en echelon fissures close to the summit around its eastern and southern rims, respectively, whereas the January 2010 eruptive fissure opened on the western flank inside of the Dolomieu crater. These three eruptions produced less than 106 m3 of lava, but generated large ground deformation, of up to 70 cm, recorded by the cGPS network of the volcano observatory and by cinematic GPS measurements. The long term survey showed a small extent of the ground deformation field and the small ratios of base/summit displacements and vertical/horizontal displacements reveal the involvement of shallow dykes to fed these successive eruptions. The cGPS network allowed us to follow up precisely the pre eruptive ground deformations, the 40 to 90 minutes dyke propagation toward the surface, as well as the ground deformations after the vent opening. For the November and December 2009 eruptions, the dyke started below the western part of the Dolomieu crater, before propagating to the east and the south, respectively. For the January eruption, the dyke propagated along a more or less vertical pathway directly to the western part of the Dolomieu crater. The two previous dyke injections of November and December had increased the horizontal compressive stress of the eastern side of the Dolomieu

  20. Elevational trends in the fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen in throughfall in the southern Appalachian Mountains: some surprising results

    SciTech Connect

    Shubzda, John; Lindberg, Steven Eric; Garten Jr, Charles T; Nodvin, S.

    1995-12-01

    From 1986-1989, a team of scientists measured atmospheric concentrations and fluxes in precipitation and throughfall, and modeled dry and cloudwater deposition in a spruce-fir forest of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park which is located in the Southern Appalachian Region of the United States. The work was part of the Integrated Forest Study (IFS) conducted at 12 forests in N. America and Europe. The spruce-fir forest at 1740 m consistently received the highest total deposition rates ({approx}2200, 1200, and 700 eq ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +}). During the summers of 1989 and 1990 we used multiple samplers to measure hydrologie, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} fluxes in rain and throughfall events beneath spruce forests above (1940 m) and below (1720 m) cloud base. Throughfall was used to estimate total deposition using relationships determined during the IFS. Although the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} fluxes increased with elevation by a factor of 2 due to higher cloudwater interception at 1940 m, the NO{sub 3}{sup -} fluxes decreased with elevation by 30%. To investigate further, we began year round measurements of fluxes of all major ions in throughfall below spruce-fir forests at 1740 m and at 1920 m in 1993-1994. The fluxes of most ions showed a 10-50% increase with elevation due to the 70 cm yr{sup -1} cloudwater input at 1920 m. However, total inorganic nitrogen exhibited a 40% lower flux in throughfall at 1920 m than at 1740 m suggesting either higher dry deposition to trees at 1740 m or much higher canopy uptake of nitrogen by trees at 1920 m. Differential canopy absorption of N by trees at different elevations would have significant consequences for the use of throughfall N fluxes to estimate deposition. We used artificial trees to understand the foliar interactions of N.

  1. Malfunctions of Implantable Cardiac Devices in Patients Receiving Proton Beam Therapy: Incidence and Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Poenisch, Falk; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Sheu, Tommy; Chang, Joe Y.; Memon, Nada; Mohan, Radhe; Rozner, Marc A.; Dougherty, Anne H.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Photon therapy has been reported to induce resets of implanted cardiac devices, but the clinical sequelae of treating patients with such devices with proton beam therapy (PBT) are not well known. We reviewed the incidence of device malfunctions among patients undergoing PBT. Methods and Materials: From March 2009 through July 2012, 42 patients with implanted cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED; 28 pacemakers and 14 cardioverter-defibrillators) underwent 42 courses of PBT for thoracic (23, 55%), prostate (15, 36%), liver (3, 7%), or base of skull (1, 2%) tumors at a single institution. The median prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness; range 46.8-87.5 Gy), and the median distance from the treatment field to the CIED was 10 cm (range 0.8-40 cm). Maximum proton and neutron doses were estimated for each treatment course. All CIEDs were checked before radiation delivery and monitored throughout treatment. Results: Median estimated peak proton and neutron doses to the CIED in all patients were 0.8 Gy (range 0.13-21 Gy) and 346 Sv (range 11-1100 mSv). Six CIED malfunctions occurred in 5 patients (2 pacemakers and 3 defibrillators). Five of these malfunctions were CIED resets, and 1 patient with a defibrillator (in a patient with a liver tumor) had an elective replacement indicator after therapy that was not influenced by radiation. The mean distance from the proton beam to the CIED among devices that reset was 7.0 cm (range 0.9-8 cm), and the mean maximum neutron dose was 655 mSv (range 330-1100 mSv). All resets occurred in patients receiving thoracic PBT and were corrected without clinical incident. The generator for the defibrillator with the elective replacement indicator message was replaced uneventfully after treatment. Conclusions: The incidence of CIED resets was about 20% among patients receiving PBT to the thorax. We recommend that PBT be avoided in pacing-dependent patients and that patients with any type of CIED receiving thoracic PBT be followed closely.

  2. Surface Changes Observed at Greeley Haven during Opportunity's Fifth Martian Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Arvidson, R. E.; Herman, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    due to lighting variations with time. Further, several of these events compare favorably to minor dust cleaning episodes documented by the changes in power from the rover's solar cells. This is additional evidence for the influence of winds at both the surface boundary layer and the 70 cm elevation of the rover deck. Fig. 1. False-color scene of wheel tracks in front of rover (Sol 2882, P2551).

  3. STOCK AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND CORN-DERIVED SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN AGGREGATE AND PRIMARY PARTICLE FRACTIONS FOR DIFFERENT LAND USE AND SOIL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect

    Puget, P; Lal, Rattan; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, M; Owens, Lloyd

    2005-04-01

    Land use, soil management, and cropping systems affect stock, distribution, and residence time of soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, SOC stock and its depth distribution and association with primary and secondary particles were assessed in long-term experiments at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds near Coshocton, Ohio, through *13C techniques. These measurements were made for five land use and soil management treatments: (1) secondary forest, (2) meadow converted from no-till (NT) corn since 1988, (3) continuous NT corn since 1970, (4) continuous NT corn-soybean in rotation with ryegrass since 1984, and (5) conventional plow till (PT) corn since 1984. Soil samples to 70-cm depth were obtained in 2002 in all treatments. Significant differences in soil properties were observed among land use treatments for 0 to 5-cm depth. The SOC concentration (g C kg*1 of soil) in the 0 to 5-cm layer was 44.0 in forest, 24.0 in meadow, 26.1 in NT corn, 19.5 in NT corn-soybean, and 11.1 i n PT corn. The fraction of total C in corn residue converted to SOC was 11.9% for NT corn, 10.6% for NT corn-soybean, and 8.3% for PT corn. The proportion of SOC derived from corn residue was 96% for NT corn in the 0 to 5-cm layer, and it decreased gradually with depth and was 50% in PT corn. The mean SOC sequestration rate on conversion from PT to NT was 280 kg C ha*1 y*1. The SOC concentration decreased with reduction in aggregate size, and macro-aggregates contained 15 to 35% more SOC concentration than microaggregates. In comparison with forest, the magnitude of SOC depletion in the 0 to 30-cm layer was 15.5 Mg C/ha (24.0%) in meadow, 12.7 Mg C/ha (19.8%) in NT corn, 17.3 Mg C/ha (26.8%) in NT corn-soybean, and 23.3 Mg C/ha (35.1%) in PT corn. The SOC had a long turnover time when located deeper in the subsoil.

  4. A stable isotope study of water movements with typical vegetation cover in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Liang, Xing; Liu, Shaohua; Jin, Menggui; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotope 2H and 18O are often used as natural tracers in subsurface water pathways in semi-arid areas. The stable isotopic compositions in precipitation, soil water and groundwater were observed to assess the temporal variations in soil water flow at three sites covered by grass (Carex humili and Carex lanceolata) (site A), poplar (Ponulus hopeiensis) (site B) and winter wheat (Triticum asetivum) and summer maize (Zea mays) (site C) in the shallow groundwater area in the North China Plain (NCP) from April 2012 to October 2013. Precipitation isotopes resulted in a meteoric water line of δ2H =7.6δ18O -3.7 and showed a typical seasonal variation for δ2H (-98.9 to -13.3) and δ18O (-12.0 to -1.7). The seasonality in the shallow groundwater was further subdued due to the evaporation and mixing and diffusional exchange with stored water held in the soil pores within the unsaturated zone. Shallow groundwater was mainly recharged by precipitation in the rainy season. Soil water isotope profiles were sampled at depths of 10 cm down to 150 cm every 10 cm for the three sites. The vertical profiles of soil water δ18O showed large variations in the superficial 10 cm layer under the precipitation input and evapotranspiration effects. The soil water δ18O decreased and soil moisture increased with depth ( 70 cm) due to continuously evapotranspiration for the three sites though that at site B showed more positive δ18O values and smaller soil moisture than those at site A and C. The signal of individual rainstorm event in the summer with low δ18O values could be traced down to a depth of 40 cm that mixed with antecedent mobile soil water and to 120 cm due to a fast and direct preferential infiltration of the input rainwater that bypassed the upper soil layer at sites B and C. Keywords: stable isotopes; soil water pathways; groundwater recharge; North China Plain

  5. Long-term urodynamic evaluation of laparoscopic radical cystectomy with orthotopic ileal neobladder for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Li, Li-Jun; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Ming-Xing

    2014-09-01

    The long-term urodynamics of laparoscopic radical cystectomy with orthotopic ileal neobladder for bladder cancer remain unclear in the clinical setting. The present prospective observational study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012 to evaluate the 6-month and 12-month follow-up data of urodynamic changes of bladder cancer patients who were initially treated by laparoscopic radical cystectomy with orthotopic ileal neobladder. A total of 53 eligible patients were included, and all patients were followed up for at least 12 months, with a median time of 18 months. During the follow-up period, no patients reported difficulty urinating, and the daily frequency of urination and the urine output were gradually improved with time. Dynamic urodynamic examinations showed that the maximum flow rate (11.4±1.1 vs. 7.3±1.4 ml/sec; P<0.001), residual urine content (22.8±10.5 vs. 40.7±12.7 ml; P<0.001), maximum bladder capacity (373.8±62.2 vs. 229.7±56.3 ml; P<0.001) and maximum bladder pressure during filling (35.8±6.7 vs. 26.4±7.0 cm H2O; P<0.001) at 12 months were all improved significantly compared with that at 6 months after the initial surgical treatment. However, there were no significant differences in maximum bladder pressure during voiding (75.7±24.7 vs. 73.1±24.7 cm H2O; P=0.618) and bladder compliance (26.9±13 vs. 27.4±13.1 cm H2O; P=0.848) at 12 and 6 months after initial surgical treatment. In conclusion, the urodynamics of this orthotopic ileal neobladder gradually improve, and its long-term urine storage and voiding functions are acceptable. PMID:25120652

  6. How deep does disturbance go? The long-term effects of canopy disturbance on tropical forest soil biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez del Arroyo, O.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    We used the Canopy Trimming Experiment (CTE), an ongoing ecosystem manipulation study in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico to determine the decadal-scale effects of canopy disturbance and debris deposition on biogeochemistry throughout the soil profile of a wet tropical forest. These manipulations represent the most significant effects of hurricanes, which may increase in frequency or intensity with warming, strengthening their ecosystem-level effects on carbon (C) and nutrient cycling. Four replicated treatments were applied in 2005 using a complete randomized block design: canopy trimming + debris deposition, canopy trimming only, debris deposition only, and untreated control. In 2015, we sampled soils at 10 cm intervals to 1 m depth in each of 12 plots (3 per treatment). We measured gravimetric moisture content, pH, HCl and citrate-ascorbate (CA) extractable iron (Fe) species, organic (Po) and inorganic fractions of NaHCO3 and NaOH phosphorus (P), as well as total C and nitrogen (N). Soil moisture decreased markedly with depth up to ~60-70 cm, and then stabilized at ~33% down to 1 m. Across all treatments, pH increased significantly with depth, ranging from 4.6 in surface soils (0-10 cm) of trimmed plots to 5.2 in deep soils (80-90 cm) of control plots. Canopy trimming decreased pH significantly, possibly due to increased root activity in surface soils as vegetation recovered. Both HCl and CA extractable Fe showed strong depth dependance, decreasing linearly to 50 cm, and stabilizing at very low concentrations (<0.2 mg/g) down to 1 m. Inorganic P concentrations were low and did not vary significantly with depth. The majority of P was associated with organic matter, with significantly higher values in the upper soil profile (<50 cm). Debris deposition significantly increased Po, revealing the role of hurricanes in subsidizing the available soil P pool in these highly productive, low-P wet tropical forests. Debris deposition also increased soil C

  7. Directed assembly and characterization of 1D polymers based on [M(II)(BMA)]2+ node (M = Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn; BMA = N,N-bis (benzimidazol-2-yl-methyl)amine) with linear bridging dicyanamide and terephthalate ligands.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-Yuan; Xie, Cheng-Zhi; Xue, Fei; Hao, Lan-Fang; Ma, Zhong-Ying; Liao, Dai-Zheng; Yan, Shi-Ping

    2010-08-14

    The directed assembly of N,N-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl-methyl)amine (BMA) with Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) salts based on dicyanamide (mu(1,5)-dca) and terephthalate (mu-ta) linear bridging ligands, respectively, leads to four novel compounds: [Cu(BMA)(mu(1,5)-dca)(ClO(4))](n) (1), {[Mn(BMA)(mu(1,5)-dca)(CH(3)OH)] x ClO(4) x C(10)H(9)N(3)O x CH(3)OH}(n) (2), {[Ni(2)(BMA)(2)(mu-ta)(mu(1,5)-dca)] x ClO(4) x CH(3)OH x H(2)O}(n) (3), and {[Zn(2)(BMA)(2)(mu-ta)(mu(1,5)-dca)] x ClO(4) x CH(3)OH}(n) (4), which were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR, fluorescence spectroscopy, and magnetic measurement. X-Ray analysis revealed that 1 and 2 are two infinite 1D coordination polymers, in which dca units serving as an end-to-end out-of-plane bridge bring about linear chains for 1 and zigzag chains for 2. Complexes 3 and 4 are similar, in which the metal atoms are bridged alternately by terephthalate and mu(1,5)-dicyanamide ligands into 1D zigzag chains. In all these complexes, each BMA ligand adopts a tridentate chelating mode to coordinate with a transition metal forming a [M(BMA)](2+) node. Different rigidity bridging ligands together with the stereochemistry and supramolecular effects of benzimidazol planes may result in the dramatic structural changes from 1D to multidimensional networks for all 1-4. Fluorescent measurements established that, in solution, complex 3 displays weak blue luminescence which originates from the BMA but is significantly red-shifted and has a much lower emission intensity, compared to the free BMA ligand. Complex 4 shows stronger luminescence than 3 and still reduces luminescence efficiency compared to the free BMA ligand. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements (2-300 K) of 1 and 3 show the dominant weak ferromagnetic interactions between the copper(II) centers with J = 3.02 cm(-1), zJ' = -2.70 cm(-1) for 1, and the nickel(II) centers with J = 1.94 cm(-1), J'; = -0.38 cm(-1) for 3

  8. Rock Magnetic Properties of Laguna Carmen (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina): Implications for Paleomagnetic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogorza, C. G.; Orgeira, M. J.; Ponce, F.; Fernández, M.; Laprida, C.; Coronato, A.

    2013-05-01

    We report preliminary results obtained from a multi-proxy analysis including paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of two sediment cores of Laguna Carmen (53°40'60" S 68°19'0" W, ~83m asl) in the semiarid steppe in northern Tierra del Fuego island, Southernmost Patagonia, Argentina. Two short cores (115 cm) were sampled using a Livingstone piston corer during the 2011 southern fall. Sediments are massive green clays (115 to 70 cm depth) with irregularly spaced thin sandy strata and lens. Massive yellow clay with thin sandy strata continues up to 30 cm depth; from here up to 10 cm yellow massive clays domain. The topmost 10 cm are mixed yellow and green clays with fine sand. Measurements of intensity and directions of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), back field and anhysteretic remanent magnetization at 100 mT (ARM100mT) were performed and several associated parameters calculated (ARM100mT/k and SIRM/ ARM100mT). Also, as a first estimate of relative magnetic grain-size variations, the median destructive field of the NRM (MDFNRM), was determined. Additionally, we present results of magnetic parameters measured with vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability of the NRM was analyzed by alternating field demagnetization. The magnetic properties have shown variable values, showing changes in both grain size and concentration of magnetic minerals. It was found that the main carrier of remanence is magnetite with the presence of hematite in very low percentages. This is the first paleomagnetic study performed in lakes located in the northern, semiarid fuegian steppe, where humid-dry cycles have been interpreted all along the Holocene from an aeolian paleosoil sequence (Orgeira et el, 2012). Comparison between paleomagnetic records of Laguna Carmen and results obtained in earlier studies carried out at Laguna Potrok Aike (Gogorza et al., 2012

  9. Study on the Ancient Star Map Carved on the Stone in DPR Korea: Present Status and Prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Kim, Kyong Chol; Jong, Sok; Ji, Kwang Nam

    2015-08-01

    Korean Dolmens are the most distinctive and impressive megalithic monuments in Korean history. It has been known that Korean dolmens are typical funerary monuments of the New Stone Age and Bronze Age.We have searched and analyzed some Korean dolmens in astronomical aspects. Korean dolmen consists of two foundation stones, two dammed stones and one cover stone. Two foundation stones were put up on both sides and two small stones were dammed right and left so as to make a room for grave. Then tens of ton stone was covered on them. For example, one of the cover stones of Korean dolmens is 6.3m in length, 4m in width and 70cm in thickness. And the height of this dolmen is about 1.75m.More than twenty thousand dolmens are scattered around the Korean peninsula. Especially the Taedong River basin including Pyongyang that was a capital of Ancient Korea is the birthplace and centre of dolmens in our country, where about fourteen thousand dolmens are distributed. This region is of the highest density in terms of the distribution of dolmen and has every different kind of dolmens. Korean dolmen was very popular from BC.3000 to BC.2000 and began to disappear in the late BC.2000.It is interesting that we have found dolmens with star map on the cover stone. We found two hundred dolmens with various star atlas-like patterns of cup-marks. We analyzed the star maps on the cover stones of some dolmens and identified the constellations such as Big Dipper, Aquila, Cygnus, Draco and so on.It is thought that ancestor carved stars in the sky at that time on the cover stone of Korean dolmens, archaeological stone tombs. We also consider that Korean Dolmen is one of the oldest stone monuments relative to astronomy.We assume that there are many unidentified dolmens with star map on the cover stone and also many unexcavated dolmens in northern part of Korean peninsula yet, which are expected to arouse the great interest of astronomers and archaeologists.

  10. Akumal's reefs: stony coral communities along the developing Mexican Caribbean coastline.

    PubMed

    Roy, Roshan E

    2004-12-01

    Fringing coral reefs along coastlines experiencing rapid development and human population growth have declined worldwide because of human activity and of natural causes. The "Mayan Riviera" in Quintana Roo, México, attracts large numbers of tourists in part because it still retains some of the natural diversity and it is important to obtain baseline information to monitor changes over time in the area. In this paper, the condition of the stony corals in the developing coastline of the Akumal-area fore reefs is characterized at the start of the new millennium at two depths, and along an inferred sedimentation gradient. Transect surveys were conducted in five fringing reefs starting at haphazardly chosen points, with respect to species composition, live cover, colony density, relative exposure to TAS mats and, for one species (Diploria strigosa, Dana, 1848), tissue regression rates in the presence of TAS mats. Fish population density and herbivory rates are also assessed. Data from line intercept transects (n=74) show that live stony coral cover, density and relative peripheral exposure of colonies to turf algal/sediment (TAS) mats were inversely related to an inferred sediment stress gradient at 13m. In 2000, live stony coral cover had decreased by 40-50% at two sites studied in 1990 by Muñoz-Chagin and de la Cruz-Agüero (1993). About half of this loss apparently occurred between 1998 and 2000 during an outbreak of white plague disease that mostly affected Montastraea faveolata, and M. annularis. At a 13 m site, where inferred sedimentation rates are relatively high, time series photography of tagged Diploria strigosa, (n=38) showed an average loss of 70 cm2 of live tissue/coral/year to encroachment by TAS mats during the same period. Whereas densities of carnivorous fishes and herbivores (echinoids, scarids, acanthurids and Microspathodon chrysurus) in 2000 were low in belt transects at 10-19 m (n=106), turf-algal gardening pomacentrids were relatively common on

  11. Drilling the Largest Oceanic Detachment in the World: the Godzilla Mullion in the Parece Vela Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Okino, K.; Snow, J. E.; Salisbury, M.

    2003-12-01

    Recently discovered megamullions at slow-spreading ridges have been interpreted as exhumed footwalls of oceanic detachment faults in magma-starved ridge environments. These features are believed to result from extreme tectonic extension, and thus they are ideal to study processes of tectonic extension in oceanic lithosphere. In addition to tectonic issues, these features provide excellent tectonic windows to the lower crust and uppermost mantle. Drilling megamullion structures allows us to study tectonic processes, serpentinization and magnetization at shallow depth and mantle composition and fabrics at a deeper level. The largest megamullion structure in the world is the Godzilla Mullion in the extinct Parece Vela backarc basin, Philippine Sea. Recent reconnaissance studies by our group have revealed the following unique characteristics of this structure: (1) The Godzilla Mullion is huge, ˜ 10 times larger in area than megamullions identified so far on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). (2) The latest KR03-01 cruise dredged mantle peridotites (see Snow et al., this session) from entire length of the Godzilla Mullion (over 125 km), suggesting that an ultramafic exposure of some ˜ 7000 km2. (3) The Godzilla Mullion develops along the full along-strike length of the spreading segment. In the MAR, the megamullions normally develop at inside corners of ridge-transform intersections. (4) Peridotites from the Parece Vela Basin include very fertile lherzolites with spinel Cr# [Cr/(Cr+Al)] = ˜ 0.17. (5) The Godzilla Mullion was formed in a relatively fast intermediate-spreading environment with 7.0 cm/y full-rate. We may expect a relatively high magmatic budget in the fast/intermediate-spreading Parece Vela Basin, since a high magmatic budget is generally expected for a fast-spreading ridge. However, the characteristics noted above instead indicate a small degree of mantle melting. We suggest that these features may result from the characteristic ridge-transform geometry of short first-order segments sandwiched by closely-spaced fracture zones. We propose to drill the Godzilla Mullion using the IODP's non-riser platform, employing an offset drilling strategy. Although there may be uniqueness inherited from the characteristic ridge-transform geometry, we value the following two major merits of drilling the Godzilla Mullion: (1) The Godzilla Mullion is the nominally fastest megamullion in the world, providing a necessary bridge in observations of oceanic lithospheric processes between the existing and planned fast (i.e., Hess Deep) and slow spreading (i.e., MARK and 15-20 FZ) drill holes. (2) The length of the Godzilla Mullion ( ˜ 125 km) suggests that an unusually deep oceanic as yet unsampled mantle section may be exposed.

  12. Soil properties in high-elevation ski slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Freppaz, Michele; Letey, Stéphanie; Corti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Stefania; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    The development of winter sports determines an increasing impact on the high altitude ecosystems, as a consequence of increased participation and an increasing demand of high quality standards for skiable areas. The construction of a ski slope is associated with a certain impact on soil, which varies as a function of the degree of human-induced disturbance to the native substrata. In this work, we provide a description of the characteristics of alpine tundra ski-slope soils and their nutrient status, contrasted with undisturbed areas. The study site is located in the Monterosaski Resort, Aosta Valley, NW Italy (45°51' N; 7°48' E). We chose 5 sites along an altitudinal gradient between 2700 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Per each site, one plot was established on the ski slope, while a control plot was chosen under comparable topographic conditions a few meters apart. Soils were described and samples were collected and analysed for main chemical-physical properties. In addition an evaluation of N forms, organic matter fractionation and microbial biomass was carried out. Soil depth ranged between 10 to more than 70 cm, both on the ski slope and in the undisturbed areas. A true organo-mineral (A) horizon was firstly identified at 2500 m a.s.l., while a weathering horizon (Bw) was detected at 2400 m a.s.l.. However, a Bw horizon thick enough to be recognised as diagnostic for shifting soil classification order from Entisols to Inceptisols (USDA-Soil Taxonomy) was detected only below 2400 m a.s.l.. Lithic Cryorthents were predominant in the upper part of the sequence (above 2500 m a.s.l.), both in the ski slope and the undisturbed areas; Typic Cryorthents were identified between 2500 and 2400 m a.s.l., while Inceptisols were predominant between 2400 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Chemical-physical properties will be discussed focusing on the main differences between ski slope and undisturbed soils, as determined by the ski slope construction. Pedogenetic processes at high altitude are

  13. Fine-grained impact ejecta on the Moon: Views from Earth-based radar and the LRO Diviner thermal mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, R. R.; Koziar, J.; Paige, D. A.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this work is to use Diviner thermal mapper observations to constrain the surface block populations of fine-grained impact ejecta on the Moon. The statistical distribution of rocks in impact ejecta deposits is important because it constrains the processes by which fragmentary impact debris is produced and subsequently deposited on the surface. Earth-based radar observations have revealed meters-thick haloes of material depleted in blocks 1cm and greater in diameter, surrounding nearside impact craters. Radar observations allow characterization of the bulk properties of the upper ~10m of material, but do not yield direct information about the surface rock distribution. Diviner’s four thermal infrared channels, ranging from 12.5 to 200 microns, provide the means to investigate variations in surface thermophysical properties between impact ejecta and surrounding regolith. In this paper, we will report on comparisons between Diviner thermal infrared and Earth-based radar observations for nearside craters with radar-dark, fine-grained ejecta haloes. The brightness temperature of the lunar surface as measured by Diviner is a function of albedo, emissivity, and thermal inertia, and the bulk thermal inertia of a given mixture of soil and rocks varies with rock fraction. The resulting differences in brightness temperature are most pronounced during the night, and the particular way in which the temperature varies with rock fraction depends on the soil emissivity. The spatial resolution of the Diviner measurements (320 m / pixel) is close to that of existing 70-cm wavelength radar images (at 400 m / pixel), which facilitates comparison between the two data sets. Preliminary work indicates that radar-bright, blocky ejecta close to crater rims show higher pre-dawn brightness temperatures than either more distal fine ejecta or background regolith, and the location of the transition correlates closely between the two data sets. Current work is focused on extending

  14. Experimental assessment of out-of-field dose components in high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    M Alabdoaburas, Mohamad; Mege, Jean-Pierre; Chavaudra, Jean; Vũ Bezin, Jérémi; Veres, Atilla; De Vathaire, Florent; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to experimentally investigate the out-of-field dose in a water phantom, with several high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy (RT). The study was carried out for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV electron beams, on three different linear accelerators, each equipped with a specific applicator. Measurements were performed in a water phantom, at different depths, for different applicator sizes, and off-axis distances up to 70 cm from beam central axis (CAX). Thermoluminescent powder dosimeters (TLD-700) were used. For given cases, TLD measurements were compared to EBT3 films and parallel-plane ionization chamber measurements. Also, out-of-field doses at 10 cm depth, with and without applicator, were evaluated. With the Siemens applicators, a peak dose appears at about 12-15 cm out of the field edge, at 1 cm depth, for all field sizes and energies. For the Siemens Primus, with a 10 × 10 cm(²) applicator, this peak reaches 2.3%, 1%, 0.9% and 1.3% of the maximum central axis dose (Dmax) for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron beams, respectively. For the Siemens Oncor, with a 10 × 10 cm(²) applicator, this peak dose reaches 0.8%, 1%, 1.4%, and 1.6% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 14 MeV, respectively, and these values increase with applicator size. For the Varian 2300C/D, the doses at 12.5 cm out of the field edge are 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.5%, and 1.1% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV, respectively, and increase with applicator size. No peak dose is evidenced for the Varian applicator for these energies. In summary, the out-of-field dose from electron beams increases with the beam energy and the applicator size, and decreases with the distance from the beam central axis and the depth in water. It also considerably depends on the applicator types. Our results can be of interest for the dose estimations delivered in healthy tissues outside the treatment field for the RT patient, as well as in studies exploring RT long-term effects. PMID:26699572

  15. Spatial variation in recruitment of native and invasive sessile species onto oyster reefs in a temperate soft-bottom lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. S.; Silliman, B. R.; McGlathery, K. J.

    2007-03-01

    Although spatial variability in recruitment is a strong force structuring many marine communities, relatively few data exist on recruitment variability in sessile oyster reef communities. In a soft-bottom lagoon in Virginia, we tested if recruitment differed among three reefs situated across a mainland-lagoon-barrier-island transect and among elevations (>90-80, >80-70, >70-55 and >55-20 cm below MSL) on the lagoon reef. The most abundant taxa (the invasive algae Gracilaria vermiculophylla and Codium fragile and the indigenous oyster Crassostrea virginica and algae Ulva curvata) had highest recruitment at the lagoon reef, where propagule supply was likely highest. The mainland reef had lowest algal richness (1.4-3.1 panel -1) and abundances (<4% cover) compared to lagoon and island reefs (3.3-6.5 panel -1, 14-20%), but there were no differences between sites for animals. Overall, animals and algae were equally dominant at the mainland reef, whereas algae dominated at lagoon and island reefs. High water turbidity and suspended solids are typical algal stressors at mainland reefs, and these may account for the low algal abundance in that region. For many species (at least 9 out of 14) differences in recruitment success were observed over elevation differences as small as 10-30 cm, e.g. G. vermiculophylla and C. fragile mainly recruited up to >70-55 and >80-70 cm respectively (probably limited upward by desiccation), U. curvata down to >70-55 cm (probably limited downward by grazing or competition), whereas C. virginica recruited at all elevations. Animal richness was highest at the two lowest elevations (2.0-2.5 vs. 1.1-1.8 panel -1), but there was no effect of elevation on algae (3-6 panel -1) because of species substitutions between elevation levels. Thus, as in rocky intertidal systems, spatial variability in recruitment is important for community structure on oyster reefs, and if biodiversity is considered an important reef conservation goal, managers should

  16. Synovial sarcoma involving the head: analysis of 36 cases with predilection to the parotid and temporal regions.

    PubMed

    Al-Daraji, Wael; Lasota, Jerzy; Foss, Robert; Miettinen, Markku

    2009-10-01

    Synovial sarcoma involving the head is rare, and data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of such tumors are scant. In this study, we examined 36 synovial sarcomas of the head excluding tumors in the oral cavity, sinonasal tract, submandibular area, neck, and intracranial space. There were 19 men and 17 women with a mean age of 35 years (range: 4 to 85 y). There was a marked predilection for the parotid (n=14) and temporal regions (n=9), and cheek (n=4). Other locations included mastoid area (n=2), infratemporal fossa (n=2), and one each from the supra-auricular scalp, maxillary, submaxillary, mandibular, and nasolabial regions. Histologically, 25 examples were of monophasic type, 10 were biphasic. Five of these cases contained a poorly differentiated Ewing sarcoma-like component and 1 was purely poorly differentiated. Histologically, 9 tumors involved skeletal muscle, 4 parotid gland (focally or in the interlobular septa), and 1 intertrabecular spaces of bone; the others involved subcutis or fascia and rarely skin. The tumor size ranged from 0.6 to 7.0 cm (median: 3.5 cm) and mitotic activity varied from <1 to 85 per 10 high-power fields (HPFs) (median, 6/10 HPFs). Keratin-positive tumor cells were detected in 19 of 19 monophasic and 1 of 1 of poorly differentiated tumors that were examined. SS18 gene rearrangement was confirmed in all 14 cases examined (3 biphasic and 11 monophasic tumors). Follow-up on 29 patients revealed that 11 were alive without disease from 2 to 31 years (median, 14 y). Ten patients died of disease 1 to 18 years after the diagnosis (median, 3 y); most of these patients had a tumor >5 cm and 6 of 10 had mitotic counts >10/10 HPFs. One patient died of an unrelated cause (metastatic melanoma) and 7 died of unknown causes. Four other patients had subsequent malignancies, including carcinomas of the breast, esophagus, rectum, and parotid gland. The latter was possibly radiation-induced, diagnosed 30 years after the synovial sarcoma. Synovial sarcoma of the head has a striking predilection for the parotid and temporal regions and the prognosis varies with many patients having long tumor-free survivals. PMID:19623036

  17. Effect of group size and maize silage dietary levels on behaviour, health, carcass and meat quality of Mediterranean buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Masucci, F; De Rosa, G; Barone, C M A; Napolitano, F; Grasso, F; Uzun, P; Di Francia, A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different dietary levels of maize silage (10% v. 36% DM) and group size (7 v. 14 animals) were assessed on growth performance and in vivo digestibility of 28 male fattening buffaloes. In addition, the effects of diet on meat quality and group size on behaviour and immune response were separately evaluated. Animals were weighed and assigned to three groups. The high silage - low size group (HL) was fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 36% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 12.7±2.6 months; BW 382.2±67.7 kg at the start of the study). The low silage - low size group (LL) was fed a TMR containing 10% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 13.0±2.7 months; BW 389.4±72.3 kg). The high silage - high size group (HH) was fed the 36% maize silage DM diet and consisted of 14 animals (age 13.9±3.25 months; BW 416.5±73.9 kg). Total space allowance (3.2 indoor+3.2 outdoor m2/animal) was kept constant in the three groups, as well as the ratio of animals to drinkers (seven animals per water bowl) and the manger space (70 cm per animal). Growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestibility were influenced neither by dietary treatment nor by group size, even if the group fed 36% maize silage diet showed a higher fibre digestibility. No effect of diet was found on meat quality. Group size did not affect the behavioural activities with the exception of drinking (1.04±0.35% v. 2.60±0.35%; P<0.01 for groups HL and HH, respectively) and vigilance (2.58±0.46% v. 1.20±0.46%; P<0.05 for groups HL and HH, respectively). Immune responses were not affected by group size. PMID:26549768

  18. Of the necessity of knowledge of the natural pedo-geochemical background content in the evaluation of the contamination of soils by trace elements.

    PubMed

    Baize, D; Sterckeman, T

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination of the Dornach (Switzerland) site within the framework of the CEEM-Soil project, each participating team was allowed to take a maximum of 15 samples. The French team's sampling was organized in such a way as to answer the following questions: (i) what is the natural concentration of the soils at this site (local pedo-geochemical background content)?; (ii) what are the levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn contamination of the soil?; (iii) what is the depth reached by the surface contamination that is derived from atmospheric fallout?; (iv) how is the contamination spread along the longest axis of the area under study? The relationships between total Fe and the trace metals have allowed local variations in the natural pedo-geochemical background content to be detected and thus permitted the anthropogenic contamination to be estimated. There would appear to be a low level of Pb contamination over all the site investigated (an increase of the order of 5-10 mg kg(-1) on the background level), limited to the surface humus-bearing layers. There is also a significant contamination by Cu over all of the site (an increase of the order of 30-40 mg kg(-1)). This contamination has remained in the surface horizons (0-20 cm). Very high Zn and Cd concentrations have been found in the four surface (0-4 cm) and deep horizons (15-70 cm) taken under the forest and very much lower values in the samples taken from cultivated soils. The most likely explanation is an unequal inheritance between the upper part of the site (wooded with thinner very clayey soils) and the lower cultivated part of the site (with thicker less clayey soils developed in a loamy material). For various reasons, it seems unlikely that a contamination of the wooded part should be so much higher than the cultivated part due to the interception of atmospheric dust by the trees. The local pedo-geochemical background Cd and Zn content of the upper wooded part proved to be clearly higher than

  19. Hydro-isostatic deflection and tectonic tilting in the central Andes: Initial results of a GPS survey of Lake Minchin shorelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.; De Silva, Shanaka L.; Currey, Donald R.; Emenger, Robert S.; Lillquist, Karl D.; Donnellan, Andrea; Worden, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Sufficiently large lake loads provide a means of probing rheological stratification of the crust and upper mantle. Lake Minchin was the largest of the late Pleistocene pluvial lakes in the central Andes. Prominent shorelines, which formed during temporary still-stands in the climatically driven lake level history, preserve records of lateral variations in subsequent net vertical motions. At its maximum extent the lake was 140 m deep and spanned 400 km N-S and 200 km E-R. The load of surficial water contained in Lake Minchin was sufficient to depress the crust and underlying mantle by 20-40 m, depending on the subjacent rheology. Any other differential vertical motions will also be recorded as departures from horizontality of the shorelines. We recently conducted a survey of shoreline elevations of Lake Minchin with the express intent of monitoring the hydro-isostatic deflection and tectonic tilting. Using real-time differential Global Positioning System (GPS), we measured topographic profiles across suites of shorelines at 15 widely separated locations throughout the basin. Horizontal and vertical accuracies attained are roughly 30 and 70 cm, respectively. Geomorphic evidence suggests that the highest shoreline was occupied only briefly (probably less than 200 years) and radiocarbon dates on gastropod shells found in association with the shore deposits constrain the age to roughly 17 kyr. The basin-side pattern of elevations of the highest shoreline is composed of two distinct signals: (27 +/- 1) m of hydro-isostatic deflection due to the lake load, and a planar tilt with east and north components of (6.8 +/- 0.4) 10(exp -5) and 9-5.3 +/- 0.3) 10(exp -5). This rate of tilting is too high to be plausibly attributed to steady tectonism, and presumably reflects some unresolved combination of tectonism plus the effects of oceanic and lacustrine loads on a laterally heterogeneous substrate. The history of lake level fluctuations is still inadequately known to allow

  20. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  1. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

    PubMed Central

    Wibroe, Elisabeth A.; Yri, Hanne M.; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Wibroe, Morten A.; Hamann, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP) of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with IIH. Methods We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred on suspicion of IIH from 2011–2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson’s diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after three months of treatment. Osmolality was measured with a Vapor Pressure Osmometer. Results We collected 90 CSF samples from 38 newly diagnosed patients and 28 controls. At baseline 27 IIH-samples and at 3 months follow-up 35 IIH-samples were collected from patients. We found no significant differences in osmolality between 1) patients at baseline and controls (p = 0. 86), 2) patients at baseline and after 3 months treatment (p = 0.97), and 3) patients with normalized pressure after 3 months and their baseline values (p = 0.79). Osmolality in individuals with normal ICP from 6–25 cmH2O (n = 41) did not differ significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26–45 cmH2O (n = 21) (p = 0.86) and patients with high ICP from 46–70 cmH2O (n = 4) (p = 0.32), respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95% confidence interval 267–272) for both patients and controls. Conclusions CSF osmolality was normal in patients with IIH, and there was no relation to treatment, ICP, BMI, age and body height. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg and constitutes a reference for future studies. Changes in CSF osmolality are not responsible for development of IIH. Other underlying pathophysiological mechanisms must be searched. PMID:26808050

  2. a Numerical Study of Cloud and Precipitation Processes in Mesoscale Rainbands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Steven Allan

    Field studies conducted during the University of Washington's CYCLES PROJECT have investigated the dynamical and microphysical processes operating in mesoscale rainbands within extratropical cyclones. Conceptual models of the cloud and precipitation mechanisms present in the various types of rainbands have been developed. The test these conceptual models, a numerical modeling study was undertaken. The numerical simulations centered on warm-frontal rainbands, characterized by a "seeder-feeder" process, and the convective -like narrow cold-frontal rainband. The warm-frontal rainband simulations were divided into two categories based on the observed vertical motions in the feeder zone. In the first category (TYPE 1), the vertical air motions are typical of those associated with the widespread lifting in the vicinity of warm fronts ((TURN)10 cm s('-1)). In the second category (TYPE 2), the vertical motions are stronger ((TURN)70 cm s('-1)). In the TYPE 1 situation the growth of "seed" ice crystals within the feeder zone occurs through vapor deposition. In the TYPE 2 case, seed ice crystals grow by accreting cloud water. In both cases the seed ice crystals provide the necessary particles for the efficient removal of condensate in the feeder zone. The model simulations for the narrow cold-frontal rainband are also divided into two categories. In the first category (non-embedded case) the narrow cold-frontal rainband is considered to be independent of any surrounding precipitation. In the second case (considered more realistic), the narrow cold-frontal rainband is embedded within a region of stratiform precipitation. In the non-embedded case, graupel develops when frozen raindrops grow rapidly by accreting cloud water within the updraft region. In the embedded case snow particles (originating in the stratiform clouds) are swept into the updraft region and are converted rapidly to graupel through riming. The efficient removal of cloud water by snow particles entering the

  3. Physical properties of transparent perovskite oxides (Ba,La)SnO3 with high electrical mobility at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Useong; Kim, Tai Hoon; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Hoon Min; Jeon, Byung-Gu; Lee, Woong-Jhae; Mun, Hyo Sik; Hong, Kwang Taek; Yu, Jaejun; Char, Kookrin; Kim, Kee Hoon

    2012-10-01

    Transparent electronic materials are increasingly in demand for a variety of optoelectronic applications, ranging from passive transparent conductive windows to active thin-film transistors. BaSnO3 is a semiconducting oxide with a large band gap of more than 3.1 eV. Recently, we discovered that BaSnO3 doped with a few percent of La exhibits an unusually high electrical mobility of 320cm2V-1s-1 at room temperature and superior thermal stability at high temperatures [H. J. Kim , Appl. Phys. ExpressAPECE41882-077810.1143/APEX.5.061102 5, 061102 (2012)]. Following that paper, here, we report various physical properties of (Ba,La)SnO3 single crystals and epitaxial films including temperature-dependent transport and phonon properties, optical properties, and first-principles calculations. We find that almost doping-independent mobility of 200-300cm2V-1s-1 is realized in the single crystals in a broad doping range from 1.0×1019 to 4.0×1020 cm-3. Moreover, the conductivity of ˜104Ω-1cm-1 reached at the latter carrier density is comparable to the highest value previously reported in the transparent conducting oxides. We attribute the high mobility to several physical properties of (Ba,La)SnO3: a small effective mass coming from the ideal Sn-O-Sn bonding in a cubic perovskite network, small disorder effects due to the doping away from the SnO6 octahedra, and reduced carrier scattering due to the high dielectric constant. The observation of the reduced mobility of ˜70cm2V-1s-1 in the epitaxial films is mainly attributed to additional carrier scattering due to dislocations and grain boundaries, which are presumably created by the lattice mismatch between the substrate SrTiO3 and (Ba,La)SnO3. The main optical gap coming from the charge transfer from O 2p to Sn 5s bands in (Ba,La)SnO3 single crystals remained at about 3.33 eV, and the in-gap states only slightly increased, thus, maintaining optical transparency in the visible spectral region. Based on all these results, we

  4. Fundamental and statistical characteristics of experimental geyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Toramaru, A.

    2009-12-01

    The geyser experiment as an interesting analogue system is useful in order to understand not only the mechanism of natural geyser but also the behavior of volcanoes such as eruption styles, erupted mass, reposed times and so on. We carried out geyser experiments using a simple experimental setup consisting of a heater (hotplate), flask, glass tubes, and water tank to reproduce the periodicity of natural geyser. For convenience, we fist make definition of eruption styles and of key variables;“jet”is an event that water vigorously spouts from the vent,“outflow”is an event that water flows from the vent without splash,“period”is the time interval between onsets of sequential eruptions, “duration”is the time lasting eruptions, and“interval”is the time from the end of eruption to the onset of next one. We automatically (or manually for some cases) measured the mass of erupted water for each eruption and the period by using the electronic balance connected to P.C. with varying experimental parameters; the initial water level (60, 65, 70 cm; total glass tube length is 84 cm), the insertion (the length of supplying tube inserted into the flask; 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) and temperature of the hot plate (280, 340, 395 degrees Celsius). From experiments, we obtained following results; (a) a condition whether jet can occur or not depends on the initial water level and insertion, (b) there is a positive correlation between periods and the mass of water erupted by preceding eruption (i.e., time predictable system), (c) there is a negative correlation between the period and the temperature of hot plate, (d) the relation between elapsed time and accumulated mass of erupted water is roughly linear. In order to understand the cause of result (b), we examined a simple model on the basis of mass and energy conservations with some assumptions. As the result, the period predicted by the model is successfully consistent with measured ones at the first order. Fluctuative

  5. Paleoseismological investigation offshore eastern Sicily and Calabria (Ionian Sea) and possible origin of megaturbidites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, M. A.; San Pedro, L.; Babonneau, N.; Cattaneo, A.

    2014-12-01

    E Sicily and Calabria have been repeatedly struck by destructive historical earthquakes and tsunamis (1693 Catania M7.4, 1908 Messina 7.2). The latter triggered a submarine landslide and turbidity current that ruptured submarine cables. We present the preliminary results of a paleoseismological investigation on a set of deep marine sediment cores from the Ionian Sea acquired during the CIRCEE survey (R/V Le Suroit in Oct. 2013). The objective is to improve our understanding of the chronology and origin of large catastrophic events, which have affected the area. One of the thickest and well known deposits is the up to 10-12 m thick Augias "homogenite" (or megaturbidite) which covers the entire floor of the Ionian abyssal plain and represents a volume of ~100km3. The origin of this deposit once thought to be associated to the Santorini collapse event dated at 3.5 ka (Cita et al., 1996) is enigmatic and more recent work suggests it may have been caused by the 365 AD Crete mega-thrust earthquake (Polonia et al., 2013) In order to better understand the extreme events that led to such deposits in the Ionian abyssal plain and along the Sicily/ Malta slope, our study aims to correlate the megaturbidites observed in the slope and in the deep Ionian basin by CHIRP echosounder profiles and sedimentary facies analysis. Seismic profiles show several superposed acoustically transparent units identified as megaturbidites. The Augias megaturbidite was completely sampled in 6 new cores. An older megaturbidite, possibly the Deeper Transparent Layer (DTL), is also sampled in 3 new cores. Geochemical signatures, thicknesses and grain sizes show wide variability for the same deposit among the cores. For example, the thickness of the Augias deposit varies between 70 cm and 605 cm, and the lithology and sedimentary structures of the base of the deposit is also highly variable, ranging from massive and laminated medium sand to silty-clay. For the two megaturbidites described in the cores

  6. Gas hydrates in shallow deposits of the Amsterdam mud volcano, Anaximander Mountains, Northeastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Thomas; Kasten, Sabine; Zabel, Matthias; Bahr, André; Abegg, Friedrich; Hohnberg, Hans-Jürgen; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    We investigated gas hydrate in situ inventories as well as the composition and principal transport mechanisms of fluids expelled at the Amsterdam mud volcano (AMV; 2,025 m water depth) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Pressure coring (the only technique preventing hydrates from decomposition during recovery) was used for the quantification of light hydrocarbons in near-surface deposits. The cores (up to 2.5 m in length) were retrieved with an autoclave piston corer, and served for analyses of gas quantities and compositions, and pore-water chemistry. For comparison, gravity cores from sites at the summit and beyond the AMV were analyzed. A prevalence of thermogenic light hydrocarbons was inferred from average C1/C2+ ratios <35 and δ13C-CH4 values of -50.6‰. Gas venting from the seafloor indicated methane oversaturation, and volumetric gas-sediment ratios of up to 17.0 in pressure cores taken from the center demonstrated hydrate presence at the time of sampling. Relative enrichments in ethane, propane, and iso-butane in gas released from pressure cores, and from an intact hydrate piece compared to venting gas suggest incipient crystallization of hydrate structure II (sII). Nonetheless, the co-existence of sI hydrate can not be excluded from our dataset. Hydrates fill up to 16.7% of pore volume within the sediment interval between the base of the sulfate zone and the maximum sampling depth at the summit. The concave-down shapes of pore-water concentration profiles recorded in the center indicate the influence of upward-directed advection of low-salinity fluids/fluidized mud. Furthermore, the SO{4/2-} and Ba2+ pore-water profiles in the central part of the AMV demonstrate that sulfate reduction driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane is complete at depths between 30 cm and 70 cm below seafloor. Our results indicate that methane oversaturation, high hydrostatic pressure, and elevated pore-water activity caused by low salinity promote fixing of considerable

  7. A long term study of Centaur 174P/Echeclus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, Philippe; Korsun, Pavlo; Kulyk, Irina; Petit, Jean-Marc; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Centaur 174P/Echeclus was discovered by the Spacewatch program on March 3, 2000 and initially labelled (60558) 2000 EC 98 . On December 30, 2005, a surprising cometary outburst was discovered with the 5-m Mount Palomar Observatory telescope. This outburst corresponded to a change in the overall visual magnitude from about 21 to about 14. At that time (60558) 2000 EC 98 was located at 13.07 au to the Sun and was subsequently renamed with a cometary designation. This outburst lasted a few months and, one year later, no coma could be detected. Another secondary outburst happened in 2011 and lasted also a few months. This target was at its perihelion (5.82 au) on April 22, 2015.We present new observational data obtained with the 2.5-m Nordic Optical Telescope during the 2011 outburst and in July 2013, and with the robotic 2-m Liverpool telescope on April 27, 2014, August 13, 2014 and June 1, 2015. We also found archive observational data obtained on December 22, 2005.These archive images point out the extremely high level of the 174P/Echeclus activity during the first outburst. The R-magnitude and Afrho parameter of the target were estimated to 14.8 and 56000±3000 cm respectively. During the second outburst, in 2011, the activity level of the Centaur was lower, the R-Afrho parameters were 1200±100 cm and 480±70 cm in June and July respectively. The dust production rates needed to produce the observed comae were approximately 700 kg.s-1 in 2005 and between 10 and 20 kg.s-1 in 2011 assuming the average grain geometric albedo of 0.1 and low outflow velocities of the dust, less than 10 m.s-1. A possible scenario of the dust coma formation for the first outburst will also be proposed using a Monte Carlo modeling.Before the outburst the lightcurve amplitude was 0.24 magnitude in the R-band with a rotation period of 26.80 h (if a double-peaked lightcurve is assumed). The observational data obtained after the outburst with the NOT do not permit to detect any clear variation

  8. Estimating surface roughness using stereophotogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, V.; Krasa, J.

    2009-04-01

    At the Department of Drainage, Irrigation and Landscape Engineering (CTU Prague) we use several mathematical models for soil erosion, sediment transport and surface runoff assessment. Here we continuously struggle for successful models parameterizations. One of the typical coefficients usually taken from literature instead of measurements is surface roughness, eg. Manning roughness (Maidment, 1993). Roughness is a key to surface runoff velocity and surface runoff depth estimation but often it is very roughly estimated. Within the COST 22 Action research we focused on estimating actual surface roughness using stereophotogrammetry. Our aim was to set up a simple low cost system useful for roughness measurements in nature conditions - mainly on agricultural fields. Our system consists of Canon EOS 400 digital camera with angle viewfinder, two robust tripods and a horizontal bar with sliding 3D tripod head. We tested different camera heights and focal distances as well as various parallaxes to obtain reasonable results. Finally we shot the surfaces from 1600 millimeters with 24 and 35 mm lens and parallaxes close to 100 mm. For 3D scene development we use Geomatica 10 GIS and its OrthoEngine module. Testing the proper system and many variables of the 3D scene modelling was an important part of the first year of the project. For these purposes we first prepared a calibrated and known 3D surface consisting of 70 by 70 cm grid and several geometrical objects of different sizes and shapes. Preparing the correct lighting conditions, finding the resolving power of the system and solving the problems with low contrast areas of measured surfaces was a time consuming but interesting task. After the system calibration we started with the actual terrain measurements. Our setup, system testing and preliminary results of the roughness computations are presented on the poster. Acknowledgement This research was acomplished within national COST project OC189 „Flood risk and its

  9. Transport of Alachlor, Atrazine, Dicamba, and Bromide through Silt and Loam Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The herbicides alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba, as well as bromide were applied to soils overlying the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska, to both macropore and non-macropore sites. Three of 6 study areas (exhibiting a high percentage of macropores) were used for analysis of chemical transport. Twelve intact soil cores (30 cm diameter; 40 cm height), were excavated (two each from 0-40 cm and 40-80 cm depths). The first three study areas and soil cores were used to study preferential flow characteristics using dye staining and to determine hydraulic properties; the remaining cores were treated the same as field macropore sites. Two undisturbed experimental field plots, each with a 1 m2 surface area, were established in each of the three macropore study areas. Each preferential plot was instrumented with suction lysimeters, tensiometers, and neutron access tubes - 10 cm increments to 80 cm - and planted in corn. Three study areas that did not exhibit macropores had alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba and bromide disked into the top 15 cm of soil; concentrations were tracked for 120 days - samples were collected on a grid, distributed within 3 plots measuring 50 m x 50 m each. Core samples were collected prior to and immediately after application, and then at 30, 60, and 120 days after application. Each lab core sample was in 15-cm lengths from 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 45-60 cm, and 75-90 cm. For areas exhibiting macropores, herbicides had begun to move between 10-15 days after application with concentrations peaking at various depths after heavy rainfall events. Field lysimeter samples showed increases in concentrations of herbicides at depths where laboratory data indicated greater percentages of preferential flowpaths. Concentrations of atrazine, alachlor and dicamba exceeding 0.30, 0.30, and 0.05 μg m1-1 respectively were observed with depth (10-30 cm and 50-70 cm) after two months following heavy rainfall events indicating that preferential flowpaths were a significant

  10. Soil abandonment in artificial soil terraces in marginal areas. Preliminary results of a case of water shortage effect in soils from Sultanate of Oman.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Sara Kalifah Al; Kindi, Samaya Salim Al; Pracejus, Bernhard; Moraetis, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Soil abandonment is taking place in marginal land areas in Sultanate of Oman. Artificial soil terraces in high elevation rocky mountainous areas left without agricultural activities due to water shortage. Soil terraces have been established approximately 700 years ago and constitute a significant part of the Oman cultural and natural heritage. The present study investigates the soil state in those areas and seeks the possible reasons for the land abandonment. Questionnaires were prepared to interview the opinion of the local people. In addition, meteorological data were gathered to analyze the rain patterns in the area and most importantly, six soil profiles in two different areas in marginal rocky areas of Oman were sampled. The soils are in artificial terraces in Wijma and Hadash villages with elevation of 1247 and 1469 m respectively at mountainous slopes of 20 to 45 degrees. Most of the land was abandoned the last 20 years, while one terrace had agriculture activity 3 years ago. The questioners and interviews showed that water shortage was the reason of land abandonment. The rain patterns show a reduction of annual precipitation at least the last 10 years of available metrological data in the area. The total soil depth in the six soil profiles was between 33 to 70 cm. The main horizons include AC and C and there was a characteristic hard soil horizon in most of the soil profiles with accumulation of carbonate minerals (caliche). The soil pH was mainly alkaline between 7.5 to 8.1 and the electrical conductivity range between 42 to 859 μS/cm. A horizonization in electrical conductivity showed more dissolved solids in lower horizons compare to the upper 10 cm of the soil and this was coinciding with the hard layers in lower soil profiles. It appeared that several hundred years (or maximum 1000 years) old soils showed the development of hard soil layers which are characteristic in arid areas. The upper soil layers showed low conductivity probably due to surface

  11. Complementary soil water use is indicated in mixed native tree plantations, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendenmann, L.; Sánchez Bragado, R.; Kunert, N.; Hölscher, D.

    2010-12-01

    Recent approaches to reforestation in the tropics emphasize the establishment of mixed species plantations to provide production but also ecological benefits. However, little is known about the effects of mixed-species stands on soil water utilization und tree water use rates. The objectives of this study were i) to asses seasonal plant water uptake patterns for different species and ii) to examine the effects of species diversity on water uptake and water use rates. The study was conducted in a 7-yr-old plantation in Panama. Five native tree species were planted in mono-, three- and five-species plots. Natural abundance stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) in xylem and soil water samples were used to determine water uptake patterns. The contribution of water from each soil layer to xylem water was calculated using the isotope mixing model SISUS (Stable Isotope Sourcing Using Sampling). Sap flux was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Isotope ratios in soil and xylem water fell below the local meteoric water line (LMWL) suggesting some evaporation. Soil water isotope ratio increased with depth from an average of -18 ‰ and -1 ‰ in the surface soil layer (0-10 cm) to -40 ‰ and -8 ‰ at 50-70 cm depth for δ2H and δ18O, respectively. During the dry season δ2H and δ18O of xylem water were negatively correlated with tree water use rates suggesting that trees taking up water from deeper soil horizons were able to maintain higher water use rates. Species tended to differ in their water uptake pattern, especially during the dry season. Cedrela odorata and Hura crepitans were primarily obtaining water (60 to 80%) from the upper 30 cm. In contrast, Tabebuia rosea took up most of its water (75-90%) from soil depths > 30 cm. Xylem water δ2H and δ18O in Anacardium excelsum and Luehea seemannii suggest that water was taken up to equal proportions from all soil horizons. In mixed stands, overall transpirational water use was higher than

  12. Promoting and inhibiting tunneling via nuclear motions.

    PubMed

    Császár, Attila G; Furtenbacher, Tibor

    2016-01-14

    Accurate, experimental rotational-vibrational energy levels determined via the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) algorithm and published recently for the symmetric-top (14)NH3 molecule in J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 2015, 116, 117-130 are analyzed to unravel the promoting and inhibiting effects of vibrations and rotations on the tunneling splittings of the corresponding symmetric (s) and antisymmetric (a) rovibrational energy level pairs. The experimental transition data useful from the point of view of the present analysis cover the range 0.7-7000 cm(-1), sufficiently detailed rovibrational energy sets worth analyzing are available for 20 vibrational bands. The highest J value, where J stands for the rotational quantum number, within the experimental dataset employed is 30. Coupling of the "umbrella" motion of (14)NH3 with other vibrational degrees of freedom has only a minor effect on the a-s tunneling splitting characterizing the ground vibrational state, 0.79436(70) cm(-1). In the majority of the cases rotation around the C3 axis increases, while rotation around the two perpendicular axes decreases the tunneling splittings. For example, for the pair of vibrational ground states, 0(+) and 0(-), the tunneling splitting basically disappears at around J = 25 for the (J,K) = (J,1) states, where K = |k| is the usual quantum number characterizing the projection of the rotational angular momentum on the principal axis. The tunneling splittings, defined as energy differences E(a) - E(s) of corresponding energy level pairs, as a function of J and K show a very regular behavior for the ground state (GS) and the nν2 bands. For the other bands investigated exceptions from a regular behavior do occur, especially for bands characterized by degenerate vibrations, and occasionally the data available are not sufficient to arrive at definitive conclusions. The most irregular behavior is observed for rotational states characterized by the k

  13. Effects of Natural Bioactive Products on the Growth and Ginsenoside Contents of Panax ginseng Cultured in an Aeroponic System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geum-Soog; Lee, Seung-Eun; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Hyuck; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kim, Seung-Yu; Kim, Yong-Bum

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural bioactive products such as Manda enzyme (T1), Yangmyeongwon (T2), effective microorganisms (T3), and Kelpak (T4) on the growth and ginsenoside contents of Panax ginseng cultured in an aeroponic system using a two-layer vertical type of nutrient bath under natural light conditions. The growth of ginseng plants showed specific characteristics according to the positions in which they were cultured due to the difference of light transmittance and temperature in the upper and lower layers during aeroponic culture in a two-layer vertical type of system. The growth of the aerial part of the leaves and stems of ginseng plants cultured in the lower layer (4,000 to 6,000 lx, 23℃ to 26℃) of the nutrient bath was observed to be superior to that of the ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer (12,000 to 15,000 lx, 25℃ to 28℃). The leaf area was significantly larger in the treatment of T2 and T4 (46.70 cm2) than with other treatments. Conversely, the values of the root weight and root diameter were higher in ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. The root weight was significantly heavier in the treatment of T4 (6.46 g) and T3 (6.26 g) than with other treatments. The total ginsenoside content in the leaves and roots was highest in the ginseng plants cultured by the treatment of T1, at 16.20%, while the total ginsenoside content obtained by other treatments decreased in the order of T4, T5 (control), T2, and T3, at 13.21%, 12.30%, 14.84%, and 14.86%, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves was found to be significantly higher in the treatment of T1 in the lower layer of the nutrient bath, at 15.30%, while the content of the ginseng roots in the treatments of T3 and T4, at 1.27% and 1.23%, respectively, was significantly higher than in other treatments in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. PMID:23717147

  14. Model Investigation of the use of Altimetry Data from the Polar Ground-Track Convergence Zone for Monitoring ICESat-2 Performance Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, K. M.; Neumann, T.; Markus, T.; Shuman, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is a NASA follow-on mission to ICESat (2003-2009), which is currently scheduled to launch in 2016. The primary goals of the ICESat-2 mission are to collect precise altimetry data of the Earth's surface, optimized to measure: ice sheet elevation change, sea ice thickness, and global vegetation biomass. The instrument onboard ICESat-2 that addresses these goals is the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), which is a micropulse, multibeam, photon-counting laser altimeter with a 10 m footprint, sampling every 70 cm along track. ICESat-2 will orbit in an inclination of 92°, leaving a data void poleward of the 88° line of latitude. At the 88° line of latitude, in the zone of ground-track convergence, ATLAS data density will be greatest. In the Antarctic, the ground-track convergence zone is exclusively on the ice sheet, outside of the influence of the Transantarctic Mountains. Horizontal ice-flow velocities near this region are generally very low (< 1 m/yr). Dynamic vertical velocities (dh/dt) near this region are also generally very low (< 1 cm/yr), but may exhibit temperature-driven seasonal variation. Here, we present a model that determines whether data from the ground-track convergence zone could be used to monitor changes in ICESat-2 instrumentation that would contribute to changes in measurement bias or precision. The model simulates data collection rates, variable dh/dt rates, and seasonal variation of dh/dt rates in the ground-track convergence zone and then forces this system with changes associated with instrument performance. We show that based on the data density and the near-constant data acquisition, small changes in bias (including the onset of a steady bias-drift) are detectable even over very short sampling intervals. Ultimately, bias-change detection proves to be sensitive to ATLAS measurement precision, but is insensitive to variable dh/dt rates and the seasonal variation of dh

  15. The ICESat-2 mission: design, status, applications and pre-launch performance assessments for monitoring cryopsheric changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, T.; Markus, T.; Csatho, B. M.; Martino, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is the next-generation orbiting laser altimeter, following the ICESat mission, which operated between 2003 and 2009. Its primary aim is to monitor sea-ice thickness and ice sheet elevation change at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet, and enable global assessment of vegetation canopy height as established by ICESat. ICESat-2 is now in Phase C (Design and Development). It is scheduled to launch in 2016 on a Delta II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. ICESat-2 will carry the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) and collect data to a latitudinal limit of 88 degrees. In contrast to Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on ICESat, ATLAS employs a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. It uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; resulting in 70 cm footprint spacing on the ground along the direction of travel) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure ranges using 532 nm (green) laser light. In the polar regions, the 91-day repeat orbit pattern with a roughly monthly sub-cycle is designed to monitor seasonal and interannual variations of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet elevations and monthly sea ice thickness changes. Dense ground-tracks over the rest of the globe achieved through a systematic sequence of off-nadir pointing (resulting in < 2 km ground-track spacing at the equator after two years) will enable measurements of land topography and vegetation canopy heights, allowing estimates of biomass and carbon in above-ground vegetation. While the ICESat-2 mission was optimized for cryospheric science, elevation measurements will be collected over land and oceans as well as histograms of backscatter from the atmosphere. These observations will provide a wealth of opportunities in addition to the primary science objectives, ranging from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land

  16. Late Pleistocene-Holocene Climate Change Inferred from Fossil Fauna in the Marmara Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurung, D.; McHugh, C. M.; Ryan, W. B.; Giosan, L.; Mart, Y.; Cagatau, N.

    2006-12-01

    Paleoenvironmental changes that document the reconnection of the Marmara Sea to the world's oceans were investigated from sediment cores and high-resolution CHIRP subbottom profiles acquired by the R/V Mediterranean Explorer in 2005. The transition from a glacial fresh/brackish water lake to a sea took place after global sea-level reached the Dardanelles outlet sill depth of -85m. We surveyed the continental shelf-slope boundary along the northern margin at Cekmece and the eastern margin at the Prince Islands in water depths extending from 80 to 135 m. Mollusk, ostracod, and foraminiferal faunal assemblages calibrated to radiocarbon chronology and sediment analyses reveal the mixing of marine and lake sediments, and very high sedimentation rates, 50 cm per 1000 years, from ~12 to 10.5 cal ka BP. Very high sedimentation rates (70 cm/1000 years) and an abrupt transition from lake stage to marine were documented along the southern shelf at Imrali from ~12.5 to 11.5 cal ka BP. This older age was derived from foraminifers. Marine mollusks Corbula sp., Lucinella sp., and Gouldia sp. are found in sand beds contained within stiff clays. The sands are rich in spherical, calcium carbonate, oolites commonly associated with shallow environments, agitated waters, and warm evaporative climates. The stiff clays contain low salinity 1-5 per mil bivalve Dreissena rostriformis, gastropod, Theodoxus fluviatilis, and fresh brackish ostracods and are interpreted as lake sediments. Paleoshorelines along the northern, eastern, and southern shelves were below the Dardanelles outlet sill of -85m at the time of marine reconnection. The drawdown of Marmara Lake prior to marine intrusion is also consistent with regional aridity. After 10.5 cal ka BP sediments and faunal assemblages are fully marine with mollusks (Corbula sp., Lucinella sp., Turritela sp., and Gouldia sp) and ostracods. Even though benthic foraminifers are rich after the marine conditions were established, planktonic

  17. Diatom paleoecology Pass Key core 37, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyle, Laura; Cooper, S.R.; Huvane, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    During the 20th century, there have been large-scale anthropogenic modifications to the South Florida ecosystem. The effects of these changes on Florida Bay and its biological communities are currently of political and scientific interest. This study is part of a larger effort to reconstruct the history of environmental changes in the bay, using paleoecological techniques. We are using diatom indicators preserved in Florida Bay sediments to infer long-term water quality, productivity, nutrient, and salinity changes. We are also obtaining information concerning the natural variability of the ecosystem. Diatoms are microscopic algae, the remains of which are generally well preserved in sediments, and their distributions are closely linked to water quality. Diatoms were extracted from a 70-cm sediment core collected from the Pass Key mudbank of Florida Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey. Between 300-500 diatom valves from each of 15 core samples were identified and counted. Estimates of absolute abundance, species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity, and centric:pennate ratios were calculated for each sample that was counted. Information on the ecology of the diatom species is presented, and changes in diatom community composition are evaluated. Samples contained an average of four million diatom valves per gram of sediment. Major changes in the diatom community are evident down core. These include increases in the percent abundance of marine diatoms in the time period represented by the core, probably the result of increasing salinity at Pass Key. Benthic diatoms become less abundant in the top half of the core. This may be related to a number of factors including the die-off of sea grass beds or increased turbidity of the water column. Once the chronology of the Pass Key core 37 is established, these down-core changes can be related to historical events and compared with other indicators in the sedimentary record that are currently being investigated by U.S Geological

  18. Crop residue incorporation for increasing SOC stock. Is it worth it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data S