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Sample records for 70-y integral effective

  1. Postirradiation Effects In Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, David C.; Barnes, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Two reports discuss postirradiation effects in integrated circuits. Presents examples of postirradiation measurements of performances of integrated circuits of five different types: dual complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) flip-flop; CMOS analog multiplier; two CMOS multiplying digital-to-analog converters; electrically erasable programmable read-only memory; and semiconductor/oxide/semiconductor octal buffer driver.

  2. Impact of Treatment Integrity on Intervention Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…

  3. Dopamine effects on evidence gathering and integration

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Christina; Schneider, Brooke C.; Braun, Vivien; Kolbeck, Katharina; Gallinat, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Background Disturbances in evidence gathering and disconfirmatory evidence integration have been associated with the presence of or propensity for delusions. Previous evidence suggests that these 2 types of reasoning bias might be differentially affected by antipsychotic medication. We aimed to investigate the effects of a dopaminergic agonist (L-dopa) and a dopaminergic antagonist (haloperidol) on evidence gathering and disconfirmatory evidence integration after single-dose administration in healthy individuals. Methods The study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover design. Participants were healthy individuals aged 18–40 years. We administered a new data-gathering task designed to increase sensitivity to change compared with traditional tasks. The Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence (BADE) task was used as a measure of disconfirmatory evidence integration. Results We included 30 individuals in our study. In the data-gathering task, dopaminergic modulation had no significant effect on the amount of evidence gathered before reaching a decision. In contrast, the ability of participants to integrate disconfirmatory evidence showed a significant linear dopaminergic modulation pattern (highest with haloperidol, intermediate with placebo, lowest with L-dopa), with the difference between haloperidol and L-dopa marginally reaching significance. Limitations Although the doses used for haloperidol and L-dopa were similar to those used in previous studies, drug plasma level measurements would have added to the validity of findings. Conclusion Evidence gathering and disconfirmatory evidence integration might be differentially influenced by dopaminergic agents. Our findings are in support of a dual-disturbance account of delusions and provide a plausible neurobiological basis for the use of interventions targeted at improving reasoning biases as an adjunctive treatment in patients with psychotic disorders. PMID:26197302

  4. Lithium ionic mobility study in xLi{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-yLiI (x = 95-70, y = 5-30 wt.%) solid electrolyte by impedance spectroscopy technique

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, Mohd Khari; Ahmad, Azizah Hanom

    2015-08-28

    A detailed systematic study on the effects of different amount (wt.%) of LiI addition on the electrical conductivity and dielectric behavior of the xLi{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-xLiI (x = 95-70, y = 5-30 wt.%) electrolyte system was carried out. The samples with different compositions were prepared and ground by mechanical milling method. The electrical and dielectric properties of the samples over a range of frequency (50Hz – 1MHz) were investigated by deploying electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique in a series of temperature set (298–373K). Normally, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} itself shows a very low electrical conductivity (10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1}). However, the electrical conductivity of the system was found to be increased (10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}) as the lithium salt (LiI) were introduced to the system. The dielectric analysis displayed that the activation energy was inversely proportional to the increment of LiI (wt.%). As the electrical conductivity reached their maximum value (4.63 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}) at the 20 wt.% of LiI, the activation energy was dropped to the minimum (0.1 eV). The electrical conductivity increases with the temperature (298 – 373K) indicate that the system obeys Arrhenius law.

  5. Lithium ionic mobility study in xLi2CO3-yLiI (x = 95-70, y = 5-30 wt.%) solid electrolyte by impedance spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Mohd Khari; Ahmad, Azizah Hanom

    2015-08-01

    A detailed systematic study on the effects of different amount (wt.%) of LiI addition on the electrical conductivity and dielectric behavior of the xLi2CO3-xLiI (x = 95-70, y = 5-30 wt.%) electrolyte system was carried out. The samples with different compositions were prepared and ground by mechanical milling method. The electrical and dielectric properties of the samples over a range of frequency (50Hz - 1MHz) were investigated by deploying electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique in a series of temperature set (298-373K). Normally, Li2CO3 itself shows a very low electrical conductivity (10-5 Scm-1). However, the electrical conductivity of the system was found to be increased (10-3 Scm-1) as the lithium salt (LiI) were introduced to the system. The dielectric analysis displayed that the activation energy was inversely proportional to the increment of LiI (wt.%). As the electrical conductivity reached their maximum value (4.63 × 10-3 Scm-1) at the 20 wt.% of LiI, the activation energy was dropped to the minimum (0.1 eV). The electrical conductivity increases with the temperature (298 - 373K) indicate that the system obeys Arrhenius law.

  6. The Integrating and Segregating Effects of School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Betts, Julian R.; Rice, Lorien A.; Zau, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the integrating and segregating effects of three distinct school choice programs in San Diego. We go beyond the traditional question of racial integration and examine the integration of students by test scores, parental education levels, and language status. In addition to measuring the net integrative effects of school choice, we also…

  7. Strong regularizing effect of integrable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin

    1997-11-01

    Many time evolution problems have the so-called strong regularization effect, that is, with any irregular initial data, as soon as becomes greater than 0, the solution becomes C{sup {infinity}} for both spacial and temporal variables. This paper studies 1 x 1 dimension integrable systems for such regularizing effect. In the work by Sachs, Kappler [S][K], (see also earlier works [KFJ] and [Ka]), strong regularizing effect is proved for KdV with rapidly decaying irregular initial data, using the inverse scattering method. There are two equivalent Gel`fand-Levitan-Marchenko (GLM) equations associated to an inverse scattering problem, one is normalized at x = {infinity} and another at x = {infinity}. The method of [S][K] relies on the fact that the KdV waves propagate only in one direction and therefore one of the two GLM equations remains normalized and can be differentiated infinitely many times. 15 refs.

  8. Post irradiation effects (PIE) in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, D. C.; Lowry, L.; Barnes, C.; Zakharia, M.; Agarwal, S.; Rax, B.

    1991-01-01

    Post-irradiation effects (PIE) ranging from normal recovery to catastrophic failure have been observed in integrated circuits during the PIE period. Data presented show failure due to rebound after a 10 krad(Si) dose. In particular, five device types are investigated with varying PIE response. Special attention has been given to the HI1-507A analog multiplexer because its PIE response is extreme. X-ray diffraction has been uniquely employed to measure physical stress in the HI1-507A metallization. An attempt has been made to show a relationship between stress relaxation and radiation effects. All data presented support the current MIL-STD Method 1019.4 but demonstrate the importance of performing PIE measurements, even when mission doses are as low as 10 krad(Si).

  9. Radiation effects on power integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Darwish, M.N.; Dolly, M.C.; Goodwin, C.A.; Titus, J.L

    1988-12-01

    A study was initiated to investigate the effects of gamma (total ionizing dose), prompt gamma (gamma dot), and neutron radiation on commercially available power integrated circuits (PIC's). A Dielectric Isolated (DI) Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCDMOS) technology developed at AT and T Bell Laboratories was selected for this characterization. Total ionizing dose testing resulted in device failure at 30 krads (Si). Gamma dot testing (30 ns pulsewidth) resulted in device failure due to transient upset of the CMOS logic at 1.0 E+09 rads(Si)/s. Neutron testing resulted in severe degradation in performance, but devices remained functional after receiving a fluence of 2.0 E+14 n/cm/sup 2/. Also, an attempt was made to harden the BCDMOS technology to gamma radiation. Devices from eight processing splits were characterized to determine if specific process changes would improve their performance.

  10. Effects of aliasing on numerical integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Timothy S.

    2005-02-01

    During the course of processing acceleration data from mechanical systems it is often desirable to integrate the data to obtain velocity or displacement waveforms. However, those who have attempted these operations may be painfully aware that the integrated records often yield unrealistic residual values. This is true whether the data has been obtained experimentally or through numerical simulation such as Runge-Kutta integration or the explicit finite element method. In the case of experimentally obtained data, the integration errors are usually blamed on accelerometer zero shift or amplifier saturation. In the case of simulation data, incorrect integrations are often incorrectly blamed on the integration algorithm itself. This work demonstrates that seemingly small aliased content can cause appreciable errors in the integrated waveforms and explores the unavoidable source of aliasing in both experiment and simulation-the sampling operation. Numerical analysts are often puzzled as to why the integrated acceleration from their simulation does not match the displacement output from the same simulation. This work shows that these strange results can be caused by aliasing induced by interpolation of the model output during sampling regularization.

  11. Integrating Technology: The Principals' Role and Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung

    2015-01-01

    There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…

  12. An Integrated Model of Training Evaluation and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Kaye; Salas, Eduardo; Garofano, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    A decade of training evaluation and training effectiveness research was reviewed to construct an integrated model of training evaluation and effectiveness. This model integrates four prior evaluation models and results of 10 years of training effectiveness research. It is the first to be constructed using a set of strict criteria and to…

  13. Effective density terms in proper integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Perkyns, John S.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2005-11-01

    Two complementary routes to a new integral equation theory for site-site molecular fluids are presented. First, a simple approximation to a subset of the atomic site bridge functions in the diagrammatically proper integral equation theory is presented. This in turn leads to a form analogous to the reactive fluid theory, in which the normalization of the intramolecular distribution function and the value of the off-diagonal elements in the density matrix of the proper integral equations are the means of propagating the bridge function approximation. Second, a derivation from a topological expansion of a model for the single-site activity followed by a topological reduction and low-order truncation is given. This leads to an approximate numerical value for the new density coefficient. The resulting equations give a substantial improvement over the standard construction as shown with a series of simple diatomic model calculations.

  14. Effects of Integrating Peace Education in the Nigeria Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olowo, Oluwatoyin Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempted to investigate the effects of integrating Peace Education into Nigeria educational system. Four research questions were designed for the study. The researcher designed an instrument tagged: Questionnaire on effect of Integrating Peace Education (QEIPE). The entire population of two hundred respondents spread across Secondary…

  15. Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Victor C. X.

    2010-01-01

    As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

  16. Bidirectional reflection effects in practical integrating spheres.

    PubMed

    Mahan, J R; Walker, J A; Stancil, M M

    2015-10-20

    Integrating spheres play a central role in radiometric instrument calibration, surface optical property measurement, and radiant source characterization. Our work involves a simulation, based on the Monte Carlo ray-trace (MCRT) of bidirectional reflections within a practical integrating sphere pierced with two viewing ports. We used data from the literature to create an empirical model for the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRF) of Spectralon suitable for use in the MCRT environment. The ratio of power escaping through the two openings is shown to vary linearly with wall absorptivity for both diffuse and bidirectional reflections. The sensitivity of this ratio to absorptivity is shown to be less when reflections are weakly bidirectional. PMID:26560384

  17. Quantum effects in new integrated optical angular velocity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenise, M. N.; Ciminelli, C.; de Leonardis, F.; Passaro, V. M. N.

    2004-06-01

    The paper describes the quantum effects to be considered in the model of new integrated optical angular velocity sensors. Integrated optics provides a promising approach to low-cost, light weight, and high performance devices. Some preliminary results are also reported.

  18. Challenge of Effective Technology Integration into Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramorola, M. Z.

    2013-01-01

    South African teachers are faced with challenges in integrating technology effectively into a coherent framework at school level. There seems to be little evidence of technology integration into classroom activities such as systematic planning and implementation of lessons that require learners to think critically, work collaboratively, and use…

  19. Assessing the Effectiveness of Integrity Tests: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Iain; Bartram, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Applied a structured framework to the research literature to assess the general effectiveness of integrity tests as used to assess "honesty" in preemployment screening. In terms of acceptability, research has indicated that integrity tests are viewed neither positively nor negatively, but considerable debate remains about false positive rates and…

  20. Learning Word Meanings: Overnight Integration and Study Modality Effects

    PubMed Central

    van der Ven, Frauke; Takashima, Atsuko; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    According to the complementary learning systems (CLS) account of word learning, novel words are rapidly acquired (learning system 1), but slowly integrated into the mental lexicon (learning system 2). This two-step learning process has been shown to apply to novel word forms. In this study, we investigated whether novel word meanings are also gradually integrated after acquisition by measuring the extent to which newly learned words were able to prime semantically related words at two different time points. In addition, we investigated whether modality at study modulates this integration process. Sixty-four adult participants studied novel words together with written or spoken definitions. These words did not prime semantically related words directly following study, but did so after a 24-hour delay. This significant increase in the magnitude of the priming effect suggests that semantic integration occurs over time. Overall, words that were studied with a written definition showed larger priming effects, suggesting greater integration for the written study modality. Although the process of integration, reflected as an increase in the priming effect over time, did not significantly differ between study modalities, words studied with a written definition showed the most prominent positive effect after a 24-hour delay. Our data suggest that semantic integration requires time, and that studying in written format benefits semantic integration more than studying in spoken format. These findings are discussed in light of the CLS theory of word learning. PMID:25992958

  1. The Instructional Effectiveness of Integrating Abstract and Realistic Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John H.

    This study examined the question of whether the integration of abstract and realistic visualization can improve the effectiveness of visualized instruction. Two methods of integrating visualizations were investigated. The first method used hybrid illustrations, i.e., a real color photograph into which a line drawing segment has been inserted. This…

  2. Integrating Participatory Elements into an Effectiveness Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Tanner LeBaron

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an effectiveness evaluation of an intensive case management intervention coordinated by a non-profit organization in a midsize Midwest City. As an effectiveness evaluation, the primary evaluation question was causal in nature; the key task of the evaluative study was to establish and probe connections between the…

  3. Effectiveness of integrated teaching module in pharmacology among medical undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Preeti P; Chaudhary, Mayur; Patel, Jayshree; Shah, Aashal; Kantharia, ND

    2016-01-01

    Context: Over the years with advancement of science and technology, each subject has become highly specialized. Teaching of medical students has still remained separate in various departments with no scope of integration in majority of medical institutes in India. Study was planned to have an experience of integration in institute and sensitize faculty for integrated teaching–learning (TL) method. Aims: To prepare and test effectiveness of integrated teaching module for 2nd year MBBS student in pharmacology and to sensitize and motivate faculties toward advantages of implementing integrated module. Settings and Design: Education intervention project implemented 2nd year MBBS students of Government Medical College and New Civil Hospital, Surat. Subjects and Methods: Students of second MBBS were divided into two groups. One group was exposed to integrated teaching sessions and another to traditional method. Both the groups were assessed by pre- and post-test questionnaire, feedback and focus group discussions were conducted to know their experience about process. Results: A total of 165 students of the 2nd year MBBS were exposed to the integrated teaching module for two topics in two groups. One group was taught by traditional teaching, and another group was exposed to the integrated TL session. Both the groups have shown a significant improvement in posttest scores but increase in mean score was more in integrated group. During analysis of feedback forms, it was noted that students preferred integrated TL methods since they help in better understanding. Faculty feedback shows consensus over the adaptation of integrated TL methods. Conclusions: Integrated TL sessions were well-appreciated by students and faculties. To improve the critical reasoning skills and self-directed learning of students, integrated TL is highly recommended for must know areas of curriculum. PMID:27563591

  4. The Effects of Maple Integrated Strategy on Engineering Technology Students' Understanding of Integral Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a learning strategy using Maple in integral calculus. This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. One hundred engineering technology students at a technical university were chosen at random. The effectiveness of the learning…

  5. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Jared M; Cohen, Andrew L; Shiffrin, Richard M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects. PMID:26406323

  6. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, Jared M.; Cohen, Andrew L.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects. PMID:26406323

  7. INTEGRATED SACHS-WOLFE EFFECT FOR GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, Pablo; Larson, Shane L.; Spergel, David; Yunes, Nicolas

    2010-05-20

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are messengers carrying valuable information about their sources. For sources at cosmological distances, the waves will also contain the imprint left by the intervening matter. The situation is in close analogy with cosmic microwave photons, for which the large-scale structures the photons traverse contribute to the observed temperature anisotropies, in a process known as the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We derive the GW counterpart of this effect for waves propagating on a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background with scalar perturbations. We find that the phase, frequency, and amplitude of the GWs experience Sachs-Wolfe-type integrated effects, in addition to the magnification effects on the amplitude from gravitational lensing. We show that for supermassive black hole binaries, the integrated effects could account for measurable changes on the frequency, chirp mass, and luminosity distance of the binary, thus unveiling the presence of inhomogeneities, and potentially dark energy, in the universe.

  8. Integrated coastal effects study: synthesis of findings.

    PubMed

    Bay, Steven M; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Schlenk, Daniel; Kelley, Kevin M; Maruya, Keith A; Gully, Joseph R

    2012-12-01

    Municipal wastewater discharges constitute a major source of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) to coastal waters, yet uncertainty exists regarding their linkage to adverse biological effects such as endocrine disruption. Limited information is available concerning the types and fate of CECs discharged to the Southern California Bight (SCB) from municipal wastewater and their potential for ecological impacts. The present study investigated the impacts of CECs from ocean wastewater discharges on SCB fish. Concentrations of CECs were measured in effluents from four major municipal wastewater dischargers. Seawater, sediment, and hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) from the discharge sites and a reference area were collected and analyzed for chemical and biological indicators. Low concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and industrial and commercial compounds were measured in effluent. Some CECs were also detected in sediment, seawater, and fish livers near the outfalls, confirming exposure to CECs. Fish plasma hormone analyses suggested the presence of physiological effects, including a reduced stress response, altered estrogen synthesis or estrogenic exposure, and reduced thyroxine. Most fish responses were found at all sites and could not be directly associated with effluent discharges. However, concentrations of thyroxine were lower at all discharge sites relative to the reference, and estradiol concentrations were lower at three of the four outfall sites. The physiological responses found were not associated with adverse impacts on fish reproduction or populations. Interpretation of molecular and physiological measurements in field organisms such as those used in the present study is challenging because of a lack of information on baseline conditions and uncertain linkages to apical endpoints such as survival and reproduction. PMID:22987611

  9. The joint Simon effect: a review and theoretical integration

    PubMed Central

    Dolk, Thomas; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang; Liepelt, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The social or joint Simon effect has been developed to investigate how and to what extent people mentally represent their own and other persons' action/task and how these cognitive representations influence an individual's own behavior when interacting with another person. Here, we provide a review of the available evidence and theoretical frameworks. Based on this review, we suggest a comprehensive theory that integrates aspects of earlier approaches–the Referential Coding Account. This account provides an alternative to the social interpretation of the (joint) go-nogo Simon effect (aka the social Simon effect) and is able to integrate seemingly opposite findings on joint action. PMID:25249991

  10. The effect of geometry on integrity monitoring performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alison; Sturza, Mark

    A geometry parameter which can be utilized to define when receiver autonomous integrity monitoring is effective for each phase of flight is derived. The integrity geometry parameter permits the optimum geometry to be determined for maximizing the probability of failure detection and isolation in the presence of multiple instrument faults. These parameters can also be applied in evaluating the performance of redundant navigation systems in the presence of multiple or single instrument faults.

  11. The Effects of Space Radiation on Linear Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A.

    2000-01-01

    Permanent and transient effects are discussed that are induced in linear integrated circuits by space radiation. Recent developments include enhanced damage at low dose rate, increased damage from protons due to displacement effects, and transients in digital comparators that can cause circuit malfunctions.

  12. Effects of Video Modeling on Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…

  13. Information Technology Integrated into Classroom Teaching and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Chao-Chi; Chang, Dian-Fu; Chang, Li-Yun

    2011-01-01

    IT (information technology) has grown in popularity from increased use in different areas in the world. However, school teaching has usually been found to be a little late in following this step. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of IT when integrated into classroom teaching at primary and secondary schools in Taiwan. The data…

  14. Effects of Spatial and Selective Attention on Basic Multisensory Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondan, Matthias; Blurton, Steven P.; Hughes, Flavia; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    When participants respond to auditory and visual stimuli, responses to audiovisual stimuli are substantially faster than to unimodal stimuli (redundant signals effect, RSE). In such tasks, the RSE is usually higher than probability summation predicts, suggestive of specific integration mechanisms underlying the RSE. We investigated the role of…

  15. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  16. Integrating Professional Development across the Curriculum: An Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Dinella, Lisa M.; Hatchard, Christine J.; Valosin, Jayde

    2016-01-01

    The current study empirically tested the effectiveness of a modular approach to integrating professional development across an undergraduate psychology curriculum. Researchers conducted a two-group, between-subjects experiment on 269 undergraduate psychology students assessing perceptions of professional preparedness and learning. Analysis…

  17. Aging, Audiovisual Integration, and the Principle of Inverse Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Sommers, Mitchell; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to compare the ability of young adults and older adults to integrate auditory and visual sentence materials under conditions of good and poor signal clarity. The Principle of Inverse Effectiveness (PoIE), which characterizes many neuronal and behavioral phenomena related to multisensory integration, asserts that as unimodal performance declines, integration is enhanced. Thus, the PoIE predicts that both young and older adults will show enhanced integration of auditory and visual speech stimuli when these stimuli are degraded. More importantly, because older adults' unimodal speech recognition skills decline in both the auditory and visual domains, the PoIE predicts that older adults will show enhanced integration during audiovisual speech recognition relative to young adults. The present study provides a test of these predictions. Design Fifty-three young and 53 older adults with normal hearing completed the closed-set Build-A-Sentence (BAS) Test and the CUNY Sentence Test in a total of eight conditions, four unimodal and four audiovisual. In the unimodal conditions, stimuli were either auditory or visual and either easier or harder to perceive; the audiovisual conditions were formed from all the combinations of the unimodal signals. The hard visual signals were created by degrading video contrast; the hard auditory signals were created by decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Scores from the unimodal and bimodal conditions were used to compute auditory enhancement and integration enhancement measures. Results Contrary to the PoIE, neither the auditory enhancement nor integration enhancement measures increased when signal clarity in the auditory or visual channel of audiovisual speech stimuli was decreased, nor was either measure higher for older adults than for young adults. In audiovisual conditions with easy visual stimuli, the integration enhancement measure for older adults was equivalent to that for young adults

  18. Orbital flux integrations: Parameter values for effective computer time reductions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    To improve computer utilization and to reduce the cost of orbital flux integrations, the effects of integration parameters 'duration' (T) and 'stepsize' (delta t) on integration results were investigated. Over given ranges of T and delta t, and within specified acceptable accuracy restraints, optimal values of these parameters were established for circular subsynchronous trajectories, in terms of the variables altitude (H) and inclination (i). It is shown that (1) above a certain statistically important value, duration is independent of both h and i; (2) stepsize has a relative altitude dependence; and (3) stepsize is not a function of inclination. The substantial savings in computer time are discussed along with the possibility of greater savings by relaxing accuracy restrictions while not exceeding the minimum model-associated uncertainty factors of the environments.

  19. Modelling the effects of a solar flare on INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfect, C. L.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; Diallo, N.; Ferguson, C.; Lei, F.; Lockley, J. J.

    2001-09-01

    The delayed effects of a large solar flare proton flux on the γ-ray instruments on-board INTEGRAL have been modelled. We simulated exposing INTEGRAL to a varying flux over a period of five days. The total integrated input proton flux for the flare chosen was 1.5×1014 protons. The induced count rates due to this proton flux over an energy range of 30 MeV - 2 GeV one minute after the end of the flare are 345.9+/-0.5 c/s for IBIS (the imager) and 10.03+/-0.06 c/s for SPI (the spectrometer). Spectra one minute after the end of the flare are shown for each instrument. The most significant spectral lines have been identified and the isotopic half-lives compared to the half-lives of the total count rates.

  20. Impact of the Non-Contributory Social Pension Program 70 y más on Older Adults’ Mental Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Torres-Pereda, Ma. Del Pilar; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Moreno-Tamayo, Karla; Téllez-Rojo Solís, Martha María

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2007, a non-contributory pension program was launched in rural areas of Mexico. The program consisted in a non-conditional cash transfer of US$40 monthly to all older adults (OA) aged 70 and over. We evaluate the effect of the program on mental well-being of its beneficiaries. Methods and Findings Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. For the quantitative component, we used the selection criteria established by the program (age and locality size) to form the Intervention (OA aged 70–74 residing in rural localities, <2500 inhabitants) and Control groups (OA aged 70–74, in localities with 2501–2700 inhabitants). Baseline data collection was conducted in 2007 where 5,465 OA were interviewed. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2008, and it was possible to interview 5,270 OA, with a response rate of 96%. A difference-in-difference linear probability model with individual fixed effect was used to estimate the impact of the program on mental well-being indicators. In 2009 a qualitative component was designed to explore possible causal pathways of such effect. Results After a year of exposure, the program had a significant effect on reduction of depressive symptoms (β = −0.06, CI95% −0.12; −0.01) and an increase in empowerment indicators: OA participated in important household decisions (β = 0.09, CI95% 0.03;0.15); and OA participated in household decisions pertaining to expenses (β = 0.11, CI95% 0.05;0.18). Qualitative analysis found a strong trend showing a reduction of sadness, and feeling of increasing empowerment. Conclusions These results suggest that a non-conditional transfer in older ages have an impact beyond the economic sphere, impacting even the mental well-being. This effect could be explained because the pension produces feelings of safety and welfare. It is recommendable that governments should invest efforts towards universalizing the non-contributory pension programs in order to ensure a basic income

  1. Integrating Individual-Based Indices of Contaminant Effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rowe, Christopher L.; Hopkins, William A.; Congdon, Justin D.

    2001-01-01

    Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana) that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element�contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR). These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modificationsmore » to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance) costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage) in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological) may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of

  2. Effect of dynamical interactions on integrated properties of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yulong; Zhang, Fenghui; Anders, Peter; Ruan, Zhifeng; Cheng, Liantao; Kang, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are generally treated as natural validators of simple stellar population (SSP) models. However, there are still some differences between real GCs and SSPs. In this work, we use a direct N-body simulation code NBODY6 to study the influences of dynamical interactions, metallicity and primordial binaries on Milky Way GCs' integrated properties. Our models start with N = 100 000 stars, covering a metallicity range Z = 0.0001 ˜ 0.02, a subset of our models contain primordial binaries, resulting in a binary fraction as currently observed at a model age of GCs. Stellar evolution and external tidal field representative for an average Milky Way GC are taken into consideration. The integrated colours and Lick indices are calculated using BaSeL and Bluered stellar spectral libraries separately. By including dynamical interactions, our model clusters show integrated features (i.e. colours up to 0.01 mag bluer, Hβ up to 0.1 Å greater and [MgFe]' 0.05 Å smaller) making the clusters appear slightly younger than the model clusters without dynamical interactions. This effect is caused mainly by the preferential loss of low-mass stars which have a stronger contribution to redder passbands as well as different spectral features compared to higher mass stars. In addition, this effect is larger at lower metallicities. On the contrary, the incorporation of primordial binaries reduces this effect.

  3. Measurement of the thermo-optical effect of integrated waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmel, Johannes; Lamprecht, Tobias; Michler, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Thermo-optical switches are widely used in integrated optics and various types of integrated optical structures have been reported in literature. These structures include, but are not limited to Mach-Zehnder-Interferometer (MZI) switches and digital optical switches. The thermo-optical effect depends on the refractive index, the polarizability and the density of a material. The polarizability effect can often be neglected and the change of refractive index is dominated by a density change due to the thermal expansion of the material. We report herein a new method to measure the thermo-optical effect of waveguides directly, using integrated MZIs fabricated in polymer waveguide technology. Common methods rely on macroscopic samples, but the properties can differ significantly for micro-structured waveguides. Using a floodlight halogen rod lamp and metal-shields, we realized a radiation heater with a trapezoidal-shaped heating pattern. While the heating occurred from the bottom side, a thermocouple was placed on top of the sample. By dynamically measuring the temperature and the corresponding output-power of the MZI, the temperature difference between constructive and destructive interference can be determined. Multiple measurements of different sample MZIs exhibit an average thermo-optical coefficient (TOC) of 1.6 ∗ 10-4 1/K .

  4. Mitigating ionospheric scintillation effects by integrating coding and interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Wai-Hung

    Since conventional interleaving cannot be effectively integrated into coded high data rate communications systems operating in slow and deep fading environments, a new adaptive approach to overcome the problem has been derived. This technique would enable the communications system to delete burst errors as well as to correct random errors. Therefore, it could minimize the effects of various interferences including jamming, antenna switching, and deep fading occurring in nuclear scintillation. In this paper, this new technique is introduced, and the performance of this new approach is illustrated.

  5. Explanations of the endowment effect: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E

    2015-06-01

    The endowment effect is the tendency for people who own a good to value it more than people who do not. Its economic impact is consequential. It creates market inefficiencies and irregularities in valuation such as differences between buyers and sellers, reluctance to trade, and mere ownership effects. Traditionally, the endowment effect has been attributed to loss aversion causing sellers of a good to value it more than buyers. New theories and findings--some inconsistent with loss aversion--suggest evolutionary, strategic, and more basic cognitive origins. In an integrative review, we propose that all three major instantiations of the endowment effect are attributable to exogenously and endogenously induced cognitive frames that bias which information is accessible during valuation. PMID:25939336

  6. Scaling of electroresistance effect in fully integrated ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuwasib, Mohammad; Lu, Haidong; Li, Tao; Buragohain, Pratyush; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Gruverman, Alexei; Singisetti, Uttam

    2016-04-01

    Systematic investigation of the scalability for tunneling electroresistance (TER) of integrated Co/BaTiO3/SrRuO3 ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) has been performed from micron to deep submicron dimensions. Pulsed measurements of the transient currents confirm the ferroelectric switching behavior of the FTJs, while the hysteresis loops measured by means of piezoresponse force microscopy verify the scalability of these structures. Fully integrated functional FTJ devices with the size of 300 × 300 nm2 exhibiting a tunneling electroresistance (TER) effect of the order of 2.7 × 104% have been fabricated and tested. Measured current density of 75 A/cm2 for the ON state and a long polarization retention time of ON state (>10 h) show a lot of promise for implementation of high-density BaTiO3-based FTJ memory devices in future.

  7. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in time varying vacuum model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. T.; Gui, Y. X.; Xu, L. X.; Lu, J. B.

    2010-04-15

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is an important implication for dark energy. In this paper, we have calculated the power spectrum of the ISW effect in the time varying vacuum cosmological model, where the model parameter {beta}=4.407 is obtained by the observational constraint of the growth rate. It is found that the source of the ISW effect is not only affected by the different evolutions of the Hubble function H(a) and the dimensionless matter density {Omega}{sub m}(a), but also by the different growth function D{sub +}(a), all of which are changed due to the presence of a matter production term in the time varying vacuum model. However, the difference of the ISW effect in the {Lambda}(t)CDM model and the {Lambda}CDM model is lessened to a certain extent because of the integration from the time of last scattering to the present. It is implied that the observations of the galaxies with high redshift are required to distinguish the two models.

  8. Effective Technology Integration Shows New Frontiers in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, Franco; Carlucci, Lisa Marie

    2007-11-01

    In this ever-changing world, technology is affecting how people view learning and the overall educational process. For an educator, the successful implementation of technology can be one of the most effective tools in the classroom. The introduction of virtual simulations of real life situations into what was once considered a teacher-centered classroom, allows the educator to meet the complex differentiated needs of a multi-faced student population. In this modified classroom, the focus naturally shifts on the students and their interaction with the rest of the class and beyond. Effective integration of technology literally opens a window onto the outside world providing students with increased motivation and with the necessary expertise to enter the workforce or successfully pursue higher education. This work analyzes the impact of technology, the methodologies currently in use, advantages and disadvantages, providing examples on how to successfully implement effective programs under budgetary constraints.

  9. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in interacting dark energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, German; Pavon, Diego; Atrio-Barandela, Fernando

    2008-05-15

    Models with dark energy decaying into dark matter have been proposed in cosmology to solve the coincidence problem. We study the effect of such coupling on the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. The interaction changes the rate of evolution of the metric potentials and the growth rate of matter density perturbations and modifies the integrated Sachs-Wolfe component of cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies, enhancing the effect. Cross correlation of galaxy catalogs with cosmic microwave background maps provides a model-independent test to constrain the interaction. We particularize our analysis for a specific interacting model and show that galaxy catalogs with median redshifts z{sub m}=0.1-0.9 can rule out models with an interaction parameter strength of c{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.1 better than 99.95% confidence level. Values of c{sup 2}{<=}0.01 are compatible with the data and may account for the possible discrepancy between the fraction of dark energy derived from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe 3 yr data and the fraction obtained from the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Measuring the fraction of dark energy by these two methods could provide evidence of an interaction.

  10. Work environments and organizational effectiveness: A call for integration

    SciTech Connect

    Heerwagen, J.H.; Heubach, J.G.; Brown, B.W.; Sanchez, J.A.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.

    1994-07-01

    In response to a request from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Analytical Chemistry Upgrades Program, a team was formed to (1) review work environment and productivity research, (2) report the research in a manner usable to organizational decision-makers, (3) identify Hanford Site facilities examples of the work environment principles and research, and (4) publish the review results in a referred journal. This report summarizes the work environment-organizational effectiveness research reviewed, provides the foundation for a publishable article, and outlines the integration of work environment research and organizational effectiveness in continuing improvement programs and strategic planning. The research cited in this review shows that the physical work environment offers a valuable tool that, used wisely, can contribute significantly to the performance of an organization, its bottom-line economics, and the well-being of all of its employees. This finding leads to one central recommendation: to derive the maximum benefit to the corporation, managers and designers must integrate organizational goals and programs with work environment design. While much of the research cited focuses on office environments, the results and design principles and practices are relevant to a full range of settings: laboratories, schools, hospitals, and factories. The major findings of the research reviewed are summarized below in four areas: (1) performance, (2) well-being, (3) image, and (4) turnover and recruitment.

  11. Integrating Multiscale Modeling with Drug Effects for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangfang L.; Oduola, Wasiu O.; Qian, Lijun; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review multiscale modeling for cancer treatment with the incorporation of drug effects from an applied system’s pharmacology perspective. Both the classical pharmacology and systems biology are inherently quantitative; however, systems biology focuses more on networks and multi factorial controls over biological processes rather than on drugs and targets in isolation, whereas systems pharmacology has a strong focus on studying drugs with regard to the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) relations accompanying drug interactions with multiscale physiology as well as the prediction of dosage-exposure responses and economic potentials of drugs. Thus, it requires multiscale methods to address the need for integrating models from the molecular levels to the cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is a common belief that tumorigenesis and tumor growth can be best understood and tackled by employing and integrating a multifaceted approach that includes in vivo and in vitro experiments, in silico models, multiscale tumor modeling, continuous/discrete modeling, agent-based modeling, and multiscale modeling with PK/PD drug effect inputs. We provide an example application of multiscale modeling employing stochastic hybrid system for a colon cancer cell line HCT-116 with the application of Lapatinib drug. It is observed that the simulation results are similar to those observed from the setup of the wet-lab experiments at the Translational Genomics Research Institute. PMID:26792977

  12. Vertical Organic Field-Effect Transistors for Integrated Optoelectronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeonggeun; Dong, Zhipeng; Guo, Jing; Kim, Doyoung; So, Franky

    2016-04-27

    Direct integration of a vertical organic field-effect transistor (VOFET) and an optoelectronic device offers a single stacked, low power optoelectronic VOFET with high aperture ratios. However, a functional optoelectronic VOFET could not be realized because of the difficulty in fabricating transparent source and gate electrodes. Here, we report a VOFET with an on/off ratio up to 10(5) as well as output current saturation by fabricating a transparent gate capacitor consisting of a perforated indium tin oxide (ITO) source electrode, HfO2 gate dielectric, and ITO gate electrode. Effects of the pore size and the pore depth within the porous ITO electrodes on the on/off characteristic of a VOFET are systematically explained in this work. By combining a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with an optimized VOFET structure, a vertical organic light-emitting transistor with a luminance on/off ratio of 10(4) can be fabricated. PMID:27082815

  13. Opportunistic biases: Their origins, effects, and an integrated solution.

    PubMed

    DeCoster, Jamie; Sparks, Erin A; Sparks, Jordan C; Sparks, Glenn G; Sparks, Cheri W

    2015-09-01

    Researchers commonly explore their data in multiple ways before deciding which analyses they will include in the final versions of their papers. While this improves the chances of researchers finding publishable results, it introduces an "opportunistic bias," such that the reported relations are stronger or otherwise more supportive of the researcher's theories than they would be without the exploratory process. The magnitudes of opportunistic biases can often be stronger than those of the effects being investigated, leading to invalid conclusions and a lack of clarity in research results. Authors typically do not report their exploratory procedures, so opportunistic biases are very difficult to detect just by reading the final version of a research report. In this article, we explain how a number of accepted research practices can lead to opportunistic biases, discuss the prevalence of these practices in psychology, consider the different effects that opportunistic biases have on psychological science, evaluate the strategies that methodologists have proposed to prevent or correct for the effects of these biases, and introduce an integrated solution to reduce the prevalence and influence of opportunistic biases. The recent prominence of articles discussing questionable research practices both in scientific journals and in the public media underscores the importance of understanding how opportunistic biases are created and how we might undo their effects. PMID:26348333

  14. A path integral approach to fractional quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kvale, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the author reformulates and further develops the cooperative-ring-exchange (CRE) theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Initially, a classical two-dimensional electron gas is considered and a guiding-center approximation is made for strong magnetic fields. The resulting Lagrangian is quantized via path integration and the integral is evaluated using the semiclassical approximation. By considering the CRE processes and a time discretization procedure, the 2DEG is mapped to two different lattice models that bracket the behavior of the system. Analysis of the behavior of the system shows an underlying modular symmetry and allows one to made some new experimental predictions. By interpreting the CRE processes as a loop-space formulation of a lattice gauge field theory, a Landau-Ginzburg action is derived that contains most of the important physics associated with the FQHE and chose ground state can be identified with the Laughlin wave function. Finally, the Laughlin wave function is derived directly from the partition function in the FQHE regime.

  15. Effects of Spatial Frequency Similarity and Dissimilarity on Contour Integration

    PubMed Central

    Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of spatial frequency similarity and dissimilarity on human contour integration under various conditions of uncertainty. Participants performed a temporal 2AFC contour detection task. Spatial frequency jitter up to 3.0 octaves was applied either to background elements, or to contour and background elements, or to none of both. Results converge on four major findings. (1) Contours defined by spatial frequency similarity alone are only scarcely visible, suggesting the absence of specialized cortical routines for shape detection based on spatial frequency similarity. (2) When orientation collinearity and spatial frequency similarity are combined along a contour, performance amplifies far beyond probability summation when compared to the fully heterogenous condition but only to a margin compatible with probability summation when compared to the fully homogenous case. (3) Psychometric functions are steeper but not shifted for homogenous contours in heterogenous backgrounds indicating an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. The additional similarity cue therefore not so much improves contour detection performance but primarily reduces observer uncertainty about whether a potential candidate is a contour or just a false positive. (4) Contour integration is a broadband mechanism which is only moderately impaired by spatial frequency dissimilarity. PMID:26057620

  16. Health Knowledge Effects: An Integrated Community Health Promotion Platform.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-Chiu; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Hsiao-Ting; Ho, Wen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The Taiwanese government subsidizes healthcare providers offering preventive medicine to patients to help reduce the threats of chronic sickness and halt skyrocketing medical expenditures. Usually, nurses are the primary workers who perform community health promotion; however, because of the chronic shortage of working nurses, many Taiwan hospitals have closed wards and deferred the responsibility of promoting primary prevention. With a community health promotion platform integrating interactive response features and Web sites for community patients and hospital staff, a case hospital efficiently sustained the community health services. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the integrated community health promotion platform for conducting education. Fifty-four patients/residents were invited to join a quasi-experiment of health education, and a follow-up survey was conducted to assess the acceptance of the community health promotion platform from both the experimental group of learners/users and the hospital staff. The results showed that the community health promotion platform was effective in improving participant health awareness. The experimental group outperformed the control group, with higher posttest scores and longer knowledge retention. Furthermore, users indicated a high acceptance of the community health promotion platform. PMID:26657621

  17. [Integral estimation of genetic effects of ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, V A

    1997-01-01

    A system of criteria (direct, indirect, extrapolational, integral, populational, evolutional) has been proposed to estimate the consequences of irradiation of flora, fauna and human population. This system makes it possible to obtain the most comprehensive estimate of genetic effects from exposure of live organisms to ionizing radiations. An attempt has been made to use extrapolational approaches for assessing the genetic risk on the basis of the results of cytogenetic examination of the human population in a number of regions exposed to the action of ionizing radiations as a result of the Chernobyl accident, in connection with the activity of the chemical plant Mayak in the Chelyabinsk region, nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the U.S.A. PMID:9599614

  18. Effects of cryostorage on human sperm chromatin integrity.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Adriana; Leo, Rita; Liguori, Francesca

    2013-11-01

    The integrity of sperm chromatin structure has proven to be of great importance for human fertility. In this study, we investigated whether sperm cryopreservation has an effect on nuclear DNA tertiary structure, (i.e. condensation), measured by aniline blue staining, in 103 male patients who required consultation for hypo-fertility. Sperm DNA damage was significantly higher in patients showing oligospermia and severe morphological abnormalities than in native sperm populations. Furthermore we observed that chromatin decondensation was related to the cryostorage technique and to the duration of storage. This increase in decondensation was highly significant (P < 0.01) immediately after cryopreservation and from 90 days of cryostorage onwards. The possible mechanisms involved in sperm chromatin cryoinjury and the need to incorporate new methods for testing sperm nuclear structure alteration into the routine spermiogram are discussed. PMID:22398023

  19. Effects of non-Lambertian surfaces on integrating sphere measurements.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, L M

    1996-07-01

    The effects of non-Lambertian scattering of the interior wall of an integrating sphere are examined through a sphere simulation model. The model employs Monte Carlo techniques. A sphere used for measurement of directional-hemispherical reflectance is modeled. The simulation allows sphere wall scattering to vary from perfectly Lambertian to perfectly specular in steps. The results demonstrate that significant measurement error can result as the scattering deviates from the Lambertian ideal. The error is found to be a strong function of the wall reflectance value as well: it is minimized for reflectances approaching 1.0 and increases as the reflectance value decreases to the minimum value examined of 0.5. The magnitudes of the errors associated with non-Lambertian scattering are also shown to be relatively independent of the specific field of view of the detector used in the measurement. PMID:21102753

  20. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  1. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  2. Integrating Hydrological Effects of Wildland Fire into Strategic Landscape Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, S. P.; Lee, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Much of the United States faces growing risks from wildfire. Collectively and individually, these wildfires can profoundly affect water flow and quality both within and downstream of the areas burned. Given their extent and tendency to have large severe patch sizes, megafires can have substantial watershed effects that include areas with slow or improbable recovery. Management efforts to engineer community resilience through restoring fire or other broad scale fuels treatments can also affect flow regimes. Restoration efforts often include thinning uncharacteristically high stand densities, creating heterogeneous structural patterns, or shifting species composition towards more fire-tolerant and often more drought-tolerant species. The strategic intent is to increase landscape resilience even as wildfire or climate regimes worsen. Prioritization efforts that affect how landscapes are managed also balance the needs of human communities, including municipal water supplies, while reducing the societal costs of wildfire response. Thus, the overall effects of wildfire represent a combined, synergistic interaction of the wildfires and management actions taken to mitigate their potential effects. Strategic plans such as the National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy and individual State Forest Action Plans provide forums for assessing system-wide interactions of fire and water, but implementation is challenging. This talk presents the strategic thinking behind existing efforts, outlines how water-associated tradeoffs can be integrated, and illustrates the utility of existing hydrological, climate and vegetation datasets and models to establish scenarios and directional likelihoods that illuminate planning options.

  3. Testing Gravity Against Early Time Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; /Shanghai, Astron. Observ. /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    A generic prediction of general relativity is that the cosmological linear density growth factor D is scale independent. But in general, modified gravities do not preserve this signature. A scale dependent D can cause time variation in gravitational potential at high redshifts and provides a new cosmological test of gravity, through early time integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect-large scale structure (LSS) cross correlation. We demonstrate the power of this test for a class of f(R) gravity, with the form f(R) = {lambda}{sub 1}H{sub 0}{sup 2} exp(-R/{lambda}{sub 2}H{sub 0}{sup 2}). Such f(R) gravity, even with degenerate expansion history to {Lambda}CDM, can produce detectable ISW effect at z {approx}> 3 and l {approx}> 20. Null-detection of such effect would constrain {lambda}{sub 2} to be {lambda}{sub 2} > 1000 at > 95% confidence level. On the other hand, robust detection of ISW-LSS cross correlation at high z will severely challenge general relativity.

  4. Sensory Integration and Its Effects on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Judy

    This paper provides an overview of the literature on sensory integration in young children. First it explains the importance of "sensory integration" in child development and normal functioning. It goes on to note signs of a sensory integration dysfunction (such as hyper-or hypo-sensitivity to touch, poor coordination, and poor behavioral…

  5. The effect of vitamin A on epithelial integrity.

    PubMed

    McCullough, F S; Northrop-Clewes, C A; Thurnham, D I

    1999-05-01

    Vitamin A is the generic term for a variety of fat-soluble substances including retinol, retinyl palmitate and the provitamin A carotenoids such as all-trans-beta-carotene. Vitamin A is commonly known as the anti-infective vitamin and has an essential role in vision and cellular differentiation, the latter providing a unique core mechanism helping to explain the influence of vitamin A on epithelial barriers. Alterations in the epithelial lining of vital organs occur early in deficiency, suggesting a potentially important role for the barrier function. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is most commonly recognized in the eye. The conjunctival-impression cytology test detects the presence of larger irregular keratinized cells and the absence of mucous-secreting goblet cells, indicative of VAD. The method is simple, quick and sensitive in populations where VAD is present. In the respiratory tract, observational studies all show an association with VAD, although vitamin A supplementation studies appear to have little effect on respiratory disease. Organ-specific targeting may improve success rates. The dual-sugar intestinal-permeability test allows the effect of vitamin A supplementation to be monitored on the gastrointestinal tract. Two vitamin A supplementation studies were carried out recently in Orissa State, India. Healthy infants of weaning age were administered orally eight weekly doses of 5.0 mg retinol equivalents and hospitalized infants received one large oral dose 60 mg retinol equivalents in the form of retinyl palmitate. Improvements in gut integrity and haematological status were observed in both studies. In summary, the response of the eye to vitamin A supplementation is well established; the present review highlights some of the more recent observations examining the effects of vitamin A. PMID:10466169

  6. Retinotopic effects during spatial audio-visual integration.

    PubMed

    Meienbrock, A; Naumer, M J; Doehrmann, O; Singer, W; Muckli, L

    2007-02-01

    The successful integration of visual and auditory stimuli requires information about whether visual and auditory signals originate from corresponding places in the external world. Here we report crossmodal effects of spatially congruent and incongruent audio-visual (AV) stimulation. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented from one of four horizontal locations in external space. Seven healthy human subjects had to assess the spatial fit of a visual stimulus (i.e. a gray-scaled picture of a cartoon dog) and a simultaneously presented auditory stimulus (i.e. a barking sound). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed two distinct networks of cortical regions that processed preferentially either spatially congruent or spatially incongruent AV stimuli. Whereas earlier visual areas responded preferentially to incongruent AV stimulation, higher visual areas of the temporal and parietal cortex (left inferior temporal gyrus [ITG], right posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus [pSTG/STS], left intra-parietal sulcus [IPS]) and frontal regions (left pre-central gyrus [PreCG], left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex [DLPFC]) responded preferentially to congruent AV stimulation. A position-resolved analysis revealed three robust cortical representations for each of the four visual stimulus locations in retinotopic visual regions corresponding to the representation of the horizontal meridian in area V1 and at the dorsal and ventral borders between areas V2 and V3. While these regions of interest (ROIs) did not show any significant effect of spatial congruency, we found subregions within ROIs in the right hemisphere that showed an incongruency effect (i.e. an increased fMRI signal during spatially incongruent compared to congruent AV stimulation). We interpret this finding as a correlate of spatially distributed recurrent feedback during mismatch processing: whenever a spatial mismatch is detected in multisensory regions (such as the IPS), processing resources are re

  7. Initial Integration of Noise Prediction Tools for Acoustic Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Burley, Casey L.; Tinetti, Ana; Rawls, John W.

    2008-01-01

    This effort provides an initial glimpse at NASA capabilities available in predicting the scattering of fan noise from a non-conventional aircraft configuration. The Aircraft NOise Prediction Program, Fast Scattering Code, and the Rotorcraft Noise Model were coupled to provide increased fidelity models of scattering effects on engine fan noise sources. The integration of these codes led to the identification of several keys issues entailed in applying such multi-fidelity approaches. In particular, for prediction at noise certification points, the inclusion of distributed sources leads to complications with the source semi-sphere approach. Computational resource requirements limit the use of the higher fidelity scattering code to predict radiated sound pressure levels for full scale configurations at relevant frequencies. And, the ability to more accurately represent complex shielding surfaces in current lower fidelity models is necessary for general application to scattering predictions. This initial step in determining the potential benefits/costs of these new methods over the existing capabilities illustrates a number of the issues that must be addressed in the development of next generation aircraft system noise prediction tools.

  8. Effects of Verbal and Graphed Feedback on Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoder-Martell, Kimberly; Dufrene, Brad; Sterling, Heather; Tingstrom, Daniel; Blaze, John; Duncan, Neelima; Harpole, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity is the degree to which an intervention is implemented as designed and is critical for concluding whether the intervention is responsible for treatment outcomes. This study aimed to add to the integrity literature by examining graphed performance feedback alone and in conjunction with verbal performance feedback for increasing…

  9. The Effects of Tasks on Integrating Information from Multiple Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdan, Raquel; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine 2 issues: (a) how students integrate information from multiple scientific documents to describe and explain a physical phenomenon that represents a subset of the information in the documents; and (b) the role of 2 sorts of tasks to achieve this type of integration, either writing an essay on a question requiring integration…

  10. COST-EFFECTIVE MANUFACTURING OF DAMAGE-TOLERANT INTEGRAL ARMOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the University of Delaware (UD) have developed an enabling technology to produce a polymer matrix composite-based integral armor with improved multihit ballistic capability. Current applications for integral armor composites include the...

  11. The Relative Effectiveness of Integrated Reading Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taslidere, Erdal; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the combined and partial effects of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach on ninth grade private high school students' achievement in and attitudes toward optics. The Integrated Reading/Study Strategy is a new strategy which was developed by integrating previously…

  12. Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, that is, the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges from 2 to 4σ, depending on which method is used. We investigated three separate approaches, which essentially cover all previous studies, and also break new ground. (i) We correlated the CMB with the Planck reconstructed gravitational lensing potential (for the first time). This detection was made using the lensing-induced bispectrum between the low-ℓ and high-ℓ temperature anisotropies; the correlation between lensing and the ISW effect has a significance close to 2.5σ. (ii) We cross-correlated with tracers of large-scale structure, which yielded a significance of about 3σ, based on a combination of radio (NVSS) and optical (SDSS) data. (iii) We used aperture photometry on stacked CMB fields at the locations of known large-scale structures, which yielded and confirms a 4σ signal, over a broader spectral range, when using a previously explored catalogue, but shows strong discrepancies in amplitude and scale when compared with expectations. More recent catalogues give more moderate results that range from negligible to 2.5σ at most, but have a more consistent scale and amplitude, the latter being still slightly higher than what is expected from numerical simulations within ΛCMD. Where they can be compared, these measurements are compatible with previous work using data from WMAP, where these scales have been mapped to the limits of cosmic variance. Planck's broader frequency coverage allows for better foreground cleaning and confirms that the signal is achromatic, which makes it preferable for ISW detection. As a final step we used tracers of large-scale structure to filter the CMB data, from which we present maps of the ISW temperature perturbation. These results

  13. Effects of Treatment Integrity Failures during Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior: A Translational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.

    2010-01-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is used frequently as a treatment for problem behavior. Previous studies on treatment integrity failures during DRA suggest that the intervention is robust, but research has not yet investigated the effects of different types of integrity failures. We examined the effects of two types of…

  14. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  15. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group. PMID:25324091

  16. Integrating Effective Writing Skills in the Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Gordon S.; Arevalo, Claire

    1983-01-01

    The J. M. Tull School of Accounting at the University of Georgia has developed a program that integrates the teaching of writing skills with the regular accounting courses. Students in a three-course sequence write a total of eight papers--technical, memos, or reports--in assignments that resemble writing tasks encountered by professional…

  17. Components of Intercultural Identity: Towards an Effective Integration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kislev, Elyakim

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on a group of religious students who integrated into a nonreligious school in order to understand the characteristics of their intercultural identity. I suggest a new perspective in which intercultural identity is analyzed by itself rather than analyzing acculturation strategies taken by the individual. Using an in-depth…

  18. The effects of instruction on integrated science process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Michael J.; Okey, James R.; Garrard, Kathryn

    While the philosophical importance of the integrated science process skills is often unchallenged, there is a lack of research with middle and secondary school students to indicate when or how these skills might best be taught. In this study different patterns and amounts of instruction on planning experiments were used with sixth- and eighth-grade students. A model for generating integrated process skill lessons was used to produce all lessons. Treatment One involved a two-week introductory unit on integrated process skills, followed by one period-long process skill activity per week for 14 weeks. Treatment Two involved only the same two-week introductory unit. Treatment Three was a contrast group which received only content oriented instruction. Results showed that both sixth- and eighth-grade students can learn to use certain integrated process skills; growth was apparent in identifying variables and stating hypotheses. Differences generally favored treatment one over treatment three. No differences favoring any treatment were found for formal operational ability outcomes.

  19. The Effect of Occlusion on Motion Integration in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Konishi, Yukuo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2009-01-01

    Previous psychophysical studies have shown that the adult human visual system makes use of form information such as occlusion to determine whether to integrate or segregate local motion signals (J. McDermott, Y. Weiss, & E. H. Adelson, 2001). Using the displays developed by McDermott et al., these experiments examined whether occlusion and amodal…

  20. INTEGRATED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TO SUPPORT EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected results of this research are to 1) contribute to our understanding of dominant uncertainties in models typically used across many RIAs, 2) identify integrated uncertainty analysis strategies that the EPA and other regulatory agencies can use to evaluate overall un...

  1. Integrating modeling and surveys for more effective assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    A false dichotomy currently exists in monitoring that pits sample surveys based on probability designs against targeted monitoring of hand-picked sites. We maintain that judicious use of both, when designed to be integrated, produces assessments of greater value than either inde...

  2. Advertising Can Be an Effective Integrated Marketing Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Larry D.

    2007-01-01

    Advertising will not undermine the critical thinking of consumers when it is combined with other communication media, and when it is truthful. In fact, it can provide clarity about the competitive advantage of individual institutions and aid an individual's ability to choose wisely. Advertising is just one of the tools in the integrated marketing…

  3. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2010 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas J. Haney

    2010-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory completes an annual Integrated Safety Management System effectiveness review per 48 CFR 970.5223-1 “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assesses ISMS effectiveness, provides feedback to maintain system integrity, and helps identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for the following year. Using one of the three Department of Energy (DOE) descriptors in DOE M 450.4-1 regarding the state of ISMS effectiveness during Fiscal Year (FY) 2010, the information presented in this review shows that INL achieved “Effective Performance.”

  5. Total Dose Effects on Bipolar Integrated Circuits at Low Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.

    2012-01-01

    Total dose damage in bipolar integrated circuits is investigated at low temperature, along with the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters of internal transistors. Bandgap narrowing causes the gain of npn transistors to decrease far more at low temperature compared to pnp transistors, due to the large difference in emitter doping concentration. When irradiations are done at temperatures of -140 deg C, no damage occurs until devices are warmed to temperatures above -50 deg C. After warm-up, subsequent cooling shows that damage is then present at low temperature. This can be explained by the very strong temperature dependence of dispersive transport in the continuous-time-random-walk model for hole transport. For linear integrated circuits, low temperature operation is affected by the strong temperature dependence of npn transistors along with the higher sensitivity of lateral and substrate pnp transistors to radiation damage.

  6. Planar integrated optical sensors based on the mirage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Pérez, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2010-05-01

    The modulation of the deflection of a 2D guided optical beam in a planar waveguide is analyzed for sensing applications. The deflection is caused by a gradual change in the depth of the planar waveguide transversal to the direction of propagation. The beam deflection angle could be used for sensing the refractive index of the external medium among other variables. We present numerical results to evaluate the possibility of developing a glass-integrated structure for refractive index sensing.

  7. Integration of auditory and vibrotactile stimuli: Effects of frequency

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, E. Courtenay; Reed, Charlotte M.; Braida, Louis D.

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual integration of vibrotactile and auditory sinusoidal tone pulses was studied in detection experiments as a function of stimulation frequency. Vibrotactile stimuli were delivered through a single channel vibrator to the left middle fingertip. Auditory stimuli were presented diotically through headphones in a background of 50 dB sound pressure level broadband noise. Detection performance for combined auditory-tactile presentations was measured using stimulus levels that yielded 63% to 77% correct unimodal performance. In Experiment 1, the vibrotactile stimulus was 250 Hz and the auditory stimulus varied between 125 and 2000 Hz. In Experiment 2, the auditory stimulus was 250 Hz and the tactile stimulus varied between 50 and 400 Hz. In Experiment 3, the auditory and tactile stimuli were always equal in frequency and ranged from 50 to 400 Hz. The highest rates of detection for the combined-modality stimulus were obtained when stimulating frequencies in the two modalities were equal or closely spaced (and within the Pacinian range). Combined-modality detection for closely spaced frequencies was generally consistent with an algebraic sum model of perceptual integration; wider-frequency spacings were generally better fit by a Pythagorean sum model. Thus, perceptual integration of auditory and tactile stimuli at near-threshold levels appears to depend both on absolute frequency and relative frequency of stimulation within each modality. PMID:21117754

  8. Improving Integration Effectiveness of ID Mapping Based Biological Record Linkage.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biological objects such as genes, proteins, and pathways are represented by a convenient identifier, or ID, which is then used to cross reference, link and describe objects in biological databases. Relationships among the objects are often established using non-trivial and computationally complex ID mapping systems or converters, and are stored in authoritative databases such as UniGene, GeneCards, PIR and BioMart. Despite best efforts, such mappings are largely incomplete and riddled with false negatives. Consequently, data integration using record linkage that relies on these mappings produces poor quality of data, inadvertently leading to erroneous conclusions. In this paper, we discuss this largely ignored dimension of data integration, examine how the ubiquitous use of identifiers in biological databases is a significant barrier to knowledge fusion using distributed computational pipelines, and propose two algorithms for ad hoc and restriction free ID mapping of arbitrary types using online resources. We also propose two declarative statements for ID conversion and data integration based on ID mapping on-the-fly. PMID:26357233

  9. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:25954144

  10. The Effects of Arts Integration on Long-Term Retention of Academic Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardiman, Mariale; Rinne, Luke; Yarmolinskaya, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Previous correlational and quasi-experimental studies of arts integration--the pedagogical practice of "teaching through the arts"--suggest its value for enhancing cognitive, academic, and social skills. This study reports the results of a small, preliminary classroom-based experiment that tested effects of arts integration on long-term…

  11. The Effectiveness of an Integrated Conceptual Approach to Teaching Middle School Science: A Mixed Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frampton, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of using traditional and integrated instructional strategies to increase student understanding of the core concepts of energy. There are mixed messages in the literature as to the success of using an integrated approach to teach science content, despite suggestions its use improves student…

  12. Analyzing the Effect of Web-Based Instruction Applications to School Culture within Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Unal; Akkan, Yasar; Guven, Bulent

    2012-01-01

    Determining the reflections of technology integration applications that are to be performed in our schools is important to light the way of first steps of integration. In this research, the effect of a web-based instruction environment used by 31 different teachers in a high school to school culture is set forth. The school culture is analyzed…

  13. Testing the Effectiveness of Professional Development for Integrating Technology in an Urban Iowa Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative one-group pretest-posttest design study was to test the effectiveness of professional development for integrating technology in the curriculum of an urban Iowa middle school. Iowa middle school teachers are expected to integrate technology, to comply with Iowa Core Curriculum standards, by 2014. The participants…

  14. Effects of Blackboard's Discussion Boards, Blogs and Wikis on Effective Integration and Development of Literacy Skills in EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharbi, Majed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the online course tools, specifically discussion boards, blogs and wikis, the built-in facilities of Blackboard as computer-mediated communication integrated in e-learning environments on improving integrated reading and writing and on the attitudes of EFL college students towards literacy skills in…

  15. Application of integrative information system improves the quality and effectiveness of cancer case management

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Yi; Chang, Tsue-Rung

    2015-01-01

    Cancer case management provides consecutive care during the entire process through diagnosis to treatment and follow-up. We established an integrative information system with integration of the health information system. This integrative information system shortened the time spent on case screening, follow-up data management, and monthly data summarization of case managers. It also promoted the case follow-up rate. This integrative information system may improve the quality and effectiveness for cancer case management, one important part of cancer nursing. PMID:26089680

  16. Integrating Podcast Technology Effectively into Student Learning: A Reflexive Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennifer; Nelson, Amanda; France, Derek; Woodland, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines undergraduate student perceptions of the learning utility of video podcasts. The perceived and actual effectiveness of the technology was assessed by written questionnaire, focus groups and assessment results. The podcasts were perceived as effective in supporting learning, largely by offering a flexible and visual learning…

  17. Prefrontal cortex organization: dissociating effects of temporal abstraction, relational abstraction, and integration with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-09-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction--temporal and relational--using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules--a function common to each theory--recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  18. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology can be an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of chemical exposure in fish at the level of the individual. Although somewhat qualitative, the histopathological approach is especially valuable because observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  19. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates. PMID:25746272

  20. Preliminary analytical results using surface current integration for predicting effects of surface pillows on RF performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Strange, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the fast integral RF evaluation (FIRE) program is presented. This program uses surface current integration to evaluate RF performance of antenna systems. It requires modeling of surfaces in X, Y, Z coordinates along equally spaced X and Y grids with Z in the focal directon. The far field contribution of each surface point includes the effects of the Z-component of surface current which is not included in the aperture integration technique. Because of this, surface current integration is the most effective and inclusive technique for predicting RF performance on non-ideal reflectors. Results obtained from use of the FIRE program and an aperture integration program to predict RF performance of a LSS antenna concept are presented.

  1. Examining the Effects of Integrated Science, Engineering, and Nonfiction Literature on Student Learning in Elementary Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama

    In recent years there has been an increasing emphasis on the integration of multiple disciplines in order to help prepare more students to better address the complex challenges they will face in the 21st century. Exposing students to an integrated and multidisciplinary approach will help them to better understand the connections between subjects instead of as individual and separate subjects. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Integration has been suggested as an approach that would model a multidisciplinary approach while also offering authentic and meaningful learning experiences to students. However, there is limited research on STEM integration in the elementary classroom and additional research is needed to better define and explore the effects of this integration for both students and science educators. With the recent recommendations for teaching both science and engineering in elementary classrooms (NRC, 2012), two common models include teaching science through inquiry and teaching science through engineering-design pedagogies. This study will explore both of these models as it seeks to better understand one piece of the larger issue of STEM and STEM integration by examining how the integration of science, engineering, and nonfiction literature affects students learning in elementary classrooms. This study employed an embedded mixed methods design to measure the effects of this integration on student learning in four fifth grade classrooms from the same elementary school. The findings revealed that the students who participated in the nonfiction reading instruction that was integrated with their science instruction showed a greater increase in all measures of student learning in both science and reading when compared to the control students. The findings from the integrated science, engineering and nonfiction literature revealed similar findings with the treatment students showing a greater increase in the measures of student learning

  2. Gauge-invariant treatment of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect on general spherically symmetric spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Kenji

    2010-03-15

    On the basis of the Gerlach-Sengupta theory of gauge-invariant perturbations, a formula of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect for a central observer is derived on general spherically symmetric spacetimes. It will be useful for comparative studies of theoretical and observational aspects of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi cosmological models which have been noticed by explaining the apparent acceleration without cosmological constant.

  3. Space Radiation Effects and Hardness Assurance for Linear Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    New effects that complicate the application of linear devices in space are discussed, including enhanced damage at low dose rate and proton damage, which cause permanent degradation. Transients produced by protons and heavy ions are also discussed.

  4. Interfacial electronic effects in functional biolayers integrated into organic field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Angione, Maria Daniela; Cotrone, Serafina; Magliulo, Maria; Mallardi, Antonia; Altamura, Davide; Giannini, Cinzia; Cioffi, Nicola; Sabbatini, Luigia; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Biosystems integration into an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) structure is achieved by spin coating phospholipid or protein layers between the gate dielectric and the organic semiconductor. An architecture directly interfacing supported biological layers to the OFET channel is proposed and, strikingly, both the electronic properties and the biointerlayer functionality are fully retained. The platform bench tests involved OFETs integrating phospholipids and bacteriorhodopsin exposed to 1–5% anesthetic doses that reveal drug-induced changes in the lipid membrane. This result challenges the current anesthetic action model relying on the so far provided evidence that doses much higher than clinically relevant ones (2.4%) do not alter lipid bilayers’ structure significantly. Furthermore, a streptavidin embedding OFET shows label-free biotin electronic detection at 10 parts-per-trillion concentration level, reaching state-of-the-art fluorescent assay performances. These examples show how the proposed bioelectronic platform, besides resulting in extremely performing biosensors, can open insights into biologically relevant phenomena involving membrane weak interfacial modifications. PMID:22493224

  5. Effects of Integrated Physical Exercises and Gestures on Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Okely, Anthony D.; Chandler, Paul; Cliff, Dylan P.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body movements (i.e., gestures) were investigated in a foreign language…

  6. DUAL AND OPPOSITE EFFECTS OF hRAD51 CHEMICAL MODULATION ON HIV-1 INTEGRATION

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Sylvain; Benleulmi, Mohamed Salah; Sinzelle, Ludivine; Thierry, Eloise; Calmels, Christina; Chaignepain, Stephane; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Budke, Brian; Pasquet, Jean-Max; Litvak, Simon; Ciuffi, Angela; Sung, Patrick; Connell, Philip; Hauber, Ilona; Hauber, Joachim; Andreola, Marie-Line; Delelis, Olivier; Parissi, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The cellular DNA repair hRAD51 protein has been shown to restrict HIV-1 integration both in vitro and in vivo. To investigate its regulatory functions, we performed a pharmacological analysis of the retroviral integration modulation by hRAD51. We found that, in vitro, chemical activation of hRAD51 stimulates its integration inhibitory properties, whereas inhibition of hRAD51 decreases the integration restriction, indicating that the modulation of HIV-1 integration depends on the hRAD51 recombinase activity. Cellular analyses demonstrated that cells exhibiting high hRAD51 levels prior to de novo infection are more resistant to integration. On the other hand, when hRAD51 was activated during integration, cells were more permissive. Altogether, these data establish the functional link between hRAD51 activity and HIV-1 integration. Our results highlight the multiple and opposite effects of the recombinase during integration and provide new insights into the cellular regulation of HIV-1 replication. PMID:26051216

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2011 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Farren Hunt

    2011-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an annual Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223-1, 'Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.' The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and helped identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The information presented in this review of FY 2011 shows that the INL has performed many corrective actions and improvement activities, which are starting to show some of the desired results. These corrective actions and improvement activities will continue to help change culture that will lead to better implementation of defined programs, resulting in moving the Laboratory's performance from the categorization of 'Needs Improvement' to the desired results of 'Effective Performance.'

  8. An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmader, Toni; Johns, Michael; Forbes, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Research showing that activation of negative stereotypes can impair the performance of stigmatized individuals on a wide variety of tasks has proliferated. However, a complete understanding of the processes underlying these stereotype threat effects on behavior is still lacking. The authors examine stereotype threat in the context of research on…

  9. Effects of solar cell environment on contact integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1993-01-01

    The III-V semiconductors react extremely rapidly with most commonly used contact metallizations. This precludes the use of elevated temperatures in the contact formation process for solar cells and other shallow junction devices. These devices must rely upon contact metallizations that are sufficiently conductive in their 'as-fabricated' state. However, while there are a number of non-sintered metallizations that have acceptable characteristics, the lack of a sintering step makes them vulnerable to a variety of environmentally induced degradation processes. The degrading effects resulting from the exposure of unsintered devices to a humid environment and to a vacuum (space) environment are described. It is shown, further, that these effects are magnified by the presence of mechanical damage in the contact metallization. The means to avoid or prevent these degrading interactions are presented.

  10. Cost-effective monolithic and hybrid integration for metro and long-haul applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Rick; Carter, Andy; Betty, Ian; Simmons, Timothy

    2003-12-01

    Today's telecommunication market is characterized by conservative business practices: tight management of costs, low risk investing and incremental upgrades, rather than the more freewheeling approach taken a few years ago. Optimizing optical components for the current and near term market involves substantial integration, but within particular bounds. The emphasis on evolution, in particular, has led to increased standardization of functions and so created extensive opportunities for integrated product offerings. The same standardization that enables commercially successful integrated functions also changes the competitive environment, and changes the emphasis for component development; shifting the innovation priority from raw performance to delivering the most effective integrated products. This paper will discuss, with specific examples from our transmitter, receiver and passives product families, our understanding of the issues based on extensive experience in delivering high end integrated products to the market, and the direction it drives optical components.

  11. Inlet distortion effects in aircraft propulsion system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longley, J. P.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    A tutorial survey of inlet flow distortion effects on engine performance and stability is presented. Inlet distortions in aero engines arise through a variety of causes. They can be essentially steady, due to non-axisymmetric intake duct geometry, or time varying, for example from flow separation off the lip of the inlet during maneuvers or shock-induced separation during supersonic flight. Whatever the cause, the result is generally a decrease in performance and, more importantly, a lessening of the stable flow range of the compressor. The distortions are generally three-dimensional. It is an extremely useful simplification to break them, at least conceptually, into radial and circumferential non-uniformities and approach each separately. Purely radial distortions can be treated by the methods that were developed for designing compressors in nominally axisymmetric inlet flow, and this type of distortion will be only briefly discussed. Circumferential non-uniformities, however, introduce additional fluid dynamic features into the analysis of compressor behavior and often have the larger impact on performance and stability. Thus we concentrate mainly on the effects of steady circumferential inlet flow distortion.

  12. The faster-X effect: integrating theory and data.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Richard P; Connallon, Tim

    2013-09-01

    Population genetics theory predicts that X (or Z) chromosomes could play disproportionate roles in speciation and evolutionary divergence, and recent genome-wide analyses have identified situations in which X or Z-linked divergence exceeds that on the autosomes (the so-called 'faster-X effect'). Here, we summarize the current state of both the theory and data surrounding the study of faster-X evolution. Our survey indicates that the faster-X effect is pervasive across a taxonomically diverse array of evolutionary lineages. These patterns could be informative of the dominance or recessivity of beneficial mutations and the nature of genetic variation acted upon by natural selection. We also identify several aspects of disagreement between these empirical results and the population genetic models used to interpret them. However, there are clearly delineated aspects of the problem for which additional modeling and collection of genomic data will address these discrepancies and provide novel insights into the population genetics of adaptation. PMID:23790324

  13. Amphibian Decline: An Integrated Analysis of Multiple Stressor Effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2003-01-01

    Although the effects of contaminants on amphibians have been studied for decades, relatively little is known about these effects compared to the more intensively studied mammals. and birds. Science has advanced its understanding of the complexities linked to declining amphibian populations; however, there are many remaining questions whose answers would directly benefit amphibians and adaptive management plans ministering to them. In an effort to answer those questions and focus on ecological risk assessment of amphibians, scientists, researchers, and resource management professionals from diverse fields participated in a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)-Johnson Foundation Wingspread conference with three goals: characterize a process that would bring a range of interdisciplinary technical and management tools to the tasks of causal analysis; demonstrate the current state of available technical tools to assess amphibian populations exposed to various environmental stressors; and focus on identifying research that would likely benefit sustainable populations through adaptive management programs. A result of the Wingspread conference, Amphibian Decline examines the ecotoxicology and stressors of amphibians in an attempt to address issues related to declining amphibian populations and the role that various stressors might have in those losses. It identifies gaps in current data, interprets information into an existing framework, and points toward critical areas for future research. Through the combined efforts of research and resource management communities, recommendations can be developed to change current policies and management actions to address the problem of amphibian decline.

  14. Design of a novel integrated position sensor based on Hall effects for linear oscillating actuator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyi; Yan, Liang; Jiao, Zongxia

    2015-07-01

    Linear oscillating actuator provides linear reciprocate motion directly without other auxiliary components, which is suitable for high integration applications in aerospace industry. Accurate position control is essential for linear oscillating motor and relies on concise measurement of mover position. However, most position measurements are dependent on external complicated sensors, which hinders further integration of linear oscillating actuation system. In this paper, a novel position sensing system for linear oscillating actuator based on Hall effects is proposed to achieve accurate and high integration measurement simultaneously. Axial sensing magnetic field with approximately linear relationship with position is created for direct and convenient measurement. Analytical model of sensing magnetic field is set up for optimization and validated by finite element method and experimental results. Finally, sensing magnets are integrated into motor prototype for experiments. Dynamic position results are tested in experiments and prove to be effective and accurate for position sensing with short-stroke. PMID:26233402

  15. Design of a novel integrated position sensor based on Hall effects for linear oscillating actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Yan, Liang; Jiao, Zongxia

    2015-07-01

    Linear oscillating actuator provides linear reciprocate motion directly without other auxiliary components, which is suitable for high integration applications in aerospace industry. Accurate position control is essential for linear oscillating motor and relies on concise measurement of mover position. However, most position measurements are dependent on external complicated sensors, which hinders further integration of linear oscillating actuation system. In this paper, a novel position sensing system for linear oscillating actuator based on Hall effects is proposed to achieve accurate and high integration measurement simultaneously. Axial sensing magnetic field with approximately linear relationship with position is created for direct and convenient measurement. Analytical model of sensing magnetic field is set up for optimization and validated by finite element method and experimental results. Finally, sensing magnets are integrated into motor prototype for experiments. Dynamic position results are tested in experiments and prove to be effective and accurate for position sensing with short-stroke.

  16. The welfare effects of integrating renewable energy into electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamadrid, Alberto J.

    The challenges of deploying more renewable energy sources on an electric grid are caused largely by their inherent variability. In this context, energy storage can help make the electric delivery system more reliable by mitigating this variability. This thesis analyzes a series of models for procuring electricity and ancillary services for both individuals and social planners with high penetrations of stochastic wind energy. The results obtained for an individual decision maker using stochastic optimization are ambiguous, with closed form solutions dependent on technological parameters, and no consideration of the system reliability. The social planner models correctly reflect the effect of system reliability, and in the case of a Stochastic, Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (S-SC-OPF or SuperOPF), determine reserve capacity endogenously so that system reliability is maintained. A single-period SuperOPF shows that including ramping costs in the objective function leads to more wind spilling and increased capacity requirements for reliability. However, this model does not reflect the inter temporal tradeoffs of using Energy Storage Systems (ESS) to improve reliability and mitigate wind variability. The results with the multiperiod SuperOPF determine the optimum use of storage for a typical day, and compare the effects of collocating ESS at wind sites with the same amount of storage (deferrable demand) located at demand centers. The collocated ESS has slightly lower operating costs and spills less wind generation compared to deferrable demand, but the total amount of conventional generating capacity needed for system adequacy is higher. In terms of the total system costs, that include the capital cost of conventional generating capacity, the costs with deferrable demand is substantially lower because the daily demand profile is flattened and less conventional generation capacity is then needed for reliability purposes. The analysis also demonstrates that the

  17. Probability distributed time delays: integrating spatial effects into temporal models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to provide insights into the complex biochemical processes inside a cell, modelling approaches must find a balance between achieving an adequate representation of the physical phenomena and keeping the associated computational cost within reasonable limits. This issue is particularly stressed when spatial inhomogeneities have a significant effect on system's behaviour. In such cases, a spatially-resolved stochastic method can better portray the biological reality, but the corresponding computer simulations can in turn be prohibitively expensive. Results We present a method that incorporates spatial information by means of tailored, probability distributed time-delays. These distributions can be directly obtained by single in silico or a suitable set of in vitro experiments and are subsequently fed into a delay stochastic simulation algorithm (DSSA), achieving a good compromise between computational costs and a much more accurate representation of spatial processes such as molecular diffusion and translocation between cell compartments. Additionally, we present a novel alternative approach based on delay differential equations (DDE) that can be used in scenarios of high molecular concentrations and low noise propagation. Conclusions Our proposed methodologies accurately capture and incorporate certain spatial processes into temporal stochastic and deterministic simulations, increasing their accuracy at low computational costs. This is of particular importance given that time spans of cellular processes are generally larger (possibly by several orders of magnitude) than those achievable by current spatially-resolved stochastic simulators. Hence, our methodology allows users to explore cellular scenarios under the effects of diffusion and stochasticity in time spans that were, until now, simply unfeasible. Our methodologies are supported by theoretical considerations on the different modelling regimes, i.e. spatial vs. delay-temporal, as indicated

  18. Integration of the Equations of Classical Electrode-Effect Theory with Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Leont'ev, N. V.; Terent'ev, A. M.; Umnikov, E. D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is devoted to an analytical study of the one-dimensional stationary system of equations for modeling of the electrode effect in the Earth's atmospheric layer with aerosols. New integrals of the system are derived. Using these integrals, the expressions for solutions of the system and estimates of the electrode layer's thickness as a function of the aerosol concentration are obtained for numerical parameters close to real.

  19. Integration of the Equations of Classical Electrode-Effect Theory with Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Leont'ev, N. V.; Terent'ev, A. M.; Umnikov, E. D.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is devoted to an analytical study of the one-dimensional stationary system of equations for modeling of the electrode effect in the Earth's atmospheric layer with aerosols. New integrals of the system are derived. Using these integrals, the expressions for solutions of the system and estimates of the electrode layer's thickness as a function of the aerosol concentration are obtained for numerical parameters close to real.

  20. Effects of a K-12 Technology Integration Program on Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbay, Amy; Mollette, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    IMPACT is a media and technology program designed to support and promote effective instruction through the integration of technology. The model is currently being implemented in 30 K-12 schools throughout North Carolina. This evaluation study investigated the effects of this model on the attitudes, behaviors, and activities of students and…

  1. Combining Isolated and Integrated Form-Focused Instruction: Effects on Productive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrot, Jessie S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that isolated and integrated form-focused instruction (FFI) are two effective means of improving language proficiency of students, separately. However, few empirical studies have explored their complementarity in the context of English as a second language. This study, therefore, investigates the effects of combining…

  2. Effect of maternal steroid on developing diaphragm integrity.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; Demmer, Denise L; Pinniger, Gavin J; Lavin, Tina; MacMillan, Mia V; Pillow, Jane J; Bakker, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Antenatal steroids reduce the severity of initial respiratory distress of premature newborn babies but may have an adverse impact on other body organs. The study aimed to examine the effect of maternal steroids on postnatal respiratory muscle function during development and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the potential myopathy in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were treated with intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone 7 d and 3 d before birth. Newborn diaphragms were dissected for assessment of contractile function at 2 d, 7 d or 21 d postnatal age (PNA), compared with age-matched controls. The expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and atrophy-related genes and activity of intracellular molecular signalling were measured using quantitative PCR and/or Western blot. With advancing PNA, neonatal MHC gene expression decreased progressively while MHC IIb and IIx isoforms increased. Protein metabolic signalling showed high baseline activity at 2 d PNA, and significantly declined at 7 d and 21 d. Antenatal administration of betamethasone significantly decreased diaphragm force production, fatigue resistance, total fast fibre content and anabolic signalling activity (Akt and 4E-BP1) in 21 d diaphragm. These responses were not observed in 2 d or 7 d postnatal diaphragm. Results demonstrate that maternal betamethasone treatment causes postnatal diaphragmatic dysfunction at 21 d PNA, which is attributed to MHC II protein loss and impairment of the anabolic signalling pathway. Developmental modifications in MHC fibre composition and protein signalling account for the age-specific diaphragm dysfunction. PMID:24681552

  3. Assessing pretrial publicity effects: integrating content analytic results.

    PubMed

    Studebaker, C A; Robbennolt, J K; Pathak-Sharma, M K; Penrod, S D

    2000-06-01

    When a case has received pretrial publicity which has the capacity to bias potential jurors in the trial venue, a change of venue is one means of attempting to ensure that the defendant receives a fair trial. Content analysis of the pretrial publicity surrounding a case can provide the court with important information to consider when determining whether prejudice in the relevant community is too great for the defendant to receive a fair trial. This paper presents an approach to content analysis of pretrial publicity that draws upon both legal commentary and past empirical social science research. It is a systematic approach that could be employed by both the prosecution and defense when presenting arguments to the court about whether a change of venue should be granted. Information gleaned from content analysis of the publicity surrounding a specific case fills the gap between information provided by experimental research which has examined pretrial publicity effects and public opinion polls concerning the public's perception of the defendant in a particular case. Results from a content analysis can serve to validate public opinion survey data gathered from the same locales. To exemplify this content analytic approach, a content analysis conducted by the authors in preparation for the change of venue hearing in the case of Timothy McVeigh is presented. PMID:10846375

  4. The ventriloquist effect results from near-optimal bimodal integration.

    PubMed

    Alais, David; Burr, David

    2004-02-01

    Ventriloquism is the ancient art of making one's voice appear to come from elsewhere, an art exploited by the Greek and Roman oracles, and possibly earlier. We regularly experience the effect when watching television and movies, where the voices seem to emanate from the actors' lips rather than from the actual sound source. Originally, ventriloquism was explained by performers projecting sound to their puppets by special techniques, but more recently it is assumed that ventriloquism results from vision "capturing" sound. In this study we investigate spatial localization of audio-visual stimuli. When visual localization is good, vision does indeed dominate and capture sound. However, for severely blurred visual stimuli (that are poorly localized), the reverse holds: sound captures vision. For less blurred stimuli, neither sense dominates and perception follows the mean position. Precision of bimodal localization is usually better than either the visual or the auditory unimodal presentation. All the results are well explained not by one sense capturing the other, but by a simple model of optimal combination of visual and auditory information. PMID:14761661

  5. An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Michael; Forbes, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Research showing that activation of negative stereotypes can impair the performance of stigmatized individuals on a wide variety of tasks has proliferated. However, a complete understanding of the processes underlying these stereotype threat effects on behavior is still lacking. The authors examine stereotype threat in the context of research on stress arousal, vigilance, working memory, and self-regulation to develop a process model of how negative stereotypes impair performance on cognitive and social tasks that require controlled processing, as well as sensorimotor tasks that require automatic processing. The authors argue that stereotype threat disrupts performance via 3 distinct, yet interrelated, mechanisms: (a) a physiological stress response that directly impairs prefrontal processing, (b) a tendency to actively monitor performance, and (c) efforts to suppress negative thoughts and emotions in the service of self-regulation. These mechanisms combine to consume executive resources needed to perform well on cognitive and social tasks. The active monitoring mechanism disrupts performance on sensorimotor tasks directly. Empirical evidence for these assertions is reviewed, and implications for interventions designed to alleviate stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:18426293

  6. Skylab program payload integration. Skylab film environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the Skylab environments on the 22 types of film used for data recording on Skylab were evaluated. Environmental histories and sensitometric curves for 114 rolls of film used for this evaluation are presented. Photographic parameters evaluated in detail were film fogging of black and white films, changes in maximum density of color film, latent image fading, and changes in film sensitivity. Other photographic and film physical anomalies such as electrostatic exposure, emulsion cracking, and reciprocity failure were also documented. Results based upon comparison of film sensitometric data for flight film with ground control film and ground test film are presented independently for each film type. The study showed that photographic film fulfilled the requirements of the Skylab applications in which it was used. Environmental film degradation, although present on almost every roll, did not preclude recording sufficient data to meet experiment requirements for all film, except film type SC-5. Specific conclusions are provided in the areas of further analyses, tests, and developments.

  7. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2012 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Farren Hunt

    2012-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Results of the FY 2012 annual effectiveness review demonstrated that the INL’s ISMS program was significantly strengthened. Actions implemented by the INL demonstrate that the overall Integrated Safety Management System is sound and ensures safe and successful performance of work while protecting workers, the public, and environment. This report also provides several opportunities for improvement that will help further strengthen the ISM Program and the pursuit of safety excellence. Demonstrated leadership and commitment, continued surveillance, and dedicated resources have been instrumental in maturing a sound ISMS program. Based upon interviews with personnel, reviews of assurance activities, and analysis of ISMS process implementation, this effectiveness review concludes that ISM is institutionalized and is “Effective”.

  9. Enzymatic Kinetic Isotope Effects from Path-Integral Free Energy Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Gao, J

    2016-01-01

    Path-integral free energy perturbation (PI-FEP) theory is presented to directly determine the ratio of quantum mechanical partition functions of different isotopologs in a single simulation. Furthermore, a double averaging strategy is used to carry out the practical simulation, separating the quantum mechanical path integral exactly into two separate calculations, one corresponding to a classical molecular dynamics simulation of the centroid coordinates, and another involving free-particle path-integral sampling over the classical, centroid positions. An integrated centroid path-integral free energy perturbation and umbrella sampling (PI-FEP/UM, or simply, PI-FEP) method along with bisection sampling was summarized, which provides an accurate and fast convergent method for computing kinetic isotope effects for chemical reactions in solution and in enzymes. The PI-FEP method is illustrated by a number of applications, to highlight the computational precision and accuracy, the rule of geometrical mean in kinetic isotope effects, enhanced nuclear quantum effects in enzyme catalysis, and protein dynamics on temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects. PMID:27498645

  10. Semantic Integration and Age of Acquisition Effects in Code-Blend Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Giezen, Marcel R; Emmorey, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Semantic and lexical decision tasks were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying code-blend facilitation: the finding that hearing bimodal bilinguals comprehend signs in American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English words more quickly when they are presented together simultaneously than when each is presented alone. More robust facilitation effects were observed for semantic decision than for lexical decision, suggesting that lexical integration of signs and words within a code-blend occurs primarily at the semantic level, rather than at the level of form. Early bilinguals exhibited greater facilitation effects than late bilinguals for English (the dominant language) in the semantic decision task, possibly because early bilinguals are better able to process early visual cues from ASL signs and use these to constrain English word recognition. Comprehension facilitation via semantic integration of words and signs is consistent with co-speech gesture research demonstrating facilitative effects of gesture integration on language comprehension. PMID:26657077

  11. Integrated Refractive Effects Prediction System (IREPS) user's manual, revision PC-2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, W. L.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to introduce the contents and operation of the integrated refractive effects prediction system, personal computer version 2.0 (IREPS PC-2.0). IREPS is a system designed to assess the electromagnetic propagation effects of the lower atmosphere on radar, electronic warfare, communication, and weapon guidance systems. The IREPS models account for effects from optical interference, diffraction, tropospheric scatter, refraction, and evaporation and surface-based ducting under horizontally homogeneous atmospheric conditions.

  12. Integral formula for the effective diffusion coefficient in two-dimensional channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinay, Pavol

    2016-07-01

    The effective one-dimensional description of diffusion in two-dimensional channels of varying cross section is revisited. The effective diffusion coefficient D (x ) , extending Fick-Jacobs equation, depending on the longitudinal coordinate x , is derived here without use of scaling of the transverse coordinates. The result of the presented method is an integral formula for D (x ) , calculating its value at x as an integral of contributions from the neighboring positions x' depending on h (x') , a function shaping the channel. Unlike the standard formulas based on the scaling, the new proposed formula also describes D (x ) correctly near the cusps, or in wider channels.

  13. The Relative Effectiveness of Integrated Reading Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslidere, Erdal; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the combined and partial effects of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach on ninth grade private high school students' achievement in and attitudes toward optics. The Integrated Reading/Study Strategy is a new strategy which was developed by integrating previously existing reading strategies of the KWL and SQ3R with classroom lecturing. The Conceptual Physics Approach is an instructional strategy developed on the basis of Conceptual Physics suggested by Paul G. Hewitt. To investigate the partial and combined effects of methods, factorial design was used. The study was conducted with 124 students from two private high schools in the Çankaya district region of Ankara, Turkey. Various teaching/learning materials were developed and used for the study. Two measuring tools, Achievement Test about Optics and Attitude Scale about Optics were used as pre and post tests before and after instruction. The study continued for a two-month treatment period. The results of the study showed that the combined effect of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach improved students' achievement significantly compared to the separate individual methods. Although the product of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach increased students' attitudes more compared to the remaining methods, the result is not statistically significant.

  14. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents’ cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized Integrative Family Stress Model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across three times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers’ perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms five years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers’ perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers’ familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. PMID:25751100

  15. The Effects of Integrating Technology, Observation and Writing into a Teacher Education Method Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Syh-Jong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate asynchronous learning technology with teaching strategies on observation and writing into a teacher education method course. The research questions were to explore the effects of the innovative teaching method and to compare it with the traditional teaching method. There were 134 preservice teachers…

  16. Effects of Varied Levels of Treatment Integrity on Appropriate Toy Manipulation in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groskreutz, Nicole C.; Groskreutz, Mark P.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effects of varying the treatment integrity of a prompting procedure on appropriate toy manipulation in two preschool-aged children with autism. Following an assessment to identify toys with high levels of inappropriate toy manipulation, each of three toys was associated with implementation of the prompting procedure at a different…

  17. Evaluation of the Effects of Sensory Integration-Based Intervention by a Preschool Special Education Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonggat, Penelope Wong; Hall, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the call for increased research on common public school practices and progress monitoring by public school teachers. An alternating treatment design was implemented by a preschool teacher to evaluate the effect of sensory-integration based activities compared with an attention control on the on task behavior of three…

  18. The Effect of Auditory Integration Training on the Working Memory of Adults with Different Learning Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Tamara E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of auditory integration training (AIT) on a component of the executive function of working memory; specifically, to determine if learning preferences might have an interaction with AIT to increase the outcome for some learners. The question asked by this quantitative pretest posttest design is…

  19. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  20. The Effect of Sensory Integration Treatment on Children with Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Feng S.; Lodato, Donna M.

    Six children with multiple disabilities (ages 5 to 8) participated in this evaluation of the effect of sensory integration treatment on sensorimotor function and academic learning. The children had cognitive abilities ranging from sub-average to significantly sub-average, three were non-ambulatory, one had severe behavioral problems, and each…

  1. Tiered Models of Integrated Academic and Behavioral Support: Effect of Implementation Level on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noltemeyer, Amity; Sansosti, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study examined (a) Integrated Systems Model (ISM) implementation levels, and (b) the effect of implementation of the academic and behavioral components of ISM on student academic outcomes. Participants included 2,660 students attending six suburban elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted using a control…

  2. Effect of Knowledge Integration Activities on Students' Perception of the Earth's Crust as a Cyclic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2003-01-01

    Characterizes students' understanding of the rock cycle system. Examines effects of a knowledge integration activity on their system thinking. Interprets answers to an open-ended test using a systems thinking continuum ranging from a completely static view of the system to an understanding of the system's cyclic nature. Reports meaningful…

  3. An Integrative Model of Scholastic Judgments: Pupils' Characteristics, Class Context, Halo Effect and Internal Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoit; Pansu, Pascal; Bressoux, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a model that integrates some of the determinants of scholastic judgment. The model is based on the assumption that a teacher's judgment in a particular discipline is influenced by different variables: the pupil's actual performance in the discipline, his/her actual performance in other disciplines (halo effect), the average…

  4. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  5. Innovation and Integration: Case Studies of Effective Teacher Practices in the Use of Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Raymond Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Previous research conducted on the use of handheld computers in K-12 education has focused on how handheld computer use affects student motivation, engagement, and productivity. These four case studies sought to identify effective teacher practices in the integration of handhelds into the curriculum and the factors that affect those practices. The…

  6. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents'…

  7. Implementing Conjoint Behavioral Consultation with Hispanic Parents: A Study of Effectiveness, Integrity, and Acceptability. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehler-Stinnett, Judy; Carlson, John S.; Cagle, Lynn

    This study examined the effectiveness, integrity, and acceptability of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) with families and teachers of Hispanic children at risk for development of behavior problems. CBC is a four-step problem-solving approach (problem identification, problem analysis, treatment implementation, and treatment evaluation) that…

  8. Effectiveness of Word Solving: Integrating Morphological Problem-Solving within Comprehension Instruction for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of integrating morphological instruction within comprehension strategy instruction. Participants were 203 students (N = 117 fifth-grade; 86 sixth-grade) from four urban schools who were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 110; morphological problem-solving within comprehension strategy instruction) or…

  9. Data-Driven Decision Making in Community Colleges: An Integrative Model for Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callery, Claude Adam

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study identified the best practices utilized by community colleges to achieve systemic and cultural agreement in support of the integration of institutional effectiveness measures (key performance indicators) to inform decision making. In addition, the study identifies the relevant motives, organizational structure, and processes…

  10. (Re)integrating Simmel in Contemporary Social Exchange: The Effect of Nonpartisans on Relational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increased prevalence of neutral third parties in both formal and informal exchange processes, social exchange theory has yet to consider the effect of nonpartisans on important cognitive and affective outcomes of exchange. This research integrates Simmel's conceptualization of small groups and nonpartisans with contemporary theory and…

  11. Isolated and Integrated Form-Focused Instruction: Effects on Different Types of L2 Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Jessop, Lorena; Tomita, Yasuyo; Suzuki, Wataru; Valeo, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of two types of form-focused instruction (FFI) on second language (L2) learning and their potential contributions to the development of different types of L2 knowledge. Both types of instruction were pre-emptive in nature, that is planned and teacher generated. In Integrated FFI attention to form was embedded…

  12. Effect of Music-Integrated Instruction on First Graders' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Kerry G.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined music-integrated (MI) instruction, framed by automatic information processing theory and elements of prosody. A quasi-experimental, pre- and posttest design was utilized to ascertain the effect of MI instruction on reading fluency among first grade students. Subjects were students in two public elementary schools in Georgia. To…

  13. Effects of Various Types of Situps on Integrated MAP's of the Abdominal Musculature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Larry

    The electrical activity of the abdominal muscles was tested during situps to determine the effect upon integrated muscle action potential (MAP). The following types of situps were used in testing 18 college males: (1) trunk curls; (2) AAHPER situp; (3) YMCA situp; (4) modified AAHPER situp; and (5) modified YMCA situp. All situps were performed…

  14. Demonstrating the Effectiveness of an Integrated and Intensive Research Methods and Statistics Course Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; Caldwell, Tracy L.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We developed a two-semester series of intensive (six-contact hours per week) behavioral research methods courses with an integrated statistics curriculum. Our approach includes the use of team-based learning, authentic projects, and Excel and SPSS. We assessed the effectiveness of our approach by examining our students' content area scores on the…

  15. An empirical investigation of the efficiency effects of integrated care models in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Oliver; Rapold, Roland; Flatscher-Thöni, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the efficiency gains of integrated care models in Switzerland, since these models are regarded as cost containment options in national social health insurance. These plans generate much lower average health care expenditure than the basic insurance plan. The question is, however, to what extent these total savings are due to the effects of selection and efficiency. Methods The empirical analysis is based on data from 399,274 Swiss residents that constantly had compulsory health insurance with the Helsana Group, the largest health insurer in Switzerland, covering the years 2006–2009. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the different integrated care models, we apply an econometric approach with a mixed-effects model. Results Our estimations indicate that the efficiency effects of integrated care models on health care expenditure are significant. However, the different insurance plans vary, revealing the following efficiency gains per model: contracted capitated model 21.2%, contracted non-capitated model 15.5% and telemedicine model 3.7%. The remaining 8.5%, 5.6% and 22.5%, respectively, of the variation in total health care expenditure can be attributed to the effects of selection. Conclusions Integrated care models have the potential to improve care for patients with chronic diseases and concurrently have a positive impact on health care expenditure. We suggest policy-makers improve the incentives for patients with chronic diseases within the existing regulations providing further potential for cost-efficiency of medical care. PMID:22371691

  16. The Integration of Literacy and Geography: The Arizona GeoLiteracy Program's Effect on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Osborn Popp, Sharon E.; Dorn, Ronald I.; Ekiss, Gale Olp; Mater, Martha; Smith, Carl B.; Libbee, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To provide the first interstate quasi-experimental assessment on the power of content integration in building reading skills, the authors studied the effects on reading comprehension of GeoLiteracy--a K-8 package of 85 lessons that teaches geography in the context of practicing reading and writing skills. Ninety-six third through eighth grade…

  17. An Effective Model for Rapid Skills Acquisition through a Simulation-Based Integrated Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Aimee M.; Jackson, Melinda L.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the effectiveness of a theoretical-based integrated learning environment (ILE) for training non-traditional learners to perform the skills required to be successful in entry-level jobs. The ILE places instruction in a real-world, workplace context with realistic settings, characters, and storylines. The multimedia interface…

  18. The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program's Effect on School Integration. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Mills, Jonathan N.; Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors estimate the effect of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP, or the Milwaukee voucher program) on integration in public and private schools. Their first question is straightforward: Do the student bodies at private schools participating in MPCP have a racial composition that more closely or less closely resembles…

  19. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Integrated Approach to Teaching Literature in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divsar, Hoda; Tahriri, Abdorreza

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, three models for teaching literature including language-based, literature as content or culture, and literature as personal growth or enrichment were evaluated. Based on these models, an integrated model was suggested. An experimental study was carried out in order to examine the effectiveness of the suggested approach…

  20. Grasping the Dynamic Complexity of Team Learning: An Integrative Model for Effective Team Learning in Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuyper, Stefan; Dochy, Filip; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative model of team learning. Literature shows that effective team learning requires the establishment of a dialogical space amongst team members, in which communicative behaviours such as "sharing", "co-construction" and "constructive conflict" are balanced. However, finding this balance is not enough.…

  1. Effective Teaching of the Physical Design of Integrated Circuits Using Educational Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Sicard, Etienne; Ben Dhia, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the strategies used for effective teaching and skill development in integrated circuit (IC) design using project-based learning (PBL) methodologies. It presents the contexts in which these strategies are applied to IC design courses at the University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, and the National Institute of Applied…

  2. Elementary Teachers Integrate Music Activities into Regular Mathematics Lessons: Effects on Students' Mathematical Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Song; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Tillman, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents exploratory research investigating the way teachers integrate music into their regular mathematics lessons as well as the effects of music-mathematics interdisciplinary lessons on elementary school students' mathematical abilities of modeling, strategy and application. Two teachers and two classes of first grade and…

  3. Education and Social Integration: A Case Study of Institutional Effect on Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, John C.

    The study's objective was to examine the interrelationships of education and other social institutions of Malaysia's transitional society to understand those conditions which facilitate, or impede, the formal educational institutions' effectiveness as an agent of directed social change, especially regarding national integration and shared…

  4. The Effectiveness of Lecture-Integrated, Web-Supported Case Studies in Large Group Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzawi, May; Dawson, Maureen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of lecture-integrated and web-supported case studies in supporting a large and academically diverse group of undergraduate students was evaluated in the present study. Case studies and resource (web)-based learning were incorporated as two complementary interactive learning strategies into the traditional curriculum. A truncated…

  5. Effects of Bloom-Forming Algae on Fouling of Integrated Membrane Systems in Seawater Desalination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, David Allen

    2009-01-01

    Combining low- and high-pressure membranes into an integrated membrane system is an effective treatment strategy for seawater desalination. Low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes remove particulate material, colloids, and high-molecular-weight organics leaving a relatively foulant-free salt solution for treatment by…

  6. Effects of Integrated or Segregated Sport Participation on the Physical Self for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninot, G.; Bilard, J.; Delignieres, D.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic programme (integrated vs. segregated) on the athletic domain of perceived competence and on general self-worth. Methods: Participants were 32 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID), divided equally into four groups: (1) segregated swimming; (2) integrated…

  7. New approaches to assessing the effects of mutagenic agents on the integrity of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Elespuru, R K; Sankaranarayanan, K

    2007-03-01

    Heritable genetic alterations, although individually rare, have a substantial collective health impact. Approximately 20% of these are new mutations of unknown cause. Assessment of the effect of exposures to DNA damaging agents, i.e. mutagenic chemicals and radiations, on the integrity of the human genome and on the occurrence of genetic disease remains a daunting challenge. Recent insights may explain why previous examination of human exposures to ionizing radiation, as in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, failed to reveal heritable genetic effects. New opportunities to assess the heritable genetic damaging effects of environmental mutagens are afforded by: (1) integration of knowledge on the molecular nature of genetic disorders and the molecular effects of mutagens; (2) the development of more practical assays for germline mutagenesis; (3) the likely use of population-based genetic screening in personalized medicine. PMID:17174354

  8. Effects of using a posteriori methods for the conservation of integral invariants. [for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takacs, Lawrence L.

    1988-01-01

    The nature and effect of using a posteriori adjustments to nonconservative finite-difference schemes to enforce integral invariants of the corresponding analytic system are examined. The method of a posteriori integral constraint restoration is analyzed for the case of linear advection, and the harmonic response associated with the a posteriori adjustments is examined in detail. The conservative properties of the shallow water system are reviewed, and the constraint restoration algorithm applied to the shallow water equations are described. A comparison is made between forecasts obtained using implicit and a posteriori methods for the conservation of mass, energy, and potential enstrophy in the complete nonlinear shallow-water system.

  9. An integrated lateral flow assay for effective DNA amplification and detection at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jane Ru; Hu, Jie; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shangsheng; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng

    2016-05-10

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been extensively explored in nucleic acid testing (NAT) for medical diagnostics, food safety analysis and environmental monitoring. However, the amount of target nucleic acid in a raw sample is usually too low to be directly detected by LFAs, necessitating the process of amplification. Even though cost-effective paper-based amplification techniques have been introduced, they have always been separately performed from LFAs, hence increasing the risk of reagent loss and cross-contaminations. To date, integrating paper-based nucleic acid amplification into colorimetric LFA in a simple, portable and cost-effective manner has not been introduced. Herein, we developed an integrated LFA with the aid of a specially designed handheld battery-powered system for effective amplification and detection of targets in resource-poor settings. Interestingly, using the integrated paper-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-LFA, we successfully performed highly sensitive and specific target detection, achieving a detection limit of as low as 3 × 10(3) copies of target DNA, which is comparable to the conventional tube-based LAMP-LFA in an unintegrated format. The device may serve in conjunction with a simple paper-based sample preparation to create a fully integrated paper-based sample-to-answer diagnostic device for point-of-care testing (POCT) in the near future. PMID:27010033

  10. Integration of auditory and vibrotactile stimuli: Effects of phase and stimulus-onset asynchrony

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, E. Courtenay; Reed, Charlotte M.; Braida, Louis D.

    2009-01-01

    The perceptual integration of 250 Hz, 500 ms vibrotactile and auditory tones was studied in detection experiments as a function of (1) relative phase and (2) temporal asynchrony of the tone pulses. Vibrotactile stimuli were delivered through a single-channel vibrator to the left middle fingertip and auditory stimuli were presented diotically through headphones in a background of 50 dB sound pressure level broadband noise. The vibrotactile and auditory stimulus levels used each yielded 63%–77%-correct unimodal detection performance in a 2-I, 2-AFC task. Results for combined vibrotactile and auditory detection indicated that (1) performance improved for synchronous presentation, (2) performance was not affected by the relative phase of the auditory and tactile sinusoidal stimuli, and (3) performance for non-overlapping stimuli improved only if the tactile stimulus preceded the auditory. The results are generally more consistent with a “Pythagorean Sum” model than with either an “Algebraic Sum” or an “Optimal Single-Channel” Model of perceptual integration. Thus, certain combinations of auditory and tactile signals result in significant integrative effects. The lack of phase effect suggests an envelope rather than fine-structure operation for integration. The effects of asynchronous presentation of the auditory and tactile stimuli are consistent with time constants deduced from single-modality masking experiments. PMID:19813808

  11. Effects of an integrated problem-based learning and simulation course for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Sang Suk; Kim, Sung Hee

    2014-03-01

    The adaptability of high-fidelity simulations to multiple learning strategies is an essential feature of their effective use, however, little is known about the effects of integration simulations with problem-based learning. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of an integrated course with problem-based learning and simulation by evaluating college-based stress, student perceptions on their competence and small group learning, and comparing stress and student perceptions level by grade point average. One group post-test only design was employed with a cohort of 185 second year nursing students who were enrolled in a seven-block integrated circulo-respiratory course with problem-based learning and simulation. Nursing students evaluated their stress as moderate with the academic subdomain as the highest stressor. The students reported favorable student perceptions on competence and small group learning. Nursing students view problem-based learning with simulations-based learning favorably irrespective of their course grade. The results of this study indicate that integration of problem-based learning with simulation should be considered for broader application in nursing education. PMID:24001359

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2013 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Farren Hunt

    2013-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Results of the FY 2013 annual effectiveness review demonstrate that the INL’s ISMS program is “Effective” and continually improving and shows signs of being significantly strengthened. Although there have been unacceptable serious events in the past, there has also been significant attention, dedication, and resources focused on improvement, lessons learned and future prevention. BEA’s strategy of focusing on these improvements includes extensive action and improvement plans that include PLN 4030, “INL Sustained Operational Improvement Plan, PLN 4058, “MFC Strategic Excellence Plan,” PLN 4141, “ATR Sustained Excellence Plan,” and PLN 4145, “Radiological Control Road to Excellence,” and the development of LWP 20000, “Conduct of Research.” As a result of these action plans, coupled with other assurance activities and metrics, significant improvement in operational performance, organizational competence, management oversight and a reduction in the number of operational events is being realized. In short, the realization of the fifth core function of ISMS (feedback and continuous improvement) and the associated benefits are apparent.

  13. Vehicle integration effects on hypersonic waveriders. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles Edward, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The integration of a class of hypersonic high-lift configurations known as waveriders into hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. Waveriders offer advantages in aerodynamic performance and propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) characteristics over conventional hypersonic shapes. A wind-tunnel model was developed which integrates realistic vehicle components with two waverider shapes, referred to as the 'straight-wing' and 'cranked-wing' shapes. Both shapes were conical-flow-derived waveriders at a design Mach number of 4.0. The cranked-wing shape was designed to provide advantages in subsonic performance and directional stability over conventional waveriders. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions were obtained over a Mach number range of 2.3 to 4.63 at a Reynolds number of 2.0x10(exp 6) per foot. The CFD predictions and flow visualization data confirmed the shock attachment characteristics of the baseline waverider shapes and illustrated the waverider flow-field properties. Both CFD predictions and experimental data showed that no significant performance degradations occur at off-design Mach numbers for the waverider shapes and the integrated configurations. The experimental data showed that the effects of adding a realistic canopy were minimal. The effects of adding engine components were to increase the drag and thus degrade the aerodynamic performance of the configuration. A significant degradation in aerodynamic performance was observed when 0 degree control surfaces were added to close the blunt base of the waverider to a sharp trailing edge. A comparison of the fully-integrated waverider models to the baseline shapes showed that the performance was significantly degraded when all of the components were added to the waveriders. The fully-integrated configurations studied here do not offer significant performance advantages over conventional hypersonic vehicles, but still offer advantages in air-breathing propulsion

  14. Physiological Integration Ameliorates Negative Effects of Drought Stress in the Clonal Herb Fragaria orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

  15. Effect of cryogenic burnishing on surface integrity modifications of Co-Cr-Mo biomedical alloy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Dillon, Oscar W; Puleo, David A; Jawahir, Ibrahim S

    2013-01-01

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes have been used to modify the surface integrity properties of many materials by generating ultrafine or even nanometer-sized grains in the surface and subsurface region. These fine grained materials created by SPD and dynamic recrystallization in a thin layer near the surface usually have higher hardness and frequently exhibit enhanced mechanical properties (wear resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue life, etc.). Cryogenic burnishing, a SPD process, was used to improve several surface integrity parameters of a Co-Cr-Mo biomedical alloy. Application of liquid nitrogen during the burnishing process significantly suppressed the temperature rise within and outside the nitrogen application zone. Better surface finish, high hardness value, thick burnishing-influenced surface layer, and significant grain refinement were simultaneously achieved with the application of cryogenic cooling. Current results show that cryogenic burnishing can be an effective processing method for modifying the studied surface integrity properties of Co-Cr-Mo biomedical alloy. PMID:23090709

  16. Effect of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification on biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunyun; Hu, Huichao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of shortening kraft pulping (KP) process integrated with extended oxygen delignification (OD) on the biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. Data showed that using kraft pulps with high kappa number could improve the delignification efficiency of OD, reduce hexenuronic acid formation in kraft pulps. Pulp viscosity for a target kappa number of ∼10 was comparable to that obtained from conventional KP and OD process. The energy and alkali consumption in the integrated biorefinery process could be optimized when using a KP pulp with kappa number of ∼27. The process could minimize the overall methanol formation, but greater amounts of carbonate and oxalate were formed. The information from this study will be helpful to the future implementation of short-time KP integrated with extended OD process in actual pulp mill applications for biorefinery, aiming at further improvement in the biorefinery effectiveness of hardwood. PMID:26706725

  17. The Effects of Drop Size Distribution Truncation on Rainfall Integral Parameters and Empirical Relations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, Carlton W.

    1985-06-01

    A description is given of a method of estimating the effects of truncating the raindrop size distribution (DSD) at lower and upper drop diameters Dmin and Dmax which assumes that the DSD can be approximated by a gamma distribution (including the exponential distribution). The method is used to investigate the effects of DSD truncation on rainfall integral parameters (e.g., reflectivity factor, liquid water content etc.) and on empirical relations between pairs of these integral parameters. Tests of the theoretical predictions are performed using a set of drop size data collected with a Joss disdrometer. A brief description is also given of the use of the method to determine DSD truncation effects on precipitation parameters deduced from dual-measurement techniques.

  18. In-plane tunnelling field-effect transistor integrated on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Fina, Ignasi; Apachitei, Geanina; Preziosi, Daniele; Deniz, Hakan; Kriegner, Dominik; Marti, Xavier; Alexe, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has persevered as the primary substrate of microelectronics during last decades. During last years, it has been gradually embracing the integration of ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. The successful incorporation of these two functionalities to silicon has delivered the desired non-volatility via charge-effects and giant magneto-resistance. On the other hand, there has been a numerous demonstrations of the so-called magnetoelectric effect (coupling between ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order) using nearly-perfect heterostructures. However, the scrutiny of the ingredients that lead to magnetoelectric coupling, namely magnetic moment and a conducting channel, does not necessarily require structural perfection. In this work, we circumvent the stringent requirements for epilayers while preserving the magnetoelectric functionality in a silicon-integrated device. Additionally, we have identified an in-plane tunnelling mechanism which responds to a vertical electric field. This genuine electroresistance effect is distinct from known resistive-switching or tunnel electro resistance. PMID:26403693

  19. Multi-disciplinary coupling effects for integrated design of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions which govern the accurate response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-disciplinary coupling effects using coupled multi-discipline thermal, structural, and acoustic tailoring; an integrated system of multi-disciplinary simulators; coupled material behavior/fabrication process tailoring; sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator; and coupled materials, structures, fracture, and probabilistic behavior simulator. The results demonstrate that superior designs can be achieved if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated coupled multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.

  20. In-plane tunnelling field-effect transistor integrated on Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Fina, Ignasi; Apachitei, Geanina; Preziosi, Daniele; Deniz, Hakan; Kriegner, Dominik; Marti, Xavier; Alexe, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has persevered as the primary substrate of microelectronics during last decades. During last years, it has been gradually embracing the integration of ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. The successful incorporation of these two functionalities to silicon has delivered the desired non-volatility via charge-effects and giant magneto-resistance. On the other hand, there has been a numerous demonstrations of the so-called magnetoelectric effect (coupling between ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order) using nearly-perfect heterostructures. However, the scrutiny of the ingredients that lead to magnetoelectric coupling, namely magnetic moment and a conducting channel, does not necessarily require structural perfection. In this work, we circumvent the stringent requirements for epilayers while preserving the magnetoelectric functionality in a silicon-integrated device. Additionally, we have identified an in-plane tunnelling mechanism which responds to a vertical electric field. This genuine electroresistance effect is distinct from known resistive-switching or tunnel electro resistance. PMID:26403693

  1. Sensor Technology Integration for Efficient and Cost-Effective D&D

    SciTech Connect

    Varona, J. M.; Lagos, L. E.

    2002-02-25

    The deactivation and decommissioning of radiologically contaminated facilities require the use of a multitude of technologies to perform characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, and waste management. Current baseline technologies do not provide adequate tools to perform this work in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of such tasks that can be modified to enhance the D&D work include: floor and wall decontamination, pipe decontamination, and surveillance and monitoring. FIU-HCET's Technology Development, Integration and Deployment (TDID) group aims to enhance the D&D process by integrating sensor technology to existing decontamination and remote surveillance tools. These integrated systems have been demonstrated throughout the DOE Complex and commercial nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Finding new ways of integrating technologies utilized in the decommissioning and surveillance & monitoring process has been a goal of this group during the past several years. Current and previous integration projects include: Mobile Integrated Piping Decontamination and Characterization System, On-Line Decontamination and Characterization System, In-Situ Pipe Decontamination and Unplugging System, Remote Hazardous Environment Surveyor (RHES), and the Online Handheld grit blasting decontamination system As a result of integrating sensors with D&D tools, the resulting technologies have removed the downtime currently found in baseline processes by allowing operators and project managers to have real-time contamination data during the specified D&D process. This added component allows project managers to verify that full decontamination and surveillance has been conducted. Through successful demonstration and deployments of the TDID-developed technologies, FIU-HCET has provided tools that can impact the cost, schedule and health and safety of D&D operations in a positive way, leading to shorter downtimes and significant cost-savings. This paper will

  2. Audiovisual integration in near and far space: effects of changes in distance and stimulus effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Smagt, M J

    2016-05-01

    A factor that is often not considered in multisensory research is the distance from which information is presented. Interestingly, various studies have shown that the distance at which information is presented can modulate the strength of multisensory interactions. In addition, our everyday multisensory experience in near and far space is rather asymmetrical in terms of retinal image size and stimulus intensity. This asymmetry is the result of the relation between the stimulus-observer distance and its retinal image size and intensity: an object that is further away is generally smaller on the retina as compared to the same object when it is presented nearer. Similarly, auditory intensity decreases as the distance from the observer increases. We investigated how each of these factors alone, and their combination, affected audiovisual integration. Unimodal and bimodal stimuli were presented in near and far space, with and without controlling for distance-dependent changes in retinal image size and intensity. Audiovisual integration was enhanced for stimuli that were presented in far space as compared to near space, but only when the stimuli were not corrected for visual angle and intensity. The same decrease in intensity and retinal size in near space did not enhance audiovisual integration, indicating that these results cannot be explained by changes in stimulus efficacy or an increase in distance alone, but rather by an interaction between these factors. The results are discussed in the context of multisensory experience and spatial uncertainty, and underline the importance of studying multisensory integration in the depth space. PMID:25788009

  3. Gendering Genetics: Biological Contingencies in the Protective Effects of Social Integration for Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brea L

    2016-05-01

    Evidence that social and biological processes are intertwined in producing health and human behavior is rapidly accumulating. Using a feminist approach, this research explores how gender moderates the interaction between biological processes and men's and women's behavioral and emotional responses to similar social environments. Using data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, the influence of gender, social integration, and genetic risk on nicotine and alcohol dependence is examined. Three-way interaction models reveal gender-specific moderation of interactions between genetic risk score and social integration. Namely, being currently married and reporting positive social psychological integration are predictive of reduced risk of nicotine dependence among men with genetic susceptibility to strong nicotine cravings in the presence of social cues like stress. In contrast, the protective effects of marital status and social integration are substantially attenuated and absent, respectively, among women with high-risk genotypes. This pattern reflects the dualism (i.e., simultaneous costs and benefits) inherent in social integration for women, which may disproportionately affect those with a genetic sensitivity to stress. These findings contest the notion of genotype as static biological hardwiring that is independent from social and cultural systems of gender difference. PMID:27416652

  4. Effects of Natural Flavonoids on Photosynthetic Activity and Cell Integrity in Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Ghadouani, Anas; Wu, Jiaping; Nie, Zeyu; Peng, Cheng; Xu, Xinhua; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic compounds produced by many aquatic plants and released in their environments. In this study, the effects of several aquatic flavonoids on cyanobacterial Microcystis aeruginosa, especially in relation to the cell growth, photosynthetic activity, cell morphology, and cell membrane integrity, were investigated. Significant growth inhibition was observed when the cyanobacteria were exposed to three flavonoids, namely, 5,4'-dihydroxyflavone (DHF), apigenin, and luteolin. Luteolin reduced the effective quantum yield, photosynthetic efficiency, and maximal electron transport rate by 70%, 59% and 44%, respectively, whereas 5,4'-DHF and apigenin slightly affected these parameters, which implies that luteolin disrupts the photosynthetic system. Moreover, 5,4'-DHF and apigenin compromised the membrane integrity, and induced membrane depolarization in 52% and 38%, and permeabilization in 30% and 44% of the cells, respectively. The 5,4'-DHF and apigenin showed more pronounced effects on M. aeruginosa morphology and membrane integrity, compared to the luteolin. These results suggest that flavonoids could have significant effects on growth and physiological functions in cyanobacterial species. PMID:25584428

  5. Effect of Surface Integrity of Hard Turned AISI 52100 Steel on Fatigue Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Watkins, Thomas R; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Riester, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between surface integrity and fatigue life of hard turned AISI 52100 steel (60-62 HRC), with grinding as a benchmark. The impact of superfinishing on the fatigue performance of hard turned and ground surfaces is also discussed. Specifically, the surface integrity and fatigue life of the following five distinct surface conditions are examined: hard turned with continuous white layer, hard turned with no white layer, ground, and superfinished hard turned and ground specimens. Surface integrity of the specimens is characterized via surface topography measurement, metallography, residual stress measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nano-indentation tests. High cycle tension-tension fatigue tests show that the presence of white layer does not adversely affect fatigue life and that, on average, the hard turned surface performs as well or better than the ground surface. The effect of superfinishing is to exaggerate these differences in performance. The results obtained from this study suggest that the effect of residual stress on fatigue life is more significant than the effect of white layer. For the hard turned surfaces, the fatigue life is found to be directly proportional to both the surface compressive residual stress and the maximum compressive residual stress. Possible explanations for the observed effects are discussed.

  6. Integral formula for the effective diffusion coefficient in two-dimensional channels.

    PubMed

    Kalinay, Pavol

    2016-07-01

    The effective one-dimensional description of diffusion in two-dimensional channels of varying cross section is revisited. The effective diffusion coefficient D(x), extending Fick-Jacobs equation, depending on the longitudinal coordinate x, is derived here without use of scaling of the transverse coordinates. The result of the presented method is an integral formula for D(x), calculating its value at x as an integral of contributions from the neighboring positions x^{'} depending on h(x^{'}), a function shaping the channel. Unlike the standard formulas based on the scaling, the new proposed formula also describes D(x) correctly near the cusps, or in wider channels. PMID:27575072

  7. The effect of manipulability and religion on the multisensory integration of objects in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    In this study participants were required to respond to vibrotactile stimuli applied to the hand while ignoring visual distractors superimposed on pictures representing Christian, Hindu, or profane objects that were categorized as manipulable or non-manipulable. Overall, participants responded slower when the visual distractor appeared at an incongruent location with respect to the vibrotactile stimulus, which is known as the crossmodal congruency effect (i.e., CCE). The CCE was modulated by the type of object involved (i.e., Christian, Hindu, or Profane), the object manipulability (i.e., manipulable vs. non-manipulable) and the religious background of the participant (i.e., Christian, Hindu, or non-religious). The finding that both object manipulability, the religious significance of the object, and the religious background of the participant have a combined effect on multisensory integration suggests important interactions between low-level body-object integration and the symbolic extension of the self. PMID:24168203

  8. Integrating Adults' Characteristics and the Requirements for Their Effective Learning in an e-Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korres, Maria Pavlis; Karalis, Thanassis; Leftheriotou, Piera; Barriocanal, Elena García

    Learning technology, through e-learning, allows adults to adapt learning to their own time, place and pace. On the other hand, the adults' specific characteristics as learners and the requirements for their effective learning must be integrated in the design and the development of any learning environment addressed to them. Adults in an online environment have also to deal with new barriers related to access to the courses, the sense of isolation and the sense of immediacy with educator and other learners. This paper is dealing with the way through which an online environment can overcome these barriers and can integrate adults' characteristics and requirements for effective learning. The use of the appropriate communication tools by designers, developers and educators seem to provide the answers as these tools promote immediacy and interaction, both considered very important factors in online educational environments and affect the nature and the quality of communication and learning.

  9. Integrated Model to Assess Cloud Deployment Effectiveness When Developing an IT-strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razumnikov, S.; Prankevich, D.

    2016-04-01

    Developing an IT-strategy of cloud deployment is a complex issue since even the stage of its formation necessitates revealing what applications will be the best possible to meet the requirements of a company business-strategy, evaluate reliability and safety of cloud providers and analyze staff satisfaction. A system of criteria, as well an integrated model to assess cloud deployment effectiveness is offered. The model makes it possible to identify what applications being at the disposal of a company, as well as new tools to be deployed are reliable and safe enough for implementation in the cloud environment. The data on practical use of the procedure to assess cloud deployment effectiveness by a provider of telecommunication services is presented. The model was used to calculate values of integral indexes of services to be assessed, then, ones, meeting the criteria and answering the business-strategy of a company, were selected.

  10. Effect of flexor sheath integrity on nutrient uptake by chicken flexor tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.W.; Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of varying degrees of flexor sheath integrity (sheath excised, incised, or incised and repaired) on the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by chicken flexor tendons in Zone II was studied. The tendons were either: normal and uninjured, lacerated and repaired, or uninjured except for vinculum longum ligation. Different degrees of sheath integrity did not influence the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by the tendons. The tendon does not appear to be dependent on a synovial environment for nutrients and is capable of obtaining these nutrients by diffusion from the surrounding extracellular tissue fluid. Diffusion is the primary nutrient pathway to the flexor tendon in this area, because removing its major vascular attachment (i.e., the vinculum longum) did not effect proline uptake. Careful closure of the sheath with restoration of a synovial environment does not appear to be necessary for tendon nutrition.

  11. Effects Of Milling On Surface Integrity Of Low-Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Alessandro Roger; Matsumoto, Hidekasu; Yamakami, Wyser Jose; Tokimatsu, Ruis Camargo; Menezes, Miguel Angelo; Suyama, Daniel Iwao; Norcino, Adriana Bruno; Vendrame, Saimon

    2011-01-17

    This work measured the effect of milling parameters on the surface integrity of low-carbon alloy steel. The Variance Analysis showed that only depth of cut did not influence on the workpiece roughness and the Pearson's Coefficient indicated that cutting speed was more influent than tool feed. All cutting parameters introduced tensile residual stress in workpiece surface. The chip formation mechanism depended specially on cutting speed and influenced on the roughness and residual stress of workpiece.

  12. Effect of gasdynamic turbulence on the integral characteristics of conduction MHD generators

    SciTech Connect

    Vatazhin, A.B.; Levitan, Y.S.

    1986-04-01

    The authors analyze the effect of correlations on the integral characteristics of conduction MHD generators of different type. The paper studies a flow in the core of the channel of an MGD generator in the approximation of small magnetic Reynolds numbers. Two limiting situations characteristic for MHD setups are examined: a liquid-metal MHD channel and a conduction MHD generator operating on combustion products.

  13. A comparison of evaporation duct models for IREPS (Integrated Refractive Effects Prediction System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, W.

    1984-06-01

    An evaluation of current meteorological measurement techniques to determine adequate description of the surface meteorological processes used to infer evaporation duct height includes a comparison of relative performance, sensitivities to meteorological inputs, and ease of computation for several standard evaporation duct height models. EM wave propagation pathloss models are compared and evaluated, and a maximum range of detection error is determined for the modified NOSC propagation model employed by the Integrated Refractive Effects Prediction System (IREPS).

  14. Systematic Approach to the Development, Evolution, and Effectiveness of Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Margie Jeffs; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2011-06-01

    Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDT) are a key component of any systems engineering (SE) application, but since they are formed primarily from technical considerations, many IPDTs are far less productive than they otherwise could be. By recognizing specific personality types and skill sets, a random group of 'technical' individuals can be structured to become a highly effective team capable of delivering much more than the sum of its members.

  15. Determination of cloud effective particle size from the multiple-scattering effect on lidar integration-method temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Jens; Reichardt, Susanne

    2006-04-20

    A method is presented that permits the determination of the cloud effective particle size from Raman- or Rayleigh-integration temperature measurements that exploits the dependence of the multiple-scattering contributions to the lidar signals from heights above the cloud on the particle size of the cloud. Independent temperature information is needed for the determination of size. By use of Raman-integration temperatures, the technique is applied to cirrus measurements. The magnitude of the multiple-scattering effect and the above-cloud lidar signal strength limit the method's range of applicability to cirrus optical depths from 0.1 to 0.5. Our work implies that records of stratosphere temperature obtained with lidar may be affected by multiple scattering in clouds up to heights of 30 km and beyond. PMID:16633433

  16. Impact of late radiation effects on cancer survivor children: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to identify the late effects of radiation exposure in pediatric cancer survivors. An integrated literature review was performed in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS and SciELO. Included were articles in Portuguese and English, published over the past 10 years, using the following keywords: "neoplasias/neoplasms" AND "radioterapia/radiotherapy" AND "radiação/radiation". After analysis, 14 articles - published in nine well-known journals - met the inclusion criteria. The publications were divided into two categories: "Late endocrine effects" and "Late non-endocrine effects". Considering the increased survival rates in children who had cancer, the impact of late effects of exposure to radiation during radiological examinations for diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Childhood cancer survivors were exposed to several late effects and should be early and regularly followed up, even when exposed to low radiation doses. PMID:26313432

  17. Integrated radiologist's workstation enabling the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Kevin W.; Suitor, Charles T.; Hildebrand, Stan; Downs, Rebecca; Thompson, Stephen K.; Shepard, S. Jeff

    2002-05-01

    Since February 2000, radiologists at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have accessed clinical information through an internally developed radiologist's clinical interpretation workstation called RadStation. This project provides a fully integrated digital dictation workstation with clinical data review. RadStation enables the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant with access to pertinent sources of clinical information at the time of dictation. Data sources not only include prior radiology reports from the radiology information system (RIS) but access to pathology data, laboratory data, history and physicals, clinic notes, and operative reports. With integrated clinical information access, a radiologists's interpretation not only comments on morphologic findings but also can enable evaluation of study findings in the context of pertinent clinical presentation and history. Image access is enabled through the integration of an enterprise image archive (Stentor, San Francisco). Database integration is achieved by a combination of real time HL7 messaging and queries to SQL-based legacy databases. A three-tier system architecture accommodates expanding access to additional databases including real-time patient schedule as well as patient medications and allergies.

  18. The cumulative effect of genetic polymorphisms on depression and brain structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Milutin; Canu, Elisa; Agosta, Federica; Munjiza, Ana; Novakovic, Ivana; Dobricic, Valerija; Maria Ferraro, Pilar; Miler Jerkovic, Vera; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), the need to study multiple-gene effect on brain structure is emerging. Our aim was to assess the effect of accumulation of specific SERT, BDNF and COMT gene functional polymorphisms on brain structure in MDD patients. Seventy-seven MDD patients and 66 controls underwent a clinical assessment, genetic testing and MRI scan. Compared with controls, patients were more BDNF-Val homozygotes, COMT-Met carriers and SERT-L' carriers. Thus, subjects were split into three groups: 1. High-frequency susceptibility polymorphism group (hfSP, subjects with all three SPs); 2. Intermediate-frequency SP group (ifSP, two SPs); and 3. Low-frequency SP group (lfSP, one/none SP). Cortical thickness, volumetry of hippocampus, amygdala and subcortical structures, and white matter (WM) tract integrity were assessed. Compared to controls, hfSP patients showed thinning of the middle frontal cortex bilaterally, left frontal pole, and right lateral occipital cortex, and smaller hippocampal volume bilaterally; and both hfSP and lfSP patient groups showed thinning of the left inferior parietal cortex and reduced WM integrity of the corpus callosum. Compared to patients, hfSP controls showed greater integrity of the fronto-occipital cortices and corpus callosum. We showed that cortical prefrontal and occipital damage of MDD patients is modulated by the SP accumulation, while damage to the parietal cortex and corpus callosum seem to be independent of genetic accumulation. HfSP controls may experience protective mechanisms leading to a preserved integrity of critical cortical and WM regions. Investigating the effect of multiple genes is promising to understand the pathological mechanisms underlying MDD. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2173-2184, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26956059

  19. Amplitudes for spacetime regions and the quantum Zeno effect: pitfalls of standard path integral constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliwell, J. J.; Yearsley, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    Path integrals appear to offer natural and intuitively appealing methods for defining quantum-mechanical amplitudes for questions involving spacetime regions. For example, the amplitude for entering a spatial region during a given time interval is typically defined by summing over all paths between given initial and final points but restricting them to pass through the region at any time. We argue that there is, however, under very general conditions, a significant complication in such constructions. This is the fact that the concrete implementation of the restrictions on paths over an interval of time corresponds, in an operator language, to sharp monitoring at every moment of time in the given time interval. Such processes suffer from the quantum Zeno effect - the continual monitoring of a quantum system in a Hilbert subspace prevents its state from leaving that subspace. As a consequence, path integral amplitudes defined in this seemingly obvious way have physically and intuitively unreasonable properties and in particular, no sensible classical limit. In this paper we describe this frequently-occurring but little-appreciated phenomenon in some detail, showing clearly the connection with the quantum Zeno effect. We then show that it may be avoided by implementing the restriction on paths in the path integral in a "softer" way. The resulting amplitudes then involve a new coarse graining parameter, which may be taken to be a timescale epsilon, describing the softening of the restrictions on the paths. We argue that the complications arising from the Zeno effect are then negligible as long as epsilon >> 1/E, where E is the energy scale of the incoming state. Our criticisms of path integral constructions largely apply to approaches to quantum theory such as the decoherent histories approach or quantum measure theory, which do not specifically involve measurements. We address some criticisms of our approach by Sokolovksi, concerning the relevance of our results to

  20. Sensory Integration and Play Behavior: A Case Study of the Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy Using Sensory Integrative Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This case study describes a developmentally delayed 4-year-old and examines behavioral changes that occurred in occupational therapy using sensory integration (SI) techniques. The use of play observation to measure change following SI treatment is discussed, and the relevance of qualitative methodologies to collecting data on play is demonstrated.…

  1. Drug side-effect prediction based on the integration of chemical and biological spaces.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Pauwels, Edouard; Kotera, Masaaki

    2012-12-21

    Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern and remain one of the main causes of drug failure and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, the identification of potential severe side-effects is a challenging issue. In this paper, we develop a new method to predict potential side-effect profiles of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures and target protein information on a large scale. We propose several extensions of kernel regression model for multiple responses to deal with heterogeneous data sources. The originality lies in the integration of the chemical space of drug chemical structures and the biological space of drug target proteins in a unified framework. As a result, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method on the simultaneous prediction of 969 side-effects for approved drugs from their chemical substructure and target protein profiles and show that the prediction accuracy consistently improves owing to the proposed regression model and integration of chemical and biological information. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank and confirm interesting predictions using independent information sources. The proposed method is expected to be useful at many stages of the drug development process. PMID:23157436

  2. What can comparative effectiveness research contribute to integrative health in international perspective?

    PubMed

    Witt, Claudia M; Rafferty Withers, Shelly; Grant, Suzanne; Lauer, Michael S; Tunis, Sean; Berman, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    The interest in Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) in the international community is growing. A panel titled "What Can Comparative Effectiveness Research Contribute to Integrative Health in International Perspective?" took place at the 3rd International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health in Portland, Oregon, in 2012. The presentations at this panel highlighted different perspectives on CER, including the funders' and the stakeholders' perspectives from the United States, as well as experiences with economic evaluations from Australia and pragmatic trials in Europe. The funders' perspective emphasized the need for innovation and controlling costs in large-scale studies. The stakeholder's perspective stressed the need to gather the input of stakeholders in shaping the framework for more informative, more decision-maker-driven research. Several examples of cost-effectiveness analyses were offered from Australia. The importance of balancing rigor and pragmatism was also discussed in a presentation of the efficacy-effectiveness continuum. A wide-ranging discussion explored additional questions concerning the translation of evidence into practice; the effect of pragmatic trials on funding or policy; evidentiary distinctions between and among pragmatic trials and traditional randomized clinical trials; and the multiple roles of stakeholders, particularly in generating new information and knowledge. The presentations and discussions showed that more development of methods is needed. This includes developments on study design and statistical approaches, as well as methods for stakeholder involvement and mechanisms to bring these results into practice. PMID:25372702

  3. Audiovisual integration in the absence of a McGurk effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancazio, Lawrence; Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michèle

    2002-05-01

    The McGurk effect, a change in perceived place of articulation due to an incongruent visual stimulus (e.g., auditory /pi/ with visual /ti/ perceived as /ti/), demonstrates the contribution of vision to speech perception. Interestingly, in a given experiment the McGurk effect typically does not occur on every trial. We investigated whether non-McGurk trials result from a failure to perceptually integrate auditory and visual information by simultaneously manipulating visual place of articulation and visual speaking rate. Previous work [Green and Miller, Percept. Psychophys. 38, 269-276 (1985)] has shown that the boundary along an auditory /bi/-/pi/ voice-onset-time (VOT) continuum occurs at a longer VOT when the auditory stimulus is paired with a slow rather than a fast visual /pi/. We paired stimuli from an auditory /bi/-/pi/ continuum with fast and slow versions of a visual /ti/, and subjects identified each item as /b/, /p/, /d/, or /t/. We found a rate effect on McGurk trials, with the /d/-/t/ boundary occurring at a longer VOT when the visual stimulus was slow rather than fast. Importantly, we found a comparable rate effect for the /b/-/p/ boundary on non-McGurk trials. This indicates that audiovisual integration occurs even in the absence of a McGurk effect. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  4. What Can Comparative Effectiveness Research Contribute to Integrative Health in International Perspective?

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty Withers, Shelly; Grant, Suzanne; Lauer, Michael S.; Tunis, Sean; Berman, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The interest in Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) in the international community is growing. A panel titled “What Can Comparative Effectiveness Research Contribute to Integrative Health in International Perspective?” took place at the 3rd International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health in Portland, Oregon, in 2012. The presentations at this panel highlighted different perspectives on CER, including the funders' and the stakeholders' perspectives from the United States, as well as experiences with economic evaluations from Australia and pragmatic trials in Europe. The funders' perspective emphasized the need for innovation and controlling costs in large-scale studies. The stakeholder's perspective stressed the need to gather the input of stakeholders in shaping the framework for more informative, more decision-maker-driven research. Several examples of cost-effectiveness analyses were offered from Australia. The importance of balancing rigor and pragmatism was also discussed in a presentation of the efficacy–effectiveness continuum. A wide-ranging discussion explored additional questions concerning the translation of evidence into practice; the effect of pragmatic trials on funding or policy; evidentiary distinctions between and among pragmatic trials and traditional randomized clinical trials; and the multiple roles of stakeholders, particularly in generating new information and knowledge. The presentations and discussions showed that more development of methods is needed. This includes developments on study design and statistical approaches, as well as methods for stakeholder involvement and mechanisms to bring these results into practice. PMID:25372702

  5. Cue integration and context effects in speech: Evidence against speaking rate normalization

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Joseph C.; McMurray, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Listeners are able to accurately recognize speech despite variation in acoustic cues across contexts, such as different speaking rates. Previous work has suggested that listeners use rate information (indicated by vowel length; VL) to modify their use of context-dependent acoustic cues, like voice-onset time (VOT), a primary cue to voicing. We present several experiments and simulations that offer an alternative explanation: listeners treat VL as an phonetic cue, rather than as an indicator of speaking rate, and rely on general cue-integration principles to combine information from VOT and VL. We demonstrate that listeners use the two cues independently, that VL is used in both naturally-produced and synthetic speech, and that effects of stimulus naturalness can be explained by a cue-integration model. Together, these results suggest that listeners do not interpret VOT relative to rate information provided by VL and that effects of speaking rate can be explained by more general cue-integration principles. PMID:22532385

  6. Effects of Increasing Urbanization on the Ecological Integrity of Open Space Preserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbah, Hayriye; Cook, Edward A.; Ewan, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    This article analyzes the effects of increasing urbanization on open space preserves within the metropolitan area of Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Time series analysis is used in 10-year increments over 40 years to study urban landscape change. Three landscape metrics—(1) matrix utility (measures intensity of adjacent land uses), (2) isolation (measures distances to other open space patches), and (3) connectivity (measures physical links to other open space patches and corridors)—are used to assess changes in landscape patterns and serve as indicators of urban ecological integrity of the open space preserves. Results show that in the case of both open space preserves, general decline in indicators of urban ecological integrity was evident. The matrix utility analysis demonstrated that increasing intensity of land uses adjacent to preserve is likely to increase edge effects, reducing the habitat value of interior or core habitat areas. Isolation analysis showed that both preserves have experienced increasing isolation from other open space elements over time. Also, connectivity analysis indicated that terrestrial connections to other open space elements have also deteriorated. Conclusions of this research demonstrate that while preservation of natural areas as open space is important in an urban context, intense development of surrounding areas reduces the urban ecological integrity significantly.

  7. Effects of Sound Frequency on Audiovisual Integration: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yanna; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    A combination of signals across modalities can facilitate sensory perception. The audiovisual facilitative effect strongly depends on the features of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how sound frequency, which is one of basic features of an auditory signal, modulates audiovisual integration. In this study, the task of the participant was to respond to a visual target stimulus by pressing a key while ignoring auditory stimuli, comprising of tones of different frequencies (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 kHz). A significant facilitation of reaction times was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the task-irrelevant sounds were low or high frequency. Using event-related potential (ERP), audiovisual integration was found over the occipital area for 0.5 kHz auditory stimuli from 190–210 ms, for 1 kHz stimuli from 170–200 ms, for 2.5 kHz stimuli from 140–200 ms, 5 kHz stimuli from 100–200 ms. These findings suggest that a higher frequency sound signal paired with visual stimuli might be early processed or integrated despite the auditory stimuli being task-irrelevant information. Furthermore, audiovisual integration in late latency (300–340 ms) ERPs with fronto-central topography was found for auditory stimuli of lower frequencies (0.5, 1 and 2.5 kHz). Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration is affected by the frequency of an auditory stimulus. Taken together, the neurophysiological results provide unique insight into how the brain processes a multisensory visual signal and auditory stimuli of different frequencies. PMID:26384256

  8. Effects of Sound Frequency on Audiovisual Integration: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yanna; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    A combination of signals across modalities can facilitate sensory perception. The audiovisual facilitative effect strongly depends on the features of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how sound frequency, which is one of basic features of an auditory signal, modulates audiovisual integration. In this study, the task of the participant was to respond to a visual target stimulus by pressing a key while ignoring auditory stimuli, comprising of tones of different frequencies (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 kHz). A significant facilitation of reaction times was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the task-irrelevant sounds were low or high frequency. Using event-related potential (ERP), audiovisual integration was found over the occipital area for 0.5 kHz auditory stimuli from 190-210 ms, for 1 kHz stimuli from 170-200 ms, for 2.5 kHz stimuli from 140-200 ms, 5 kHz stimuli from 100-200 ms. These findings suggest that a higher frequency sound signal paired with visual stimuli might be early processed or integrated despite the auditory stimuli being task-irrelevant information. Furthermore, audiovisual integration in late latency (300-340 ms) ERPs with fronto-central topography was found for auditory stimuli of lower frequencies (0.5, 1 and 2.5 kHz). Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration is affected by the frequency of an auditory stimulus. Taken together, the neurophysiological results provide unique insight into how the brain processes a multisensory visual signal and auditory stimuli of different frequencies. PMID:26384256

  9. Clinical Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Sensory Integrative and Perceptual Motor Therapy in Improving Sensory Integrative Function in Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Thomas W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    After 72 sessions for 3 hours per week, significantly more children aged 5-9 receiving sensory integration (SI) therapy (n=35) and perceptual motor training (n=35) showed improvement in SI functioning compared to 33 receiving no treatment. Similar effects were found for subgroups with vestibular dysfunction only (n=11, 13, and 11 respectively).…

  10. Positioning of jamming aircraft using the integrated refractive effects prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, T. W.

    1982-10-01

    Tactical ECM planning has historically considered only horizontal positioning of self-protection and standoff jamming systems. Failure to consider vertical positioning of the jammer, and how the environment affects that positioning, can lead to substantially reduced jamming effectiveness. The effects of radar and jamming system antenna patterns and environmental considerations are discussed. The Integrated Refractive Effects Prediction System (IREPS) incorporates these effects, but not in a form that is convenient for ECM planning. However, as it is now configured, IREPS can be a useful tool. A step-by-step approach for using IREPS and the jamming equations to assist the ECM planner is given. Sample calculations for self-protection and standoff jamming under actual environmental conditions are provided.

  11. Efficient implementation of effective core potential integrals and gradients on graphical processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chenchen; Wang, Lee-Ping; Sachse, Torsten; Preiß, Julia; Presselt, Martin; Martínez, Todd J.

    2015-07-01

    Effective core potential integral and gradient evaluations are accelerated via implementation on graphical processing units (GPUs). Two simple formulas are proposed to estimate the upper bounds of the integrals, and these are used for screening. A sorting strategy is designed to balance the workload between GPU threads properly. Significant improvements in performance and reduced scaling with system size are observed when combining the screening and sorting methods, and the calculations are highly efficient for systems containing up to 10 000 basis functions. The GPU implementation preserves the precision of the calculation; the ground state Hartree-Fock energy achieves good accuracy for CdSe and ZnTe nanocrystals, and energy is well conserved in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

  12. Efficient implementation of effective core potential integrals and gradients on graphical processing units.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenchen; Wang, Lee-Ping; Sachse, Torsten; Preiss, Julia; Presselt, Martin; Martínez, Todd J

    2015-07-01

    Effective core potential integral and gradient evaluations are accelerated via implementation on graphical processing units (GPUs). Two simple formulas are proposed to estimate the upper bounds of the integrals, and these are used for screening. A sorting strategy is designed to balance the workload between GPU threads properly. Significant improvements in performance and reduced scaling with system size are observed when combining the screening and sorting methods, and the calculations are highly efficient for systems containing up to 10 000 basis functions. The GPU implementation preserves the precision of the calculation; the ground state Hartree-Fock energy achieves good accuracy for CdSe and ZnTe nanocrystals, and energy is well conserved in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:26156472

  13. Buoyancy effects on the integral lengthscales and mean velocity profile in atmospheric surface layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salesky, Scott T.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2013-10-01

    Within the diabatic atmospheric surface layer (ASL) under quasi-stationary and horizontal homogeneous conditions, the mean velocity profile deviates from its conventional logarithmic shape by a height-dependent universal stability correction function ϕm(ζ) that varies with the stability parameter ζ. The ζ parameter measures the relative importance of mechanical to buoyant production or destruction of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the ASL. A link between ϕm(ζ) and the spectrum of turbulence in the ASL was recently proposed by Katul et al. ["Mean velocity profile in a sheared and thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 268502 (2011)]. By accounting for the stability-dependence of TKE production, Katul et al. were able to recover scalings for ϕm with the anticipated power-law exponents for free convective, slightly unstable, and stable conditions. To obtain coefficients for the ϕm(ζ) curve in good agreement with empirical formulas, they introduced a correction for the variation of the integral lengthscale of vertical velocity with ζ estimated from the Kansas experiment. In the current work, the link between the coefficients in empirical curves for ϕm(ζ) and stability-dependent properties of turbulence in the ASL, including the variation with ζ of the integral lengthscale and the anisotropy of momentum transporting eddies is investigated using data from the Advection Horizontal Array Turbulence Study. The theoretical framework presented by Katul et al. is revised to account explicitly for these effects. It is found that the coefficients in the ϕm(ζ) curve for unstable and near-neutral conditions can be explained by accounting for the stability-dependence of the integral lengthscale and anisotropy of momentum-transporting eddies; however, an explanation for the observed ϕm(ζ) curve for stable conditions remains elusive. The effect of buoyancy on the horizontal and vertical integral lengthscales is also analyzed in

  14. Effects of dairy products on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sanz Fernandez, M Victoria; Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Gabler, Nicholas K; Metzger, Lloyd; Patience, John F; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress compromises intestinal integrity which may partially explain its negative effects on animal health and productivity. Research suggests that challenged intestinal barrier function improves with dietary dairy products in various models. Thus, the study objective was to evaluate the effects of bovine milk whey protein (WP) and colostral whey protein (CWP) on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed pigs. Crossbred gilts (39 ± 3 kg body weight) were fed 1 of 4 diets (n = 8 pigs/diet): control (Ct), control diet containing an 80% WP and 20% CWP product (WP80), control diet containing a 98% WP and 2% CWP product (WP98), and control diet containing a 100% WP product (WP100). After 7d on experimental diets, pigs were exposed to constant heat stress conditions (32 °C) for 24h. There were no treatment differences in growth or body temperature indices prior to heat stress. During heat exposure, both rectal temperature and respiration rate increased (+0.85 °C and 3-fold, respectively; P < 0.01), and feed intake and body weight decreased (44% and -0.5kg, respectively; P < 0.01), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatments. Plasma L-lactate and D-lactate concentrations increased (36%; P < 0.01) and tended to increase (19%; P = 0.09) with heat stress. After 24h of heat exposure, WP100-fed pigs had lower plasma D-lactate relative to Ct-fed pigs. Ileal transepithelial electrical resistance was decreased (37%; P = 0.02) in WP80 pigs, compared with controls. No differences were detected in other intestinal integrity ex vivo measurements. These data demonstrate that dietary WP and CWP did not mitigate intestinal integrity dysfunction during severe heat stress.

  15. Integrating Cost-effective Rollover Protective Structure Installation in High School Agricultural Mechanics: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Joan; Vincent, Stacy; Watson, Jennifer; Westneat, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study with three Appalachian county agricultural education programs examined the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of integrating a cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project into high school agricultural mechanics classes. The project aimed to (1) reduce the exposure to tractor overturn hazards in three rural counties through the installation of CROPS on seven tractors within the Cumberland Plateau in the east region; (2) increase awareness in the targeted rural communities of cost-effective ROPS designs developed by the National Institution for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to encourage ROPS installations that decrease the costs of a retrofit; (3) test the feasibility of integration of CROPS construction and installations procedures into the required agricultural mechanics classes in these agricultural education programs; and (4) explore barriers to the implementation of this project in high school agricultural education programs. Eighty-two rural students and three agricultural educators participated in assembly and installation instruction. Data included hazard exposure demographic data, knowledge and awareness of CROPS plans, and pre-post knowledge of construction and assessment of final CROPS installation. Findings demonstrated the feasibility and utility of a CROPS education program in a professionally supervised secondary educational setting. The project promoted farm safety and awareness of availability and interest in the NIOSH Cost-effective ROPS plans. Seven CROPS were constructed and installed. New curriculum and knowledge measures also resulted from the work. Lessons learned and recommendations for a phase 2 implementation and further research are included. PMID:25906273

  16. The effect of CT technical factors on quantification of lung fissure integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, D.; Brown, M. S.; Ochs, R.; Abtin, F.; Brown, M.; Ordookhani, A.; Shaw, G.; Kim, H. J.; Gjertson, D.; Goldin, J. G.

    2009-02-01

    A new emphysema treatment uses endobronchial valves to perform lobar volume reduction. The degree of fissure completeness may predict treatment efficacy. This study investigated the behavior of a semiautomated algorithm for quantifying lung fissure integrity in CT with respect to reconstruction kernel and dose. Raw CT data was obtained for six asymptomatic patients from a high-risk population for lung cancer. The patients were scanned on either a Siemens Sensation 16 or 64, using a low-dose protocol of 120 kVp, 25 mAs. Images were reconstructed using kernels ranging from smooth to sharp (B10f, B30f, B50f, B70f). Research software was used to simulate an even lower-dose acquisition of 15 mAs, and images were generated at the same kernels resulting in 8 series per patient. The left major fissure was manually contoured axially at regular intervals, yielding 37 contours across all patients. These contours were read into an image analysis and pattern classification system which computed a Fissure Integrity Score (FIS) for each kernel and dose. FIS values were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with kernel and dose as fixed effects and patient as random effect to test for difference due to kernel and dose. Analysis revealed no difference in FIS between the smooth kernels (B10f, B30f) nor between sharp kernels (B50f, B70f), but there was a significant difference between the sharp and smooth groups (p = 0.020). There was no significant difference in FIS between the two low-dose reconstructions (p = 0.882). Using a cutoff of 90%, the number of incomplete fissures increased from 5 to 10 when the imaging protocol changed from B50f to B30f. Reconstruction kernel has a significant effect on quantification of fissure integrity in CT. This has potential implications when selecting patients for endobronchial valve therapy.

  17. Effects of neonatal (+)-methamphetamine on path integration and spatial learning in rats: Effects of dose and rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vorhees, Charles V.; Herring, Nicole R.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Grace, Curtis E.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Johnson, Holly L.; Williams, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Postnatal day (P)11–20 (+)-methamphetamine (MA) treatment impairs spatial learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze, but has marginal effects on path integration learning in a labyrinthine maze. A subsequent experiment showed that MA treatment on P11–15, but not P16–20, is sufficient to induce Morris maze deficits. Here we tested the effects of P11–15 MA treatment under two different rearing conditions on Morris maze performance and path integration learning in the Cincinnati water maze in which distal cues were unavailable by using infrared illumination. Littermates were treated with 0, 10, 15, 20, or 25 mg/kg x 4 per day (2 h intervals). Half the litters were reared under standard housing conditions and half under partial enrichment by adding stainless steel enclosures. All MA groups showed impaired Cincinnati water maze performance with no significant effects of rearing condition. In the Morris maze, the MA-25 group showed impaired spatial acquisition, reversal, and small platform learning. Enrichment significantly improved Morris maze acquisition in all groups but did not interact with treatment. The male MA-25 group was also impaired on probe trial performance after acquisition and on small platform trials. A narrow window of MA treatment (P11–15) induces impaired path integration learning irrespective of dose within the range tested but impairments in spatial learning are dependent on dose. The results demonstrate that a narrower exposure window (5 days) changes the long-term effects of MA treatment compared to longer exposures (10 days). PMID:18502078

  18. The Role of Lexical Properties and Cohesive Devices in Text Integration and Their Effect on Human Ratings of Speaking Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott; Clevinger, Amanda; Kim, YouJin

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of integrated tasks in the field of second language testing to enhance the authenticity of language tests. However, the role of text integration in test takers' performance has not been widely investigated. The purpose of the current study is to examine the effects of text-based relational (i.e.,…

  19. An Experimental Study on Effectiveness of Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) in Social Studies Education for Gifted and Talented Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalay, Özlem; Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study examines the effects of Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) on 4th grade elementary gifted and talented students' academic achievement, creativity and critical thinking (Control Group N= 10, Experimental Group N= 11) in the social studies classroom context, in Istanbul, Turkey. Integrated Curriculum Model was utilized to…

  20. The Effect of Integrated Stimuli and Prompting at Various Stages of Training on Delayed Retention, of Word Recognition by Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felicetti, Carmen Salvatore

    The purpose of this study was to determine effects of various prompting procedures in teaching children a sight vocabulary. The five words which comprised the sight vocabulary were presented to 96 five-year-olds in nursery and elementary schools. During initial training, integrated stimuli and non-integrated stimuli differed with respect to the…

  1. Effects of Delays on 6-Year-Old Children's Self-Generation and Retention of Knowledge through Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (i.e., "stem" facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In…

  2. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  3. Motor Imagery and Its Effect on Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Nélio Silva; Martins, Ana Carolina Gomes; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Leite, Marco Antônio A.; Teixeira, Silmar; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Bittencourt, Juliana; Matta, André Palma da Cunha; Filho, Pedro Moreira

    2015-01-01

    The motor imagery (MI) has been proposed as a treatment in the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1), since it seems to promote a brain reorganization effect on sensory-motor areas of pain perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through an integrative critical review, the influence of MI on the CRPS-1, correlating their evidence to clinical practice. Research in PEDro, Medline, Bireme and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Nine randomized controlled trials (level 2), 1 non-controlled clinical study (level 3), 1 case study (level 4), 1 systematic review (level 1), 2 review articles and 1 comment (level 5) were found. We can conclude that MI has shown effect in reducing pain and functionality that remains after 6 months of treatment. However, the difference between the MI strategies for CRPS-1 is unknown as well as the intensity of mental stress influences the painful response or effect of MI or other peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26788264

  4. Fast Response, Open-Celled Porous, Shape Memory Effect Actuators with Integrated Attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jardine, Andrew Peter (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the exploitation of porous foam articles exhibiting the Shape Memory Effect as actuators. Each foam article is composed of a plurality of geometric shapes, such that some geometric shapes can fit snugly into or around rigid mating connectors that attach the Shape Memory foam article intimately into the load path between a static structure and a moveable structure. The foam is open-celled, composed of a plurality of interconnected struts whose mean diameter can vary from approximately 50 to 500 microns. Gases and fluids flowing through the foam transfer heat rapidly with the struts, providing rapid Shape Memory Effect transformations. Embodiments of porous foam articles as torsional actuators and approximately planar structures are disposed. Simple, integral connection systems exploiting the ability to supply large loads to a structure, and that can also supply hot and cold gases and fluids to effect rapid actuation are also disposed.

  5. Motor Imagery and Its Effect on Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Nélio Silva; Martins, Ana Carolina Gomes; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antônio A; Teixeira, Silmar; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Bittencourt, Juliana; Matta, André Palma da Cunha; Filho, Pedro Moreira

    2015-12-29

    The motor imagery (MI) has been proposed as a treatment in the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1), since it seems to promote a brain reorganization effect on sensory-motor areas of pain perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through an integrative critical review, the influence of MI on the CRPS-1, correlating their evidence to clinical practice. Research in PEDro, Medline, Bireme and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Nine randomized controlled trials (level 2), 1 non-controlled clinical study (level 3), 1 case study (level 4), 1 systematic review (level 1), 2 review articles and 1 comment (level 5) were found. We can conclude that MI has shown effect in reducing pain and functionality that remains after 6 months of treatment. However, the difference between the MI strategies for CRPS-1 is unknown as well as the intensity of mental stress influences the painful response or effect of MI or other peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26788264

  6. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-03-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  7. Impact of late radiation effects on cancer survivor children: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We aimed to identify the late effects of radiation exposure in pediatric cancer survivors. An integrated literature review was performed in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS and SciELO. Included were articles in Portuguese and English, published over the past 10 years, using the following keywords: “neoplasias/neoplasms” AND “radioterapia/radiotherapy” AND “radiação/radiation”. After analysis, 14 articles - published in nine well-known journals - met the inclusion criteria. The publications were divided into two categories: “Late endocrine effects” and “Late non-endocrine effects”. Considering the increased survival rates in children who had cancer, the impact of late effects of exposure to radiation during radiological examinations for diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Childhood cancer survivors were exposed to several late effects and should be early and regularly followed up, even when exposed to low radiation doses. PMID:26313432

  8. β-adrenergic effects on cardiac myofilaments and contraction in an integrated rabbit ventricular myocyte model.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Jorge A; Morotti, Stefano; Lascano, Elena C; Gomes, Aldrin V; Grandi, Eleonora; Puglisi, José L; Bers, Donald M

    2015-04-01

    A five-state model of myofilament contraction was integrated into a well-established rabbit ventricular myocyte model of ion channels, Ca(2+) transporters and kinase signaling to analyze the relative contribution of different phosphorylation targets to the overall mechanical response driven by β-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS). β-AS effect on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling, Ca(2+), K(+) and Cl(-) currents, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase properties was included based on experimental data. The inotropic effect on the myofilaments was represented as reduced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity (XBCa) and titin stiffness, and increased cross-bridge (XB) cycling rate (XBcy). Assuming independent roles of XBCa and XBcy, the model reproduced experimental β-AS responses on action potentials and Ca(2+) transient amplitude and kinetics. It also replicated the behavior of force-Ca(2+), release-restretch, length-step, stiffness-frequency and force-velocity relationships, and increased force and shortening in isometric and isotonic twitch contractions. The β-AS effect was then switched off from individual targets to analyze their relative impact on contractility. Preventing β-AS effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels or phospholamban limited Ca(2+) transients and contractile responses in parallel, while blocking phospholemman and K(+) channel (IKs) effects enhanced Ca(2+) and inotropy. Removal of β-AS effects from XBCa enhanced contractile force while decreasing peak Ca(2+) (due to greater Ca(2+) buffering), but had less effect on shortening. Conversely, preventing β-AS effects on XBcy preserved Ca(2+) transient effects, but blunted inotropy (both isometric force and especially shortening). Removal of titin effects had little impact on contraction. Finally, exclusion of β-AS from XBCa and XBcy while preserving effects on other targets resulted in preserved peak isometric force response (with slower kinetics) but nearly abolished enhanced shortening. β-AS effects on XBCa and XBcy

  9. β-adrenergic effects on cardiac myofilaments and contraction in an integrated rabbit ventricular myocyte model

    PubMed Central

    Negroni, Jorge A.; Morotti, Stefano; Lascano, Elena C.; Gomes, Aldrin V.; Grandi, Eleonora; Puglisi, José L; Bers, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    A five-state model of myofilament contraction was integrated into a well-established rabbit ventricular myocyte model of ion channels, Ca2+ transporters and kinase signaling to analyze the relative contribution of different phosphorylation targets to the overall mechanical response driven by β-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS). β-AS effect on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ handling, Ca2+, K+ and Cl− currents, and Na+/K+-ATPase properties were included based on experimental data. The inotropic effect on the myofilaments was represented as reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity (XBCa) and titin stiffness, and increased cross-bridge (XB) cycling rate (XBcy). Assuming independent roles of XBCa and XBcy, the model reproduced experimental β-AS responses on action potentials and Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics. It also replicated the behavior of force-Ca2+, release-restretch, length-step, stiffness-frequency and force-velocity relationships, and increased force and shortening in isometric and isotonic twitch contractions. The β-AS effect was then switched off from individual targets to analyze their relative impact on contractility. Preventing β-AS effects on L-type Ca2+ channels or phospholamban limited Ca2+ transients and contractile responses in parallel, while blocking phospholemman and K+ channel (IKs) effects enhanced Ca2+ and inotropy. Removal of β-AS effects from XBCa enhanced contractile force while decreasing peak Ca2+ (due to greater Ca2+ buffering), but had less effect on shortening. Conversely, preventing β-AS effects on XBcy preserved Ca2+ transient effects, but blunted inotropy (both isometric force and especially shortening). Removal of titin effects had little impact on contraction. Finally, exclusion of β-AS from XBCa and XBcy while preserving effects on other targets resulted in preserved peak isometric force response (with slower kinetics) but nearly abolished enhanced shortening. β-AS effects on XBCa vs. XBcy have greater impact on isometric

  10. Modeling of integrated sunlight velocity measurements: The effect of surface darkening by magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Henney, C. J.; Schimpf, S.; Fossat, E.; Gelly, B.; Grec, G.; Loudagh, S.; Schmider, F.-X; Palle, P.; Regulo, C.

    1993-01-01

    It has been known since the work by Claverie et al. (1982) that integrated-sunlight velocities measured with the resonance scattering technique show variations with time scales of weeks to months. The cause can be understood in terms of the effects of solar activity as was pointed out by Edmunds & Gough (1983) and Andersen & Maltby (1983). The latter authors included a model calculation based on sunspot areas which showed good promise of being able to quantitatively reproduce the observed velocity shifts. We discuss in this paper a new modeling effort based on daily magnetograms obtained at the 150-ft tower on Mt. Wilson. This type of database is more quantitative than sunspot area. Similar maps of magnetically sensitive quantities will be measured on a continuous time base as part of several planned helioseismology experiments (from space with the Solar Oscillations Imagery/Michelson Doppler Imager (SOI/MDI) experiment on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), see Scherrer et al. (1991) or with ground-based networks, see Hill & Leibacher (1991)). We discuss the correlations between various magnetically sensitive quantities and develop a new model for the effects of magnetic field on line profiles and surface brightness. From these correlations we integrate the line profile changes over the solar surface using observed magnetic field strengths measured at lambda 5250.2. The final output is a new model for the effects of magnetic fields on integrated sunlight velocities which we compare with daily offset velocities derived from the International Research on the Interior of the Sun (IRIS)-T instrument at the Observatorio del Teide.

  11. Effects of relative positioning of energy sources on weld integrity for hybrid laser arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuangyu; Li, Yanqing; Liu, Fengde; Zhang, Hong; Ding, Hongtao

    2016-06-01

    This study is concerned with the effects of laser and arc arrangement on weld integrity for the hybrid laser arc welding processes. Experiments were conducted for a high-strength steel using a 4 kW Nd: YAG laser and a metal active gas (MAG) welding facility under two configurations of arc-laser hybrid welding (ALHW) and laser-arc hybrid welding (LAHW). Metallographic analysis and mechanical testing were performed to evaluate the weld integrity in terms of weld bead geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties. The morphology of the weld bead cross-section was studied and the typical macrostructure of the weld beads appeared to be cone-shaped and cocktail cup-shaped under ALHW and LAHW configurations, respectively. The weld integrity attributes of microstructure, phase constituents and microhardness were analyzed for different weld regions. The tensile and impact tests were performed and fracture surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. The study showed that ALHW produced joints with a better weld shape and a more uniform microstructure of lath martensite, while LAHW weld had a heterogeneous structure of lath martensite and austenite.

  12. Comparative study on compact planar waveguide based photonic integrated couplers using simple effective index method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Bidyut; Dutta, Aradhana; Sahu, Partha P.

    2013-11-01

    The miniaturization of photonic components in integrated optic waveguide devices to microscale platform has attracted enormous attention from the researchers and entrepreneurs. In this paper, we present and report a comparative study of photonic integrated planar waveguide based couplers using a mathematical model based on sinusoidal mode simple effective index method (SEIM). The basic photonic integrated components such as directional coupler (DC), two mode interference (TMI) coupler and multimode interference (MMI) coupler have been designed and fabricated using the versatile SiON waveguide technology (SiON as the waveguide core material using silica waveguide). The experimental results have been compared with the SEIM based theoretical results and further verified with the commercially available software tool based on beam propagation method (BPM). With a focus towards device compactness, particular emphasis is placed on device geometry in an endeavour to achieve the same. In this direction, the theoretical and experimental results obtained have been compared with tooth shaped grating assisted geometry for these photonic components. It is found that the grating assisted structures have the beat length ~0.5 times lower than that of the conventional geometry. Further it is seen that the beat length of TMI coupler is smaller compared to the DC and MMI coupler.

  13. PIC/MCC simulation of capacitively coupled discharges: Effect of particle management and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Anbang; Becker, Markus M.; Loffhagen, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    A PIC/MCC simulation model for the analysis of low-temperature discharge plasmas is represented which takes the common leapfrog and the velocity Verlet algorithm for the particle integration, adaptive particle management as well as parallel computing using MPI into account. Main features of the model including the impact of super particle numbers, adaptive particle management and the time step size for the different integration methods are represented. The investigations are performed for low-pressure capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges in helium and argon. Besides a code verification by comparison with benchmark simulation results in helium it is shown that an adaptive particle management is particularly suitable for the simulation of discharges at elevated pressures where boundary effects and processes in the sheath regions are important. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the velocity Verlet integration scheme allows to speed up the PIC/MCC simulations compared to the leapfrog method because it makes the use of larger time steps at the same accuracy possible.

  14. Effect of powdered activated carbon on integrated submerged membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration process for wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Woo, Yun Chul; Lee, Jeong Jun; Shim, Wang-Geun; Shon, Ho Kyong; Tijing, Leonard D; Yao, Minwei; Kim, Han-Seung

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the overall performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) system integrated with nanofiltration (NF) for wastewater reclamation. It was found that the trans-membrane pressure of SMBR increased continuously while that of the SMBR with PAC was more stable, mainly because water could still pass through the PACs and membrane even though foulants adhered on the PAC surface. The presence of PAC was able to mitigate fouling in SMBR as well as in NF. SMBR-NF with PAC obtained a higher flux of 8.1 LMH compared to that without PAC (6.6 LMH). In addition, better permeate quality was obtained with SMBR-NF integrated process added with PAC. The present results suggest that the addition of PAC in integrated SMBR-NF process could possibly lead to satisfying water quality and can be operated for a long-term duration. PMID:26879205

  15. Effect of knowledge integration activities on students' perception of the earth's crust as a cyclic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2003-08-01

    Systems thinking is regarded as a high-order thinking skill required in scientific, technological, and everyday domains. However, little is known about systems thinking in the context of science education. In the current research, students' understanding of the rock cycle system after a learning program was characterized, and the effect of a concluding knowledge integration activity on their systems thinking was studied. Answers to an open-ended test were interpreted using a systems thinking continuum, ranging from a completely static view of the system to an understanding of the system's cyclic nature. A meaningful improvement in students' views of the rock cycle toward the higher side of the systems thinking continuum was found after the knowledge integration activity. Students became more aware of the dynamic and cyclic nature of the rock cycle, and their ability to construct sequences of processes representing material transformation in relatively large chunks significantly improved. Success of the knowledge integration activity stresses the importance of postknowledge acquisition activities, which engage students in a dual process of differentiation of their knowledge and reintegration in a systems context. We suggest including such activities in curricula involving systems-based contents, particularly in earth science, in which systems thinking can bring about environmental literacy.

  16. Effect of thyme essential oil and selenium on intestine integrity and antioxidant status of broilers.

    PubMed

    Placha, I; Takacova, J; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Laukova, A; Strompfova, V; Venglovska, K; Faix, S

    2014-02-01

    1. This study evaluated the duodenal wall integrity, antioxidant status as well as some immunological parameters of broiler chickens supplemented with 0.5 g Thymus vulgaris essential oil (EO)/kg diet and 0.4 mg Se/kg DM (dry matter) derived from sodium selenite. 2. A total of 192 one-d-old randomly divided chickens of both sexes (Ross 308 hybrid broilers) were divided into 4 treatment groups of 48 birds each. 3. The first group was fed on a nutritionally balanced basal diet (BD). The other three groups received BD supplemented with 0.5 g/kg thyme oil, or 0.4 mg Se/kg DM, or both feed additives together. 4. The results for the evaluated feed additives were (1) thyme oil - decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in duodenal mucosa and kidney, increased immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentration in duodenal mucosa, stimulated phagocytic activity in blood, improved intestinal barrier integrity (2) selenium - increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in blood and liver as well as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in duodenal mucosa, liver and in the kidney, (3) EO with selenium - increased thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in duodenal mucosa. 5. These results demonstrated that thyme oil alone showed more effective potential to improve intestinal barrier integrity and antioxidant status as well as evoking an immune response in chickens, than if diets were supplemented with both thyme oil and selenium. PMID:24397472

  17. The effectiveness of an integrated conceptual approach to teaching middle school science: A mixed methods investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Susan K.

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of using traditional and integrated instructional strategies to increase student understanding of the core concepts of energy. There are mixed messages in the literature as to the success of using an integrated approach to teach science content, despite suggestions its use improves student achievement and attitudes toward science. This study used a mixed-method approach. The quantitative portion was a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design, and the qualitative portion included teacher journals, teacher interviews and student journals. There were three teacher participants, two in the treatment group from a district in Sussex County, Delaware. The third teacher participant, from a different district in Sussex County, Delaware was in the control group. The treatment group consisted of 180 students and the control group consisted of 124 students. The results of this study show that the treatment group had significantly less anxiety in science following the treatment, than students in the control group. The F value of 10.89 was significant at p = 0.001. Students in the treatment group also had more enjoyment of and motivation in science than did students in the control group. The F value of 25.025 was significant at a p = 0.000 for the subscale enjoyment of science. The F value of 14.1 was significant at a p = 0.000 for the subscale of motivation in science. Students in the treatment group performed significantly better on the achievement tests, the Integrated Summative Energy Assessment (ISEA) and the science portion of the Delaware State Testing Program (DSTP). The treatment group performed significantly better on the ISEA than did the control group, with an F value of 407.7 significant at p = 0.000. The treatment group performed significantly better on the science DSTP than the control group, with an F value of 65.81 which was significant at p = 0.000. The use of an integrated approach to science

  18. Effect of antifungal agents on lipid biosynthesis and membrane integrity in Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Georgopapadakou, N H; Dix, B A; Smith, S A; Freudenberger, J; Funke, P T

    1987-01-01

    Eight antifungal agents were examined for effects on lipid biosynthesis and membrane integrity in Candida albicans. Lipids were labeled in vivo or in vitro with [14C]acetate and analyzed by thin-layer and gas chromatography. Membrane integrity was measured by a recently developed [14C]aminoisobutyric acid radiolabel release assay. The imidazole antifungal agents miconazole, econazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole, at concentrations inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis (0.1 microM), decreased the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in vivo but not in vitro. Similarly, naftifine, tolnaftate, and the azasterol A25822B, at concentrations inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis (10, 100, and 1 microM, respectively), decreased the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in vivo only. This suggests that the effect on fatty acids observed with ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors may be secondary to the effect on ergosterol. With imidazoles, oleic acid antagonized inhibition of cell growth but not inhibition of ergosterol. This suggests that, with the C-14 demethylase inhibitors, decreased unsaturated fatty acids, rather than decreased ergosterol, are responsible for growth inhibition. Cerulenin, previously reported to be a potent inhibitor of both fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, was found in the present study to inhibit the former (at 5 microM) but not the latter (up to 100 microM). Of the antifungal agents tested, econazole and miconazole (at 100 microM) produced complete release of [14C]aminoisobutyric acid, which is consistent with membrane damage. PMID:3551826

  19. Effect of integral membrane proteins on the lateral mobility of plastoquinone in phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Mary F.; Whitmarsh, John

    1990-01-01

    Pyrene fluorescence quenching by plastoquinone was used to estimate the rate of plastoquinone lateral diffusion in soybean phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes containing the following integral membrane proteins: gramicidin D, spinach cytochrome bf complex, spinach cytochrome f, reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome bc1, and beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The measured plastoquinone lateral diffusion coefficient varied between 1 and 3 · 10-7 cm2 s-1 in control liposomes that lacked protein. When proteins were added, these values decreased: a 10-fold decrease was observed when 16-26% of the membrane surface area was occupied by protein for all the proteins but gramicidin. The larger protein complexes (cytochrome bf, Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers, cytochrome bc1, and cytochrome oxidase), whose hydrophobic volumes were 15-20 times as large as that of cytochrome f and the gramicidin transmembrane dimer, were 15-20 times as effective in decreasing the lateral-diffusion coefficient over the range of concentrations studied. These proteins had a much stronger effect than that observed for bacteriorhodopsin in fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements. The effect of high-protein concentrations in gramicidin proteoliposomes was in close agreement with fluorescence photobleaching measurements. The results are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models of lateral mobility as a function of integral membrane concentration. PMID:19431774

  20. Fast integral rigorous modeling applied to wafer topography effect prediction on 2x nm bulk technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J.-C.; Le Denmat, J.-C.; Tishchenko, A.; Jourlin, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Reflection by wafer topography and underlying layers during optical lithography can cause unwanted overexposure in the resist [1]. In most cases, the use of bottom anti reflective coating limits this effect. However, this solution is not always suitable because of process complexity, cost and cycle time penalty, as for ionic implantation lithography process in 28nm bulk technology. As a consequence, computational lithography solutions are currently under development to simulate and correct wafer topographical effects [2], [3]. For ionic implantation source drain (SD) photolithography step, wafer topography influences resulting in implant pattern variation are various: active silicon areas, Poly patterns, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) and topographical transitions between these areas. In 28nm bulk SD process step, the large number of wafer stack variations involved in implant pattern modulation implies a complex modeling of optical proximity effects. Furthermore, those topography effects are expected to increase with wafer stack complexity through technology node downscaling evolution. In this context, rigorous simulation can bring significant value for wafer topography modeling evolution in R and D process development environment. Unfortunately, classical rigorous simulation engines are rapidly run time and memory limited with pattern complexity for multiple under layer wafer topography simulation. A presentation of a fast rigorous Maxwell's equation solving algorithm integrated into a photolithography proximity effects simulation flow is detailed in this paper. Accuracy, run time and memory consumption of this fast rigorous modeling engine is presented through the simulation of wafer topography effects during ionic implantation SD lithography step in 28nm bulk technology. Also, run time and memory consumption comparison is shown between presented fast rigorous modeling and classical rigorous RCWA method through simulation of design of interest. Finally

  1. Spin-up behavior and effects of initial conditions for an integrated hydrologic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seck, Alimatou; Welty, Claire; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2015-04-01

    Initial conditions have been shown to have a strong effect on outputs of surface water models, but their impact on integrated hydrologic models is not well documented. We investigated the effects of initial conditions on an integrated hydrologic model of a 5632 km2 domain in the northeastern U.S. Simulations were run for the year 1980 using four initial conditions spanning a range of average depth to water table, including 1 m ("wet"), 3m, 5m, and 7 m ("dry") below land surface. Model outputs showed significant effects of initial conditions on basin-averaged variables such as subsurface storage, surface storage, and surface runoff, with the greatest impact observed on surface storage and runoff. Effects of initial conditions were related to meteorological conditions, with precipitation reducing the effects of initial conditions on surface storage and runoff. Additionally, feedbacks between soil moisture and land-energy fluxes affected the impacts of initial conditions: higher temperatures magnified the differences in storage, recharge, and discharge among the four initial-condition scenarios. Ten year recursive runs were conducted for the wet and dry scenarios. Spin-up times varied by model components and were considerably smaller for land-surface states and fluxes. Spin-up for dry initial conditions was slower than for wet initial conditions, indicating longer system memory for dry initial conditions. These variations in persistence of initial conditions should be taken into consideration when designing model initialization approaches. More broadly, this behavior is indicative of increased persistence of the effects of dry years as opposed to wet years in hydrologic systems.

  2. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    SciTech Connect

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Jankowski, Piotr; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Harvey, Allan H.

    2014-07-28

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and deuterium (D{sub 2}) in the temperature range 15–2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H{sub 2} between 100 and 200 K.

  3. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in linear integrated circuits. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A successful diagnostic technique was developed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a precision tool to determine ionization effects in integrated circuits. Previous SEM methods radiated the entire semiconductor chip or major areas. The large area exposure methods do not reveal the exact components which are sensitive to radiation. To locate these sensitive components a new method was developed, which consisted in successively irradiating selected components on the device chip with equal doses of electrons /10 to the 6th rad (Si)/, while the whole device was subjected to representative bias conditions. A suitable device parameter was measured in situ after each successive irradiation with the beam off.

  4. The effect of 1 to 5 keV electrons on the reproductive integrity of microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, J. B.; Brady, J.

    1977-01-01

    Microorganisms were exposed to simulated space environment in order to assess the effect of electrons in the energy range 1 to 5 keV on their colony-forming ability. The test system consisted of an electron gun and power supply, a dosimetry subsystem, and a vacuum subsystem. The system was capable of current densities ranging from 0.1 nA/sq cm to 5 micro A/sq cm on a 25 sq on target and an ultimate vacuum of 0.0006 N/sq m (0.000004 torr). The results of the experimental program show a significant reduction in microbial reproductive integrity.

  5. Effect of corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on pipe integrity and remaining life

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping is often exposed to corrosive fluids. During service, such exposure may cause localized corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking that affects structural integrity. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines. It accounts for both axial and hoop stress. Cracks are modeled using inelastic fracture mechanics. Both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes are addressed. Corrosion and crack-growth rates are used to predict remaining service life.

  6. Effect of temperature on fast hydrogen diffusion in iron: A path-integral quantum dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimizuka, Hajime; Mori, Hideki; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2011-03-01

    Here we explicitly present the diffusion coefficients (D) and activation energies (Ea) of interstitial H in α-Fe over a temperature range of 100 to 1000 K. These values were predicted by applying path-integral molecular dynamics modeling based on first principles. The obtained D and Ea values exhibit clear non-Arrhenius temperature dependence and a transition from quantum to classical behavior at around 500 K. Our results show that the quantum effects not only significantly lower the diffusion barrier but also change the diffusion pathway even at room temperature; thus, fast diffusion becomes possible.

  7. Annual Report of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Terraqua, Inc.

    2009-07-20

    This document was created as an annual report detailing the accomplishments of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) in the Upper Columbia Basin in fiscal year 2008. The report consists of sub-chapters that reflect the various components of the program. Chapter 1 presents a report on programmatic coordination and accomplishments, and Chapters 2 through 4 provide a review of how ISEMP has progressed during the 2008 fiscal year in each of the pilot project subbasins: the John Day (Chapter 2), Wenatchee/Entiat (Chapter 3) and Salmon River (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 presents a report on the data management accomplishments in 2008.

  8. Research on the effects of integrated resorts in Korea on gambling addiction

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chan-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses the effects of the integrated resorts centered around casinos being implemented in Korea. It particularly focuses on the symptoms and most recent definitions of gambling addiction such as physiological or psychological dependence from excessive gambling. This paper suggests that there is a high prevalence rate of pathological gambling in Korea. It provides an argument for prevention, early detection, and lastly, active and voluntary treatment. Furthermore, the study addresses the physiological pathway of gambling addiction and the physiological factors of gambling addicts to suggest exercise rehabilitation that are currently limited to psychological treatments. PMID:26331132

  9. Reprogrammable field programmable gate array with integrated system for mitigating effects of single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Tak-kwong (Inventor); Herath, Jeffrey A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An integrated system mitigates the effects of a single event upset (SEU) on a reprogrammable field programmable gate array (RFPGA). The system includes (i) a RFPGA having an internal configuration memory, and (ii) a memory for storing a configuration associated with the RFPGA. Logic circuitry programmed into the RFPGA and coupled to the memory reloads a portion of the configuration from the memory into the RFPGA's internal configuration memory at predetermined times. Additional SEU mitigation can be provided by logic circuitry on the RFPGA that monitors and maintains synchronized operation of the RFPGA's digital clock managers.

  10. The effect of thermal stresses on the integrity of three built-up aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A Mach 6 flight was simulated in order to examine heating effects on three frame/skin specimens. The specimens included: a titanium truss frame with a lockalloy skin; a stainless steel z-frame with a lockalloy skin; and a titanium z-frame with a lockalloy skin. Thermal stresses and temperature were measured on these specimens for the purpose of examining their efficiency, performance, and integrity. Measured thermal stresses were examined with respect to material yield strengths, buckling criteria, structural weight, and geometric locations. Principal thermal stresses were studied from the standpoint of uniaxial stress assumptions. Measured thermal stresses were compared to predicted values.

  11. Detectability of a phantom-like braneworld model with the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    SciTech Connect

    Giannantonio, Tommaso; Song, Yong-Seon; Koyama, Kazuya

    2008-08-15

    We study a braneworld model in which a phantom-like behavior occurs with only cold dark matter and a cosmological constant, due to a large distance modification of gravity. With the addition of curvature, the geometrical tests are not strict enough to rule out models in which gravity is modified significantly on large scales. We show that this degeneracy in the parameter space is broken by the structure formation tests, such as the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, which can probe general relativity on large scales.

  12. Biomarker responses in mussels, an integrated approach to biological effects measurements.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Steven; Lyons, Brett; Goodsir, Freya; Bignell, John; Thain, John

    2009-01-01

    Biological effects techniques have been used with the aim to further integrate biological effects measurements with chemical analysis and apply these methods to provide an assessment of mussel health status. Live native mussels were collected from selected coastal and estuarine sites around the British Isles, including the rivers Test, Thames, Tees, and Clyde, and Lunderston Bay. A suite of biological effects techniques was undertaken on these mussels, including whole organism responses (scope for growth), tissue responses (histopathology), and subcellular responses (lysosomal stability, multi-xenobiotic resistance [MXR], and Comet assay). In addition, whole mussel homogenates were used to measure organic (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAH], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]) and metal concentrations. Overall the mussels collected from the Thames were in relatively poor health, based on histopathological markers, significantly higher DNA damage, and elevated expression of MXR detoxifying proteins. In contrast, the mussels collected from the River Test were in the best health, based on histopathological markers, respiration rate (SFG), and low frequency of DNA damage. In conclusion, the biological effects techniques were able to distinguish between relatively contaminated and clean environments, with the Thames mussels in worst health. Mussel tissue chemistry data were not able to explain the variations in biological response. Evidence indicates that the difference in the health of the mussels between the different sites was due to either effects of contaminants that were not measured, or the combined effects of mixture toxicity resulting in a threshold effect. PMID:19184734

  13. IREPS (Integrated Refractive Effects Prediction System) 3.0, user's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, W. L.; Hattan, C. P.; Hitney, H. V.; Paulus, R. A.; Anderson, K. D.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this manual is to introduce the reader to a variety of effects that the lower atmosphere (troposphere) has on the performance of many naval electromagnetic (EM) systems and to describe the use of the Integrated-Refractive-Effects Prediction System (IREPS) Revision 3.0. The effects of concern here are only significant at EM frequencies above 100 megahertz (MHz) and, therefore, capable of affecting radar, ultrahigh, frequency (uhf) and microwave communications, electronic warfare, and missile guidance systems. The effects of the ionosphere has on high frequency (hf) communications, or other systems, are specifically not included in this document. IREPS has been developed, and is continuing to be refined at NOSC, to give a shipboard environmental-data processing and display capability of comprehensive refractive-effects assessment upon naval surveillance, communications, electronic warfare, and weapons guidance systems. IREPS has been successfully used under operational conditions aboard most CV/CVNs to assess the exploit refractive effects in a tactical situation. Prior to describing the products and operation of IREPS Revision 3.0, a background discussion of refractive effects, their causes, and resulting benefits or detriments to naval EM systems is presented.

  14. Can we demonstrate that breast cancer “Integrative Oncology” is effective? A methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of integrative oncology offered in community clinics

    PubMed Central

    Standish, Leanna J.; Sweet, Erin; Naydis, Eleonora; Andersen, M. Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Many women diagnosed with breast cancer receive both standard cancer treatment and care from providers trained in the emerging field of medicine called ‘integrative oncology’ (IO) in which science-based complementary and alternative medical1 therapies are prescribed by physicians. The effectiveness of IO services has not been fully studied, so is yet unknown. Purpose Determine if a matched case-controlled prospective outcomes study evaluating the efficacy and safety of breast cancer IO care is feasible. Methods Methodological proof of principle requires demonstration that 1) it is possible to find matched control breast cancer patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program’s western Washington Cancer Surveillance System (CSS), and 2) an IO clinic can recruit breast cancer patients into a matched controlled study. Results A pilot study was conducted in 2008 (N=14) to determine if matched controlled women could be identified in the western Washington SEER database. All 14 women who were approached agreed to participate. The cases were matched to the CSS along five variables - age and stage at diagnosis, race, marital and ER/PR status. Multiple matches were found for 12 of the 14 participants. Conclusion A prospective cohort study with a matched comparison group is a feasible and potentially rigorous study design with high patient acceptability. It may provide valuable data for the evaluation of the effectiveness of IO care on patient health, relapse rate, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A federally funded matched-case controlled outcomes study is currently underway at Bastyr University and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. PMID:22740079

  15. Regression analysis of biologically effective integrated irradiances versus ozone, clouds and geometric factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, S.; Deferrari, G.; Martinioni, D.; Oberto, A.

    2000-05-01

    Factors affecting UV radiation at the earth's surface include the solar zenith angle, earth-sun distance, clouds, aerosols, altitude, ozone and the ground's albedo. The variation of some factors, such as solar zenith angle and earth-sun distance, is well established. Total column ozone and UV radiation are inversely related, but the presence of clouds may affect the resulting UV in such a way that a depletion in the total column ozone may not always lead to an increase in the radiation at the earth's surface. The aim of this paper is to determine the contribution to the variation of the biologically effective irradiance by geometric factors, clouds and ozone, jointly and separately, in Ushuaia (54°49'S, 68°19'W, sea level), and the seasonal variation of this relationship, given the magnitude and seasonal distribution of the ozone depletion and the frequent presence of high cloud cover in this site. For this purpose, multivariate and simple regression analyses of daily and monthly integrated irradiances weighted by the DNA damage action spectrum as a function of total column ozone and the integrated irradiances in the band 337-342 nm (as a proxy for cloud cover and geometric factors) have been performed. For the analysed period (September 1989-December 1996) more than 97% of the variation of the DNA damage weighted daily integrated irradiances is described by changes in ozone, clouds and geometric factors. Simple regression analysis for daily integrated irradiances, grouped by month, shows that most of this variation is explained by clouds and geometric factors, except in spring, when strong ozone depletion occurs intermittently over this area. When monthly trends are removed, similar results are observed, except for late winter.

  16. The effect of moderate impact exercise on skeletal integrity in master athletes

    PubMed Central

    Velez, N. F.; Zhang, A.; Stone, B.; Perera, S.; Miller, M.; Greenspan, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in senior athletes competing in running and swimming events and compared results to those of sedentary controls. Total body BMD was greatest among runners suggesting that moderate impact activities continue to play a role in maintaining skeletal integrity with age. Introduction The role of moderate impact exercise in maintaining skeletal integrity as we age remains unclear. Methods To determine the effect of moderate impact exercise on skeletal integrity in the elderly, we recruited master athletes, including 44 runners (moderate impact exercise) and 43 swimmers, competing in the 2005 National Senior Olympic Games and 87 non-athletes, all over the age of 65 years. Height, weight, calcium, vitamin D intake, bone mineral density (BMD) of the total body, spine, hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanter), forearm (1/3 distal radius), and heel ultrasound, and Z-scores were characterized by mean +/− SD and compared by analysis of variance. T-scores were used to determine sites of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Results Total body BMD of runners was significantly greater than that of controls (1.11 ± 0.13 versus 1.10 ± 0.13 g/cm2, p < 0.05) and marginally greater than that of swimmers when adjusted for age and weight. Heel ultrasound bone mass of runners was significantly greater than that of swimmers or controls. Runners also had higher BMD in the total hip, intertrochanter and 1/3 distal radius when compared to swimmers. Conclusion These findings suggest that moderate impact exercise contributes to skeletal integrity in older age. PMID:18351426

  17. Perceptions of Leader Charisma, Effectiveness, and Integrity: Effects of Exemplification, Delivery, and Ethical Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William L.

    2003-01-01

    Explores extent to which a leader who claims to be either exemplary or pragmatic and is revealed to have a reputation for either deception or honesty is perceived by a group of undergraduate business students to be charismatic, effective, and morally worthy. Adapts an interview with an actual business school dean to provide the initial text for…

  18. Collaborative Leadership Effects on School Improvement: Integrating Unidirectional- and Reciprocal-Effects Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Ronald H.; Hallinger, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have persisted in framing leadership as the driver for change and performance improvement in schools despite convincing theoretical commentary that proposes leadership as a process of reciprocal interaction. Although conceptualizing leadership as a reciprocal process offers leverage for understanding leadership effects on learning,…

  19. Invited Article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Kühne, P. Schubert, M. Hofmann, T.; Herzinger, C. M. Woollam, J. A.

    2014-07-15

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm{sup −1} to 7000 cm{sup −1} (0.1–210 THz or 0.4–870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  20. Measurement of the Integrated Sachs–Wolfe Effect Using the AllWISE Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shajib, Anowar J.; Wright, Edward L.

    2016-08-01

    One of the physical features of a dark-energy-dominated universe is the integrated Sachs–Wolfe (ISW) effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, which gives us a direct observational window to detect and study dark energy. The AllWISE data release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has a large number of point sources which span a wide redshift range, including where the ISW effect is maximized. AllWISE data are thus very well-suited for the ISW effect studies. In this study, we cross-correlate AllWISE galaxy and active galactic nucleus (AGN) overdensities with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe CMB temperature maps to detect the ISW effect signal. We calibrate the biases for galaxies and AGNs by cross-correlating the galaxy and AGN overdensities with the Planck lensing convergence map. We measure the ISW effect signal amplitudes relative to the ΛCDM expectation of A = 1 to be A=1.18+/- 0.36 for galaxies and A=0.64+/- 0.74 for AGNs. The detection significances for the ISW effect signal are 3.3σ and 0.9σ for galaxies and AGNs, respectively, providing a combined significance of 3.4σ . Our result is in agreement with the ΛCDM model.

  1. A simple, effective media access protocol system for integrated, high data rate networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, K.; Overstreet, C. M.; Khanna, S.; Zhang, L.

    1992-01-01

    The operation and performance of a dual media access protocol for integrated, gigabit networks are described. Unlike other dual protocols, each protocol supports a different class of traffic. The Carrier Sensed Multiple Access-Ring Network (CSMA/RN) protocol and the Circulating Reservation Packet (CRP) protocol support asynchronous and synchronous traffic, respectively. The two protocols operate with minimal impact upon each other. Performance information demonstrates that they support a complete range of integrated traffic loads, do not require call setup/termination or a special node for synchronous traffic control, and provide effective pre-use and recovery. The CRP also provides guaranteed access and fairness control for the asynchronous system. The paper demonstrates that the CSMA-CRP system fulfills many of the requirements for gigabit LAN-MAN networks most effectively and simply. To accomplish this, CSMA-CRP features are compared against similar ring and bus systems, such as Cambridge Fast Ring, Metaring, Cyclic Reservation Multiple Access, and Distributed Dual Queue Data Bus (DQDB).

  2. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed. PMID:15259950

  3. Path integral calculation of free energies: quantum effects on the melting temperature of neon.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, R; Herrero, C P; Antonelli, A; Hernández, E R

    2008-08-14

    The path integral formulation has been combined with several methods to determine free energies of quantum many-body systems, such as adiabatic switching and reversible scaling. These techniques are alternatives to the standard thermodynamic integration method. A quantum Einstein crystal is used as a model to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of these free energy methods in quantum simulations. Our main interest focuses on the calculation of the melting temperature of Ne at ambient pressure, taking into account quantum effects in the atomic dynamics. The free energy of the solid was calculated by considering a quantum Einstein crystal as reference state, while for the liquid, the reference state was defined by the classical limit of the fluid. Our findings indicate that, while quantum effects in the melting temperature of this system are small, they still amount to about 6% of the melting temperature, and are therefore not negligible. The particle density as well as the melting enthalpy and entropy of the solid and liquid phases at coexistence is compared to results obtained in the classical limit and also to available experimental data. PMID:18715054

  4. A strategic plan for integrating cost-effectiveness analysis into the US healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Peter J; Palmer, Jennifer A; Daniels, Norman; Quigley, Karen; Gold, Marthe R; Chao, Schumarry

    2008-04-01

    The Panel on Integrating Cost-Effectiveness Considerations into Health Policy Decisions, composed of medical and pharmacy directors at public and private health plans, was convened to (1) explore the views of health plan purchasers about cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and (2) to develop a strategic plan for policymakers to address obstacles and to integrate CEA into health policy decisions, drawing on stakeholders as part of the solution. Panelists expressed strong support for a greater role for CEA in US health policy decisions, although they also highlighted barriers in the current system and challenges involved in moving forward. The strategic plan involves a series of activities to advance the use of CEA in the United States, including research and demonstration projects to illustrate potential gains from using the technique and ongoing consensus- building steps (eg, workshops, conferences, town meetings) involving a broad coalition of stakeholders. Funding and leadership from policymakers and nonprofit foundations will be needed, as well as the active engagement of legislators and business and consumer groups. Panelists emphasized the importance of the Medicare program taking a lead role, and the need for new "infrastructure," in the form of either a new institute for conducting research or increased funding for existing institutions. PMID:18402510

  5. Combinative exposure effect of radio frequency signals from CDMA mobile phones and aphidicolin on DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, R; Lakshmi, N K; Surender, V; Rajesh, A D V; Bhargava, S C; Ahuja, Y R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of present study is to assess DNA integrity on the effect of exposure to a radio frequency (RF) signal from Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) mobile phones. Whole blood samples from six healthy male individuals were exposed for RF signals from a CDMA mobile phone for 1 h. Alkaline comet assay was performed to assess the DNA damage. The combinative exposure effect of the RF signals and APC at two concentrations on DNA integrity was studied. DNA repair efficiency of the samples was also studied after 2 h of exposure. The RF signals and APC (0.2 microg/ml) alone or in synergism did not have any significant DNA damage as compared to sham exposed. However, univariate analysis showed that DNA damage was significantly different among combinative exposure of RF signals and APC at 0.2 microg/ml (p < 0.05) and at 2 microg/ml (p < 0.02). APC at 2 microg/ml concentration also showed significant damage levels (p < 0.05) when compared to sham exposed. DNA repair efficiency also varied in a significant way in combinative exposure sets (p < 0.05). From these results, it appears that the repair inhibitor APC enhances DNA breaks at 2 microg/ml concentration and that the damage is possibly repairable. Thus, it can be inferred that the in vitro exposure to RF signals induces reversible DNA damage in synergism with APC. PMID:19037791

  6. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

    2008-01-14

    The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

  7. Effects of nozzle-strut integrated design concepton on the subsonic turbine stage flowfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Du, Qiang; Liu, Guang; Wang, Pei; Zhu, Junqiang

    2014-10-01

    In order to shorten aero-engine axial length, substituting the traditional long chord thick strut design accompanied with the traditional low pressure(LP) stage nozzle, LP turbine is integrated with intermediate turbine duct (ITD). In the current paper, five vanes of the first stage LP turbine nozzle is replaced with loaded struts for supporting the engine shaft, and providing oil pipes circumferentially which fulfilled the areo-engine structure requirement. However, their bulky geometric size represents a more effective obstacle to flow from high pressure (HP) turbine rotor. These five struts give obvious influence for not only the LP turbine nozzle but also the flowfield within the ITD, and hence cause higher loss. Numerical investigation has been undertaken to observe the influence of the Nozzle-Strut integrated design concept on the flowfield within the ITD and the nearby nozzle blades. According to the computational results, three main conclusions are finally obtained. Firstly, a noticeable low speed area is formed near the strut's leading edge, which is no doubt caused by the potential flow effects. Secondly, more severe radial migration of boundary layer flow adjacent to the strut's pressure side have been found near the nozzle's trailing edge. Such boundary layer migration is obvious, especially close to the shroud domain. Meanwhile, radial pressure gradient aggravates this phenomenon. Thirdly, velocity distribution along the strut's pressure side on nozzle's suction surface differs, which means loading variation of the nozzle. And it will no doubt cause nonuniform flowfield faced by the downstream rotor blade.

  8. Effectiveness of integrative modalities for pain and anxiety in children and adolescents with cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thrane, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the trajectory of the cancer experience, children and adolescents will likely face pain and anxiety in a variety of circumstances. Integrative therapies may be used either alone or as an adjunct to standard analgesics. Children are often very receptive to integrative therapies such as music, art, guided imagery, massage, therapeutic play, distraction, and other modalities. The effect of integrative modalities on pain and anxiety in children with cancer has not been systematically examined across the entire cancer experience. An in-depth search of PubMed, CINAHL, MedLine, PsychInfo, and Web of Science, integrative medicine journals, and the reference lists of review articles using the search terms pain, anxiety, pediatric, child*, oncology, cancer, neoplasm, complementary, integrative, nonconventional, and unconventional yielded 164 articles. Of these, 25 warranted full-text review. Cohen's d calculations show medium (d = 0.70) to extremely large (8.57) effect sizes indicating that integrative interventions may be very effective for pain and anxiety in children undergoing cancer treatment. Integrative modalities warrant further study with larger sample sizes to better determine their effectiveness in this population. PMID:24371260

  9. Effectiveness of Integrative Modalities for Pain and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the trajectory of the cancer experience, children and adolescents will likely face pain and anxiety in a variety of circumstances. Integrative therapies may be used either alone or as an adjunct to standard analgesics. Children are often very receptive to integrative therapies such as music, art, guided imagery, massage, therapeutic play, distraction, and other modalities (Doellman, 2003). The effect of integrative modalities on pain and anxiety in children with cancer has not been systematically examined across the entire cancer experience. An in-depth search of PubMed, CINAHL, MedLine, PsychInfo, and Web of Science, integrative medicine journals, and the reference lists of review articles using the search terms pain, anxiety, pediatric, child*, oncology, cancer, neoplasm, complementary, integrative, non-conventional, and unconventional yielded 164 articles. Of these, 25 warranted full-text review. Cohen’s d calculations show medium (d=.70) to extremely large (8.57) effect sizes indicating that integrative interventions may be very effective for pain and anxiety in children undergoing cancer treatment. Integrative modalities warrant further study with larger sample sizes to better determine their effectiveness in this population. PMID:24371260

  10. Organic nanofibers integrated by transfer technique in field-effect transistor devices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The electrical properties of self-assembled organic crystalline nanofibers are studied by integrating these on field-effect transistor platforms using both top and bottom contact configurations. In the staggered geometries, where the nanofibers are sandwiched between the gate and the source-drain electrodes, a better electrical conduction is observed when compared to the coplanar geometry where the nanofibers are placed over the gate and the source-drain electrodes. Qualitatively different output characteristics were observed for top and bottom contact devices reflecting the significantly different contact resistances. Bottom contact devices are dominated by contact effects, while the top contact device characteristics are determined by the nanofiber bulk properties. It is found that the contact resistance is lower for crystalline nanofibers when compared to amorphous thin films. These results shed light on the charge injection and transport properties for such organic nanostructures and thus constitute a significant step forward toward a nanofiber-based light-emitting device. PMID:21711821

  11. Integral-geometry characterization of photobiomodulation effects on retinal vessel morphology

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Marconi; Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Kriztina; Provis, Jan; Maddess, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The morphological characterization of quasi-planar structures represented by gray-scale images is challenging when object identification is sub-optimal due to registration artifacts. We propose two alternative procedures that enhances object identification in the integral-geometry morphological image analysis (MIA) framework. The first variant streamlines the framework by introducing an active contours segmentation process whose time step is recycled as a multi-scale parameter. In the second variant, we used the refined object identification produced in the first variant to perform the standard MIA with exact dilation radius as multi-scale parameter. Using this enhanced MIA we quantify the extent of vaso-obliteration in oxygen-induced retinopathic vascular growth, the preventative effect (by photobiomodulation) of exposure during tissue development to near-infrared light (NIR, 670 nm), and the lack of adverse effects due to exposure to NIR light. PMID:25071966

  12. Parallel Computation of Integrated Electromagnetic, Thermal and Structural Effects for Accelerator Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.E.; Kabel, A.C.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.K.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    The successful operation of accelerator cavities has to satisfy both rf and mechanical requirements. It is highly desirable that electromagnetic, thermal and structural effects such as cavity wall heating and Lorentz force detuning in superconducting rf cavities can be addressed in an integrated analysis. Based on the SLAC parallel finite-element code infrastructure for electromagnetic modeling, a novel multi-physics analysis tool has been developed to include additional thermal and mechanical effects. The parallel computation enables virtual prototyping of accelerator cavities on computers, which would substantially reduce the cost and time of a design cycle. The multi-physics tool is applied to the LCLS rf gun for electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses.

  13. Grounding positions of superconducting layer for effective magnetic isolation in Josephson integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizugaki, Yoshinao; Kashiwa, Ryuta; Moriya, Masataka; Usami, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Tadayuki

    2007-06-01

    Mutual inductances between two superconducting strip lines coupled through a grounded shield layer are evaluated by both experiments and numerical calculation. A conventional superconducting quantum interference device method on a Nb Josephson integrated circuit chip is employed for experiments. Four test circuits are designed to investigate the effects of ground contacts. Grounding the shield layer at one point or at two points located perpendicular to the line direction does not improve the shielding effect, whereas grounding at two points located parallel to the line direction reduced the mutual inductance by 67%. Mutual inductances calculated using an inductance extraction program, FASTHENRY, agree with the experimental results. Numerical results of current distributions in the shield layers demonstrate that the enhanced shielding current improves the magnetic isolation.

  14. Delineating the Effect of Semantic Congruency on Episodic Memory: The Role of Integration and Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect—the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words. PMID:25695759

  15. The continuous end-state comfort effect: weighted integration of multiple biases.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V

    2012-05-01

    The grasp orientation when grasping an object is frequently aligned in anticipation of the intended rotation of the object (end-state comfort effect). We analyzed grasp orientation selection in a continuous task to determine the mechanisms underlying the end-state comfort effect. Participants had to grasp a box by a circular handle-which allowed for arbitrary grasp orientations-and then had to rotate the box by various angles. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed both that the rotation's direction considerably determined grasp orientations and that end-postures varied considerably. Experiments 3 and 4 further showed that visual stimuli and initial arm postures biased grasp orientations if the intended rotation could be easily achieved. The data show that end-state comfort but also other factors determine grasp orientation selection. A simple mechanism that integrates multiple weighted biases can account for the data. PMID:21499901

  16. Strategies for Effectively Visualizing a 3D Flow Using Volume Line Integral Convolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies for effectively portraying 3D flow using volume line integral convolution. Issues include defining an appropriate input texture, clarifying the distinct identities and relative depths of the advected texture elements, and selectively highlighting regions of interest in both the input and output volumes. Apart from offering insights into the greater potential of 3D LIC as a method for effectively representing flow in a volume, a principal contribution of this work is the suggestion of a technique for generating and rendering 3D visibility-impeding 'halos' that can help to intuitively indicate the presence of depth discontinuities between contiguous elements in a projection and thereby clarify the 3D spatial organization of elements in the flow. The proposed techniques are applied to the visualization of a hot, supersonic, laminar jet exiting into a colder, subsonic coflow.

  17. Probing violation of the Copernican principle via the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Kenji; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2009-05-15

    Recent observational data of supernovae point to {lambda}-dominated flat cosmological models. However, an alternative model in which we happen to live in an underdense region requires no dark energy or modification of gravity. This challenges the Copernican principle. We show that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is an excellent discriminator between anti-Copernican inhomogeneous models and the standard Copernican models. As a reference model, we consider an anti-Copernican inhomogeneous model that consists of two inner negatively curved underdense regions and an outer flat Einstein-de Sitter region. We assume that these regions are connected by two thin walls at redshifts z=0.067 and z=0.45. In the inner two regions, the first-order ISW effect is dominant and comparable to that in the concordant flat-{lambda} models. In the outer Einstein-de Sitter region, the first-order ISW effect vanishes but the second-order ISW effect plays a dominant role, while the first-order ISW effect is dominant in the flat-{lambda} models at moderate redshifts. This difference can discriminate the anti-Copernican models from the concordant flat-{lambda} model. At high redshifts, the second-order ISW effect is dominant both in our inhomogeneous model and in the concordant model. In the outer region, moreover, the ISW effect due to large-scale density perturbations with a present matter density contrast {epsilon}{sub m0}<<0.37 is negligible, while the effect due to small-scale density perturbations (such as clusters of galaxies, superclusters, and voids) with {epsilon}{sub m0}>>0.37 would generate anisotropies which are larger than those generated by the ISW effect in the concordant model.

  18. What Works in Gifted Education: Documenting the Effects of an Integrated Curricular/Instructional Model for Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Carolyn M.; Moon, Tonya R.; Oh, Sarah; Azano, Amy P.; Hailey, Emily P.

    2015-01-01

    The heart of effective programming for gifted students lies in the integration of advanced curricula with effective instructional strategies to develop leaning activities that will enhance student learning outcomes. However, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of units based on such curricular and instructional interventions from large-scale…

  19. A functional–structural kiwifruit vine model integrating architecture, carbon dynamics and effects of the environment

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Seleznyova, Alla N.; Hanan, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional–structural modelling can be used to increase our understanding of how different aspects of plant structure and function interact, identify knowledge gaps and guide priorities for future experimentation. By integrating existing knowledge of the different aspects of the kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vine's architecture and physiology, our aim is to develop conceptual and mathematical hypotheses on several of the vine's features: (a) plasticity of the vine's architecture; (b) effects of organ position within the canopy on its size; (c) effects of environment and horticultural management on shoot growth, light distribution and organ size; and (d) role of carbon reserves in early shoot growth. Methods Using the L-system modelling platform, a functional–structural plant model of a kiwifruit vine was created that integrates architectural development, mechanistic modelling of carbon transport and allocation, and environmental and management effects on vine and fruit growth. The branching pattern was captured at the individual shoot level by modelling axillary shoot development using a discrete-time Markov chain. An existing carbon transport resistance model was extended to account for several source/sink components of individual plant elements. A quasi-Monte Carlo path-tracing algorithm was used to estimate the absorbed irradiance of each leaf. Key Results Several simulations were performed to illustrate the model's potential to reproduce the major features of the vine's behaviour. The model simulated vine growth responses that were qualitatively similar to those observed in experiments, including the plastic response of shoot growth to local carbon supply, the branching patterns of two Actinidia species, the effect of carbon limitation and topological distance on fruit size and the complex behaviour of sink competition for carbon. Conclusions The model is able to reproduce differences in vine and fruit growth arising from various

  20. Cortical EEG components that reflect inverse effectiveness during visuotactile integration processing.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Noriaki; Kimura, Kenta; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-02-19

    Multisensory integration is required to interpret information from multiple senses and then produce the appropriate behavioral output. Inverse effectiveness, a phenomenon in which weaker stimuli induce greater activation of multisensory neurons than do stronger stimuli, is an essential component of multisensory integration. The superior colliculus is especially abundant in multisensory neurons with properties of inverse effectiveness. However, multisensory neurons are distributed throughout the brain, suggesting that a wide range of brain regions are involved in generating multisensory behavior in addition to the superior colliculus. In this study, we aimed to use scalp EEG to elucidate the cortical responses that respond to multisensory stimuli according to the principle of inverse effectiveness. By modulating the intensity of the tactile aspect of a simultaneous visuotactile stimulus, we explored the time-frequency component of scalp EEG waveforms produced during multi-sensory stimulation. Using this method, we determined the relative values and temporal dynamics of the increment of power spectrum (event-related spectrum perturbation) and phase coherence across trials (e.g., inter-trial phase coherency) produced by multisensory stimulation compared to unisensory stimulation. In the somatosensory and anterior cingulate cortices, we observed significant differences in the inter-trial phase coherence of the theta band oscillation 200-400 ms post-stimulus, in response to visuotactile (multisensory) and tactile (unisensory) stimulation, while no differences were found in later time windows and other cortical areas. These results suggest that inverse effectiveness is an important aspect of multi-sensory processing in the somato-sensory and frontal cerebral cortices. PMID:25514335

  1. A three-dimensional integrated nanogenerator for effectively harvesting sound energy from the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinmei; Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Chen, Xiaobo; Bai, Suo; Zheng, Youbin; Hu, Caixia; Qin, Yong

    2016-02-01

    An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a wireless power supply in the electrochemical industry.An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a

  2. Effects of neonatal (+)-methamphetamine on path integration and spatial learning in rats: effects of dose and rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Herring, Nicole R; Schaefer, Tori L; Grace, Curtis E; Skelton, Matthew R; Johnson, Holly L; Williams, Michael T

    2008-10-01

    Postnatal day (P)11-20 (+)-methamphetamine (MA) treatment impairs spatial learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze, but has marginal effects on learning in a labyrinthine maze. A subsequent experiment showed that MA treatment on P11-15, but not P16-20, is sufficient to induce Morris maze deficits. Here we tested the effects of P11-15 MA treatment under two different rearing conditions on Morris maze performance and path integration learning in the Cincinnati water maze in which distal cues were unavailable by using infrared illumination. Littermates were treated with 0, 10, 15, 20, or 25mg/kg MA x 4/day (2 h intervals). Half the litters were reared under standard housing conditions and half under partial enrichment by adding stainless steel enclosures. All MA groups showed impaired Cincinnati water maze performance with no significant effects of rearing condition. In the Morris maze, the MA-25 group showed impaired spatial acquisition, reversal, and small platform learning. Enrichment significantly improved Morris maze acquisition in all groups but did not interact with treatment. The male MA-25 group was also impaired on probe trial performance after acquisition and on small platform trials. A narrow window of MA treatment (P11-15) induces impaired path integration learning irrespective of dose within the range tested but impairments in spatial learning are dependent on dose. The results demonstrate that a narrower exposure window (5 days) changes the long-term effects of MA treatment compared to longer exposures (10 days). PMID:18502078

  3. Threshold conditions for integrated pest management models with pesticides that have residual effects.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Liang, Juhua; Tan, Yuanshun; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations (hybrid dynamical systems) can provide a natural description of pulse-like actions such as when a pesticide kills a pest instantly. However, pesticides may have long-term residual effects, with some remaining active against pests for several weeks, months or years. Therefore, a more realistic method for modelling chemical control in such cases is to use continuous or piecewise-continuous periodic functions which affect growth rates. How to evaluate the effects of the duration of the pesticide residual effectiveness on successful pest control is key to the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in practice. To address these questions in detail, we have modelled IPM including residual effects of pesticides in terms of fixed pulse-type actions. The stability threshold conditions for pest eradication are given. Moreover, effects of the killing efficiency rate and the decay rate of the pesticide on the pest and on its natural enemies, the duration of residual effectiveness, the number of pesticide applications and the number of natural enemy releases on the threshold conditions are investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications and predator releases. Latin Hypercube Sampling/Partial Rank Correlation uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to investigate the key control parameters which are most significantly related to threshold values. The findings combined with Volterra's principle confirm that when the pesticide has a strong effect on the natural enemies, repeated use of the same pesticide can result in target pest resurgence. The results also indicate that there exists an optimal number of pesticide applications which can suppress the pest most effectively, and this may help in the design of an optimal control strategy. PMID:22205243

  4. Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Simulation: Effects on Student Motivation and Life Skills.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Sang Suk

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that a teaching strategy integrating problem-based learning and simulation may be superior to traditional lecture. The purpose of this study was to assess learner motivation and life skills before and after taking a course involving problem-based learning and simulation. The design used repeated measures with a convenience sample of 83 second-year nursing students who completed the integrated course. Data from a self-administered questionnaire measuring learner motivation and life skills were collected at pretest, post-problem-based learning, and post-simulation time points. Repeated-measures analysis of variance determined that the mean scores for total learner motivation (F=6.62, P=.003), communication (F=8.27, P<.001), problem solving (F=6.91, P=.001), and self-directed learning (F=4.45, P=.016) differed significantly between time points. Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that total learner motivation and total life skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation and from post-problem-based learning test to postsimulation test. Subscales of learner motivation and life skills, intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem-solving skills, and self-directed learning skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation test and from post-problem-based learning test to post-simulation test. The results demonstrate that an integrating problem-based learning and simulation course elicits significant improvement in learner motivation and life skills. Simulation plus problem-based learning is more effective than problem-based learning alone at increasing intrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem solving, and self-directed learning. PMID:26066305

  5. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  6. fMRI measurement of the integrative effects of visual and chemical senses stimuli in humans.

    PubMed

    Tonoike, Mitsuo; Yoshida, Tatsuya; Sakuma, Hiroyuki; Wang, Li-Qun

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integrative effects of visual stimuli with chemical senses (olfactory and gustatory) stimuli in humans. Noninvasive measurement tools such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used to describe the mechanism of olfactory information processing in the human brain, and the neurophysiological properties of olfactory-related neurons are described. The first study analyzed the interaction between visual and olfactory stimuli. Two odors (lemon and iso-valeric acid) were selected as pleasant and unpleasant odors, respectively and pleasant and unpleasant images were also selected. These cross-modal stimulus combinations were presented to the subject at random, and responses were measured by fMRI using an event related task. These results revealed that active brain areas with pleasant/unpleasant stimuli and matched/mismatched stimuli were different for memory and cognition. The second study analyzed the interaction between visual and gustatory stimuli. Total four conditions (hunger-not hunger, and intake-not intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG)) were tested. Visual stimuli were food-related and nonfood-related photos. A visual analog scale (VAS) was also used to evaluate before and at regular time intervals after intake of MSG, and responses were measured using fMRI. Brain activity related to feeding desire after intake of MSG occurred near the insula cortex, and orbito-frontal cortex, among other areas. These results on the integrative effects of visual stimuli with olfactory and gustatory stimuli, cross-modal and complex effects on olfaction and gustation were suggested to be obtained as an emotional response such as "pleasantness/unpleasantness" and as cognitive and memory responses such as "matching/mismatching" or the responses such as "feeding desire" afterwards intake of foods. PMID:24070060

  7. The Effects of an Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy: A Culturally Responsive Teaching Approach for Fifth-Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Yvonne N.; Fagan, Yvette M.

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy on two levels. The Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy integrated story grammar instruction and story maps, prior knowledge and prediction method, and word webs through a culturally responsive teaching framework; the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy…

  8. Integrating genomics and proteomics data to predict drug effects using binary linear programming.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiwei; Su, Jing; Liu, Chenglin; Wang, Hongyan; Huang, Deshuang; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    The Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project aims to create a network-based understanding of biology by cataloging changes in gene expression and signal transduction that occur when cells are exposed to a variety of perturbations. It is helpful for understanding cell pathways and facilitating drug discovery. Here, we developed a novel approach to infer cell-specific pathways and identify a compound's effects using gene expression and phosphoproteomics data under treatments with different compounds. Gene expression data were employed to infer potential targets of compounds and create a generic pathway map. Binary linear programming (BLP) was then developed to optimize the generic pathway topology based on the mid-stage signaling response of phosphorylation. To demonstrate effectiveness of this approach, we built a generic pathway map for the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and inferred the cell-specific pathways by BLP. The first group of 11 compounds was utilized to optimize the generic pathways, and then 4 compounds were used to identify effects based on the inferred cell-specific pathways. Cross-validation indicated that the cell-specific pathways reliably predicted a compound's effects. Finally, we applied BLP to re-optimize the cell-specific pathways to predict the effects of 4 compounds (trichostatin A, MS-275, staurosporine, and digoxigenin) according to compound-induced topological alterations. Trichostatin A and MS-275 (both HDAC inhibitors) inhibited the downstream pathway of HDAC1 and caused cell growth arrest via activation of p53 and p21; the effects of digoxigenin were totally opposite. Staurosporine blocked the cell cycle via p53 and p21, but also promoted cell growth via activated HDAC1 and its downstream pathway. Our approach was also applied to the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, and the cross-validation analysis showed very good accuracy in predicting effects of 4 compounds. In summary, our computational model can be

  9. Probing the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect using embedded lens models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Kantowski, R.

    2015-04-01

    The photometry profile of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, recently obtained by the Planck consortium by stacking patches of cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky maps around a large number of cosmic voids, contains a cold ring at about half the void's effective radius surrounded by a hot ring near the void's boundary. The source of the temperature structure is assumed to be the ISW effect but the exact cause of the ringed structure is not currently well understood, particularly the outer hot ring. Numerical simulations have suggested that hot/cold ring structures can be produced by motions associated with nonlinear growths of cosmic structures whose gravitational potentials produce the ISW effect. We have recently developed the embedded lens theory and the Fermat potential formalism which can be used to model the ISW effect caused by intervening individual lens inhomogeneities evolving arbitrarily. This theory only requires knowledge of the void's projected mass profile as a function of the passing CMB photons' impact radius and the rate of change of that mass distribution at passage. We present two simple embedded void lens models with evolving mass densities and investigate the ISW effect caused by these lenses. Both models possess expanding mass shells which produce hot rings around central cold regions, consistent with the recent observations. By adding a small overdensity at the void's center we can produce the slight positive temperature excess hinted at in Planck's photometric results. We conclude that the embedded lens theory and the Fermat potential formalism is well suited for modeling the ISW effect.

  10. Integrating comparative effectiveness research programs into predictive health: a unique role for academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Rask, Kimberly J; Brigham, Kenneth L; Johns, Michael M E

    2011-06-01

    The growing burden of chronic disease, an aging population, and rising health care costs threaten the sustainability of our current model for health care delivery. At the same time, innovations in predictive health offer a pathway to reduce disease burden by preventing and mitigating the development of disease. Academic health centers are uniquely positioned to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of predictive and personalized health interventions, given institutional core competencies in innovative knowledge development. The authors describe Emory University's commitment to integrating comparative effectiveness research (CER) into predictive health programs through the creation and concurrent evaluation of its Center for Health Discovery and Well Being (hereafter, "the Center"). Established in 2008, the Center is a clinical laboratory for testing the validity and utility of a health-focused rather than disease-focused care setting. The Center provides preventive health services based on the current evidence base, evaluates the effectiveness of its care delivery model, involves trainees in both the delivery and evaluation of its services, and collects structured physical, social, and emotional health data on all participants over time. Concurrent evaluation allows the prospective exploration of the complex interactions among health determinants as well as the comparative effectiveness of novel biomarkers in predicting health. Central to the Center is a cohort study of randomly selected university employees. The authors describe how the Center has fostered a foundation for CER through the structured recruitment of study cohorts, standardized interventions, and scheduled data collection strategies that support pilot studies by faculty and trainees. PMID:21512361

  11. Local and nonlocal optically induced transparency effects in graphene-silicon hybrid nanophotonic integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Longhai; Zheng, Jiajiu; Xu, Yang; Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing

    2014-11-25

    Graphene is well-known as a two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms arrayed in a honeycomb structure. It has some unique and fascinating properties, which are useful for realizing many optoelectronic devices and applications, including transistors, photodetectors, solar cells, and modulators. To enhance light-graphene interactions and take advantage of its properties, a promising approach is to combine a graphene sheet with optical waveguides, such as silicon nanophotonic wires considered in this paper. Here we report local and nonlocal optically induced transparency (OIT) effects in graphene-silicon hybrid nanophotonic integrated circuits. A low-power, continuous-wave laser is used as the pump light, and the power required for producing the OIT effect is as low as ∼0.1 mW. The corresponding power density is several orders lower than that needed for the previously reported saturated absorption effect in graphene, which implies a mechanism involving light absorption by the silicon and photocarrier transport through the silicon-graphene junction. The present OIT effect enables low power, all-optical, broadband control and sensing, modulation and switching locally and nonlocally. PMID:25372937

  12. Integrating mindfulness with parent training: effects of the Mindfulness-Enhanced Strengthening Families Program.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G; Nix, Robert L; Greenberg, Mark T; Gayles, Jochebed G; Bamberger, Katharine T; Berrena, Elaine; Demi, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    There is growing support for the efficacy of mindfulness training with parents as an intervention technique to improve parenting skills and reduce risk for youth problem behaviors. The evidence, however, has been limited to small scale studies, many with methodological shortcomings. This study sought to integrate mindfulness training with parents into the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14), an empirically-validated family-based preventive intervention. It used a randomized-controlled comparative effectiveness study design (N = 432 families, 31% racial/ethnic minority) to test the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Enhanced Strengthening Families Program (MSFP), compared to standard SFP 10-14 and a minimal-treatment home study control condition. Results indicated that, in general, MSFP was as effective as SFP 10-14 in improving multiple dimensions of parenting, including interpersonal mindfulness in parenting, parent-youth relationship quality, youth behavior management, and parent well-being, according to both parent and youth reports at both postintervention and 1-year follow-up. This study also found that in some areas MSFP boosted and better sustained the effects of SFP 10-14, especially for fathers. Although the pattern of effects was not as uniform as hypothesized, this study provides intriguing evidence for the unique contribution of mindfulness activities to standard parent training. PMID:25365122

  13. Integrating Mindfulness with Parent Training: Effects of the Mindfulness-Enhanced Strengthening Families Program

    PubMed Central

    Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G.; Nix, Robert L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Bamberger, Katharine T.; Berrena, Elaine; Demi, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    There is growing support for the efficacy of mindfulness training with parents as an intervention technique to improve parenting skills and reduce risk for youth problem behaviors. The evidence, however, has been limited to small scale studies, many with methodological shortcomings. This study sought to integrate mindfulness training with parents into the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14), an empirically-validated family-based preventive intervention. It used a randomized-controlled comparative effectiveness study design (N = 432 families, 31% racial/ethnic minority) to test the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Enhanced Strengthening Families Program (MSFP), compared to standard SFP 10-14 and a minimal-treatment home study control condition. Results indicated that, in general, MSFP was as effective as SFP 10-14 in improving multiple dimensions of parenting, including interpersonal mindfulness in parenting, parent-youth relationship quality, youth behavior management, and parent well-being, according to both parent and youth reports at both post-intervention and one-year follow-up. This study also found that in some areas MSFP boosted and better sustained the effects of SFP 10-14, especially for fathers. Although the pattern of effects was not as uniform as hypothesized, this study provides intriguing evidence for the unique contribution of mindfulness activities to standard parent training. PMID:25365122

  14. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, Jill; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-03-15

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  15. H∞ filter for flexure deformation and lever arm effect compensation in M/S INS integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xixiang; Xu, Xiaosu; Wang, Lihui; Li, Yinyin; Liu, Yiting

    2014-09-01

    On ship, especially on large ship, the flexure deformation between Master (M)/Slave (S) Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a key factor which determines the accuracy of the integrated system of M/S INS. In engineering this flexure deformation will be increased with the added ship size. In the M/S INS integrated system, the attitude error between MINS and SINS cannot really reflect the misalignment angle change of SINS due to the flexure deformation. At the same time, the flexure deformation will bring the change of the lever arm size, which further induces the uncertainty of lever arm velocity, resulting in the velocity matching error. To solve this problem, a H∞ algorithm is proposed, in which the attitude and velocity matching error caused by deformation is considered as measurement noise with limited energy, and measurement noise will be restrained by the robustness of H∞ filter. Based on the classical "attitude plus velocity" matching method, the progress of M/S INS information fusion is simulated and compared by using three kinds of schemes, which are known and unknown flexure deformation with standard Kalman filter, and unknown flexure deformation with H∞ filter, respectively. Simulation results indicate that H∞ filter can effectively improve the accuracy of information fusion when flexure deformation is unknown but non-ignorable

  16. A three-dimensional integrated nanogenerator for effectively harvesting sound energy from the environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinmei; Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Chen, Xiaobo; Bai, Suo; Zheng, Youbin; Hu, Caixia; Qin, Yong

    2016-03-01

    An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s(-1) for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a wireless power supply in the electrochemical industry. PMID:26883097

  17. Mass Transport Effects in Suspended Waveguide Biosensors Integrated in Microfluidic Channels

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Chaitanya R.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Label-free optical biosensors based on integrated photonic devices have demonstrated sensitive and selective detection of biological analytes. Integrating these sensor platforms into microfluidic devices reduces the required sample volume and enables rapid delivery of sample to the sensor surface, thereby improving response times. Conventionally, these devices are embedded in or adjacent to the substrate; therefore, the effective sensing area lies within the slow-flow region at the floor of the channel, reducing the efficiency of sample delivery. Recently, a suspended waveguide sensor was developed in which the device is elevated off of the substrate and the sensing region does not rest on the substrate. This geometry places the sensing region in the middle of the parabolic velocity profile, reduces the distance that a particle must travel by diffusion to be detected, and allows binding to both surfaces of the sensor. We use a finite element model to simulate advection, diffusion, and specific binding of interleukin 6, a signaling protein, to this waveguide-based biosensor at a range of elevations within a microfluidic channel. We compare the transient performance of these suspended waveguide sensors with that of traditional planar devices, studying both the detection threshold response time and the time to reach equilibrium. We also develop a theoretical framework for predicting the behavior of these suspended sensors. These simulation and theoretical results provide a roadmap for improving sensor performance and minimizing the amount of sample required to make measurements. PMID:23202163

  18. Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund Program Opens New Avenues for Effective Technology Integration into Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, Franco; Carlucci, Lisa Marie

    2006-04-01

    Technology is increasingly playing a major role in today's education often integrated into instruction to become one of the teacher's most effective and often indispensable tools used in the classroom. It can be said that the use of technology at the beginning of this new millennium is affecting the instructional process and it is changing some of its basic connotations. The presented work analyzes the impact of various technologies on education emphasizing the advantages provided by a successful integration, the obstacles encountered along the way, and the methodologies currently used in the process. ``Educational exchange can turn nations into people, contributing as no other form of communication can to the humanizing of international relations'' (Senator J.M. Fulbright). Technology of this modern era is providing the indispensable tool to achieve this superior level of communication overcoming historical, cultural, and language barriers. In the context of the Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund (JFMF) Teacher Program, we analyze the impact of technology on educational cross-cultural exchanges to raise awareness and interest of the scientific/educational community on the need of establishing stronger international relations promoting world peace and global prosperity.

  19. Effect of Variations in IRU Integration Time Interval On Accuracy of Aqua Attitude Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natanson, G. A.; Tracewell, Dave

    2003-01-01

    During Aqua launch support, attitude analysts noticed several anomalies in Onboard Computer (OBC) rates and in rates computed by the ground Attitude Determination System (ADS). These included: 1) periodic jumps in the OBC pitch rate every 2 minutes; 2) spikes in ADS pitch rate every 4 minutes; 3) close agreement between pitch rates computed by ADS and those derived from telemetered OBC quaternions (in contrast to the step-wise pattern observed for telemetered OBC rates); 4) spikes of +/- 10 milliseconds in telemetered IRU integration time every 4 minutes (despite the fact that telemetered time tags of any two sequential IRU measurements were always 1 second apart from each other). An analysis presented in the paper explains this anomalous behavior by a small average offset of about 0.5 +/- 0.05 microsec in the time interval between two sequential accumulated angle measurements. It is shown that errors in the estimated pitch angle due to neglecting the aforementioned variations in the integration time interval by the OBC is within +/- 2 arcseconds. Ground attitude solutions are found to be accurate enough to see the effect of the variations on the accuracy of the estimated pitch angle.

  20. Integrating across scales: Effectively applying science for the successful conservation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, M. E.; Parrish, D.L.; Folt, C.L.; DeGraaf, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an excellent species on which to focus synthetic, integrative investigations because it is an economically important species that captures the public imagination, is heavily impacted by humans, uses several ecosystems over its life, and is the subject of a large body of extant literature. The following 24 papers were solicited to provide the biological basis for effective and innovative approaches that biologists, managers, and social scientists can use to develop policies that sustain Atlantic salmon and related species. Together these papers highlight the need for and benefits of (a) synthesizing within populations, (b) choosing the appropriate scale, (c) comparing across populations using rigorous, focused, question-oriented methods, (d) integrating across disciplines, (e) incorporating the human perspective, (f) linking multiple ecosystems, and (g) applied problem solving. To show how Atlantic salmon can guide research and conservation efforts for other species in other systems, we review the justification for the supplement and summarize the defining concepts that emerge from the volume.

  1. Oncoshare: Lessons Learned from Building an Integrated Multi-institutional Database for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Susan C; Seto, Tina; Olson, Cliff; Kenkare, Pragati; Kurian, Allison W.; Das, Amar K.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) using observational data requires informatics methods for the extraction, standardization, sharing, and integration of data derived from a variety of electronic sources. In the Oncoshare project, we have developed such methods as part of a collaborative multi-institutional CER study of patterns, predictors, and outcome of breast cancer care. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the approaches we undertook and the lessons we learned in building and validating the Oncoshare data resource. Specifically, we determined that 1) the state or regional cancer registry makes the most efficient starting point for determining inclusion of subjects; 2) the data dictionary should be based on existing registry standards, such as Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), when applicable; 3) the Social Security Administration Death Master File (SSA DMF), rather than clinical resources, provides standardized ascertainment of mortality outcomes; and 4) CER database development efforts, despite the immediate availability of electronic data, may take as long as two years to produce validated, reliable data for research. Through our efforts using these methods, Oncoshare integrates complex, longitudinal data from multiple electronic medical records and registries and provides a rich, validated resource for research on oncology care. PMID:23304372

  2. Effect of cooled storage on quality and DNA integrity of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Mahasawangkul, S; Gosálvez, J; Suthanmapinanth, P; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E

    2012-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is a potentially useful tool for breeding captive elephants because it facilitates efforts to minimise inbreeding. However, cooled storage of elephant semen markedly reduces fertility. This study compared the effects on semen-quality parameters, including sperm DNA fragmentation, of storing elephant semen at 4°C or 15°C in a commonly-used diluent (TEST) or a diluent developed to protect against sperm DNA damage (BullMax). Storing elephant semen for >24 h in either extender at either temperature resulted in decreases in sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity (P < 0.05); the decrease in motility was especially rapid. A subjective impression of circular sperm movement in TEST was confirmed by a higher curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement, but lower straight-line velocity and linearity than in BullMax. Initial percentages of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA (%SDF) did not differ between extenders or temperatures, but the rate of increase in %SDF during a 48-h incubation at 37°C was higher in TEST than in BullMax (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BullMax allows more linear movement and better preserves DNA stability of stored elephant spermatozoa than TEST. Sperm DNA stability during incubation at 37°C is a promising, discriminative parameter for selecting semen storage conditions of bulls for elephant AI. PMID:22951013

  3. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the {Lambda}CDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex{sub s}{sup 2}) and that of {delta}{sub de}/{delta}{sub m} with the variation of c-circumflex{sub s}{sup 2}.

  4. An integrating matrix formulation for buckling of rotating beams including the effects of concentrated masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    The integrating matrix technique of computational mechanics is extended to include the effects of concentrated masses. The stability of a flexible rotating beam with discrete masses is analyzed to determine the critical rotational speeds for buckling in the inplane and out-of-plane directions. In this problem, the beam is subjected to compressive centrifugal forces arising from steady rotation about an axis which does not pass through the clamped end of the beam. To determine the eigenvalues from which stability is assessed, the differential equations of motion are solved numerically by combining the extended integrating matrix method with an eigenanalysis. Stability boundaries for a discrete mass representation of a uniform beam are shown to asymptotically approach the stability boundaries for the corresponding continuous mass beam as the number of concentrated masses is increased. An error in the literature is also noted for the discrete mass problem concerning the behavior of the critical rotational speed for inplane buckling as the radius of rotation of the clamped end of the beam is reduced.

  5. Highly Uniform Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors and Medium Scale Integrated Circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyan; Zhang, Panpan; Ding, Li; Han, Jie; Qiu, Song; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-08-10

    Top-gated p-type field-effect transistors (FETs) have been fabricated in batch based on carbon nanotube (CNT) network thin films prepared from CNT solution and present high yield and highly uniform performance with small threshold voltage distribution with standard deviation of 34 mV. According to the property of FETs, various logical and arithmetical gates, shifters, and d-latch circuits were designed and demonstrated with rail-to-rail output. In particular, a 4-bit adder consisting of 140 p-type CNT FETs was demonstrated with higher packing density and lower supply voltage than other published integrated circuits based on CNT films, which indicates that CNT based integrated circuits can reach to medium scale. In addition, a 2-bit multiplier has been realized for the first time. Benefitted from the high uniformity and suitable threshold voltage of CNT FETs, all of the fabricated circuits based on CNT FETs can be driven by a single voltage as small as 2 V. PMID:27459084

  6. The effect of age on the structural integrity of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Beason, D.G.; Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1988-08-17

    All of the controls on high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are based on rigid manufacturing standards with regard to filtration efficiency, temperature performance, pressure integrity, and strength. Third-party inspection and testing by the US Department of Energy increases the reliability of new HEPA filters, but only routine in-place testing is used to assure that an aging filter performs adequately. In 1980 the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory initiated a small evaluation to determine if age has a significant effect on the structural integrity of HEPA filters. A series of used uncontaminated filters dating back to 1965 was obtained for these tests. Tensile strength tests on the old media indicated a decrease in strength. To provide additional measurement of the filters' overall strength, several of these aged filters were subjected to pressure pulses equivalent to the NRC Region I tornado pulses and shock wave overpressures. Data from these tests indicate a decrease in breaking pressure of from 25/endash/50%. A large increase in complete filter pack blow-out during the simulated NRC Region I tornado tests was also observed. The preliminary results indicate the need for an administrative lifetime for HEPA filters used in critical nuclear facilities. Due to the unique conditions in each facility, different administrative lifetimes may be necessary.

  7. Contributions to understanding the high speed machining effects on aeronautic part surface integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Walid

    To remain competitive, the aeronautic industry has increasing requirements for mechanical components and parts with high functional performance and longer in-service life. The improvement of the in-service life of components can be achieved by mastering and optimizing the surface integrity of the manufactured parts. Thus, the present study attempted to investigate, experimentally and theoretically, the tool/work material interactions on part surface integrity during the machining of aluminium alloys and hardened materials (low alloy steels) using orthogonal machining tests data. The studied materials are two aluminum alloys (6061-T6 and 7075-T651) and AISI 4340 steel. The AISI 4340 steel was machined after been induction heat treated to 58-60 HRC. These materials were selected in an attempt to provide a comprehensive study for the machining of metals with different behaviours (ductile and hard material). The proposed approach is built on three steps. First, we proposed a design of experiment (DOE) to analyse, experimentally, the chip formation and the resulting surface integrity during the high speed machining under dry condition. The orthogonal cutting mode, adopted in these experiments, allowed to explore, theoretically, the effects of technological (cutting speed and feed) and physical (cutting forces, temperature, shear angle, friction angle, and length Contact tool/chip) parameters on the chip formation mechanisms and the machined surface characteristics (residual stress, plastic deformation, phase transformation, etc.). The cutting conditions were chosen while maintaining a central composite design (CCD) with two factors (cutting speed and feed per revolution). For the aluminum 7075-T651, the results showed that the formation of BUE and the interaction between the tool edge and the iron-rich intermetallic particles are the main causes of the machined surface damage. The BUE formation increases with the cutting feed while the increase of the cutting speed

  8. Graphene field-effect transistor array with integrated electrolytic gates scaled to 200 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, N. C. S.; Borme, J.; Machado, G., Jr.; Cerqueira, F.; Freitas, P. P.; Zucolotto, V.; Peres, N. M. R.; Alpuim, P.

    2016-03-01

    Ten years have passed since the beginning of graphene research. In this period we have witnessed breakthroughs both in fundamental and applied research. However, the development of graphene devices for mass production has not yet reached the same level of progress. The architecture of graphene field-effect transistors (FET) has not significantly changed, and the integration of devices at the wafer scale has generally not been sought. Currently, whenever an electrolyte-gated FET (EGFET) is used, an external, cumbersome, out-of-plane gate electrode is required. Here, an alternative architecture for graphene EGFET is presented. In this architecture, source, drain, and gate are in the same plane, eliminating the need for an external gate electrode and the use of an additional reservoir to confine the electrolyte inside the transistor active zone. This planar structure with an integrated gate allows for wafer-scale fabrication of high-performance graphene EGFETs, with carrier mobility up to 1800 cm2 V-1 s-1. As a proof-of principle, a chemical sensor was achieved. It is shown that the sensor can discriminate between saline solutions of different concentrations. The proposed architecture will facilitate the mass production of graphene sensors, materializing the potential of previous achievements in fundamental and applied graphene research.

  9. An integrated chinmedomics strategy for discovery of effective constituents from traditional herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Zhou, Xiaohang; Liu, Qi; Nan, Yang; Guan, Yu; Kong, Ling; Han, Ying; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guangli

    2016-01-01

    Traditional natural product discovery affords no information about compound structure or pharmacological activities until late in the discovery process, and leads to low probabilities of finding compounds with unique biological properties. By integrating serum pharmacochemistry-based screening with high-resolution metabolomics analysis, we have developed a new platform, termed chinmedomics which is capable of directly discovering the bioactive constituents. In this work, the focus is on ShenQiWan (SQW) treatment of ShenYangXu (SYX, kidney-yang deficiency syndrome) as a case study, as determined by chinmedomics. With serum pharmacochemistry, a total of 34 peaks were tentatively characterised in vivo, 24 of which were parent components and 10 metabolites were detected. The metabolic profiling and potential biomarkers of SYX were also investigated and 23 differential metabolites were found. 20 highly correlated components were screened by the plotting of correlation between marker metabolites and serum constituents and considered as the main active components of SQW. These compounds are imported into a database to predict the action targets: 14 importantly potential targets were found and related to aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption and adrenergic signaling pathways. Our study showed that integrated chinmedomics is a powerful strategy for discovery and screening of effective constituents from herbal medicines. PMID:26750403

  10. Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Interventions in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Beth A.; Koenig, Kristie; Kinnealey, Moya; Sheppard, Megan; Henderson, Lorrie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to establish a model for randomized controlled trial research, identify appropriate outcome measures, and address the effectiveness of sensory integration (SI) interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children ages 6–12 with ASD were randomly assigned to a fine motor or SI treatment group. Pretests and posttests measured social responsiveness, sensory processing, functional motor skills, and social–emotional factors. Results identified significant positive changes in Goal Attainment Scaling scores for both groups; more significant changes occurred in the SI group, and a significant decrease in autistic mannerisms occurred in the SI group. No other results were significant. The study discusses considerations for designing future outcome studies for children with ASD. PMID:21309374

  11. Duration reproduction: lossy integration and effects of sensory modalities, cognitive functioning, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Peter; Wittmann, Marc; Wackermann, Jirí

    2012-10-01

    The "dual klepsydra model" (DKM) of internal time representation successfully models duration reproduction data, but relations between the DKM-based parameter kappa ("loss rate") and procedural variables (presentation modality) or individual characteristics (cognitive indices, age, sex) remained as yet unexplored. For that purpose, were-analyzed data from an earlier time reproduction study (N = 100), using visually or acoustically presented intervals of 1-5 sec. duration. Typical values of parameter kappa were approximately 0.03-0.04 sec.(-1), corresponding to relaxation times of internal "lossy integrators" of approximately 30 sec. Significant effects of presentation modality (smaller kappa values for the visual reproduction task) and of age (greater kappa in acoustic reproduction with increasing age) were observed. Cognitive variables (working memory, general fluid reasoning, attention) and sex of participants were not associated with kappa. Cognitive functions seem to play only a minor, if any, role at the level of time representation addressed by the DKM. PMID:23265003

  12. Effect of Piezoelectric Implant on the Structural Integrity of Composite Laminates Subjected to Tensile Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masmoudi, Sahir; El Mahi, Abderrahim; Turki, Saïd

    2016-07-01

    The embedment of sensors within composite structures gives the opportunity to develop smart materials for health and usage monitoring systems. This study investigates the use of acoustic emission monitoring with embedded piezoelectric sensor during mechanical tests in order to identify the effects of introducing the sensor into the composite materials. The composite specimen with and without embedded sensor were subject to tensile static and fatigue loading. The analysis and observation of AE signals show that the integration of a sensor presents advantage of the detection of the acoustic events and also show the presence of three or four types of damage during tests. The incorporation of piezoelectric sensor has a negligible influence on the mechanical properties of materials.

  13. Effectiveness of sensory integration interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Beth A; Koenig, Kristie; Kinnealey, Moya; Sheppard, Megan; Henderson, Lorrie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to establish a model for randomized controlled trial research, identify appropriate outcome measures, and address the effectiveness of sensory integration (SI) interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children ages 6-12 with ASD were randomly assigned to a fine motor or SI treatment group. Pretests and posttests measured social responsiveness, sensory processing, functional motor skills, and social-emotional factors. Results identified significant positive changes in Goal Attainment Scaling scores for both groups; more significant changes occurred in the SI group, and a significant decrease in autistic mannerisms occurred in the SI group. No other results were significant. The study discusses considerations for designing future outcome studies for children with ASD. PMID:21309374

  14. Excitonic effects in two-dimensional semiconductors: Path integral Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-11-01

    One of the most striking features of novel two-dimensional semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers or phosphorene) is a strong Coulomb interaction between charge carriers resulting in large excitonic effects. In particular, this leads to the formation of multicarrier bound states upon photoexcitation (e.g., excitons, trions, and biexcitons), which could remain stable at near-room temperatures and contribute significantly to the optical properties of such materials. In the present work we have used the path integral Monte Carlo methodology to numerically study properties of multicarrier bound states in two-dimensional semiconductors. Specifically, we have accurately investigated and tabulated the dependence of single-exciton, trion, and biexciton binding energies on the strength of dielectric screening, including the limiting cases of very strong and very weak screening. The results of this work are potentially useful in the analysis of experimental data and benchmarking of theoretical and computational models.

  15. Large-scale structure and integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in decaying vacuum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, H.; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Fazolo, R.; Gomes, S.

    2015-09-01

    The concordance particle creation model - a class of Λ(t) Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmologies - is studied using large-scale structure (LSS) formation, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. The evolution of the gravitational potential and the amplitude of the cross-correlation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) signal with LSS surveys are calculated in detail. We properly include in our analysis the peculiarities involving the baryonic dynamics of the Λ(t)CDM model which were not included in previous works. Although both the Λ(t)CDM and the standard cosmology are in agreement with available data for the CMB-LSS correlation, the former presents a slightly higher signal which can be identified with future data.

  16. An integrated wave-effects model for an underwater explosion bubble.

    PubMed

    Geers, Thomas L; Hunter, Kendall S

    2002-04-01

    A model for a moderately deep underwater explosion bubble is developed that integrates the shock wave and oscillation phases of the motion. A hyperacoustic relationship is formulated that relates bubble volume acceleration to far-field pressure profile during the shock-wave phase, thereby providing initial conditions for the subsequent oscillation phase. For the latter, equations for bubble-surface response are derived that include wave effects in both the external liquid and the internal gas. The equations are then specialized to the case of a spherical bubble, and bubble-surface displacement histories are calculated for dilational and translational motion. Agreement between these histories and experimental data is found to be substantially better than that produced by previous models. PMID:12002843

  17. Study of heat sources interacting in integrated circuits by laser mirage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Altet, J.

    2014-08-01

    This work exploits the mirage effect to analyze multiple heat sources thermally interacting in an integrated circuit (IC) by means of a probe IR laser beam, which strikes on the die lateral walls and passes through the die substrate. Under such conditions, the criteria for locating such hot spots, as well as their relative power dissipation, are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model inferred in this work. Finally, the technique feasibility is shown in a real application scenario, obtaining 5-μm spatial lateral resolution and an error in power dissipation measurements below 5%. This method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

  18. Effects of Dissolving Solutions on the Accuracy of an Electronic Apex Locator-Integrated Endodontic Handpiece

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Yakup; Uzun, Ozgur; Er, Ozgur; Maden, Murat; Yalpı, Fatma; Canakci, Burhan Can

    2013-01-01

    The effects of three dissolving agents on the accuracy of an electronic apex locator- (EAL-) integrated endodontic handpiece during retreatment procedures were evaluated. The true lengths (TLs) of 56 extracted incisor teeth were determined visually. Twenty teeth were filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer (group A), 20 with gutta-percha and a zinc oxide/eugenol-based sealer (group B), and 16 roots were used as the control group (group C). All roots were prepared to TL. Guttasolv, Resosolv, and Endosolv E were used as the dissolving solutions. Two evaluations of the handpiece were performed: the apical accuracy during the auto reverse function (ARL) and the apex locator function (EL) alone. The ARL function of the handpiece gave acceptable results. There were significant differences between the EL mode measurements and the TL (P < 0.05). In these comparisons, Tri Auto ZX EL mode measurements were significantly shorter than those of the TL. PMID:24379743

  19. Excitonic effects in two-dimensional semiconductors: Path integral Monte Carlo approach

    SciTech Connect

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-11-11

    The most striking features of novel two-dimensional semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers or phosphorene) is a strong Coulomb interaction between charge carriers resulting in large excitonic effects. In particular, this leads to the formation of multicarrier bound states upon photoexcitation (e.g., excitons, trions, and biexcitons), which could remain stable at near-room temperatures and contribute significantly to the optical properties of such materials. In our work we have used the path integral Monte Carlo methodology to numerically study properties of multicarrier bound states in two-dimensional semiconductors. Specifically, we have accurately investigated and tabulated the dependence of single-exciton, trion, and biexciton binding energies on the strength of dielectric screening, including the limiting cases of very strong and very weak screening. Our results of this work are potentially useful in the analysis of experimental data and benchmarking of theoretical and computational models.

  20. Excitonic effects in two-dimensional semiconductors: Path integral Monte Carlo approach

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-11-11

    The most striking features of novel two-dimensional semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers or phosphorene) is a strong Coulomb interaction between charge carriers resulting in large excitonic effects. In particular, this leads to the formation of multicarrier bound states upon photoexcitation (e.g., excitons, trions, and biexcitons), which could remain stable at near-room temperatures and contribute significantly to the optical properties of such materials. In our work we have used the path integral Monte Carlo methodology to numerically study properties of multicarrier bound states in two-dimensional semiconductors. Specifically, we have accurately investigated and tabulated the dependence of single-exciton, trion, and biexcitonmore » binding energies on the strength of dielectric screening, including the limiting cases of very strong and very weak screening. Our results of this work are potentially useful in the analysis of experimental data and benchmarking of theoretical and computational models.« less

  1. Line integration effects on ion temperatures in tokamak plasmas measured with neutron emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ognissanto, F.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Albergante, M.; Ballabio, L.; Conroy, S.; Kaellne, J.

    2008-10-15

    The line integrated line emission measured by neutron spectrometers at JET along sight lines in the vertical and horizontal planes has been simulated in Monte Carlo calculations to determine the relationship between the measured (effective) ion temperature (T{sub eff}) relative to the peak value of the profile (T{sub 0}). The general sight line dependence of (T{sub eff}) was expressed analytically for circular plasmas which was used to explain the simulated results for the actual JET sight lines. The analytical model with parametrization of sight lines and plasma profiles is described and the results are used to discuss dual sight line measurements that can be tested at JET and its forward implications for study burning (nearly thermal) plasmas of ITER.

  2. High-performance integrated field-effect transistor-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Adzhri, R; Md Arshad, M K; Gopinath, Subash C B; Ruslinda, A R; Fathil, M F M; Ayub, R M; Nor, M Nuzaihan Mohd; Voon, C H

    2016-04-21

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications. PMID:27026595

  3. Aging Effects of Environmentally-Friendly Cleaners on Adhesive Bond Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.; Anderson, G. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment many chlorinated solvents are being phased out of use in manufacturing industries. Replacement of the ODC (ozone- depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past nine years at Thiokol Propulsion, Cordant Technologies. Many of the non-ODC cleaners contain compounds that can potentially degrade over time under conditions of high temperature, humidity and exposure to light. The chemical composition of environmentally conditioned cleaners and the subsequent effect on aluminum/amine-cured epoxy bond integrity as measured by Tapered Double Cantilever Beam were evaluated. From this study it is observed that moisture content increases for those cleaners containing polar compounds. Non-volatile residue content increases as stabilizers are depleted and the chemical compound limonene is oxidized. A change in aluminum/ amine-cured epoxy bond fracture toughness is observed as some of these cleaners age with increases in moisture and NVR content.

  4. Effective integration of ultra-elliptic solutions of the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, O. C.

    2016-05-01

    An effective integration method based on the classical solution of the Jacobi inversion problem, using Kleinian ultra-elliptic functions and Riemann theta functions, is presented for the quasi-periodic two-phase solutions of the focusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Each two-phase solution with real quasi-periods forms a two-real-dimensional torus, modulo a circle of complex-phase factors, expressed as a ratio of theta functions associated with the Riemann surface of the invariant spectral curve. The initial conditions of the Dirichlet eigenvalues satisfy reality conditions which are explicitly parametrized by two physically-meaningful real variables: the squared modulus and a scalar multiple of the wavenumber. Simple new formulas for the maximum modulus and the minimum modulus are obtained in terms of the imaginary parts of the branch points of the Riemann surface.

  5. Systematic modeling versus the learning cycle: Comparative effects on integrated science process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Rochelle L.; Norman, John T.

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the systematic modeling teaching strategy on integrated science process skills and formal reasoning ability. Urban middle school students received a three-month process skill intervention treatment from teachers trained in either the use of systematic modeling or the learning-cycle model. A third, control group received traditional science instruction. The analysis of data revealed that (a) students receiving modeled instruction demonstrated a significant difference in their achievement of process skills when compared to either of the control groups. (b) Students taught by teachers who had received special process skill and strategy training demonstrated a significant difference in their process skill achievement when compared with the control group. (c) Students at different cognitive reasoning levels demonstrated significantly different process skill ability.

  6. Study of heat sources interacting in integrated circuits by laser mirage effect

    SciTech Connect

    Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Altet, J.

    2014-08-25

    This work exploits the mirage effect to analyze multiple heat sources thermally interacting in an integrated circuit (IC) by means of a probe IR laser beam, which strikes on the die lateral walls and passes through the die substrate. Under such conditions, the criteria for locating such hot spots, as well as their relative power dissipation, are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model inferred in this work. Finally, the technique feasibility is shown in a real application scenario, obtaining 5-μm spatial lateral resolution and an error in power dissipation measurements below 5%. This method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

  7. Effect of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Integration in a Rabbit Tibial Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sung-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Chul-Hong; Ahn, Hee-Bae; Rho, Mee-Sook; Jeong, Min-Ho; Sun, Sang-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) and then characterize its effect on bone integration in a rabbit tibial defect model. The bone formation with different designs of HA was compared and the bony integration of several graft materials was investigated qualitatively by radiologic and histologic study. Methods Ten rabbits were included in this study; two holes were drilled bilaterally across the near cortex and the four holes in each rabbit were divided into four treatment groups (HAP, hydroxyapatite powder; HAC, hydroxyapatite cylinder; HA/TCP, hydroxyapatite/tri-calcium phosphate cylinder, and titanium cylinder). The volume of bone ingrowth and the change of bone mineral density were statistically calculated by computed tomography five times for each treatment group at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after grafting. Histologic analysis was performed at 8 weeks after grafting. Results The HAP group showed the most pronounced effect on the bone ingrowth surface area, which seen at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after graft (p < 0.05). On comparing the change of bone mineral density the bone ingrowth surface area among the 4 groups, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups found for any period (p > 0.05). On histological examination, the HAP group revealed well-recovered cortical bone, but the bone was irregularly thickened and haphazardly admixed with powder. The HAC group showed similar histological features to those of the HA/TCP group; the cortical surface of the newly developed bone was smooth and the bone matrix on the surface of the cylinder was regularly arranged. Conclusions We concluded that both the hydroxyapatite powder and cylinder models investigated in our study may be suitable as a bone substitute in the rabbit tibial defect model, but their characteristic properties are quite different. In contrast to hydroxyapatite powder, which showed better results for the bone ingrowth surface, the hydroxyapatite

  8. The effects of self-monitoring on the procedural integrity of a behavioral intervention for young children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Plavnick, Joshua B; Ferreri, Summer J; Maupin, Angela N

    2010-01-01

    The effects of self-monitoring on the procedural integrity of token economy implementation by 3 staff in a special education classroom were evaluated. The subsequent changes in academic readiness behaviors of 2 students with low-incidence disabilities were measured. Multiple baselines across staff and students showed that procedural integrity increased when staff used monitoring checklists, and students' academic readiness behavior also increased. Results are discussed with respect to the use of self-monitoring and the importance of procedural integrity in public school settings. PMID:21119907

  9. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2013-12-17

    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin. PMID:24256030

  10. Advancing effects analysis for integrated, large-scale wildfire risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew P; Calkin, David E; Gilbertson-Day, Julie W; Ager, Alan A

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we describe the design and development of a quantitative, geospatial risk assessment tool intended to facilitate monitoring trends in wildfire risk over time and to provide information useful in prioritizing fuels treatments and mitigation measures. The research effort is designed to develop, from a strategic view, a first approximation of how both fire likelihood and intensity influence risk to social, economic, and ecological values at regional and national scales. Three main components are required to generate wildfire risk outputs: (1) burn probability maps generated from wildfire simulations, (2) spatially identified highly valued resources (HVRs), and (3) response functions that describe the effects of fire (beneficial or detrimental) on the HVR. Analyzing fire effects has to date presented a major challenge to integrated risk assessments, due to a limited understanding of the type and magnitude of changes wrought by wildfire to ecological and other nonmarket values. This work advances wildfire effects analysis, recognizing knowledge uncertainty and appropriately managing it through the use of an expert systems approach. Specifically, this work entailed consultation with 10 fire and fuels program management officials from federal agencies with fire management responsibilities in order to define quantitative resource response relationships as a function of fire intensity. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept application of the wildland fire risk assessment tool, using the state of Oregon as a case study. PMID:20981570

  11. Short-term effects of integrated motor imagery practice on muscle activation and force performance.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, F; Blache, Y; Kanthack, T F D; Monteil, K; Collet, C; Guillot, A

    2015-10-01

    The effect of motor imagery (MI) practice on isometric force development is well-documented. However, whether practicing MI during rest periods of physical training improves the forthcoming performance remains unexplored. We involved 18 athletes in a counterbalanced design including three physical training sessions scheduled over five consecutive days. Training involved 10 maximal isometric contractions against a force plate, with the elbow at 90°. During two sessions, we integrated MI practice (focusing on either muscle activation or relaxation) during the inter-trial rest periods. We measured muscle performance from force plate and electromyograms of the biceps brachii and anterior deltoideus. We continuously monitored electrodermal activity (EDA) to control sympathetic nervous system activity. MI of muscle activation resulted in higher isometric force as compared to both MI of muscle relaxation and passive recovery (respectively +2.1% and +3.5%). MI practice of muscle relaxation also outperformed the control condition (+1.9%). Increased activation of the biceps brachii was recorded under both MI practice conditions compared to control. Biceps brachii activation was similar between the two MI practice conditions, but electromyography revealed a marginal trend toward greater activation of the anterior deltoideus during MI practice of muscle activation. EDA and self-reports indicated that these effects were independent from physiological arousal and motivation. These results might account for priming effects of MI practice yielding to higher muscle activation and force performance. Present findings may be of interest for applications in sports training and neurologic rehabilitation. PMID:26241339

  12. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  13. Detecting the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect with high-redshift 21-cm surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Kovetz, Ely; Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect by cross-correlating 21-cm surveys at high redshifts with galaxies in a way similar to the usual CMB-galaxy cross-correlation. The high-redshift 21-cm signal is dominated by CMB photons that travel freely without interacting with the intervening matter, and hence its late-time ISW signature should correlate extremely well with that of the CMB at its peak frequencies. Using the 21-cm temperature brightness instead of the CMB would thus be a further check of the detection of the ISW effect, measured by different instruments at different frequencies and suffering from different systematics. We also study the ISW effect on the photons that are scattered by HI clouds. We show that a detection of the unscattered photons is achievable with planned radio arrays, while one using scattered photons will require advanced radio interferometers, either an extended version of the planned Square Kilometre Array or futuristic experiments such as a lunar radio array.

  14. Integration and scaling of UV-B radiation effects on plants: from DNA to leaf.

    PubMed

    Suchar, Vasile Alexandru; Robberecht, Ronald

    2015-07-01

    A process-based model integrating the effects of UV-B radiation through epidermis, cellular DNA, and its consequences to the leaf expansion was developed from key parameters in the published literature. Enhanced UV-B radiation-induced DNA damage significantly delayed cell division, resulting in significant reductions in leaf growth and development. Ambient UV-B radiation-induced DNA damage significantly reduced the leaf growth of species with high relative epidermal absorbance at longer wavelengths and average/low pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers (CPD) photorepair rates. Leaf expansion was highly dependent on the number of CPD present in the DNA, as a result of UV-B radiation dose, quantitative and qualitative absorptive properties of epidermal pigments, and repair mechanisms. Formation of pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PP) has no effect on the leaf expansion. Repair mechanisms could not solely prevent the UV-B radiation interference with the cell division. Avoidance or effective shielding by increased or modified qualitative epidermal absorptance was required. Sustained increased UV-B radiation levels are more detrimental than short, high doses of UV-B radiation. The combination of low temperature and increased UV-B radiation was more significant in the level of UV-B radiation-induced damage than UV-B radiation alone. Slow-growing leaves were more affected by increased UV-B radiation than fast-growing leaves. PMID:26257869

  15. Integration and scaling of UV-B radiation effects on plants: from DNA to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Suchar, Vasile Alexandru; Robberecht, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    A process-based model integrating the effects of UV-B radiation through epidermis, cellular DNA, and its consequences to the leaf expansion was developed from key parameters in the published literature. Enhanced UV-B radiation-induced DNA damage significantly delayed cell division, resulting in significant reductions in leaf growth and development. Ambient UV-B radiation-induced DNA damage significantly reduced the leaf growth of species with high relative epidermal absorbance at longer wavelengths and average/low pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers (CPD) photorepair rates. Leaf expansion was highly dependent on the number of CPD present in the DNA, as a result of UV-B radiation dose, quantitative and qualitative absorptive properties of epidermal pigments, and repair mechanisms. Formation of pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PP) has no effect on the leaf expansion. Repair mechanisms could not solely prevent the UV-B radiation interference with the cell division. Avoidance or effective shielding by increased or modified qualitative epidermal absorptance was required. Sustained increased UV-B radiation levels are more detrimental than short, high doses of UV-B radiation. The combination of low temperature and increased UV-B radiation was more significant in the level of UV-B radiation-induced damage than UV-B radiation alone. Slow-growing leaves were more affected by increased UV-B radiation than fast-growing leaves. PMID:26257869

  16. Using an Index of Biotic Integrity to Assess the Effects of Conservation in Small Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teels, B. M.

    2002-05-01

    During the past century, the use of biological indicators to monitor environmental quality has evolved from simple diversity indexes into a variety of approaches. One of the more recent and successful has been the development of the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), a multimetric approach that uses species assemblages to assess the biological condition of streams. Now well documented and widely used, the IBI combines multiple metrics with appropriate sampling design and statistical analysis to evaluate a stream's ability to support undisturbed living systems. In this study, an IBI tailored for small watersheds was used to characterize the condition of Northern Virginia streams and serve as a benchmark to measure the effects of future conservation in that region. Metrics for the IBI were chosen on the basis of how well they reflected specific and predictable responses of fish assemblages to human influences. The process for selecting metrics involved the testing of a larger set of biological attributes to select those few metrics that were highly sensitive, yet not redundant. A gradient of human influence was established for the region to help evaluate the performance of each individual metric. The study concluded that by adapting the technique to account for regional variations in human influence and fish fauna, an IBI can effectively measure the condition of streams and small watersheds. The study also concluded that the IBI has potential for evaluating the effectiveness of locally applied conservation measures, such as riparian buffers, in restoring aquatic health.

  17. Analysis of lifespan-promoting effect of garlic extract by an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Wu, Yuan-Heng; Zhong, Linda; Tseng, Mu-Yun; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) consumption in treating human diseases have been reported worldwide over a long period of human history. The strong antioxidant effect of garlic extract (GE) has also recently been claimed to prevent cancer, thrombus formation, cardiovascular disease and some age-related maladies. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, aqueous GE was herein shown to increase the expression of longevity-related FOXO transcription factor daf-16 and extend lifespan by 20%. By employing microarray and proteomics analysis on C. elegans treated with aqueous GE, we have systematically mapped 229 genes and 46 proteins with differential expression profiles, which included many metabolic enzymes and yolky egg vitellogenins. To investigate the garlic components functionally involved in longevity, an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach was employed to identify metabolites and protein components associated with treatment of aqueous GE. Among potential lifespan-promoting substances, mannose-binding lectin and N-acetylcysteine were found to increase daf-16 expression. Our study points to the fact that the lifespan-promoting effect of aqueous GE may entail the DAF-16-mediated signaling pathway. The result also highlights the utility of metabolo-proteomics for unraveling the complexity and intricacy involved in the metabolism of natural products in vivo. PMID:25940980

  18. The Effects of ICT Environment on Teachers' Attitudes and Technology Integration in Japan and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusano, Kodai; Frederiksen, Sarah; Jones, LeAnne; Kobayashi, Michiko; Mukoyama, Yui; Yamagishi, Taku; Sadaki, Kengo; Ishizuka, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) environment on teachers' attitude toward technology integration in Japanese and U.S. elementary schools. Teacher's attitude plays an important role in influencing the effectiveness of ICT education from a variety of perspectives. A number of studies…

  19. Academic Effectiveness of Podcasting: A Comparative Study of Integrated versus Supplemental Use of Podcasting in Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; Facer, Betty Rose; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    With podcasting gaining more mainstream adoption in higher education, it's critical to examine its effectiveness in improving the student learning experience. To this end, this paper examines the effectiveness of podcasts integrated into the curriculum (PIC) versus podcasts as supplemental material (PSM). Considering recent empirical work on the…

  20. Effect of vitamin E on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in sodium arsenite-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Hamid Reza; Eskandari, Najmeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arsenic as an environmental toxicant is able to exert malformations in male reproductive system by inducing oxidative stress. Vitamin E (Vit.E) is known as antioxidant vitamin. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effects of sodium arsenite on sperm parameters and the antioxidant effects of Vit.E on sperm anomalies in sodium arsenite treated rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups: control, sodium arsenite (8 mg/kg/day), Vit.E (100 mg/kg/day) and sodium arsenite+Vit.E. Oral treatments were performed till 8 weeks. Body and left testis weight were recorded and then left caudal epididymis was cut in Ham's F10. Released spermatozoa were used to analyze number, motility, viability and abnormalities of the sperm. Sperm chromatin quality was assessed by nuclear staining using acridine orange and aniline blue. Results: Body and testis weight showed no significant change in 4 groups (p>0.05). A significant decrease in the number, motility, viability and normal sperm morphology was found in sodium arsenite-treated rats compared to the control (p<0.001). Sodium arsenite had no effect on sperm DNA integrity and histon-protamine replacement (p>0.05). In sodium arsenite+Vit.E group, Vit.E could significantly compensate the harmful effects of sodium arsenite on sperm number, motility, viability and morphology compared to sodium arsenite group. In addition, sperm viability and motility was significantly increased in rats treated with Vit.E alone compared to the control and sodium arsenite+Vit.E group. Conclusion: Vitamin E could compensate the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on sperm parameters in adult rats. PMID:25243001

  1. Integrated Experimental and Computational Approach to Understand the Effects of Heavy Ion Radiation on Skin Homeostasis.

    SciTech Connect

    von Neubeck, Claere; Shankaran, Harish; Geniza, Matthew; Kauer, Paula M.; Robinson, Robert J.; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2013-08-08

    The effects of low dose high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on human health are of concern for both space and clinical exposures. As epidemiological data for such radiation exposures are scarce for making relevant predictions, we need to understand the mechanism of response especially in normal tissues. Our objective here is to understand the effects of heavy ion radiation on tissue homeostasis in a realistic model system. Towards this end, we exposed an in vitro three dimensional skin equivalent to low fluences of Neon (Ne) ions (300 MeV/u), and determined the differentiation profile as a function of time following exposure using immunohistochemistry. We found that Ne ion exposures resulted in transient increases in the tissue regions expressing the differentiation markers keratin 10, and filaggrin, and more subtle time-dependent effects on the number of basal cells in the epidermis. We analyzed the data using a mathematical model of the skin equivalent, to quantify the effect of radiation on cell proliferation and differentiation. The agent-based mathematical model for the epidermal layer treats the epidermis as a collection of heterogeneous cell types with different proliferation/differentiation properties. We obtained model parameters from the literature where available, and calibrated the unknown parameters to match the observed properties in unirradiated skin. We then used the model to rigorously examine alternate hypotheses regarding the effects of high LET radiation on the tissue. Our analysis indicates that Ne ion exposures induce rapid, but transient, changes in cell division, differentiation and proliferation. We have validated the modeling results by histology and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The integrated approach presented here can be used as a general framework to understand the responses of multicellular systems, and can be adapted to other epithelial tissues.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of the ‘Walcheren Integrated Care Model’ intervention for community-dwelling frail elderly

    PubMed Central

    Looman, Wilhelmina M; Huijsman, Robbert; Bouwmans-Frijters, Clazien A M; Stolk, Elly A; Fabbricotti, Isabelle N

    2016-01-01

    Background. An important aim of integrated care for frail elderly is to generate more cost-effective health care. However, empirical research on the cost-effectiveness of integrated care for community-dwelling frail elderly is limited. Objective. This study reports on the cost-effectiveness of the Walcheren Integrated Care Model (WICM) after 12 months from a societal perspective. Methods. The design of this study was quasi-experimental. In total, 184 frail elderly patients from 3 GP practices that implemented the WICM were compared with 193 frail elderly patients of 5 GP practices that provided care as usual. Effects were determined by health-related quality of life (EQ-5D questionnaire). Costs were assessed based on questionnaires, GP files, time registrations and reports from multidisciplinary meetings. Average costs and effects were compared using t-tests. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated, and bootstrap methods were used to determine its reliability. Results. Neither the WICM nor care as usual resulted in a change in health-related quality of life. The average total costs of the WICM were higher than care as usual (17089 euros versus 15189 euros). The incremental effects were 0.00, whereas the incremental costs were 1970 euros, indicating an ICER of 412450 euros. Conclusions. The WICM is not cost-effective, and the costs per quality-adjusted life year are high. The costs of the integrated care intervention do not outweigh the limited effects on health-related quality of life after 12 months. More analyses of the cost-effectiveness of integrated care for community-dwelling frail elderly are recommended as well as consideration of the specific costs and effects. PMID:26811438

  3. Developmental effects of +/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on spatial versus path integration learning: effects of dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Schaefer, Tori L; Williams, Michael T

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that postnatal day 11-20 +/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure reduces locomotor activity and impairs path integration and spatial learning independent of the effects on activity. The effects were seen when the drug was administered twice per day, but the optimal dosing regimen is unknown. We tested whether the same total daily dose of MDMA administered in different patterns would equally affect later behavior. A split-litter design (15 litters) was used with one male/female pair per litter receiving one of four treatment regimens. All offspring received four injections per day on P11-20 as follows: 40 x 1 (40 mg/kg MDMA x 1 + saline x 3), 20 x 2 (20 mg/kg MDMA x 2 + saline x 2), 10 x 4 (10 mg/kg MDMA x 4), or Saline (saline x 4). Doses were spaced 2 h apart. Group 40 x 1 received MDMA as the first daily dose followed by three saline doses; group 20 x 2 received MDMA as the first and last dose and saline for the middle two doses; group 10 x 4 received MDMA for all four doses; and the saline group received saline for all four doses. Regardless of dose schedule, all groups treated with MDMA exhibited reduced locomotor activity. No MDMA effects were found on swimming ability in a straight channel. Modest MDMA effects were found on Barnes maze performance. The major findings were that the 40 x 1 and 20 x 2 MDMA groups showed impaired Cincinnati multiple T-water-maze learning and the 10 x 4 and 20 x 2 MDMA groups showed impaired Morris water maze learning. The results suggest that MDMA dose distribution has a long-term differential effect on different types of learning. Dose distribution warrants greater attention in the design of developmental drug studies along with the standard considerations of dose and age. PMID:17415794

  4. Effective in-service training design and delivery: evidence from an integrative literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In-service training represents a significant financial investment for supporting continued competence of the health care workforce. An integrative review of the education and training literature was conducted to identify effective training approaches for health worker continuing professional education (CPE) and what evidence exists of outcomes derived from CPE. Methods A literature review was conducted from multiple databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) between May and June 2011. The initial review of titles and abstracts produced 244 results. Articles selected for analysis after two quality reviews consisted of systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and programme evaluations published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 in the English language. The articles analysed included 37 systematic reviews and 32 RCTs. The research questions focused on the evidence supporting educational techniques, frequency, setting and media used to deliver instruction for continuing health professional education. Results The evidence suggests the use of multiple techniques that allow for interaction and enable learners to process and apply information. Case-based learning, clinical simulations, practice and feedback are identified as effective educational techniques. Didactic techniques that involve passive instruction, such as reading or lecture, have been found to have little or no impact on learning outcomes. Repetitive interventions, rather than single interventions, were shown to be superior for learning outcomes. Settings similar to the workplace improved skill acquisition and performance. Computer-based learning can be equally or more effective than live instruction and more cost efficient if effective techniques are used. Effective techniques can lead to improvements in knowledge and skill outcomes and clinical practice behaviours, but there is less evidence

  5. Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries

    PubMed Central

    Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. Methods We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Results Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3 years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC

  6. Investigation of disturbance effects on space-based weak lensing measurements with an integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Michael; Kaplan, Michael; Sholl, Michael; Bernstein, Gary

    2010-07-01

    Many astrophysicists consider the mystery of accelerated expansion of the universe by a field called dark energy as the greatest challenge to solve in cosmology. Gravitational weak lensing has been identfied as one of the best methods to provide constraints on dark energy model parameters. Weak lensing introduces image shear which can be measured statistically from a large sample of galaxies by determining the ellipticity parameters. Several papers have suggested that a goal in the ability to measure shape biases should be <0.1% - this goal will be reviewed in terms of the observatory "transfer function" with comments interspersed regarding allocation inconsistencies. Time-varying effects introduced by thermoelastic deformations and vibration add bias and noise to the galaxy shape measurements. This is compounded by the wide field-of-view required for the weak lensing science which leads to a spatially varying point spead function (PSF). To fully understand these effects, a detailed integrated model (IM) was constructed which includes a coupled scene/ structure/ optics/ disturbance model. This IM was applied to the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) Omega design concept. Results indicate that previous models of vibration disturbance effects have been too simplified and the allocation for vibration needs to be re-evaluated. Furthermore, because of the complicated processing required to accurately extract shape parameters, it is argued that an IM is needed for maximizing science return by iterating the telescope/ instrument design against mission cost constraints, and processing e¤ectiveness of shape extraction algorithms, instrument calibration techniques and measurement desensitization of observatory effects.

  7. Quantum path-integral study of the phase diagram and isotope effects of neon.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, R; Herrero, C P

    2008-11-28

    The phase diagram of natural neon has been calculated for temperatures in the range of 17-50 K and pressures between 10(-2) and 2 x 10(3) bar. The phase coexistence between solid, liquid, and gas phases has been determined by the calculation of the separate free energy of each phase as a function of temperature. Thus, for a given pressure, the coexistence temperature was obtained by the condition of equal free energy of coexisting phases. The free energy was calculated by using nonequilibrium techniques such as adiabatic switching and reversible scaling. The phase diagram obtained by classical Monte Carlo simulations has been compared to that obtained by quantum path-integral simulations. Quantum effects related to the finite mass of neon cause that coexistence lines are shifted toward lower temperatures when compared to the classical limit. The shift found in the triple point amounts to 1.5 K, i.e., about 6% of the triple-point temperature. The triple-point isotope effect has been determined for (20)Ne, (21)Ne, (22)Ne, and natural neon. The simulation data show satisfactory agreement to previous experimental results, which report a shift of about 0.15 K between triple-point temperatures of (20)Ne and (22)Ne. The vapor pressure isotope effect has been calculated for both solid and liquid phases at triple-point conditions. The quantum simulations predict that this isotope effect is larger in the solid than in the liquid phase, and the calculated values show nearly quantitative agreement to available experimental data. PMID:19045868

  8. Effectiveness of a Novel Integrative Online Treatment for Depression (Deprexis): Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Thomas; Caspar, Franz; Beevers, Christopher G; Andersson, Gerhard; Weiss, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with immense suffering and costs, and many patients receive inadequate care, often because of the limited availability of treatment. Web-based treatments may play an increasingly important role in closing this gap between demand and supply. We developed the integrative, Web-based program Deprexis, which covers therapeutic approaches such as behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, mindfulness/acceptance exercises, and social skills training. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the Web-based intervention in a randomized controlled trial. Methods There were 396 adults recruited via Internet depression forums in Germany, and they were randomly assigned in an 80:20 weighted randomization sequence to either 9 weeks of immediate-program-access as an add-on to treatment-as-usual (N = 320), or to a 9-week delayed-access plus treatment-as-usual condition (N = 76). At pre- and post-treatment and 6-month follow-up, we measured depression (Beck Depression Inventory) as the primary outcome measure and social functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale) as the secondary outcome measure. Completer analyses and intention-to-treat analyses were performed. Results Of 396 participants, 216 (55%) completed the post-measurement 9 weeks later. Available case analyses revealed a significant reduction in depression severity (BDI), Cohen’s d = .64 (CI 95% = 0.33 - 0.94), and significant improvement in social functioning (WSA), Cohen’s d = .64, 95% (CI 95% = 0.33 - 0.95). These improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses confirmed significant effects on depression and social functioning improvements (BDI: Cohen’s d = .30, CI 95% = 0.05 - 0.55; WSA: Cohen’s d = .36, CI 95% = 0.10 - 0.61). Moreover, a much higher percentage of patients in the intervention group experienced a significant reduction of depression symptoms (BDI: odds ratio [OR] = 6.8, CI 95% = 2.90 - 18.19) and recovered more often (OR

  9. The effect of zinc diffusion on extinction ratio of MQW electroabsorption modulator integrated with DFB laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Daibing; Zhang, Ruikang; Wang, Huitao; Wang, Baojun; Bian, Jing; An, Xin; Zhao, Lingjuan; Zhu, Hongliang; Ji, Chen; Wang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Monolithically integrated electroabsorption modulated lasers (EML) are widely being used in the optical fiber communication systems, due to their low chip, compact size and good compatible with the current communication systems. In this paper, we investigated the effect of Zinc diffusion on extinction ratio of electroabsorption modulator (EAM) integrated with distributed feedback laser (DFB). EML was fabricated by selective area growth (SAG) technology. The MQW structure of different quantum energy levels was grown on n-type InP buffer layer with 150nm thick SiO2 parallel stripes mask by selective area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A 35nm photoluminescence wavelength variation was observed between the laser area (λPL=1535nm) and modulator area (λPL=1500nm) by adjusting the dimension of parallel stripes. The grating (λ=1550nm) was fabricated in the selective area. The device was mesa ridge structure, which was constituted of the DFB laser, isolation gap and modulator. The length of every part is 300μm, 50μm, and 150μm respectively. Two samples were fabricated with the same structure and different p-type Zn-doped concentration, the extinction ratio of heavy Zn-doped device is 12.5dB at -6V. In contrast, the extinction ratio of light Zn-doped device is 20dB at -6V, that was improved for approximate 60%. The different Zn diffusion depth into the MQW absorption layer was observed by Secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). The heavy Zn-doped device diffused into absorption layer deeper than the light Zn-doped device, which caused the large non-uniformity of the electric field in the MQW layer. So the extinction ratio characteristics can be improved by optimizing the Zn-doped concentration of p-type layer.

  10. Simulating Local and Intercontinental Pollutant Effects of Biomass Burning: Integration of Several Remotely Sensed Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Vastano, John A.; Guild, Liane; Hlavka, Christine; Brass, James A.; Russell, Philip B. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Burning to clear land for crops and to destroy pests is an integral and largely unavoidable part of tropical agriculture. It is easy to note but difficult to quantify using remote sensing. This report describes our efforts to integrate remotely sensed data into our computer model of tropical chemical trace-gas emissions, weather, and reaction chemistry (using the MM5 mesoscale model and our own Global-Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Simulator). The effects of burning over the continents of Africa and South America have been noticed in observations from several satellites. Smoke plumes hundreds of kilometers long may be seen individually, or may merge into a large smoke pall over thousands of kilometers of these continents. These features are related to intense pollution in the much more confined regions with heavy burning. These emissions also translocate nitrogen thousands of kilometers in the tropical ecosystems, with large fixed-nitrogen losses balanced partially by locally intense fertilization downwind, where nitric acid is rained out. At a much larger scale, various satellite measurements have indicated the escape of carbon monoxide and ozone into large filaments which extend across the Tropical and Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our work relates the source emissions, estimated in part from remote sensing, in part from conventional surface reports, to the concentrations of these gases over these intercontinental regions. We will mention work in progress to use meteorological satellite data (AVHRR, GOES, and Meteosat) to estimate the surface temperature and extent and height of clouds, and explain why these uses are so important in our computer simulations of global biogeochemistry. We will compare our simulations and interpretation of remote observations to the international cooperation involving Brazil, South Africa, and the USA in the TRACE-A (Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator - Atlantic) and SAFARI (Southern Africa Fire Atmosphere Research

  11. The effects of spatial resolution on integral field spectrograph surveys at different redshifts - The CALIFA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, D.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez, S. F.; Vílchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Walcher, C. J.; Husemann, B.; Márquez, I.; Marino, R. A.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Galbany, L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Kehrig, C.; del Olmo, A.; Relaño, M.; Wisotzki, L.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Bekeraitè, S.; Papaderos, P.; Wild, V.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Ziegler, B.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; van de Ven, G.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Over the past decade, 3D optical spectroscopy has become the preferred tool for understanding the properties of galaxies and is now increasingly used to carry out galaxy surveys. Low redshift surveys include SAURON, DiskMass, ATLAS3D, PINGS, and VENGA. At redshifts above 0.7, surveys such as MASSIV, SINS, GLACE, and IMAGES have targeted the most luminous galaxies to study mainly their kinematic properties. The on-going CALIFA survey (z ~ 0.02) is the first of a series of upcoming integral field spectroscopy (IFS) surveys with large samples representative of the entire population of galaxies. Others include SAMI and MaNGA at lower redshift and the upcoming KMOS surveys at higher redshift. Given the importance of spatial scales in IFS surveys, the study of the effects of spatial resolution on the recovered parameters becomes important. Aims: We explore the capability of the CALIFA survey and a hypothetical higher redshift survey to reproduce the properties of a sample of objects observed with better spatial resolution at lower redshift. Methods: Using a sample of PINGS galaxies, we simulated observations at different redshifts. We then studied the behaviour of different parameters as the spatial resolution degrades with increasing redshift. Results: We show that at the CALIFA resolution, we are able to measure and map common observables in a galaxy study: the number and distribution of H ii regions (Hα flux structure), the gas metallicity (using the O3N2 method), the gas ionization properties (through the [N ii]/Hα and [O iii]/Hβ line ratios), and the age of the underlying stellar population (using the D4000 index). This supports the aim of the survey to characterise the observable properties of galaxies in the Local Universe. Our analysis of simulated IFS data cubes at higher redshifts highlights the importance of the projected spatial scale per spaxel as the most important figure of merit in the design of an integral field survey.

  12. An integrated view of gamma radiation effects on marine fauna: from molecules to ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Dahms, Hans-U; Kumar, K Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-11-01

    Accidental release of nuclides into the ocean is causing health risks to marine organisms and humans. All life forms are susceptible to gamma radiation with a high variation, depending on various physical factors such as dose, mode, and time of exposure and various biological factors such as species, vitality, age, and gender. Differences in sensitivity of gamma radiation are also associated with different efficiencies of mechanisms related to protection and repair systems. Gamma radiation may also affect various other integration levels: from gene, protein, cells and organs, population, and communities, disturbing the energy flow of food webs that will ultimately affect the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Depending on exposure levels, gamma radiation induces damages on growth and reproduction in various organisms such as zooplankton, benthos, and fish in aquatic ecosystems. In this paper, harmful effects of gamma-irradiated aquatic organisms are described and the potential of marine copepods in assessing the risk of gamma radiation is discussed with respect to physiological adverse effects that even affect the ecosystem level. PMID:25382502

  13. Excitonic effects in 2D semiconductors: Path Integral Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velizhanin, Kirill; Saxena, Avadh

    One of the most striking features of novel 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers or phosphorene) is a strong Coulomb interaction between charge carriers resulting in large excitonic effects. In particular, this leads to the formation of multi-carrier bound states (e.g., excitons, trions and biexcitons), which could remain stable at near-room temperatures and contribute significantly to optical properties of such materials. In my talk, I will report on our recent progress in using the Path Integral Monte Carlo methodology to numerically study properties of multi-carrier bound states in 2D semiconductors. Incorporating the effect of the dielectric confinement (via Keldysh potential), we have investigated and tabulated the dependence of single exciton, trion and biexciton binding energies on the strength of dielectric screening, including the limiting cases of very strong and very weak screening. The implications of the obtained results and the possible limitations of the used model will be discussed. The results of this work are potentially useful in the analysis of experimental data and benchmarking of theoretical and computational models.

  14. Effective Communication About the Use of Complementary and Integrative Medicine in Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) is becoming an increasingly popular and visible component of oncology care. Many patients affected by cancer and their family members are looking for informed advice and desire communication with their physicians about CIM use. Patients affected by cancer come to discuss CIM use with intense emotions and are experiencing an existential crisis that cannot be ignored. Effective communication is crucial in establishing trust with these patients and their families. Communication is now recognized as a core clinical skill in medicine, including cancer care, and is important to the delivery of high-quality care. The quality of communication affects patient satisfaction, decision-making, patient distress and well-being, compliance, and even malpractice litigation. The communication process about CIM use requires a very sensitive approach that depends on effective communication skills, such as experience in listening, encouraging hope, and ability to convey empathy and compassion. This process can be divided into two parts: the “how” and the “what”. The “how” relates to the change in clinician attitude, the process of gathering information, addressing patients' unmet needs and emotions, and dealing with uncertainty. The “what” relates to the process of information exchange while assisting patients in decisions about CIM use by using reliable information sources, leading to informed decision-making. PMID:23863085

  15. Effects of sulfide on the integration of denitrification with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhixuan; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-10-01

    The effects of sulfide on the integration of denitrification with anaerobic digestion using anaerobic effluents of cassava stillage as carbon source were investigated. Batch tests indicated that nitrate reduction efficiencies decreased from 96.5% to 15.8% as sulfide/nitrate (S/NO3(-)-N) ratios increased from 0.27 to 1.60. At low S/NO3(-)-N ratios (0.27-1.08) anaerobic acidogenesis was accelerated. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite via sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification, after which the formed nitrite and residual nitrate were converted to N2 via heterotrophic denitrification. Increases in the S/NO3(-)-N ratio (1.60) caused a shift (76.3%) in the nitrate reduction pathway from denitrification to dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA). Sulfide concentrations (S/NO3(-)-N ratio of 1.60) suppressed not only heterotrophic denitrification but also acidogenesis. The potentially toxic effect of sulfide on acid production was mitigated by its rapid oxidation to sulfur, allowing the recovery of acidogenesis. PMID:25801462

  16. Multisensory integration and internal models for sensing gravity effects in primates.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka

    2014-01-01

    Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents) by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects. PMID:25061610

  17. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Learning Integrated with Metacognitive Prompts on Students' Affective Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatar, Nilgün; Akpınar, Ercan; Feyzioğlu, Eylem Yıldız

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-assisted learning integrated with metacognitive prompts on elementary students' affective skills on the subject of electricity. The researchers developed educational software to enable students to easily and comprehensively learn the concepts in the subject of electricity. A case study method was used. Eighteen students from the seventh grade (12-13 years) participated in the study. Students' views on their performances while using educational software and the impact of the software on their affective skills towards the subject of electricity were examined. Data were collected by open-ended questions in the educational software. According to the research results, there were students who had negative attitudes and perceptions before starting to learn about the subject of electricity. Interactive activities, animations, and visual experiments in the educational software were effective in overcoming the students' negative attitudes and perceptions about the subject. Besides, students who assessed their own performances during the learning process believed themselves to be more successful over time. In the light of the research results, some suggestions are made for future studies.

  18. Experimental Investigation into the Effect of Ball End Milling Parameters on Surface Integrity of Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhopale, Nandkumar N.; Joshi, Suhas S.; Pawade, Raju S.

    2015-02-01

    In machining of Inconel 718, various difficulties such as increased tool wear and poor machined surface quality are frequently encountered due to its high temperature strength and poor thermal properties. This work considers the effect of number of passes and the machining environment on the machined surface quality in ball end milling of Inconel 718, which hitherto has not been adequately understood. To this effect, extensive experimentation has been carried out to analyze machined surface quality and integrity in terms of surface roughness, surface damage, and microhardness variation in the machined surfaces. The machined surfaces show formation of distinct bands as a function of instantaneous machining parameters along the periphery of cutting tool edge. A distinct variation is also observed in the measured values of surface roughness and microhardness in these regions. The minimum surface roughness is obtained in the stable cutting zone and it increases toward the periphery of the cutter on band #2 and band #3. Microhardness of depth beneath the machined surface shows that the machining affected zone varies from 60 to 100 µm in ball end milling under various machining conditions.

  19. Multisensory Integration and Internal Models for Sensing Gravity Effects in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents) by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects. PMID:25061610

  20. Effect of Recombinant Prophenin 2 on the Integrity and Viability of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Flores, J. L.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Gastelum Arellanez, A.; Alvarez-Morales, A.; Avila, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis, which is associated with preterm child delivery, low birth weight, and an increased risk of infection by human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus following exposure. Several reports have established increasing numbers of trichomoniasis cases resistant to metronidazole, the agent used for treatment, and it is therefore important to identify new therapeutic alternatives. Previously, our group reported the effect of tritrpticin, a synthetic peptide derived from porcine prophenin, on T. vaginalis; however, the hemolytic activity of this small peptide complicates its possible use as a therapeutic agent. In this study, we report that the propeptide and the processed peptide of prophenin 2 (cleaved with hydroxylamine) affected the integrity and growth of T. vaginalis and that pro-prophenin 2 displays some resistance to proteolysis by T. vaginalis proteinases at 1 h. Its effect on T. vaginalis as well as its low hemolytic activity and short-time stability to parasite proteinases makes prophenin 2 an interesting candidate for synergistic or alternative treatment against T. vaginalis. PMID:25815316

  1. Applicability of in vitro methods to study patulin bioaccessibility and its effects on intestinal membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ricardo; Ferreira, Mariana; Martins, Carla; Diaz, Irene; Padilla, Beatriz; Dupont, Didier; Bragança, Mauro; Alvito, Paula

    2014-01-01

    In human health risk assessment, ingestion of food is considered a major route of exposure to many contaminants, although the total amount of an ingested contaminant (external dose) does not always reflect the quantity available for the body (internal dose). In this study, two in vitro methods were applied to study bioaccessibility and intestinal membrane integrity of cells exposed to patulin, a mycotoxin with significant public health risk. Seven artificially contaminated fruit juices were assayed in the presence or absence of a standard meal, showing a significant difference for bioaccessibility values between contaminated samples alone (mean 27.65 ± 13.50%) and combinations with a standard meal (mean 7.89 ± 4.03%). Different concentrations of patulin (PAT) and cysteine (CYS) (protector agent) were assayed in Caco-2 cells monolayers. At 95 μM, PAT produced a marked decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). This effect was significantly reduced when 400 μM and 4000 μM CYS was added to the cells. Combined use of in vitro digestion models with other techniques using intestinal cell lines, such as in vitro intestinal absorption models that use Caco-2 cells, may offer a more comprehensive model of what is occurring during digestion and absorption processes. The study of beneficial effects of protective agents would also be enhanced. PMID:25072729

  2. Effect of recombinant prophenin 2 on the integrity and viability of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Flores, J L; Rodriguez, M C; Gastelum Arellanez, A; Alvarez-Morales, A; Avila, E E

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis, which is associated with preterm child delivery, low birth weight, and an increased risk of infection by human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus following exposure. Several reports have established increasing numbers of trichomoniasis cases resistant to metronidazole, the agent used for treatment, and it is therefore important to identify new therapeutic alternatives. Previously, our group reported the effect of tritrpticin, a synthetic peptide derived from porcine prophenin, on T. vaginalis; however, the hemolytic activity of this small peptide complicates its possible use as a therapeutic agent. In this study, we report that the propeptide and the processed peptide of prophenin 2 (cleaved with hydroxylamine) affected the integrity and growth of T. vaginalis and that pro-prophenin 2 displays some resistance to proteolysis by T. vaginalis proteinases at 1 h. Its effect on T. vaginalis as well as its low hemolytic activity and short-time stability to parasite proteinases makes prophenin 2 an interesting candidate for synergistic or alternative treatment against T. vaginalis. PMID:25815316

  3. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS₂ field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching -Hwa; Huang, Ying -Sheng; Cao, Zhengyi; Wang, Laiguo; Li, Aidong; Zeng, Junwen; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Xinran; Shi, Yi; Yuan, Hongtao; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi; Miao, Feng; Xing, Dingyu

    2015-05-07

    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS₂) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS₂ field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (~10⁷) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconducting materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS₂ anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications.

  4. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS₂ field-effect transistors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching -Hwa; et al

    2015-05-07

    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS₂) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS₂ field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (~10⁷) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconductingmore » materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS₂ anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications.« less

  5. Effects of age on white matter integrity and negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bijanki, Kelly Rowe; Hodis, Brendan; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Zeien, Eugene; Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between white matter integrity as indexed by diffusion tensor imaging and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. The current study included statistical controls for age effects on the relationship of interest, a major weakness of the existing literature on the subject. Participants included 59 chronic schizophrenia patients, and 31 first-episode schizophrenia patients. Diffusion-weighted neuroimaging was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) in each major brain region (frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes). Negative symptoms were measured using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) in all schizophrenia patients. Significant bivariate correlations were observed between global SANS scores and global FA, as well as in most brain regions. These relationships appeared to be driven by SANS items measuring facial expressiveness, poor eye contact, affective flattening , inappropriate affect, poverty of speech, poverty of speech content, alogia, and avolition. However, upon addition of age as a covariate, the observed relationships became non-significant. Further analysis revealed very strong age effects on both FA and SANS scores in the current sample. The findings of this study refute previous reports of significant relationships between DTI variables and negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and they suggest an important confounding variable to be considered in future studies in this population. PMID:24957354

  6. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  7. Effects of delays on 6-year-old children’s self-generation and retention of knowledge through integration

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The present research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (stem facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In Experiment 1, children integrated the stem facts at Session 1 and retained the self-generated memory traces over 1 week. In Experiment 2, 1-week delays were imposed either between the to-be-integrated facts (between-stem delay) or after the stem facts but before the test (before-test delay). Integration performance was diminished in both conditions. Moreover, memory for individual stem facts was lower in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that self-generation through integration promoted memory for explicitly taught information. The results indicate the importance of tests for promoting self-generation through integration as well as for retaining newly self-generated and explicitly taught information. PMID:23563162

  8. Integrating hypermedia into elementary teachers' science professional development opportunities: The effects on content knowledge and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorne, Charles Richard

    Recent calls for improvements in the teaching of science gave rise to the implementation of numerous reform strategies in the elementary classroom. Reviews of the different reform strategies showed varying levels of effectiveness in the overall quality of teaching and student learning. One method shown to be effective in producing changes in teachers, the teaching process, and ultimately student learning is the professional development workshop. Due to the success of professional development workshops in other subject areas, researchers have suggested this could be an effective strategy in addressing major concerns related to the teaching of science in elementary classrooms. However, past elementary science professional development workshops have not met with the same levels of success as other content areas. The integration of hypermedia into professional development settings is one method of improving the effectiveness of elementary science professional development workshops. Integrating hypermedia into structured professional development settings can be helpful in addressing two major concerns with the teaching of science in the elementary classroom: lack of teacher content knowledge and poor teacher attitudes toward science. In this study, the extent to which the integration of hypermedia into professional development workshops influenced elementary teachers' science content knowledge and attitudes toward science was examined. Results indicated that while the integration of hypermedia into the professional development environment could have contributed to elementary teachers' science content knowledge, the increases in content knowledge were not dependent on the presence of hypermedia in the professional development setting. Study findings did indicated the integration of hypermedia into professional development workshops had a positive influence on elementary teachers' attitudes toward science and was an integral component to the increase in elementary

  9. Monolithic integration of GaN-based light-emitting diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Yang, Zu-Po; Chen, Pin-Guang; Hsieh, Yung-An; Yao, Yung-Chi; Liao, Ming-Han; Lee, Min-Hung; Wang, Mei-Tan; Hwang, Jung-Min

    2014-10-20

    In this study, we report a novel monolithically integrated GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Without additionally introducing complicated epitaxial structures for transistors, the MOSFET is directly fabricated on the exposed n-type GaN layer of the LED after dry etching, and serially connected to the LED through standard semiconductor-manufacturing technologies. Such monolithically integrated LED/MOSFET device is able to circumvent undesirable issues that might be faced by other kinds of integration schemes by growing a transistor on an LED or vice versa. For the performances of resulting device, our monolithically integrated LED/MOSFET device exhibits good characteristics in the modulation of gate voltage and good capability of driving injected current, which are essential for the important applications such as smart lighting, interconnection, and optical communication. PMID:25607316

  10. Living up to safety values in health care: the effect of leader behavioral integrity on occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Simons, Tony; Savage, Grant T; McCaughey, Deirdre; Leon, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    While previous research has identified that leaders' safety expectations and safety actions are important in fostering occupational safety, research has yet to demonstrate the importance of leader alignment between safety expectations and actions for improving occupational safety. We build on safety climate literature and theory on behavioral integrity to better understand the relationship between the leader's behavioral integrity regarding safety and work-related injuries. In a time-lagged study of 658 nurses, we find that behavioral integrity for high safety values is positively associated with greater reporting of fewer and less severe occupational injuries. The effects of behavioral integrity regarding safety can be better understood through the mediating mechanisms of safety compliance and psychological safety toward one's supervisor. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research on safety climate. PMID:24099159

  11. Implementation and effectiveness of integrated trauma and addiction treatment for incarcerated men.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Frueh, B Christopher; Hoover, Donald R; McHugo, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    A controlled trial of Seeking Safety (SS) and Male-Trauma Recovery Empowerment Model (M-TREM) examined implementation and effectiveness of integrated group therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) on PTSD and mental health symptoms plus self-esteem and efficacy for incarcerated men. The study sample (n=230) was male inmates 18 years or older who were primarily non-white, high school graduates or equivalents, had childhood trauma histories, committed violent crimes, had serious mental illnesses, and resided in a maximum security prison. Incarcerated men, who screened positive for PTSD and SUD, were assigned randomly (n=142) or by preference (n=88) to receive SS or M-TREM, with a waitlist group of (n=93). Manualized interventions were group-administered for 14 weeks. Primary outcomes were PTSD and other mental health symptoms. Secondary outcomes were self-esteem, coping, and self-efficacy. SUD outcomes cannot be measured in a correctional setting. Implementation feasibility was exhibited by the ability to recruit, screen, assign, and retain participants. Effectiveness findings depended on sample, design, and method for analysis. Using a waitlist control group and no follow-up period, we found no aggregate effect of treatment on PTSD symptoms, although, when disaggregated, M-TREM was found to improve PTSD severity and SS improved general mental health symptoms and psychological functioning. Using intent-to-treat and completer analyses, no significant differences were found in the relative performance between SS and M-TREM on primary or secondary outcomes. When longitudinal data were maximized and modeled in ways that reflect the hierarchical nature of the data, we found that SS and M-TREM performed better than no treatment on PTSD severity and secondary outcomes, and that treatment benefits endured. Findings cautiously support implementing either Seeking Safety or M-TREM to treat incarcerated men with co-morbid PTSD

  12. The effects of actomyosin disruptors on the mechanical integrity of the avian crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Won, Gah-Jone; Fudge, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Actin and myosin within the crystalline lens maintain the structural integrity of lens fiber cells and form a hexagonal lattice cradling the posterior surface of the lens. The actomyosin network was pharmacologically disrupted to examine the effects on lenticular biomechanics and optical quality. Methods: One lens of 7-day-old White Leghorn chickens was treated with 10 µM of a disruptor and the other with 0.01% dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle). Actin, myosin, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) disruptors were used. The stiffness and the optical quality of the control and treated lenses were measured. Western blotting and confocal imaging were used to confirm that treatment led to a disruption of the actomyosin network. The times for the lenses to recover stiffness to match the control values were also measured. Results: Disruptor-treated lenses were significantly less stiff than their controls (p≤0.0274 for all disruptors). The disruptors led to changes in the relative protein amounts as well as the distributions of proteins within the lattice. However, the disruptors did not affect the clarity of the lenses (p≥0.4696 for all disruptors), nor did they affect spherical aberration (p = 0.02245). The effects of all three disruptors were reversible, with lenses recovering from treatment with actin, myosin, and MLCK disruptors after 4 h, 1 h, and 8 min, respectively. Conclusions: Cytoskeletal protein disruptors led to a decreased stiffness of the lens, and the effects were reversible. Optical quality was mostly unaffected, but the long-term consequences remain unclear. Our results raise the possibility that the mechanical properties of the avian lens may be actively regulated in vivo via adjustments to the actomyosin lattice. PMID:25684975

  13. Implementation and effectiveness of integrated trauma and addiction treatment for incarcerated men

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Frueh, B. Christopher; Hoover, Donald R.; McHugo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A controlled trial of Seeking Safety (SS) and Male-Trauma Recovery Empowerment Model (M-TREM) examined implementation and effectiveness of integrated group therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) on PTSD and mental health symptoms plus self-esteem and efficacy for incarcerated men. The study sample (n = 230) was male inmates 18 years or older who were primarily non-white, high school graduates or equivalents, had childhood trauma histories, committed violent crimes, had serious mental illnesses, and resided in a maximum security prison. Incarcerated men, who screened positive for PTSD and SUD, were assigned randomly (n = 142) or by preference (n = 88) to receive SS or M-TREM, with a waitlist group of (n = 93). Manualized interventions were group-administered for 14 weeks. Primary outcomes were PTSD and other mental health symptoms. Secondary outcomes were self-esteem, coping, and self-efficacy. SUD outcomes cannot be measured in a correctional setting. Implementation feasibility was exhibited by the ability to recruit, screen, assign, and retain participants. Effectiveness findings depended on sample, design, and method for analysis. Using a waitlist control group and no follow-up period, we found no aggregate effect of treatment on PTSD symptoms, although, when disaggregated, M-TREM was found to improve PTSD severity and SS improved general mental health symptoms and psychological functioning. Using intent-to-treat and completer analyses, no significant differences were found in the relative performance between SS and M-TREM on primary or secondary outcomes. When longitudinal data were maximized and modeled in ways that reflect the hierarchical nature of the data, we found that SS and M-TREM performed better than no treatment on PTSD severity and secondary outcomes, and that treatment benefits endured. Findings cautiously support implementing either Seeking Safety or M-TREM to treat incarcerated men with co

  14. Effective cancer laser-therapy design through the integration of nanotechnology and computational treatment planning models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jessica W.; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2008-02-01

    Laser therapies can provide a minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical resection of tumors. However, the effectiveness of these therapies is limited due to nonspecific heating of target tissue which often leads to healthy tissue injury and extended treatment durations. These therapies can be further compromised due to heat shock protein (HSP) induction in tumor regions where non-lethal temperature elevation occurs, thereby imparting enhanced tumor cell viability and resistance to subsequent chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Introducing multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) into target tissue prior to laser irradiation increases heating selectivity permitting more precise thermal energy delivery to the tumor region and enhances thermal deposition thereby increasing tumor injury and reducing HSP expression induction. This study investigated the impact of MWNT inclusion in untreated and laser irradiated monolayer cell culture and cell phantom model. Cell viability remained high for all samples with MWNT inclusion and cells integrated into alginate phantoms, demonstrating the non-toxic nature of both MWNTs and alginate phantom models. Following, laser irradiation samples with MWNT inclusion exhibited dramatic temperature elevations and decreased cell viability compared to samples without MWNT. In the cell monolayer studies, laser irradiation of samples with MWNT inclusion experienced up-regulated HSP27, 70 and 90 expression as compared to laser only or untreated samples due to greater temperature increases albeit below the threshold for cell death. Further tuning of laser parameters will permit effective cell killing and down-regulation of HSP. Due to optimal tuning of laser parameters and inclusion of MWNT in phantom models, extensive temperature elevations and cell death occurred, demonstrating MWNT-mediated laser therapy as a viable therapy option when parameters are optimized. In conclusion, MWNT-mediated laser therapies show great promise for effective

  15. Differential School Contextual Effects for Math and English: Integrating the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and the Internal/External Frame of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference and the big-fish-little-pond effect are two major models of academic self-concept formation which have considerable theoretical and empirical support. Integrating the domain specific and compensatory processes of the internal/external frame of reference model with the big-fish-little-pond effect suggests a…

  16. HIV, Tuberculosis, and Non-Communicable Diseases: What is known about the costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of integrated care?

    PubMed Central

    Hyle, Emily P.; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Su, Amanda E.; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented investments in health systems low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have resulted in more than eight million individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Such individuals experience dramatically increased survival, but are increasingly at risk of developing common non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Integrating clinical care for HIV, other infectious diseases, and NCDs could make health services more effective and provide greater value. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a method to evaluate the clinical benefits and costs associated with different healthcare interventions and offers guidance for prioritization of investments and scale-up, especially as resources are increasingly constrained. We first examine tuberculosis and HIV as one example of integrated care already successfully implemented in several LMICs; we then review the published literature regarding cervical cancer and depression as two examples of NCDs for which integrating care with HIV services could offer excellent value. Direct evidence of the benefits of integrated services generally remains scarce; however, data suggest that improved effectiveness and reduced costs may be attained by integrating additional services with existing HIV clinical care. Further investigation into clinical outcomes and costs of care for NCDs among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in LMICs will help to prioritize specific healthcare services by contributing to an understanding of the affordability and implementation of an integrated approach. PMID:25117965

  17. Integrated modeling/analyses of thermal-shock effects in SNS targets

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Haines, J.

    1996-06-01

    In a spallation neutron source (SNS), extremely rapid energy pulses are introduced in target materials such as mercury, lead, tungsten, uranium, etc. Shock phenomena in such systems may possibly lead to structural material damage beyond the design basis. As expected, the progression of shock waves and interaction with surrounding materials for liquid targets can be quite different from that in solid targets. The purpose of this paper is to describe ORNL`s modeling framework for `integrated` assessment of thermal-shock issues in liquid and solid target designs. This modeling framework is being developed based upon expertise developed from past reactor safety studies, especially those related to the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project. Unlike previous separate-effects modeling approaches employed (for evaluating target behavior when subjected to thermal shocks), the present approach treats the overall problem in a coupled manner using state-of-the-art equations of state for materials of interest (viz., mercury, tungsten and uranium). That is, the modeling framework simultaneously accounts for localized (and distributed) compression pressure pulse generation due to transient heat deposition, the transport of this shock wave outwards, interaction with surrounding boundaries, feedback to mercury from structures, multi-dimensional reflection patterns & stress induced (possible) breakup or fracture.

  18. An integrated framework for evaluating the effects of deforestation on ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X. P.; Huang, C.; Townshend, J. R.

    2014-03-01

    Deforestation often results in massive carbon emissions and loss of ecosystem services. The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated approach to quantitatively derive changes in forest carbon stock and changes in the economic value of forest carbon due to deforestation. Combining the best available remote sensing and socioeconomic datasets, this approach establishes a comprehensive baseline of deforestation in terms of area, carbon and monetary value change. We applied this end-to-end evaluation method in the Brazilian state of Rondonia to assess the ecological and economic effects of its recent deforestation from 2000 to 2005. Our results suggest that deforestation occurred at an average rate of 2834 km2/yr during the study period, leading to 31 TgC/yr "committed carbon emissions" from deforestation. Coupling with the social cost of carbon at 23/tC and a market discount rate at 7%, this translates to 622 million U.S. dollars/yr loss in the economic value of forest carbon.

  19. Mechanoluminescence torque transducer integrated with cost-effective luminescence sensor and UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Kim, Ji-Sik; Yun, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Min-Young

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study investigating the development of a new type of non-contacting torque sensor based on the mechanoluminescence (ML) of a microparticles, such as ZnS:Cu. Typically, applications of ML microparticles have been used in a stress sensor applications successfully, in which these particles are applied to realtime visualization of the stress distribution of cracks, impacts, and ML light generation. Kim et al. demonstrated their potentials of ML microparticles by successfully measuring the sinusoidal torque applied to a rotational shaft through the measurement of the ML intensity signature using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) sensor, which can be widely used in various industrial areas such as automotives, robotics, rotors, and turbines. To show their further potential applications, a cost-effective luminescence sensor and UV LEDs are integrated, and used for detecting the variation of ML intensity in this study. In addition, precision sinusoidal torque waveform with high frequency up to 15 Hz is used to investigate the frequency-dependent hysteresis phenomenon.

  20. Effect of Weaving Direction of Conductive Yarns on Electromagnetic Performance of 3D Integrated Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fujun; Yao, Lan; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yipping

    2013-10-01

    A three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antenna (3DIMA) is a microstrip antenna woven into the three-dimensional woven composite for load bearing while functioning as an antenna. In this study, the effect of weaving direction of conductive yarns on electromagnetic performance of 3DIMAs are investigated by designing, simulating and experimental testing of two microstrip antennas with different weaving directions of conductive yarns: one has the conductive yarns along the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp1) and the other has the conductive yarns perpendicular the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp2). The measured voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 3DIMA-Exp1 was 1.4 at the resonant frequencies of 1.39 GHz; while that of 3DIMA-Exp2 was 1.2 at the resonant frequencies of 1.35 GHz. In addition, the measured radiation pattern of the 3DIMA-Exp1 has smaller back lobe and higher gain value than those of the 3DIMA-Exp2. This result indicates that the waving direction of conductive yarns may have a significant impact on electromagnetic performance of textile structural antennas.

  1. Effect of resin type on the signal integrity of an embedded perfluorinated polymer optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Tamer; Peters, Kara; Seyam, Abdel-Fattah M.

    2012-05-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POF) hold many advantages for embedded sensing, such as their low cost, flexibility, high tensile strain limits and high fracture toughness. POF sensors may therefore be integrated into fiber reinforced composite structures for monitoring structural behavior. Since POFs do not require a protective coating, it is critical to verify that the resin system does not have a negative impact on the noise level or performance of POF sensors during composite manufacture. This study measured the effect of vinylester and epoxy resin systems on the signal loss of embedded perfluorinated, graded index POFs. Photon-counting optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) was used to monitor the signal attenuation and backscattering level of the POFs throughout the resin curing cycle. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and cross section analyses using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images were also conducted to investigate whether the resin system caused chemical and physical changes of the POF. This study showed that vinylester resin caused a significant increase in the backscattering level of POF sensors and therefore induced high fiber signal losses. On the other hand, the POF treated with epoxy showed no change in backscattering level, indicating that no chemical or physical change had occurred to the POF.

  2. An Augmented Two-Layer Model Captures Nonlinear Analog Spatial Integration Effects in Pyramidal Neuron Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    JADI, MONIKA P.; BEHABADI, BARDIA F.; POLEG-POLSKY, ALON; SCHILLER, JACKIE; MEL, BARTLETT W.

    2014-01-01

    In pursuit of the goal to understand and eventually reproduce the diverse functions of the brain, a key challenge lies in reverse engineering the peculiar biology-based “technology” that underlies the brain’s remarkable ability to process and store information. The basic building block of the nervous system is the nerve cell, or “neuron,” yet after more than 100 years of neurophysiological study and 60 years of modeling, the information processing functions of individual neurons, and the parameters that allow them to engage in so many different types of computation (sensory, motor, mnemonic, executive, etc.) remain poorly understood. In this paper, we review both historical and recent findings that have led to our current understanding of the analog spatial processing capabilities of dendrites, the major input structures of neurons, with a focus on the principal cell type of the neocortex and hippocampus, the pyramidal neuron (PN). We encapsulate our current understanding of PN dendritic integration in an abstract layered model whose spatially sensitive branch-subunits compute multidimensional sigmoidal functions. Unlike the 1-D sigmoids found in conventional neural network models, multidimensional sigmoids allow the cell to implement a rich spectrum of nonlinear modulation effects directly within their dendritic trees. PMID:25554708

  3. Effects of mercuric chloride on antioxidant system and DNA integrity of the crab Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Pan, Luqing; Miao, Jingjing; Xu, Chaoqun

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the commonly encountered heavy metals, which is widespread in inshore sediments of China. In order to investigate the toxicity of Hg on marine invertebrates, we studied the effects of the divalent mercuricion (Hg2+) (at two final concentrations of 0.0025 and 0.0050 mg L-1, prepared with HgCl2) on metallothionein (MT) content, DNA integrity (DNA strand breaks) and catalase (CAT) in the gills and hepatopancreas, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the hemolymph, gills and hepatopancreas of the portunid crab Charybdis japonica for an experiment period up to 15 d. The results indicated that MT was significantly induced after 3 d, with a positive correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the hepatopancreas and a negative correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the gills. While CAT in the hemolymph was not detected, it increased in the hepatopancreas during the entire experiment; SOD and GPx in the three tissues were stimulated after 12 h, both attained peak value and then reduced during the experimental period. Meanwhile, DNA strand breaks were all induced significantly after 12 h. These results suggested the detoxification strategies against Hg2+ in three tissues of C. japonica.

  4. Solvation effects on chemical shifts by embedded cluster integral equation theory.

    PubMed

    Frach, Roland; Kast, Stefan M

    2014-12-11

    The accurate computational prediction of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters like chemical shifts represents a challenge if the species studied is immersed in strongly polarizing environments such as water. Common approaches to treating a solvent in the form of, e.g., the polarizable continuum model (PCM) ignore strong directional interactions such as H-bonds to the solvent which can have substantial impact on magnetic shieldings. We here present a computational methodology that accounts for atomic-level solvent effects on NMR parameters by extending the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) integral equation theory to the prediction of chemical shifts of N-methylacetamide (NMA) in aqueous solution. We examine the influence of various so-called closure approximations of the underlying three-dimensional RISM theory as well as the impact of basis set size and different treatment of electrostatic solute-solvent interactions. We find considerable and systematic improvement over reference PCM and gas phase calculations. A smaller basis set in combination with a simple point charge model already yields good performance which can be further improved by employing exact electrostatic quantum-mechanical solute-solvent interaction energies. A larger basis set benefits more significantly from exact over point charge electrostatics, which can be related to differences of the solvent's charge distribution. PMID:25377116

  5. The cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieser, Britta; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first calculation of the cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect. Both signals are combined in a single formalism, which permits the computation of the full covariance matrix. In order to avoid the uncertainties presented by the non-linear evolution of the matter power spectrum and intrinsic alignments of galaxies, our analysis is restricted to large scales, i.e. multipoles below ℓ = 1000. We demonstrate in a Fisher analysis that this reduction compared to other studies of 3D weak lensing extending to smaller scales is compensated by the information that is gained if the additional iSW signal and in particular its cross-correlation with lensing data are considered. Given the observational standards of upcoming weak-lensing surveys like Euclid, marginal errors on cosmological parameters decrease by 10 per cent compared to a cosmic shear experiment if both types of information are combined without a cosmic wave background (CMB) prior. Once the constraining power of CMB data is added, the improvement becomes marginal.

  6. Effects of Outlets on Cracking Risk and Integral Stability of Super-High Arch Dams

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, case study on outlet cracking is first conducted for the Goupitan and Xiaowan arch dams. A nonlinear FEM method is then implemented to study effects of the outlets on integral stability of the Xiluodu arch dam under two loading conditions, i.e., normal loading and overloading conditions. On the basis of the case study and the numerical modelling, the outlet cracking mechanism, risk, and corresponding reinforcement measures are discussed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation reveals that (1) under the normal loading conditions, the optimal distribution of the outlets will contribute to the tensile stress release in the local zone of the dam stream surface and decrease the outlet cracking risk during the operation period. (2) Under the overloading conditions, the cracks initiate around the outlets, then propagate along the horizontal direction, and finally coalesce with those in adjacent outlets, where the yield zone of the dam has a shape of butterfly. Throughout this study, a dam outlet cracking risk control and reinforcement principle is proposed to optimize the outlet design, select the appropriate concrete material, strengthen the temperature control during construction period, design reasonable impounding scheme, and repair the cracks according to their classification. PMID:25152907

  7. Effects of zinc-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite coatings on bone integration with implant surfaces*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shi-fang; Dong, Wen-jing; Jiang, Qiao-hong; He, Fu-ming; Wang, Xiao-xiang; Yang, Guo-li

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a zinc-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (Zn-HA) coating, applied by an electrochemical process, on implant osseointegraton in a rabbit model. Methods: A Zn-HA coating or an HA coating was deposited using an electrochemical process. Surface morphology was examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The crystal structure and chemical composition of the coatings were examined using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A total of 78 implants were inserted into femurs and tibias of rabbits. After two, four, and eight weeks, femurs and tibias were retrieved and prepared for histomorphometric evaluation and removal torque (RTQ) tests. Results: Rod-like HA crystals appeared on both implant surfaces. The dimensions of the Zn-HA crystals seemed to be smaller than those of HA. XRD patterns showed that the peaks of both coatings matched well with standard HA patterns. FTIR spectra showed that both coatings consisted of HA crystals. The Zn-HA coating significantly improved the bone area within all threads after four and eight weeks (P<0.05), the bone to implant contact (BIC) at four weeks (P<0.05), and RTQ values after four and eight weeks (P<0.05). Conclusions: The study showed that an electrochemically deposited Zn-HA coating has potential for improving bone integration with an implant surface. PMID:23733429

  8. Development of high-performance printed organic field-effect transistors and integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Liu, Chuan; Khim, Dongyoon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-10-28

    Organic electronics is regarded as an important branch of future microelectronics especially suited for large-area, flexible, transparent, and green devices, with their low cost being a key benefit. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), the primary building blocks of numerous expected applications, have been intensively studied, and considerable progress has recently been made. However, there are still a number of challenges to the realization of high-performance OFETs and integrated circuits (ICs) using printing technologies. Therefore, in this perspective article, we investigate the main issues concerning developing high-performance printed OFETs and ICs and seek strategies for further improvement. Unlike many other studies in the literature that deal with organic semiconductors (OSCs), printing technology, and device physics, our study commences with a detailed examination of OFET performance parameters (e.g., carrier mobility, threshold voltage, and contact resistance) by which the related challenges and potential solutions to performance development are inspected. While keeping this complete understanding of device performance in mind, we check the printed OFETs' components one by one and explore the possibility of performance improvement regarding device physics, material engineering, processing procedure, and printing technology. Finally, we analyze the performance of various organic ICs and discuss ways to optimize OFET characteristics and thus develop high-performance printed ICs for broad practical applications. PMID:25057765

  9. Combined analysis of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and cosmological implications

    SciTech Connect

    Giannantonio, Tommaso; Crittenden, Robert G.; Nichol, Robert C.; Scranton, Ryan; Boughn, Stephen P.; Myers, Adam D.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2008-06-15

    We present a global measurement of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect obtained by cross correlating all relevant large-scale galaxy data sets with the cosmic microwave background radiation map provided by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. With these measurements, the overall ISW signal is detected at the {approx}4.5{sigma} level. We also examine the cosmological implications of these measurements, particularly the dark energy equation of state w, its sound speed c{sub s}, and the overall curvature of the Universe. The flat {lambda}CDM model is a good fit to the data and, assuming this model, we find that the ISW data constrain {omega}{sub m}=0.20{sub -0.11}{sup +0.19} at the 95% confidence level. When we combine our ISW results with the latest baryon oscillation and supernovae measurements, we find that the result is still consistent with a flat {lambda}CDM model with w=-1 out to redshifts z>1.

  10. The effect of particulate debris on the insulation integrity of SSC coils during molding and collaring

    SciTech Connect

    Nehrlich, E.; Markley, F.; Rogers, D.

    1991-03-01

    In order to simulate the effect of accidentally introduced debris on SSC coil insulation integrity, models consisting of two pieces of insulated SSC cable have been loaded in an hydraulic press after introducing foreign particles between the layers. The tests were originally suggested by R. Palmer of the SSC Laboratory. A high voltage (2 Kv) was continually applied between the two cables and the load gradually increased until an electrical short occurred. The high voltage was used as an easy method of detecting insulation punctures and to continue the general type of testing begun at Brookhaven by J. Skaritka, now at the SSC Laboratory, and continued at Fermilab by F. Markley and presented at last year`s session of the Conference. A range of particles of different size, shape, and hardness were used, and both conducting and insulating particles were included. Fine wires were also used. When the data are normalized using the control (no particles added), data for each cable batch used, there is a slight correlation between pressure at breakdown and particle size for cables insulated with Kapton only. Adjustment must be made for soft particles that tend to deform and for particles with aspect ratios greater than one. Additional measurements have also been made where the opoxy-fiberglass layer was added to the Kapton insulation overwrap. These show a correlation between conductivity and breakdown pressure. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  11. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect versus redshift test for the cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantowski, R.; Chen, B.; Dai, X.

    2015-04-01

    We describe a method using the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect caused by individual inhomogeneities to determine the cosmological parameters H0, Ωm , and ΩΛ, etc. This ISW-redshift test requires detailed knowledge of the internal kinematics of a set of individual density perturbations, e.g., galaxy clusters and/or cosmic voids, in particular their density and velocity profiles, and their mass accretion rates. It assumes the density perturbations are isolated and embedded (equivalently compensated) and makes use of the newly found relation between the ISW temperature perturbation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the Fermat potential of the lens. Given measurements of the amplitudes of the temperature variations in the CMB caused by such clusters or voids at various redshifts and estimates of their angular sizes or masses, one can constrain the cosmological parameters. More realistically, the converse is more likely, i.e., if the background cosmology is sufficiently constrained, measurement of ISW profiles of clusters and voids (e.g., hot and cold spots and rings) can constrain dynamical properties of the dark matter, including accretion, associated with such lenses and thus constrain the evolution of these objects with redshift.

  12. Integrated Analysis of Environment-driven Operational Effects in Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Alfred J; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2007-07-01

    There is a rapidly growing need to evaluate sensor network functionality and performance in the context of the larger environment of infrastructure and applications in which the sensor network is organically embedded. This need, which is motivated by complex applications related to national security operations, leads to a paradigm fundamentally different from that of traditional data networks. In the sensor networks of interest to us, the network dynamics depend strongly on sensor activity, which in turn is triggered by events in the environment. Because the behavior of sensor networks is sensitive to these driving phenomena, the integrity of the sensed observations, measurements and resource usage by the network can widely vary. It is therefore imperative to accurately capture the environmental phenomena, and drive the simulation of the sensor network operation by accounting fully for the environment effects. In this paper, we illustrate the strong, intimate coupling between the sensor network operation and the driving phenomena in their applications with an example sensor network designed to detect and track gaseous plumes.

  13. Strategic interaction among hospitals and nursing facilities: the efficiency effects of payment systems and vertical integration.

    PubMed

    Banks, D; Parker, E; Wendel, J

    2001-03-01

    Rising post-acute care expenditures for Medicare transfer patients and increasing vertical integration between hospitals and nursing facilities raise questions about the links between payment system structure, the incentive for vertical integration and the impact on efficiency. In the United States, policy-makers are responding to these concerns by initiating prospective payments to nursing facilities, and are exploring the bundling of payments to hospitals. This paper develops a static profit-maximization model of the strategic interaction between the transferring hospital and a receiving nursing facility. This model suggests that the post-1984 system of prospective payment for hospital care, coupled with nursing facility payments that reimburse for services performed, induces inefficient under-provision of hospital services and encourages vertical integration. It further indicates that the extension of prospective payment to nursing facilities will not eliminate the incentive to vertically integrate, and will not result in efficient production unless such integration takes place. Bundling prospective payments for hospitals and nursing facilities will neither remove the incentive for vertical integration nor induce production efficiency without such vertical integration. However, bundled payment will induce efficient production, with or without vertical integration, if nursing facilities are reimbursed for services performed. PMID:11252043

  14. An Evaluation of the Observer Effect on Treatment Integrity in a Day Treatment Center for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Monica R.; Burke, Raymond V.; Allen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity is an important concern in treatment centers but is often overlooked. Performance feedback is a well-established approach to improving treatment integrity, but is underused and undervalued. One way to increase its value to treatment centers may be to expose unrealized benefits on the observer who collects the performance…

  15. Expeditionary Learning Approach in Integrated Teacher Education: Model Effectiveness and Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook

    This paper introduces an integrated teacher education model based on the Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound Project model. It integrates early childhood, elementary, and special education and uses inquiry-oriented and social constructive approaches. It models a team approach, with all teachers unified in their mutually shared philosophy of…

  16. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  17. Comparing the Effects of Test Anxiety on Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) offer textual and/or aural input for test takers on which to base their subsequent oral responses. This path-analytic study modeled the relationship between test anxiety and the performance of such tasks and explored whether test anxiety would differentially affect the performance of independent…

  18. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Integrated Learning Systems on Urban Middle School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Yamilette

    2012-01-01

    Many school districts have chosen to invest their federal funds in computer-based integrated learning systems that focus on literacy to increase high-stakes test scores and academic gains (Becker, 1994). Buly and Velencia (2002) supported the belief that a student's reading ability can improve substantially when instruction is integrated with…

  19. Beneficial effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in integrated nutrient management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global crave to supplement soil fertility will continue in order to achieve high crop productivity. Integrated nutrient management (INM) systems is now imperative to insure sustainability in the use of chemical fertilizers and manures. Information on integrating specific natural and man-made s...

  20. The Effects of Integration and Generation of Immigrants on Language and Numeracy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    In many Western countries the pressure exerted on immigrants to integrate has become intense in recent years. Efforts to preserve their ethnic identity through multicultural recognition has now been replaced by the requirements of active civic participation and assimilation. Of course integration is considered important not only for the immigrant…

  1. A Study of the Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy on Neuro-Physiological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Christopher; Reynolds, Kathleen Sheena

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sensory integration theory proposes that because there is plasticity within the central nervous system (the brain is moldable) and because the brain consists of systems that are hierarchically organised, it is possible to stimulate and improve neuro-physiological processing and integration and thereby increase learning capacity.…

  2. ESIF Plugs Utility-Scale Hardware into Simulated Grids to Assess Integration Effects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), integrated, megawatt-scale power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability allows researchers and manufacturers to test new energy technologies at full power in real-time simulations - safely evaluating component and system performance and reliability before going to market.

  3. Effectiveness of the World Health Organization cancer pain relief guidelines: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Cathy L

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate cancer pain relief has been documented extensively across historical records. In response, in 1986, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed guidelines for cancer pain treatment. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the results of a comprehensive, integrative review of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO guidelines. Studies were included if they: 1) identified patients treated with the guidelines, 2) evaluated self-reported pain, 3) identified instruments used, 4) provided data documenting pain relief, and 5) were written in English. Studies were coded for duration of treatment, definition of pain relief, instruments used, findings related to pain intensity or relief, and whether measures were used other than the WHO analgesic ladder. Twenty-five studies published since 1987 met the inclusion criteria. Evidence indicates 20%–100% of patients with cancer pain can be provided pain relief with the use of the WHO guidelines – while considering their status of treatment or end-of-life care. Due to multiple limitations in included studies, analysis was limited to descriptions. Future research to examine the effectiveness of the WHO guidelines needs to consider recommendations to facilitate study comparisons by standardizing outcome measures. Recent studies have reported that patients with cancer experience pain at moderate or greater levels. The WHO guidelines reflect the knowledge and effectual methods to relieve most cancer pain, but the guidelines are not being adequately employed. Part of the explanation for the lack of adoption of the WHO guidelines is that they may be considered outdated by many because they are not specific to the pharmacological and interventional options used in contemporary pain management practices. The conundrum of updating the WHO guidelines is to encompass the latest pharmacological and interventional innovations while maintaining its original simplicity. PMID:27524918

  4. Cost-effectiveness of integrated COPD care: the RECODE cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Melinde R S; Kruis, Annemarije L; Tsiachristas, Apostolos; Assendelft, Willem J J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Blom, Coert M G; Chavannes, Niels H; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the cost-effectiveness of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) disease management (COPD-DM) programme in primary care, called RECODE, compared to usual care. Design A 2-year cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting 40 general practices in the western part of the Netherlands. Participants 1086 patients with COPD according to GOLD (Global Initiative for COPD) criteria. Exclusion criteria were terminal illness, cognitive impairment, alcohol or drug misuse and inability to fill in Dutch questionnaires. Practices were included if they were willing to create a multidisciplinary COPD team. Interventions A multidisciplinary team of caregivers was trained in motivational interviewing, setting up individual care plans, exacerbation management, implementing clinical guidelines and redesigning the care process. In addition, clinical decision-making was supported by feedback reports provided by an ICT programme. Main outcome measures We investigated the impact on health outcomes (quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), Clinical COPD Questionnaire, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire and exacerbations) and costs (healthcare and societal perspective). Results The intervention costs were €324 per patient. Excluding these costs, the intervention group had €584 (95% CI €86 to €1046) higher healthcare costs than did the usual care group and €645 (95% CI €28 to €1190) higher costs from the societal perspective. Health outcomes were similar in both groups, except for 0.04 (95% CI −0.07 to −0.01) less QALYs in the intervention group. Conclusions This integrated care programme for patients with COPD that mainly included professionally directed interventions was not cost-effective in primary care. Trial registration number Netherlands Trial Register NTR2268. PMID:26525419

  5. Effects of Integrative Medicine on Pain and Anxiety Among Oncology Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Crespin, Daniel J.; Griffin, Kristen H.; Finch, Michael D.; Dusek, Jeffery A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of integrative medicine (IM) therapies on pain and anxiety among oncology inpatients. Methods Retrospective data obtained from electronic medical records identified patients with an oncology International Classification of Diseases-9 code who were admitted to a large Midwestern hospital between July 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012. Outcomes were change in patient-reported pain and anxiety, rated before and after individual IM treatment sessions, using a numeric scale (0–10). Results Of 10948 hospital admissions over the study period, 1833 (17%) included IM therapy. Older patients had reduced odds of receiving any IM therapy (odds ratio [OR]: 0.97, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.96 to 0.98) and females had 63% (OR: 1.63, 95% CI = 1.38 to 1.92) higher odds of receiving any IM therapy compared with males. Moderate (OR: 1.97, 95% CI = 1.61 to 2.41), major (OR: 3.54, 95% CI = 2.88 to 4.35), and extreme (OR: 5.96, 95% CI = 4.71 to 7.56) illness severity were significantly associated with higher odds of receiving IM therapy compared with admissions of minor illness severity. After receiving IM therapy, patients averaged a 46.9% (95% CI = 45.1% to 48.6%, P <.001) reduction in pain and a 56.1% (95% CI = 54.3% to 58.0%, P <.001) reduction in anxiety. Bodywork and traditional Chinese Medicine therapies were most effective for reducing pain, while no significant differences among therapies for reducing anxiety were observed. Conclusions IM services to oncology inpatients resulted in substantial decreases in pain and anxiety. Observational studies using electronic medical records provide unique information about real-world utilization of IM. Future studies are warranted and should explore potential synergy of opioid analgesics and IM therapy for pain control. PMID:25749600

  6. Managing incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms with integrated molecular pathology is a cost-effective strategy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ananya; Brugge, William; Mishra, Girish; Smith, Dennis M.; Sachdev, Mankanwal; Ellsworth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Current guidelines recommend using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) testing and cytology to manage incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCN); however, studies suggest a strategy including integrated molecular pathology (IMP) of cyst fluid may further aid in predicting risk of malignancy. Here, we evaluate several strategies for diagnosing and managing asymptomatic PCN using healthcare economic modeling. Patients and methods: A third-party-payer perspective Markov decision model examined four management strategies in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 asymptomatic patients incidentally found to have a 3 cm solitary pancreatic cystic lesion. Strategy I used cross-sectional imaging, recommended surgery only if symptoms or risk factors emerged. Strategy II considered patients for resection without initial EUS. Strategy III (EUS + CEA + Cytology) referred only those with mucinous cysts (CEA > 192 ng/mL) for resection. Strategy IV implemented IMP; a commercially available panel provided a “Benign,” “Mucinous,” or “Aggressive” classification based on the level of mutational change in cyst fluid. “Benign” and “Mucinous” patients were followed with surveillance; “Aggressive” patients were referred for resection. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), relative risk with 95 %CI, Number Needed to Treat (NNT), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Results: Strategy IV provided the greatest increase in QALY at nearly identical cost to the cheapest approach, Strategy I. Relative risk of malignancy compared to the current standard of care and nearest competing strategy, Strategy III, was 0.18 (95 %CI 0.06 – 0.53) with an NNT of 56 (95 %CI 34 – 120). Conclusions: Use of IMP was the most cost-effective strategy, supporting its routine clinical use. PMID:26528505

  7. Event-related potential indices of congruency sequence effects without feature integration or contingency learning confounds.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Kirwan, C Brock; Weissman, Daniel H

    2016-06-01

    The congruency effect in Stroop-like tasks (i.e., increased response time and reduced accuracy in incongruent relative to congruent trials) is often smaller when the previous trial was incongruent as compared to congruent. This congruency sequence effect (CSE) is thought to reflect cognitive control processes that shift attention to the target and/or modulate the response engendered by the distracter differently after incongruent relative to congruent trials. The neural signatures of CSEs are therefore usually attributed to cognitive control processes that minimize distraction from irrelevant stimuli. However, CSEs in previous functional neuroimaging studies were ubiquitously confounded with feature integration and/or contingency learning processes. We therefore investigated whether a neural CSE can be observed without such confounds in a group of healthy young adults (n = 56). To this end, we combined a prime-probe task that lacks such confounds with high-density ERPs to identify, for the first time, the neural time course of confound-minimized CSEs. Replicating recent behavioral findings, we observed strong CSEs in this task for mean response time and mean accuracy. Critically, conceptually replicating prior ERP results from confounded tasks, we also observed a CSE in both the parietal conflict slow potential (conflict SP) and the frontomedial N450. These findings indicate for the first time that neural CSEs as indexed by ERPs can be observed without the typical confounds. More broadly, the present study provides a confound-minimized protocol that will help future researchers to better isolate the neural bases of control processes that minimize distraction from irrelevant stimuli. PMID:26854028

  8. HERMES: towards an integrated toolbox to characterize functional and effective brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Niso, Guiomar; Bruña, Ricardo; Pereda, Ernesto; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; del-Pozo, Francisco

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of the interdependence between time series has become an important field of research in the last years, mainly as a result of advances in the characterization of dynamical systems from the signals they produce, the introduction of concepts such as generalized and phase synchronization and the application of information theory to time series analysis. In neurophysiology, different analytical tools stemming from these concepts have added to the 'traditional' set of linear methods, which includes the cross-correlation and the coherency function in the time and frequency domain, respectively, or more elaborated tools such as Granger Causality.This increase in the number of approaches to tackle the existence of functional (FC) or effective connectivity (EC) between two (or among many) neural networks, along with the mathematical complexity of the corresponding time series analysis tools, makes it desirable to arrange them into a unified-easy-to-use software package. The goal is to allow neuroscientists, neurophysiologists and researchers from related fields to easily access and make use of these analysis methods from a single integrated toolbox.Here we present HERMES ( http://hermes.ctb.upm.es ), a toolbox for the Matlab® environment (The Mathworks, Inc), which is designed to study functional and effective brain connectivity from neurophysiological data such as multivariate EEG and/or MEG records. It includes also visualization tools and statistical methods to address the problem of multiple comparisons. We believe that this toolbox will be very helpful to all the researchers working in the emerging field of brain connectivity analysis. PMID:23812847

  9. An Integrated Assessment of Water Scarcity Effects on Energy and Land Use Decisions and Mitigation Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Calvin, K. V.; Leon, C.; Edmonds, J.; Kyle, P.; Patel, P.; Wise, M. A.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential for the world's food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide food for an increasing population. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), where interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources interact simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system, to investigate how water scarcity affects energy and land use decisions as well as mitigation policies. In GCAM, competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 235 major river basins. Limits to hydrologic systems have significant effects on energy and land use induced emissions via constraints on decisions of their use. We explore these effects and how they evolve under climate change mitigation policies, which can significantly alter land use patterns, both by limiting land use change emissions and by increasing bioenergy production. The study also explores the mitigation scenarios in the context of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated, as our simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the fact that water is a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in integrated assessment models (IAMs), and stresses the crucial role of water in regulating agricultural commodities trade and land-use and energy decisions.

  10. Temporal features of spectral integration in the inferior colliculus: effects of stimulus duration and rise time.

    PubMed

    Gans, Donald; Sheykholeslami, Kianoush; Peterson, Diana Coomes; Wenstrup, Jeffrey

    2009-07-01

    This report examines temporal features of facilitation and suppression that underlie spectrally integrative responses to complex vocal signals. Auditory responses were recorded from 160 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of awake mustached bats. Sixty-two neurons showed combination-sensitive facilitation: responses to best frequency (BF) signals were facilitated by well-timed signals at least an octave lower in frequency, in the range 16-31 kHz. Temporal features and strength of facilitation were generally unaffected by changes in duration of facilitating signals from 4 to 31 ms. Changes in stimulus rise time from 0.5 to 5.0 ms had little effect on facilitatory strength. These results suggest that low frequency facilitating inputs to high BF neurons have phasic-on temporal patterns and are responsive to stimulus rise times over the tested range. We also recorded from 98 neurons showing low-frequency (11-32 kHz) suppression of higher BF responses. Effects of changing duration were related to the frequency of suppressive signals. Signals<23 kHz usually evoked suppression sustained throughout signal duration. This and other features of such suppression are consistent with a cochlear origin that results in masking of responses to higher, near-BF signal frequencies. Signals in the 23- to 30-kHz range-frequencies in the first sonar harmonic-generally evoked phasic suppression of BF responses. This may result from neural inhibitory interactions within and below IC. In many neurons, we observed two or more forms of the spectral interactions described here. Thus IC neurons display temporally and spectrally complex responses to sound that result from multiple spectral interactions at different levels of the ascending auditory pathway. PMID:19403742

  11. Effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy on autonomic functions in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vinutha, H. T.; Raghavendra, B. R.; Manjunath, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) had shown beneficial effects in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Autonomic dysfunction is one of the major complications of type 2 DM. Research studies have demonstrated that yoga can modulate autonomic functions. Hence, the current study was designed to assess the effect of IAYT on autonomic functions in type 2 diabetics. Materials and Methods: 15 patients of type 2 DM with ages ranging from 35 to 60 years were recruited for the study. They were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes from 1-year to 15 years. Assessments were made on day 1 (before yoga) and day 7 (after 1-week of yoga practice). Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP) response to the isometric handgrip and heart rate response to deep breathing were assessed before and after 1-week of IAYT. Results: There was a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose from 154.67–130.27 mg/dL (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.029) following 1-week of IAYT. BP response to isometric hand grip improved significantly (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.01). There was no statistical significant change in HRV components and heart rate response to deep breathing test. However, there was a trend of increase in the low frequency power (41.07%), high frequency power (6.29%), total power (5.38%), and standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN) (6.29%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that, IAYT improved autonomic functions in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:26425477

  12. Embedded Lensing Time Delays, the Fermat Potential, and the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu

    2015-05-01

    We derive the Fermat potential for a spherically symmetric lens embedded in a Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology and use it to investigate the late-time integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, i.e., secondary temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) caused by individual large-scale clusters and voids. We present a simple analytical expression for the temperature fluctuation in the CMB across such a lens as a derivative of the lens’ Fermat potential. This formalism is applicable to both linear and nonlinear density evolution scenarios, to arbitrarily large density contrasts, and to all open and closed background cosmologies. It is much simpler to use and makes the same predictions as conventional approaches. In this approach the total temperature fluctuation can be split into a time-delay part and an evolutionary part. Both parts must be included for cosmic structures that evolve and both can be equally important. We present very simple ISW models for cosmic voids and galaxy clusters to illustrate the ease of use of our formalism. We use the Fermat potentials of simple cosmic void models to compare predicted ISW effects with those recently extracted from WMAP and Planck data by stacking large cosmic voids using the aperture photometry method. If voids in the local universe with large density contrasts are no longer evolving we find that the time delay contribution alone predicts values consistent with the measurements. However, we find that for voids still evolving linearly, the evolutionary contribution cancels a significant part of the time delay contribution and results in predicted signals that are much smaller than recently observed.

  13. Nickel has biochemical, physiological, and structural effects on the green microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus: An integrative study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Erika Berenice; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the release of chemical pollutants to water bodies has increased due to anthropogenic activities. Ni(2+) is an essential metal that causes damage to aquatic biota at high concentrations. Phytoplankton are photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that constitute a fundamental community in aquatic environments because they are primary producers that sustain the aquatic food web. Nickel toxicity has not been characterized in all of the affected levels of biological organization. For this reason, the present study evaluated the toxic effects of nickel on the growth of a primary producer, the green microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and on its biochemical, enzymatic, and structural levels. The IC50 (96h) was determined for Ni(2+). Based on this result, five concentrations were determined for additional tests, in which cell density was evaluated daily. At the end of the assay, pigments and six biomarkers, including antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], superoxide dismutase [SOD]), and macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids), were quantified; the integrated biomarker response (IBR) was determined also. The microalgae were observed by SEM and TEM. Population growth was affected starting at 7.5 μg L(-1) (0.028 μM), and at 120 μg L(-1) (0.450 μM), growth was inhibited completely; the determined IC50 was 17 μg L(-1). Exposure to nickel reduced the concentration of pigments, decreased the content of all of the macromolecules, inhibited of SOD activity, and increased CAT and GPx activities. The IBR revealed that Ni(2+) increased the antioxidant response and diminished the macromolecules concentration. A. falcatus was affected by nickel at very low concentrations; negative effects were observed at the macromolecular, enzymatic, cytoplasmic, and morphological levels, as well as in population growth. Ni(2+) toxicity could result in environmental impacts with consequences on the entire aquatic community. Current

  14. Length of residence and social integration: The contingent effects of neighborhood poverty

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Danya; Bader, Michael; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-established benefits of social integration for physical and mental health, studies have begun to explore how access to social ties and social support may be shaped by the residential context in which people live. As a critical health exposure, social integration may be one important mechanism by which places affect health. This paper brings together research on two previously studied contextual determinants of social integration. Specifically, we use multi-level data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey to investigate the relationships between an individual’s length of residence and measures of social integration. We then investigate the extent to which these relationships are moderated by neighborhood poverty. We find that the relationship between length of residence and some measures of social integration are stronger in poor neighborhoods than in more affluent ones. PMID:23501379

  15. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production – Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today’s agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a “safety net” to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is

  16. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a "safety net" to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to

  17. An integrated approach for prospectively investigating a mode-of-action for rodent liver effects

    SciTech Connect

    LeBaron, Matthew J.; Geter, David R.; Rasoulpour, Reza J.; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Thomas, Johnson; Murray, Jennifer; Kan, H. Lynn; Wood, Amanda J.; Elcombe, Cliff; Vardy, Audrey; McEwan, Jillian; Terry, Claire; Billington, Richard

    2013-07-15

    Registration of new plant protection products (e.g., herbicide, insecticide, or fungicide) requires comprehensive mammalian toxicity evaluation including carcinogenicity studies in two species. The outcome of the carcinogenicity testing has a significant bearing on the overall human health risk assessment of the substance and, consequently, approved uses for different crops across geographies. In order to understand the relevance of a specific tumor finding to human health, a systematic, transparent, and hypothesis-driven mode of action (MoA) investigation is, appropriately, an expectation by the regulatory agencies. Here, we describe a novel approach of prospectively generating the MoA data by implementing additional end points to the standard guideline toxicity studies with sulfoxaflor, a molecule in development. This proactive MoA approach results in a more robust integration of molecular with apical end points while minimizing animal use. Sulfoxaflor, a molecule targeting sap-feeding insects, induced liver effects (increased liver weight due to hepatocellular hypertrophy) in an initial palatability probe study for selecting doses for subsequent repeat-dose dietary studies. This finding triggered the inclusion of dose-response investigations of the potential key events for rodent liver carcinogenesis, concurrent with the hazard assessment studies. As predicted, sulfoxaflor induced liver tumors in rats and mice in the bioassays. The MoA data available by the time of the carcinogenicity finding supported the conclusion that the carcinogenic potential of sulfoxaflor was due to CAR/PXR nuclear receptor activation with subsequent hepatocellular proliferation. This MoA was not considered to be relevant to humans as sulfoxaflor is unlikely to induce hepatocellular proliferation in humans and therefore would not be a human liver carcinogen. - Highlights: • We prospectively generated MoA data into standard guideline toxicity studies. • A proactive MoA approach

  18. Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise: Advancing coastal management through integrated research and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems through land loss, altered habitats, and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico where low topography, expansive marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have already resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics are critical for informed planning and restoration efforts for coastal ecosystems. Looking to build upon existing predictive modeling capabilities and allow for use of multiple model (i.e., ensemble) approaches, NOAA initiated the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise program in 2010 to advance physical/biological integrative modeling capabilities in the region with a goal to provide user friendly predictive tools for coastal ecosystem management. Focused on the northern Gulf of Mexico, this multi-disciplinary project led by the University of Central Florida will use in situ field studies to parameterize physical and biological models. These field studies will also result in a predictive capability for overland sediment delivery and transport that will further enhance marsh, oyster, and submerged aquatic vegetation models. Results from this integrated modeling effort are envisioned to inform management strategies for reducing risk, restoration and breakwater guidelines, and resource sustainability for project planning, among other uses. In addition to the science components, this project incorporates significant engagement of the management community through a management applications principle investigator and an advisory management committee. Routine engagement between the science team and the management committee, including annual workshops, are focused on ensuring the development of applicable, relevant, and useable products and tools at the conclusion of this project. Particular

  19. The effect of teacher quality on the achievement of students in Integrated Physics and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Rima

    For many years, researchers, policy makers, and the education community have explored various school variables and their impact on student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Ferguson and Womack 1993; Ferguson and Ladd 1996; Rice, 2003; Rockoff, 2003; Rowan, Chiang, and Miller 1997; Sanders and Horn, 1996; Wright Horn and Sanders, 1997). Invariably, the issue of teacher quality arises. Teacher quality is the single most influential factor under school control that affects student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Rice, 2003; Rockoff, 2003; Sanders and Horn, 1996; Wright Horn and Sanders, 1997). Generally, students taught by highly qualified teachers perform better on standardized tests than students with less qualified teachers (Ferguson and Womack 1993; Ferguson and Ladd 1996; Rowan, Chiang, and Miller 1997). Previous research indicates that teachers indeed matter for the improvement of student achievement, but getting good measures of what is meant by teacher quality is a continuing challenge (Goldhaber, 2002). The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of teacher quality on the achievement of students in Integrated Physics and Chemistry (IPC). In order to achieve this purpose, this study addressed the following research question: chemistry and physics teachers compare to the achievement of students taught by less-qualified IPC teachers? A causal-comparative methodology was employed to address this research question. The independent variable was teacher quality---highly-qualified or less qualified. The teacher attributes that were examined in this study are: (1) teachers' educational background; (2) content knowledge; (3) pedagogical knowledge; and (4) certification. The dependent variable was student achievement in integrated physics and chemistry, as measured by an end-of-course IPC District Assessment of Curriculum, IPC DAC. Descriptive statistics were computed for the independent variable in the study. A Chi Square was performed on the data

  20. The Effect of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and School Location on Students Performance in Nigerian Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…

  1. The Effects of Integrated Science, Technology, and Engineering Education on Elementary Students' Knowledge and Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, So Yoon; Dyehouse, Melissa; Lucietto, Anne M.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Capobianco, Brenda M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of integrated science, technology, and engineering (STE) education on second-, third-, and fourth-grade students' STE content knowledge and aspirations concerning engineering after validation of the measures. During the 2009-2010 school year, 59 elementary school teachers, who attended a week-long engineering…

  2. Errors of Omission and Commission during Alternative Reinforcement of Compliance: The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Yanerys; Wilder, David A.; Majdalany, Lina; Myers, Kristin; Saini, Valdeep

    2014-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effects of errors of omission and commission during alternative reinforcement of compliance in young children. In Experiment 1, we evaluated errors of omission by examining two levels of integrity during alternative reinforcement (20 and 60%) for child compliance following no treatment (baseline) versus…

  3. The Effects of Self-Monitoring on the Procedural Integrity of a Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Ferreri, Summer J.; Maupin, Angela N.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of self-monitoring on procedural integrity of token economy implementation by 3 staff in a special education classroom were evaluated. The subsequent changes in academic readiness behaviors of 2 students with low-incidence disabilities were measured. Multiple baselines across staff and students showed that procedural integrity…

  4. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Learning Integrated with Metacognitive Prompts on Students' Affective Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Nilgün; Akpinar, Ercan; Feyzioglu, Eylem Yildiz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-assisted learning integrated with metacognitive prompts on elementary students' affective skills on the subject of electricity. The researchers developed educational software to enable students to easily and comprehensively learn the concepts in the subject of electricity. A…

  5. The Effects of Applying Game-Based Learning to Webcam Motion Sensor Games for Autistic Students' Sensory Integration Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kun-Hsien; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of applying game-based learning to webcam motion sensor games for autistic students' sensory integration training for autistic students. The research participants were three autistic students aged from six to ten. Webcam camera as the research tool wad connected internet games to engage in motion sensor…

  6. Effects of Summary Writing on Oral Proficiency Performance within a Computer-Based Test for Integrated Listening-Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Zhihong; Wang, Yanfei

    2014-01-01

    The effective design of test items within a computer-based language test (CBLT) for developing English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' listening and speaking skills has become an increasingly challenging task for both test users and test designers compared with that of pencil-and-paper tests in the past. It needs to fit integrated oral…

  7. Effects of Bilingual Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition on Students Transitioning from Spanish to English Reading. Report No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita; And Others

    The effects of a cooperative learning program, Bilingual Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (BCIRC), on the Spanish and English reading, writing, and language achievement of second and third graders of limited English proficiency in Spanish bilingual programs in El Paso (Texas) were studied. BCIRC was expected to improve student…

  8. The Effect on Non-Normal Distributions on the Integrated Moving Average Model of Time-Series Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerann-George, Judith

    The Integrated Moving Average (IMA) model of time series, and the analysis of intervention effects based on it, assume random shocks which are normally distributed. To determine the robustness of the analysis to violations of this assumption, empirical sampling methods were employed. Samples were generated from three populations; normal,…

  9. EFFECT OF IMPACT LIMITER MATERIAL DEGRATION ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF 9975 PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO TWO FORKLIFT TRUCK IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T

    2007-07-09

    This paper evaluates the effect of the impact limiter material degradation on the structural integrity of the 9975 package containment vessel during a postulated accident event of forklift truck collision. The analytical results show that the primary and secondary containment vessels remain structurally intact for Celotex material degraded to 20% of the baseline value.

  10. Ambitions Fulfilled? The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Attainment on Older Adults' Ego-Integrity and Death Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…

  11. A Cost-Effective Strategy for Integrating Technology into the Advanced and Remedial Mathematics Curriculum in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    Technology can be an effective educational device if it is part of a well-conceived plan blending together other factors that also positively influence achievement. The body of research documenting the benefits of integrating technology into academic programs grows each day, particularly concerning the use of calculators and computers in the…

  12. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…

  13. The Effect of Concept Mapping-Guided Discovery Integrated Teaching Approach on Chemistry Students' Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatokun, K. V. F.; Eniayeju, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Concept Mapping-Guided Discovery Integrated Teaching Approach on the achievement and retention of chemistry students. The sample comprised 162 Senior Secondary two (SS 2) students drawn from two Science Schools in Nasarawa State, Central Nigeria with equivalent mean scores of 9.68 and 9.49 in their pre-test.…

  14. The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Child Compliance during Treatment with a Three-Step Prompting Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A.; Atwell, Julie; Wine, Byron

    2006-01-01

    The effects of three levels of treatment integrity (100%, 50%, and 0%) on child compliance were evaluated in the context of the implementation of a three-step prompting procedure. Two typically developing preschool children participated in the study. After baseline data on compliance to one of three common demands were collected, a therapist…

  15. An Integrative Model of Organizational Learning and Social Capital on Effective Knowledge Transfer and Perceived Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jo; Lok, Peter; Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to examine the relationships of organizational learning, social capital and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer and perceived organisational performance. Integrating organizational learning capability with social capital networks to shape a holistic knowledge sharing and management enterprise…

  16. Quasi-Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of an Integrated Service Delivery Network for the Frail Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourigny, Andre; Durand, Pierre J.; Bonin, Lucie; Hebert, Rejean; Rochette, Louis

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new, integrated service delivery (ISD) network of health and social services for frail elderly living in a semi-urban community. A quasi-experimental study was conducted from 1997 to 2000, with measures taken before implementation (T0) and every 12 months after implementation for a 3-year…

  17. Integrated Methods for Pupils To Reinforce Occupational and Verbal Effectiveness (Project IMPROVE). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadalupe, Deana R.

    Integrated Methods for Pupils to Reinforce Occupational and Vocational Effectiveness (Project IMPROVE) was a federally funded project in its second year of operation in two Manhattan (New York) high schools in 1992-93. It served limited-English-proficient students, 186 Latino and 13 Asian-American, in grades 9-12. Students received instruction in…

  18. Effects of Social Class Integration of Preschool Negro Children on Test Performance and Self-Concept. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Edwin L.; Epps, Edgar G.

    This study, designed to assess the effects of social class integration, tested the following hypothesis: Preschool age black children from middle class socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds will not be adversely affected by attending a daily program with a smaller group of black peers from lower SES backgrounds. A pre- and posttest battery administered…

  19. A Model for Integrating Fixed-, Random-, and Mixed-Effects Meta-Analyses into Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) are two important statistical methods in the behavioral, social, and medical sciences. They are generally treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. The present article proposes a model to integrate fixed-, random-, and mixed-effects meta-analyses into the SEM framework. By applying an…

  20. Effect of patient setup errors on simultaneously integrated boost head and neck IMRT treatment plans

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, Jeffrey V. . E-mail: jsiebers@vcu.edu; Keall, Paul J.; Wu Qiuwen; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine dose delivery errors that could result from random and systematic setup errors for head-and-neck patients treated using the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients who participated in an intramural Phase I/II parotid-sparing IMRT dose-escalation protocol using the SIB treatment technique had their dose distributions reevaluated to assess the impact of random and systematic setup errors. The dosimetric effect of random setup error was simulated by convolving the two-dimensional fluence distribution of each beam with the random setup error probability density distribution. Random setup errors of {sigma} = 1, 3, and 5 mm were simulated. Systematic setup errors were simulated by randomly shifting the patient isocenter along each of the three Cartesian axes, with each shift selected from a normal distribution. Systematic setup error distributions with {sigma} = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis were simulated. Combined systematic and random setup errors were simulated for {sigma} = {sigma} = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis. For each dose calculation, the gross tumor volume (GTV) received by 98% of the volume (D{sub 98}), clinical target volume (CTV) D{sub 90}, nodes D{sub 90}, cord D{sub 2}, and parotid D{sub 50} and parotid mean dose were evaluated with respect to the plan used for treatment for the structure dose and for an effective planning target volume (PTV) with a 3-mm margin. Results: Simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT head-and-neck treatment plans were found to be less sensitive to random setup errors than to systematic setup errors. For random-only errors, errors exceeded 3% only when the random setup error {sigma} exceeded 3 mm. Simulated systematic setup errors with {sigma} = 1.5 mm resulted in approximately 10% of plan having more than a 3% dose error, whereas a {sigma} = 3.0 mm resulted in half of the plans having

  1. Molecular and Integrative Physiological Effects of Isoflurane Anesthesia: The Paradigm of Cardiovascular Studies in Rodents using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Constantinides, Christakis; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    To-this-date, the exact molecular, cellular, and integrative physiological mechanisms of anesthesia remain largely unknown. Published evidence indicates that anesthetic effects are multifocal and occur in a time-dependent and coordinated manner, mediated via central, local, and peripheral pathways. Their effects can be modulated by a range of variables, and their elicited end-effect on the integrative physiological response is highly variable. This review summarizes the major cellular and molecular sites of anesthetic action with a focus on the paradigm of isoflurane (ISO) – the most commonly used anesthetic nowadays – and its use in prolonged in vivo rodent studies using imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It also presents established evidence for normal ranges of global and regional physiological cardiac function under ISO, proposes optimal, practical methodologies relevant to the use of anesthetic protocols for MRI and outlines the beneficial effects of nitrous oxide supplementation. PMID:27525256

  2. Path Integration: Effect of Curved Path Complexity and Sensory System on Blindfolded Walking

    PubMed Central

    Koutakis, Panagiotis; Mukherjee, Mukul; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Blanke, Daniel J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Path integration refers to the ability to integrate continuous information of the direction and distance travelled by the system relative to the origin. Previous studies have investigated path integration through blindfolded walking along simple paths such as straight line and triangles. However, limited knowledge exists regarding the role of path complexity in path integration. Moreover, little is known about how information from different sensory input systems (like vision and proprioception) contributes to accurate path integration. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how sensory information and curved path complexity affect path integration. Forty blindfolded participants had to accurately reproduce a curved path and return to the origin. They were divided into four groups that differed in the curved path, circle (simple) or figure-eight (complex), and received either visual (previously seen) or proprioceptive (previously guided) information about the path before they reproduced it. The dependent variables used were average trajectory error, walking speed, and distance travelled. The results indicated that (a) both groups that walked on a circular path and both groups that received visual information produced greater accuracy in reproducing the path. Moreover, the performance of the group that received proprioceptive information and later walked on a figure-eight path was less accurate than their corresponding circular group. The groups that had the visual information also walked faster compared to the group that had proprioceptive information. Results of the current study highlight the roles of different sensory inputs while performing blindfolded walking for path integration. PMID:22840893

  3. Using the Earth as an Effective Model for Integrating Space Science Into Education Outreach Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Allen, J.; Galindo, C.; McKay, G.; Obot, V.; Reiff, P.

    2005-05-01

    Our methods of teaching Earth and space science as two disciplines do not represent the spirit of earlier scientists such as Aristotle, da Vinci, and Galileo. We need to re-evaluate these methods and take advantage of the excitement created in the general public over the recent space science exploration programs. The information that we are obtaining from both the Mars missions and Cassini-Huygens focuses on interpreting geomorphology, mineral compositions and gas identification based on Earth as a baseline for data evaluation. This type of evaluation is an extension of Hutton's 18th century principle of Uniformitarianism, the present is the key to the past, or Earth is the key for understanding extraterrestrial bodies. Geomorphological examples are volcanic activity, meteoritic impacts, and evidence of water altering surface features. The Hawaiian, or shield, type volcanoes are analogues for Olympus Mons and the other volcanoes on Mars. Other examples include comparing sand dunes on Earth with possible Martian dunes, known stream patterns on Earth with potential stream patterns on Mars, and even comparing meteoritic impact features on Mars, the Earth, Moon and Mercury. All of these comparisons have been developed into inquiry-based activities and are available through NASA publications. Each of these activities is easily adapted to emphasize either Earth science or space science or both. Beyond geomorphology, solar storms are an excellent topic for integrating Earth and space science. Solar storms are traditionally part of space science studies, but most students do not understand their effect on Earth or the intense effects they could have on humans, whether traveling through space or exploring the surfaces of the Moon or Mars. Effects are not only limited to space travel and other planetary surfaces but also include Earth's magnetosphere, which in turn, affect radio transmission and potentially climate. Like geomorphology courses, there are extensive NASA

  4. The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin integrity in human volunteers. I. Methodology and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Camel, E; O'Connell, M; Sage, B; Gross, M; Maibach, H

    1996-08-01

    This study, conducted in 36 human volunteers, was an evaluation of the effects of saline iontophoresis on skin temperature, irritation, and barrier function. The major objectives were to assess the effects of low-level ionic currents, to validate the proposed methodology of assessment, and to establish reproducibility in repeated saline iontophoresis applications. This was the first of a multistage study designed to assess the safety of 24-hr saline iontophoresis episodes at selected currents and current densities. Since an iontophoresis patch challenges the skin barrier both by occluding the skin surface and by passing ionic current through the skin, the experimental protocol was designed to permit measurement of the contribution of each of these processes to the overall response. In this first stage we investigated the effect of 10 min of current delivery, at 0.1 mA/cm2 on a 1-cm2 area patch and 0.2 mA/cm2 on a 6.5-cm2 area patch compared to unpowered control patches. Twelve subjects were tested under each condition on two separate occasions to examine reproducibility of the response variable measurements. A further 12 subjects were tested once under the 0.2 mA/cm2, 6.5-cm2 condition. Skin irritation was evaluated via repeated measurements of transepidermal water loss, capacitance, skin temperature, skin color, and a visual scoring system, before the iontophoresis episode and after patch removal. No damage to skin barrier function in terms of skin-water loss or skin-water content was detected. Slight, subclinical, short-lasting erythema was observed for both conditions. Assessment of correlation coefficients showed highly statistically significant indications of reproducibility for all five response variables measured. The experimental design, in combination with a repeated measures analysis, provided clear separation of the occlusion and ionic current components of the iontophoretic patch challenge. Further, the repeated measures analysis gave a highly sensitive

  5. The channeling effect of Al and N ion implantation in 4H-SiC during JFET integrated device processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, M.; Laariedh, F.; Cremillieu, P.; Planson, D.; Leclercq, J.-L.

    2015-12-01

    A strong channeling effect is observed for the ions of Al and N implanted in 4H-SiC due to its crystalline structure. This effect causes difficulties in subsequent accurate estimation of the depth of junctions formed by multiple ion implantation steps. A variety of lateral JFET transistors integrated on the same 4H-SiC wafer have been fabricated. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurements and Monte-Carlo simulations were performed in order to quantify and control the channeling effect of the implanted ions. A technological process was established enabling to obtain devices working with the presence of the channeling effect.

  6. Integrated care

    PubMed Central

    Gröne, Oliver; Garcia-Barbero, Mila

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The WHO European Office for Integrated Health Care Services in Barcelona is an integral part of the World Health Organizations' Regional Office for Europe. The main purpose of the Barcelona office is within the integration of services to encourage and facilitate changes in health care services in order to promote health and improve management and patient satisfaction by working for quality, accessibility, cost-effectiveness and participation. This position paper outlines the need for Integrated Care from a European perspective, provides a theoretical framework for the meaning of Integrated Care and its strategies and summarizes the programmes of the office that will support countries in the WHO European Region to improve health services. PMID:16896400

  7. Major results from safety-related integral effect tests with VISTA-ITL for the SMART design

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H. S.; Min, B. Y.; Shin, Y. C.; Yi, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    A series of integral effect tests (IETs) was performed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI) using the VISTA integral test loop (VISTA-ITL) as a small-scale IET program. Among them this paper presents major results acquired from the safety-related IETs with the VISTA-ITL facility for the SMART design. Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests of safety injection system (SIS) line break, shutdown cooling system (SCS) line break and pressurizer safety valve (PSV) line break were successfully performed and the transient characteristics of a complete loss of flowrate (CLOF) was simulated properly with the VISTA-ITL facility. (authors)

  8. Cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems /IPAD/ An executive summary. II. [for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.; Hansen, S. D.; Redhed, D. D.; Southall, J. W.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems with particular attention to Integrated Program for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) project. An analysis of all the ingredients of IPAD indicates the feasibility of a significant cost and flowtime reduction in the product design process involved. It is also concluded that an IPAD-supported design process will provide a framework for configuration control, whereby the engineering costs for design, analysis and testing can be controlled during the air vehicle development cycle.

  9. Integrating hypermedia into the environmental education setting: Developing a program and evaluating its effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Tehri Davenport

    1997-09-01

    This study designed, implemented, and evaluated an environmental education hypermedia program for use in a residential environmental education facility. The purpose of the study was to ascertain whether a hypermedia program could increase student knowledge and positive attitudes toward the environment and environmental education. A student/computer interface, based on the theory of social cognition, was developed to direct student interactions with the computer. A quasi-experimental research design was used. Students were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group used the hypermedia program to learn about the topic of energy. The control group received the same conceptual information from a teacher/naturalist. An Environmental Awareness Quiz was administered to measure differences in the students' cognitive understanding of energy issues. Students participated in one on one interviews to discuss their attitudes toward the lesson and the overall environmental education experience. Additionally, members of the experimental group were tape recorded while they used the hypermedia program. These tapes were analyzed to identify aspects of the hypermedia program that promoted student learning. The findings of this study suggest that computers, and hypermedia programs, can be integrated into residential environmental education facilities, and can assist environmental educators in meeting their goals for students. The study found that the hypermedia program was as effective as the teacher/naturalist for teaching about environmental education material. Students who used the computer reported more positive attitudes toward the lesson on energy, and thought that they had learned more than the control group. Students in the control group stated that they did not learn as much as the computer group. The majority of students had positive attitudes toward the inclusion of computers in the camp setting, and stated that they were a good

  10. Structurally Integrated, Damage Tolerant Thermal Spray Coatings: Processing Effects on Surface and System Functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vackel, Andrew

    Thermal Spray (TS) coatings have seen extensive application as protective surfaces to enhance the service life of substrates prone to damage in their operating environment (wear, corrosion, heat etc.). With the advent of high velocity TS processes, the ability to deposit highly dense (>99%) metallic and cermet coatings has further enhanced the protective ability of these coatings. In addition to surface functionality, the influence of the coating application on the mechanical performance of a coated component is of great concern when such a component will experience either static or cyclic loading during service. Using a process mapping methodology, the processing-property interplay between coating materials meant to provide damage tolerant surface or for structural restoration are explored in terms of relevant mechanical properties. Most importantly, the residual stresses inherent in TS deposited coatings are shown to play a significant role in the integrated mechanical performance of these coatings. Unique to high velocity TS processes is the ability to produce compressive stresses within the deposit from the cold working induced by the high kinetic energy particles upon impact. The extent of these formation stresses are explored with different coating materials, as well as processing influence. The ability of dense TS coatings to carry significant structural load and synergistically strengthen coated tensile specimens is demonstrated as a function of coating material, processing, and thickness. The sharing of load between the substrate and otherwise brittle coating enables higher loads before yield for the bi-material specimens, offering a methodology to improve the tensile performance of coated components for structural repair or multi-functionality (surface and structure). The concern of cyclic fatigue damage in coated components is explored, since the majority of service application are designed for loading to be well below the yield point. The role of

  11. An integrated approach for prospectively investigating a mode-of-action for rodent liver effects.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Geter, David R; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Thomas, Johnson; Murray, Jennifer; Kan, H Lynn; Wood, Amanda J; Elcombe, Cliff; Vardy, Audrey; McEwan, Jillian; Terry, Claire; Billington, Richard

    2013-07-15

    Registration of new plant protection products (e.g., herbicide, insecticide, or fungicide) requires comprehensive mammalian toxicity evaluation including carcinogenicity studies in two species. The outcome of the carcinogenicity testing has a significant bearing on the overall human health risk assessment of the substance and, consequently, approved uses for different crops across geographies. In order to understand the relevance of a specific tumor finding to human health, a systematic, transparent, and hypothesis-driven mode of action (MoA) investigation is, appropriately, an expectation by the regulatory agencies. Here, we describe a novel approach of prospectively generating the MoA data by implementing additional end points to the standard guideline toxicity studies with sulfoxaflor, a molecule in development. This proactive MoA approach results in a more robust integration of molecular with apical end points while minimizing animal use. Sulfoxaflor, a molecule targeting sap-feeding insects, induced liver effects (increased liver weight due to hepatocellular hypertrophy) in an initial palatability probe study for selecting doses for subsequent repeat-dose dietary studies. This finding triggered the inclusion of dose-response investigations of the potential key events for rodent liver carcinogenesis, concurrent with the hazard assessment studies. As predicted, sulfoxaflor induced liver tumors in rats and mice in the bioassays. The MoA data available by the time of the carcinogenicity finding supported the conclusion that the carcinogenic potential of sulfoxaflor was due to CAR/PXR nuclear receptor activation with subsequent hepatocellular proliferation. This MoA was not considered to be relevant to humans as sulfoxaflor is unlikely to induce hepatocellular proliferation in humans and therefore would not be a human liver carcinogen. PMID:23607986

  12. Storage Effects on Sample Integrity of Environmental Surface Sampling Specimens with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Perry, K. Allison; O’Connell, Heather A.; Rose, Laura J.; Noble-Wang, Judith A.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of packaging, shipping temperatures and storage times on recovery of Bacillus anthracis. Sterne spores from swabs was investigated. Macrofoam swabs were pre-moistened, inoculated with Bacillus anthracis spores, and packaged in primary containment or secondary containment before storage at −15°C, 5°C, 21°C, or 35°C for 0–7 days. Swabs were processed according to validated Centers for Disease Control/Laboratory Response Network culture protocols, and the percent recovery relative to a reference sample (T0) was determined for each variable. No differences were observed in recovery between swabs held at −15° and 5°C, (p ≥ 0.23). These two temperatures provided significantly better recovery than swabs held at 21°C or 35°C (all 7 days pooled, p ≤ 0.04). The percent recovery at 5°C was not significantly different if processed on days 1, 2 or 4, but was significantly lower on day 7 (day 2 vs. 7, 5°C, 102, p=0.03). Secondary containment provided significantly better percent recovery than primary containment, regardless of storage time (5°C data, p ≤ 0.008). The integrity of environmental swab samples containing Bacillus anthracis spores shipped in secondary containment was maintained when stored at −15°C or 5°C and processed within 4 days to yield the optimum percent recovery of spores. PMID:27213119

  13. Effect of reactive oxygen species on lysosomal membrane integrity. A study on a lysosomal fraction.

    PubMed

    Zdolsek, J M; Svensson, I

    1993-01-01

    Using a lysosome-enriched "light mitochondrial" fraction of a rat liver homogenate, the effects of the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide, superoxide- and hydroxyl radicals were determined. Alterations in the intralysosomal pH and the release of a lysosomal marker enzyme, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, were used as indicators of changes in the lysosomal membrane integrity. Lipid peroxidation of the fraction was assayed by TBARS measurement. Neither superoxide radicals, generated by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, nor a bolus dose of hydrogen peroxide (0.5-1.5 mM) induced any lysosomal damage. If, however, Fe(III)ADP was included in the superoxide radical-generating system, lysosomal membrane damage was detected, both as an increase in lysosomal pH and as a release of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, but only after a lag phase of about 7 min. Lipid peroxidation, on the other hand, proceeded gradually. Lysosomes treated with hydrogen peroxide displayed similar dose-dependent alterations, albeit only if both Fe(III)ADP and the reducing amino acid cysteine were added. In the latter system, however, alterations of the lysosomal membrane stability occurred more rapidly, showing a lag phase of only 2 min. Lipid peroxidation, which proceeded faster and displayed no lag phase, levelled out within 10 min. The results indicate that neither superoxide radicals nor hydrogen peroxide are by themselves damaging to lysosomes. Available catalytically active iron in Fe(II) form, however, allows reactions yielding powerful oxidative species--probably hydroxyl radicals formed via Fenton reactions--to take place inducing peroxidation of the lysosomal membranes resulting in dissipation of the proton-gradient and leakage of their enzyme contents. PMID:8148962

  14. The effects of a protein osmolyte on the stability of the integral membrane protein glycerol facilitator.

    PubMed

    Baturin, Simon; Galka, Jamie J; Piyadasa, Hadeesha; Gajjeraman, S; O'Neil, Joe D

    2014-12-01

    Osmolytes are naturally occurring molecules used by a wide variety of organisms to stabilize proteins under extreme conditions of temperature, salinity, hydrostatic pressure, denaturant concentration, and desiccation. The effects of the osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as well as the influence of detergent head group and acyl chain length on the stability of the Escherichia coli integral membrane protein glycerol facilitator (GF) tetramer to thermal and chemical denaturation by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are reported. TMAO promotes the association of the normally tetrameric α-helical protein into higher order oligomers in dodecyl-maltoside (DDM), but not in tetradecyl-maltoside (TDM), lyso-lauroylphosphatidyl choline (LLPC), or lyso-myristoylphosphatidyl choline (LMPC), as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS); an octameric complex is particularly stable as indicated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. TMAO increases the heat stability of the GF tetramer an average of 10 °C in the 4 detergents and also protects the protein from denaturation by SDS. However, it did not promote re-association to the tetramer when added to SDS-dissociated protein. TMAO also promotes the formation of rod-like detergent micelles, and DLS was found to be useful for monitoring the structure of the protein and the redistribution of detergent during thermal dissociation of the protein. The protein is more thermally stable in detergents with the phosphatidylcholine head group (LLPC and LMPC) than in the maltoside detergents. The implications of the results for osmolyte mechanism, membrane protein stability, and protein-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:25387032

  15. Effect of integral yoga on psychological and health variables and their correlations

    PubMed Central

    Khemka, Sushil S; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra; Hankey, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Certain psychological and health variables are commonly measured in India. This study evaluates the effects of integral yoga practices on these variables and also the consistency of correlations observed between them. Materials and Methods: The study was a pre-post intervention study. The variables were measured at the beginning and the end of a one-month yoga course. There was no control group.The study was carried out at Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA) University, in its rural campus south of Bangalore. Based on health criteria, 108 subjects were selected out of 198 volunteers to form the experimental yoga group. Ages ranged from 17 to 63 years. The yogasanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), relaxation techniques, meditation, chanting and lectures were the components of yoga intervention. The variables measured were sustained attention, emotional intelligence – EQ, general health – GHQ, guna personality – sattva, rajas and tamas. Results: Significant pre-post changes were found in all variables. Significant correlations were found between the following pairs: The two sustained attention variables; emotional intelligence and general health; GHQ and tamas; sattva and tamas; and rajas and tamas. Conclusion: The study shows that there were significant changes in all variables (P< 0.001) except in sattva. It also confirms that EQ and general health variables correlate significantly with each other and negatively with tamas. EQ and tamas form positive and negative predictors of health respectively. Sattva correlates positively with EQ suggesting that a sattvic personality indicates better self-control. This suggests that, by improving guna personality, long-term yoga practice may stabilize EQ. PMID:22022128

  16. The Effect of Dietary Adaption on Cranial Morphological Integration in Capuchins (Order Primates, Genus Cebus)

    PubMed Central

    Makedonska, Jana; Wright, Barth W.; Strait, David S.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C.apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C.albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback foods. This is the

  17. Fv-1 restriction and its effects on murine leukemia virus integration in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pryciak, P M; Varmus, H E

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms by which alleles at the mouse Fv-1 locus restrict replication of murine leukemia viruses. Inhibition of productive infection is closely paralleled by reduced accumulation of integrated proviral DNA as well as by reduced levels of linear viral DNA in a cytoplasmic fraction. Nevertheless, viral DNA is present at nearly normal levels in a nuclear fraction, and total amounts of viral DNA are only mildly affected in restrictive infections, suggesting a block in integration to account for reduced levels of proviral DNA. However, integrase (IN)-dependent trimming of 3' ends of viral DNA occurs normally in vivo during restrictive infections, demonstrating that not all IN-mediated events are prevented in vivo. Furthermore, viral integration complexes present in nuclear extracts of infected restrictive cells are fully competent to integrate their DNA into a heterologous target in vitro. Thus, the Fv-1-dependent activity that restricts integration in vivo may be lost in vitro; alternatively, Fv-1 restriction may prevent a step required for integration in vivo that is bypassed in vitro. Images PMID:1326652

  18. Integrating the Principles of Effective Intervention into Batterer Intervention Programming: The Case for Moving Toward More Evidence-Based Programming.

    PubMed

    Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of batterer intervention program (BIP) evaluations have indicated they are marginally effective in reducing domestic violence recidivism. Meanwhile, correctional programs used to treat a variety of offenders (e.g., substance users, violent offenders, and so forth) that adhere to the "principles of effective intervention" (PEI) have reported significant reductions in recidivism. This article introduces the PEI-the principles on which evidence-based practices in correctional rehabilitation are based-and identifies the degree to which they are currently integrated into BIPs. The case is made that batterer programs could be more effective if they incorporate the PEI. Recommendations for further integration of the principles into BIPs are also provided. PMID:25573844

  19. Those are Your Legs: The Effect of Visuo-Spatial Viewpoint on Visuo-Tactile Integration and Body Ownership

    PubMed Central

    Pozeg, Polona; Galli, Giulia; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a body part as one’s own, i.e., body ownership, depends on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (including visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information) with the visual top-down signals from peripersonal space. Although it has been shown that the visuo-spatial viewpoint from where the body is seen is an important visual top-down factor for body ownership, different studies have reported diverging results. Furthermore, the role of visuo-spatial viewpoint (sometime also called first-person perspective) has only been studied for hands or the whole body, but not for the lower limbs. We thus investigated whether and how leg visuo-tactile integration and leg ownership depended on the visuo-spatial viewpoint from which the legs were seen and the anatomical similarity of the visual leg stimuli. Using a virtual leg illusion, we tested the strength of visuo-tactile integration of leg stimuli using the crossmodal congruency effect (CCE) as well as the subjective sense of leg ownership (assessed by a questionnaire). Fifteen participants viewed virtual legs or non-corporeal control objects, presented either from their habitual first-person viewpoint or from a viewpoint that was rotated by 90°(third-person viewpoint), while applying visuo-tactile stroking between the participants legs and the virtual legs shown on a head-mounted display. The data show that the first-person visuo-spatial viewpoint significantly boosts the visuo-tactile integration as well as the sense of leg ownership. Moreover, the viewpoint-dependent increment of the visuo-tactile integration was only found in the conditions when participants viewed the virtual legs (absent for control objects). These results confirm the importance of first person visuo-spatial viewpoint for the integration of visuo-tactile stimuli and extend findings from the upper extremity and the trunk to visuo-tactile integration and ownership for the legs. PMID:26635663

  20. Those are Your Legs: The Effect of Visuo-Spatial Viewpoint on Visuo-Tactile Integration and Body Ownership.

    PubMed

    Pozeg, Polona; Galli, Giulia; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a body part as one's own, i.e., body ownership, depends on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (including visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information) with the visual top-down signals from peripersonal space. Although it has been shown that the visuo-spatial viewpoint from where the body is seen is an important visual top-down factor for body ownership, different studies have reported diverging results. Furthermore, the role of visuo-spatial viewpoint (sometime also called first-person perspective) has only been studied for hands or the whole body, but not for the lower limbs. We thus investigated whether and how leg visuo-tactile integration and leg ownership depended on the visuo-spatial viewpoint from which the legs were seen and the anatomical similarity of the visual leg stimuli. Using a virtual leg illusion, we tested the strength of visuo-tactile integration of leg stimuli using the crossmodal congruency effect (CCE) as well as the subjective sense of leg ownership (assessed by a questionnaire). Fifteen participants viewed virtual legs or non-corporeal control objects, presented either from their habitual first-person viewpoint or from a viewpoint that was rotated by 90°(third-person viewpoint), while applying visuo-tactile stroking between the participants legs and the virtual legs shown on a head-mounted display. The data show that the first-person visuo-spatial viewpoint significantly boosts the visuo-tactile integration as well as the sense of leg ownership. Moreover, the viewpoint-dependent increment of the visuo-tactile integration was only found in the conditions when participants viewed the virtual legs (absent for control objects). These results confirm the importance of first person visuo-spatial viewpoint for the integration of visuo-tactile stimuli and extend findings from the upper extremity and the trunk to visuo-tactile integration and ownership for the legs. PMID:26635663

  1. The effects of integrated mathematics/science curriculum and instruction on mathematics achievement and student attitudes in grade six

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mary Denise

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether integrating mathematics and science curriculum and teaching practices significantly improves achievement in mathematics and attitudes towards mathematics among sixth grade students in South Texas. The study was conducted during the 2001--2002 school year. A causal-comparative ex post facto research design was used to explore the effects of integrated mathematics and science classrooms compared to classrooms of traditional, isolated mathematics and science teaching practices on student achievement and student attitudes. Achievement was based on the Spring 2002 Mathematics portion of the standardized Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) Texas Learning Index (TLI) scores and individual student's mathematics Grade Point Average (GPA). Measurement of student attitudes was based on the results of the Integrated Mathematics Attitudinal Survey (IMAS), created by the researcher for this study. The sample population included 349 Grade 6 mathematics students attending one middle school involved in a pilot program utilizing integrated mathematics/science curriculum and teaching practices in a South Texas urban school district. The research involved 337 of the 349 sixth grade students to study the effects of mathematics/science curriculum and teaching practices on achievement and 207 of the 349 sixth grade students to study the effects of mathematics/science curriculum on attitudes concerning mathematics. The data were analyzed using chi square analyses, independent samples t-tests, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical significance was determined at the .05 level of significance. Significant relationships were found when analyzing the proficiency of mathematics skills and individual growth of mathematics achievement. Chi square analyses indicated that the students in the integrated mathematics/science classrooms were more likely to exhibit individual growth and proficiency of mathematics skills based on the

  2. Predicting the Effects of Short-Term Photovoltaic Variability on Power System Frequency for Systems with Integrated Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traube, Joshua White

    The percentage of electricity supplied by photovoltaic (PV) generators is steadily rising in power systems worldwide. This rise in PV penetration may lead to larger fluctuations in power system frequency due to variability in PV generator output at time scales that fall between the inertial damping and automatic generation control (AGC) responses of power systems. To reduce PV generator variability, active power controls can be implemented in the power electronic inverters that interface PV generators to the power system. Although various types of active power controls have been developed, no standard methodology exists for evaluating the effectiveness of these controls at improving power system frequency regulation. This dissertation presents a method for predicting the effects of short-term PV variability on power system frequency for a PV generator with active power control provided by integrated energy storage. A custom model of a PV generator with integrated energy storage is implemented in a power system dynamic simulator and validated through experiments with a grid emulator. The model is used to predict the effects of short-term PV variability on the frequency of the IEEE 9-bus test power system modified to include a PV generator with integrated energy storage. In addition, this dissertation utilizes linear analysis of power system frequency control to predict worst-case frequency deviations as a function of the amount of energy storage integrated into PV generators. Through simulation and emulation on a scaled experimental prototype, the maximum frequency deviation caused by the PV generator with a small amount of integrated energy storage is found to be approximately 33% lower than the maximum frequency deviation caused by the PV generator alone. Through linear analysis it is shown that by adding only 36.7 kWh of integrated energy storage to a 1.2 MW PV system, the worst-case frequency deviation on the IEEE 9-bus test system can be reduced 65% from 0

  3. TIPs for Technology Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Susan; Sorge, Dennis H.; Russell, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of the teacher in effectively using technology in education based on the Technology Integration Project (TIP). Topics include why use technology; types of computer software; how to select software; software integration strategies; and effectively planning lessons that integrate the chosen software and integration strategy. (LRW)

  4. A study of the effect of physical and chemical stressors on biological integrity within the San Diego hydrologic region.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kristofor A; Pohlman, Alex; Viswanathan, Shekar; Gibson, David; Purohit, Joe

    2012-03-01

    Environmental agencies across the United States have searched for adequate methods to assess anthropogenic impacts on the environment. Biological assessments, which compare the taxonomic composition of an aquatic assemblage to relevant biocriteria, have surfaced as an effective method to assess the ecological integrity of US waterbodies. In this study, bioassessment data were collected and analyzed in conjunction with physical habitat and chemical stressor data for streams and rivers within the San Diego basin from 1998 through 2005. Physical stressors such as sediment loading, riparian destruction, and in-stream habitat homogenization affect many locations in the region. However, physical habitat measures alone were found to frequently overestimate the biological integrity of streams in the region. Many sites within the San Diego Basin, although unaffected by physical stressors, continue to exhibit low biological integrity scores. Sites with low biological integrity tend to possess higher specific conductance and salinity compared to sites with high biological integrity. We suggest that one possible reason for these differences is the source water used for municipal purposes. PMID:21603922

  5. Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) Device Structures: Background, Fabrication Ecosystem, Relevance to Space Systems Applications, and Discussion of Related Radiation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alt, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Electronic integrated circuits are considered one of the most significant technological advances of the 20th century, with demonstrated impact in their ability to incorporate successively higher numbers transistors and construct electronic devices onto a single CMOS chip. Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) exist as the optical analog to integrated circuits; however, in place of transistors, PICs consist of numerous scaled optical components, including such "building-block" structures as waveguides, MMIs, lasers, and optical ring resonators. The ability to construct electronic and photonic components on a single microsystems platform offers transformative potential for the development of technologies in fields including communications, biomedical device development, autonomous navigation, and chemical and atmospheric sensing. Developing on-chip systems that provide new avenues for integration and replacement of bulk optical and electro-optic components also reduces size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) limitations, which are important in the selection of instrumentation for specific flight projects. The number of applications currently emerging for complex photonics systems-particularly in data communications-warrants additional investigations when considering reliability for space systems development. This Body of Knowledge document seeks to provide an overview of existing integrated photonics architectures; the current state of design, development, and fabrication ecosystems in the United States and Europe; and potential space applications, with emphasis given to associated radiation effects and reliability.

  6. The effects of hospital-physician integration strategies on hospital financial performance.

    PubMed Central

    Goes, J B; Zhan, C

    1995-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION. This study investigated the longitudinal relations between hospital financial performance outcomes and three hospital-physician integration strategies: physician involvement in hospital governance, hospital ownership by physicians, and the integration of hospital-physician financial relationships. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Using secondary data from the State of California, integration strategies in approximately 300 California short-term acute care hospitals were tracked over a ten-year period (1981-1990). STUDY DESIGN. The study used an archival design. Hospital performance was measured on three dimensions: operational profitability, occupancy, and costs. Thirteen control variables were used in the analyses: market competition, affluence, and rurality; hospital ownership; teaching costs and intensity; multihospital system membership; hospital size; outpatient service mix; patient volume case mix; Medicare and Medicaid intensity; and managed care intensity. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION. Financial and utilization data were obtained from the State of California, which requires annual hospital reports. A series of longitudinal regressions tested the hypotheses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Considerable variation was found in the popularity of the three strategies and their ability to predict hospital performance outcomes. Physician involvement in hospital governance increased modestly from 1981-1990, while ownership and financial integration declined significantly. Physician governance was associated with greater occupancy and higher operating margins, while financial integration was related to lower hospital operating costs. Direct physician ownership, particularly in small hospitals, was associated with lower operating margins and higher costs. Subsample analyses indicate that implementation of the Medicare prospective payment system in 1983 had a major impact on these relationships, especially on the benefits of financial integration. CONCLUSIONS. The

  7. Effect of LexA on Chromosomal Integration of CTXϕ in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Archana; Anbumani, D; Bag, Satyabrata; Mehta, Ojasvi; Kumar, Pawan; Saxena, Shruti; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genesis of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae involves acquisition of CTXϕ, a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) filamentous phage that encodes cholera toxin (CT). The phage exploits host-encoded tyrosine recombinases (XerC and XerD) for chromosomal integration and lysogenic conversion. The replicative genome of CTXϕ produces ssDNA by rolling-circle replication, which may be used either for virion production or for integration into host chromosome. Fine-tuning of different ssDNA binding protein (Ssb) levels in the host cell is crucial for cellular functioning and important for CTXϕ integration. In this study, we mutated the master regulator gene of SOS induction, lexA, of V. cholerae because of its known role in controlling levels of Ssb proteins in other bacteria. CTXϕ integration decreased in cells with a ΔlexA mutation and increased in cells with an SOS-noninducing mutation, lexA (Ind−). We also observed that overexpression of host-encoded Ssb (VC0397) decreased integration of CTXϕ. We propose that LexA helps CTXϕ integration, possibly by fine-tuning levels of host- and phage-encoded Ssbs. IMPORTANCE Cholera toxin is the principal virulence factor responsible for the acute diarrheal disease cholera. CT is encoded in the genome of a lysogenic filamentous phage, CTXϕ. Vibrio cholerae has a bipartite genome and harbors single or multiple copies of CTXϕ prophage in one or both chromosomes. Two host-encoded tyrosine recombinases (XerC and XerD) recognize the folded ssDNA genome of CTXϕ and catalyze its integration at the dimer resolution site of either one or both chromosomes. Fine-tuning of ssDNA binding proteins in host cells is crucial for CTXϕ integration. We engineered the V. cholerae genome and created several reporter strains carrying ΔlexA or lexA (Ind−) alleles. Using the reporter strains, the importance of LexA control of Ssb expression in the integration efficiency of CTXϕ was demonstrated. PMID:26503849

  8. A Study Investigating the Effect of Treatment Developed by Integrating the 5E and Simulation on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Achievement in Photoelectric Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taslidere, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The Current study investigated the effect of the 5E learning cycle in which the simulations were integrated on pre-service science teachers' achievement in photoelectric subject. Four sophomore level classes with their 140 students participated in the research and a quasi-experimental design was used. The classes were randomly assigned into one of…

  9. [A study of the suggestibility effect on eyewitness testimony: discussion on the integration and the coexist hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Kikuno, H

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the eyewitness suggestibility effect might be obtained with a recognition memory and a source-monitoring test, when an original event consisted of many pictures. In this source-monitoring test subjects identified the source of their memories. Results showed that the suggestibility effect was obtained in the recognition memory but not in the source-monitoring test, suggesting that misleading postevent information did not impair memory of the original event. The results also indicated that the eyewitness suggestibility effect might be caused by misled subjects' decision rather than their integrated memory representation. PMID:7563986

  10. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a proactive, goal-oriented, integrated care model in general practice for older people. A cluster randomised controlled trial: Integrated Systematic Care for older People—the ISCOPE study

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Jeanet; den Elzen, Wendy; van Houwelingen, Anne H.; Heijmans, Margot; Stijnen, Theo; Van den Hout, Wilbert; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    Background: older people often experience complex problems. Because of multiple problems, care for older people in general practice needs to shift from a ‘problem-based, disease-oriented’ care aiming at improvement of outcomes per disease to a ‘goal-oriented care’, aiming at improvement of functioning and personal quality of life, integrating all healthcare providers. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of this proactive and integrated way of working are not yet established. Design: cluster randomised trial. Participants: all persons aged ≥75 in 59 general practices (30 intervention, 29 control), with a combination of problems, as identified with a structured postal questionnaire with 21 questions on four health domains. Intervention: for participants with problems on ≥3 domains, general practitioners (GPs) made an integrated care plan using a functional geriatric approach. Control practices: care as usual. Outcome measures: (i) quality of life (QoL), (ii) activities of daily living, (iii) satisfaction with delivered health care and (iv) cost-effectiveness of the intervention at 1-year follow-up. Trial registration: Netherlands trial register, NTR1946. Results: of the 11,476 registered eligible older persons, 7,285 (63%) participated in the screening. One thousand nine hundred and twenty-one (26%) had problems on ≥3 health domains. For 225 randomly chosen persons, a care plan was made. No beneficial effects were found on QoL, patients' functioning or healthcare use/costs. GPs experienced better overview of the care and stability, e.g. less unexpected demands, in the care. Conclusions: GPs prefer proactive integrated care. ‘Horizontal’ care using care plans for older people with complex problems can be a valuable tool in general practice. However, no direct beneficial effect was found for older persons. PMID:26764392

  11. Ab Initio Path-Integral Calculations of Kinetic and Equilibrium Isotope Effects on Base-Catalyzed RNA Transphosphorylation Models

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin-Yiu; Yuqing, Xu; York, Darrin M.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed understandings of the reaction mechanisms of RNA catalysis in various environments can have profound importance for many applications, ranging from the design of new biotechnologies to the unraveling of the evolutionary origin of life. An integral step in the nucleolytic RNA catalysis is self-cleavage of RNA strands by 2′-O-transphosphorylation. Key to elucidating a reaction mechanism is determining the molecular structure and bonding characteristics of transition state. A direct and powerful probe of transition state is measuring isotope effects on biochemical reactions, particularly if we can reproduce isotope effect values from quantum calculations. This paper significantly extends the scope of our previous joint experimental and theoretical work in examining isotope effects on enzymatic and non-enzymatic 2′-O-transphosphorylation reaction models that mimic reactions catalyzed by RNA enzymes (ribozymes), and protein enzymes such as ribonuclease A (RNase A). Native reactions are studied, as well as reactions with thio substitutions representing chemical modifications often used in experiments to probe mechanism. Here, we report and compare results from eight levels of electronic-structure calculations for constructing the potential energy surfaces in kinetic and equilibrium isotope effects (KIE and EIE) computations, including a “gold-standard” coupled-cluster level of theory [CCSD(T)]. In addition to the widely-used Bigeleisen equation for estimating KIE and EIE values, internuclear anharmonicity and quantum tunneling effects were also computed using our recently-developed ab initio path-integral method, i.e., automated integration-free path-integral (AIF-PI) method. The results of this work establish an important set of benchmarks that serve to guide calculations of KIE and EIE for RNA catalysis. PMID:24841935

  12. Building effective workforce management practices through shared governance and technology systems integration.

    PubMed

    Krive, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In integrated delivery networks (IDNs) with complex management structures, shared governance in nursing is a proven model for health care delivery. After Advocate Health Care, the largest IDN in Illinois, implemented shared governance in its nursing, clinical, and non-clinical departments and restructured the organization's technology use, it benefited greatly from a new, shared decision-making process. After listening to business consultants, clinical professionals, and information technology experts, hospitals should take the blended, or comprehensive, approach to new projects. They can succeed by promoting communication supported by an integrated computer platform that helps nursing and business executives reach a consensus. Traditional modes of operation, in which individual administrative, clinical, and technology departments separately introduce innovation, do not deliver an advantage. However, models that incorporate open communication, integration, and knowledge sharing will help large IDNs and other complex health care organizations make the best possible use of their resources and investments. PMID:24294648

  13. Are complementary therapies and integrative care cost-effective? A systematic review of economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Patricia M; Poindexter, Beth L; Witt, Claudia M; Eisenberg, David M

    2012-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive systematic review of economic evaluations of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) to establish the value of these therapies to health reform efforts. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, AMED, PsychInfo, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched from inception through 2010. In addition, bibliographies of found articles and reviews were searched, and key researchers were contacted. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies of CIM were identified using criteria based on those of the Cochrane complementary and alternative medicine group. All studies of CIM reporting economic outcomes were included. Study appraisal methods All recent (and likely most cost-relevant) full economic evaluations published 2001–2010 were subjected to several measures of quality. Detailed results of higher-quality studies are reported. Results A total of 338 economic evaluations of CIM were identified, of which 204, covering a wide variety of CIM for different populations, were published 2001–2010. A total of 114 of these were full economic evaluations. And 90% of these articles covered studies of single CIM therapies and only one compared usual care to usual care plus access to multiple licensed CIM practitioners. Of the recent full evaluations, 31 (27%) met five study-quality criteria, and 22 of these also met the minimum criterion for study transferability (‘generalisability’). Of the 56 comparisons made in the higher-quality studies, 16 (29%) show a health improvement with cost savings for the CIM therapy versus usual care. Study quality of the cost-utility analyses (CUAs) of CIM was generally comparable to that seen in CUAs across all medicine according to several measures, and the quality of the cost-saving studies was slightly, but not significantly, lower than those showing cost increases (85% vs 88%, p=0.460). Conclusions This comprehensive review identified many CIM economic evaluations missed by previous reviews and emerging evidence of cost-effectiveness

  14. Effects of target and distractor saturations on the cognitive performance of an integrated display interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chengqi; Li, Jing; Wang, Haiyan; Niu, Yafeng

    2015-01-01

    Color coding is often used to enhance decision quality in complex man-machine interfaces of integrated display systems. However, people are easily distracted by irrelevant colors and by the numerous data points and complex structures in the interface. Although an increasing number of studies are seriously focusing on the problem of achieving efficient color coding, few are able to determine the effects of target and distractor saturations on cognitive performance. To study the performances of target colors among distractors, a systematic experiment is conducted to assess the influence of high and low saturated targets on cognitive performance, and the affecting extent of different saturated distractors of homogeneous colors on targets. According to the analysis of the reaction time through the non-parametric statistical method, a calculation method of the cognitive performance of each color is proposed. Based on the calculation of the color differences and the accumulation of the reaction times, it is shown that with the different saturated distractors of homogeneous colors, the high saturated yellow targets perform better than the low saturated ones, and the green and blue targets have moderate performances. When searching for a singleton target placed on a black background, the color difference between the target and the distractor should be more than 20Δ E*ab units in the yellow saturation coding, whereas the color difference should be more than 40Δ E*ab units in the blue and green saturation coding. In addition, as regards saturation coding, the influence of the color difference between the target and the background on cognitive performance is greater than that of the color difference between the target and the distractor. Seemingly, the hue attribute determines whether the saturation difference between the target and the distractor affects the cognitive performance. Based on the experimental results, the simulation design of the instrument dials in a flight

  15. First principle calculations of effective exchange integrals: Comparison between SR (BS) and MR computational results

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Kizashi; Nishihara, Satomichi; Saito, Toru; Yamanaka, Shusuke; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Kawakami, Takashi; Yamada, Satoru; Isobe, Hiroshi; Okumura, Mitsutaka

    2015-01-22

    First principle calculations of effective exchange integrals (J) in the Heisenberg model for diradical species were performed by both symmetry-adapted (SA) multi-reference (MR) and broken-symmetry (BS) single reference (SR) methods. Mukherjee-type (Mk) state specific (SS) MR coupled-cluster (CC) calculations by the use of natural orbital (NO) references of ROHF, UHF, UDFT and CASSCF solutions were carried out to elucidate J values for di- and poly-radical species. Spin-unrestricted Hartree Fock (UHF) based coupled-cluster (CC) computations were also performed to these species. Comparison between UHF-NO(UNO)-MkMRCC and BS UHF-CC computational results indicated that spin-contamination of UHF-CC solutions still remains at the SD level. In order to eliminate the spin contamination, approximate spin-projection (AP) scheme was applied for UCC, and the AP procedure indeed corrected the error to yield good agreement with MkMRCC in energy. The CC double with spin-unrestricted Brueckner's orbital (UBD) was furthermore employed for these species, showing that spin-contamination involved in UHF solutions is largely suppressed, and therefore AP scheme for UBCCD removed easily the rest of spin-contamination. We also performed spin-unrestricted pure- and hybrid-density functional theory (UDFT) calculations of diradical and polyradical species. Three different computational schemes for total spin angular momentums were examined for the AP correction of the hybrid (H) UDFT. HUDFT calculations followed by AP, HUDFT(AP), yielded the S-T gaps that were qualitatively in good agreement with those of MkMRCCSD, UHF-CC(AP) and UB-CC(AP). Thus a systematic comparison among MkMRCCSD, UCC(AP) UBD(AP) and UDFT(AP) was performed concerning with the first principle calculations of J values in di- and poly-radical species. It was found that BS (AP) methods reproduce MkMRCCSD results, indicating their applicability to large exchange coupled systems.

  16. Integrating matrix formulations for vibrations of rotating beams including the effects of concentrated masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    By expressing partial differential equations of motion in matrix notation, utilizing the integrating matrix as a spatial operator, and applying the boundary conditions, the resulting ordinary differential equations can be cast into standard eigenvalue form upon assumption of the usual time dependence. As originally developed, the technique was limited to beams having continuous mass and stiffness properties along their lengths. Integrating matrix methods are extended to treat the differential equations governing the flap, lag, or axial vibrations of rotating beams having concentrated masses. Inclusion of concentrated masses is shown to lead to the same kind of standard eigenvalue problem as before, but with slightly modified matrices.

  17. Integrating genetic and genomic information into effective cancer care in diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Fashoyin-Aje, L.; Sanghavi, K.; Bjornard, K.; Bodurtha, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues in the integration of genetic (related to hereditary DNA) and genomic (related to genes and their functions) information in cancer care for individuals and families who are part of health care systems worldwide, from low to high resourced. National and regional cancer plans have the potential to integrate genetic and genomic information with a goal of identifying and helping individuals and families with and at risk of cancer. Healthcare professionals and the public have the opportunity to increase their genetic literacy and communication about cancer family history to enhance cancer control, prevention, and tailored therapies. PMID:24001763

  18. Enabling and Integrating Distributed Web Resources for Efficient and Effective Discovery of Information on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Neeta; Thangamuthu, Pechimuthu; Mishra, Alka

    National Portal of India [1] integrates information from distributed web resources like websites, portals of different Ministries, Departments, State Governments as well as district administrations. These websites are developed at different points of time, using different standards and technologies. Thus integrating information from the distributed, disparate web resources is a challenging task and also has a reflection on the information discovery by a citizen using a unified interface such as National Portal. The existing text based search engines would also not yield desired results [7].

  19. Hot spot analysis in integrated circuit substrates by laser mirage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Altet, J.

    2011-04-01

    This work shows an analytical and experimental technique for characterizing radial heat flow present in integrated circuits (ICs) when power is dissipated by integrated devices. The analytical model comes from the resolution of the Fermat equation for the trajectory of rays and supposing a spherical heat source dissipating a time-periodic power. An application example is presented; hence demonstrating how hot spots and heat transfer phenomena in the IC substrate can be characterized. The developed method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

  20. Geometric conditions for reflection measurement II: effects of light trap size of integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Gorow; Suzuki, Kenichi

    2002-06-01

    Many samples with various color and gloss grades were measured by the spectrophotometer with integrating sphere, of which light trap size was variable. Samples include white plaques, ceramic tiles, paint panels, ink-jet printings, textiles and metal surfaces. For these samples, lightness and chromaticness change with light trap size, which is relate to the elimination of surface reflection, was examined. In case of color measurement, using integrating sphere, colorimetric values are affected by the light trap size, when gloss grade of sample is different.

  1. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Brian C. O'Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  2. Effects of Public Feedback during RTI Team Meetings on Teacher Implementation Integrity and Student Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhon, Gary J.; Mesmer, Eric M.; Gregerson, Lezlee; Witt, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the new revision of IDEA (2004), models of early intervention and response-to-intervention (RTI) have received a great deal of attention in the literature. Although various tiered models have been described in detail, one aspect of RTI that has received little empirical attention is the need to ensure integrity of intervention as…

  3. Creating a Conducive Learning Environment for the Effective Integration of ICT: Classroom Management Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping; Teo, Yiong Hwee; Wong, Philip; Khine, Myint Swe; Chai, Ching Sing; Divaharan, Shanti

    2003-01-01

    This article reports and discusses the findings of the collective case study of two primary schools in Singapore. It is part of a larger funded research project that examines and analyses where and how information and communication technologies (ICT) are integrated in Singapore schools to develop pupils' higher order thinking skills. The focus of…

  4. Motivating Children to Learn Effectively: Exploring the Value of Intrinsic Integration in Educational Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habgood, M. P. Jacob; Ainsworth, Shaaron E.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "intrinsic motivation" lies at the heart of the user engagement created by digital games. Yet despite this, educational software has traditionally attempted to harness games as extrinsic motivation by using them as a sugar coating for learning content. This article tests the concept of "intrinsic integration" as a way of creating a…

  5. The Effects of Role Modeling on Technology Integration within Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baert, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The national standards for physical education teacher education (PETE) in the US state that teacher candidates should be able to plan and implement technology infused lessons that meet lesson objectives and enhance learning in physical education (standard 3.7). Research shows that role modeling of technology integration can have a positive impact…

  6. Connecting the STEM Dots: Measuring the Effect of an Integrated Engineering Design Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Paul R.; Bodin, Ralph; Elliott, Jonathan W.; Ibrahim, Badaruddin; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Chen, Thomas W.; de Miranda, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent publications have elevated the priority of increasing the integration of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) content for K-12 education. The STEM education community must invest in the development of valid and reliable to scales to measure STEM content, knowledge fusion, and perceptions of the nature of STEM. This brief…

  7. Effects of an Integrated Prevention Program on Urban Youth Transitioning into High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Valerie L.; Holt, Laura J.; Bry, Brenna H.; Powell, Sharon R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a formative evaluation of an integrated, school-based program for urban minority youth transitioning into high school. The design of this pilot project was quasi-experimental in nature, with one freshman physical education class assigned to receive the intervention and one to receive no program or "treatment as usual." The…

  8. Effects of integrating mowing and imazapyr application on African rue (Peganum harmala) and native perennial grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African rue (Peganum harmala L.) is a poisonous perennial forb that readily invades salt desert shrub and sagebrush steppe rangelands. Information detailing options for integrated management of African rue are lacking. To date, a limited number of studies have researched the efficacy of different ...

  9. An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Rick; Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Anikina, Yulia; Westhoff, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is becoming a popular and widespread practice of immersion education. In the Netherlands, for example, over 90 secondary schools offer a CLIL strand. Most CLIL teachers, however, are nonnative speakers of the target language, and do not have a professional background in language pedagogy.…

  10. Integrating Mindfulness with Parent Training: Effects of the Mindfulness-Enhanced Strengthening Families Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G.; Nix, Robert L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Bamberger, Katharine T.; Berrena, Elaine; Demi, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    There is growing support for the efficacy of mindfulness training with parents as an intervention technique to improve parenting skills and reduce risk for youth problem behaviors. The evidence, however, has been limited to small scale studies, many with methodological shortcomings. This study sought to integrate mindfulness training with parents…

  11. The Effects of Preschool Integration on the Development of Nonhandicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Beverly G.

    1987-01-01

    Nine studies reporting child change data for nonhandicapped children participating in integrated preschool settings were analyzed in terms of methodology and specific classroom practices. The studies suffered from methodological weaknesses common to many early intervention efficacy studies. Documentation of child progress is only one measure of…

  12. Teaching and Learning with Technology: Effectiveness of ICT Integration in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghavifekr, Simin; Rosdy, Wan Athirah Wan

    2015-01-01

    Integration of Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT) will assist teachers to the global requirement to replace traditional teaching methods with a technology-based teaching and learning tools and facilities. In Malaysia, ICT is considered as one of the main elements in transforming the country to the future development. The Ministry of…

  13. Effects of high hydrostatis pressure on Eimeria Acervulina pathogenicity, immunogenicity and structural integrity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eimeria acervulina is a protozoan parasite that can cause intestinal lesions and reduced weight gain in chickens. E. acervulina oocysts were treated by high hydrostatic pressure and evaluated for pathogenicity, immunogenicity, and structural integrity. Pressure treatment of E. acervulina oocysts a...

  14. Integrating Effective Pedagogies in Science Education with a Design of Alternative Experiments on Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shaona; Yeung, Yau-Yuen; Wang, Yanlin; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Learning electromagnetics often involves dealing with problems with strong mathematical skills or thinking about problems in abstract and multiple spaces. Moreover, many students are often unable to explain some related physical phenomena using the appropriate electromagnetic principles. In this paper, we report on integrating two effective…

  15. Energy Integrated Design of Lighting, Heating, and Cooling Systems, and Its Effect on Building Energy Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon

    Comments on the need for integrated design of lighting, heating, and cooling systems. In order to eliminate the penalty of refrigerating the lighting heat, minimize the building non-usable space, and optimize the total energy input, a "systems approach" is recommended. This system would employ heat-recovery techniques based on the ability of the…

  16. The Effect of Culture Integrated Language Courses on Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omer, Kocer; Ali, Dincer

    2011-01-01

    When examined carefully, it is seen that there is not an available and detailed curriculum designed for the aim of foreign language teaching with integrated cultural items of the target language in the programs of the schools under authority of the Ministry of Education and Turkish higher education institutions. In recent years, the specialists…

  17. Choosing Segregation or Integration? The Extent and Effects of Ethnic Segregation in Dutch Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Sjoerd; Felix, Charles; Ledoux, Guuske; Meijnen, Wim; Roeleveld, Jaap; Van Schooten, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Across Europe, urban education systems are struggling with the process of integration of immigrants in schools. The process of inclusion and exclusion in European cities shows many similarities with earlier experiences in U.S. cities. This article explores the most important aspects of this new urban phenomenon and its impact on urban school…

  18. Integrating Multimedia ICT Software in Language Curriculum: Students' Perception, Use, and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Nikolai; Grodek, Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) constitute an integral part of the teaching and learning environment in present-day educational institutions and play an increasingly important role in the modern second language classroom. In this study, an online language learning tool "Tell Me More" (TMM) has been introduced as a…

  19. Urban School Choice and Integration: The Effect of Charter Schools in Little Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Gary W.; Jensen, Nathan C.; Kisida, Brian; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of charter schools on school integration in the Little Rock, Arkansas metropolitan area. We find that charters are less likely to be hyper-segregated than traditional public schools (TPS), but TPS have compositions more closely reflecting the region. However, differences in each case are slight. Using student-level data to…

  20. Normalizing Effective Conflict Management through Academic Curriculum Integration: The Example of Workable Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stacie Nicole; Fairman, David

    2004-01-01

    Conflict resolution education (CRE) grew out of several parallel efforts: integrating social justice into schools, concerns about safety and youth violence, and desires to enhance responsible citizenship. Today, CRE encompasses, or is a component of, a broad range of initiatives in schools: violence prevention programs, diversity and tolerance…