Science.gov

Sample records for 700-millibar height anomalies

  1. Comparison of Methods of Height Anomaly Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurova, E.; Lapshin, A.; Menshova, A.

    2012-04-01

    As of today, accurate determination of height anomaly is one of the most difficult problems of geodesy, even with sustainable perfection of mathematical methods, computer possibilities. The most effective methods of height anomaly computation are based on the methods of discrete linear transformations, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Fast Wavelet Transform (FWT). The main drawback of the classical FFT is weak localization in the time domain. If it is necessary to define the time interval of a frequency presence the STFT is used that allows one to detect the presence of any frequency signal and the interval of its presence. It expands the possibilities of the method in comparison with the classical Fourier Transform. However, subject to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it is impossible to tell precisely what frequency signal is present at a given moment of time (it is possible to speak only about the range of frequencies); and it is impossible to tell at what precisely moment of time the frequency signal is present (it is possible to speak only about a time span). A wavelet-transform gives the chance to reduce the influence of the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle on the obtained time-and-frequency representation of the signal. With its help low frequencies have more detailed representation relative to the time, and high frequencies - relative to the frequency. The paper summarizes the results of height anomaly calculations done by the FFT, STFT, FWT methods and represents 3-D models of calculation results. Key words: Fast Fourier Transform(FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Fast Wavelet Transform(FWT), Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

  2. Atmospheric circulation and snowpack in the Gunnison River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.

    1994-01-01

    Winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States are related to variability in snowpack accumulations measured on or about April 1 in the Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Higher-than-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700-millibar height anomalies (anomalous cyclonic circulation) over the western United States and over most of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation enhances the movement of moisture from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the southwestern United States. Variability in winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies explain over 50 percent of the variability in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin. The statistically significant linear relations between 700-millibar height anomalies and snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin can be used with general-circulation-model simulations of future 700-millibar height anomalies to estimate changes in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin for future climatic conditions.

  3. Global correlation of topographic heights and gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roufosse, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    The short wavelength features were obtained by subtracting a calculated 24th-degree-and-order field from observed data written in 1 deg x 1 deg squares. The correlation between the two residual fields was examined by a program of linear regression. When run on a worldwide scale over oceans and continents separately, the program did not exhibit any correlation; this can be explained by the fact that the worldwide autocorrelation function for residual gravity anomalies falls off much faster as a function of distance than does that for residual topographic heights. The situation was different when the program was used in restricted areas, of the order of 5 deg x 5 deg square. For 30% of the world,fair-to-good correlations were observed, mostly over continents. The slopes of the regression lines are proportional to apparent densities, which offer a large spectrum of values that are being interpreted in terms of features in the upper mantle consistent with available heat-flow, gravity, and seismic data.

  4. Observed teleconnection patterns between Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget anomalies and ECMWF 500 mb geopotential heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, David L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    Broadband observations from the Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instrument package were used to calculate the outgoing-longwave-radiation (OLR) anomalies as well as the net balance anomalies. The areas of anomalous net balance and OLR were correlated with the ECMWF 500-mb geopotential height anomalies, and many areas of significant correlation were found. Their most interesting teleconnection area was associated with the net balance anomaly near Indonesia, where a series of alternating correlation waves was found similar to the wave pattern reported by Hoskins and Karoly (1981) in their model study of tropical heat sources. The strongest OLR anomaly correlation occurred in central Pacific.

  5. Spatial and Temporal scales of time-averaged 700 MB height anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutzler, D.

    1981-01-01

    The monthly and seasonal forecasting technique is based to a large extent on the extrapolation of trends in the positions of the centers of time averaged geopotential height anomalies. The complete forecasted height pattern is subsequently drawn around the forecasted anomaly centers. The efficacy of this technique was tested and time series of observed monthly mean and 5 day mean 700 mb geopotential heights were examined. Autocorrelation statistics are generated to document the tendency for persistence of anomalies. These statistics are compared to a red noise hypothesis to check for evidence of possible preferred time scales of persistence. Space-time spectral analyses at middle latitudes are checked for evidence of periodicities which could be associated with predictable month-to-month trends. A local measure of the average spatial scale of anomalies is devised for guidance in the completion of the anomaly pattern around the forecasted centers.

  6. Magnetic anomaly depth and structural index estimation using different height analytic signals data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shuai; Huang, Danian; Su, Chao

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new semi-automatic inversion method for magnetic anomaly data interpretation that uses the combination of analytic signals of the anomaly at different heights to determine the depth and the structural index N of the sources. The new method utilizes analytic signals of the original anomaly at different height to effectively suppress the noise contained in the anomaly. Compared with the other high-order derivative calculation methods based on analytic signals, our method only computes first-order derivatives of the anomaly, which can be used to obtain more stable and accurate results. Tests on synthetic noise-free and noise-corrupted magnetic data indicate that the new method can estimate the depth and N efficiently. The technique is applied to a real measured magnetic anomaly in Southern Illinois caused by a known dike, and the result is in agreement with the drilling information and inversion results within acceptable calculation error.

  7. Modulation of atmospheric rivers near Alaska and the U.S. West Coast by northeast Pacific height anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, Bryan D.; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Maloney, Eric D.; Nardi, Kyle M.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can cause wide-ranging impacts upon landfall at high northern latitudes, but comparatively little is known about the dynamics supporting these ARs in contrast to their midlatitude counterparts. Here ARs near the U.S. West Coast and the Gulf of Alaska during 1979-2015 are compared. ARs are found to occur in both regions with similar frequency, but with different seasonality. Composited atmospheric conditions from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications data set reveal that a broad height anomaly over the northeast Pacific is influential to AR activity in both regions. When a positive height anomaly exists over the northeast Pacific, AR activity is often deflected poleward toward Alaska, while the U.S. West Coast experiences a decrease in AR activity. The opposing relationship also applies; that is, AR activity is decreased near Alaska and increased along the U.S. West Coast in the presence of a negative height anomaly. Quantitatively, nearly 79% of Gulf of Alaska ARs are associated with a positive northeast Pacific height anomaly and 86% of U.S. West Coast ARs are associated with a negative anomaly. Results suggest that this relationship applies across a range of time scales, to include subseasonal and interannual, not just with respect to individual transient waves. Both ARs and height anomalies are found to be associated with Rossby wave breaking, thereby dynamically linking AR activity with broader North Pacific dynamics.

  8. Sea surface height anomaly and upper ocean temperature over the Indian Ocean during contrasting monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gera, Anitha; Mitra, A. K.; Mahapatra, D. K.; Momin, I. M.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Basu, Swati

    2016-09-01

    Recent research emphasizes the importance of the oceanic feedback to monsoon rainfall over the Asian landmass. In this study, we investigate the differences in the sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and upper ocean temperature over the tropical Indian Ocean during multiple strong and weak monsoons. Analysis of satellite derived SSHA, sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean reanalysis data reveals that patterns of SSHA, SST, ocean temperature, upper ocean heat content (UOHC) and propagations of Kelvin and Rossby waves differ during strong and weak monsoon years. During strong monsoons positive SSH, SST and UOHC anomalies develop over large parts of north Indian Ocean whereas during weak monsoons much of the north Indian Ocean is covered with negative anomalies. These patterns can be used as a standard tool for evaluating the performance of coupled and ocean models in simulating & forecasting strong and weak monsoons. The rainfall over central India is found to be significantly correlated with SSHA over the regions (Arabian Sea and West central Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal) where SSHA is positively large during strong monsoons. The SST-SSHA correlation is also very strong over the same area. The study reveals that much convection takes place over these regions during strong monsoons. In contrast during weak monsoons, convection takes place over eastern equatorial region. These changes in SST are largely influenced by oceanic Kelvin and Rossby waves. The Rossby waves initiated in spring at the eastern boundary propagate sub-surface heat content in the ocean influencing SST in summer. The SST anomalies modulate the Hadley circulation and the moisture transport thereby contributing to rainfall over central India. Therefore oceanic Kelvin and Rossby waves influence the rainfall over central India.

  9. Relationships between 700 hPa height anomalies and 1 April snowpack accumulations in the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Legates, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Relationships between atmospheric circulation and the temporal and spatial distribution of snowpack accumulations in the western USA are examined. In general, above-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700 hPa height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western USA. These anomalies are indicative of anomalous cyclonic circulation, which produces an anomalous westerly flow of moist air from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the western USA and increases winter precipitation and snowpack accumulations. Below-average snowpack accumulations at most of the snowcourse stations are associated with positive 700 hPa anomalies over the western USA. -from Authors

  10. The determination of gravity anomalies from geoid heights using the inverse Stokes' formula, Fourier transforms, and least squares collocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, R.; Sjoeberg, L.; Rapp, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    A numerical method for the determination of gravity anomalies from geoid heights is described using the inverse Stokes formula. This discrete form of the inverse Stokes formula applies a numerical integration over the azimuth and an integration over a cubic interpolatory spline function which approximates the step function obtained from the numerical integration. The main disadvantage of the procedure is the lack of a reliable error measure. The method was applied on geoid heights derived from GEOS-3 altimeter measurements in the calibration area of the GEOS-3 satellite.

  11. Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  12. Variations of Scale Height at F-Region Peak Based on Ionosonde Measurements during Solar Maximum over the Crest of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Region

    PubMed Central

    Chuo, Yu-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Scale height is an important parameter in characterizing the shape of the ionosphere and its physical processes. In this study, we attempt to examine and discuss the variation of scale height, Hm, around the F-layer peak height during high solar activity at the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region. Hm exhibits day-to-day variation and seasonal variation, with a greater average daily variation during daytime in summer. Furthermore, the diurnal variation of Hm exhibits an abnormal peak at presunrise during all the seasons, particularly in winter. This increase is also observed in the F2-layer peak height for the same duration with an upward movement associated with thermospheric wind toward the equator; this upward movement increases the N2/O ratio and Hm, but it causes a decrease in the F2-layer maximum critical frequency during the presunrise period. PMID:25162048

  13. The role of warm North Atlantic SST in the formation of positive height anomalies over the Ural Mountains during January 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhe; Li, Shuanglin; Mu, Mu

    2011-03-01

    The most severe snowstorm and freezing-rain event in the past 50 years hit central and southern China in January 2008. One of the main reasons for the anomalous climate event was the occurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over middle and high latitudes, particularly the persistent blocking that occurred over the Ural Mountains. Along with atmospheric anomalies, a strong La Niña event in the Pacific and warm sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the North Atlantic were the most significant in the lower boundary. Since a brief analysis suggests that La Niña exerts no significant impact on the Urals, the key point of focus in this study is on the role of the warmer SSTAs in the North Atlantic. Based on an observational composite, North Atlantic SSTAs pattern when the height anomaly over the Urals is strongly positive is found similar to that in January 2008, but no significant SSTAs occurred elsewhere, such as the Pacific. Using an atmospheric general circulation model, ECHAM5, the impact of North Atlantic SSTAs on the extratropical atmosphere circulation in the event was investigated. The results show that the warm SSTAs strengthened the blocking high over the Urals, through anomalous transient eddies. The consistency between the study model and the observational composite indicates that the warm SSTAs in the North Atlantic were indeed an important factor in the formation of the snowstorm disaster of January 2008.

  14. Space-based observation of chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, nitrate, and sea surface height anomaly over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, R. K.; Devi, K. Nanthini

    2017-01-01

    Monthly chlorophyll and sea surface temperature (SST) images were generated using MODIS-Aqua data sets during 2014 and 2015 in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. The in situ data-based nitrate algorithm was used to generate nitrate images by using the satellite-derived chlorophyll and SST images. To link ocean productivity with the sea surface features and sea level anomaly, the Indo-French altimeter mission SARAL-ALTIKA-derived sea surface height anomaly (SSHa) data sets were processed and maps were generated. The monthly average chlorophyll concentration ranged from 0.001 to 3.0 mg m-3, SST ranged from 24 to 32 °C, nitrate concentration ranged from 0.01 to 6.0 μM, and overall SSH anomaly ranged from -52 to +40 cm. Nitrate concentration was observed to be high (3-5 μM) during December-January, possibly due to convective eddies and winter cooling as well as atmospheric aerosols and dust inducing ocean productivity. The nitrate concentration was observed to be associated more with chlorophyll than SST, as nitrate inherently enhances the ocean chlorophyll and productivity, acting as proxy. The SSH anomaly showed irregular features and depicting few eddies, upwelling, and ocean circulation features. The low SSHa was mostly due to high chlorophyll concentration. It was observed that the low SST (∼24-26 °C) is attributed to high chlorophyll concentration (1.5-3.0 mg m-3) over the study area. The lag phase and enhancement in chlorophyll mean during September was due to the decrease in average SST during August. The SSHa showed seasonal trend over the study area during the monsoon period with observation of negative anomaly. Arabian Sea was found to have more negative SSH anomaly monthly mean values than Bay of Bengal. The impact and interrelationship of SSHa indicated better relationship with chlorophyll than with nitrate and SST, as observed from multiple regression analysis. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results between the 2-year monthly data showed that the

  15. Asymmetric evolution of El Niño and La Niña: the recharge/discharge processes and role of the off-equatorial sea surface height anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Huang, Bohua; Zhu, Jieshun; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2016-12-01

    Observed oceanic and atmospheric anomalies in the tropical Pacific are analyzed to understand the symmetric and asymmetric characteristics between El Niño and La Niña evolutions. It is noted that the evolutions are largely symmetric for El Niño and La Niña prior to and in their mature phase, but become asymmetric afterwards. It is further demonstrated that this asymmetry is due to the fact that, on average, the discharge process associated with El Niño is stronger than the recharge counterpart associated with La Niña. The symmetric and asymmetric evolution for different phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is consistent with the associated recharge and discharge processes that are linked with the evolution of anomalous ocean surface current and gradient of sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs). It is suggested that the evolution of the meridional gradient of SSHAs in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific is different between El Niño and La Niña years due to relatively different rates of the SSHA changes on and off the equator. During the decay of a warm event, the equatorial SSHA quickly switches from positive to negative, meanwhile the off-equator areas are occupied by positive SSHAs. Such changes on the equator and in the off-equatorial regions make the concavity of the meridional SSHA favorable for growth and persistence of westward surface zonal current anomaly in the equatorial Pacific, then for the ENSO phase transition. During the decay of a cold event, the slow decrease of the negative SSHA on the equator combined with the disappearance of the negative SSHA in the off-equatorial regions makes the meridional concavity reverse easily and is unfavorable for the steady growth of the eastward surface zonal current anomaly and for the phase transition. Thus, the asymmetric evolution of ENSO is associated with both the atmosphere and ocean anomalies on the equator and off the equator.

  16. Holonomy anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-05-01

    A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs. (LEW)

  17. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  18. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  19. Congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Kunisaki, Shaun M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have emerged as a novel, experimental approach for the treatment of a wide variety of congenital anomalies diagnosed either in utero or postnatally. There are a number of unique properties of amniotic fluid stem cells that have allowed it to become a major research focus. These include the relative ease of accessing amniotic fluid cells in a minimally invasive fashion by amniocentesis as well as the relatively rich population of progenitor cells obtained from a small aliquot of fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells, c-kit positive stem cells, as well as induced pluripotent stem cells have all been derived from human amniotic fluid in recent years. This article gives a pediatric surgeon’s perspective on amniotic fluid stem cell therapy for the management of congenital anomalies. The current status in the use of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, particularly as they relate as substrates in tissue engineering-based applications, is described in various animal models. A roadmap for further study and eventual clinical application is also proposed. PMID:22986340

  20. Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies Associated with and Their Effects on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific SST Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghang

    The NCAR CCM2 has been used in this study to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific SST anomalies, and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which means cloud height and cloud radiative properties, such as emissivity and reflectivity, are well simulated by the model. The CRF anomalies, however, are underestimated in the CCM2. This underestimate of the CRF anomalies is due to the insufficient high cloud amount anomaly in the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation, both the positive sea level pressure (SLP) anomaly in the Indonesia-Australia region and the negative SLP anomaly in the central and eastern Pacific, and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the NH extratropical circulation anomaly, the PNA pattern. The LWCRF anomaly has a large contribution to the three action centers of the PNA pattern at all levels. This large contribution results from the direct thermal effect of the tropical LWCRF anomaly and its strong positive interaction with tropical deep convection. As a consequence of the complex interaction between the forced wave train, orographic forcing and other factors, the contribution rates of the LWCRF anomaly to the three PNA action centers are different.

  1. Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

  2. The elliptic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.

  3. Effects of longwave cloud radiative forcing anomalies on the atmospheric response to equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghang; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

    1995-07-01

    The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

  4. Recovery of Gravity Anomalies from Gridded Geoid Height Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    contributors from the Weapon Systems Support Branch Mess rs Melvin E Shultz, Robert M Pen man, Joel B Starkey , James M Barth, Daniel J. Browning, and...near the - - I boundary. These errors of localization affect the parameter vector S - S x and the coefficient matri x A so that the erro rs carry over...which is best solved by means of spectral representation [9]. The Fourier transform of equation (A30 ) is EpQ (o)) = SpQ (w) - Ilp~(w

  5. Effects of height acceleration on Geosat heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, David W., III; Brooks, Ronald L.; Lockwood, Dennis W.

    1990-01-01

    A radar altimeter tracking loop, such as that utilized by Geosat, produces height errors in the presence of persistent height acceleration h(a). The correction factor for the height error is a function of both the loop feedback parameters and the height acceleration. The correction, in meters, to the sea-surface height (SSH) derived from Geosat is -0.16 h(a), where h(a) is in m/sec per sec. The errors induced by accelerations are produced primarily by changes in along-track geoid slopes. The nearly circular Geosat orbit and dynamic ocean topography produce small h(a) values. One area studied in detail encompasses the Marianas Trench and the Challenger Deep in the west central Pacific Ocean. Histograms of SSH corrections due to range accelerations have also been determined from 24-hour segments of Geosat global data. The findings are that 20 percent of the Geosat measurements have acceleration-induced errors of 2 cm or more, while 8 percent have errors of 3 cm or more.

  6. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  7. Pin-Height Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Daniel R.; Nichols, Vincent P.

    1992-01-01

    Gauge aligns itself and retains indication for later reading. Measuring tool indicates height of protrusion of pin from flat surface. Tool surrounds pin and holds itself square with flat surface, ensuring proper alignment and accuracy of measurement. Used in hard-to-see and hard-to-reach places. Holds indication of height until read. Metal scale slides in and out through slot in top plate. Scale value at slot gives height of pin under piston. Dimensions in inches.

  8. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  9. Ebstein anomaly: a review.

    PubMed

    Galea, Joseph; Ellul, Sarah; Schembri, Aaron; Schembri-Wismayer, Pierre; Calleja-Agius, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac congenital abnormalities are a leading cause in neonatal mortality occurring in up to 1 in 200 of live births. Ebstein anomaly, also known as Kassamali anomaly, accounts for 1 percent of all congenital cardiac anomalies. This congenital abnormality involves malformation of the tricuspid valve and of the right ventricle. In this review, the causes of the anomaly are outlined and the pathophysiology is discussed, with a focus on the symptoms, management, and treatments available to date.

  10. Spacecraft Environmental Anomalies Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    engineering solutions for mitigating the effects of environmental anomalies have been developed. Among the causes o, spacecraft anomalies are surface...have been discovered after years of investig!:tion, and engineering solutions for mitigating the effccts of environmental anomalies have been developed...23 * 6.4.3 Fauth Tolerant Solutions .............................................................................. 23 6.4.4. Methods

  11. South Atlantic Anomaly

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  The South Atlantic Anomaly     View larger GIF image The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) . Even before the cover opened, the Multi-angle Imaging ... Atlantic Anomaly location:  Atlantic Ocean Global Images First Light Images region:  Before the ...

  12. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  13. Height, health, and development

    PubMed Central

    Deaton, Angus

    2007-01-01

    Adult height is determined by genetic potential and by net nutrition, the balance between food intake and the demands on it, including the demands of disease, most importantly during early childhood. Historians have made effective use of recorded heights to indicate living standards, in both health and income, for periods where there are few other data. Understanding the determinants of height is also important for understanding health; taller people earn more on average, do better on cognitive tests, and live longer. This paper investigates the environmental determinants of height across 43 developing countries. Unlike in rich countries, where adult height is well predicted by mortality in infancy, there is no consistent relationship across and within countries between adult height on the one hand and childhood mortality or living conditions on the other. In particular, adult African women are taller than is warranted by their low incomes and high childhood mortality, not to mention their mothers' educational level and reported nutrition. High childhood mortality in Africa is associated with taller adults, which suggests that mortality selection dominates scarring, the opposite of what is found in the rest of the world. The relationship between population heights and income is inconsistent and unreliable, as is the relationship between income and health more generally. PMID:17686991

  14. Taussig-Bing Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2009-01-01

    Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

  15. Evaluation of short neck: new neck length percentiles and linear correlations with height and sitting height.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P V; Bharucha, B A

    1994-10-01

    Qualitative impressions of neck length are often used as aids to dysmorphology in syndromes like Turner, Noonan, Klippel-Feil and in craniovertebral anomalies, some of which have serious neurological implications. There are no national or international standards for neck length. The present study attempted to create standards and percentile charts for Indian children and compute age-independent correlations of neck length with linear measurements such as standing and sitting height. A total of 2724 children of both sexes between 3 and 15 years, whose heights and weights conformed to ICMR standards were inducted. Neck length was measured by a modified two-point discriminator between two fixed bony points-inion and spinous process of C7 with the head held in neutral position. Percentiles (5th-95th) were constructed for both sexes. Growth was rapid from 3 to 6 years. Neck length formed a mean of 12.7 +/- 4.58% of height and 20.1 +/- 6.73% of sitting height. Age independent linear regression equations: Neck length = 10 + (0.035 x height) and Neck length = 9.65 + (0.07 x sitting height) were highly significant (p < 0.001). Neck length relationships of 30 randomly selected normal children clustered around the regression lines and 16 with genetic syndromes fell below the regression lines.

  16. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  17. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  18. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-08

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  19. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  20. Estimation of subsurface thermal structure using sea surface height and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Yong Q. (Inventor); Jo, Young-Heon (Inventor); Yan, Xiao-Hai (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of determining a subsurface temperature in a body of water is disclosed. The method includes obtaining surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data of the body of water for a region of interest, and also obtaining subsurface temperature anomaly data for the region of interest at a plurality of depths. The method further includes regressing the obtained surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data for the region of interest with the obtained subsurface temperature anomaly data for the plurality of depths to generate regression coefficients, estimating a subsurface temperature at one or more other depths for the region of interest based on the generated regression coefficients and outputting the estimated subsurface temperature at the one or more other depths. Using the estimated subsurface temperature, signal propagation times and trajectories of marine life in the body of water are determined.

  1. Vascular anomalies in children.

    PubMed

    Weibel, L

    2011-11-01

    Vascular anomalies are divided in two major categories: tumours (such as infantile hemangiomas) and malformations. Hemangiomas are common benign neoplasms that undergo a proliferative phase followed by stabilization and eventual spontaneous involution, whereas vascular malformations are rare structural anomalies representing morphogenetic errors of developing blood vessels and lymphatics. It is important to properly diagnose vascular anomalies early in childhood because of their distinct differences in morbidity, prognosis and need for a multidisciplinary management. We discuss a number of characteristic clinical features as clues for early diagnosis and identification of associated syndromes.

  2. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  3. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  4. CALIOP-derived Smoke Plume Injection Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Winker, D. M.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Westberg, D. J.; Roller, C. M.; Pouliot, G.; Vaughan, M.; Pierce, T. E.; Trepte, C. R.; Rao, V.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning is a dominant natural and anthropogenic disturbance that feeds back to the climate system. Fire regimes, ecosystem fuels, fire severity and intensity vary widely, even within the same system, largely under the control of weather and climate. These strongly influence fire plume injection height and thus the transport of related biomass burning emissions, affecting air quality, human health and the climate system. If our knowledge of plume injection height is incorrect, transport models of those emissions will likewise be incorrect, adversely affecting our ability to analyze and predict climate feedbacks (i.e. black carbon to the Arctic, precipitation, cloud-radiation relationships) and public health (air quality forecast). Historically, plume height was based on the pioneering work of G.A. Briggs [1969; 1971] and verified with limited field campaigns. However, we currently have two satellite instruments, Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO (afternoon overpass) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard TERRA (morning overpass), that can provide the statistics necessary to verify our assumptions and improve fire plume injection height estimates for use in both small- and large-scale models. We have developed a methodology to assess fire plume injection height using the Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), CALIOP, Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plume, and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly data that is capable of generating two distinct types of verification data. A single CALIOP smoke-filled aerosol envelop can be traced back to numerous fire events, and using multiple CALIOP transects from numerous days, a daily smoke plume injection height evolution from a single fire can be defined. Additionally, we have linked the smoke plumes to ecosystems and the meteorological variables that define fire weather. In concert, CALIOP and MISR data can produce the statistical knowledge

  5. Magnetic anomalies. [Magsat studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.

    1983-01-01

    The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

  6. Origin of intraplate volcanoes from guyot heights and oceanic paleodepth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline; Duennebier, Fred; Ito, Garrett

    2000-02-01

    The height of a guyot as measured from the surrounding regional sea floor to the volcano's slope break records the water depth at the time the guyot submerged. Thus guyot heights may be used as indicators of the paleodepth of the surrounding ocean floor. We compile data on the heights of 68 intraplate guyots and atolls in the Pacific Ocean as well as 46 volcanic islands in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. We find that guyot heights generally increase with the age of the lithosphere upon which they were emplaced, although there is a large amount of scatter. In nearly all cases, seamount height, and thus seafloor paleodepth, is less than expected of normal seafloor. These results suggest that most of the volcanoes in this study formed on anomalously shallow seafloor, consistent with formation at hotspots. To characterize thermal anomalies associated with these hotspot swells, we model guyot heights by calculating the isostatic uplift predicted for normal lithosphere that has been partly reheated and is underlain by anomalously hot mantle. This model is able to explain the anomalous water depth at most of the seamounts with hotspot thermal anomalies of 100°-300°C. The heights of a few volcanic chains, however, are not anomalously low, suggesting that these volcanoes are not associated with hotspots. In addition, the observed trend of Hawaiian-Emperor guyot heights as well as the subdued morphology and gravity signature of the oldest Emperor seamounts supports our hypothesis that Cretaceous age Meiji seamount may have formed on or near a spreading center.

  7. The use of Compton scattering in detecting anomaly in soil-possible use in pyromaterial detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, Ahmad Firdaus Zainal; Ibrahim, Noorddin; Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Demon, Siti Zulaikha Ngah

    2016-01-01

    The Compton scattering is able to determine the signature of land mine detection based on dependency of density anomaly and energy change of scattered photons. In this study, 4.43 MeV gamma of the Am-Be source was used to perform Compton scattering. Two detectors were placed between source with distance of 8 cm and radius of 1.9 cm. Detectors of thallium-doped sodium iodide NaI(TI) was used for detecting gamma ray. There are 9 anomalies used in this simulation. The physical of anomaly is in cylinder form with radius of 10 cm and 8.9 cm height. The anomaly is buried 5 cm deep in the bed soil measured 80 cm radius and 53.5 cm height. Monte Carlo methods indicated the scattering of photons is directly proportional to density of anomalies. The difference between detector response with anomaly and without anomaly namely contrast ratio values are in a linear relationship with density of anomalies. Anomalies of air, wood and water give positive contrast ratio values whereas explosive, sand, concrete, graphite, limestone and polyethylene give negative contrast ratio values. Overall, the contrast ratio values are greater than 2 % for all anomalies. The strong contrast ratios result a good detection capability and distinction between anomalies.

  8. The use of Compton scattering in detecting anomaly in soil-possible use in pyromaterial detection

    SciTech Connect

    Abedin, Ahmad Firdaus Zainal; Ibrahim, Noorddin; Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Demon, Siti Zulaikha Ngah

    2016-01-22

    The Compton scattering is able to determine the signature of land mine detection based on dependency of density anomaly and energy change of scattered photons. In this study, 4.43 MeV gamma of the Am-Be source was used to perform Compton scattering. Two detectors were placed between source with distance of 8 cm and radius of 1.9 cm. Detectors of thallium-doped sodium iodide NaI(TI) was used for detecting gamma ray. There are 9 anomalies used in this simulation. The physical of anomaly is in cylinder form with radius of 10 cm and 8.9 cm height. The anomaly is buried 5 cm deep in the bed soil measured 80 cm radius and 53.5 cm height. Monte Carlo methods indicated the scattering of photons is directly proportional to density of anomalies. The difference between detector response with anomaly and without anomaly namely contrast ratio values are in a linear relationship with density of anomalies. Anomalies of air, wood and water give positive contrast ratio values whereas explosive, sand, concrete, graphite, limestone and polyethylene give negative contrast ratio values. Overall, the contrast ratio values are greater than 2 % for all anomalies. The strong contrast ratios result a good detection capability and distinction between anomalies.

  9. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Progress in the correlation of MAGSAT anomaly maps with geological and geophysical data sets is reported. An excerpt from Bouguer gravity map of the U.S. was filtered to retain wavelengths of 250 km, thus being physically somewhat analogous to MAGSAT data at 400 km height. Residual anomalies were extracted to compare with the satellite magnetics.

  10. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  11. Height premium for job performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-02-02

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (<155cm, 155-160cm, 160-165cm, and ≥165cm for women; <165cm, 165-170cm, 170-175cm, 175-180cm, and ≥180cm for men). We controlled for household- and individual-level random effects. We used a random-effect quantile regression model for monthly wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level.

  12. The AUSGeoid09 model of the Australian Height Datum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherstone, W. E.; Kirby, J. F.; Hirt, C.; Filmer, M. S.; Claessens, S. J.; Brown, N. J.; Hu, G.; Johnston, G. M.

    2011-03-01

    AUSGeoid09 is the new Australia-wide gravimetric quasigeoid model that has been a posteriori fitted to the Australian Height Datum (AHD) so as to provide a product that is practically useful for the more direct determination of AHD heights from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This approach is necessary because the AHD is predominantly a third-order vertical datum that contains a ~1 m north-south tilt and ~0.5 m regional distortions with respect to the quasigeoid, meaning that GNSS-gravimetric-quasigeoid and AHD heights are inconsistent. Because the AHD remains the official vertical datum in Australia, it is necessary to provide GNSS users with effective means of recovering AHD heights. The gravimetric component of the quasigeoid model was computed using a hybrid of the remove-compute-restore technique with a degree-40 deterministically modified kernel over a one-degree spherical cap, which is superior to the remove-compute-restore technique alone in Australia (with or without a cap). This is because the modified kernel and cap combine to filter long-wavelength errors from the terrestrial gravity anomalies. The zero-tide EGM2008 global gravitational model to degree 2,190 was used as the reference field. Other input data are ~1.4 million land gravity anomalies from Geoscience Australia, 1' × 1' DNSC2008GRA altimeter-derived gravity anomalies offshore, the 9'' × 9'' GEODATA-DEM9S Australian digital elevation model, and a readjustment of Australian National Levelling Network (ANLN) constrained to the CARS2006 mean dynamic ocean topography model. To determine the numerical integration parameters for the modified kernel, the gravimetric component of AUSGeoid09 was compared with 911 GNSS-observed ellipsoidal heights at benchmarks. The standard deviation of fit to the GNSS-AHD heights is ±222 mm, which dropped to ±134 mm for the readjusted GNSS-ANLN heights showing that careful consideration now needs to be given to the quality of the levelling data used to

  13. Hawking radiation and covariant anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin; Kulkarni, Shailesh

    2008-01-15

    Generalizing the method of Wilczek and collaborators we provide a derivation of Hawking radiation from charged black holes using only covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The reliability and universality of the anomaly cancellation approach to Hawking radiation is also discussed.

  14. XYY chromosome anomaly and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, M; MacBeth, R; Varma, S L

    1998-02-07

    Sex chromosome anomalies have been associated with psychoses, and most of the evidence is linked to the presence of an additional X chromosome. We report a patient with XYY chromosome anomaly who developed schizophrenia.

  15. Creating chiral anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlyn, Barry; Cano, Jennifer; Wang, Zhijun; Hirschberger, Max; Ong, N. Phuan; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    Materials with intrinsic Weyl points should present exotic magnetotransport phenomena due to spectral flow between Weyl nodes of opposite chirality - the so-called ``chiral anomaly''. However, to date, the most definitive transport data showing the presence of a chiral anomaly comes from Dirac (not Weyl) materials. These semimetals develop Weyl fermions only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field, when the four-fold degeneracy is lifted. In this talk we examine Berry phase effects on transport due to the emergence of these field-induced Weyl point and (in some cases) line nodes. We pay particular attention to the differences between intrinsic and field-induced Weyl fermions, from the point of view of kinetic theory. Finally, we apply our analysis to a particular material relevant to current experiments performed at Princeton.

  16. Ebstein Anomaly in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rusdi, Lusiani; Azizi, Syahrir; Suwita, Christopher; Karina, Astrid; Nasution, Sally A

    2016-10-01

    A 27-year-old primiparous woman with 28 weeks gestational age was admitted to our hospital with worsening shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly three years ago, but preferred to be left untreated. The patient was not cyanotic and her vital signs were stable. Her ECG showed incomplete RBBB and prolonged PR-interval. Blood tests revealed mild anemia. Observation of two-dimensional echo with color flow Doppler study showed Ebstein's anomaly with PFO as additional defects, EF of 57%, LV and LA dilatation, RV atrialization, severe TR, and moderate PH with RVSP of 44.3 mmHg. The patient then underwent elective sectio caesaria at 30 weeks of gestational age; both the mother and her baby were alive and were in good conditions.

  17. Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Laurence M.; Ballieux, Fanny; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are localized defects of vascular development. Most of them occur sporadically, i.e. there is no familial history of lesions, yet in a few cases clear inheritance is observed. These inherited forms are often characterized by multifocal lesions that are mainly small in size and increase in number with patient’s age. On the basis of these inherited forms, molecular genetic studies have unraveled a number of inherited mutations giving direct insight into the pathophysiological cause and the molecular pathways that are implicated. Genetic defects have been identified for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), glomuvenous malformation (GVM), capillary malformation - arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) and some isolated and syndromic forms of primary lymphedema. We focus on these disorders, the implicated mutated genes and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We also call attention to the concept of Knudson’s double-hit mechanism to explain incomplete penetrance and the large clinical variation in expressivity of inherited vascular anomalies. This variability renders the making of correct diagnosis of the rare inherited forms difficult. Yet, the identification of the pathophysiological causes and pathways involved in them has had an unprecedented impact on our thinking of their etiopathogenesis, and has opened the doors towards a more refined classification of vascular anomalies. It has also made it possible to develop animal models that can be tested for specific molecular therapies, aimed at alleviating the dysfunctions caused by the aberrant genes and proteins. PMID:21095468

  18. GEOS 3 data processing for the recovery of geoid undulations and gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the analysis of GEOS 3 altimeter data for the determination of geoid heights and point and mean gravity anomalies. Methods are presented for determining the mean anomalies and mean undulations from the GEOS 3 altimeter data available by the end of September 1977 without having a complete set of precise orbits. The editing of the data is extensive to remove questionable data, although no filtering of the data is carried out. An adjustment process is carried out to eliminate orbit error and altimeter bias. Representative point anomaly values are computed to investigate anomaly behavior across the Bonin Trench and over the Patton seamounts.

  19. A Variable-Height Wheelchair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a variable-height wheelchair which can be raised 18 inches above normal chair height by means of an electrically operated screw jack. Photoqraphs illustrate the chair to be convenient and helpful for a handicapped chemistry student. (Author/SK)

  20. The limits to tree height.

    PubMed

    Koch, George W; Sillett, Stephen C; Jennings, Gregory M; Davis, Stephen D

    2004-04-22

    Trees grow tall where resources are abundant, stresses are minor, and competition for light places a premium on height growth. The height to which trees can grow and the biophysical determinants of maximum height are poorly understood. Some models predict heights of up to 120 m in the absence of mechanical damage, but there are historical accounts of taller trees. Current hypotheses of height limitation focus on increasing water transport constraints in taller trees and the resulting reductions in leaf photosynthesis. We studied redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens), including the tallest known tree on Earth (112.7 m), in wet temperate forests of northern California. Our regression analyses of height gradients in leaf functional characteristics estimate a maximum tree height of 122-130 m barring mechanical damage, similar to the tallest recorded trees of the past. As trees grow taller, increasing leaf water stress due to gravity and path length resistance may ultimately limit leaf expansion and photosynthesis for further height growth, even with ample soil moisture.

  1. Physicochemical isotope anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, T.M.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

  2. Detecting Patterns of Anomalies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    ct)P (bt|ct) , where A,B and C are mutually exclusive subsets of attributes with at most k elements . This ratio is similar to the previous formula , but...AND SUBTITLE Detecting Patterns of Anomalies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...to be dependent if, µ(A,B) ≥ βµ (2.1) where, βµ is a threshold parameter, set to a low value of 0.1 ( empirically ) in our experi- ments. Thus, for a

  3. Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

  4. Anomalies in nanostructure size measurements by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechler, Ádám; Kopniczky, Judit; Kokavecz, János; Hoel, Anders; Granqvist, Claes-Göran; Heszler, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Anomalies in atomic force microscopy (AFM) based size determination of nanoparticles were studied via comparative analysis of experiments and numerical calculations. Single tungsten oxide nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 3nm were deposited on mica and graphite substrates and were characterised by AFM. The size (height) of the nanoparticles, measured by tapping mode AFM, was found to be sensitive to the free amplitude of the oscillating tip, thus indicating that the images were not purely topographical. By comparing the experimental results to model calculations, we demonstrate that the dependence of the nanoparticle size on the oscillation amplitude of the tip is an inherent characteristic of the tapping mode AFM; it is also a function of physical properties such as elasticity and surface energy of the nanoparticle and the sample surface, and it depends on the radius of curvature of the tip. We show that good approximation of the real size can easily be obtained from plots of particle height vs free amplitude of the oscillating tip, although errors might persist for individual experiments. The results are valid for size (height) determination of any nanometer-sized objects imaged by tapping mode AFM.

  5. Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

    2006-11-01

    This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

  6. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  7. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  8. Taking America To New Heights

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is taking America to new heights with its Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) partners. In 2011, NASA entered into funded Space Act Agreements (SAAs) w...

  9. Epigenetic heredity of human height.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Pasquale; Alberti, Saverio

    2014-06-01

    Genome-wide SNP analyses have identified genomic variants associated with adult human height. However, these only explain a fraction of human height variation, suggesting that significant information might have been systematically missed by SNP sequencing analysis. A candidate for such non-SNP-linked information is DNA methylation. Regulation by DNA methylation requires the presence of CpG islands in the promoter region of candidate genes. Seventy two of 87 (82.8%), height-associated genes were indeed found to contain CpG islands upstream of the transcription start site (USC CpG island searcher; validation: UCSC Genome Browser), which were shown to correlate with gene regulation. Consistent with this, DNA hypermethylation modules were detected in 42 height-associated genes, versus 1.5% of control genes (P = 8.0199e(-17)), as were dynamic methylation changes and gene imprinting. Epigenetic heredity thus appears to be a determinant of adult human height. Major findings in mouse models and in human genetic diseases support this model. Modulation of DNA methylation are candidate to mediate environmental influence on epigenetic traits. This may help to explain progressive height changes over multiple generations, through trans-generational heredity of progressive DNA methylation patterns.

  10. Genetics of lymphatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence; Vikkula, Miikka

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic anomalies include a variety of developmental and/or functional defects affecting the lymphatic vessels: sporadic and familial forms of primary lymphedema, secondary lymphedema, chylothorax and chylous ascites, lymphatic malformations, and overgrowth syndromes with a lymphatic component. Germline mutations have been identified in at least 20 genes that encode proteins acting around VEGFR-3 signaling but also downstream of other tyrosine kinase receptors. These mutations exert their effects via the RAS/MAPK and the PI3K/AKT pathways and explain more than a quarter of the incidence of primary lymphedema, mostly of inherited forms. More common forms may also result from multigenic effects or post-zygotic mutations. Most of the corresponding murine knockouts are homozygous lethal, while heterozygotes are healthy, which suggests differences in human and murine physiology and the influence of other factors. PMID:24590274

  11. Upward Continuation Apply Newly to Process Gravity Anomaly Data in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bo; Zhang, Xunhua; Jiang, Jinyu

    2014-05-01

    The research area lies in the East China Sea and its adjacent area and the concrete is between 120-130 degree of east longitude and 20-30 degree of north latitude and it also lies between Eurasian Plate and Pacific Plate. The structures of the area transform differently and they are namely Uplifted Zone of Zhejiang-Fujian, East China Sea Shelf Basin, Okinawa Trough Back-arc Basin, Ryukyu Arc, Ryukyu trench and Philippine Sea from west to east. Bouguer gravity anomaly can reflect deep structure characters and it is help to judge deep structures. The bouguer gravity anomalies of the area change differently from west to east. The anomalies increase gradually from land to the middle of Okinawa trough and near land anomaly contour strike accords with coastline and the middle of Okinawa trough reflect the highest anomalies in this area. Gravity anomalies re-increase from Ryukyu fore-arc basin to trench and Ryukyu island arc appears the low anomalies. Philippine Sea appears high gravity anomalies background. Upward continuation method has been used to process original gravity anomaly as a common method and its destination is to weaken local anomaly and at last strengthen deep anomaly and it's important to deep structure study. Upward 5 km, 10 km and 20 km have been used to process data and the results been compared. However, the research area is very large and the deep structure is complex, it isn't suitable to use single height to upward continuation processing bouguer gravity anomaly. Then we propose multiple upward heights continuation to process gravity data respectively in different area. We use upward 20km to process data in the area from land to the slope and upward 10km from Okinawa trough to Ryukyu island arc and upward 5km from Ryukyu trench to Philippine Sea. At last we obtain multiple upward height result and the calculated result confirms that it is fit to use this method. Gravity anomalies contours become smoother than before and the deep structures become

  12. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Argonne v{sub 18} potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the {sup 15}O-{sup 15}N and {sup 17}F-{sup 17}O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our {sup 16}O wave function does not reproduce accurately the {sup 16}O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 {plus_minus} .001, 3.544 {plus_minus} .018 and 3.458 {plus_minus} .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential.

  13. New Data Bases and Standards for Gravity Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.; Hildenbrand (Deceased), T. G.; Webring, M. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Ravat, D.; Li, X.

    2008-12-01

    derive the predicted or modeled gravity, and thus, anomalies of this class are termed planetary. The most primitive version of a gravity anomaly is simply the difference between the value of gravity predicted by the effect of the reference ellipsoid and the observed gravity anomaly. When the height of the gravity station increases, the ellipsoidal gravity anomaly decreases because of the increased distance of measurement from the anomaly- producing masses. The two primary anomalies in geophysics, which are appropriately classified as planetary anomalies, are the Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies. They employ models that account for planetary effects on gravity including the topography of the earth. A second class of anomaly, geological anomalies, includes the modeled gravity effect of known or assumed masses leading to the predicted gravity by using geological data such as densities and crustal thickness. The third class of anomaly, filtered anomalies, removes arbitrary gravity effects of largely unknown sources that are empirically or analytically determined from the nature of the gravity anomalies by filtering.

  14. Boundary Layer Heights from CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, R.; Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Roubert, L.

    2012-12-01

    This work is focused on the development of a planetary boundary layer (PBL) height retrieval algorithm for CALIOP and validation studies. Our current approach uses a wavelet covariance transform analysis technique to find the top of the boundary layer. We use the methodology similar to that found in Davis et. al. 2000, ours has been developed to work with the lower SNR data provided by CALIOP, and is intended to work autonomously. Concurrently developed with the CALIOP algorithm we will show results from a PBL height retrieval algorithm from profiles of potential temperature, these are derived from Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay (AMDAR) observations. Results from 5 years of collocated AMDAR - CALIOP retrievals near O'Hare airport demonstrate good agreement between the CALIOP - AMDAR retrievals. In addition, because we are able to make daily retrievals from the AMDAR measurements, we are able to observe the seasonal and annual variation in the PBL height at airports that have sufficient instrumented-aircraft traffic. Also, a comparison has been done between the CALIOP retrievals and the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) PBL height retrievals acquired during the GoMACCS experiment. Results of this comparison, like the AMDAR comparison are favorable. Our current work also involves the analysis and verification of the CALIOP PBL height retrieval from the 6 year CALIOP global data set. Results from this analysis will also be presented.

  15. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  16. The height premium in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey for the year 2007, this paper estimates that a 10 cm increase in physical stature is associated with an increase in earnings of 7.5% for men and 13.0% for women, even after controlling for an extensive set of productivity variables. When the height premium is estimated by sector, it is 12.3% for self-employed men and 18.0% for self-employed women; a height premium of 11.1% is also estimated for women in the private sector. In the public sector, however, the height premium estimate is not statistically significant for either men or women. This paper provides further evidence of discrimination based on customers' preferences for tall workers.

  17. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  18. Fear of heights in infants?

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874

  19. Fear of heights in infants?

    PubMed

    Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.

  20. Climate-scale sea surface height variability over the Northwest Atlantic slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guoqi; Chen, Nancy; Yen Kuo, Chun; Shum, Ck; Ma, Zhimin

    2016-04-01

    The Northwest Atlantic continental slope features strong interactions among the western boundary currents of the subpolar and subtropical gyres, and thus the sea level variability over the slope may have important implications for the large-scale ocean circulation. In this study, temporal and spatial sea level variability in the Northwest Atlantic continental slope has been investigated based on a merged satellite altimetry dataset and a monthly temperature and salinity dataset. The altimetric results are compared with steric height anomalies calculated from the temperature and salinity dataset. The study shows significant interannual and decadal sea level variability and secular change, with prominent regional differences and seemingly varying linkages to large-scale atmospheric and oceanic variability in the North Atlantic. The interannual sea level variability in the western Labrador Sea is negatively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation primarily via the wintertime deep convection; whereas that over the Laurentian Fan is positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. The thermosteric height anomalies are negatively (positively) correlated with the winter NAO index in the Labrador Sea (Laurentian Fan); while the halosteric height anomalies show opposite. The along-slope differences in the interannual and decadal variations and the secular trend of the sea surface height anomalies is compatible with an important interior pathway of the Labrador Sea Intermediate Water toward the central North Atlantic Basin reported in literature.

  1. Adult Height and Childhood Disease

    PubMed Central

    BOZZOLI, CARLOS; DEATON, ANGUS; QUINTANA-DOMEQUE, CLIMENT

    2009-01-01

    Taller populations are typically richer populations, and taller individuals live longer and earn more. In consequence, adult height has recently become a focus in understanding the relationship between health and wealth. We investigate the childhood determinants of population adult height, focusing on the respective roles of income and of disease. Across a range of European countries and the United States, we find a strong inverse relationship between postneonatal (ages 1 month to 1 year) mortality, interpreted as a measure of the disease and nutritional burden in childhood, and the mean height of those children as adults. Consistent with these findings, we develop a model of selection and stunting in which the early-life burden of undernutrition and disease not only is responsible for mortality in childhood but also leaves a residue of long-term health risks for survivors, risks that express themselves in adult height and in late-life disease. The model predicts that at sufficiently high mortality levels, selection can dominate scarring, leaving a taller population of survivors. We find evidence of this effect in the poorest and highest-mortality countries of the world, supplementing recent findings on the effects of the Great Chinese Famine. PMID:20084823

  2. Sea Surface Height 1993 - 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface height, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...

  3. Rise Heights of Lazy Fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Gary

    2005-11-01

    The initial rise height zm of turbulent Boussinesq fountains is determined analytically for small and large source Froude numbers Fr0. Solutions were obtained after recasting the plume conservations equations of Morton, Taylor & Turner (1956) in terms of the inverse square of a local Froude number and a local dimensionless fountain width. For large Fr0, the fountain is `forced' and the well-established linear increase of the rise height with Fr0 is obtained, i.e. zm/r0˜Fr0; r0 denoting the source radius. However, for small Fr0 the fountain is `lazy' and the dependence zm/r0˜Fr0^2 more sensitive. Additionally, the rise height for lazy fountains is predicted to be independent of the entrainment coefficient α. Comparison of our solutions with existing experimental and numerical results of fountain rise height, as well as with our own experimental results, show good agreement and support the derived scalings. Experimental results suggest that the entrainment coefficient for highly-forced fountains is αf 0.058, i.e. closer to that of a jet than of a plume. Morton, B. R., Taylor, G. I. & Turner, J. S. (1956), "Turbulent gravitational convection from maintained and instantaneous sources", Proc. Roy. Soc. A 234, 1-23.

  4. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  5. Response of vegetation to the 2003 European drought was mitigated by height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, S. L.; Los, S. O.; North, P. R. J.

    2014-06-01

    The effects on climate of land-cover change, predominantly from the conversion of forests to crops or grassland, are reasonably well understood for low and high latitudes but are largely unknown for temperate latitudes. The main reason for this gap in our knowledge is that there are compensating effects on the energy and water balance that are related to changes in land-surface albedo, soil evaporation and plant transpiration. We analyse how vegetation height affected the response of vegetation during the 2003 European drought using precipitation data, temperature data, normalized difference vegetation index data and a new vegetation height data set obtained from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). At the height of the 2003 drought we find for tall vegetation a significantly smaller decrease in vegetation index and a smaller diurnal temperature (DTR) range, indicating less water stress and drought impacts on tall vegetation. Over Germany for example, 98% of significant correlations showed a smaller anomaly in vegetation index anomaly with greater height, and 95% of significant correlations showed a smaller DTR with greater vegetation height. Over France the equivalent percentages were 94 and 88%, respectively. Vegetation height is likely associated with greater rooting depth, canopy heat capacity or both. Our results suggest that land-surface models can be improved by better estimates of vegetation height and associated with this a more realistic response to drought.

  6. Anomalies and graded coisotropic branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi

    2006-03-01

    We compute the anomaly of the axial U(1) current in the A-model on a Calabi-Yau manifold, in the presence of coisotropic branes discovered by Kapustin and Orlov. Our results relate the anomaly-free condition to a recently proposed definition of graded coisotropic branes in Calabi-Yau manifolds. More specifically, we find that a coisotropic brane is anomaly-free if and only if it is gradable. We also comment on a different grading for coisotropic submanifolds introduced recently by Oh.

  7. The genesis and predictability of persistent Pacific North American anomalies in a model atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai; Derome, Jacques

    1999-10-01

    The setup process of Pacific North American (PNA) pattern anomalies that last more than 10days and the role played therein by synoptic-scale transients are investigated using a T21, 3-level quasi-geostrophic model. As there is no time-dependent forcing in the model, the lowfrequency PNA anomalies are generated entirely by the internal dynamics. From a 300-winter integration, 100 cases of positive PNA anomalies and 118 cases of negative PNA anomalies lasting at least 10days are identified. The PNA composites reveal that 5days before the setup of a positive (negative) PNA anomaly there is a negative (positive) height anomaly over Canada. This anomaly moves westward and stops over the North Pacific. It then intensifies and a wave train develops downstream. The rô le played by the synoptic-scale transients is explored by prediction experiments starting from day-5 (5days before the appearance of a PNA anomaly). A 5-day average centered at day - 5 is used to remove the synoptic-scale transients from the initial state. The results indicate that even without these transients in the initial conditions, the setup process of a positive PNA anomaly can be reproduced quite well. On the other hand, the setup of a negative PNA pattern cannot be predicted if the synoptic-scale transients are absent from the initial conditions. In this case, the pattern evolves systematically, but differently from the way it evolves in the control run.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anterior segment is abnormal, leading to incomplete separation of the cornea from the iris or the ... anomaly type I is characterized by an incomplete separation of the cornea and iris and mild to ...

  9. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. Spinal anomalies in Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moore, M H; Lodge, M L; Clark, B E

    1995-05-01

    Review of the spinal radiographs of a consecutive series of 11 patients with Pfeiffer syndrome presenting to the Australian Craniofacial Unit was performed. The prevalence of cervical spine fusions was high, and the pattern of fusion complex. Isolated anomalies were evident at lower levels, including two cases of sacrococcygeal eversion. Spinal anomalies occur more frequently in the more severely involved cases of Pfeiffer syndrome emphasizing the generalized dysostotic nature of this condition.

  11. Anomaly detection on cup anemometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Enrique; Pindado, Santiago; Martínez, Alejandro; Meseguer, Encarnación; García, Luis

    2014-12-01

    The performances of two rotor-damaged commercial anemometers (Vector Instruments A100 LK) were studied. The calibration results (i.e. the transfer function) were very linear, the aerodynamic behavior being more efficient than the one shown by both anemometers equipped with undamaged rotors. No detection of the anomaly (the rotors’ damage) was possible based on the calibration results. However, the Fourier analysis clearly revealed this anomaly.

  12. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  13. Another definition of forest canopy height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, T.; Sumida, A.; Kodama, Y.; Hara, T.

    2008-12-01

    Forest canopy height, the height of the highest vegetation components above ground level, is essential in normalizing micrometeorological parameters and in estimating forest biomass and carbon pools, but previous definitions of forest canopy height from inventory data bear uncertainties owing to arbitrary criteria of tall trees accounting for top height (i.e. mean height of tall trees selected by a certain definition) or to the effect of many shorter understory trees on Lorey's mean height (i.e. mean height weighted by basal area). We proposed a new concept of forest canopy height: the representative height of taller trees composing the crown surface or the upper canopy layer estimated on the basis of cumulative basal area from the shortest tree plotted against corresponding individual tree height. Because tall trees have large basal area, the cumulative basal area showing a sigmoidal curve would have an inflection point at a height class where many tall trees occur. Hence the forest canopy height is defined as the inflection point of the sigmoid function fitted to the cumulative basal area curve. This new forest canopy height is independent of the presence or absence of many shorter understory trees unlike Lorey's mean height, and is free from the definition of selecting the trees composing the upper canopy to determine their mean height. Applying this concept to actual forests, we found the new canopy height was larger than the arithmetic mean height and Lorey's mean height, and it was close to the aerodynamic canopy height determined by micrometeorological method, not only in the birch forest (even-aged pure stand) but also in the complex mixed forest of evergreen conifer and deciduous broadleaf species. Therefore the new canopy height would be suitable for intersite comparison studies and ground truth for remote sensing such as airborne laser scanning (ALS).

  14. Relations between winter 700-mb height anomalies and mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, G.J.; Fountain, A.G.

    1995-12-31

    The yearly net mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, decreased during the mid-1970`s. Results show that the decrease is primarily caused by a significant decrease in the winter mass balance. The decrease in winter mass balance is caused, in part, by changes in winter mean atmospheric circulation that began during the mid-1970`s. Since the mid-1970`s, there has been an increase in winter mean atmospheric pressure over western Canada and the northern western contiguous US and a decrease in winter mean atmospheric pressure in the eastern North Pacific Ocean centered near the Aleutian islands. These changes in atmospheric circulation indicate a decrease in the movement of storms and moisture from the Pacific Ocean into the western contiguous US. In addition, the increase in atmospheric pressure over western Canada and the northern western contiguous US indicates an increase in subsidence, which results in a warming and drying of the air that further reduces precipitation and also increases the ratio of rain to snow during the cold season. These factors contribute to below-average winter mass balances.

  15. Relationship Between Seismic Velocity Anomalies and Rheological Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, S.

    2001-05-01

    One of the ultimate goals of high-resolution Earth models is to reveal anomalies (lateral variations) in thermal and rheological structures. Although such a relationship has been well known at a qualitative level, no quantitative relationship has been established to allow estimate of anomalies in viscosity from seismological data. In this presentation, I formulate such a relationship for Earth's upper mantle, based on the latest mineral physics observations. The key in doing this is the quantitative analysis of the effects of water on seismic wave velocities. Earlier analysis indicated the importance of water on seismic wave velocities through enhanced attenuation (Karato, 1995). I have quantified this notion by combining laboratory observations on attenuation at limited conditions (Jackson et al., 1992) with the recent quantitative data on the effects of water on rheology at wider conditions (Karato and Jung, 2001). I show that both seismic wave velocities and rheology (viscosity) of Earth materials are controlled by "rheologically effective temperature (Teff)" that depends on temperature as well as water content. Such an analysis allows us to define the relationships between velocity anomalies and anomalies in Teff and hence anomalies in viscosity. The present formulation has been applied to the upper mantle beneath northeastern Japan where the high-resolution tomographic images are available. The results show that anomalies in effective temperatures of ~+400 K occur in these regions indicating that viscosity there could be lower than the average values by a factor of ~10 to ~1000. References Jackson, I. et al. (1992), Geophys. J. Int., 108: 517-534. Karato, S. (1995), Proc. Japan Academy, B71: 61-66. Karato, S. and Jung, H. (2001), submitted to Philos. Mag.

  16. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  17. MULTICHANNEL PULSE-HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.; Lefevre, H.W.

    1958-01-21

    This patent deals with electronic computing circuits and more particularly to pulse-height analyzers used for classifying variable amplitude pulses into groups of different amplitudes. The device accomplishes this pulse allocation by by converting the pulses into frequencies corresponding to the amplitudes of the pulses, which frequencies are filtered in channels individually pretuned to a particular frequency and then detected and recorded in the responsive channel. This circuit substantially overcomes the disadvantages of prior annlyzers incorporating discriminators pre-set to respond to certain voltage levels, since small variation in component values is not as critical to satisfactory circuit operation.

  18. New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.

  19. The Effect of Ocean Currents on Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Leeuwenburgh, Olwijn

    2000-01-01

    We investigate regional and global-scale correlations between observed anomalies in sea surface temperature and height. A strong agreement between the two fields is found over a broad range of latitudes for different ocean basins. Both time-longitude plots and wavenumber-frequency spectra suggest an advective forcing of SST anomalies by a first-mode baroclinic wave field on spatial scales down to 400 km and time scales as short as 1 month. Even though the magnitude of the mean background temperature gradient is determining for the effectiveness of the forcing, there is no obvious seasonality that can be detected in the amplitudes of SST anomalies. Instead, individual wave signatures in the SST can in some cases be followed over periods of two years. The phase relationship between SST and SSH anomalies is dependent upon frequency and wavenumber and displays a clear decrease of the phase lag toward higher latitudes where the two fields come into phase at low frequencies. Estimates of the damping coefficient are larger than generally obtained for a purely atmospheric feedback. From a global frequency spectrum a damping time scale of 2-3 month was found. Regionally results are very variable and range from 1 month near strong currents to 10 month at low latitudes and in the sub-polar North Atlantic. Strong agreement is found between the first global EOF modes of 10 day averaged and spatially smoothed SST and SSH grids. The accompanying time series display low frequency oscillations in both fields.

  20. Spatial Correlations of Anomalies of Tropospheric Temperature and Water Vapor, Cloud Cover, and OLR with the El Nino Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Lee, Jae N.

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will show AIRS Version-6 area weighted anomaly time series over the time period September 2002 through August 2014 of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles as a function of height. These anomaly time series show very different behaviors in the stratosphere and in the troposphere. Tropical mean stratospheric temperature anomaly time series are very strongly influenced by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) with large anomalies that propagate downward from 1 mb to 100 mb with a period of about two years. AIRS stratospheric temperature anomalies are in good agreement with those obtained by MLS over a common period. Tropical mean tropospheric temperature profile anomalies appear to be totally disconnected from those of the stratosphere and closely follow El Nino La Nina activity.

  1. Shortening anomalies in supersymmetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Komargodski, Zohar; Ooguri, Hirosi; Seiberg, Nathan; Wang, Yifan

    2017-01-01

    We present new anomalies in two-dimensional N=(2,2) superconformal theories. They obstruct the shortening conditions of chiral and twisted chiral multiplets at coincident points. This implies that marginal couplings cannot be promoted to background superfields in short representations. Therefore, standard results that follow from N=(2,2) spurion analysis are invalidated. These anomalies appear only if supersymmetry is enhanced beyond N=(2,2) . These anomalies explain why the conformal manifolds of the K3 and T 4 sigma models are not Kähler and do not factorize into chiral and twisted chiral moduli spaces and why there are no N=(2,2) gauged linear sigma models that cover these conformal manifolds. We also present these results from the point of view of the Riemann curvature of conformal manifolds.

  2. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A; Storlie, Curtis B; Sandine, Gary; Hagberg, Aric A; Fisk, Michael

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  3. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  4. Spread-Spectrum VLF Observations at Arrival Heights, Antarctica During Solar X-Ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Moore, R. C.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that subionospherically-propagating very low frequency (VLF) signals are sensitive to the ionospheric effects of solar flares. It has been documented since the 1960's that the typical X-ray flare affects the phase of the VLF signal (known as a sudden phase anomaly, or SPA), but a sudden change in both the amplitude and the phase of the narrowband VLF signal may be produced during a C-class or stronger emission. Previous research has studied event onset times, growth rates, and recovery times, for example. In January 2010, the ELF/VLF radiometer at Arrival Heights (which was installed in 1984) was upgraded to continually record both the extremely low frequency (ELF) and the very low frequency (VLF) bands. This upgrade additionally provided the first real-time signal processing of narrowband VLF transmitter signals at Arrival Heights. Since that time, near-real-time amplitude and phase summary charts of subionospherically-propagating narrowband VLF signals recorded at Arrival Heights have been posted to the Internet, updated once per minute. Observations of sudden amplitude and phase anomalies were observed in this data stream on 12 June 2010 and on 7 August 2010, and the full resolution broadband data sets were downloaded at that time, demonstrating the scientific utility of the receiver upgrade providing near-real-time data access. In this paper, we demonstrate a new spread-spectrum analysis technique to analyze the sudden anomalies observed at Arrival Heights as a function of frequency. The 200-Hz bandwidth of the narrowband VLF signal is fully utilized to analyze the effect of these events on VLF propagation as a function of frequency within the band. Events were observed at Arrival Heights using the NAA (24.0 kHz, Cutler, Maine) and NLK (24.8 kHz, Jim Creek, Washington) transmitter signals, and to our knowledge, these are the first narrowband VLF events recorded at Arrival Heights to be analyzed.

  5. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall...

  6. The genetic architecture of maize height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state (IBS) among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formida...

  7. Thermal anomalies in stressed Teflon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.; Wulff, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a calorimetric gasketing material, serendipity revealed a thermal anomaly in stressed film that occurs concomitantly with the well-documented 25 C transition. The magnitude of the excess energy absorption - about 35 cal/g - is suggested to be related to the restricted thermal expansion of the film.

  8. Numerical anomalies mimicking physical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, R.

    1995-09-01

    Numerical simulations of flows with shock waves typically use finite-difference shock-capturing algorithms. These algorithms give a shock a numerical width in order to generate the entropy increase that must occur across a shock wave. For algorithms in conservation form, steady-state shock waves are insensitive to the numerical dissipation because of the Hugoniot jump conditions. However, localized numerical errors occur when shock waves interact. Examples are the ``excess wall heating`` in the Noh problem (shock reflected from rigid wall), errors when a shock impacts a material interface or an abrupt change in mesh spacing, and the start-up error from initializing a shock as a discontinuity. This class of anomalies can be explained by the entropy generation that occurs in the transient flow when a shock profile is formed or changed. The entropy error is localized spatially but under mesh refinement does not decrease in magnitude. Similar effects have been observed in shock tube experiments with partly dispersed shock waves. In this case, the shock has a physical width due to a relaxation process. An entropy anomaly from a transient shock interaction is inherent in the structure of the conservation equations for fluid flow. The anomaly can be expected to occur whenever heat conduction can be neglected and a shock wave has a non-zero width, whether the width is physical or numerical. Thus, the numerical anomaly from an artificial shock width mimics a real physical effect.

  9. Global gravitational anomalies and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Subham Dutta; David, Justin R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the constraints imposed by global gravitational anomalies on parity odd induced transport coefficients in even dimensions for theories with chiral fermions, gravitinos and self dual tensors. The η-invariant for the large diffeomorphism corresponding to the T transformation on a torus constraints the coefficients in the thermal effective action up to mod 2. We show that the result obtained for the parity odd transport for gravitinos using global anomaly matching is consistent with the direct perturbative calculation. In d = 6 we see that the second Pontryagin class in the anomaly polynomial does not contribute to the η-invariant which provides a topological explanation of this observation in the `replacement rule'. We then perform a direct perturbative calculation for the contribution of the self dual tensor in d = 6 to the parity odd transport coefficient using the Feynman rules proposed by Gaumé and Witten. The result for the transport coefficient agrees with that obtained using matching of global anomalies.

  10. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  11. Bony anomaly of Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the seemingly rare occurrence of bone formation within the proximal superior aspect of Meckel's cave thus forming a bony foramen for the proximal trigeminal nerve to traverse. The anatomy of Meckel's cave is reviewed and the clinical potential for nerve compression from this bony anomaly discussed.

  12. Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter

    2013-07-16

    Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.

  13. On geoid heights and flexure of the lithosphere at seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. B.; Ribe, N. M.

    1984-12-01

    The sea surface height has now been mapped to an accuracy of better than ±1 m by using radar altimeters on board orbiting satellites. The major influence on the mean sea surface height is the marine geoid which is an equipotential surface. We have carried out preliminary studies of how oceanic volcanoes, which rise above the ocean floor as isolated seamounts and oceanic islands or linear ridges, contribute to the marine geoid. Simple one- and two-dimensional models have been constructed in which it is assumed that the oceanic lithosphere responds to volcanic loads as a thin elastic plate overlying a weak fluid substratum. Previous studies based on gravity and bathymetry data and uplift/subsidence patterns show that the effective flexural rigidity of oceanic lithosphere and the equivalent elastic thickness Te increase with the age of the lithosphere at the time of loading. The models predict that isolated seamounts emplaced on relatively young lithosphere on or near a mid-ocean ridge crest will be associated with relatively low amplitude geoid anomalies (about 0.4-0.5 m/km of height), while seamounts formed on relatively old lithosphere, on ridge flanks, will be associated with much higher amplitude anomalies (1.4-1.5 m/km). Studies of the Seasat altimetric geoid prepared by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory support these model predictions; geoid amplitudes are relatively low over the Mid-Pacific Mountains and Line Islands, which formed on or near a mid-ocean ridge crest, and relatively high over the Magellan Seamounts and Wake Guyots, which formed off ridge. Direct modeling of the altimetric geoid over these features is complicated, however, by the wide spacing of the satellite tracks (which can exceed 100 km) and poor bathymetric control beneath individual satellite tracks. In regions where multibeam bathymetric surveys are available, models can be constructed that fit the altimetric geoid to better than ±1 m. Studies of geoid anomalies over the Emperor seamount

  14. Use of knee height for the estimation of body height in Thai adult women.

    PubMed

    Chumpathat, Nopphanath; Rangsin, Ram; Changbumrung, Supranee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Durongritichai, Vanida; Kwanbunjan, Karunee

    2016-01-01

    Knee height has been the most frequently used measure for height prediction where full height is difficult to measure. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive equations using knee height to estimate the height of Thai women. The female participants were 18-59 years of age and lived in Bangkok or three surrounding provinces. They were assigned to one of two groups; the equation development group (n=488) and the equation validation group (n=188). Standing height and knee height were measured in duplicate using a stadiometer and a knee height calliper. Age and physical characteristics of the equation development group and the validate group were comparable. The measured heights showed a significant strongly positive correlation with the mean knee height (r=0.84, p<0.001). Mean knee height in a regression model exhibited the most accurate height prediction (adjusted R(2)=0.718, standard error of estimate=2.80), according to the equation "Height=38.1+2.45 (average knee height) - 0.051(age)". This study proposes a new height estimation equation for Thai adult women using knee height. The equation shows more estimation power than the previous studies conducted in Thailand.

  15. Echocardiographic assessment of Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed

    Booker, Oscar J; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a complex congenital lesion which primarily involves the tricuspid valve. The tricuspid leaflets are tethered to varying degrees to the right ventricular free wall and the ventricular septum often resulting in significant tricuspid regurgitation and a small functioning right ventricular chamber. Although the septal leaflet originates normally at the right atrioventricular junction, the proximal portion is often completely tethered to the ventricular septum resulting in a misconception and erroneous statements in many publications that its attachment is apically displaced. Although two-dimensional echocardiography represents the primary modality for the diagnosis of this anomaly, three-dimensional echocardiography provides incremental value in characterizing the extent and severity of tethering of individual tricuspid valve leaflets. This information is useful in surgical decision making whether to repair or replace the tricuspid valve.

  16. [Ectopia cordis and cardiac anomalies].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Alberto; Rodrigo, David; Luis, María Teresa; Pastor, Esteban; Galdeano, José Miguel; Esteban, Susana

    2002-11-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare disease that occurs in 5.5 to 7.9 per million live births. Only 267 cases had been reported as of 2001, most (95%) associated with other cardiac anomalies. We studied the cardiac malformations associated in 6 patients with ectopia cordis. Depending on where the defect was located, the cases of ectopia were classified into four groups: cervical, thoracic, thoraco-abdominal, and abdominal. All 6 patients died before the third day of life, 4 during delivery. Three of the patients were included in the thoracic group, whereas the other 3 belonged to the thoraco-abdominal group. All the patients had associated ventricular septal defects, 3 double-outlet right ventricle (50%) and the rest (50%) tetralogy of Fallot-pulmonary atresia. Two patients with double-outlet right ventricle presented mitral-valve pathology, a parachute valve and an atresic mitral valve. None of these cardiac anomalies have been reported to date.

  17. Four Decades of Hyperfine Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.; Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    Isotopic differences in the distribution of nuclear charge and magnetization give rise to "hyperfine structure anomalies" which were observed already in the 1950s. More recently, the distribution of nuclear magnetization has been found to complicate the interpretation of the measured hyperfine splittings in highly charged hydrogen-like ions. In this paper, results of numerical calculations for a few hydrogen-like systems (133Cs, 165Ho, 185,187Re and 209Bi) of current experimental interest are presented in terms of moments of the nuclear charge and magnetization distribution, thereby displaying directly the sensitivity and emphasizing the need for a better understanding of nuclear wavefunctions. In addition, we also present results of many-body perturbation theory calculations for Cs hyperfine anomalies, in connection with experiments planned at ISOLDE.

  18. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  19. Congenital pancreatic anomalies, variants, and conditions.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lauren F

    2012-05-01

    Understanding pancreatic development and the congenital anomalies and variants that result from alterations in normal development allows for better recognition of these anomalies at diagnostic imaging. This article reviews normal pancreatic embryology and anatomy, and the appearance of the more common developmental anomalies and ductal variants, with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Common mimics of masses are also covered.

  20. Syndromes and anomalies associated with cleft

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, R.

    2009-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are one of the commonest birth defects, and may be associated with other congenital anomalies. The majority of these orofacial clefts are nonsyndromic. A significant percentage of these clefts both syndromic and non-syndromic may have associated anomalies. Apart from reviewing other studies, this article also analyses a study of associated anomalies from a tertiary cleft centre in India. PMID:19884681

  1. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C.P.; Hamby, S.E.; Saleheen, D.; Hopewell, J.C.; Zeng, L.; Assimes, T.L.; Kanoni, S.; Willenborg, C.; Burgess, S.; Amouyel, P.; Anand, S.; Blankenberg, S.; Boehm, B.O.; Clarke, R.J.; Collins, R.; Dedoussis, G.; Farrall, M.; Franks, P.W.; Groop, L.; Hall, A.S.; Hamsten, A.; Hengstenberg, C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, E.; Kathiresan, S.; Kee, F.; König, I.R.; Kooner, J.; Lehtimäki, T.; März, W.; McPherson, R.; Metspalu, A.; Nieminen, M.S.; O’Donnell, C.J.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Peters, A.; Perola, M.; Reilly, M.P.; Ripatti, S.; Roberts, R.; Salomaa, V.; Shah, S.H.; Schreiber, S.; Siegbahn, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Veronesi, G.; Wareham, N.; Willer, C.J.; Zalloua, P.A.; Erdmann, J.; Deloukas, P.; Watkins, H.; Schunkert, H.; Danesh, J.; Thompson, J.R.; Samani, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested the association between a change in genetically determined height of 1 SD (6.5 cm) with the risk of CAD in 65,066 cases and 128,383 controls. Using individual-level genotype data from 18,249 persons, we also examined the risk of CAD associated with the presence of various numbers of height-associated alleles. To identify putative mechanisms, we analyzed whether genetically determined height was associated with known cardiovascular risk factors and performed a pathway analysis of the height-associated genes. RESULTS We observed a relative increase of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4 to 22.1; P<0.001) in the risk of CAD per 1-SD decrease in genetically determined height. There was a graded relationship between the presence of an increased number of height-raising variants and a reduced risk of CAD (odds ratio for height quartile 4 versus quartile 1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.84; P<0.001). Of the 12 risk factors that we studied, we observed significant associations only with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (accounting for approximately 30% of the association). We identified several overlapping pathways involving genes associated with both development and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS There is a primary association between a genetically determined shorter height and an increased risk of CAD, a link that is partly explained by the association between shorter height and an adverse lipid profile. Shared biologic processes that determine achieved height and the development of atherosclerosis may explain some of the association. PMID:25853659

  2. Fast Anomaly Discovery Given Duplicates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    skipping the computations for duplicate points in SN(ui) that have ci larger than k, the runtime complexity is enhanced significantly. That is, in...Fast anomaly discovery given duplicates Jay-Yoon Lee, U Kang, Danai Koutra, Christos Faloutsos Dec 2012 CMU-CS-12-146 School of Computer Science...ES) Carnegie Mellon University,School of Computer Science,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  3. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars.

  4. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.

    2009-05-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  5. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  6. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    DOE PAGES

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; ...

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space $M$ is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail $N$ = (2; 2) and $N$ = (0; 2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and $N$ = 2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads tomore » new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is K ahler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing K ahler class. For $N$ = (2; 2) theories in d = 2 and N = 2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the K ahler potential of $M$ follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Ultimately, along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.« less

  7. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam; Seiberg, Nathan; Theisen, Stefan

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space $M$ is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail $N$ = (2; 2) and $N$ = (0; 2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and $N$ = 2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is K ahler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing K ahler class. For $N$ = (2; 2) theories in d = 2 and N = 2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the K ahler potential of $M$ follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Ultimately, along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  8. Entanglement entropy and anomaly inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.

    2016-03-01

    We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on R1 ,2 in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1 +1 -dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with nontrivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the entangling surface. Here, we show using various methods that the entanglement entropy of the three-dimensional bulk theory is also sensitive to such boosts owing to parity-violating effects, and that the bulk response to a Lorentz boost precisely cancels the contribution coming from the domain wall CFT. We argue that this can naturally be interpreted as entanglement inflow (i.e., inflow of entanglement entropy analogous to the familiar Callan-Harvey effect) between the bulk and the domain-wall, mediated by the low-lying states in the entanglement spectrum. These results can be generally applied to 2 +1 -d topological phases of matter that have edge theories with gravitational anomalies, and provide a precise connection between the gravitational anomaly of the physical edge theory and the low-lying spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian.

  9. Surgical treatment of cloacal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Krstic, Z D; Lukac, M; Lukac, R; Smoljanic, Z; Vukadinovic, V; Varinac, D

    2001-05-01

    From 1989-1998 14 patients were treated with cloacal anomalies: 5 typical cloacas (PC), 5 posterior cloacas, and 4 cloacal exstrophies (CE); 12 underwent surgery. Four typical cloacas were resolved with posterior sagittal anorectovagino-urethroplasty (PSARVUP), whereas in the 5th total urogenital mobilization (TUM) was used. Three PCs were managed with transanorectal TUM and 2 with anterior TUM without opening the anal canal and rectum (without a protective colostomy). Two CEs were treated with atypical procedures. Two patients with CE died without surgery and 2 died after surgery due to complex associated anomalies. During postoperative follow-up of 1-8 years, 5 children had voluntary bowel movements and no soiling while the others had soiling with or without enemas; 1 had stress incontinence; 3 were on clean intermittent catheterization due to neurogenic bladder and were dry. PSARVUP provides a satisfactory result if there is no sacral anomaly. TUM makes this operation easier to perform. In patients with a PC it is sometimes possible using TUM to separate the urinary from the genital tract and remove the accessory urethra without opening the anus and rectum.

  10. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  11. Height and calories in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants.

  12. Uncertainties in derived temperature-height profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Nomographs were developed for relating uncertainty in temperature T to uncertainty in the observed height profiles of both pressure p and density rho. The relative uncertainty delta T/T is seen to depend not only upon the relative uncertainties delta P/P or delta rho/rho, and to a small extent upon the value of T or H, but primarily upon the sampling-height increment Delta h, the height increment between successive observations of p or delta. For a fixed value of delta p/p, the value of delta T/T varies inversely with Delta h. No limit exists in the fineness of usable height resolution of T which may be derived from densities, while a fine height resolution in pressure-height data leads to temperatures with unacceptably large uncertainties.

  13. Direct recovery of mean gravity anomalies from satellite to satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    The direct recovery was investigated of mean gravity anomalies from summed range rate observations, the signal path being ground station to a geosynchronous relay satellite to a close satellite significantly perturbed by the short wave features of the earth's gravitational field. To ensure realistic observations, these were simulated with the nominal orbital elements for the relay satellite corresponding to ATS-6, and for two different close satellites (one at about 250 km height, and the other at about 900 km height) corresponding to the nominal values for GEOS-C. The earth's gravitational field was represented by a reference set of potential coefficients up to degree and order 12, considered as known values, and by residual gravity anomalies obtained by subtracting the anomalies, implied by the potential coefficients, from their terrestrial estimates. It was found that gravity anomalies could be recovered from strong signal without using any a-priori terrestrial information, i.e. considering their initial values as zero and also assigning them a zero weight matrix. While recovering them from weak signal, it was necessary to use the a-priori estimate of the standard deviation of the anomalies to form their a-priori diagonal weight matrix.

  14. The Return of the Golan Heights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    interrupt water flow from the Golan Heights rivers; President Asad of Syria must instill peace m southern Lebanon; and Syria and Israel must reinitiate talks...have early warning stations; Israel must have a phased withdrawal from the Golan Heights; Syria must not interrupt water flow from the Golan Heights...DISARMAMENT ZONES, EARLY WARNING STATIONS, AND PHASED WITHDRAWAL 15 THREE. WATER 25 FOUR. PEACE IN SOUTHERN LEBANON 31 FIVE. REINITIATION OF TALKS 42 SDC

  15. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  16. Adult height, nutrition, and population health.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.

  17. Determinants of variation in adult body height.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri

    2003-04-01

    Final body height is achieved as the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this article is to review past studies on body height that have followed different scientific traditions. In modern Western societies, about 20% of variation in body height is due to environmental variation. In poorer environments, this proportion is probably larger, with lower heritability of body height as well as larger socioeconomic body height differences. The role of childhood environment is seen in the increase in body height during the 20th century simultaneously with the increase in the standard of living. The most important non-genetic factors affecting growth and adult body height are nutrition and diseases. Short stature is associated with poorer education and lower social position in adulthood. This is mainly due to family background, but other environmental factors in childhood also contribute to this association. Body height is a good indicator of childhood living conditions, not only in developing countries but also in modern Western societies. Future studies combining different scientific traditions in auxology are needed to create a more holistic view of body height.

  18. Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

    2003-01-01

    On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

  19. Ebstein Anomaly: An Overview for Nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnstad, Christine M; Hecker-Fernandes, Jill Renee; Fernandes, Regis

    2015-01-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart defect. Many nurses have probably never encountered this anomaly, with very few able to accurately depict the pathological anatomy of the condition. As technology further develops, providers are better equipped to recognize and manage Ebstein anomaly. There are important considerations for nurses when caring for an individual with Ebstein anomaly. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the condition exploring the pathophysiology, how patients typically present, and how to effectively care for a patient with Ebstein anomaly regarding medical and surgical courses of treatment. It is important for nurses to have a resource to reference on Ebstein anomaly, and the majority of current literature is solely based for medical providers. Furthermore, Ebstein patients may be seen on a variety of units in the hospital beyond cardiology (i.e., pregnant patient with a diagnosis of Ebstein anomaly).

  20. The genetic architecture of maize height.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Jason A; Romay, Maria C; Gore, Michael A; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; Zhang, Zhiwu; Millard, Mark J; Gardner, Candice A C; McMullen, Michael D; Holland, James B; Bradbury, Peter J; Buckler, Edward S

    2014-04-01

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we measured the plant height, ear height, flowering time, and node counts of plants grown in >64,500 plots across 13 environments. These plots contained >7300 inbreds representing most publically available maize inbreds in the United States and families of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) panel. Joint-linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), fine mapping in near isogenic lines (NILs), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were performed. The heritability of maize height was estimated to be >90%. Mapping NAM family-nested QTL revealed the largest explained 2.1 ± 0.9% of height variation. The effects of two tropical alleles at this QTL were independently validated by fine mapping in NIL families. Several significant associations found by GWAS colocalized with established height loci, including brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf1, dwarf plant1, and semi-dwarf2. GBLUP explained >80% of height variation in the panels and outperformed bootstrap aggregation of family-nested QTL models in evaluations of prediction accuracy. These results revealed maize height was under strong genetic control and had a highly polygenic genetic architecture. They also showed that multiple models of genetic architecture differing in polygenicity and effect sizes can plausibly explain a population's variation in maize height, but they may vary in predictive efficacy.

  1. The influence of recent climate change on tree height growth differs with species and spatial environment.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y H

    2011-02-16

    Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree species, but

  2. [Rare renal anomalies in childhood].

    PubMed

    Arambasić, Jadranka; Puseljić, Silvija; Angebrandt, Snjezana; Puseljić, Ivo

    2003-01-01

    Three patients with megacalycosis, a rare ren anomaly which includes dilatation of all ren calices, are presented. The symptoms of acute uroinfection were present in all three patients. The patients underwent clinical observation, laboratory testing, and renal ultrasound. Ultrasound revealed unilateral hydronephrosis in all three patients. Additional examinations included static and dynamic renal scintigraphy, voiding cystourethrography, and intravenous urography which pointed to unilateral megacalycosis. The symptoms of acute uroinfection were probably triggered by urinary stasis in dilated calices. Surgical intervention is not indicated in megacalycosis. The increasing incidence of uroinfection, urolithiasis and hematuria imposed the need of continuous follow-up in these patients.

  3. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  4. Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents: the Kangwha study. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.

  5. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  6. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  7. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  8. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  9. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  10. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.

  11. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces.

    PubMed

    Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1+1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1+1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2+1 dimensions.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.104 Ceiling..., 0 inches for a minimum of 50 percent of the room's floor area. The remaining area may have a ceiling with a minimum height of 5 feet, 0 inches. Minimum height under dropped ducts, beams, etc. shall be...

  13. ISHM Anomaly Lexicon for Rocket Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Buchanan, Aubri; Hensarling, Paula L.; Morris, Jonathan; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a comprehensive capability. An ISHM system must detect anomalies, identify causes of such anomalies, predict future anomalies, help identify consequences of anomalies for example, suggested mitigation steps. The system should also provide users with appropriate navigation tools to facilitate the flow of information into and out of the ISHM system. Central to the ability of the ISHM to detect anomalies is a clearly defined catalog of anomalies. Further, this lexicon of anomalies must be organized in ways that make it accessible to a suite of tools used to manage the data, information and knowledge (DIaK) associated with a system. In particular, it is critical to ensure that there is optimal mapping between target anomalies and the algorithms associated with their detection. During the early development of our ISHM architecture and approach, it became clear that a lexicon of anomalies would be important to the development of critical anomaly detection algorithms. In our work in the rocket engine test environment at John C. Stennis Space Center, we have access to a repository of discrepancy reports (DRs) that are generated in response to squawks identified during post-test data analysis. The DR is the tool used to document anomalies and the methods used to resolve the issue. These DRs have been generated for many different tests and for all test stands. The result is that they represent a comprehensive summary of the anomalies associated with rocket engine testing. Fig. 1 illustrates some of the data that can be extracted from a DR. Such information includes affected transducer channels, narrative description of the observed anomaly, and the steps used to correct the problem. The primary goal of the anomaly lexicon development efforts we have undertaken is to create a lexicon that could be used in support of an associated health assessment database system (HADS) co-development effort. There are a number of significant

  14. Roentgenographic measurement of lumbar intervertebral disc height.

    PubMed

    Andersson, G B; Schultz, A; Nathan, A; Irstam, L

    1981-01-01

    The influences of differences in both intervertebral motion segment orientations and in reader judgments on measurements of the apparent intervertebral disc heights in lateral roentgenographs of the lumbar spine were examined. Forty-nine roentgenographs were obtained of nine discs that were titled laterally up to +/- 10 degrees, and rotated longitudinally up to +/- 20 degrees. Three orthopaedic surgeons and three radiologists measured disc heights from five of these roentgenographs, all using the same measurement method. The differences in apparent height that resulted from the orientation changes and differences in judgments among the six readers were considerable, usually of the order of one half of the nominal disc height. The results show that, while roentgenographic measurements can be used to estimate disc height, accurate measurements cannot readily be made from routine roentgenographs, and the interpretation should always be cautious.

  15. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ferrare, Richard

    2012-12-14

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  16. A hyperspectral imagery anomaly detection algorithm based on local three-dimensional orthogonal subspace projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Wen, Gongjian

    2015-10-01

    Anomaly detection (AD) becomes increasingly important in hyperspectral imagery analysis with many practical applications. Local orthogonal subspace projection (LOSP) detector is a popular anomaly detector which exploits local endmembers/eigenvectors around the pixel under test (PUT) to construct background subspace. However, this subspace only takes advantage of the spectral information, but the spatial correlat ion of the background clutter is neglected, which leads to the anomaly detection result sensitive to the accuracy of the estimated subspace. In this paper, a local three dimensional orthogonal subspace projection (3D-LOSP) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, under the jointly use of both spectral and spatial information, three directional background subspaces are created along the image height direction, the image width direction and the spectral direction, respectively. Then, the three corresponding orthogonal subspaces are calculated. After that, each vector along three direction of the local cube is projected onto the corresponding orthogonal subspace. Finally, a composite score is given through the three direction operators. In 3D-LOSP, the anomalies are redefined as the target not only spectrally different to the background, but also spatially distinct. Thanks to the addition of the spatial information, the robustness of the anomaly detection result has been improved greatly by the proposed 3D-LOSP algorithm. It is noteworthy that the proposed algorithm is an expansion of LOSP and this ideology can inspire many other spectral-based anomaly detection methods. Experiments with real hyperspectral images have proved the stability of the detection result.

  17. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  18. Surgical management of Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed

    Stulak, John M; Dearani, Joseph A; Danielson, Gordon K

    2007-01-01

    Ebstein's malformation is a congenital anomaly of the tricuspid valve and right ventricle. Surgical repair of Ebstein's anomaly improves functional class and exercise tolerance, eliminates right-to-left intracardiac shunting (if present), and reduces the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. As a result, quality of life and survival are improved. Because of the variable degree of malformation present, repair is predicated on favorable anatomic factors, most importantly the arrangement of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve. When anatomic derangements threaten a durable tricuspid valve repair, valve replacement with protection of the conduction tissue and right coronary artery should be performed. The vast majority of patients can undergo a biventricular repair. The application of the bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis is reserved for patients with poor right ventricular function. Freedom from reoperation after tricuspid valve repair is similar when compared with valve replacement. In the current era, overall early mortality after surgical repair in children and adults has fallen to less than 3% in experienced centers. Surgical treatment of the symptomatic neonate remains a significant challenge, with approaches that include either a biventricular or single ventricle algorithm.

  19. Minor congenital anomalies and ataxic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of minor congenital anomalies was examined in 36 patients with ataxic cerebral palsy, in unaffected family members, and in 100 unrelated control subjects. None of the control subjects or family members had more than four anomalies, and 25 of 36 (69%) of the patients had more than four. The distribution of anomalies differed considerably, with 60% of the index cases having seven or more, and 94% of the controls having three or less. The number occurring in the patients was significantly more than in their relatives. Of the 25 patients with more than four anomalies, 16 (64%) had undergone potentially adverse perinatal or early postnatal events. Thus minor congenital anomalies were considerably more frequent in those with ataxic cerebral palsy than in related or unrelated control subjects. These anomalies may be markers of early prenatal factors that contributed to the adverse outcome either directly or by predisposing to perinatal difficulties. PMID:2751330

  20. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed

    David, T J

    1982-06-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated.

  1. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated. PMID:7092316

  2. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  3. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  4. Galilean anomalies and their effect on hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash

    2016-03-01

    We study flavor and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to the relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the flavor and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular, the Milne boost symmetry remains nonanomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to Galilean fluids, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to the Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids, to include torsion and a conserved spin current in the vielbein formalism. Interestingly, we find that even in the absence of spin current and torsion the entropy currents in the two formalisms are different: while the usual entropy current gets a contribution from the gravitational anomaly, the entropy current in the vielbein formalism does not have any anomaly-induced part.

  5. Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi

    1996-02-01

    The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.

  6. The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, G.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

  7. Global isostatic geoid anomalies for plate and boundary layer models of the lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, B. H.

    1981-01-01

    Commonly used one dimensional geoid models predict that the isostatic geoid anomaly over old ocean basins for the boundary layer thermal model of the lithosphere is a factor of two greater than that for the plate model. Calculations presented, using the spherical analogues of the plate and boundary layer thermal models, show that for the actual global distribution of plate ages, one dimensional models are not accurate and a spherical, fully three dimensional treatment is necessary. The maximum difference in geoid heights predicted for the two models is only about two meters. The thermal structure of old lithosphere is unlikely to be resolvable using global geoid anomalies. Stripping the effects of plate aging and a hypothetical uniform, 35 km, isostatically-compensated continental crust from the observed geoid emphasizes that the largest-amplitude geoid anomaly is the geoid low of almost 120 m over West Antarctica, a factor of two greater than the low of 60 m over Ceylon.

  8. North Pacific - North American Circulation and Precipitation Anomalies Associated With the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 1275-1277. Lorenz, D. J., and D. L. Hartmann, 2006: The effect of the MJO on the North American Monsoon . J. Climate ...extratropical wave train extending from southeast Asia into the NPNA region. ................................................ 92 Figure 55. Wheeler phase...extratropical wave train extending from southeast Asia into the NPNA region......................... 98 Figure 59. 200-hPa height anomaly for a composite of

  9. Classical anomalies for spinning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Jorge; Plyushchay, Mikhail

    1998-02-01

    We discuss the phenomenon of classical anomaly. It is observed for 3D Berezin-Marinov (BM), Barducci-Casalbuoni-Lusanna (BCL) and Cortés-Plyushchay-Velázquez (CPV) pseudoclassical spin particle models. We show that quantum mechanically these different models correspond to the same P, T-invariant system of planar fermions, but the quantum system has global symmetries being not reproducible classically in full in any of the models. We demonstrate that the specific U(1) gauge symmetry characterized by the opposite coupling constants of spin s = + {1}/{2} and s = - {1}/{2} states has a natural classical analog in the CPV model but can be reproduced in the BM and BCL models in an obscure and rather artificial form. We also show that the BM and BCL models quantum mechanically are equivalent in any odd-dimensional space-time, but describe different quantum systems in even space-time dimensions.

  10. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  11. The epigenesis of wariness of heights.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Audun; Campos, Joseph J; Anderson, David I; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Witherington, David C; Ueno, Mika; Poutrain-Lejeune, Laure; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2013-07-01

    Human infants with little or no crawling experience surprisingly show no wariness of heights, but such wariness becomes exceptionally strong over the life span. Neither depth perception nor falling experiences explain this extraordinary developmental shift; however, something about locomotor experience does. The crucial component of locomotor experience in this emotional change is developments in visual proprioception-the optically based perception of self-movement. Precrawling infants randomly assigned to drive a powered mobility device showed significantly greater visual proprioception, and significantly greater wariness of heights, than did controls. More important, visual proprioception mediated the relation between wariness of heights and locomotor experience. In a separate study, crawling infants' visual proprioception predicted whether they would descend onto the deep side of a visual cliff, a finding that confirms the importance of visual proprioception in the development of wariness of heights.

  12. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  13. Depth and geoid anomalies over oceanic hotspot swells: A global survey

    SciTech Connect

    Monnereau, M.; Cazenave, A. )

    1990-09-10

    The broad depth and geoid anomalies associated with 23 hotspot swells in oceanic areas have been analyzed. Maximum height and geographical extent of the topographic swell, and of the geoid anomaly as well, have been measured for each hotspot. The results indicate a clear increase of the topographic swell height with age of the underlying lithosphere, from values in the range 300-500 m at young ages to values in the range 1,500-2,000 m at ages larger than 100 Ma. The geoid anomaly amplitude also increases with plate age from nearly zero close to mid-ocean ridges, to 6-8 m over old plates. On the other hand, the geographical extent of the swell does not show any clear relationship with plate age. The mean lateral extent of swells range from 1,000 to 1,500 km. Swells located close to spreading ridges show a significant non zero depth anomaly but are associated with negligible geoid signal. These results complete those of a previous study where the apparent compensation depth of oceanic hotspot swells was showed to increase linearly with the square root of plate age and coincide roughly with the base of the thermal lithosphere. This trend may either be interpreted in terms of lithospheric thinning or dynamical support. Besides both seem necessary to explain the observed bathymetry, in proportion evolving with aging of the lithosphere.

  14. Manifestation of the petrogeneration zones of Northern and the Bering seas in ground magnetic anomalies and anomalies of satellite Champ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Krasinsky, Egor; Petrova, Alevtina; Demina, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper are showed results of studying of specificity of a deep structure of zones of petrogeneration Northern and the Bering seas on aeromagnetic and satellite magnetometric datas. Research lateral and vertical heterogeneitys an earth's crust of Northern sea is carried out on the basis of the analysis of measurements of satellite Champ at height of 100 km and the digital database created on materials of sea shooting of a geomagnetic field, executed on non-magnetic schooner "Zarya". On sea measurements in Northern sea through large oil fields and gas ( Frigg, Ekofisk, Forties trough, Leman, etc.). Geomagnetic sections for an interval of depths from 1 up to 30 km are constructed. It has allowed to study character of distribution of magnetization of breeds of a cover, horizontal lamination intracore layers of an earth's crust and to allocate in zones petrogeneration synvertical fluidoconduct zones the channels described by alternation of not magnetic and low-magnetic layers. They were showed on geomagnetic sections as permeable zones quasi- laminated structures with the lowered magnetic properties in an interval of depths from 8 up to 28 km. Comparison to a map of the magnetic anomalies measured at height of 100 km by satellite Champ, has shown, that areas of the greatest petrocongestions North Sea рифта at height of 100 km are dated for a zone of gradients and a minimum of northeast displacement of regional anomalies of western and east blocks of Northern sea. It corresponds to representations about an orientation of a fissuring zone and the increased size of a geothermal gradient North Sea rift and is corresponded position allocated on hydromagnetic structures deep fluidoconduct channels. Thus, distribution to water areas of deposits of deposits is emphasized not only low-magnetic areas in a thickness of a sedimentary cover where they are directly located, but also by not magnetic lenses in breeds of the base spreading it in intervals of

  15. Hemispheric Circulation Regimes Associated with Predominant Anomaly Patterns of Wintertime Temperature Distribution over the Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukougawa, H.; Mabuchi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Characteristics of extratropical planetary flow regimes in the Northern Hemisphere associated with prevailing spatial patterns of temperature anomaly distribution in the winter season (DJF) over the Far East are examined based on 2D phase space spanned by the leading two EOFs of the Far East low-frequency temperature variation by the use of ERA-40 reanalysis dataset from 1957/58 to 2001/02 winter and NOAA OLR dataset from 1979/80 to 2001/02 winter. The first EOF of 10-day low-pass filtered 850-hPa temperature anomaly in the winter season over the Far East (25˚N-50˚N, 120˚E-150˚E) represents a coherent temperature variation over the whole domain while the second EOF corresponds to a meridional dipole pattern with a node around 40˚N. These two leading EOFs explain 76% of the total temperature variance over the Far East. Regression analysis of 250-hPa height anomaly with respect to the corresponding PCs shows that EOF1 and EOF2 are related to the Eurasian (EU) and the West Pacific (WP) pattern, respectively. The PDF of 850-hPa low-frequency temperature anomaly is estimated by the kernel density estimation method of Kimoto and Ghil (1993) in 2D phase space spanned by the leading 2 PCs. Inhomogeneity of the observed PDF from the bivariate Gaussianity is evaluated by a nonparametric method, and we find the existence of two distinct regimes with significantly greater PDF than the Gaussianity: One regime (regime A) represents an atmospheric state with low temperature anomaly over the whole Far East region, especially over Western Japan. The other regime (regime B) corresponds to a state with a prevailing weak positive temperature anomaly over the Far East. Finally, a composite analysis of 250-hPa height anomaly associated with regime A based on the 2D phase space reveals its time evolution as follows: Blocking developing over the Alaska 15 days (day -15) before the mature phase of regime A has a retrograde phase velocity and resides over the Sea of Okhotsk. After day

  16. Uhl's anomaly: a difficult prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vaujois, Laurence; van Doesburg, Nicolaas; Raboisson, Marie-Josée

    2015-03-01

    Uhl's anomaly is an evolutive disease leading to terminal right ventricular failure. The most difficult differential diagnosis at presentation is the Ebstein disease. We describe the evolution of a foetus with Uhl's anomaly from 21 to 30 weeks of gestation, with progressive reduction in the right ventricular anterior myocardium suggestive of apoptosis, leading to foetal demise.

  17. Sources of Near Side Lunar Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Nicola C.; Hood, Lon L.; Halekas, J. S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar Prospector magnetometer data has been used to identify a number of nearside magnetic anomalies. Some of the features identified appear to correlate with impact ejecta, supporting a basin ejecta origin to the nearside anomalies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  19. Magnitude Anomalies and Propagation of Local Phases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-31

    statistically significant variation of magnitude anomalies versus one of this above parameters. A contrario, we observed a significant dependance between...enough to demand a more detailed analysis. III - Local dependance of magnitude anomalies. A smoothing of our data on all quakes originating in the same

  20. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    PubMed

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  1. Evaluation of proper height for squatting stool.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik

    2008-05-01

    Many jobs and activities in people's daily lives have them in squatting postures. Jobs such as housekeeping, farming and welding require various squatting activities. It is speculated that prolonged squatting without any type of supporting stool would gradually and eventually impose musculoskeletal injuries on workers. This study aims to examine the proper height of the stool according to the position of working materials for the squatting worker. A total of 40 male and female college students and 10 female farmers participated in the experiment to find the proper stool height. Student participants were asked to sit and work in three different positions: floor level of 50 mm; ankle level of 200 mm; and knee level of 400 mm. They were then provided with stools of various heights and asked to maintain a squatting work posture. For each working position, they were asked to write down their thoughts on a preferred stool height. A Likert summated rating method as well as pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate user preference for provided stools under conditions of different working positions. Under a similar experimental procedure, female farmers were asked to indicate their body part discomfort (BPD) on a body chart before and after performing the work. Statistical analysis showed that comparable results were found from both evaluation measures. When working position is below 50 mm, the proper stool height is 100 or should not be higher than 150 mm. When working position is 200 mm, the proper stool height is 150 mm. When working position is 400 mm, the proper stool height is 200 mm. Thus, it is strongly recommended to use proper height of stools with corresponding working position. Moreover, a wearable chair prototype was designed so that workers in a squatting posture do not have to carry and move the stool from one place to another. This stool should ultimately help to relieve physical stress and hence promote the health of squatting workers. This study sought

  2. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  3. Anomalies of neutron field of the Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Natalia

    This work is devoted to the researches of time and spatial heterogeneity of thermal neurtron flux (Fn) density in the troposphere of the Earth. We had already received the values of thermal neutron flux density on the surface of the Earth in the European part of Russia. The large-scale monitoring of thermal neutron flux density was carried out on structural cross-section from Drake Strait in the Atlantic Ocean to the high latitudes of Arctic. We observe the increase of Fn from 44о N to 59о N, from 0,4 to 2,9 •10-3 н/(c•cм2). The values of Fn were received in latitude Novorossiysk (0,4•10-3 n/(c•sm2)) , Moskow (0,7-1,5•10-3 n/(c•sm2)), Arhangelsk (1,3•10-3 n/(c•sm2)). High-rise dependance of the thermal neutron flux density on the surface of the Earth and in troposphere during transcontinental flights was researched. With the increasing of height from 0 to 8000 m the thermal neutron flux density rises to 180•10-3 н/(c•cм2) The measurements were carried out in latitude of Spitsbergen. The value of thermal neutron flux density on the North pole was measured. Fn is equal to 0,7•10-3 n/(c•sm2)) 890 20/ in North latitude. Recently it has been shown, that thermal neutrons render appreciable influence on alive organisms [Matveeva and etc., 2004, Masunaga S., 2001]. Abmormal increases of thermal neutron flux density are revealed in flora biogeocenosis. Daily background Fn demonstrate the specific abnormal flares for every biocenosis or biotope long-lasting (for tens of minutes) Fn - meaning during the «flares» in biogeocenosis depends on the contains of flora community and can reach 104 n/(с m2). [Plotnikova N.V., Siroeshkin A.V., 2005]. The researches of the neutron field in the World Ocean were received at the time of transatlantic expedition by the programme of RAS «Meridian» (2006, 2008). Abnormal increasing Fn had being observed in the area of equator and between 310N to 540N and 330S to 530S Moreover, the coordinates of these

  4. The strong freshwater anomaly during the onset of the 2015/2016 El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparin, F.; Roemmich, D.

    2016-06-01

    The strong freshwater anomaly in the equatorial Pacific is investigated during the onset of the 2015/2016 El Niño using oceanic observational data sets and atmospheric reanalyzes. The 2015 salinity patterns are marked by a large equatorial freshwater anomaly whose extensive spatial and large amplitude characteristics have not previously been captured in the 2004-2014 Argo record. As the main contributors of the freshwater budget, zonal advection and surface forcing have similar amplitude but with maxima located at different longitudes around the dateline. The comparison of the substantial rainfall and westerly winds observed in 2015 with the 2009 and 1997 El Niño onset years shows that 2015 characteristics combine both typical salinity-related patterns of Central and Eastern Pacific El Niños. Dynamically, this large freshwater anomaly causes a positive steric height anomaly in the western Pacific and increases eastward surface acceleration at the SSS front due to the zonal pressure gradient.

  5. Congenital renal anomalies detected in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Muttarak, M; Sriburi, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the types of congenital renal anomalies detected in adulthood, the clinical presentation and complications of these renal anomalies, and the most useful imaging modality in detecting a renal anomaly. Materials and methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. Between January 2007 and January 2011, the clinical data and imaging studies of 28 patients older than 18 years diagnosed with renal anomaly at the authors’ institution were retrospectively reviewed. Renal anomalies in this study included only those with abnormality in position and in form. Results Of these 28 patients, 22 underwent imaging studies and their results constituted the material of this study. Of the 22 patients, 14 had horseshoe kidneys (HSK), four had crossed renal ectopia and four had malrotation. Sixteen patients were men and six were women. The patients ranged in age from 19 to 74 years (mean age 51.1 years). Clinical presentations were abdominal pain (13), fever (13), haematuria (4), palpable mass (2), asymptomatic (2), polyuria (1) dysuria (1), blurred vision (1), and headache with weakness of left extremities (1). Imaging studies included abdominal radiograph (15), intravenous pyelography (IVP) (8), retrograde pyelography (RP) (4), ultrasonography (US) (7), and computed tomography (CT) (9). Associated complications included urinary tract stones (17), urinary tract infection (16), hydronephrosis (12), and tumours (2). Abdominal radiograph suggested renal anomalies in nine out of 15 studies. IVP, RP, US and CT suggested anomalies in all patients who had these studies performed. However, CT was the best imaging modality to evaluate anatomy, function and complications of patients with renal anomalies. Conclusion HSK was the most common renal anomaly, with abdominal pain and fever being the most common presentations. UTI and stones were the most common complications. IVP, RP, US and CT can be used to diagnose renal

  6. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, Melissa

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the

  7. Interpretation of long- and short-wavelength magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeNoyer, John M.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Magset was launched on October 30, 1979. More than a decade of examining existing data, devising appropriate models of the global magnetic field, and extending methods for interpreting long-wavelength magnetic anomalies preceded this launch Magnetic data collected by satellite can be interrupted by using a method of analysis that quantitively describes the magnetic field resulting from three-dimensional geologic structures that are bounded by an arbitrary number of polygonal faces, Each face my have any orientation and three or more sides. At each point of the external field, the component normal to each face is obtained by using an expression for the solid angle subtended by a generalized polygon. The "cross" of tangential components are relatively easy to obtain for the same polygons. No approximations have been made related to orbit height that restrict the dimensions of the polygons relative to the distance from the external field points. This permits the method to be used to model shorter wavelength anomalies obtained from aircraft or ground surveys. The magnetic fields for all the structures considered are determine in the same rectangular coordinate system. The coordinate system is in depended from the orientation of geologic trends and permits multiple structures or bodies to be included in the same magnetic field calculations. This single reference system also simplified adjustments in position and direction to account for earth curvature in regional interpretation.

  8. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  9. Collie Eye Anomaly in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhardt, L; Hässig, M; Spiess, B

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, the results of 3'527 eye examinations in 6 different breeds affected with Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) over a period of 8 years (1999 - 2007) are described. CEA was divided into three main ophthalmoscopic features, a) choroidal hypoplasia (CRH), b) CRH and coloboma and c) coloboma alone. Of the 101 Smooth Collies 8.9 % showed signs of CRH, whereas 36.9 % of Rough Collies were affected with CRH, 2.8 % with CRH and coloboma and 0.38 % with coloboma alone. Choroidal hypoplasia was present in 13.1 %, CRH and coloboma in 1.8 % and coloboma alone in 0.2 % of the Shetland Sheepdogs. Only one Australian Shepherd dog had CRH, while 0.7 % of the Border Collies were affected with CRH. None of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers were affected with CEA. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CEA between males and females, nor was there any relation between coat colors. Significant differences could be shown between dogs younger or older than 8 weeks at first examination. CEA was more often diagnosed in dogs younger than 8 weeks within the Rough Collie and Shetland Sheepdog.

  10. Approach for a Global Height Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihde, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Hermann Drewes, Christoph Foerste, Thomas Gruber, Gunter Liebsch, Roland Pail, Laura Sanchez For Earth system monitoring the heights are main parameters for global changes. Physical heights are potential differences of the outer Earth gravity field at different positions. Long term monitoring of the vertical component of the Earth surface needs a standardized defined and realized global reference relating the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth. In the last two decades, in several working groups of the International Association of Geodesy were different concepts for definition and realization of global height reference system discussed. Furthermore, the satellite gravity missions have the Earth gravity field data basis general extended. So far, it is possible to develop the present local and regional height reference systems concepts to a global approach. The presented proposal has to be understood as a model that consider the present possibilities and actual needs for the realization of a global height reference system. It includes aspects for the combination of observations and products representing the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth.

  11. Epigenetic and genetic components of height regulation

    PubMed Central

    Benonisdottir, Stefania; Oddsson, Asmundur; Helgason, Agnar; Kristjansson, Ragnar P.; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Oskarsdottir, Arna; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Davidsson, Olafur B.; Arnadottir, Gudny A.; Sulem, Gerald; Jensson, Brynjar O.; Holm, Hilma; Alexandersson, Kristjan F.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Walters, G. Bragi; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Ward, Lucas D.; Sigurdsson, Jon K.; Iordache, Paul D.; Frigge, Michael L.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Helgason, Hannes; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Sulem, Patrick; Stefansson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Adult height is a highly heritable trait. Here we identified 31.6 million sequence variants by whole-genome sequencing of 8,453 Icelanders and tested them for association with adult height by imputing them into 88,835 Icelanders. Here we discovered 13 novel height associations by testing four different models including parent-of-origin (|β|=0.4–10.6 cm). The minor alleles of three parent-of-origin signals associate with less height only when inherited from the father and are located within imprinted regions (IGF2-H19 and DLK1-MEG3). We also examined the association of these sequence variants in a set of 12,645 Icelanders with birth length measurements. Two of the novel variants, (IGF2-H19 and TET1), show significant association with both adult height and birth length, indicating a role in early growth regulation. Among the parent-of-origin signals, we observed opposing parental effects raising questions about underlying mechanisms. These findings demonstrate that common variations affect human growth by parental imprinting. PMID:27848971

  12. A novel approach to improve numerical weather prediction skills by using anomaly integration and historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xindong; Che, Yuzhang; Chang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Using the concept of anomaly integration and historical climate data, we have developed a novel operational framework to implement deterministic numerical weather prediction within 15 days. Real-case validation shows pronounced improvements in the forecasts of global geopotential heights in 20 out of 30 cases with the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.0. Seven other cases are marginally improved, and only three are deteriorated, in which all are ameliorated within the first-week period. The average of the 30 cases shows an obvious increase of anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and a decrease of root mean square error (RMSE) of the geopotential height over global, hemispherical, and tropical zones. Significant amelioration on tropical circulation is displayed within the first-week prediction. The forecasting skill is extended by 0.6 day in terms of days of the ACC greater than 0.6 for 500 hPa 30 case averaged geopotential height on global scale. The 30 case mean ACC and RMSE of 500 hPa temperature show the increment of 0.2 and -1.6 K, respectively, in the first-week prediction. In the case of January 2008, much more reasonable horizontal distribution and vertical structure are achieved in bias-corrected model geopotential height, temperature, relative humidity, and horizontal wind components in comparison to reanalysis data. In spite of a need for additional storage of historical modeling data, the new method does not increase computational costs and therefore is suitable for routine application.

  13. The difference between the Weil height and the canonical height on elliptic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Joseph H.

    1990-10-01

    Estimates for the difference of the Weil height and the canonical height of points on elliptic curves are used for many purposes, both theoretical and computational. In this note we give an explicit estimate for this difference in terms of the j-invariant and discriminant of the elliptic curve. The method of proof, suggested by Serge Lang, is to use the decomposition of the canonical height into a sum of local heights. We illustrate one use for our estimate by computing generators for the Mordell-Weil group in three examples.

  14. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  15. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  16. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abulezz, Tarek; Talaat, Mohamed; Elsani, Asem; Allam, Karam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome. PMID:27833283

  17. The height limit of a siphon

    PubMed Central

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-01-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion. PMID:26628323

  18. The height limit of a siphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-12-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion.

  19. Relative Width and Height of Handwritten Letter.

    PubMed

    Lizega Rika, Joseba

    2017-02-28

    This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the height of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold. With regard to the height of letters, texts written by between 18 and 21 writers of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas texts that did not correlate were within the threshold value. Regarding both the width and the height of letters, of 21 writers, texts written by between 19 and 21 individuals were found to correlate strongly.

  20. The height of watermelons with wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15-22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067-83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions.

  1. Evidence of Inbreeding Depression on Human Height

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, Ruth; Eklund, Niina; Pirastu, Nicola; Kuningas, Maris; McEvoy, Brian P.; Esko, Tõnu; Corre, Tanguy; Davies, Gail; Kaakinen, Marika; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Kristiansson, Kati; Havulinna, Aki S.; Gögele, Martin; Vitart, Veronique; Tenesa, Albert; Aulchenko, Yurii; Hayward, Caroline; Johansson, Åsa; Boban, Mladen; Ulivi, Sheila; Robino, Antonietta; Boraska, Vesna; Igl, Wilmar; Wild, Sarah H.; Zgaga, Lina; Amin, Najaf; Theodoratou, Evropi; Polašek, Ozren; Girotto, Giorgia; Lopez, Lorna M.; Sala, Cinzia; Lahti, Jari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Prokopenko, Inga; Kals, Mart; Viikari, Jorma; Yang, Jian; Pouta, Anneli; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kähönen, Mika; Milani, Lili; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Räikkönen, Katri; Masciullo, Corrado; Starr, John M.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Esposito, Laura; Kolčić, Ivana; Farrington, Susan M.; Oostra, Ben; Zemunik, Tatijana; Campbell, Harry; Kirin, Mirna; Pehlic, Marina; Faletra, Flavio; Porteous, David; Pistis, Giorgio; Widén, Elisabeth; Salomaa, Veikko; Koskinen, Seppo; Fischer, Krista; Lehtimäki, Terho; Heath, Andrew; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Madden, Pamela A. F.; d'Adamo, Pio; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Dunlop, Malcolm; Rudan, Igor; Gasparini, Paolo; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Deary, Ian J.; Toniolo, Daniela; Eriksson, Johan G.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli T.; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Uitterlinden, André; Visscher, Peter M.; Wilson, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%–90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2×10−20). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance. PMID:22829771

  2. The Russian contribution in WDMAM-2011 magnetic anomalies and anomalies of satellite Champ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livinova, Tamara; Glebovsky, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    In VSEGEI is created the renovated digital cartographical model of an anomalous magnetic field (AMF) of territory of Russia and adjacent aquatory of scale 1:2 500000 on the basis of the available base summary digital materials prepared at various times by two organizations: VSEGEI and VNIIOkeangeologia. For this purpose uniform technological rules which have provided satisfactory synthesis of digital data files of an anomalous magnetic field in scale 1:2 500000 have been developed and realized. As a result of processing digital data file AMF the divergences reached 200 нТл, have been eliminated. For inclusion in WDMAM-2011 the Russian side the digital model counted on height 1 km on a grid 5х5км is offered. Anomalous values are designed from normal field VSEGEI of an epoch of 1965. The magnetic grid (5x5 km) within the Russian continental shelf compiled in VNIIOkeangeologia was leveled, adjusted and merged with those created in VSEGEI on shore of Russian Federation. Data processing is made by software Geosoft. Russian magnetic database in the Arctic Ocean was created as a result of adjusting of all historical and recent magnetic data sets, collected several organizations during the period about 40 years. Within the deep part of the Arctic Ocean this information was leveled, adjusted and combined with all available US magnetic data sets under cooperative project between and US Naval Research Laboratory. A result of this compilation is presented by grid of magnetic anomalies (5x5 km) that was used in the CAMP-GM project.

  3. Magnetic and gravity anomalies in the Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The cleaning and magnetic tape storage of spherical Earth processing programs are reported. These programs include: NVERTSM which inverts total or vector magnetic anomaly data on a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; SMFLD which utilizes output from NVERTSM to compute total or vector magnetic anomaly fields for a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; NVERTG; and GFLD. Abstracts are presented for papers dealing with the mapping and modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies, and with the verification of crustal components in satellite data.

  4. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  5. Recent Advances in Ionospheric Anomalies detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Anton; Vyacheslav, Khattatov

    2016-07-01

    The variability of the parameters of the ionosphere and ionospheric anomalies are the subject of intensive research. It is widely known and studied in the literature ionospheric disturbances caused by solar activity, the passage of the terminator, artificial heating of high-latitude ionosphere, as well as seismic events. Each of the above types of anomalies is the subject of study and analysis. Analysis of these anomalies will provide an opportunity to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of ionospheric disturbances. To solve this problem are encouraged to develop a method of modeling the ionosphere, based on the assimilation of large amounts of observational data.

  6. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  7. Congenital anomalies of the inner ear: introducing a new classification of labyrinthine anomalies.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, S; Sando, I

    1979-01-01

    In a literature review of 108 articles a special effort was made to find and classify inner ear anomalies and diseases associated with inner ear anomalies. This study showed the following. Most of the diseases associated with inner ear anomalies are also associated with anomalies in other parts of the body. Hereditary characteristics comprise the most common etiological factor among the diseases associated with inner ear anomalies. Among anomalies observed in the cochlea, the vestibule, and the semicircular canals, anomalies in the cochlea are most frequently associated with various diseases and were observed in 30 of 40 diseases. Anomalies of the vestibule were observed in 25 diseases, and those of the semicircular canals in 18 diseases. Anomalies in both the osseous and the membranous labyrinth were most frequently associated with the diseases studied, as they were observed to occur with 10 of the 43 diseases. In this paper a new classification system for labyrinthine anomalies is introduced, based on this study of the literature.

  8. Infrared focal plane performance in the South Atlantic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junga, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    Proton-induced pulse height distributions (PHD's) in Si:XX detectors were studied analytically and experimentally. In addition, a preliminary design for a flight experiment to characterize the response of Si:XX detectors to the trapped proton environment and verify PHD models was developed. PHD's were computed for two orbit altitudes for a variety of shielding configurations. Most of the proton-induced pulses have amplitudes less that about 3.5 x 10(exp 5) e-h pairs. Shielding has a small effect on the shape of the PHD's. The primary effect of shielding is to reduce the total number of pulses produced. Proton-induced PHD's in a Si:Sb focal plane array bombarded by a unidirectional 67-MeV beam were measured. The maximum pulse height recorded was 6 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The distribution had two peaks: the larger peak corresponded to 3.8 x 10(exp 5) pairs and the smaller peak to 1.2 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The maximum pulse height and the larger peak are within a factor of two of predicted values. The low-energy peak was not expected, but is believed to be an artifact of inefficient charge collection in the detector. The planned flight experiment will be conducted on a Space Shuttle flight. Lockheed's helium extended life dewar (HELD) will be used to provide the required cryogenic environment for the detector. Two bulk Si:Sb arrays and two Si:As impurity band conduction arrays will be tested. The tests will be conducted while the Space Shuttle passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly. PHD's will be recorded and responsivity changes tracked. This experiment will provide a new database on proton-induced PHD's, compare two infrared detector technologies in a space environment, and provide the data necessary to validate PHD modeling.

  9. Infrared focal plane performance in the South Atlantic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junga, Frank A.

    1989-09-01

    Proton-induced pulse height distributions (PHD's) in Si:XX detectors were studied analytically and experimentally. In addition, a preliminary design for a flight experiment to characterize the response of Si:XX detectors to the trapped proton environment and verify PHD models was developed. PHD's were computed for two orbit altitudes for a variety of shielding configurations. Most of the proton-induced pulses have amplitudes less that about 3.5 x 10(exp 5) e-h pairs. Shielding has a small effect on the shape of the PHD's. The primary effect of shielding is to reduce the total number of pulses produced. Proton-induced PHD's in a Si:Sb focal plane array bombarded by a unidirectional 67-MeV beam were measured. The maximum pulse height recorded was 6 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The distribution had two peaks: the larger peak corresponded to 3.8 x 10(exp 5) pairs and the smaller peak to 1.2 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The maximum pulse height and the larger peak are within a factor of two of predicted values. The low-energy peak was not expected, but is believed to be an artifact of inefficient charge collection in the detector. The planned flight experiment will be conducted on a Space Shuttle flight. Lockheed's helium extended life dewar (HELD) will be used to provide the required cryogenic environment for the detector. Two bulk Si:Sb arrays and two Si:As impurity band conduction arrays will be tested. The tests will be conducted while the Space Shuttle passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly. PHD's will be recorded and responsivity changes tracked. This experiment will provide a new database on proton-induced PHD's, compare two infrared detector technologies in a space environment, and provide the data necessary to validate PHD modeling.

  10. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  11. Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...

  12. 27 CFR 9.222 - Naches Heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Naches Heights. 9.222 Section 9.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  13. Environmental Assessment: Disposition of Maxwell Heights Annex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Maxwell Support Division May 4, 2005 Mr. David Rabon Tribal Historic Preservation Officer Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma P.O. Box 948 Tahlequah...Oklahoma 74465 RE: Disposal of the Existing Property and Facilities of the Maxwell Heights Annex Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama Dear Mr. Rabon , The

  14. Flyby Anomaly Test Integrating Multiple Approaches (FATIMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, Creon; Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2014-01-01

    FATIMA is a mission concept for a small satellite to investigate the flyby anomaly - a possible velocity increase that has been observed in some earlier satellites when they have performed gravitational swingy maneuvers of the earth.

  15. Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

  16. Congenital anomalies associated with congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Alembik, Y; Koehl, C

    1999-01-01

    The French national neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was initiated in 1978. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the incidence of congenital extrathyroid anomalies (ETAs) among the infants with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and to compare it with the Northeastern France Birth Defect Monitoring System data from 1979 to 1996. Among 129 CH infants on whom adequate data were available, 20 infants (15.5%) had associated congenital anomalies. Eight out of 76 infants with persistent CH had ETAs (10.5%) whereas 12 out of 53 children with transient hypothyroidism had ETAs (22.6%, p < 0.05). Some additional anomalies were considerably more common than in the general population. Nine infants had congenital cardiac anomalies (6.9%). This rises the question if teratogenic effects active during organogenesis may affect simultaneously many organs, including the developing thyroid, causing a relatively high percentage of CH infants with congenital ETAs.

  17. Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

  18. Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

  19. Method of Mapping Anomalies in Homogenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrical conductor and antenna are positioned in a fixed relationship to one another. Relative lateral movement is generated between the electrical conductor and a homogenous material while maintaining the electrical conductor at a fixed distance from the homogenous material. The antenna supplies a time-varying magnetic field that causes the electrical conductor to resonate and generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this lateral movement are indicative of a lateral location of a subsurface anomaly. Next, relative out-of-plane movement is generated between the electrical conductor and the homogenous material in the vicinity of the anomaly's lateral location. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this out-of-plane movement are indicative of a depth location of the subsurface anomaly. A recording of the disruptions provides a mapping of the anomaly.

  20. Cervicobrachialgia with congenital vertebral anomalies and diastematomyelia.

    PubMed

    Roosen, N; De Moor, J

    1984-05-01

    A case of diastematomyelia in an adult female patient is reported. The relationship of the cervicobrachialgia, which was the presenting sign, to the diastematomyelia and the congenital vertebral anomalies is discussed.

  1. The MISR Wildfire Smoke Plume Height Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. L.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.; Kahn, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Together the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra satellite observe several characteristics of wildfire smoke plumes. With support from NASA and the EPA, the MISR team is assembling a database of these observations for North America, Africa, Siberia, Indonesia, etc. that extends back to the beginning of the Terra mission in 2000. The thermal infrared channels on MODIS provide the location of fires and their approximate radiative power. By using an interactive visualization program called the MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX), users interactively digitize wildfire plumes to retrieve accurate plume heights and wind speeds using a new stereo height retrieval algorithm. This information, along with the locations and directions of individual plumes, their areas and aerosol properties derived from the operational MISR aerosol algorithm, are stored in this publicly accessible database for subsequent analysis (http://www-misr2.jpl.nasa.gov/EPA-Plumes/). The plume database currently contains about 4000 smoke plumes and smoke clouds from North America. An equal number of plumes and clouds for other regions around the world has also been digitized. A few thousand additional plumes are in the process of being incorporated. Smoke plumes in this context are considered to be discrete regions of smoke that can be followed to their fire sources at ground level and have a distinctive shape determined by the direction the smoke is driven downwind. Smoke “clouds” are defined here as regions of dense smoke not clearly associated with specific fire sources, and whose direction of transport is not easily determined. Plume height measurements can be used as a surrogate for injection heights, which are important for modeling smoke transport. Examples of height and wind retrievals for specific plumes will be shown. Those chosen have not only been incorporated in statistical analyses of plume

  2. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  3. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  4. PHACE Syndrome: Persistent Fetal Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, V.; Hrbac, T.; Chmelova, J.; Skoloudik, D.; Prochazka, M.

    2005-01-01

    Summary PHACE(S) syndrome is an acronym for neurocutaneous disease encompassing the expression of (P) posterior cranial fossa malformations, (H) facial haemangiomas, (A) arterial anomalies, (C) aortic coarctaion and other cardiac defects, (E) eye abnormalities and (S) for sternal malformation or stenotic arterial diseases. We report on a case of PHACE syndrome complete expression with persistent fetal vascular anomalies unusually in a 55-year-old women with large bilateral facial and neck haemangioma and posterior fossa circulation insufficiency. PMID:20584448

  5. Anaesthesia management in craniovertebral junctional anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Oswald

    2016-01-01

    Craniovertebral Junctional (CVJ) anomalies are developmental disorders that affect the skeleton and enclosed neuraxis at the junction of cranium and cervical spine. The high prevalence of airway obstruction and restrictive pulmonary disease in combination with cardiovascular manifestations poses a high anaesthetic risk to these patients. This article provides a discussion of management of anaesthesia in patients with craniovertebral anomalies, the evaluation of risk factors in these patients and their management, including emergency airway issues. PMID:27891026

  6. On the topological interpretation of gravitational anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Denis

    2001-07-01

    We consider the mixed gravitational Yang-Mills anomaly as the coupling between the K-theory and K-homology of a C ∗-algebra crossed product. The index theorem of Connes-Moscovici allows to compute the Chern character of the K-cycle by local formulae involving connections and curvatures. It gives a topological interpretation to the anomaly, in the sense of noncommutative algebras.

  7. [Mild type of the Ebstein anomaly].

    PubMed

    Jedliński, Ireneusz; Jamrozek-Jedlińska, Maria; Bugajski, Paweł; Waśniewski, Michał; Poprawski, Kajetan; Słomczyński, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a congenital malformation of the heart that is characterised by apical displacement of the septal and posterior tricuspid valve leaflets, leading to atrialisation of the right ventricle with a variable degree of malformation and displacement of the anterior leaflet. We present a case of a mild type Ebstein anomaly leading to moderate tricuspid valve regurgitation and some degree of right ventricular dysfunction.

  8. Gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Tiago R. S.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we study the issue of gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED. To do so, we opt to use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism within the algebraic renormalization approach, reducing our study to a cohomology problem. Since this approach is independent of the renormalization scheme, the results obtained here are expected to be general. We find that the Lorentz-violating QED is free of gauge anomalies to all orders in perturbation theory.

  9. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V. E-mail: brc@iac.e

    2010-09-10

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  10. Acoustic Wood anomaly in transmitted diffraction field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfei; Declercq, Nico F.

    2017-03-01

    In acoustics, the term Wood anomaly, in analogy to the Wood anomaly in optics, has so far referred to the anomalies observed in the specular reflection spectra of acoustic waves perpendicularly incident on periodic surfaces. Inspired by the pioneering work of Jungman et al. on the study of the transmission field of a solid-fluid periodic interface, this work attempts to provide a complete experimental investigation of the transmission fields of a broadband sound pulse transmitted through a periodic liquid-solid interface as well as a periodic solid-liquid interface. At different frequencies, two types of anomalies are observed: a spectral tip and a spectral dip, which correspond, respectively, to the brighter band and the darker band in optical Wood anomalies. The search for their physical origin suggests that the type and location of the observed spectral anomalies are strongly related to the generation and the diffraction of pseudosurface waves on the interface having superimposed periodic corrugations and time-domain windowing in spectral analysis. To compare with the surface waves on a plane surface, the properties of the pseudosurface waves are also investigated through examining their phase and by comparing their amplitudes.

  11. IDENTIFYING ANOMALIES IN GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, Charles R.; Nordgren, C. Erik E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-02-01

    We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. In a previous paper, we predicted how the time delay between the bright pair of images in a 'fold' lens scales with the image separation, for smooth lens potentials. Here we show that the proportionality constant increases with the quadrupole moment of the lens potential, and depends only weakly on the position of the source along the caustic. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as 'time delay anomalies'. We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131 - 1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131 - 1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in the fold lenses, B1608+656 and WFI 2033 - 4723, and the cusp lens RX J0911+0551. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Finally, to assist future monitoring campaigns we use our smooth models with shear to predict the time delays for all known four-image lenses.

  12. MAGSAT correlations with geoid anomalies. [magnetic anomalies in the western Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A digital data library of MAGSAT data is described and its applications and capabilities are reviewed. Polynomial trends were removed from each half-orbit in order to estimate and remove ring current effects from the data. The MAGSAT data in the Gulf of Mexico region was analyzed to define better the possible relation of the negative MAGSAT anomaly there to the negative residual geoid anomaly in the western Gulf of Mexico. Since the shape and location of the negative magnetic anomaly are variable depending upon the particular polynomial surface and curve orders used, no definitive conclusion as to the degree of correspondance between the residual geoid and MAGSAT lithosphere anomalies is offered.

  13. Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

  14. Influence of ENSO and IOD to Variability of Sea Surface Height in the North and South of Java Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlan, Ahmad; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Kunarso; Zainuri, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest archipelagic countries in the world. Besides being in the tropics, these waters are also located between two continents and two oceans that making this area are heavily influenced by the global atmospheric phenomena such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Sea level rise is one of the main threats faced by Indonesia and other island countries in the world. Not only global warming, sea level rise in the tropics also caused by inter annual variability such as ENSO and IOD. This research has been aimed to determine the influence of ENSO and IOD to variability of sea surface height in the north and south of Java. This research used Satellite altimetry data were constructed by multi-mission satellite. These results showed that the sea level anomaly generally inversely related to ENSO and Dipole Mode Index. The phenomenon that most influence a decrease sea level anomaly in the study area is a phenomenon IOD + and the phenomenon that most influenced the increase sea level anomaly is La Niña. South of Java is area that has the large effect of changes in sea levels than north of Java. During La Niña, sea level anomaly can be increase up to 0.3 m and sea level anomaly can be decrease up to -0.28 m during IOD+.

  15. Love, careers, and heights in France, 2001.

    PubMed

    Herpin, Nicolas

    2005-12-01

    Short men are less likely to be married or live in a permanent relationship than their taller counterparts. This pattern is not due to their social status. While blue-collar workers are shorter on average than managers, the effects of height on finding a mate are similar in the two social groups. Being tall is also economically advantageous for men. With identical educational attainment levels, tall men have better careers than short men as they are given greater supervisory responsibilities. In making a commitment, some women might take height into account as an anticipated indicator of future resources of the household. Choice of partner is also influenced by social norms--i.e., partners should be physically well-matched--which is more difficult for shorter men.

  16. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. Preliminary aeromagnetic anomaly map of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Carter W.; Jachens, Rober C.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetization in crustal rocks is the vector sum of induced in minerals by the Earth’s present main field and the remanent magnetization of minerals susceptible to magnetization (chiefly magnetite) (Blakely, 1995). The direction of remanent magnetization acquired during the rock’s history can be highly variable. Crystalline rocks generally contain sufficient magnetic minerals to cause variations in the Earth’s magnetic field that can be mapped by aeromagnetic surveys. Sedimentary rocks are generally weakly magnetized and consequently have a small effect on the magnetic field: thus a magnetic anomaly map can be used to “see through” the sedimentary rock cover and can convey information on lithologic contrasts and structural trends related to the underlying crystalline basement (see Nettleton,1971; Blakely, 1995). The magnetic anomaly map (fig. 2) provides a synoptic view of major anomalies and contributes to our understanding of the tectonic development of California. Reference fields, that approximate the Earth’s main (core) field, have been subtracted from the recorded magnetic data. The resulting map of the total magnetic anomalies exhibits anomaly patterns related to the distribution of magnetized crustal rocks at depths shallower than the Curie point isotherm (the surface within the Earth beneath which temperatures are so high that rocks lose their magnetic properties). The magnetic anomaly map has been compiled from existing digital data. Data obtained from aeromagnetic surveys that were made at different times, spacings and elevations, were merged by analytical continuation of each set onto a common surface 305 m (1000 ft) above terrain. Digital data in this compatible form allows application of analytical techniques (Blakley, 1995) that can be used to enhance anomaly characteristics (e.g., wavelength and trends) and provide new interpretive information.

  18. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M.; Happ, Hannah C.; Levin, Alex V.; Wheeler, Patricia G.; David, Karen L.; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the frst study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  19. Feynman amplitudes and limits of heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, O.; Bloch, S. J.; Burgos Gil, J. I.; Fresán, J.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate from a mathematical perspective how Feynman amplitudes appear in the low-energy limit of string amplitudes. In this paper, we prove the convergence of the integrands. We derive this from results describing the asymptotic behaviour of the height pairing between degree-zero divisors, as a family of curves degenerates. These are obtained by means of the nilpotent orbit theorem in Hodge theory.

  20. Measuring Ice Sheet Height with ICESat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, K.; Smith, B.; Neumann, T.; Hancock, D.

    2015-12-01

    ICESat-2 is NASA's next-generation laser altimeter, designed to measure changes in ice sheet height and sea ice freeboard. Over the ice sheets, it will use a continuous repeat-track pointing strategy to ensure that it accurately measures elevation changes along a set of reference tracks. Over most of the area of Earth's ice sheets, ICESat-2 will provide coverage with a track-to-track spacing better than ~3 km. The onboard ATLAS instrument will use a photon-counting approach to provide a global geolocated photon point cloud, which is then converted into surface-specific elevation data sets. In this presentation, we will outline our strategy for taking the low-level photon point cloud and turning it into measurements posted at 20 m along-track for a set of pre-defined reference points by (1) selecting groups of photon events (PEs) around each along-track point, (2) refining the initial PE selection by fitting selected PEs with an along-track segment model and eliminating outliers to the model, (3) applying histogram-based corrections to the surface height based on the residuals to the along-track segment model, (4) calculate error estimates based on estimates of relative contributions of signal and noise PEs to the observed PE count, and (5) determining the final location and surface height of the along-track segment. These measurements are then corrected for short-scale (100-200 m) across-track surface topography around the reference points to develop a time series of land ice heights. The resulting data products will allow us to measure ice sheet elevation change with a point-for-point accuracy of a few centimeters over Earth's ice sheets.

  1. Ionospheric true height profiles from oblique ionograms

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.H.

    1985-06-01

    An improved direct technique in which HF oblique ionograms are reduced to ionospheric true height profiles is introduced. The benefits of this method result principally from the use of a more accurate Breit-Tuve relation to curved earth and ionosphere geometries. By comparing the results of calculations on known cases, the extent of improvement with this technique relative to the techniques by Gething and Maliphant (1967), George (1970), and Smith (1970), is demonstrated. 14 references.

  2. Regional geoid height models developed using aerogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.; Holmes, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The techniques employed during the development of the Geoid Slope Validation Study of 2011 (GSVS 11) were adapted to modeling of regional geoid height models. Aerogravity from the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) Project was first evaluated with respect to satellite gravity field models developed from both GRACE and GOCE data to establish long wavelength consistency and remove biases in individual survey lines. In turn, the airborne and satellite gravity were then combined to evaluate surface gravity data from around 1400 separate surveys over the conterminous United States (CONUS). These surveys can span anywhere from 10's to 100's of kilometers and comprise the surface gravity database held by the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. These surface data have been used as-is in the development of previous gravimetric geoid models. With the availability of aerogravity, these surveys were examined to detect and mitigate potential biases that can create artifacts in geoid height models. About 5% of these surveys exhibit significant biases of 3-5 mGals, which equate to 10-20 cm errors in subsequent geoid height models. Given the requirement for cm-level accuracy in a future vertical datum based on geoid height models, these errors must be addressed. GSVS 11 demonstrated that it is possible to combine satellite, airborne and surface gravity to achieve cm-level accuracy over a limited locale. This study demonstrates that this can also be achieved over more regional scales. While not all of the CONUS has yet been flown by the GRAV-D Project, significant portions have been flown and those regions have been evaluated here. In the GSVS 11 study, external metrics were collected simultaneously to permit evaluation of the overall error. Such data is generally not available on a national basis, but comparisons are made with the GSVS 11 data, tidal benchmarks in combination with ocean topography models, and astrogeodetic deflection of the vertical

  3. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  4. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  5. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  6. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  7. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  8. 36 CFR 910.54 - Build-to height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Build-to height. 910.54... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.54 Build-to height. Build-to height means a specified minimum height of development to which the exterior wall of a building in a development must rise. Minor...

  9. 36 CFR 910.54 - Build-to height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Build-to height. 910.54... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.54 Build-to height. Build-to height means a specified minimum height of development to which the exterior wall of a building in a development must rise. Minor...

  10. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is ≥0.5 or ≥- 0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8+/-7.7% and 35.8+-7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by 200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure ≤ 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by 150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure ≥750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30-60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more ozone production because of

  11. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

    2003-08-01

    This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is > 0.5 or < -0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8 ± 7.7% and 35.8 ± 7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by ~200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure < 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by ~150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure > 750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30--60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more

  12. Morphology of Midlatitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly in NmF2 above Alma-Ata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovets, Artur; Gordienko, Galina; Litvinov, Yuriy

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of the midlatitude summer nighttime anomaly in the diurnal behavior of the electron concentration maximum in the F2 layer (NmF2) over Alma-Ata in various seasons and at various solar activity levels was studied on the basis of the ionospheric vertical sounding over seven months of 2011 and the summer months of 1999, 2008, 2011, and 2012. The vast majority of data of the analyzed electron concentration measurements was obtained under low magnetic activity (Dst > -50 nT). Measurements during which moderate and high magnetic activity (Dst < -50 nT) was observed were rejected from the analysis. It was shown that the anomaly is not seen in the equinox months. The maximum effect of the anomaly is seen in the summer months (July-August). The maximum value of the electron concentration in the evening peak corresponds to the solar zenith angles, when the ionizing radiation almost ceases to reach the heights of the F2 layer maximum. The anomaly is distinctly manifested in the solar activity minimum but scarcely seen in the solar maximum. It was shown that the parameters of the summer anomaly at the boundary of the north-eastern Asia zone (Alma-Ata, 76.9 deg E) change insignificantly as compared to the parameters at its center (Japan, 130.0 deg E). The mechanisms of the formation of the anomaly and of its diurnal and seasonal behavior are discussed. Two factors determining the anomaly formation in the summer months are considered. First, the meridional wind changes its direction from polarward to equatorqard much earlier in summer (around 14.30 LT) in the middle latitudes than in other seasons, when the photoionizing radiation flux is still high. That is why photoionization, in combination with the rise of the ionosphere to the heights where the recombination rate is low, leads to the formation of an evening increase in NmF2. Second, in addition to the factor of an early change in the thermospheric wind direction, seasonal variations in the meridional wind

  13. Ash plume top height estimate using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, T. H.; Kolmonen, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2014-04-01

    An algorithm is presented for estimation of volcanic ash plume top height using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard ENVISAT. The algorithm is based on matching the top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the height estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared against other satellite observations and in-situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic, and can be implemented into operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 μm and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows simultaneous retrieval of horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash efficiently. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented. The height estimate method results are validated against available satellite and ground based data.

  14. Statistical Sampling of Tide Heights Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine if it was possible to reduce the cost of verifying computational models of tidal waves and currents. Statistical techniques were used to determine the least number of samples required, in a given situation, to remain statistically significant, and thereby reduce overall project costs. Commercial, academic, and Federal agencies could benefit by applying these techniques, without the need to 'touch' every item in the population. For example, the requirement of this project was to measure the heights and times of high and low tides at 8,000 locations for verification of computational models of tidal waves and currents. The application of the statistical techniques began with observations to determine the correctness of submitted measurement data, followed by some assumptions based on the observations. Among the assumptions were that the data were representative of data-collection techniques used at the measurement locations, that time measurements could be ignored (that is, height measurements alone would suffice), and that the height measurements were from a statistically normal distribution. Sample means and standard deviations were determined for all locations. Interval limits were determined for confidence levels of 95, 98, and 99 percent. It was found that the numbers of measurement locations needed to attain these confidence levels were 55, 78, and 96, respectively.

  15. Radionuclide imaging of rare congenital renal fusion anomalies.

    PubMed

    Volkan, Bilge; Ceylan, Emel; Kiratli, Pinar Ozgen

    2003-03-01

    Demonstration of a congenital renal anomaly plays an important role in the treatment of patients with renal infection. These patients are prone to infections because of coexisting urinary tract anomalies such as duplicated ureter, ureter opening anomalies, and urinary stasis. Assessment of renal parenchymal damage resulting from acute or chronic renal infection is the primary indication for radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, this technique allows congenital anomalies to be identified. The authors review congenital renal fusion anomalies identified in children through Tc-99m DMSA imaging. They conclude that Tc-99m DMSA imaging can reveal important diagnostic information about various congenital anomalies, including fusion anomalies.

  16. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

  17. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection in Urban Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejas Ayuga, J. G.; Martínez Marín, R.; Marchamalo Sacristán, M.; Bonatti, J.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the spectral features of reflectance and emissivity in the pattern recognition of urban materials in several single hyperspectral scenes through a comparative analysis of anomaly detection methods and their relationship with city surfaces with the aim to improve information extraction processes. Spectral ranges of the visible-near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) from hyperspectral data cubes of AHS sensor and HyMAP and MASTER of two cities, Alcalá de Henares (Spain) and San José (Costa Rica) respectively, have been used. In this research it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, thus, the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information, significantly differentiated with respect to a background, either globally for the full scene, or locally by image segmentation. Several experiments on urban scenarios and semi-urban have been designed, analyzing the behaviour of the standard RX anomaly detector and different methods based on subspace, image projection and segmentation-based anomaly detection methods. A new technique for anomaly detection in hyperspectral data called DATB (Detector of Anomalies from Thermal Background) based on dimensionality reduction by projecting targets with unknown spectral signatures to a background calculated from thermal spectrum wavelengths is presented. First results and their consequences in non-supervised classification and extraction information processes are discussed.

  18. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  19. Unification of Intercontinental Height Systems based on the Fixed Geodetic Boundary Value Problem - A Case Study in Spherical Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grombein, T.; Seitz, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    In general, national height reference systems are related to individual vertical datums defined by specific tide gauges. The discrepancy of these vertical datums causes height system biases that range in an order of 1-2 m at a global scale. Continental height systems can be connected by spirit leveling and gravity measurements along the leveling lines as performed for the definition of the European Vertical Reference Frame. In order to unify intercontinental height systems, an indirect connection is needed. For this purpose, global geopotential models derived from recent satellite missions like GOCE provide an important contribution. However, to achieve a highly-precise solution, a combination with local terrestrial gravity data is indispensable. Such combinations result in the solution of a Geodetic Boundary Value Problem (GBVP). In contrast to previous studies, mostly related to the traditional (scalar) free GBVP, the present paper discusses the use of the fixed GBVP for height system unification, where gravity disturbances instead of gravity anomalies are applied as boundary values. The basic idea of our approach is a conversion of measured gravity anomalies to gravity disturbances, where unknown datum parameters occur that can be associated with height system biases. In this way, the fixed GBVP can be extended by datum parameters for each datum zone. By evaluating the GBVP at GNSS/leveling benchmarks, the unknown datum parameters can be estimated in a least squares adjustment. Beside the developed theory, we present numerical results of a case study based on the spherical fixed GBVP and boundary values simulated by the use of the global geopotential model EGM2008. In a further step, the impact of approximations like linearization as well as topographic and ellipsoidal effects is taken into account by suitable reduction and correction terms.

  20. Heat and Freshwater Convergence Anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean Inferred from Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, K. A.; Drushka, K.; Thompson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of thermosteric and halosteric sea level from hydrographic data, ocean mass from GRACE and altimetric sea surface height are used to infer meridional heat transport (MHT) and freshwater convergence (FWC) anomalies for the Atlantic Ocean. An "unknown control" version of a Kalman filter in each of eight regions extracts smooth estimates of heat transport convergence (HTC) and FWC from discrepancies between the sea level response to monthly surface heat and freshwater fluxes and observed heat and freshwater content. The model is run for 1993-2014. Estimates of MHT anomalies are derived by summing the HTC from north to south and adding a spatially uniform, time-varying MHT derived from updated MHT estimates at 41N (Willis 2010). Estimated anomalies in MHT are comparable to those recently observed at the RAPID/MOCHA line at 26.5N. MHT estimates are relatively insensitive to the choice of heat flux products and are highly coherent spatially. MHT anomalies at 35S resemble estimates of Agulhas Leakage derived from altimeter (LeBars et al 2014) suggesting that the Indian Ocean is the source of the anomalous heat inflow. FWC estimates in the Atlantic Ocean (67N to 35S) resemble estimates of Atlantic river inflow (de Couet and Maurer, GRDC 2009). Increasing values of FWC after 2002 at a time when MHT was decreasing may indicate a feedback between the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and FWC that would accelerate the AMOC slowdown.

  1. Jason-2 Validation Test Report (VTR): Validation of Sea Surface Height Anomaly Precision and Accuracy for Mesoscale Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-07

    for the earth rotation axis precession and nutation , which causes the ellipsoidal shape of the earth to appear as a tide Solid earth tide, to...instruments with axes orientated either in the direction toward the earth center or in the direction of the satellite velocity. Most of the EDR...correct for gravitational effects on the solid earth Ionosphere, measured by the dual frequency altimeter on Jason-1 and Jason-2 corrects the Ku band

  2. Bilateral first and second arch anomalies: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Virad; Narula, Vineet; Meher, Ravi; Raj, Anoop

    2012-04-01

    Branchial sinuses are one of the most common congenital anomalies present. They are usually unilateral; bilateral cases are present but are rare. The presentation of bilateral branchial sinus anomalies along with bilateral first arch anomalies is very rare. Here, we present a case of bilateral first arch anomalies co-existing with bilateral second arch anomalies in a patient with no related family history and no associated syndrome.

  3. Temperature extremes in Western Europe and associated atmospheric anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, V. A.; Santos, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    This worḱs focal point is the analysis of temperature extremes over Western Europe in the period 1957-2007 and their relationship to large-scale anomalies in the atmospheric circulation patterns. The study is based on temperature daily time series recorded at a set of meteorological stations covering the target area. The large-scale anomalies are analyzed using data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis project. Firstly, a preliminary statistical analysis was undertaken in order to identify data gaps and erroneous values and to check the homogeneity of the time series, using not only elementary statistical approaches (e.g., chronograms, box-plots, scatter-plots), but also a set of non-parametric statistical tests particularly suitable for the analysis of monthly and seasonal mean temperature time series (e.g., Wald-Wolfowitz serial correlation test, Spearman and Mann-Kendall trend tests). Secondly, based on previous results, a selection of the highest quality time series was carried out. Aiming at identifying temperature extremes, we then proceed to the isolation of months with temperature values above or below pre-selected thresholds based on the empirical distribution of each time series. In particular, thresholds are based on percentiles specifically computed for each individual temperature record (data adaptive) and not on fixed values. As a result, a calendar of extremely high and extremely low monthly mean temperatures is obtained and the large-scale atmospheric conditions during each extreme are analyzed. Several atmospheric fields are considered in this study (e.g., 2-m maximum and minimum air temperature, sea level pressure, geopotential height, zonal and meridional wind components, vorticity, relative humidity) at different isobaric levels. Results show remarkably different synoptic conditions for temperature extremes in different parts of Western Europe, highlighting the different dynamical mechanisms underlying their

  4. A dilation-driven vortex flow in sheared granular materials explains a rheometric anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaraj, K. P.; Nott, Prabhu R.

    2016-01-01

    Granular flows occur widely in nature and industry, yet a continuum description that captures their important features is yet not at hand. Recent experiments on granular materials sheared in a cylindrical Couette device revealed a puzzling anomaly, wherein all components of the stress rise nearly exponentially with depth. Here we show, using particle dynamics simulations and imaging experiments, that the stress anomaly arises from a remarkable vortex flow. For the entire range of fill heights explored, we observe a single toroidal vortex that spans the entire Couette cell and whose sense is opposite to the uppermost Taylor vortex in a fluid. We show that the vortex is driven by a combination of shear-induced dilation, a phenomenon that has no analogue in fluids, and gravity flow. Dilatancy is an important feature of granular mechanics, but not adequately incorporated in existing models. PMID:26864086

  5. Moebius syndrome with Taussig-Bing anomaly.

    PubMed

    Islam, M I; Chowdhury, A S; Hasan, M T

    2014-01-01

    We report a 6 years old male child, presented with difficulty in swallowing, crying and smiling from early infancy and recurrent episodes of cyanosis on exertion for about 2 years. He had facial dysmorphism, clubbing and polydactyly and right sided lower motor neuron type of facial nerve palsy. On examination and relevant investigations findings were consistent with Moebius syndrome and Taussig-Bing anomaly. Moebius syndrome comprises of congenital facial nerve palsy with or without palsy of the other cranial nerves and the associated organ system malformations. Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation consisting of a transposed aorta, a large pulmonary artery which arises primarily from the right ventricle and ventricular septal defect. Simultaneous occurrence of Moebius syndrome and Taussig-Bing anomaly has not yet been reported in the past.

  6. Interpretation of satellite elevation magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Carle, H. M.; Hayling, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    The present discussion is based on a study of the magnetic field data obtained with the aid of the magnetic field satellite Magsat, deployed in October 1979, over most of the earth during a 7.5-month mission. Inversions using spherical harmonic coefficients are considered along with the inversion of residual fields. In order to perform the correct operation, it is necessary to add on to the source function produced by the inversion process a magnetization function which has no external field. Such a function is known as an annihilator. The use of the annihilator for Pacific Ocean anomalies is discussed. Attention is given to models of oceanic crustal magnetization, and continental long-wavelength anomalies. It is found that in continental regions the annihilator is also useful if induced magnetizations are thought to be responsible for the long-wavelength anomaly.

  7. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  8. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  9. 'T hooft anomaly matching for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Terning, John

    1998-03-03

    I present a set of theories which display non-trivial 'tHooft anomaly matching for QCD with F flavors. The matching theories arenon-Abelian gauge theories with "dual" quarks and baryons, rather thanthe purely confining theories of baryons that 't Hooft originallysearched for. The matching gauge groups are required to have an Fpm 6dimensional representation. Such a correspondence is reminiscent ofSeiberg's duality for supersymmetric (SUSY) QCD, and these theories arecandidates for non-SUSY duality. However anomaly matching by itself isnot sufficiently restrictive, and duality for QCD cannot be establishedat present. At the very least, the existence of multiple anomaly matchingsolutions should provide a note of caution regarding conjectured non-SUSYdualities.

  10. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  11. Ice-shelf height variability in Amundsen Sea linked to ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolo, Fernando; Fricker, Helen; Padman, Laurie

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric and sea-ice conditions around Antarctica, particularly in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas, respond to climate dynamics in the tropical Pacific Ocean on interannual time scales including the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It has been hypothesized that the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, including its floating ice shelves, also responds to this climate signal; however, this has not yet been unambiguously demonstrated. We apply multivariate singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) to 18-year (1994-2012) time series of ice-shelf height derived from satellite radar altimetry in the Amundsen Sea (AS) region. This advanced spectral method distinguishes between regular deterministic behavior ("cycles") at sub-decadal time scale and irregular behavior ("noise") at shorter time scales. Although the long-term trends in ice-shelf height change are much larger than the range of interannual variability in the AS region, the short-term rate of change dh/dt can vary about the trend by more than 50%. We extract the principal modes of variability (EOFs) based on common spectral properties from a set of 140 height time series. The mode of interannual variability in the AS ice-shelf height is strongly correlated with the low-frequency mode of ENSO (periodicity of ~4.5 years) as represented by the Southern Oscillation Index. This interannual mode in ice-shelf height, represented by the two leading EOFs, is responsible for about 25% of the variance in the de-trended data set. The ice-shelf height in the AS is expected to respond to changes in precipitation and inflows of warm subsurface Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) into the ocean cavities under the ice shelves, altering basal melt rates. While we find a correlation between modeled precipitation anomalies and ice-shelf height, we are investigating (a) errors in model precipitation, (b) radar backscatter and firn-density issues, and (c) ocean contribution correlated with atmosphere through wind-stress forcing. We

  12. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Banerjee, Arindam; Kumar, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  13. Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights

    PubMed Central

    Schniepp, Roman; Kugler, Günter; Wuehr, Max; Eckl, Maria; Huppert, Doreen; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI) manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite®) on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/up/down; eyes open/closed), and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors “height situation” and “gait condition” was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters. Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p < 0.01), which correlated with the estimated height of the balcony (R2 = 0.453, p < 0.05). These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level. Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI. PMID:25538595

  14. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  15. Adaptive Anomaly Detection using Isolation Forest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-20

    detectors such as ORCA [8] and one-class SVM [31], and density-based anomaly detector LOF [9]. The rest of the paper is organised as follows. Section 2...that a value can be computed using this measure. We use k = 5 in our experiments. The second experiment compares HS*-Trees with ORCA [8], one-class...SVM (first mentioned in [31]) and LOF [9]. ORCA employs distance-based definition (ii), stated in sec- tion 3.1, to rank anomalies; LOF is the state-of

  16. Meteoroid-Induced Anomalies on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic meteoroid background is directional (not isotropic) and accounts for 90 percent of the meteoroid risk to a typical spacecraft. Meteor showers get all the press, but account for only approximately10 percent of spacecraft risk. Bias towards assigning meteoroid cause to anomalies during meteor showers. Vast majority of meteoroids come from comets and have a bulk density of approximately 1 gram per cubic centimeter (ice). High speed meteoroids (approximately 50 kilometers per second) can induce electrical anomalies in spacecraft through discharging of charged surfaces (also EMP (electromagnetic pulse?).

  17. Perioperative and Anesthetic Considerations in Ebstein's Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ross, Faith J; Latham, Gregory J; Richards, Michael; Geiduschek, Jeremy; Thompson, Douglas; Joffe, Denise

    2016-03-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a complex and heterogeneous form of congenital heart disease characterized by malformation and apical displacement of the tricuspid valve leaflets. Patients may present at any time from the neonatal period to adulthood with symptoms ranging from cardiac failure and cyanosis to paroxysmal arrhythmias. Depending on the timing of presentation, various surgical options are available for the management of symptomatic patients. This review will discuss the perioperative and anesthetic management of patients with Ebstein's anomaly with reference to the more common surgical approaches.

  18. Developmental Venous Anomaly Responsible for Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Chiaramonte, R.; Bonfiglio, M.; D'Amore, A.; Chiaramonte, I.

    2013-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a facial movement disorder characterized by involuntary, unilateral and intermittent contractions of the facial muscles. It is one of the syndromes related to neurovascular conflict, first described by Jannetta et al. in 1979. Typically, HFS is due to pulsatile compression by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. We describe a rare case of left developmental venous anomaly in a 59-year-old man referred to us with a six-month history of left-sided HFS. We performed an MR study of the brain and cerebellopontine angles, which demonstrated a compression of the ipsilateral facial nerve by the developmental venous anomaly. PMID:23859243

  19. The source of marine magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Vine-Matthews hypothesis (1963) is examined. This hypothesis suggests that oceanic rocks become polarized in the direction of the magnetic field at the time of their formation, thus recording the polarity history of the earth's magnetic field. This produces the lineated magnetic anomalies on either side of the midoceanic ridge crests. The strength of these magnetic anomalies is studied to determine the strength of magnetization. Indirect determinations of the magnetization intensity of the oceanic crust and direct observations of the oceanic crust are compared. It is found that the average magnetization of a 6-km thick oceanic crust is 1.18 A/m.

  20. Simulated life cycles of persistent anticyclonic anomalies over the North Pacific: Role of synoptic-scale eddies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, R. W.; Schubert, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the role of synoptic-scale eddies during the development of persistent anticyclonic height anomalies over the central North Pacific in a general circulation model under perpetual January conditions. The General Circulation Model (GCM) replicates the basic characteristics of the evolution of the anomaly patterns found in observations. The life cycle is characterized by the rapid establishment of the major anomaly center and considerably longer maintenance and decay phases, which include the development of downstream anomaly centers. The simulation also shows a realistic evolution of synoptic-scale activity beginning with enhanced activity off the east coast of Asia prior to onset, followed by a northward shift of the Pacific storm track, which lasts throughout the maintenance phase. The initial enhancement of synoptic-scale eddy activity is associated with a large-scale cyclonic anomaly that developes over Siberia several days prior to the onset of the main anticyclonic anomaly over the central North Pacific. The observations, however, show considerable interdecadel variability in the details of the composite onset behavior; it is unclear whether this variability is real or whether it reflects differences in the data assimilation systems. The role of the time mean flow and synoptic-scale eddies in the development of the persistent Pacific anomalies is studied within the context of a kinetic energy budget in which the flow is decomposed into the time-mean, low-frequency (timescales longer than 10 days), and synoptic (timescales less than 6 days) components. The budget, which is carried out for the simulation at 500 mb, shows that the initial growth of the persistent anticyclonic anomalies is associated with barotropic conversions of energy, with approximately equal contributions coming from the mean flow and the synoptic-scale eddies. After onset the barotropic conversion from the mean flow dominates, whereas the decay phase is associated with

  1. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  2. Height Determination Techniques for the Next National Height System of Finland- A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, T.; Saaranen, V.; Kaartinen, H.; Poutanen, M.; Kukko, A.; Nyberg, S.

    2014-11-01

    Precise levelling is known for its accuracy and reliability in height determination, but the process itself is slow, laborious and expensive. FGI has started a project to develop methods for height determination that could decrease the creation time of national height systems without losing the required accuracy. In this pilot project, we studied precise levelling and alternative techniques: MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) levelling, which included static GPS (Global Positioning System) and VRS (Virtual Reference Station) measurements.We compared the techniques in a field test, where the height difference of two known benchmarks were measured. All of the height differences were within 16 mm from each other, where the results from the precise levelling and the GPS levelling differed from 0.5-1.0 mm. Results from the MLS measurements were more than 5.0 mm off from the others and the average of the VRS measurements was 10.0 mm off. The uncertainties are compatible with the results, since the largest RMS values were calculated from the MLS and the VRS measurements.This research highlighted the differences of the techniques, but none of them is yet to be abandoned. The study should be expanded into a larger scale to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the techniques.

  3. Reaching new heights: Comparing interpretation bias modification to exposure therapy for extreme height fear

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Shari A.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cognitive models of anxiety disorders posit that biases in interpretation maintain, and potentially cause, anxiety. This study tested whether it is possible to decrease height fear symptoms through cognitive bias modification for interpretations (CBM-I). Additionally, the clinical utility of CBM-I was tested by comparing it to an already established treatment: exposure therapy. Method Extremely height fearful (N = 110) individuals participated in the study. Acrophobic symptoms were measured before and after two sessions of CBM-I, and compared to the standard treatment for acrophobia (exposure therapy), a combination of CBM-I and exposure therapy, and a Control condition. Results In line with hypotheses, participants in the three active conditions showed greater response to treatment than the Control condition in height-relevant interpretation bias, symptoms, and behavioral avoidance on a height stressor, with few differences between the active conditions. Further, symptom change was mediated by change in interpretation bias. Conclusions Overall, findings suggest that different pathways to fear reduction (exposure vs. shifting interpretations) can lead to similar reductions in height fear. This study provides the first evidence that directly shifting cognitive processing, even with no therapist involvement, can reduce symptoms as effectively as the gold standard, therapist-directed exposure therapy. PMID:24588406

  4. Anatomic Anomalies Encountered in 467 Open Carpal Tunnel Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Ahmadreza; Nasiri, Behnam; Mousavi, Seyed Ahmad; Hesarikia, Hamid; Navaeifar, Nasrin; Taleb, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compression neuropathy and carpal tunnel surgery is the most frequently performed hand surgery. Anatomic anomalies may predispose the median nerve to compression. The aim of the current study was to search for anatomic anomalies in open carpal tunnel surgeries through a cross-sectional study. During a cross-sectional study in a one-year period, 436 consecutive patients (307 females and 129 males) with the average age of 50.3 ± 2.4 years underwent 467 classic open carpal tunnel surgeries. Thirty-one patients had bilateral surgeries. A thorough inspection of the incisions was conducted to search for vascular, neural, tendon and muscular anomalies. Forty-two (8.9%) hands (14 males and 28 females) had anomalies. The average age of the patients with discovered anomalies was 48.6 ± 7.6 years. Ten anomalies were seen on the left hands and 32 anomalies were seen on the right hands. Among the 42 anomalies, there were 16 persistent median arteries, 14 anomalies of the median nerve, 7 intratunnel intrusion of the flexor and lumbrical muscle bellies and 5 anomalies of the origin of the thenar muscles. There was no correlation between the discovered anomalies and the age, gender or hand sides. Anatomical anomalies are not uncommon in carpal tunnel surgeries. However, the frequencies of the reported anomalies vary among different studies. Familiarity with these anomalies increases the safety of the operation.

  5. Meniscus height controlled convective self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Satyan; Crosby, Alfred

    Convective self-assembly techniques based on the 'coffee-ring effect' allow for the fabrication of materials with structural hierarchy and multi-functionality across a wide range of length scales. The coffee-ring effect describes deposition of non-volatiles at the edge of droplet due to capillary flow and pattern formations due to pinning and de-pinning of meniscus with the solvent evaporation. We demonstrate a novel convective self-assembly method which uses a piezo-actuated bending motion for driving the de-pinning step. In this method, a dilute solution of nanoparticles or polymers is trapped by capillary forces between a blade and substrate. As the blade oscillates with a fixed frequency and amplitude and the substrate translates at a fixed velocity, the height of the capillary meniscus oscillates. The meniscus height controls the contact angle of three phase contact line and at a critical angle de-pinning occurs. The combination of convective flux and continuously changing contact angle drives the assembly of the solute and subsequent de-pinning step, providing a direct means for producing linear assemblies. We demonstrate a new method for convective self-assembly at an accelerated rate when compared to other techniques, with control over deposit dimensions. Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0185).

  6. Ash plume top height estimation using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, T. H.; Kolmonen, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2014-08-01

    An algorithm is presented for the estimation of volcanic ash plume top height using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard Envisat. The algorithm is based on matching top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the height estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared to other satellite observations and in situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic and can be implemented in operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows efficient simultaneous retrieval of the horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented.

  7. Optimal inflatable space towers of high height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the heights some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their height. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.

  8. Development of a pulse height analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, E. S.

    The development of a Pulse Height Analyzer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consists of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable of memorizing pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consists of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. This device was used to acquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this department. The appraratus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results.

  9. VHA Corporate Data Warehouse height and weight data: opportunities and challenges for health services research.

    PubMed

    Noël, Polly Hitchcock; Copeland, Laurel A; Perrin, Ruth A; Lancaster, A Elizabeth; Pugh, Mary Jo; Wang, Chen-Pin; Bollinger, Mary J; Hazuda, Helen P

    2010-01-01

    Within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), anthropometric measurements entered into the electronic medical record are stored in local information systems, the national Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW), and in some regional data warehouses. This article describes efforts to examine the quality of weight and height data within the CDW and to compare CDW data with data from warehouses maintained by several of VHA's regional groupings of healthcare facilities (Veterans Integrated Service Networks [VISNs]). We found significantly fewer recorded heights than weights in both the CDW and VISN data sources. In spite of occasional anomalies, the concordance in the number and value of records in the CDW and the VISN warehouses was generally 97% to 99% or greater. Implausible variation in same-day and same-year heights and weights was noted, suggesting measurement or data-entry errors. Our work suggests that the CDW, over time and through validation, has become a generally reliable source of anthropometric data. Researchers should assess the reliability of data contained within any source and apply strategies to minimize the impact of data errors appropriate to their study population.

  10. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05). Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC) and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8). Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4%) and epididymal anomalies (EAs) in 1 testis (2%). Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4%) and EA in 4 (14.28%). When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116). Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  11. The "parity" anomaly on an unorientable manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, Edward

    2016-11-01

    The "parity" anomaly—more accurately described as an anomaly in time-reversal or reflection symmetry—arises in certain theories of fermions coupled to gauge fields and/or gravity in a spacetime of odd dimension. This anomaly has traditionally been studied on orientable manifolds only, but recent developments involving topological superconductors have made it clear that one can get more information by asking what happens on an unorientable manifold. In this paper, we give a full description of the "parity" anomaly for fermions coupled to gauge fields and gravity in 2 +1 dimensions on a possibly unorientable spacetime. We consider an application to topological superconductors and another application to M theory. The application to topological superconductors involves using knowledge of the "parity" anomaly as an ingredient in constructing gapped boundary states of these systems and in particular in gapping the boundary of a ν =16 system in a topologically trivial fashion. The application to M theory involves showing the consistency of the path integral of an M theory membrane on a possibly unorientable worldvolume. In the past, this has been done only in the orientable case.

  12. Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. P.; Chaudhury, R.

    2014-08-01

    Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.

  13. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The Curie Balance was brought to operational stage and is producing data of a preliminary nature. Substantial problems experienced in the assembly and initial operation of the instrument were, for the most part, rectified, but certain problems still exist. Relationships between the geology and the gravity and MAGSAT anomalies of West Africa are reexamined in the context of a partial reconstruction of Gondwanaland.

  14. Contextual Detection of Anomalies within Hyperspectral Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI), Unsupervised Target Detection, Target Identification, Contextual Anomaly Detection 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...processing. Hyperspectral imaging has a wide range of applications within remote sensing, not limited to terrain classification , environmental monitoring...Johnson, R. J. (2008). Improved feature extraction, feature selection, and identification techniques that create a fast unsupervised hyperspectral

  15. Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Toka, Hakan R; Toka, Okan; Hariri, Ali; Nguyen, Hiep T

    2010-07-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract anatomy (CAKUT) are common in children and represent approximately 30% of all prenatally diagnosed malformations. CAKUT is phenotypically variable and can affect the kidney(s) alone and/or the lower urinary tract. The spectrum includes more common anomalies such as vesicoureteral reflux and, rarely, more severe malformations such as bilateral renal agenesis. In young children, congenital anomalies are the leading cause of kidney failure and for kidney transplantation or dialysis. CAKUT can also lead to significant renal problems in adulthood and may present itself with hypertension and/or proteinuria. Congenital renal anomalies can be sporadic or familial, syndromic (also affecting nonrenal or non-urinary tract tissues), or nonsyndromic. Genetic causes have been identified for the syndromic forms and have shed some light into the molecular mechanisms of kidney development in human beings. The genetic causes for the more common nonsyndromic forms of CAKUT are unknown. The role of prenatal interventions and postnatal therapies as well as the benefits of screening affected individuals and their family members are not clear.

  16. Newborn with Gastroschisis associated with Limb Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Win, Phyu Phyu

    2017-01-01

    Gastroschisis is often found together with other extra intestinal conditions such as limb, spine, cardiac, central nervous system and genitourinary abnormalities. There are reports of its association with young maternal age. The cases presented here highlight the association of gastroschisis with limbs anomalies and young maternal age. PMID:28083494

  17. The Coulomb Anomaly in Strongly Disordered Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    The strength of this anomaly grows with increasing sheet resistance , R(sub n), at low R(sub n) but saturates at high R(sub n). We suggest that the granular morphology of these films is responsible for the saturation. (Author)

  18. Consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Giaccari, Stefano; Menotti, Pietro

    2009-03-15

    Exact consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons in two dimensions are treated both with the Schwinger-DeWitt regularization and independently through a cohomological procedure. The diffeomorphism transformations are described by a single ghost which allows one to climb the cohomological chain in a unique way.

  19. Anomaly Recovery and the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Dewell, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    The premise of the design of operations for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is that the vehicles will drive each day. As a result, they will encounter some aspect of the terrain environment that cannot be anticipated or otherwise accommodated by the sequences linked onboard that day. The operations team then must correct the problem by planning then commanding the execution of a different drive the next day. Often other aspects of the operation on the surface of Mars: environmental changes, component degradation, errors in sequence design or execution, etc., lead to anomalies which must be addressed before normal operations can resume. The operational design that makes it possible to recover from a driving error each day also reduces the time needed to recover from anomalies. As an example of the efficiency achieved, less than 5% (about 30 sols out of 700 sols of operations) of the time on the surface has been devoted to recovery from anomalies for each vehicle. In this paper the major anomalies experienced by the MER rovers will be recounted and the streamlined approaches to addressing these problems described. The operational flexibility developed for these missions is also a function of the system design that anticipated a number of likely faults and conditions arising from uncertainty in sequence execution and environmental change. This design will be described as well as the considerations in operation that motivated this design. These considerations will likely be present in any future surface mission.

  20. Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David; Martínez, Cristián

    2016-03-01

    We construct concrete counterterms of the Balasubramanian-Kraus type for Einstein-scalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS4, so that the total action is finite on-shell and satisfy a well defined variational principle. We focus on scalar fields with the conformal mass m 2 = -2 l -2 and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual field theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of non-linear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar field. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of four-dimensional gauged {N}=8 supergravity and its ω-deformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual field theory.

  1. Ebstein anomaly review: what's now, what's next?

    PubMed

    Dearani, Joseph A; Mora, Bassem N; Nelson, Timothy J; Haile, Dawit T; O'Leary, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    Ebstein anomaly accounts for 1% of all congenital heart disease. It is a right ventricular myopathy with failure of tricuspid valve delamination and highly variable tricuspid valve morphology that usually results in severe regurgitation. It is the only congenital heart lesion that has a range of clinical presentations, from the severely symptomatic neonate to an asymptomatic adult. Neonatal operation has high operative mortality, whereas operation performed beyond infancy and into adulthood has low operative mortality. Late survival and quality of life for hospital survivors are excellent for the majority of patients in all age brackets. Atrial tachyarrhythmias are the most common late complication. There have been more techniques of tricuspid repair reported in the literature than any other congenital or acquired cardiac lesion. This is largely due to the infinite anatomic variability encountered with this anomaly. The cone reconstruction of Ebstein anomaly can achieve near anatomic restoration of the tricuspid valve anatomy. Early and intermediate results with these repairs are promising. Reduced right ventricular function continues to be a challenge for some patients, as is the need for reoperation for recurrent tricuspid regurgitation. The purpose of this article is to outline the current standard of care for diagnosis and treatment of Ebstein anomaly and describe innovative strategies to address poor right ventricular function and associated right-sided heart failure.

  2. Group actions and anomalies in gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catenacci, R.; Pirola, G. P.; Martellini, Maurizio; Reina, Cesare

    1986-05-01

    The transformation properties are studied of the vacuum functional W(A) for chiral fermions in a gauge potential A under the group A×U(1)×R+ of gauge, chiral and scale transformations. The vacuum functional W is identified with a section of a G×U(1)×R+ line bundle over the space A of all gauge potentials. Known results on bundles carrying group actions give a simple and unifying clue to non-abelian, abelian chiral anomalies, as well as to trace anomalies. While the first are due to the twisting of a line bundle on A/G, the abelian chiral and trace anomalies are related to characters of U(1) and R+ respectively. Characters of U(1) are basically controlled by ``winding numbers'', i.e. again by topology. Opposite to these, trace anomalies seem to have little to do with topology, with the exception of two-dimensional theories. Also at Gruppo Nazionale di Fisica Matematica, CNR.

  3. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  4. The anomaly data base of screwworm information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Standard statistical processing of anomaly data in the screwworm eradication data system is possible from data compiled on magnetic tapes with the Univac 1108 computer. The format and organization of the data in the data base, which is also available on dedicated disc storage, are described.

  5. Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.

  6. Hyperspectral anomaly detection using enhanced global factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciencia, Todd J.; Bauer, Kenneth W.

    2016-05-01

    Dimension reduction techniques have become one popular unsupervised approach used towards detecting anomalies in hyperspectral imagery. Although demonstrating promising results in the literature on specific images, these methods can become difficult to directly interpret and often require tuning of their parameters to achieve high performance on a specific set of images. This lack of generality is also compounded by the need to remove noise and atmospheric absorption spectral bands from the image prior to detection. Without a process for this band selection and to make the methods adaptable to different image compositions, performance becomes difficult to maintain across a wider variety of images. Here, we present a framework that uses factor analysis to provide a robust band selection and more meaningful dimension reduction with which to detect anomalies in the imagery. Measurable characteristics of the image are used to create an automated decision process that allows the algorithm to adjust to a particular image, while maintaining high detection performance. The framework and its algorithms are detailed, and results are shown for forest, desert, sea, rural, urban, anomaly-sparse, and anomaly-dense imagery types from different sensors. Additionally, the method is compared to current state-of-the-art methods and is shown to be computationally efficient.

  7. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection by Graph Pixel Selection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Ma, Dandan; Wang, Qi

    2016-12-01

    Hyperspectral anomaly detection (AD) is an important problem in remote sensing field. It can make full use of the spectral differences to discover certain potential interesting regions without any target priors. Traditional Mahalanobis-distance-based anomaly detectors assume the background spectrum distribution conforms to a Gaussian distribution. However, this and other similar distributions may not be satisfied for the real hyperspectral images. Moreover, the background statistics are susceptible to contamination of anomaly targets which will lead to a high false-positive rate. To address these intrinsic problems, this paper proposes a novel AD method based on the graph theory. We first construct a vertex- and edge-weighted graph and then utilize a pixel selection process to locate the anomaly targets. Two contributions are claimed in this paper: 1) no background distributions are required which makes the method more adaptive and 2) both the vertex and edge weights are considered which enables a more accurate detection performance and better robustness to noise. Intensive experiments on the simulated and real hyperspectral images demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other benchmark competitors. In addition, the robustness of the proposed method has been validated by using various window sizes. This experimental result also demonstrates the valuable characteristic of less computational complexity and less parameter tuning for real applications.

  8. Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

  9. Resolving the Cassini/Huygens relay anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    A test using NASA's DSN to mimic the probe's signal was performed in 2000 and uncovered an anomaly that, unchecked, would result in nearly complete loss of the Huygens mission. This led to a suggested modification to the Cassini trajectory that will result in nearly complete data return for Huygens with minimal impact on Cassini.

  10. Vowel category dependence of the relationship between palate height, tongue height, and oral area.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala; Alwan, Abeer; Cha, Jul Setsu; Haker, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    This article evaluates intertalker variance of oral area, logarithm of the oral area, tongue height, and formant frequencies as a function of vowel category. The data consist of coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and acoustic recordings of 5 talkers, each producing 11 different vowels. Tongue height (left, right, and midsagittal), palate height, and oral area were measured in 3 coronal sections anterior to the oropharyngeal bend and were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, variance ratio analysis, and regression analysis. The primary finding of this article is that oral area (between palate and tongue) showed less intertalker variance during production of vowels with an oral place of articulation (palatal and velar vowels) than during production of vowels with a uvular or pharyngeal place of articulation. Although oral area variance is place dependent, percentage variance (log area variance) is not place dependent. Midsagittal tongue height in the molar region was positively correlated with palate height during production of palatal vowels, but not during production of nonpalatal vowels. Taken together, these results suggest that small oral areas are characterized by relatively talker-independent vowel targets and that meeting these talker-independent targets is important enough that each talker adjusts his or her own tongue height to compensate for talker-dependent differences in constriction anatomy. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate that these results may be explained by an acoustic control strategy: When talkers with very different anatomical characteristics try to match talker-independent formant targets, the resulting area variances are minimized near the primary vocal tract constriction.

  11. [Clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly].

    PubMed

    Split, Wojciech; Sawrasewicz-Rybak, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to consider Kimmerle anomaly (ponticulus posterior of the atlas) as an anatomic variant, which can cause a set of clinical symptoms and signs. A hundred and eight patients, 58 females and 50 males at the age of 18-59 years (M. 36.9 years, SD = 9.6) with radiologically verified Kimmerle anomaly were examined. A control group comprised 40 healthy subjects at the similar age range. The diagnosis of headaches was based on the criteria proposed by the IHS. A character of headaches, their localization, frequency, duration, number of days with headaches per year, circumstances associated with their onset and concomitant symptoms were evaluated. All the patients were subjected to electrophysiological studies (ENG, EEG and VEP). The results were statistically analyzed using a SPSS/PC+ computer system. It was revealed that clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly occurred most frequently in the third and fourth decade of life (65% of cases). These were most often tension-type headaches (50% of cases with headaches), vascular headaches (26% of cases) and neuralgia (24% of cases). Intensity of headaches was high. Headaches were accompanied by other complaints like vertigo (59% of cases) and in one third of cases--nausea. About 10% of patients also suffered from vomiting, paresthesia, dizziness, short periods of loss of consciousness. Sporadically--tinitus, drop attack, and vegetative symptoms. In cases without pain the most frequent signs were short periods of loss of consciousness, dizziness, and also nausea and dizziness. The EEG examination revealed pathology in 40% of patients with Kimmerle anomaly. The ENG examination in more than 33% of anomaly cases showed injury in the central part of vestibular system. Improper answers were reported in about 75% of the patients during the VEP examination.

  12. Topological orders with global gauge anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke

    2015-08-01

    By definition, the physics of the d -dimensional (dim) boundary of a (d +1 ) -dim symmetry protected topological (SPT) state cannot be realized as itself on a d -dim lattice. If the symmetry of the system is unitary, then a formal way to determine whether a d -dim theory must be a boundary or not, is to couple this theory to a gauge field (or to "gauge" its symmetry), and check if there is a gauge anomaly. In this paper we discuss the following question: Can the boundary of a SPT state be driven into a fully gapped topological order which preserves all the symmetries? We argue (conjecture) that if the gauge anomaly of the boundary is "perturbative," then the boundary must remain gapless; while if the boundary only has global gauge anomaly but no perturbative anomaly, then it is possible to gap out the boundary by driving it into a topological state, when d ≥2 . We will demonstrate this conjecture with two examples: (1) the 3 d spin-1/2 chiral fermion with the well-known Witten's global anomaly [Phys. Lett. 117, 324 (1982), 10.1016/0370-2693(82)90728-6], which can be realized on the boundary of a 4 d topological superconductor with SU(2) or U (1 ) ⋊Z2 symmetry; and (2) the 4 d boundary of a 5 d topological superconductor with the same symmetry. We show that these boundary systems can be driven into a fully gapped Z2 N topological order with topological degeneracy, but this Z2 N topological order cannot be future driven into a trivial confined phase that preserves all the symmetries due to some special properties of its topological defects. Our study also leads to exotic states of matter in pure 3 d space.

  13. Improved gravity anomaly fields from retracked multimission satellite radar altimetry observations over the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaki, M.; Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; Awange, J.; Kuhn, M.

    2015-09-01

    Satellite radar altimetry observations are used to derive short wavelength gravity anomaly fields over the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea, where in situ and ship-borne gravity measurements have limited spatial coverage. In this study the retracking algorithm `Extrema Retracking' (ExtR) was employed to improve sea surface height (SSH) measurements that are highly biased in the study regions due to land contaminations in the footprints of the satellite altimetry observations. ExtR was applied to the waveforms sampled by the five satellite radar altimetry missions: TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, JASON-2, GFO and ERS-1. Along-track slopes have been estimated from the improved SSH measurements and used in an iterative process to estimate deflections of the vertical, and subsequently, the desired gravity anomalies. The main steps of the gravity anomaly computations involve estimating improved SSH using the ExtR technique, computing deflections of the vertical from interpolated SSHs on a regular grid using a biharmonic spline interpolation and finally estimating gridded gravity anomalies. A remove-compute-restore algorithm, based on the fast Fourier transform, has been applied to convert deflections of the vertical into gravity anomalies. Finally, spline interpolation has been used to estimate regular gravity anomaly grids over the two study regions. Results were evaluated by comparing the estimated altimetry-derived gravity anomalies (with and without implementing the ExtR algorithm) with ship-borne free air gravity anomaly observations, and free air gravity anomalies from the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008). The comparison indicates a range of 3-5 mGal in the residuals, which were computed by taking the differences between the retracked altimetry-derived gravity anomaly and the ship-borne data. The comparison of retracked data with ship-borne data indicates a range in the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between approximately 1.8 and 4.4 mGal and a bias between 0

  14. 40 CFR 52.2384 - Stack height review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affected by stack height credits greater than good engineering practice or any other prohibited dispersion... ‘good engineering practice’ stack height or from using ‘other dispersion techniques.’ ” Thus,...

  15. Short root anomaly in families and its association with other dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Apajalahti, S; Arte, S; Pirinen, S

    1999-04-01

    In the present study, we collected a family series with short root anomaly in order to analyze the inheritance pattern of the condition. Another aim was to identify in these families an association with other dental anomalies, such as tooth agenesis, peg-shaped lateral incisors, supernumeraries, ectopia, and such morphological characteristics as invaginations, taurodontism, and a tendency to root resorption. Mesiodistal dimensions of the crowns of the affected teeth were measured in order to reveal any association with reduction or increase in tooth size. The apparent genetic heterogeneity of the pedigrees did not permit definitive conclusions as to the mode of inheritance. Autosomal dominant transmission of short root anomaly was seen in 3/8 families. In 2/8 families, the condition was seen in siblings but not in parents. An association with tooth agenesis and ectopic canines was noted, the prevalences of which were 46% and 33%, respectively. We stress the importance of not misdiagnosing this anomaly as resorption.

  16. Pure duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 15 with ebstein anomaly and clavicular anomaly.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rachel; Al-Murrani, Amel; Aftimos, Salim; Asquith, Philip; Mazzaschi, Roberto; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; George, Alice M; Love, Donald R

    2011-01-01

    This report is of a patient with pure trisomy of 15q24-qter who presents with the rare Ebstein anomaly and a previously unreported skeletal anomaly. Chromosome microarray analysis allowed high-resolution identification of the extent of the trisomy and provided a means of achieving higher-resolution breakpoint data. The phenotypic expression of unbalanced chromosomal regions is a complex phenomenon, and fine mapping of the involved region, as described here, is only a first step on the path to its full understanding. Overexpression of the LINGO-1 and CSPG4 genes has been implicated in developmental delay seen in other patients with trisomy of 15q24-qter, but our patient is currently too young to ascertain developmental progress. The genetic underpinning of Ebstein anomaly and the skeletal anomaly reported here is unclear based on our high-resolution dosage mapping.

  17. An isolated single L-II type coronary artery anomaly: A rare coronary anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Ermis, Emrah; Demirelli, Selami; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Sahin, Bingul Dilekci; Kantarci, Abdulmecit

    2015-01-01

    Summary The incidence of congenital artery anomalies is 0.2–1.4%, and most are benign. Single coronary artery (SCA) anomalies are very rare. The right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left coronary system is one such SCA anomaly, and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) increases if it courses between the pulmonary artery and aorta and coexists with other congenital heart diseases. Additionally, coursing of the RCA between the great vessels increases the risk of atherosclerosis. We herein present the case of a 57 year-old man who was admitted to our cardiology outpatient clinic and diagnosed with an SCA anomaly in which the RCA arose from the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and coursed between the pulmonary artery and aorta. However a critical stenosis was not detected in imaging techniques, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphic evidence of ischaemia was found in a small area. Therefore, he was managed with conservative medical therapy. PMID:26668781

  18. Orbital debris hazard insights from spacecraft anomalies studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Darren S.

    2016-09-01

    Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.

  19. The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ. T.Litvinova -All-Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) A. Petrova - St. Petersburg, SPbF IZMIRAN, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg For allocation of specific features known gold ore objects (Olimpiadninskoje, Suchoi Log, etc.) is executed the morphological analysis of the magnetic field received on materials of aeromagnetic data and satellite measurements at heights of 100 and 400 km. On the ground data on a map of magnetic anomalies of Russia of scale 1:2 500000 of 50 km on the extended structures crossing known gold ore deposits and promising ore units have been constructed geomagnetic and densitys sections up to depth. On geomagnetic and densitys sections to known large gold ore to deposits are dated deep synvertical the permeable zones described by a synlenticular -layered structure. Extended horizons of not magnetic formations are located on depths about 10, 12, 15-18, 30 and 40 km. On deep densitys sections reference sites ¬ the Suchoi Log, Olimpiadninskoje and Vodorazdelnoje ¬ is characterized by zones of inversion of density. Areas of the loosened breeds are dated to synvertical to deep zones of hydrothermal and fluid study of breeds inside which the loosened lenses in intervals of depths from 2 up to 5 km are formed, 8-13 km, 18-20 and 25-30 km of 35-40 km within the limits of the bottom bark. The analysis of a magnetic field has shown, that gold mineralization in researched region is dated for zones of long-living regional explosive infringements, to permeable terrigenous to thicknesses of depressions, to adjournment depression structures in units of crossing of tectonofluid zones of diagonal orientation. Terrigenous adjournment depression structures are shown on a geomagnetic section as the powerful deflections filled with low-magnetic thicknesses. These deflections are dated to

  20. Head Circumference and Height in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lainhart, Janet E.; Bigler, Erin D.; Bocian, Maureen; Coon, Hilary; Dinh, Elena; Dawson, Geraldine; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dunn, Michelle; Estes, Annette; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan; McMahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Osann, Kathy; Ozonoff, Sally; Rodier, Patricia; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M. Anne; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Volkmar, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Data from 10 sites of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism were combined to study the distribution of head circumference and relationship to demographic and clinical variables. Three hundred thirty-eight probands with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) including 208 probands with autism were studied along with 147 parents, 149 siblings, and typically developing controls. ASDs were diagnosed, and head circumference and clinical variables measured in a standardized manner across all sites. All subjects with autism met ADI-R, ADOS-G, DSM-IV, and ICD-10 criteria. The results show the distribution of standardized head circumference in autism is normal in shape, and the mean, variance, and rate of macrocephaly but not microcephaly are increased. Head circumference tends to be large relative to height in autism. No site, gender, age, SES, verbal, or non-verbal IQ effects were present in the autism sample. In addition to autism itself, standardized height and average parental head circumference were the most important factors predicting head circumference in individuals with autism. Mean standardized head circumference and rates of macrocephaly were similar in probands with autism and their parents. Increased head circumference was associated with a higher (more severe) ADI-R social algorithm score. Macrocephaly is associated with delayed onset of language. Although mean head circumference and rates of macrocephaly are increased in autism, a high degree of variability is present, underscoring the complex clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The wide distribution of head circumference in autism has major implications for genetic, neuroimaging, and other neurobiological research. PMID:17022081

  1. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  2. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  3. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  4. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  5. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  6. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  7. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  8. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  9. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  10. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  11. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  12. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  13. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  14. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  15. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  16. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  17. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  18. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  19. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  20. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  1. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  2. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  3. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  4. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  5. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  6. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  7. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  8. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  9. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  10. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  11. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  12. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  13. The Perceptual Distortion of Height in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.; Angoli, Marilyn

    Both balance and reinforcement theories were used in an examination of the perceptual distortion of height among 146 college debaters. Balance theory predicted that losers would distort winners' heights upward; reinforcement theory predicted that winners would distort losers' heights upward. The results confirmed both predictions. The possibility…

  14. Spectral anomalies in Young's double-slit interference experiment.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jixiong; Cai, Chao; Nemoto, Shojiro

    2004-10-18

    We report a phenomenon of spectral anomalies in the interference field of Young's double-slit interference experiment. The potential applications of the spectral anomalies in the information encoding and information transmission in free space are also considered.

  15. The association of congenital spinal anomalies with imperforate anus.

    PubMed

    Denton, J R

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with congenital imperforate anus were studied to investigate: (1) the incidence of congenital spinal anomalies; (2) the orthopedic significance of these anomalies; (3) the incidence of other musculoskeletal disorders; and (4) the incidence of anomalies in other organ systems in the anal-spine anomaly group. There was a 38% incidence of spinal anomalies in 94 patients with congenital imperforate anus. Most of these abnormalities were sacral, and there were no related or progressive spinal deformities. The incidence of other musculoskeletal anomalies was much lower than of the spine (only 9% of the total). The triad of caudal regression-imperforate anus, spinal anomalies, and genitourinary tract anomalies-was present in 19 (53%) of the 36 cases, much more than any other combination of major system abnormalities such as the VATER of VACTEL syndromes.

  16. Pictorial review of coronary anomalies in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Sangita; Aeron, Gunjan; Vojta, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) classically consists of four characteristic features-right ventricular outflow obstruction, right ventricular hypertrophy, ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. In addition there are multiple other associated cardiac anomalies, including coronary artery anomalies. In this review, the role of CT angiography and the spectrum of coronary anomalies will be discussed along with importance of such anomalies in the context of surgery.

  17. Ebstein's Anomaly: Genetics, Clinical Manifestations, and Management.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-11-19

    Ebstein's anomaly is uncommon. Genetic bases of this congenital heart defect may be related to the mutations in myosin heavy chain 7 and NKX2.5, among others. Asymptomatic patients with Ebstein's anomaly can be conservatively treated and kept under close follow-up, whereas surgical operation is indicated for those patients with evidence of right heart dilation and progressively impaired ventricular systolic function. A biventricular repair consisting of the reconstruction of a competent monocuspid tricuspid valve, right ventriculorrhaphy, subtotal atrial septal defect closure, and aggressive reduction atrioplasty is suitable for most patients, and 1.5-ventricular repair (bidirectional Glenn shunt) is indicated for patients with poor right ventricular function; by contrast, heart transplantation is used in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction.

  18. The flyby anomaly: a multivariate analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acedo, L.

    2017-02-01

    The flyby anomaly is the unexpected variation of the asymptotic post-encounter velocity of a spacecraft with respect to the pre-encounter velocity as it performs a slingshot manoeuvre. This effect has been detected in, at least, six flybys of the Earth but it has not appeared in other recent flybys. In order to find a pattern in these, apparently contradictory, data several phenomenological formulas have been proposed but all have failed to predict a new result in agreement with the observations. In this paper we use a multivariate dimensional analysis approach to propose a fitting of the data in terms of the local parameters at perigee, as it would occur if this anomaly comes from an unknown fifth force with latitude dependence. Under this assumption, we estimate the range of this force around 300 km.

  19. Topology of Fermi surfaces and anomaly inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adem, Alejandro; Camarena, Omar Antolín; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Sheinbaum, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    We derive a rigorous classification of topologically stable Fermi surfaces of non-interacting, discrete translation-invariant systems from electronic band theory, adiabatic evolution and their topological interpretations. For systems on an infinite crystal it is shown that there can only be topologically unstable Fermi surfaces. For systems on a half- space and with a gapped bulk, our derivation naturally yields a K -theory classification. Given the d - 1-dimensional surface Brillouin zone X s of a d-dimensional half-space, our result implies that different classes of globally stable Fermi surfaces belong in K -1 (Xs) for systems with only discrete translation-invariance. This result has a chiral anomaly inflow interpretation, as it reduces to the spectral flow for d = 2. Through equivariant homotopy methods we extend these results for symmetry classes AI, AII, C and D and discuss their corresponding anomaly inflow interpretation.

  20. Conformal anomaly around the sudden singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houndjo, S. J. M.

    2010-10-01

    Quantum effects due to particle creation on a classical sudden singularity have been investigated in a previous work. The conclusion was that quantum effects do not lead to the avoidance nor the modification of the sudden future singularity. In this paper, we investigate quantum corrections coming from conformal anomaly near the sudden future singularity. We conclude that when the equation of state is chosen to be p=-ρ-Aρα, the conformal anomaly can transform the sudden singularity into the singularity of type III for any α>1/2 and into the singularity of the type I (the big rip) or the big crunch for 1/2<α<3/2.

  1. Congenital anomalies of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Klimo, Paul; Rao, Ganesh; Brockmeyer, Douglas

    2007-07-01

    There are numerous congenital anomalies of the cervical spine. They can be simple and clinically inconsequential to complex with serious neurologic and structural implications. They can occur in isolation or as one of several maldeveloped organs in the patients. Many are discovered incidentally. The more common anomalies seen by pediatric spine surgeons include defects of the anterior or posterior arches of C1, occipital assimilation of the atlas, basilar invagination or impression, os odontoideum, and Klippel-Feil syndrome. Management begins with a detailed history, physical examination, and imaging studies. In general, those lesions that are causing or have caused neurologic injury, chronic pain, or spinal deformity or place the patient at high risk for developing these require treatment.

  2. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero

    2012-08-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  3. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOEpatents

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  4. Lunar magnetic anomalies and the Cayley formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Gose, W. A.; Pearce, G. W.; Mcconnell, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    It is proposed that magnetic anomalies such as found at the Apollo 16 site are associated with breccia flows which cooled in place from above 770 C. The required field at the time that this process took place is a few thousand gamma. It is suggested that the surface and orbital magnetic anomalies are caused by basins filled with Cayley-like breccia flows to a thickness of the order of a kilometer. These breccia blankets settled in place from temperatures above 770 C and a thickness on the order of 1 km was welded to a level of 2 to 4 on Warner's scale. A base surge caused by impact or by a volcanic event could be the mechanism by which these breccia blankets were deposited.

  5. The winter anomaly and sudden stratospheric warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, J.

    1984-08-01

    Large-scale stratospheric warmings are examined on the basis of 22-year measurements of radio-wave absorption at the Panska Ves observatory. It is shown that these warmings, accompanied by the reversal of wind direction in the lower thermosphere, lead not to an increase but to a decrease in the radio-wave absorption in the lower ionosphere, i.e., to the disappearance of the winter anomaly. It is concluded that the absorption decrease is connected not only with cooling in the mesopause region but also with a total change in the dynamic conditions of the lower ionosphere. The behavior of the winter anomaly in the 1979-1980 and 1981-1982 periods is examined in detail.

  6. Equatorial thermosphere anomaly: Observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Thayer, J. P.; Wang, W.; Richmond, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several mechanisms including heat transport due to zonal winds, chemical heating and field-aligned ion drag have been proposed to explain the formation of the Equatorial Thermosphere Anomaly (ETA), but the real cause of the ETA formation in thermosphere temperature is still a mystery. Various observations of the ionosphere and thermosphere have been used to investigate the variations of equatorial anomalies in both the ETA and EIA, and their interactions. The similarities and differences between the ETA and the EIA can provide important insight to the physical connections of this ion-neutral coupling problem. Meanwhile, the combination of observations and theoretical models allows us to understand the fundamental physical and chemical ion-neutral processes in the equatorial F region. This talk will highlight the recent progress of the formation of the ETA associated with the ion-neutral coupling in the equatorial region.

  7. Congenital anomalies of the optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Amador-Patarroyo, Manuel J.; Pérez-Rueda, Mario A.; Tellez, Carlos H.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital optic nerve head anomalies are a group of structural malformations of the optic nerve head and surrounding tissues, which may cause congenital visual impairment and blindness. Each entity in this group of optic nerve anomalies has individually become more prevalent as our ability to differentiate between them has improved due to better characterization of cases. Access to better medical technology (e.g., neuroimaging and genetic analysis advances in recent years) has helped to expand our knowledge of these abnormalities. However, visual impairment may not be the only problem in these patients, some of these entities will be related to ophthalmologic, neurologic and systemic features that will help the physician to identify and predict possible outcomes in these patients, which sometimes may be life-threatening. Herein we present helpful hints, associations and management (when plausible) for them. PMID:25859137

  8. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  9. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva without characteristic skeletal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare but extremely disabling genetic disease of the skeletal system. This disease is characterized by progression of heterotopic ossification within skeletal muscles, ligaments and tendons. Most patients with FOP are misdiagnosed early in life before the appearance of heterotopic ossification and undergo diagnostic procedures such as biopsy that can cause lifelong disability. Almost all of the patients have some peculiar congenital anomalies, including short great toes, hallux valgus, short thumbs and hypoplasia of digital phalanges. These congenital defects support the diagnosis of FOP, but are not constantly observed in the totality of patients. If necessary, genetic studies can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Once diagnosed, patients should be advised in order to avoid unnecessary traumas, surgical procedures, biopsies, intramuscular injections and vaccinations. Here, we describe a patient with FOP without characteristic congenital skeletal anomalies.

  10. Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

  11. Lithospheric sources of magnetic anomalies of the Aldan shield and Alpha Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina

    2013-04-01

    Regional anomaly Aldan Shield is dated to ancient greenstone belt of the earth's crust. Belt is characterized by high depth forming sequences. Rocks of the upper and middle part of the section contain ferruginous quartzite. Geomagnetic and density sections allowed to estimate the power density and magnetic crustal heterogeneities. The methodology of constructing the cuts is the spectral-spatial representation of the fields, convertible into the underlying magnetic and density cuts. According to satellite data confirms the presence of regional anomalies within the Aldan shield, at an altitude of 100 km, it is about 100 nT. The presence of the Central Aldan crast-mantle fault depth of 50-80 km defines metallogenic situation of the region. The structure of the Aldan Shield detects rotational structure. Regional magnetic anomalies arc tangent frame Central Aldan region. May suggest that such behavior of anomalies is caused by of the ancient (Pre-Cambrian) fireplace mantle (the nucleus). Studies have shown that lithospheric sources Aldan shield on satellite magnetic anomalies and magnetic anomalies (ΔT) a Russia are located at depths of 30 to 35 and 40 to 70 km. They are confined to vertical zone deconsolidated at depths of about 30 and 40 - 70 km. By magnetic anomalies (ΔT) a Russian in the crust of the Aldan shield a depth of 15 - 17 km and 25 - 30 km depth revealed magnetite zone, the formation of which is due to the processes of regional metamorphism of ancient crust. Studies have shown the limits of the depth distribution of magnetite zones, mosaic developed within the crust of the Aldan shield after repeated activation of the processes of regional metamorphism.Alpha Ridge in the Arctic Ocean is one of the largest igneous provinces in the world. Tectonic history of the Arctic while not significantly deciphered. Deep structure of the Earth's crust are poorly understood Linearly elongated magnetic anomalies Alpha Ridge clearly seen at the height of the satellite

  12. Megadolichobasilar anomaly, basilar impression and occipito-vertebral anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Dehaene, I; Pattyn, G; Calliauw, L

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a megadolichobasilar anomaly associated with basilar impression, bilateral megadolichocarotid arteries and an occipito-vertebral anastomosis. The concurrence of these anomalies lends support to the hypothesis that congenital factors play a part in the origin of the megadolichobasilar anomaly.

  13. Minor Physical Anomalies, Footprints, and Behavior: Was the Buddha Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Thomas W.; Munoz, Milagros M.

    1982-01-01

    A relationship between an anomaly of the footprint suggested by ancient Abhidhamma meditations and Minor Physical Anomalies Scale was observed in children. The footprint anomalies correlated with the activity levels of children in the same way as the scores on the scale and consistently with prior research using the scale. (Author/RD)

  14. Ebstein anomaly in a meerkat (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin; Chetboul, Valérie; Carlos, Carolina; Nicolle, Audrey; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis; Bomsel, Marie Claude

    2004-12-01

    An 8-yr-old male meerkat (Suricata suricatta) presented with sudden lethargy. A globular-shaped heart associated with pleural effusion on chest thoracic radiographs was consistent with congestive heart failure, and echocardiography was performed under general anesthesia. It revealed an Ebstein anomaly, with mild pericardial effusion and marked right heart enlargement. The animal was treated with imidapril chlorydrate. After 4 mo of treatment, thoracic radiographs still showed right-sided cardiomegaly; however, the animal appeared clinically normal.

  15. Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge

    SciTech Connect

    Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-06-15

    We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ..nu.. = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators.

  16. Electromagnetic Duality Anomaly in Curved Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agullo, Ivan; del Rio, Adrian; Navarro-Salas, Jose

    2017-03-01

    The source-free Maxwell action is invariant under electric-magnetic duality rotations in arbitrary spacetimes. This leads to a conserved classical Noether charge. We show that this conservation law is broken at the quantum level in the presence of a background classical gravitational field with a nontrivial Chern-Pontryagin invariant, in parallel with the chiral anomaly for massless Dirac fermions. Among the physical consequences, the net polarization of the quantum electromagnetic field is not conserved.

  17. Large-Angle Anomalies in the CMB

    DOE PAGES

    Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; ...

    2010-01-01

    We review the recently found large-scale anomalies in the maps of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. These include alignments of the largest modes of CMB anisotropy with each other and with geometry and direction of motion of the solar ssystem, and the unusually low power at these largest scales. We discuss these findings in relation to expectation from standard inflationary cosmology, their statistical significance, the tools to study them, and the various attempts to explain them.

  18. Hamiltonian anomalies of bound states in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Shilin, V. I.; Pervushin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The Bound State in QED is described in systematic way by means of nonlocal irreducible representations of the nonhomogeneous Poincare group and Dirac's method of quantization. As an example of application of this method we calculate triangle diagram Para-Positronium {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. We show that the Hamiltonian approach to Bound State in QED leads to anomaly-type contribution to creation of pair of parapositronium by two photon.

  19. Statistical significance of the gallium anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-06-15

    We calculate the statistical significance of the anomalous deficit of electron neutrinos measured in the radioactive source experiments of the GALLEX and SAGE solar neutrino detectors, taking into account the uncertainty of the detection cross section. We found that the statistical significance of the anomaly is {approx}3.0{sigma}. A fit of the data in terms of neutrino oscillations favors at {approx}2.7{sigma} short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance with respect to the null hypothesis of no oscillations.

  20. Ebstein Anomaly With QRS Fragmentation on Electrocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Prakash; Ang, Jonathan Ross; Gitler, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital disorder that involves the tricuspid valve and the right ventricle. It is associated with interatrial communication, which allows for paradoxical embolization causing unilateral blindness. Abnormal conduction through the atrialized right ventricle leads to QRS fragmentation on electrocardiogram. Its presence suggests a more severe abnormality and a higher risk of arrhythmia. The QRS fragmentation disappears after corrective surgery with resection of the atrialized right ventricle. PMID:28203575

  1. Ebstein Anomaly With QRS Fragmentation on Electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Prakash; Ang, Jonathan Ross; Gitler, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital disorder that involves the tricuspid valve and the right ventricle. It is associated with interatrial communication, which allows for paradoxical embolization causing unilateral blindness. Abnormal conduction through the atrialized right ventricle leads to QRS fragmentation on electrocardiogram. Its presence suggests a more severe abnormality and a higher risk of arrhythmia. The QRS fragmentation disappears after corrective surgery with resection of the atrialized right ventricle.

  2. Hessian geometry and the holomorphic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, G. L.; Mohaupt, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present a geometrical framework which incorporates higher derivative corrections to the action of N = 2 vector multiplets in terms of an enlarged scalar manifold which includes a complex deformation parameter. This enlarged space carries a deformed version of special Kähler geometry which we characterise. The holomorphic anomaly equation arises in this framework from the integrability condition for the existence of a Hesse potential.

  3. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30

  4. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.

    The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  5. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial

  6. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  7. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Risien, C.M.; Strub, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    We form a new ‘blended’ data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55–70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993–31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  8. [Ebstein's anomaly: diagnosis and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Malvindi, Pietro Giorgio; Viola, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a rare congenital heart disorder secondary to a malformation of the tricuspid valve and right ventricle. The heterogeneous spectrum of presentation of its structural anomalies and associated cardiomyopathy accounts for a widely varied clinical and hemodynamic manifestation of the pathology and its impact on timing of diagnosis and prognosis. Neonatal Ebstein's anomaly is characterized by reduced survival, while an average risk of mortality per year of 1% to 1.4% has been reported in infancy and adulthood. Medical management and a careful clinical and echocardiographic follow-up are advisable for all asymptomatic patients and those with minimal abnormalities. Surgical correction is recommended in presence of progressive dilation of the right atrium and right ventricle, development of right ventricular dysfunction, occurrence of supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias or episodes of paradoxical embolization, reduced exercise capacity, or significant desaturation. Prosthetic valve replacement or repair of the tricuspid valve are both common strategies in the correction of tricuspid regurgitation. During the last three decades, important contributions in the development of repair techniques were driven from the experience of Danielson, Carpentier and da Silva, with satisfactory results in terms of safety and durability at long-term follow-up.

  9. Evaluation of anomalies in GLDAS-1996 dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Han, Shumin

    2013-01-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data are widely used for land-surface flux simulations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy using GLDAS dataset is largely contingent upon the accuracy of the GLDAS dataset. It is found that GLDAS land-surface model simulated runoff exhibits strong anomalies for 1996. These anomalies are investigated by evaluating four GLDAS meteorological forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, downward shortwave radiation and downward longwave radiation) in six large basins across the world (Danube, Mississippi, Yangtze, Congo, Amazon and Murray-Darling basins). Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) are also compared with GLDAS forcing precipitation data. Large errors and lack of monthly variability in GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are the main sources for the anomalies in the simulated runoff. The impact of the precipitation data on simulated runoff for 1996 is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land-surface model in the Yangtze basin, for which area high-quality local precipitation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The CABLE model is driven by GLDAS daily precipitation data and CMA daily precipitation, respectively. The simulated daily and monthly runoffs obtained from CMA data are noticeably better than those obtained from GLDAS data, suggesting that GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are not so reliable for land-surface flux simulations.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of fetal developmental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine J

    2011-02-01

    Fetal developmental anomalies consist of central nervous system malformations, brain injury, and tumors. Overlap is often seen especially between malformation and injury because malformation may be genetically determined or related to external causative agent, whereas brain injury may be, on one hand, caused by malformation as with intracranial vascular malformation and, on another, can cause brain malformation when cerebral insult occurs during organogenesis and histogenesis. The goal of this review was not to describe by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) all fetal developmental anomalies encountered in utero; it is most likely to focus on fetal brain anomalies that either are most commonly seen in fetal tertiary care facility or are extremely challenging for MRI. Consequently, the potential of advanced MR techniques such as proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging is also described especially when a challenge is highlighted. This review is therefore organized in subchapters as follows. The first section gives the place of MRI in prenatal development and cites the standard protocol and the advanced techniques. The rules of fetal brain MRI, the challenge and pitfalls, and the selection of MRI cases follow as 3 subchapters. Also, abnormalities are described as 3 separate subchapters entitled ventriculomegalies (hydrocephalus), malformations, and brain injury.

  11. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-01-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  12. Fold Lens Flux Anomalies: A Geometric Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Wendy B.; Chessey, M. K.; Goldberg, D. M.; Richards, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing of quasars is a powerful tool to learn about the distribution of dark matter in lensing galaxies. Multiply imaged quasar systems have symmetries which allow for an understanding of the lensing galaxy without detailed mass reconstructions. Keeton et al. (2005) defined a useful expression for the flux anomaly of "fold'' lenses, which we might naively expect to have the same flux: Rfold=(fA-fB)/(fA+fB), where "A'' and "B'' represent the positive and negative parity images straddling a critical curve. We show that the geometric configuration of the images greatly constrains the possible flux anomalies allowable from a smooth galaxy potential. Using gravlens, we create a number of simple galaxies from various mass models to put our solution to the test, and find that simulated flux anomalies are reproduced to an accuracy of |δ R| < 0.04. We then apply our approach to a radio sample of 9 well-studied fold lenses and quickly identify those with significant substructure.

  13. Weyl anomaly and initial singularity crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel

    2016-04-01

    We consider the role of quantum effects, mainly, Weyl anomaly in modifying Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model singular behavior at early times. Weyl anomaly corrections to FLRW models have been considered in the past, here we reconsider this model and show the following: The singularity of this model is weak according to Tipler and Krolak, therefore, the spacetime might admit a geodesic extension. Weyl anomaly corrections change the nature of the initial singularity from a big bang singularity to a sudden singularity. The two branches of solutions consistent with the semiclassical treatment form a disconnected manifold. Joining these two parts at the singularity provides us with a C1 extension to nonspacelike geodesics and leaves the spacetime geodesically complete. Using Gauss-Codazzi equations one can derive generalized junction conditions for this higher-derivative gravity. The extended spacetime obeys Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and the junction conditions. The junction does not generate Dirac delta functions in matter sources which keeps the equation of state unchanged.

  14. Thermal expansion anomaly regulated by entropy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, ShunLi

    2014-11-13

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  15. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, ShunLi

    2014-01-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions. PMID:25391631

  16. Seismic Anomaly Detection Using Symbolic Representation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Vyron; Bi, Yaxin; Wilkie, George; Zhao, Guoze

    2016-08-01

    In this work we investigate the use of symbolic representation methods for Anomaly Detection in different electromagnetic sequential time series datasets. An issue that is often overlooked regarding symbolic representation and its performance in Anomaly Detection is the use of a quantitative accuracy metric. Until recently only visual representations have been used to show the efficiency of an algorithm to detect anomalies. In this respect we propose an novel accuracy metric that takes into account the length of the sliding window of such symbolic representation algorithms and we present its utility. For the evaluation of the accuracy metric, HOT-SAX is used, a method that aggregates data points by use of sliding windows. A HOT-SAX variant, with the use of overlapping windows, is also introduced that achieves better results based on the newly defined accuracy metric. Both methods are evaluated on ten different benchmark datasets and based on the empirical evidence we use Earth's geomagnetic data gathered by the SWARM satellites and terrestrial sources around the epicenter of two seismic events in the Yunnan region of China.

  17. CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2003-01-01

    Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

  18. Long wavelength gravity and topography anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, A. B.; Daly, S. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that gravity and topography anomalies on the earth's surface may provide new information about deep processes occurring in the earth, such as those associated with mantle convection. Two main reasons are cited for this. The first is the steady improvement that has occurred in the resolution of the long wavelength gravity field, particularly in the wavelength range of a few hundred to a few thousand km, mainly due to increased coverage of terrestrial gravity measurements and the development of radar altimeters in orbiting satellites. The second reason is the large number of numerical and laboratory experiments of convection in the earth, including some with deformable upper and lower boundaries and temperature-dependent viscosity. The oceans are thought to hold the most promise for determining long wavelength gravity and topography anomalies, since their evolution has been relatively simple in comparison with that of the continents. It is also shown that good correlation between long wavelength gravity and topography anomalies exists over some portions of the ocean floor

  19. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun

    2011-05-01

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

  20. Verification of the pulse height tally in MCNP 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Avneet; Forster, R. A.; Adams, Bryce J.; White, Morgan C.

    2004-01-01

    Pulse height tallies are commonly used in Monte Carlo codes to predict detailed measured photon spectra for spectrometry purposes. The pulse height tally is unique among the various tallies in MCNP. Unlike flux or current tallies, which are calculated as soon as the particle exits or collides in the cell, the entire set of tracks for a history must be completed before the pulse height tally can be made. The objective of this work was to verify the pulse height tally and prepare to verify the new MCNP 5 variance reduction features with the pulse height tally. In this paper, we give details to the analytic solution of the pulse height distribution using a modification to Shuttleworth's fictitious elements, report MCNP 5 results for the pulse height tally, energy deposited and current tallies for the problem.

  1. Manifestations of proprioception during vertical jumps to specific heights.

    PubMed

    Artur, Struzik; Bogdan, Pietraszewski; Adam, Kawczyñski; Sławomir, Winiarski; Grzegorz, Juras; Andrzej, Rokita

    2017-02-23

    Jumping and proprioception are important abilities in many sports. The efficiency of the proprioceptive system is indirectly related to jumps performed at specified heights. Therefore, this study recorded the ability of young athletes who play team sports to jump to a specific height compared to their maximum ability. A total of 154 male (age: 14.8±0.9 years, body height: 181.8±8.9 cm, body weight: 69.8±11.8 kg, training experience: 3.8±1.7 years) and 151 female (age: 14.1±0.8 years, body height: 170.5±6.5 cm, body weight: 60.3±9.4 kg, training experience: 3.7±1.4 years) team games players were recruited for this study. Each participant performed two countermovement jumps with arm swing to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the maximum height. Measurements were performed using a force plate. Jump height and its accuracy with respect to a specified height were calculated. The results revealed no significant differences in jump height and its accuracy to the specified heights between the groups (stratified by age, gender and sport). Individuals with a higher jumping accuracy also exhibited greater maximum jump heights. Jumps to 25% of the maximum height were approximately two times higher than the target height. The decreased jump accuracy to a specific height when attempting to jump to lower heights should be reduced with training, particularly among athletes who play team sports. These findings provide useful information regarding the proprioceptive system for team sport coaches and may shape guidelines for training routines by working with submaximal loads.

  2. The relative utility of persistence and medium-range dynamical forecasts of monthly mean 700 mb heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livezey, Robert E.; Schemm, Jae-Kyung E.

    1988-01-01

    The proposal of Harnack et al. (1986) that monthly 700-mb height anomalies can be predicted using simulated medium-range numerical forecasts is tested with actual numerical forecasts produced under strict operational conditions. These conditions included nonavailability of long model forecast histories from which to develop estimates of drift, frequent model changes over the period of the experiment, a requirement that each monthly forecast be made four days before the beginning of the month, and the use of only data which are available on the day of the forecast. The overall results and month-by-month results confirm the hypothesis of the Harnack group.

  3. Anomaly Detection in Gamma-Ray Vehicle Spectra with Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis Distances

    SciTech Connect

    Tardiff, Mark F.; Runkle, Robert C.; Anderson, K. K.; Smith, L. E.

    2006-01-23

    The goal of primary radiation monitoring in support of routine screening and emergency response is to detect characteristics in vehicle radiation signatures that indicate the presence of potential threats. Two conceptual approaches to analyzing gamma-ray spectra for threat detection are isotope identification and anomaly detection. While isotope identification is the time-honored method, an emerging technique is anomaly detection that uses benign vehicle gamma ray signatures to define an expectation of the radiation signature for vehicles that do not pose a threat. Newly acquired spectra are then compared to this expectation using statistical criteria that reflect acceptable false alarm rates and probabilities of detection. The gamma-ray spectra analyzed here were collected at a U.S. land Port of Entry (POE) using a NaI-based radiation portal monitor (RPM). The raw data were analyzed to develop a benign vehicle expectation by decimating the original pulse-height channels to 35 energy bins, extracting composite variables via principal components analysis (PCA), and estimating statistically weighted distances from the mean vehicle spectrum with the mahalanobis distance (MD) metric. This paper reviews the methods used to establish the anomaly identification criteria and presents a systematic analysis of the response of the combined PCA and MD algorithm to modeled mono-energetic gamma-ray sources.

  4. Assessing Global Water Storage Variability from GRACE: Trends, Seasonal Cycle, Subseasonal Anomalies and Extremes.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Vincent; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    Throughout the past decade, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has given an unprecedented view on global variations in terrestrial water storage. While an increasing number of case studies have provided a rich overview on regional analyses, a global assessment on the dominant features of GRACE variability is still lacking. To address this, we survey key features of temporal variability in the GRACE record by decomposing gridded time series of monthly equivalent water height into linear trends, inter-annual, seasonal, and subseasonal (intra-annual) components. We provide an overview of the relative importance and spatial distribution of these components globally. A correlation analysis with precipitation and temperature reveals that both the inter-annual and subseasonal anomalies are tightly related to fluctuations in the atmospheric forcing. As a novelty, we show that for large regions of the world high-frequency anomalies in the monthly GRACE signal, which have been partly interpreted as noise, can be statistically reconstructed from daily precipitation once an adequate averaging filter is applied. This filter integrates the temporally decaying contribution of precipitation to the storage changes in any given month, including earlier precipitation. Finally, we also survey extreme dry anomalies in the GRACE record and relate them to documented drought events. This global assessment sets regional studies in a broader context and reveals phenomena that had not been documented so far.

  5. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Author provides theory and computations for building inflatable space towers up to a hundred km in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, earth's surface, weather, top atmosphere, as well as for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the earth's surface. The transport system for this tower consists a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanism in case of a damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in subsequent publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  6. Empirical models of height integrated conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, D. D.; Budzinski, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional distributions of the height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities have been computed for latitudes poleward of 60 deg invariant representative of two Kp activity levels. Average precipitating fluxes of electrons with energies of 0.15, 1.27, 9.65, and greater than 22 keV obtained by the energetic particle detector of Isis 2 during 1971-1974 are used as input to a Rees-type computation. The assumption of equilibrium conditions and a recombination rate profile permit calculation of electron density profiles and conductivity profiles. Calculations are performed at 300 grid points, specifically 12 local times and 25 latitudes from 60 to 84 deg invariant latitude. The models include ionization due to galactic EUV and other background sources that produces base conductivities as well as solar photon ionization through an empirical fit to Chatanika radar observations. Substantial modulation of the conductivities is found to result from longitudinal variation of the magnitude of the earth's magnetic field.

  7. Seasat altimeter height calibration. [related to sea surface heights near bermuda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolenkiewicz, R.; Martin, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The Seasat altimeter was calibrated for height bias using four overflight passes of Bermuda which were supported by the Bermuda laser. The altimeter data was corrected for: tides, using recorded tide gauge data; propagation effects, using meteorological data taken around the time of each pass; acceleration lag; and sea state bias, including both surface effects and instrumental effects. Altimeter data for each of the four passes was smoothed and extrapolated across the island. Interpolation between passes then produced an equivalent altimeter measurement to the geoid at the laser site, so that the altimeter bias could be estimated without the use of a geoid model. The estimated height bias was 0.0 + or - 0.07.

  8. Relationships between Rwandan seasonal rainfall anomalies and ENSO events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhire, I.; Ahmed, F.; Abutaleb, K.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims primarily at investigating the relationships between Rwandan seasonal rainfall anomalies and El Niño-South Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) events. The study is useful for early warning of negative effects associated with extreme rainfall anomalies across the country. It covers the period 1935-1992, using long and short rains data from 28 weather stations in Rwanda and ENSO events resourced from Glantz (2001). The mean standardized anomaly indices were calculated to investigate their associations with ENSO events. One-way analysis of variance was applied on the mean standardized anomaly index values per ENSO event to explore the spatial correlation of rainfall anomalies per ENSO event. A geographical information system was used to present spatially the variations in mean standardized anomaly indices per ENSO event. The results showed approximately three climatic periods, namely, dry period (1935-1960), semi-humid period (1961-1976) and wet period (1977-1992). Though positive and negative correlations were detected between extreme short rains anomalies and El Niño events, La Niña events were mostly linked to negative rainfall anomalies while El Niño events were associated with positive rainfall anomalies. The occurrence of El Niño and La Niña in the same year does not show any clear association with rainfall anomalies. However, the phenomenon was more linked with positive long rains anomalies and negative short rains anomalies. The normal years were largely linked with negative long rains anomalies and positive short rains anomalies, which is a pointer to the influence of other factors other than ENSO events. This makes projection of seasonal rainfall anomalies in the country by merely predicting ENSO events difficult.

  9. Algorithm development for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, Dalton S.

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation proposes and evaluates a novel anomaly detection algorithm suite for ground-to-ground, or air-to-ground, applications requiring automatic target detection using hyperspectral (HS) data. Targets are manmade objects in natural background clutter under unknown illumination and atmospheric conditions. The use of statistical models herein is purely for motivation of particular formulas for calculating anomaly output surfaces. In particular, formulas from semiparametrics are utilized to obtain novel forms for output surfaces, and alternative scoring algorithms are proposed to calculate output surfaces that are comparable to those of semiparametrics. Evaluation uses both simulated data and real HS data from a joint data collection effort between the Army Research Laboratory and the Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center. A data transformation method is presented for use by the two-sample data structure univariate semiparametric and nonparametric scoring algorithms, such that, the two-sample data are mapped from their original multivariate space to an univariate domain, where the statistical power of the univariate scoring algorithms is shown to be improved relative to existing multivariate scoring algorithms testing the same two-sample data. An exhaustive simulation experimental study is conducted to assess the performance of different HS anomaly detection techniques, where the null and alternative hypotheses are completely specified, including all parameters, using multivariate normal and mixtures of multivariate normal distributions. Finally, for ground-to-ground anomaly detection applications, where the unknown scales of targets add to the problem complexity, a novel global anomaly detection algorithm suite is introduced, featuring autonomous partial random sampling (PRS) of the data cube. The PRS method is proposed to automatically sample the unknown background clutter in the test HS imagery, and by repeating multiple times this

  10. Geodetic constraints on volcanic plume height at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Roberts, Matthew; Björnsson, Halldór; Grapenthin, Ronni; Arason, Pórdur; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Hólmjárn, Jósef; Geirsson, Halldór; Bennett, Richard; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Oddsson, Björn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Villemin, Thierry; Jónsson, Torsteinn; Sturkell, Erik; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Thordarson, Thor; Óladóttir, Bergrún

    2014-05-01

    In 2011 a VEI 4 explosive eruption took place at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland. Grímsvötn is a subglacial basaltic volcano beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap. It is Iceland's most frequently erupting volcano, with recent eruptions in 1983, 1998, 2004, and 2011. The volcano has a low seismic velocity anomaly down to about 3 km depth, interpreted as a magma chamber. A continuous GPS station and a tiltmeter are located on a nunatak, Mount Grímsfjall, which protrudes from the ice at the southern rim of the caldera. The 21-28 May 2011 eruption was Grímsvötn's largest since 1873, resulting in airspace closure in northern Europe and the cancellation of about 900 passenger flights. The eruption was preceded by gradual inflation following the 2004 eruption and progressive increase in seismicity. Kinematic 1 Hz solutions were derived for the position of the GPS station in the hours immediately before and during the 2011 eruption. The onset of deformation preceded the eruption by one hour and reached maximum of 0.57 m within 48 hours. Throughout the eruption the GPS station moved consistently in direction N38.4+/-0.5W, opposite to the direction of movements during the 2004-2011 inter eruptive phase. The deformation characteristics suggest that the signal was mostly due to pressure change in a source at 1.7 +/- 0.2 km depth. We use the geodetic measurements to infer co-eruptive pressure change in the magma chamber using the Mogi model. The rate of pressure drop is then used to estimate the magma flow rate from the chamber. Numerous studies have shown that plume height in explosive eruptions can be related to magma discharge. Using an empirical relationship between the volcanic plume height and magma flow rate (Mastin et al., 2009) we estimate the evolution of the plume height from the geodetic data. Two weather radars monitored the height of the volcanic plume during the eruption. A strong initial plume with peaks at 20-25 km was followed by a declining, pulsating activity

  11. The dynamic Allan Variance IV: characterization of atomic clock anomalies.

    PubMed

    Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia

    2015-05-01

    The number of applications where precise clocks play a key role is steadily increasing, satellite navigation being the main example. Precise clock anomalies are hence critical events, and their characterization is a fundamental problem. When an anomaly occurs, the clock stability changes with time, and this variation can be characterized with the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR). We obtain the DAVAR for a series of common clock anomalies, namely, a sinusoidal term, a phase jump, a frequency jump, and a sudden change in the clock noise variance. These anomalies are particularly common in space clocks. Our analytic results clarify how the clock stability changes during these anomalies.

  12. TOMS Ozone Anomalies and Ozone Retrieval Errors Over Cloudy Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.; Kim, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Loughman, R.

    2003-12-01

    This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused OREs are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)>20, assuming Lambertian surface is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2-12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5-13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The negative errors from using the TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) partly cancel other positive errors. At COD < 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, negative PCM effect decreases to almost zero, and the overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is >0.5 or <-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs result from large cloud-height errors; corrections lead to 50-70% POAs in the tropics because of

  13. Estimating the Ocean Flow Field from Combined Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Surface Height Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This project was part of a previous grant at MIT that was moved over to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) together with the principal investigator. The final report provided here is concerned only with the work performed at SIO since January 2000. The primary focus of this project was the study of the three-dimensional, absolute and time-evolving general circulation of the global ocean from a combined analysis of remotely sensed fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH). The synthesis of those two fields was performed with other relevant physical data, and appropriate dynamical ocean models with emphasis on constraining ocean general circulation models by a combination of both SST and SSH data. The central goal of the project was to improve our understanding and modeling of the relationship between the SST and its variability to internal ocean dynamics, and the overlying atmosphere, and to explore the relative roles of air-sea fluxes and internal ocean dynamics in establishing anomalies in SST on annual and longer time scales. An understanding of those problems will feed into the general discussion on how SST anomalies vary with time and the extend to which they interact with the atmosphere.

  14. Effect of different professions' clothing on children's height perception.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Mahmoud; Keshtkaran, Katayoun; Zabihidan, Sahar; Hosseinchari, Masoud; Pazhoohi, Farid

    2012-11-01

    Height is a biological factor that can affect how others perceive and behave toward an individual. Height is a biological factor that can affect how others perceive and behave toward an individual. Clothing, as a non-biological factor, can affect these perceptions of height. In this study weClothing, as a non-biological factor, can affect these perceptions of height. In this study we investigated the effect of different professions' clothing on children's perceptions of height. One investigated the effect of different professions' clothing on children's perceptions of height. One hundred and eighty primary school students participated in this study and estimated the height of an actor in the clothing of four different professions which differed in terms of prestige. The results of study showed that the difference between the perceived and actual height was larger when participants estimated the height of socially esteemed professions. Also there was no difference between girls' and boys' estimation of different professions' height. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Clinical Approaches to Vascular Anomalies of the Lip

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jeong Yeop; Lee, Joon Seok; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Yang, Jung Dug; Cho, Byung Chae; Lee, Seok-Jong; Lee, Jong Min; Huh, Seung

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of vascular anomalies in the head and neck is higher than in the extremities. It is especially common for vascular anomalies to involve the lip. The lips are a functionally and aesthetically important component of the head and neck area. A retrospective analysis of data from our vascular anomaly center was performed in order to understand the characteristics and treatment requirements of vascular anomalies of the lip and to establish which treatments are likely to lead to the best outcomes. Methods A retrospective review was performed of the medical records of patients diagnosed with vascular anomalies of the upper or lower lip from January 2001 to September 2013. Using clinical photographs, radiologic findings, and patient records, the diagnosis of each case and the location of the vascular anomaly were recorded, along with information about treatment and follow-up. Results A total of 1,606 patients were diagnosed with vascular anomalies over this time period, of whom 127 (7.9%) were found to have vascular anomalies in the lip only. Surgical treatment with or without embolization, sclerotherapy, laser therapy, medication only, and observation were the treatment strategies adopted in these cases. Conclusions Vascular anomalies of the lip should be diagnosed accurately. Radiologic diagnosis played a crucial role in treatment planning, and several techniques were used to treat vascular anomalies of the lip. When surgical excision is indicated for the correction of vascular anomalies of the lip, the aesthetic and functional characteristics of the lip should be considered. PMID:26618117

  16. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  17. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    : shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  18. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.

    To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.

    Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  19. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  20. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    inspiration for Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM

  1. Imaging magnetospheric boundaries at ionospheric heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Michael; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wroten, Joei; Martinis, Carlos; Smith, Steven; Merenda, Kevin-Druis; Fritz, Theodore; Hairston, Marc; Heelis, Rod; Barbieri, Cesare

    2013-11-01

    all-sky imager (ASI) records atmospheric emissions from zenith to low on the horizon at all azimuths, a region typically spanning millions of square kilometers. Each pixel (with its unique elevation, azimuth, and emission height) can be mapped along B-field lines to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. Auroral and subauroral structures and boundaries seen in emission within the ionosphere-thermosphere (I-T) system can thus be related to source regions. For a midlatitude site, this I-T to inner magnetosphere connection typically falls within the L = 2-5 earth radii domain. In this study, we present the first case of a stable auroral red (SAR) arc observed from three widely spaced ASI sites (Europe, North America, New Zealand). SAR arcs are produced during the main and recovery phases of a geomagnetic storm, with emission driven by heat conduction from a very specific location in the magnetosphere—the L value where the plasmapause and the inner edge of the ring current overlap. Using three-site observations, we show that this boundary can be followed for 24 consecutive hours. Simultaneous observations made by three satellites in the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) show that the lowest latitude peak in electron temperature can be used to map the same boundary. A key structure of the inner magnetosphere that cannot be observed continuously from sensors orbiting within the magnetosphere is made continuously visible to ground-based optical systems via effects caused by the drainage of small amounts of ring current energy into the I-T system.

  2. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (p<0.0001). The mean adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (164.3 cm) than in the untreated group (156.9 cm) (p<0.0001). The percentage of subjects with an adult height of 160 cm or taller was 90.5% (19/21) in the combination treatment group, and it was 13.8% (4/29) in the untreated group (p<0.0001). Since growth of the penis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  3. Frac height may increase away from well bore

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, E. )

    1991-02-25

    Well logs with deep investigation capabilities are necessary to determine accurately the height of hydraulically produced fractures. Logs with shallow investigation capability will indicate the height of the fracture near the well bore, but as shown in a test in an East Texas well, fracture height in some formations can be substantially greater away from the well bore. In the East Texas test, six wire line surveys were run, including the usual gamma ray surveys. The fracture heights determined by the above logs are plotted. The independent estimates of gross fracture height varied considerably. Four logs, TWRL, VDL, SCAN, and CEL appear to be influenced by the fracture. Results were inconclusive from the Au and the CBL log. Analysis of each of these indicates a different minimum fracture height in this well.

  4. Analysis of web height ratios according to age and sex.

    PubMed

    Sari, Elif

    2015-06-01

    Each component of the web space, a three-dimensional structure, should be carefully created during reconstruction of web space loss. One of these web space components is the web height. In this study, the dorsal view of subjects' hands was analyzed to determine the web height ratios. The web height ratios were then compared with respect to age and sex. The second and third web height ratios differed between adult men and women and between children and adults. However, no differences were observed among children. This study is unique because it focuses on the web height ratios of all web spaces according to age and sex and provides a very easy-to-use scale that may help surgeons to perform web space reconstruction. Moreover, the present study adds to the literature by providing information on the first web height ratios of the hand.

  5. Correlations between initial cleft size and dental anomalies in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients after alveolar bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Fatima; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate the correlation between initial cleft size and dental anomalies, and the outcome of alveolar bone grafting. Methods A total of 67 consecutive patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were included from the cleft lip and palate-craniofacial center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. All patients were operated by the same surgeon and treated according to the Uppsala protocol entailing: lip plasty at 3 months, soft palate closure at 6 months, closure of the residual cleft in the hard palate at 2 years of age, and secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) prior to the eruption of the permanent canine. Cleft size was measured on dental casts obtained at the time of primary lip plasty. Dental anomalies were registered on radiographs and dental casts obtained before bone grafting. Alveolar bone height was evaluated with the Modified Bergland Index (mBI) at 1 and 10-year follow-up. Results Anterior cleft width correlated positively with enamel hypoplasia and rotation of the central incisor adjacent to the cleft. There was, however, no correlation between initial cleft width and alveolar bone height at either 1 or 10 years follow-up. Conclusions Wider clefts did not seem to have an impact on the success of secondary alveolar bone grafting but appeared to be associated with a higher degree of some dental anomalies. This finding may have implications for patient counseling and treatment planning.

  6. Constrained Regional Recovery of Continental Water Mass Time-variations from GRACE-based Geopotential Anomalies over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G. L.; Seoane, L.; Frappart, F.; Biancale, R.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.; Bourgogne, S.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a "constrained" least-squares approach to estimate regional maps of equivalent-water heights by inverting GRACE-based potential anomalies at satellite altitude. According to the energy integral method, the anomalies of difference of geopotential between the two GRACE vehicles are derived from along-track K-Band Range-Rate (KBRR) residuals that correspond mainly to the continental water storage changes, once a priori known accelerations (i.e. static field, polar movements, atmosphere and ocean masses including tides) are removed during the orbit adjustment process. Newton's first law merely enables the Difference of Potential Anomalies from accurate KBRR data and the equivalent-water heights to be recovered. Spatial constraints versus spherical distance between elementary surface tiles are introduced to stabilize the linear system to cancel the effects of the north-south striping. Unlike the "mascons" approach, no basis of orthogonal functions (e.g., spherical harmonics) is used, so that the proposed regional method does not suffer from drawbacks related to any spectrum truncation. Time series of 10-day regional maps over South America for 2006-2009 also prove to be consistent with independent data sets, namely the outputs of hydrological models, "mascons" and global GRACE solutions.

  7. Correlations between initial cleft size and dental anomalies in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients after alveolar bone grafting

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Fatima; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate the correlation between initial cleft size and dental anomalies, and the outcome of alveolar bone grafting. Methods A total of 67 consecutive patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were included from the cleft lip and palate-craniofacial center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. All patients were operated by the same surgeon and treated according to the Uppsala protocol entailing: lip plasty at 3 months, soft palate closure at 6 months, closure of the residual cleft in the hard palate at 2 years of age, and secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) prior to the eruption of the permanent canine. Cleft size was measured on dental casts obtained at the time of primary lip plasty. Dental anomalies were registered on radiographs and dental casts obtained before bone grafting. Alveolar bone height was evaluated with the Modified Bergland Index (mBI) at 1 and 10-year follow-up. Results Anterior cleft width correlated positively with enamel hypoplasia and rotation of the central incisor adjacent to the cleft. There was, however, no correlation between initial cleft width and alveolar bone height at either 1 or 10 years follow-up. Conclusions Wider clefts did not seem to have an impact on the success of secondary alveolar bone grafting but appeared to be associated with a higher degree of some dental anomalies. This finding may have implications for patient counseling and treatment planning. PMID:26923345

  8. Cerium anomaly at microscale in fossils.

    PubMed

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-09-01

    Patterns in rare earth element (REE) concentrations are essential instruments to assess geochemical processes in Earth and environmental sciences. Excursions in the "cerium anomaly" are widely used to inform on past redox conditions in sediments. This proxy resources to the specificity of cerium to adopt both the +III and +IV oxidation states, while most rare earths are purely trivalent and share very similar reactivity and transport properties. In practical terms, the level of cerium anomaly is established through elemental point quantification and profiling. All these models rely on a supposed homogeneity of the cerium oxidation state within the samples. However, this has never been demonstrated, whereas the cerium concentration can significantly vary within a sample, as shown for fossils, which would vastly complicate interpretation of REE patterns. Here, we report direct micrometric mapping of Ce speciation through synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and production of local rare earth patterns in paleontological fossil tissues through X-ray fluorescence mapping. The sensitivity of the approach is demonstrated on well-preserved fishes and crustaceans from the Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 million years (Myr) old). The presence of Ce under the +IV form within the fossil tissues is attributed to slightly oxidative local conditions of burial and agrees well with the limited negative cerium anomaly observed in REE patterns. The [Ce(IV)]/[Ce(tot)] ratio appears remarkably stable at the microscale within each fossil and is similar between fossils from the locality. Speciation maps were obtained from an original combination of synchrotron microbeam X-ray fluorescence, absorption spectroscopy, and diffraction, together with light and electron microscopy. This work also highlights the need for more systematic studies of cerium geochemistry at the microscale in paleontological contexts, in particular across fossil histologies.

  9. Abundance anomalies in tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The ˜10 per cent of tidal disruption events (TDEs) due to stars more massive than M* ≳ M⊙ should show abundance anomalies due to stellar evolution in helium, carbon and nitrogen, but not oxygen. Helium is always enhanced, but only by up to ˜25 per cent on average because it becomes inaccessible once it is sequestered in the high-density core as the star leaves the main sequence. However, portions of the debris associated with the disrupted core of a main-sequence star can be enhanced in helium by factors of 2-3 for debris at a common orbital period. These helium abundance variations may be a contributor to the observed diversity of hydrogen and helium line strengths in TDEs. A still more striking anomaly is the rapid enhancement of nitrogen and the depletion of carbon due to the CNO cycle - stars with M* ≳ M⊙ quickly show an increase in their average N/C ratio by factors of 3-10. Because low-mass stars evolve slowly and high-mass stars are rare, TDEs showing high N/C will almost all be due to ˜1-2 M⊙ stars disrupted on the main sequence. Like helium, portions of the debris will show still larger changes in C and N, and the anomalies decline as the star leaves the main sequence. The enhanced [N/C] abundance ratio of these TDEs provides the first natural explanation for the rare, nitrogen-rich quasars and may also explain the strong nitrogen emission seen in ultraviolet spectra of ASASSN-14li.

  10. Band Iron Formations and Satellite Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, K. A.; Wasilewski, P.

    2005-05-01

    Band Iron Formations (BIF) are mainly Precambrian (2.5-1.8 Ga) sedimentary deposits and are composed of alternating layers of iron rich material and silica (chert). Precambrian BIF mark growth in the level of free oxygen in the atmosphere and the ocean which happened about 2.2 Ga. Distribution of main BIF includes Hamersley Range, Australia; Transvaal-Griquatown, South Africa; Minas Gerais, Brazil; Labrador Trough, Canada, and Kursk-Krivoi Rog (Russia). Together these five very large BIF deposits constitute about 90 percent of Earth's total estimated BIF (5.76*10 14 ). On each continent these ancient rocks usually metamorphosed and crystallized include what are variously described as hematite-quartzites, banded iron formations, banded jaspers or calico-rocks. West African, Hudson Bay and Western Australian Satellite Magnetic Anomalies coincide with distribution BIF deposits. The Kursk Satellite Magnetic Anomaly (KMA) (about 22 nT at the altitude=400km, centered at 51o N, 37o E) also was identified by ground and aeromagnetic observations and is recognized as one of the largest magnetic anomaly on the Earth. Magnetic modeling shows that immense Precambrian iron ore deposits (iron bands) of Voronezh uplift are the main source of KMA. Magnetic properties of 10000 BIF samples outcropped in the KMA area have been measured and analyzed (Krutikhovskaya et al., 1964) Rockmag BIF dataset is presented at: http://core2.gsfc.nasa.gov/MPDB/datasets.html. Mean NRM value is about 42 A/M, Qn about 1.4. Demagnetization tests suggest that hard and stable NRM component is caused by hematite occurring in BIF in different forms and grain sizes. Hematite deposits discovered on Mars in western equatorial area with layered topography of Aram Chaos and Sinus Meridiani could be of hydrothermal origin and may be formed similar to hematite precipitated in BIF on Earth.

  11. Reducing stem bending increases the height growth of tall pines.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shawn X; Lieffers, Victor J; Reid, Douglas E B; Rudnicki, Mark; Silins, Uldis; Jin, Ming

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that upper limits to height growth in trees are the result of the increasing bending moment of trees as they grow in height. The increasing bending moment of tall trees demands increased radial growth at the expense of height growth to maintain mechanical stability. In this study, the bending moment of large lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) was reduced by tethering trees at 10 m height to counter the wind load. Average bending moment of tethered trees was reduced to 38% of control trees. Six years of tethering resulted in a 40% increase in height growth relative to the period before tethering. By contrast, control trees showed decreased height growth in the period after tethering treatment. Average radial growth along the bole, relative to height growth, was reduced in tethered trees. This strongly suggests that mechanical constraints play a crucial role in limiting the height growth of tall trees. Analysis of bending moment and basal area increment at both 10 m and 1.3 m showed that the amount of wood added to the stem was closely related to the bending moment produced at these heights, in both control and tethered trees. The tethering treatment also resulted in an increase in the proportion of latewood at the tethering height, relative to 1.3 m height. For untethered control trees, the ratio of bending stresses at 10 m versus 1.3 m height was close to 1 in both 1998 and 2003, suggesting a uniform stress distribution along the outer surface of the bole.

  12. Mendelian randomization study of height and risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thrift, Aaron P; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Slattery, Martha L; Chan, Andrew T; Esko, Tonu; Wood, Andrew R; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Gustafsson, Stefan; Pers, Tune H; Baron, John A; Bezieau, Stéphane; Küry, Sébastien; Ogino, Shuji; Berndt, Sonja I; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Du, Mengmeng; Harrison, Tabitha A; Thornquist, Mark; Duggan, David J; Le Marchand, Loic; Lemire, Mathieu; Lindor, Noralane M; Seminara, Daniela; Song, Mingyang; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Newcomb, Polly A; Schoen, Robert E; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann; White, Emily; Hsu, Li; Campbell, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Background: For men and women, taller height is associated with increased risk of all cancers combined. For colorectal cancer (CRC), it is unclear whether the differential association of height by sex is real or is due to confounding or bias inherent in observational studies. We performed a Mendelian randomization study to examine the association between height and CRC risk. Methods: To minimize confounding and bias, we derived a weighted genetic risk score predicting height (using 696 genetic variants associated with height) in 10 226 CRC cases and 10 286 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between height, genetically predicted height and CRC. Results: Using conventional methods, increased height (per 10-cm increment) was associated with increased CRC risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.02–1.15). In sex-specific analyses, height was associated with CRC risk for women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.05–1.26), but not men (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92–1.05). Consistent with these results, carrying greater numbers of (weighted) height-increasing alleles (per 1-unit increase) was associated with higher CRC risk for women and men combined (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01–1.14) and for women (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01–1.19). There was weaker evidence of an association for men (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.96–1.15). Conclusion: We provide evidence for a causal association between height and CRC for women. The CRC-height association for men remains unclear and warrants further investigation in other large studies. PMID:25997436

  13. Anomaly freedom in perturbative loop quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bojowald, Martin; Hossain, Golam Mortuza; Kagan, Mikhail; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2008-09-15

    A fully consistent linear perturbation theory for cosmology is derived in the presence of quantum corrections as they are suggested by properties of inverse volume operators in loop quantum gravity. The underlying constraints present a consistent deformation of the classical system, which shows that the discreteness in loop quantum gravity can be implemented in effective equations without spoiling space-time covariance. Nevertheless, nontrivial quantum corrections do arise in the constraint algebra. Since correction terms must appear in tightly controlled forms to avoid anomalies, detailed insights for the correct implementation of constraint operators can be gained. The procedures of this article thus provide a clear link between fundamental quantum gravity and phenomenology.

  14. The Apollo 15 deployable boom anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    During the Apollo 15 mission, a boom with an attached mass spectrometer was required to retract periodically so that the instrument would not be in the field of view of other experiments. The boom did not fully retract on five of 12 occasions. Data analysis indicated that the boom probably retracted to within approximately 2.54 centimeters (1 inch) of full retraction. The pertinent boom-design details, the events in the mission related to the anomaly, a discussion of the inflight and postflight investigation of the problem, a discussion of the design changes to the boom mechanism as a result of the investigation, and subsequent flight performance are presented.

  15. Maternal abetalipoproteinemia resulting in multiple fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Seckeler, Michael D; Linden, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare genetic condition that results in an inability of the body to absorb dietary fats, including fat-soluble vitamins. Deficiencies of these vitamins are known to cause a wide range of clinical effects ranging from blindness to coagulopathy and neuropathy. We present the case of a child with multisystem anomalies born to a mother with abetalipoproteinemia and provide a brief review of the literature about vitamin A and fetal development. Mothers at high risk for vitamin deficiencies should be screened and counseled on the potential benefits, and risks, of vitamin supplementation.

  16. Ectopia cordis: a rare congenital anomaly.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Abigail; Donnelly, Joseph; Kuc, Alexander; Good, Daniel; Doros, Gabriela; Matusz, Petru; Loukas, Marios

    2014-11-01

    Ectopia cordis (EC) is a rare congenital anomaly associated with the heart positioned outside of the thoracic cavity either partially or completely. The ectopic heart can be found along a spectrum of anatomical locations, including the cervical, thoracic and abdominal regions and in most cases, it protrudes outside the chest through a split sternum. Although the first case of EC was identified during the early 1600s only 91 cases have been reported since then in the literature. This review will discuss the history and prevalence of EC, its etiology, morphology, presentation and symptoms, complications, diagnosis, treatment and management and prognosis.

  17. FOLD LENS FLUX ANOMALIES: A GEOMETRIC APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, David M.; Chessey, Mary K.; Harris, Wendy B.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2010-06-01

    We develop a new approach for studying flux anomalies in quadruply imaged fold lens systems. We show that in the absence of substructure, microlensing, or differential absorption, the expected flux ratios of a fold pair can be tightly constrained using only geometric arguments. We apply this technique to 11 known quadruple lens systems in the radio and infrared and compare our estimates to the Monte Carlo based results of Keeton et al. We show that a robust estimate for a flux ratio from a smoothly varying potential can be found, and at long wavelengths those lenses deviating from this ratio almost certainly contain significant substructure.

  18. Fold Lens Flux Anomalies: A Geometric Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, David M.; Chessey, Mary K.; Harris, Wendy B.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2010-06-01

    We develop a new approach for studying flux anomalies in quadruply imaged fold lens systems. We show that in the absence of substructure, microlensing, or differential absorption, the expected flux ratios of a fold pair can be tightly constrained using only geometric arguments. We apply this technique to 11 known quadruple lens systems in the radio and infrared and compare our estimates to the Monte Carlo based results of Keeton et al. We show that a robust estimate for a flux ratio from a smoothly varying potential can be found, and at long wavelengths those lenses deviating from this ratio almost certainly contain significant substructure.

  19. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

  20. Torque anomaly in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulling, S. A.; Mera, F. D.; Trendafilova, C. S.

    2013-02-01

    The expectation values of energy density and pressure of a quantum field inside a wedge-shaped region appear to violate the expected relationship between torque and total energy as a function of angle. In particular, this is true of the well-known Deutsch-Candelas stress tensor for the electromagnetic field, whose definition requires no regularization except possibly at the vertex. Unlike a similar anomaly in the pressure exerted by a reflecting boundary against a perpendicular wall, this problem cannot be dismissed as an artifact of an ad hoc regularization.

  1. Intramyocardial Hematoma After Ebstein Anomaly Repair.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joel Kian Boon; Lee, Jan Hau; Mok, Yee Hui; Chen, Ching Kit; Loh, Yee Jim

    2017-01-01

    Intramyocardial hematoma is a rare condition and is an incomplete form of myocardial rupture, which may occur after myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, trauma, percutaneous coronary intervention, or spontaneously. We describe a case of a 16-year-old girl with intramyocardial hematoma mimicking an intracavitary thrombus following repair of Ebstein anomaly. The intramyocardial hematoma was incorrectly diagnosed on echocardiography as a right ventricular thrombus, and the true nature of the lesion was only realized during repeat surgical intervention for severe tricuspid regurgitation. The hematoma was managed conservatively and spontaneously resolved.

  2. NDVI anomalies associated with the European drought and heat wave of 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, Suzanne; Los, Sietse; North, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The European drought and heat wave of 2003 is commonly used as an example of extreme summer climate conditions that are likely to become more common towards the end of the 21st century, under predicted climate change scenarios. The extreme conditions are known to have had an impact on biomass primary productivity as reflected in remotely sensed vegetation indices and fAPAR, flux-tower measurements, and the results from a variety of modelling approaches. Early remote sensing analyses were based on relatively short time series of data, 4 or 5 years only. We are now able to make use of 12 years of MODIS observations to highlight the statistical significance of the widespread and persistent anomalies in vegetation greenness in 2003 compared with other summers so far this century. Anomalies in excess of 2 standard deviations initially occur at the start of June in central and eastern France. By the end of July they are common also over Germany, by mid August have spread to the French border with Spain, and by the end of August are common over the north-western corner of France, England and eastern Scotland. Using the One-Degree Daily resolution Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation data and European Re-Analysis Interim 2 m air temperatures we are able to show where and whether either precipitation or temperature has the greatest impact on summer vegetation greenness. With the exception of mountainous regions such as the Alps and northern and western parts of the United Kingdom, summer NDVI anomalies are highly correlated with precipitation anomalies of the preceding month. The picture for temperature is more geographically variable with summer NDVI anomalies in southern France, Italy and central England and north-eastern Scotland being negatively correlated with temperature, and northern and western coasts of France and Germany being positively correlated with temperature. In addition, we analyse the anomalies in conjunction with vegetation height from

  3. Variability in Sea Surface Height: A Qualitative Measure for the Meridional Overturning in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa

    1999-01-01

    Sea surface height (SSH) from altimeter observations from 1992 on and from modeling results is investigated to determine the modes of variability and the linkages to the state of oceanic circulation in the North Atlantic. First the altimeter and model simulated SSH are analyzed using the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. They are found to share a similar leading mode where the center of action is along the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current with opposite sign anomalies in the subpolar gyre and in the slope waters along the Eastern Seaboard. The time series of the leading EOF mode from the altimeter data shows that between winters of 1995 and 1996, SSH over the Gulf Stream decreased by about 12cm which change is reproduced by the model simulation. Based on the relationship from the model simulations between the time series of the SSH EOF1 and meridional heat transport, it is suggested that associated with this SSH change in 1995-96, the overturning has slowed down from its heights in the early 90's. Furthermore, it is shown that decadal variability in the leading SSH mode originates from the thermal forcing component. This adds confidence to the qualitative relationship between the state of overturning/meridional heat transport and SSH in the limited area described by the EOF1. SSH variability in the eastern side of the North Atlantic basin, outside the western boundary current region, is determined by local and remote (Rossby waves) wind stress curl forcing.

  4. Global exospheric temperatures from ESRO 4 scale height measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Prior, E. J.; Lake, L. R.; Nicholson, J. Y., III; Fricke, K.

    1977-01-01

    The scale height temperatures considered are based on molecular nitrogen measurements by the gas analyzer aboard the ESRO 4 in the altitude range from 280 to 310 km during the interval from December 1972 to April 1974, a period of low solar activity. At the altitude of measurement during the considered period, the scale height temperature is essentially the exospheric temperature. The mean scale height temperature derived from 1833 independent N2 scale heights is 708 K. It is concluded that the ESRO 4 data provides evidence of mean global temperatures of less than 800 K.

  5. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank synoptic-scale events and their relation to Weather Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, A. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Gimeno, L.; Nieto, R.; Añel, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    Several methods have been developed to rank meteorological events in terms of severity, social impact or economic impacts. These classifications are not always objective since they depend of several factors, for instance, the observation network is biased towards the densely populated urban areas against rural or oceanic areas. It is also very important to note that not all rare synoptic-scale meteorological events attract significant media attention. In this work we use a comprehensive method of classifying synoptic-scale events adapted from Hart and Grumm, 2001, to the European region (30N-60N, 30W-15E). The main motivation behind this method is that the more unusual the event (a cold outbreak, a heat wave, or a flood), for a given region, the higher ranked it must be. To do so, we use four basic meteorological variables (Height, Temperature, Wind and Specific Humidity) from NCEP reanalysis dataset over the range of 1000hPa to 200hPa at a daily basis from 1948 to 2004. The climatology used embraces the 1961-1990 period. For each variable, the analysis of raking climatological anomalies was computed taking into account the daily normalized departure from climatology at different levels. For each day (from 1948 to 2004) we have four anomaly measures, one for each variable, and another, a combined where the anomaly (total anomaly) is the average of the anomaly of the four variables. Results will be analyzed on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. Seasonal trends and variability will also be shown. In addition, and given the extent of the database, the expected return periods associated with the anomalies are revealed. Moreover, we also use an automated version of the Lamb weather type (WT) classification scheme (Jones et al, 1993) adapted for the Galicia area (Northwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula) by Lorenzo et al (2008) in order to compute the daily local circulation regimes in this area. By combining the corresponding daily WT with the five anomaly

  6. On the parameterization of Injection Height and the use of the MISR plume height project data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Atherton, Jonathan; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Freitas, Saulo

    2013-04-01

    The parameterization of fire injection height in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection height and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) or the brightness temperature which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the plume rise model (PRM) originally developed by Saulo Freitas, so that effects of atmospheric stability and latent heat are also taken into account. The original plume rise model is modified: (i) the input data of convective heat flux and the Active Fire area are directly force from FRP data derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD12 product, (ii) and the dynamical core of the plume model is modified with a new entrainment scheme inspired from latest results in shallow convection parameterization. An original aspect of this work is to present an optimization of the new version of the Freitas PRM based on (i) fire plume characteristics of single fire events extracted from the official MISR plume height project and (ii) atmospheric profile derived from the ECMWF analysis. The selection of the fire events out of the MISR data set represents the main task of this work. In particular, it is shown that the only information extracted from Terra overpass is not enough to guaranty that the injection height of the plume is linked to the FRP measured at the same time. The plume is a dynamical system, and a time delay (related to the atmospheric state) is necessary to adjust change in FRP to the plume behaviour. Therefore, here multiple overpasses of the same fire from Terra and Aqua are used to determine fire and plume behaviours and system in a steady state at the time of MISR (central scan of Terra) overpass are selected for the optimization procedure. Results show that in the case of some fire event, the PRM is able to

  7. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.

    To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.

    Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  8. Magnetic Anomalies in the Enderby Basin, the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogi, Y.; Sato, T.; Hanyu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic anomalies in the Southern indian Ocean are vital to understanding initial breakup process of Gondwana. However, seafloor age estimated from magnetic anomalies still remain less well-defined because of the sparse observations in this area. To understand the seafloor spreading history related to the initial breakup process of Gondwana, vector magnetic anomaly data as well as total intensity magnetic anomaly data obtained by the R/V Hakuho-maru and the icebreaker Shirase in the Enderby Basin, Southern Indian Ocean, are used. The strikes of magnetic structures are deduced from the vector magnetic anomalies. Magnetic anomaly signals, most likely indicating Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence, are obtained almost parallel to the west of WNW-ESE trending lineaments just to the south of Conrad Rise inferred from satellite gravity anomalies. Most of the strikes of magnetic structures indicate NNE-SSW trends, and are almost perpendicular to the WNW-ESE trending lineaments. Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies with mostly WNW-ESE strikes are also observed along the NNE-SSW trending lineaments between the south of the Conrad Rise and Gunnerus Ridge. Magnetic anomalies originated from Cretaceous normal polarity superchron are found in these profiles, although magnetic anomaly C34 has been identified just to the north of the Conrad Rise. However Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies are only observed in the west side of the WNW-ESE trending lineaments just to the south of Conrad Rise and not detected to the east of Cretaceous normal superchron signals. These results show that counter part of Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies in the south of Conrad Rise would be found in the East Enderby Basin, off East Antarctica. NNE-SSW trending magnetic structures, which are similar to those obtained just to the south of Conrad Rise, are found off East Antarctica in the East Enderby Basin. However, some of the strikes show almost E-W orientations. These suggest complicated ridge

  9. Regional Analysis of Northern Hemisphere 50 kPa Geopotential Heights from 1946 to 1985.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabbar, Amir; Higuchi, Kaz; Knox, John L.

    1990-05-01

    In Knox et al., the interannual variation of the Northern Hemisphere 50 kPa geopotential height field averaged between 30° and 80°N was investigated for the 40-year period from 1946 to 1985. We presented strong statistical evidence supporting the notion that a rather abrupt transition in the climate system took place during the early 1960s. There was no attempt to compare the spatial distribution of the 50 kPa height difference between Regime 1 (1946-62) and Regime 2 (1963-85).As a sequel to the first paper, we investigate the spatial characteristics of the transition height field. We find that the difference in the 50 kPa height field between Regime 1 and Regime 2 is characterized by low frequency circulation modes of the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and an Arctic oscillation. There was an increase (in the residual sense) of the frequency and amplitude of the positive phase of the PNA in Regime 2 relative to Regime 1.Fourier analysis is applied to interpret the regime changes in terms of planetary and long waves during the winter season. The change in the Arctic circulation is primarily associated with an amplification of the wave 2 component in its normal phase location, while in the midlatitudes the primary contributor is wave 1, again in its normal location.We also examine the 40-year time series of 50 kPa height at the three centers of the winter PNA and confirm a strong negative correlation between the first two centers and a significant positive correlation between the first and third.To assess the current trend, the 50 kPa anomaly field averaged over the 1981-87 period is examined. The winter season shows an eastward shift of the North Pacific Ocean cooling pattern and amplified warming over most of North America, the maximum centered over western Canada. The NAO phase changed to negative.Our results are discussed in relation to the interregime sea surface temperature change over the North

  10. [Müllerian anomalies. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA)].

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Cyrus Dean Mario; Piña-García, Adrián; Afrashtehfar, Kelvin Ian

    2014-01-01

    Müllerian duct anomalies are a group of uncommon and underdiagnosed entities, which cause specific symptoms in adolescent females and may be associated with infertility as well as adverse pregnancy outcomes. These malformations occur as a result of an arrest or abnormal development of the Müllerian ducts in different stages of the female reproductive tract during gestation. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA), formerly known as the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, is a rare entity characterized by the presence of a uterus didelphys with an obstructed hemivagina cause by a vaginal septum and the association of a renal anomaly (most commonly renal agenesis) ipsilateral to the obstruction. This syndrome may remain undiagnosed during childhood and usually becomes symptomatic after menarche, causing obstructive symptoms. Occasionally it may be identified after the evaluation of a patient with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss. The clinical diagnosis is very challenging and requires imaging studies in which ultrasound and MRI play an essential role in the diagnosis, classification and treatment plan. Opportune diagnosis and treatment achieve complete improvement of symptoms, adequate reproductive prognosis and avoid major complications such as endometriosis, pelvic adhesions and infertility. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of the obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome.

  11. Congenital glioblastoma coexisting with vascular developmental anomaly.

    PubMed

    Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Szymanska, Krystyna; Biekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Gierowska-Bogusz, Barbara; Michalak, Elżbieta; Klepacka, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Congenital central nervous tumours form a unique group of neoplasms. They are different from other tumour groups not only due to the onset time but also to their histopathology, anatomic location, and biologic behaviour. Congenital glioblastoma is one of the rarest types of congenital brain tumours and is uncommon in the prenatal period. We report a rare case of congenital glioblastoma detected prenatally by ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging at 26 gestational weeks. Based on MRI findings and consultation of a team of specialists, pregnancy was terminated at 28 weeks. The newborn presented hydrops foetal. The child died shortly after birth due to cardiorespiratory insufficiency. At autopsy a large tumour with a spongy-like appearance was found. The tumour involved nearly the whole right cerebral hemisphere and led to marked hydrocephalus. In the histological and immunohistochemical examination, the tumour presented features of glioblastoma. Neoplastic cells were immunopositive for GFAP, S-100 protein and negative for neuronal markers. Frequent mitoses and high MIB-1 labelling index were seen in the tumour areas. The coexistence of tumour and vascular developmental anomaly was stated. The conglomerates of numerous, distended, thin-walled foetal-like blood vessels were located beside the tumour tissue, which presented disturbance in differentiation and maturation of the vascular net. Such coexistence of malignant glioma with vascular developmental anomaly is unique.

  12. Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans G; Belman, A Barry

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it. Instead, further radiographic imaging is required to delineate anatomy and function. Now, moreover, non-surgical management of CAKUT should be considered whenever possible. Despite the widespread use of prenatal screening sonography that usually identifies the majority of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, many children still present with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Regardless of the etiology for the presentation, the goal of management is preservation of renal function through mitigation of the risk for recurrent UTI and/or obstruction. In the past many children underwent surgical repair aimed at normalization of the appearance of the urinary tract. Today, management has evolved such that in most cases surgical reconstruction is performed only after a period of observation - with or without urinary prophylaxis. The opinions presented in this section are not espoused by all pediatric urologists but represent instead the practice that has evolved at Children's National Medical Center (Washington DC) based significantly on information obtained by nuclear renography, in addition to sonography and contrast cystography.

  13. Radiographic Findings Associated with Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Masand, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of patients with vascular tumors and malformations has been sufficiently refined to answer pertinent questions when making treatment decisions in this challenging subgroup of pediatric patients. The imaging modalities at hand include conventional radiography, Doppler ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging with time-resolved, contrast-material enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. This review article will focus on the characteristic imaging features of some focal and diffuse vascular lesions, which have been classified by their clinical history and physical exam, and further labeled as a vascular tumor or slow-flow versus high-flow vascular malformation based on the updated classification system proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. The recent advances in knowledge regarding the biology of these vascular anomalies have led to increased awareness of the current nomenclature. Moreover, with better understanding of the imaging features, the radiologist has become a key player in the multidisciplinary approach offered at various institutions where appropriate treatment algorithms and interventional strategies are put together. This is crucial in avoiding misdiagnosis and improper management. PMID:25045332

  14. [Pathogenesis and genetics of vascular anomalies].

    PubMed

    Vikkula, M

    2006-01-01

    Vascular anomalies, divided into vascular tumors and vascular malformations, are localized defects of angiogenesis. Hemangiomas appear soon after birth, grow quickly, and then spontaneously, but slowly, disappear. In contrast, vascular malformations are congenital defects of vascular development that grow proportionately with the child. Most vascular anomalies are considered non-hereditary. However, due to detailed analysis inherited forms have been observed, which has led to identify mutations in three genes causing familial vascular malformations: in the angiopoietin receptor TIE2 in mucocutaneous venous malformations (VMCM), in glomulin in glomuvenous malformations (GVM) and in RASA1 in the newly recognized phenotype capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM). Identification of the causative genes has permitted more precise diagnosis and differential diagnosis, evaluation of phenotypic variability among patients with a proven mutation, study of used treatments in more homogeneous patient groups, and elucidation of the etiopathogenic mechanisms behind vascular malformations. Further studies are needed to unravel the role of genetic variations in the various vascular malformations and to unravel the precise molecular mechanisms that lead to development of these vascular lesions. This should provide development of new-targeted therapies.

  15. Light dark matter anomalies after LUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresham, Moira I.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the consistency of light dark matter (DM) elastic scattering in CoGeNT, DAMA, and CDMS-silicon in light of constraints from XENON, CDMS, LUX, PICASSO and COUPP. We consider a variety of operators that have been employed to reconcile anomalies with constraints, including anapole, magnetic dipole, momentum-dependent, and isospin-violating DM. We find that elastic scattering through these alternative operators does not substantially reduce the tension between the signals and the null constraints for operators where at least two of the three purported signals map onto a common space in the DM mass-scattering cross-section plane. Taking a choice of the scintillation efficiency that lies at the -1σ region of the Manzur et al. measurement relieves tension between signals and the LUX constraint—in particular for a magnetic dipole interaction and a xenophobic interaction (though for the latter the signal regions do not substantially overlap). We also find that modest changes in the halo model do not alter this result. We conclude that, even relaxing the assumption about the type of elastic scattering interaction and taking a conservative choice for the scintillation efficiency, LUX and the results from other null experiments remain in tension with a light DM elastic scattering explanation of direct detection anomalies.

  16. Theory of hyperfine anomalies in muonic atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, A.J.; Mallow, J.V.; Desclaux, J.P.; Weinert, M.

    1983-01-01

    Negative muon spin precession experiments by Yamazaki, et al. have found giant hyperfine anomalies in muonic atoms ranging from a few percent up to 36%. In order to understand their results, we present Breit interaction calculations based on atomic self-consistent unrestricted Dirac-Fock solutions which explicitly include all electrons and the negative muon. The Breit interaction results (including the relativistic correction for the bound muon g-factor), vary from near zero for ..mu../sup -/ O/N to -5% for ..mu../sup -/Pd/Rh; this latter is much larger than the calculated muonic or nuclear Bohr-Weisskopf anomalies and much smaller than the 36% measured value. For ..mu../sup -/Ni/Co we find a calculated range of results (depending on assumed electronic configurations) of -2.3 to -2.7% in excellent agreement with recent measurements of the Yamazaki group. This excellent agreement in ..mu../sup -/Ni/Co provides strong support for the earlier suggestions that the discrepancy in the case of ..mu../sup -/Pd/Rh is due to experimental factors.

  17. LHCb anomalies from a natural perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isabel García

    2017-03-01

    Tension between the Standard Model (SM) and data concerning b → s processes has become apparent. Most notoriously, concerning the R K ratio, which probes lepton non-universality in b decays, and measurements involving the decays B → K ∗ μ + μ - and B s → ϕμ + μ -. Careful analysis of a wide range of b → s data shows that certain kinds of new physics can significantly ameliorate agreement with experiment. Here, we show that these b → s anomalies can be naturally accommodated in the context of Natural Scherk-Schwarz Theories of the Weak Scale — a class of models designed to address the hierarchy problem. No extra states beyond those naturally present in the theory need to be introduced in order to accommodate these anomalies, and the assumptions required regarding flavor violating couplings are very mild. Moreover, the structure of these models makes sharp predictions regarding B meson decays into final states including τ + τ - pairs, which will provide a future test of this type of theories.

  18. Ebstein's Anomaly: Anatomo-echocardiographic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Castellanos, Luis; Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Kuri-Nivón, Magdalena; Keirns, Candace

    2007-01-01

    Objective The aim of this investigation is to demonstrate that in Ebstein's Anomaly (EA) the right ventricle (RV) is affected in its three portions and to establish an anatomoechocardiographic correlation between the anatomic features and the equivalent echocardiographic images. Methods Thirty hearts with EA were studied. The alterations of each portions of the RV were described. Fifty adult patients with this anomaly were studied by echocardiography. Results Anatomy: All hearts had atrial situs solitus, 27 had concordant atrioventricular connection and 3 discordant, of these 2 had transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and one double outlet right ventricle (DORV). The degree of tricuspid valve (TV) displacement showed a spectrum from I to III. The inlet of the RV was markedly thin in 27. The trabecular portion had multiples muscular bands in all. The outlet portion was dilated in 20 and stenotic in 5. In 25 atrial septal defects were found. Echocardiography: All patients had atrial situs solitus, 42 with concordant atrioventricular connection and 8 with discordant, of these last patients 5 had TGA and 3 DORV. The degree of TV displacement varied from I to III. The inlet of RV was markedly thin in 42. The trabecular portion had muscular bands in 45. The outlet portion was dilated in 31 and stenotic in 11. In 30 atrial septal defects were found. Conclusion The EA affects the whole RV and the anatomoechocardiographic correlation provides an appropriate understanding of echocardiographic images in terms of a precise diagnosis, therapeutic decisions and prognosis. PMID:18034907

  19. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. [Horseshoe kidney: not a simple fusion anomaly].

    PubMed

    Caccetta, Francesco; Caroppo, Maurizio; Musio, Fernando; Mudoni, Anna; Accogli, Antonella; Zacheo, Maria Dolores; Burzo, Domenica; Bramato, Daniele; Carluccio, Giancamillo; Nuzzo, Vitale

    2015-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney is a congenital anatomical defect of the kidney that occurs in 0,25% of the population and is generally characterized by the fusion of the lower poles of the two kidneys through an isthmus and to which may be associated with urogenital and renal vascular anomalies. Asymptomatic in 1/3 of the cases and, most of time, accidentally discovered during a radiological examination, promotes nephrolithiasis, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux and pyelonephritis. We report two cases of patients with kidney horseshoe, characterized by the abrupt onset of a septic state with oligo-anuric acute renal failure, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, rapid decay of the general conditions, with detection of nephrolithiasis, hydronephrosis and acute pyelonephritis and whose clinical management resulted in a significant and synergistic nefro-urology involvment. The kidney horseshoe not represent so only a simple fusion anomaly but rather an important anatomical condition that, once diagnosed, it would be worthy of a careful clinical, radiological and laboratory surveillance, in order to prevent the potential complications that may be also particularly severe.

  1. Developmental and epigenetic anomalies in cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, L C; Suzuki, J; Goff, A K; Filion, F; Therrien, J; Murphy, B D; Kohan-Ghadr, H R; Lefebvre, R; Brisville, A C; Buczinski, S; Fecteau, G; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V

    2012-08-01

    Many of the developmental anomalies observed in cloned animals are related to foetal and placental overgrowth, a phenomenon known as the 'large offspring syndrome' (LOS) in ruminants. It has been hypothesized that the epigenetic control of imprinted genes, that is, genes that are expressed in a parental-specific manner, is at the root of LOS. Our recent research has focused on understanding epigenetic alterations to imprinted genes that are associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as early embryo in vitro culture (IVC) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in cattle. We have sought and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in Bos indicus DNA useful for the analysis of parental-specific alleles and their respective transcripts in tissues from hybrid embryos derived by crossing Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. By analysing differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes SNRPN, H19 and the IGF2R in cattle, we demonstrated that there is a generalized hypomethylation of the imprinted allele and the biallelic expression of embryos produced by SCNT when compared to the methylation patterns observed in vivo (artificially inseminated). Together, these results indicate that imprinting marks are erased during the reprogramming of the somatic cell nucleus during early development, indicating that such epigenetic anomalies may play a key role in mortality and morbidity of cloned animals.

  2. Detecting syntactic and semantic anomalies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moro, Andrea; Bambini, Valentina; Bosia, Marta; Anselmetti, Simona; Riccaboni, Roberta; Cappa, Stefano F; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of language in schizophrenia is to identify specific levels of the linguistic structure that might be selectively impaired. While historically a main semantic deficit has been widely claimed, results are mixed, with also evidence of syntactic impairment. This might be due to heterogeneity in materials and paradigms across studies, which often do not allow to tap into single linguistic components. Moreover, the interaction between linguistic and neurocognitive deficits is still unclear. In this study, we concentrated on syntactic and semantic knowledge. We employed an anomaly detection task including short and long sentences with either syntactic errors violating the principles of Universal Grammar, or a novel form of semantic errors, resulting from a contradiction in the computation of the whole sentence meaning. Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia were compared to 30 healthy subjects. Results showed that, in patients, only the ability to identify syntactic anomaly, both in short and long sentences, was impaired. This result cannot be explained by working memory abilities or psychopathological features. These findings suggest the presence of an impairment of syntactic knowledge in schizophrenia, at least partially independent of the cognitive and psychopathological profile. On the contrary, we cannot conclude that there is a semantic impairment, at least in terms of compositional semantics abilities.

  3. Tsunami focusing and leading wave height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku

    2016-04-01

    and Synolakis, 1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112) with a finite crest length, which is most common tsunami initial waveform. We fit earthquake initial waveform calculated through Okada (1985, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 75, 1135-1040) to the N-wave form presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994). First, we investigate focusing phenomena as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015) and compare our results with their non-dispersive and dispersive linear analytical solutions. We confirm focusing phenomena, which amplify the wave height in the leading depression side. We then study sequencing of an N-wave profile with a finite crest length. Our preliminary results show that sequencing is more pronounced on the leading depression side. We perform parametric study to understand sequencing in terms of N-wave, hence earthquake, parameters. We then discuss the results both in terms of tsunami focusing and leading wave amplitude. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe).

  4. Mississippi Delta, Radar Image with Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    About the animation: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Lake Pontchartrain and the New Orleans area was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Although it is protected by levees and sea walls against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, much of the city is below sea level, and flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes is a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments.

    About the image: The geography of the New Orleans and Mississippi delta region is well shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. In this image, bright areas show regions of high radar reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using height data also from the mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    New Orleans is situated along the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, the large, roughly circular lake near the center of the image. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest over water highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern.

    Data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  5. Z_{2} and Chiral Anomalies in Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Burkov, Anton A; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-09-23

    We demonstrate that topological Dirac semimetals, which possess two Dirac nodes, separated in momentum space along a rotation axis and protected by rotational symmetry, exhibit an additional quantum anomaly, distinct from the chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which we call the Z_{2} anomaly, is a consequence of the fact that the Dirac nodes in topological Dirac semimetals carry a Z_{2} topological charge. The Z_{2} anomaly refers to nonconservation of this charge in the presence of external fields due to quantum effects and has observable consequences due to its interplay with the chiral anomaly. We discuss possible implications of this for the interpretation of magnetotransport experiments on topological Dirac semimetals. We also provide a possible explanation for the magnetic field dependent angular narrowing of the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, observed in a recent experiment on Na_{3}Bi.

  6. Geoid anomalies over Gorringe Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souriau, A.

    1984-04-01

    The geoid anomalies over Gorringe Ridge, a very prominent high in the topography north of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary, have been deduced from Seasat alimetric data, and an interpretation of these anomalies together with the gravity anomalies is attempted. The geoid anomalies generated by the topographic high alone with the serpentinite density nearly fit the observed geoid anomalies, so that the structure must be either out of isostatic equilibrium or compensated at great depth. It is shown that a model in isostatic equilibrium with a small negative density contrast extending to 60 km depth or more explains both the gravity and geoid anomalies and is compatible with the deep seismicity north of Gorringe Ridge. Previous nonisostatic models, one involving an uplift of the upper mantle beneath the ridge, one describing a nascent subduction zone, and another involving flexure of the elastic part of the lithosphere due to the ridge loading, are discussed.

  7. Continental and oceanic magnetic anomalies: Enhancement through GRM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the POGO and MAGSAT satellites, the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) satellite system will orbit at a minimum elevation to provide significantly better resolved lithospheric magnetic anomalies for more detailed and improved geologic analysis. In addition, GRM will measure corresponding gravity anomalies to enhance our understanding of the gravity field for vast regions of the Earth which are largely inaccessible to more conventional surface mapping. Crustal studies will greatly benefit from the dual data sets as modeling has shown that lithospheric sources of long wavelength magnetic anomalies frequently involve density variations which may produce detectable gravity anomalies at satellite elevations. Furthermore, GRM will provide an important replication of lithospheric magnetic anomalies as an aid to identifying and extracting these anomalies from satellite magnetic measurements. The potential benefits to the study of the origin and characterization of the continents and oceans, that may result from the increased GRM resolution are examined.

  8. Atmospheric circulation anomalies during two persistent north american droughts: 1932-1939 and 1948-1957

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-06-01

    We use an early twentieth century (1908-1958) atmospheric reanalysis, based on assimilation of surface and sea level pressure observations, to contrast atmospheric circulation during two periods of persistent drought in North America: 1932-1939 (the `Dust Bowl') and 1948-1957. Primary forcing for both droughts is believed to come from anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs): a warm Atlantic and a cool eastern tropical Pacific. For boreal winter (October-March) in the 1950s, a stationary wave pattern originating from the tropical Pacific is present, with positive centers over the north Pacific and north Atlantic ocean basins and a negative center positioned over northwest North America and the tropical/subtropical Pacific. This wave train is largely absent for the 1930s drought; boreal winter height anomalies are organized much more zonally, with positive heights extending across northern North America. For boreal summer (April-September) during the 1930s, a strong upper level ridge is centered over the Great Plains; this feature is absent during the 1950s and appears to be linked to a weakening of the Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ). Subsidence anomalies are co-located over the centers of each drought: in the central Great Plains for the 1930s and in a band extending from the southwest to the southeastern United States for the 1950s. The location and intensity of this subsidence during the 1948-1957 drought is a typical response to a cold eastern tropical Pacific, but for 1932-1939 deviates in terms of the expected intensity, location, and spatial extent. Overall, circulation anomalies during the 1950s drought appear consistent with the expected response to the observed SST forcing. This is not the case for the 1930s, implying some other causal factor may be needed to explain the Dust Bowl drought anomalies. In addition to SST forcing, the 1930s were also characterized by massive alterations to the land surface, including regional-scale devegetation from crop

  9. Atmospheric Circulation Anomalies During Two Persistent North American Droughts: 1932-1939 and 1948-1957

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin; Seager, Richard; Miller, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    We use an early twentieth century (1908-1958) atmospheric reanalysis, based on assimilation of surface and sea level pressure observations, to contrast atmospheric circulation during two periods of persistent drought in North America: 1932-1939 (the Dust Bowl) and 1948-1957. Primary forcing for both droughts is believed to come from anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs): a warm Atlantic and a cool eastern tropical Pacific. For boreal winter (October-March) in the 1950s, a stationary wave pattern originating from the tropical Pacific is present, with positive centers over the north Pacific and north Atlantic ocean basins and a negative center positioned over northwest North America and the tropical/subtropical Pacific. This wave train is largely absent for the 1930s drought; boreal winter height anomalies are organized much more zonally, with positive heights extending across northern North America. For boreal summer (April-September) during the 1930s, a strong upper level ridge is centered over the Great Plains; this feature is absent during the 1950s and appears to be linked to a weakening of the Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ). Subsidence anomalies are co-located over the centers of each drought: in the central Great Plains for the 1930s and in a band extending from the southwest to the southeastern United States for the 1950s. The location and intensity of this subsidence during the 1948-1957 drought is a typical response to a cold eastern tropical Pacific, but for 1932-1939 deviates in terms of the expected intensity, location, and spatial extent. Overall, circulation anomalies during the 1950s drought appear consistent with the expected response to the observed SST forcing. This is not the case for the 1930s, implying some other causal factor may be needed to explain the Dust Bowl drought anomalies. In addition to SST forcing, the 1930s were also characterized by massive alterations to the land surface, including regional-scale devegetation from crop

  10. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  11. 16 CFR 1509.3 - Crib-side height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crib-side height. 1509.3 Section 1509.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.3 Crib-side height. (a) With the mattress support in...

  12. 16 CFR 1509.3 - Crib-side height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crib-side height. 1509.3 Section 1509.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.3 Crib-side height. (a) With the mattress support in...

  13. Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a height compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Wiese, Tatjana; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can be caused by even minor trauma in patients with pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, varying greatly in vertebral body location and compression geometry. The location and morphology of the compression injury can guide decision making for treatment modality (vertebroplasty versus surgical fixation), and can be important for pre-surgical planning. We propose a height compass to evaluate the axial plane spatial distribution of compression injury (anterior, posterior, lateral, and central), and distinguish it from physiologic height variations of normal vertebrae. The method includes four steps: spine segmentation and partition, endplate detection, height compass computation and compression fracture evaluation. A height compass is computed for each vertebra, where the vertebral body is partitioned in the axial plane into 17 cells oriented about concentric rings. In the compass structure, a crown-like geometry is produced by three concentric rings which are divided into 8 equal length arcs by rays which are subtended by 8 common central angles. The radius of each ring increases multiplicatively, with resultant structure of a central node and two concentric surrounding bands of cells, each divided into octants. The height value for each octant is calculated and plotted against octants in neighboring vertebrae. The height compass shows intuitive display of the height distribution and can be used to easily identify the fracture regions. Our technique was evaluated on 8 thoraco-abdominal CT scans of patients with reported compression fractures and showed statistically significant differences in height value at the sites of the fractures.

  14. 40 CFR 51.118 - Stack height provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.118 Stack height provisions. (a) The plan must provide that the degree of emission limitation required of any source for control of any air pollutant must not be affected by so much of any source's stack height...

  15. Effects of time and height on behavior of emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hoven, I

    1975-01-01

    The effect of the two parameters is reviewed. Variability with time is discussed in relation to stability and other atmospheric conditions. The magnitude of ground level concentrations from elevated release is discussed as an interaction between rate of emission release, physical height of stack, and thermal conditions. The point is made that plant effluent rates have increased in proportion to stack height. PMID:1157787

  16. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  17. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  18. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  19. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  20. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  1. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  2. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  3. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  4. 47 CFR 95.1315 - Antenna height restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height restriction. 95.1315 Section 95... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1315 Antenna height restriction. The highest point of any MURS antenna must no be more than 18.3 meters (60 feet) above the...

  5. 47 CFR 90.205 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 90.205 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.205 Power and antenna height.... (d) 150-174 MHz. (1) The maximum allowable station ERP is dependent upon the station's antenna...

  6. Tree height growth indicating drought and nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, Krisztina; Berki, Imre

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have been reported the increasing trends of forest growth in Europe in the last decades. Sites, where the water is not limiting factor, the increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and high nitrogen deposition influenced accelerated tree height growth. However few researches show that the drying climate conditions and water deficit cause slow/not definite trend of tree height growth in forests. The aim of our study presents the effects of drying climate and surplus nitrogen on height growth of sessile oak (Quercus petraea). Almost 50 sessile oak stands (with zonal site condition) have been measured along a humid-arid climatic transect in Hungary. Top heights of the trees are the best dendrometric parameter for indicating the changing site conditions. Observed top heights dates were compared with 50-years climate condition along the humid-arid climatic transect. Tree height growth in the dry and mesic section of climatic gradient slowed at the last 4 decades, because of the increasing frequency of dry periods. Accelerated height growth were measured in the mesic and humid section of transect, where the nitrogen deposition due to local air pollution were higher than the background deposition. These results draw attention to the importance of the drying climate and surplus nitrogen in the global changes. Keywords: climate change impacts, drought periods, surplus deposition, tree height growth Acknowledgements: Research is supported by the "Agroclimate.2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) EU-national joint funded research project.

  7. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be...

  11. 46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correction for bow height. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.69 Correction for bow height. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must...

  12. 46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correction for bow height. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.69 Correction for bow height. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must...

  13. Socioeconomic development and secular trend in height in China.

    PubMed

    Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Wu, Hua-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Qin

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic development on secular trend in height among children and adolescents in China. Body height and spermarcheal/menarcheal ages were obtained from two periodic large-scale national representative surveys in China between 1975 and 2010. Chinese socioeconomic development indicators were obtained from the United Nations world population prospects. The effects of plausible determinants were assessed by partial least-squares regression. The average height of children and adolescents improved in tandem with socioeconomic development, without any tendency to plateau. The increment of height trend presented larger around puberty than earlier or later ages. The partial least-squares regressions with gross national income, life expectancy and spermarcheal/menarcheal age accounted for increment of height trend from 88.3% to 98.3% for males and from 82.9% to 97.3% for females in adolescence. Further, through the analysis of the variable importance for projection, the contributions of gross national income and life expectancy on height increment were confirmed to be significant in childhood and adolescence, and the contribution of spermarcheal/menarcheal age was superior to both of them in adolescence. We concluded that positive secular trend in height in China was significantly associated with socioeconomic status (GNI as indicator) and medical and health conditions (life expectancy as indicator). Earlier onset of spermarche and menarche proved to be an important role in larger increment of the trend over time of height at puberty for a population.

  14. The intergenerational transmission of height: evidence from rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2011-12-01

    A growing body of work suggests that health may be transferred across generations. The aim of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that might account for observed intergenerational associations in health outcomes. Using data from Vietnam, this study analyzes intergenerational correlations in height, a measure of long-run health status, between parents and their children. Insights from biology and economics are used to motivate several strategies that collectively provide insight on the role and importance of different mechanisms. The results illustrate strong intergenerational associations in height, which remain stable with the inclusion of controls for parent and household characteristics. Maternal height is more strongly associated with the heights of boys than girls, while the associations with paternal height are similar across genders. The use of conditions faced by parents early in life as instruments for their height yields significantly larger estimates of the mother-child height association relative to OLS, while the estimated father-child associations move to zero. These results, in conjunction with those from several other tests, illustrate that non-genetic factors are important in determining parent-child associations in height, and more speculatively, that epigenetic mechanisms may play an important role. These findings illustrate the value of investments in early childhood, as these may confer intergenerational benefits.

  15. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base...) below. (2) Base stations with an emission bandwidth greater than 1 MHz are limited to 1640 watts/MHz... described in paragraph (b) below. (3) Base station antenna heights may exceed 300 meters HAAT with...

  16. Measuring perceived ceiling height in a visual comparison task.

    PubMed

    von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a height-matching method in which perceived ceiling height had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The height-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling heights between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling height. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling height. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The height matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling height to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.

  17. The Height and Range of Watermelons without Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    We determine the weak limit of the distribution of the random variables "height" and "range" on the set of p-watermelons without wall restriction as the number of steps tends to infinity. Additionally, we provide asymptotics for the moments of the random variable "height".

  18. Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...

  19. Ebstein's anomaly with recurrent massive pericardial effusion: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nirdesh; Saran, Dharam Prakash; Yadav, Sharad Chandra; Dwivedi, Sudhanshu

    2016-07-27

    Ebstein's anomaly is known for its varied presentations and exceptionally long survival in some cases. Here the authors describe a case of previously undiagnosed Ebstein's anomaly in a patient who presented with massive pericardial effusion. Over the next 6 months, the patient was hospitalised twice for pericardiocentesis. To the best of our knowledge, a case of Ebstein's anomaly with recurrent massive pericardial effusion has not been described previously.

  20. Improving the geological interpretation of magnetic and gravity satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Current limitations in the quantitative interpretation of satellite-elevation geopotential field data and magnetic anomaly data were investigated along with techniques to overcome them. A major result was the preparation of an improved scalar magnetic anomaly map of South America and adjacent marine areas directly from the original MAGSAT data. In addition, comparisons of South American and Euro-African data show a strong correlation of anomalies along the Atlantic rifted margins of the continents.