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Sample records for 70th shuttle flight

  1. Shuttle Risk Progression by Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri; Kahn, Joe; Thigpen, Eric; Zhu, Tony; Lo, Yohon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the early mission risk and progression of risk as a vehicle gains insights through flight is important: . a) To the Shuttle Program to understand the impact of re-designs and operational changes on risk. . b) To new programs to understand reliability growth and first flight risk. . Estimation of Shuttle Risk Progression by flight: . a) Uses Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and current knowledge to calculate early vehicle risk. . b) Shows impact of major Shuttle upgrades. . c) Can be used to understand first flight risk for new programs.

  2. Space Shuttle flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  3. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Erin Whittle, 14, (seated) and Brianna Johnson, 14, look on as Louis Stork, 13, attempts a simulated landing of a space shuttle at StenniSphere. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  4. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Louis Stork, 13, and Erin Whittle, 14, look on as Brianna Johnson, 14, conducts a 'test' of a space shuttle main engine in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  5. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  6. Initial Shuttle external tank flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, S. C.; Engel, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate aerothermal flight measurements made on the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) during its initial flights. The ETs have been adequately instrumented to measure various quantities during flight including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data have been compared with mathematical models based on an extensive wind tunnel data base, realistic flowfields, and empirical heat-transfer relationships. An analysis of the results points out the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base, and identifies problem areas in the methodology as indicated by the flight data.

  7. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  8. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  9. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  10. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  11. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.

    1982-01-01

    The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.

  12. NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft 911's Final Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA 911, one of NASA's two modified Boeing 747 space shuttle carrier aircraft, flew its final flight Feb. 8, a short hop from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base to the ...

  13. Recent Shuttle Post Flight MMOD Inspection Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyed, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Herrin, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Post flight inspections on the Space Shuttle Atlantis conducted after the STS-11.5 mission revealed a 0.11 inch (2.8 mm) hole in the outer face sheet of the starboard payload bay door radiator panel #4. The payload bay door radiators in this region are 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) thick aluminum honeycomb with 0.011 in (0.279 mm) thick aluminum face sheets topped with 0.005 in (0.127 mm) silver-Teflon tape. Inner face sheet damage included a 0.267 in (6.78 mm) long through crack with measureable deformation in the area of 0.2 in (5.1 mm). There was also a 0.031 in (0.787 nun) diameter hole in the rear face sheet. A large approximately l in (25 mm) diameter region of honeycomb was also destroyed. Since the radiators are located on the inside of the shuttle payload bay doors which are closed during ascent and reentry, the damage could only have occurred during the on-orbit portion of the mission. During the August 2007 STS-118 mission to the International Space Station, a micro-meteoroid or orbital debris (MMOD) particle impacted and completely penetrated one of shuttle Endeavour's radiator panels and the underlying thermal control system (TCS) blanket, leaving deposits on (but no damage to) the payload bay door. While it is not unusual for shuttle orbiters to be impacted by small MMOD particles, the damage from this impact is larger than any previously seen on the shuttle radiator panels. One of the largest impacts ever observed on a crew module window occurred during the November 2008 STS-126 mission to the International Space Station. Damage to the window was documented by the crew on orbit. Post flight inspection revealed a 0.4 in (10.8 mm) crater in the window pane, with a depth of 0.03 in (0.76 mm). The window pane was replaced due to the damage caused by this impact. Analysis performed on residue contained in dental mold impressions taken of the site indicated that a meteoroid particle produced this large damage site. The post flight inspection after the subsequent

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Reusable surface insulation flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.; Smith, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The first two flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter have provided the initial data required for operational certification of the Thermal Protection System (TPS). The flight performance characteristics of the TPS reusable surface insulation (RSI) will be discussed. The discussion will be based on post-flight inspections of the RSI and post-flight interpretations of the flight instrumentation data. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and mechanical design requirements for the RSI system were met or exceeded.

  15. STS 63 Flight Day 4 Highlights/MIR-Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS 63 Flight, day 4, the MIR-Shuttle rendezvous is highlighted in this video. The six-member team in the Shuttle are introduced and discuss their functions and tests for this day of the flight. There is actual footage of earth from space, of the MIR Space Station, a tour of the Shuttle cockpit, some footage from the MIR of the Space Shuttle, and footage from inside the MIR with the cosmonauts. Mission control communications with the Shuttle, communication between the Shuttle and MIR, and an historic communication between the Shuttle's astronauts and President Bill Clinton are included. President Clinton interviews each of the six-member team and discusses the upcoming space walk by Dr. Bernard Harris, the first black astronaut to walk in space. This video was recorded on February 6, 1995.

  16. STS 63 flight day 4 highlights/MIR-Shuttle rendezvous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    STS 63 Flight, day 4, the MIR-Shuttle rendezvous is highlighted in this video. The six-member team in the Shuttle are introduced and discuss their functions and tests for this day of the flight. There is actual footage of earth from space, of the MIR Space Station, a tour of the Shuttle cockpit, some footage from the MIR of the Space Shuttle, and footage from inside the MIR with the cosmonauts. Mission control communications with the Shuttle, communication between the Shuttle and MIR, and an historic communication between the Shuttle's astronauts and President Bill Clinton are included. President Clinton interviews each of the six-member team and discusses the upcoming space walk by Dr. Bernard Harris, the first black astronaut to walk in space. This video was recorded on February 6, 1995.

  17. Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.

  18. Space motion sickness during 24 flights of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Vanderploeg, James M.; Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the incidence and the severity of space motion sickness (SMS) during 24 flights of the Space Shuttle, using a standardized questionnaire administered to all crewmembers postflight. It was found that, for 85 crewmembers, the incidence of SMS during a first Shuttle flight was 67 percent, of which 30 percent were mild cases, 24 percent moderate, and 13 percent severe. Crewmembers with a second flight showed a reduction in SMS incidence, but the change was not significant compared with the first flight. It is suggested that variability in crewmember training and flight experience may explain some of the differences observed.

  19. Space Shuttle Program Manifest Process & Flight Opportunities for Small Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swalin, Richard M.; Sweet, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program has, since the early flights, exerted great effort to maximize the cargo complement for each individual mission. Historically, because of the capabilities of the Space Shuttle, there have almost always been opportunities to fly what are termed secondary payloads on every mission. However, with the challenges associated with assembling the International Space Station, accommodations for secondary payloads are significantly limited. In an attempt to deal with this situation, the Space Shuttle Program has developed techniques that will identify and utilize flight opportunities, as well as policies that may create opportunities.

  20. Results from a GPS Shuttle Training Aircraft flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Penny E.; Montez, Moises N.; Robel, Michael C.; Feuerstein, David N.; Aerni, Mike E.; Sangchat, S.; Rater, Lon M.; Cryan, Scott P.; Salazar, Lydia R.; Leach, Mark P.

    1991-01-01

    A series of Global Positioning System (GPS) flight tests were performed on a National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA). The objective of the tests was to evaluate the performance of GPS-based navigation during simulated Shuttle approach and landings for possible replacement of the current Shuttle landing navigation aid, the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS). In particular, varying levels of sensor data integration would be evaluated to determine the minimum amount of integration required to meet the navigation accuracy requirements for a Shuttle landing. Four flight tests consisting of 8 to 9 simulation runs per flight test were performed at White Sands Space Harbor in April 1991. Three different GPS receivers were tested. The STA inertial navigation, tactical air navigation, and MSBLS sensor data were also recorded during each run. C-band radar aided laser trackers were utilized to provide the STA 'truth' trajectory.

  1. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  2. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  3. Shuttle SRB preflight/post-flight thermal assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The development of the thermal protection system for the Solid Rocket Booster is reported. Tests and analytical efforts were conducted and new problems are continually attacked and solved. During the first six Shuttle flights it was necessary to make a final thermal assessment of the TPS and structural systems temperatures. The thermal assessments were made and are compared with post flight data.

  4. Space Shuttle stability and control flight test techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A unique approach for obtaining vehicle aerodynamic characteristics during entry has been developed for the Space Shuttle. This is due to the high cost of Shuttle testing, the need to open constraints for operational flights, and the fact that all flight regimes are flown starting with the first flight. Because of uncertainties associated with predicted aerodynamic coefficients, nine flight conditions have been identified at which control problems could occur. A detailed test plan has been developed for testing at these conditions and is presented. Due to limited testing, precise computer initiated maneuvers are implemented. These maneuvers are designed to optimize the vehicle motion for determining aerodynamic coefficients. Special sensors and atmospheric measurements are required to provide stability and control flight data during an entire entry. The techniques employed in data reduction are proven programs developed and used at NASA/DFRC.

  5. Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Timothy A.; Metcalf, Jordan L.; Asuncion, Carmelo

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the design of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) constructed for providing the vehicle and payload cooling during all phases of a mission and during ground turnaround operations. The operation of the Shuttle ATCS and some of the problems encountered during the first 39 flights of the Shuttle program are described, with special attention given to the major problems encountered with the degradation of the Freon flow rate on the Orbiter Columbia, the Flash Evaporator Subsystem mission anomalies which occurred on STS-26 and STS-34, and problems encountered with the Ammonia Boiler Subsystem. The causes and the resolutions of these problems are discussed.

  6. Shuttle waste management system design improvements and flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. Eugene; Goodman, Jerry R.; Murray, Robert W.; Mcintosh, Mathew E.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle waste management system has undergone a variety of design changes to improve performance and man-machine interface. These design improvements have resulted in more reliable operation and hygienic usage. Design enhancements include individual urinals, increased urine collection airflows, increased solids storage capacity, easier access to personal hygiene items, and additional wet trash stowage. The development and flight evaluation of these improvements are described herein. The Space Shuttle Orbiter has proved to be an invaluable test bed for development and in-flight evaluation of life support and habitability concepts which involve transport or separation of solids, liquids, and gases in a zero-g environment.

  7. Orbital flight test Shuttle External Tank flowfield and aerothermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, S. C.; Foster, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ET). These ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight including heat transfer, pressure and structural temperature. The flight data were reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base, but has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications.

  8. Flight Experiment Verification of Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Boundary layer transition at hypersonic conditions is critical to the design of future high-speed aircraft and spacecraft. Accurate methods to predict transition would directly impact the aerothermodynamic environments used to size a hypersonic vehicle's thermal protection system. A transition prediction tool, based on wind tunnel derived discrete roughness correlations, was developed and implemented for the Space Shuttle return-to-flight program. This tool was also used to design a boundary layer transition flight experiment in order to assess correlation uncertainties, particularly with regard to high Mach-number transition and tunnel-to-flight scaling. A review is provided of the results obtained from the flight experiment in order to evaluate the transition prediction tool implemented for the Shuttle program.

  9. An assessment of space shuttle flight software development processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In early 1991, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Flight commissioned the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the adequacy of the current process by which NASA develops and verifies changes and updates to the Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Flight Software Processes was convened in Jan. 1992 to accomplish the following tasks: (1) review the entire flight software development process from the initial requirements definition phase to final implementation, including object code build and final machine loading; (2) review and critique NASA's independent verification and validation process and mechanisms, including NASA's established software development and testing standards; (3) determine the acceptability and adequacy of the complete flight software development process, including the embedded validation and verification processes through comparison with (1) generally accepted industry practices, and (2) generally accepted Department of Defense and/or other government practices (comparing NASA's program with organizations and projects having similar volumes of software development, software maturity, complexity, criticality, lines of code, and national standards); (4) consider whether independent verification and validation should continue. An overview of the study, independent verification and validation of critical software, and the Space Shuttle flight software development process are addressed. Findings and recommendations are presented.

  10. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Mcruer, D. T.; Johnston, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews issues, data, and analyses relevant to the longitudinal flying qualities of the Space Shuttle in approach and landing. The manual control of attitude and path are first examined theoretically to demonstrate the unconventional nature of the Shuttle's augmented pitch and path response characteristics. The time domain pitch rate transient response criterion used for design of the Shuttle flight control system is examined in context with data from recent flying qualities experiments and operational aircraft. Questions arising from this examination are addressed through comparisons with MIL-F-8785C and other proposed flying qualities criteria which indicate potential longitudinal flying qualities problems. However, it is shown that these criteria, based largely on data from conventional aircraft, may be inappropriate for assessing the Shuttle.

  11. Shuttle Enterprise Mated to 747 SCA in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Enterprise, the nation's prototype space shuttle orbiter, departed NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, at 11:00 a.m., 16 May 1983, on the first leg of its trek to the Paris Air Show at Le Bourget Airport, Paris, France. Carried by the huge 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), the first stop for the Enterprise was Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Piloting the 747 on the Europe trip were Joe Algranti, Johnson Space Center Chief Pilot, Astronaut Dick Scobee, and NASA Dryden Chief Pilot Tom McMurtry. Flight engineers for that portion of the flight were Dryden's Ray Young and Johnson Space Center's Skip Guidry. The Enterprise, named after the spacecraft of Star Trek fame, was originally carried and launched by the 747 during the Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) at Dryden Flight Research Center. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused

  12. HAL/S programmer's guide. [space shuttle flight software language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    HAL/S is a programming language developed to satisfy the flight software requirements for the space shuttle program. The user's guide explains pertinent language operating procedures and described the various HAL/S facilities for manipulating integer, scalar, vector, and matrix data types.

  13. NASA Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  14. [Biomedical results of the Space Shuttle Orbital Flight Test Program].

    PubMed

    Pool, S L; Nicogossian, A

    1984-01-01

    On July 4, 1982 the Space Shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, thus successfully completing the fourth and last in a series of Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) of the Space Transportation System (STS). The primary goal of medical operation support for the OFT was to assure the health and well-being of flight personnel during all phases of the mission. To this end, the crew health status was evaluated preflight, inflight and postflight. Biomedical flight test requirements were completed in the following areas: physiological adaptation to microgravity, cabin acoustical noise, cabin atmospheric evaluation, radiation dosimetry, crew exercise equipment evaluation and a cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasure assessment.

  15. Biomedical results of the Space Shuttle orbital flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A.

    1983-01-01

    On July 4, 1982, the Space Shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force Base, CA, thus successfully completing the fourth and last in a series of Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) of the Space Transportation System (STS). The primary goal of medical operations support for the OFT was to assure the health and well-being of flight personnel during all phases of the mission. To this end, crew health status was evaluated preflight, inflight, and postflight. Biomedical flight test requirements were completed in the following areas: physiological adaptation to microgravity, cabin acoustical noise, cabin atmospheric evaluation, radiation dosimetry, crew exercise equipment evaluation, and a cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasure assessment.

  16. Evolution of Space Shuttle Range Safety Ascent Flight Envelope Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Joan; Davis, Jerel; Glenn, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    For every space vehicle launch from the Eastern Range in Florida, the range user must provide specific Range Safety (RS) data products to the Air Force's 45th Space Wing in order to obtain flight plan approval. One of these data products is a set of RS ascent flight envelope trajectories that define the normal operating region of the vehicle during powered flight. With the Shuttle Program launching 135 manned missions over a 30-year period, 135 envelope sets were delivered to the range. During this time, the envelope methodology and design process evolved to support mission changes, maintain high data quality, and reduce costs. The purpose of this document is to outline the shuttle envelope design evolution and capture the lessons learned that could apply to future spaceflight endeavors.

  17. STS-2 second space shuttle mission: Shuttle to carry scientific payload on second flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The STS-2 flight seeks to (1) fly the vehicle with a heavier payload than the first flight; (2) test Columbia's ability to hold steady attitude for Earth-viewing payloads; (3) measure the range of payload environment during launch and entry; (4) further test the payload bay doors and space radiators; and (5) operate the Canadian-built remote manipulator arm. The seven experiments which comprise the OSTA-1 payload are described as well as experiments designed to assess shuttle orbiter performance during launch, boost, orbit, atmospheric entry and landing. The menu for the seven-day flight and crew biographies, are included with mission profiles and overviews of ground support operations.

  18. Flight accommodations using a special structure. [space shuttle payloads support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noblitt, B. G.; Mcannally, R.

    1982-01-01

    A special payload carrier structure has been developed in order to provide Space Shuttle flight accommodations for an exceptionally heavy instrument package requiring no subsystems support. This Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) will support the OSTA-2 payload for a materials processing mission. The modular design of the MPESS offers a payload support capability at multiple locations within the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The MPESS is also scheduled for use with earth observation instruments to be carried by the OSTA-3 mission in late 1984.

  19. SEP solar array Shuttle flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Hill, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to verify the operational performance of a full-scale Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) solar array is described. Scheduled to fly on the Shuttle in 1983, the array will be deployed from the bay for ten orbits, with dynamic excitation to test the structural integrity being furnished by the Orbiter verniers; thermal, electrical, and sun orientation characteristics will be monitored, in addition to safety, reliability, and cost effective performance. The blanket, with aluminum and glass as solar cell mass simulators, is 4 by 32 m, with panels (each 0.38 by 4 m) hinged together; two live Si cell panels will be included. The panels are bonded to stiffened graphite-epoxy ribs and are storable in a box in the bay. The wing support structure is detailed, noting the option of releasing the wing into space by use of the Remote Manipulator System if the wing cannot be refolded. Procedures and equipment for monitoring the array behavior are outlined, and comprise both analog data and TV recording for later playback and analysis. The array wing experiment will also aid in developing measurement techniques for large structure dynamics in space.

  20. Mission Control Center (MCC) system specification for the shuttle Orbital Flight Test (OFT) timeframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Mission Control Center Shuttle (MCC) Shuttle Orbital Flight Test (OFT) Data System (OFTDS) provides facilities for flight control and data systems personnel to monitor and control the Shuttle flights from launch (tower clear) to rollout (wheels stopped on runway). It also supports the preparation for flight (flight planning, flight controller and crew training, and integrated vehicle and network testing activities). The MCC Shuttle OFTDS is described in detail. Three major support systems of the OFTDS and the data types and sources of data entering or exiting the MCC were illustrated. These systems are the communication interface system, the data computation complex, and the display and control system.

  1. Space Shuttle flight crew/computer interface simulation studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callihan, J. C.; Rybarczyk, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    An approach to achieving an optimized set of crew/computer interface requirements on the Space Shuttle program is described. It consists of defining the mission phases and crew timelines, developing a functional description of the crew/computer interface displays and controls software, conducting real-time simulations using pilot evaluation of the interface displays and controls, and developing a set of crew/computer functional requirements specifications. The simulator is a two-man crew station which includes three CRTs with keyboards for simulating the crew/computer interface. The programs simulate the mission phases and the flight hardware, including the flight computer and CRT displays.

  2. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  3. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  4. SLS-1: The first dedicated life sciences shuttle flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-05-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences 1 was the first space laboratory dedicated to life science research. It was launched into orbit in early June 1991 aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The data from this flight have greatly expanded our knowledge of the effects of microgravity on human physiology as data were collected in-flight, not just pre and post. Principal goals of the mission were the measurement of rapid and semichronic (8 days) changes in the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems during the flight and then to measure the rate of readaptation following return to Earth. Results from the four teams involved in that research will be presented in this panel. In addition to the cardiovascular-cardiopulmonary research, extensive metabolic studies encompassed fluid, electrolyte and energy balance, renal function, hematology and musculoskeletal changes. Finally, the crew participated in several neurovestibular studies. Overall, the mission was an outstanding success and has provided much new information on the lability of human responses to the space environment.

  5. SLS-1: The first dedicated life sciences shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences 1 was the first space laboratory dedicated to life science research. It was launched into orbit in early June 1991 aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The data from this flight have greatly expanded our knowledge of the effects of microgravity on human physiology as data were collected in-flight, not just pre and post. Principal goals of the mission were the measurement of rapid and semichronic (8 days) changes in the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems during the flight and then to measure the rate of readaptation following return to Earth. Results from the four teams involved in that research will be presented in this panel. In addition to the cardiovascular-cardiopulmonary research, extensive metabolic studies encompassed fluid, electrolyte and energy balance, renal function, hematology and musculoskeletal changes. Finally, the crew participated in several neurovestibular studies. Overall, the mission was an outstanding success and has provided much new information on the lability of human responses to the space environment.

  6. Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor no. 1 (FSM-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Phil D.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor No. 1 (FSM-1) was static test fired on 15 Aug. 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-24. FSM-1 was a full-scale, full-duration static test fire of a redesigned solid rocket motor. FSM-1 was the first of seven flight support motors which will be static test fired. The Flight Support Motor program validates components, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition, FSM-1 was the full-scale motor for qualification of Western Electrochemical Corporation ammonium perchlorate. This motor was subjected to all controls and documentation requirements CTP-0171, Revision A. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the FSM-1 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 87 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature was 82 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the FSM-1 components and test equipment was nominal.

  7. Independent verification and validation for Space Shuttle flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Software was asked by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Flight to determine the need to continue independent verification and validation (IV&V) for Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee found that the current IV&V process is necessary to maintain NASA's stringent safety and quality requirements for man-rated vehicles. Therefore, the Committee does not support NASA's plan to eliminate funding for the IV&V effort in fiscal year 1993. The Committee believes that the Space Shuttle software development process is not adequate without IV&V and that elimination of IV&V as currently practiced will adversely affect the overall quality and safety of the software, both now and in the future. Furthermore, the Committee was told that no organization within NASA has the expertise or the manpower to replace the current IV&V function in a timely fashion, nor will building this expertise elsewhere necessarily reduce cost. Thus, the Committee does not recommend moving IV&V functions to other organizations within NASA unless the current IV&V is maintained for as long as it takes to build comparable expertise in the replacing organization.

  8. Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design Process: Evolution and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picka, Bret A.; Glenn, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design team is responsible for defining a launch to orbit trajectory profile that satisfies all programmatic mission objectives and defines the ground and onboard reconfiguration requirements for this high-speed and demanding flight phase. This design, verification and reconfiguration process ensures that all applicable mission scenarios are enveloped within integrated vehicle and spacecraft certification constraints and criteria, and includes the design of the nominal ascent profile and trajectory profiles for both uphill and ground-to-ground aborts. The team also develops a wide array of associated training, avionics flight software verification, onboard crew and operations facility products. These key ground and onboard products provide the ultimate users and operators the necessary insight and situational awareness for trajectory dynamics, performance and event sequences, abort mode boundaries and moding, flight performance and impact predictions for launch vehicle stages for use in range safety, and flight software performance. These products also provide the necessary insight to or reconfiguration of communications and tracking systems, launch collision avoidance requirements, and day of launch crew targeting and onboard guidance, navigation and flight control updates that incorporate the final vehicle configuration and environment conditions for the mission. Over the course of the Space Shuttle Program, ascent trajectory design and mission planning has evolved in order to improve program flexibility and reduce cost, while maintaining outstanding data quality. Along the way, the team has implemented innovative solutions and technologies in order to overcome significant challenges. A number of these solutions may have applicability to future human spaceflight programs.

  9. Space shuttle orbiter guidance, naviagation and control software functional requirements: Horizontal flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The shuttle GN&C software functions for horizontal flight operations are defined. Software functional requirements are grouped into two categories: first horizontal flight requirements and full mission horizontal flight requirements. The document privides the intial step in the shuttle GN&C software design process. It also serves as a management tool to identify analyses which are required to define requirements.

  10. Perspectives on NASA flight software development - Apollo, Shuttle, Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garman, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Flight data systems' software development is chronicled for the period encompassing NASA's Apollo, Space Shuttle, and (ongoing) Space Station Freedom programs, with attention to the methodologies and 'development tools' employed in each case and their mutual relationships. A dominant concern in all three programs has been the accommodation of software change; it has also been noted that any such long-term program carries the additional challenge of identifying which elements of its software-related 'institutional memory' are most critical, in order to preclude their loss through the retirement, promotion, or transfer of its 'last expert'.

  11. Integrated Digital Flight Control System for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the integrated digital flight control system (DFCS) is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the computer complex and is equally insensitive to characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure is described of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure. The input and output, including jet selection are included. Specific estimation and control algorithm are shown for the various mission phases: cruise (including horizontal powered flight), entry, on-orbit, and boost. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are included.

  12. Shuttle flight pressure instrumentation: Experience and lessons for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Bradley, P. F.; Wolf, H.; Flanagan, P. F.; Weilmuenster, K. J.; Kern, F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Flight data obtained from the Space Transportation System orbiter entries are processed and analyzed to assess the accuracy and performance of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) pressure measurement system. Selected pressure measurements are compared with available wind tunnel and computational data and are further used to perform air data analyses using the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) computation technique. The results are compared to air data from other sources. These comparisons isolate and demonstrate the effects of the various limitations of the DFI pressure measurement system. The effects of these limitations on orbiter performance analyses are addressed, and instrumentation modifications are recommended to improve the accuracy of similar fight data systems in the future.

  13. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  14. Autonomous earth feature classification - Shuttle and aircraft flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Wilson, R. G.; Bullock, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on the Shuttle STS-2 mission November 12-14, 1981, tested a technique for autonomous real-time classification of selected earth features, i.e., water; bare land; vegetation; and clouds, snow, and ice. A second instrument, designed for aircraft flights, flew over regions of the west and east coasts of the United States and across the country. In each instrument, two bore-sighted CCD cameras image earth scenes in two spectral bands. Each camera includes a 100-element by 100-element detector array, and classification circuits. A simple algorithm and logic circuit provides classification decisions within a few microseconds. The experiment records the number of picture elements (pixels) representing each feature and the reflected solar radiation for each band. After flight, pixel-by-pixel classification images are constructed and compared with 70-mm color photographs taken simultaneously with the CCD-camera data.

  15. Shuttle program. MCC level C formulation requirements: Shuttle TAEM guidance and flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Level C requirements for the shuttle orbiter terminal area energy management (TAEM) guidance and flight control functions to be incorporated into the Mission Control Center entry profile planning processor are defined. This processor will be used for preentry evaluation of the entry through landing maneuvers, and will include a simplified three degree-of-freedom model of the body rotational dynamics that is necessary to account for the effects of attitude response on the trajectory dynamics. This simulation terminates at TAEM-autoland interface.

  16. Space Shuttle Environmental Effects: The First 5 Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Environmental effects associated with the first five Space Shuttle flights were monitored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Air Force (USAF). Results and interpretations from this effort were reported at the December 1982 joint NASA-USAF conference. The conference proceedings are presented in this document. Most of the monitoring activity was focused on the launch cloud, emphasizing surface effects on the biota and air quality, model prediction of surface concentrations of HCl gas and Al2O3 dust, and airborne measurements of cloud composition. In general, assessments and predictions made in the April 1978 Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Space Shuttle Program were verified. Fallout of acidic mist and dust within 3 mi to 5 mi of the launch pad was the only unexpected effect of the launch. Atomization of deluge water in the Shuttle exhaust is considered to be the most probable cause of this effect. Sonic booms were monitored for several landings at Edwards Air Force Base, California; results agreed well with model predictions.

  17. Shuttle Propulsion System Major Events and the Final 22 Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lessons have been documented from the Space Shuttle Propulsion elements. Major events include loss of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) on STS-4 and shutdown of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during ascent on STS-51F. On STS-112 only half the pyrotechnics fired during release of the vehicle from the launch pad, a testament for redundancy. STS-91 exhibited freezing of a main combustion chamber pressure measurement and on STS-93 nozzle tube ruptures necessitated a low liquid level oxygen cut off of the main engines. A number of on pad aborts were experienced during the early program resulting in delays. And the two accidents, STS-51L and STS-107, had unique heritage in history from early program decisions and vehicle configuration. Following STS-51L significant resources were invested in developing fundamental physical understanding of solid rocket motor environments and material system behavior. And following STS-107, the risk of ascent debris was better characterized and controlled. Situational awareness during all mission phases improved, and the management team instituted effective risk assessment practices. The last 22 flights of the Space Shuttle, following the Columbia accident, were characterized by remarkable improvement in safety and reliability. Numerous problems were solved in addition to reduction of the ascent debris hazard. The Shuttle system, though not as operable as envisioned in the 1970's, successfully assembled the International Space Station (ISS). By the end of the program, the remarkable Space Shuttle Propulsion system achieved very high performance, was largely reusable, exhibited high reliability, and was a heavy lift earth to orbit propulsion system. During the program a number of project management and engineering processes were implemented and improved. Technical performance, schedule accountability, cost control, and risk management were effectively managed and implemented. Award fee contracting was implemented to provide

  18. Shuttle Flight-7A DTO-261: Pre and Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaouk, Mohamed; McNeill, Scot; Haley, Sydney; Grygier, Michael; Bartkowicz, Theodore; Rachal, P. Brian; Peart, Walter

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the analysis to validate and correlate the analytical models of ISS-Shuttle Flight-7A configuration. On-orbit dynamic responses were measured during an intentional dynamic test (DTO-261) by the Shuttle video camera photogrammetric system and the Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS). Modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping, and mode shapes. Correlation and comparisons between test and analytical modal parameters were performed to assess the accuracy of the models.

  19. Digital flight control software design requirements. [for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.

  20. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  1. Recovery of Space Shuttle Columbia and Return to Flight of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolphi, Michael U.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has come a long way in our journey to reduce the risks of operating the Spse Shuttle system. The External Tank bipod Thermal Protection System has been redesigned to eliminate the proximate cause of the Columbia accident. In all areas, we have applied the collective knowledge and capabilities of our Nation to comply with the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations and to raise the bar beyond that. We have taken prudent technical action on potential threats to review and verify the material condition of all critical areas where failure could result in catastrophic loss of the crew and vehicle. We are satisfied that critical systems and elements should operate as intended-safely and reliably. While we will never eliminate all the risks from our human space flight programs, we have eliminated those we can and reduced, controlled, and/or mitigated others. The remaining identified risks will be evaluated for acceptance. Our risk reduction approach has its roots in the system safety engineering hierarchy for hazard abatement long employed in aerospace systems engineering. The components of the hierarchy are, in order of precedence, to: design/redesign; eliminate the hazard/risk; reduce the hazard/risk; and control the hazard/risk and/or mitigate the consequence of the remaining hazard/risk through warning devices, special procedures/capabilities, and/or training. This proven approach to risk reduction has been applied to potential hazards and risks in all critical areas of the Space Shuttle and has guided us through the technical challenges, failures, and successes present in return to flight endeavors. This approach provides the structured deliberation process required to verify and form the foundation for accepting any residual risk across the entire Space Shuttle Program by NASA leadership.

  2. In-flight investigation of shuttle tile pressure orifice installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    To determine shuttle orbiter wing loads during ascent, wing load instrumentation was added to Columbia (OV-102). This instrumentation included strain gages and pressure orifices on the wing. The loads derived from wing pressure measurements taken during STS 61-C did not agree with those derived from strain gage measurements or with the loads predicted from the aerodynamic database. Anomalies in the surface immediately surrounding the pressure orifices in the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles were one possible cause of errors in the loads derived from wing pressure measurements. These surface anomalies were caused by a ceramic filler material which was installed around the pressure tubing. The filler material allowed slight movement of the TPS tile and pressure tube as the airframe flexed and bent under aerodynamic loads during ascent and descent. Postflight inspection revealed that this filler material had protruded from or receeded beneath the surface, causing the orifice to lose its flushness. Flight tests were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Facility to determine the effects of any anomaly in surface flushness of the orifice installation on the measured pressures at Mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.4. An F-104 aircraft with a flight test fixture mounted beneath the fuselage was used for these flights. Surface flushness anomalies typical of those on the orbiter after flight (STA 61-C) were tested. Also, cases with excessive protrusion and recession of the filler material were tested. This report shows that the anomalies in STS 61-C orifice installations adversely affected the pressure measurements. But the magnitude of the affect was not great enough to account for the discrepancies with the strain gage measurements and the aerodynamic predictions.

  3. Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer Experimental Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.

    1994-01-01

    Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass-to-charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained trom the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment during re-entry on the STS-35 mission. The principal experimental objective is to obtain measurements of freestream density in the hypersonic rarefied flow flight regime. Data were collected from 180 to about 87 km. However, data above 115 km were contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transdueers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data are compared to the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions. The freestream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere model, exhibits the wavelike nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. Selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump.

  4. The effect of wind variability on Space Shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K.; Brown, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    A data base of paired detailed wind profiles is developed for use in evaluating the STS ascent capability. The flight of the Shuttle is simulated through a sequence of measured detailed wind profiles and the wind effects on load and performance are evaluated. Since the wind measurement and simulation time requirements dictate that the launch decision be based on wind measurements taken about 3.5 hr before launch, a data base of paired detailed profiles is obtained in order to account for possible load increases due to wind profile changes during the final 3.5 hr before launch. Results show that the largest wind changes occur in winter at about 12 km altitude. At that time and altitude, it is found that there is a 5 percent risk that the wind component speed change will approximate 10 m/s in 3.5 hr. It is determined that the wind can vary over a period of 3.5 hr by more than 20 percent from the transition season to the winter season while somewhat smaller changes occur between the transition season and the summer season. It is concluded that these results demonstrate the feasibility of the wind change model concept and that this model should be considered for future use in Shuttle prelaunch operations.

  5. Orbital flight test shuttle external tank aerothermal flight evaluation, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, Sarat C.; Engel, Carl D.; Warmbrod, John D.

    1986-01-01

    This 3-volume report discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ETs). Six ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight; including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data was reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base; and, has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications. This is Volume 1, an Executive Summary. Volume 2 contains Appendices A (Aerothermal Comparisons) and B (Flight Derived h sub 1/h sub u vs. M sub inf. Plots), and Volume 3 contains Appendix C (Comparison of Interference Factors among OFT Flight, Prediction and 1H-97A Data), Appendix D (Freestream Stanton Number and Reynolds Number Correlation for Flight and Tunnel Data), and Appendix E (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u Tables).

  6. Orbital flight test shuttle external tank aerothermal flight evaluation, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, Sarat C.; Engel, Carl D.; Warmbrod, John D.

    1986-01-01

    This 3-volume report discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ETs). Six ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight; including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data was reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base; and, has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 contains Appendix A (Aerothermal Comparisons), and Appendix B (Flight-Derived h sub 1/h sub u vs. M sub inf. Plots). This is Volume 3, containing Appendix C (Comparison of Interference Factors between OFT Flight, Prediction and 1H-97A Data), Appendix D (Freestream Stanton Number and Reynolds Number Correlation for Flight and Tunnel Data), and Appendix E (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u Tables).

  7. Orbital flight test shuttle external tank aerothermal flight evaluation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, Sarat C.; Engel, Carl D.; Warmbrod, John D.

    1986-01-01

    This 3-volume report discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ETs). Six ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight; including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data was reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base; and, has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. This is volume 2, containing Appendix A (Aerothermal Comparisons), and Appendix B (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u vs. M sub inf. Plots). Volume 3 contains Appendix C (Comparison of Interference Factors between OFT Flight, Prediction and 1H-97A Data), Appendix D (Freestream Stanton Number and Reynolds Number Correlation for Flight and Tunnel Data), and Appendix E (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u Tables).

  8. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-04-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  9. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  10. Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) T-0 Umbilical to Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Flight Elements Consultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert A.; McManamen, John P.; Kramer-White, Julie; Raju, Ivatury S.; Beil, Robert J.; Weeks, John F.; Elliott, Kenny B.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked with assessing the validity of an alternate opinion that surfaced during the investigation of recurrent failures at the Space Shuttle T-0 umbilical interface. The most visible problem occurred during the Space Transportation System (STS)-112 launch when pyrotechnics used to separate Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Hold-Down Post (HDP) frangible nuts failed to fire. Subsequent investigations recommended several improvements to the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and processing changes were implemented, including replacement of ground-half cables and connectors between flights, along with wiring modifications to make critical circuits quad-redundant across the interface. The alternate opinions maintained that insufficient data existed to exonerate the design, that additional data needed to be gathered under launch conditions, and that the interface should be further modified to ensure additional margin existed to preclude failure. The results of the assessment are contained in this report.

  11. CP-1 70th Anniversary Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Len Koch; Harold Agnew

    2012-07-11

    Dr. Harold Agnew, retired director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one of 49 people present on December 2, 1942 when the world’s first man-made controlled nuclear chain reaction was achieved with the CP-1 reactor, and Dr. Len Koch, one of Argonne’s earliest staff members and a designer of EBR-I, the first liquid metal-cooled fast reactor, spoke about their early work during “The Dawn of the Nuclear Age”, a Director’s Special Symposium held as one of the events to commemorate the 70th anniversary year of CP-1 achieving criticality. The symposium was moderated by Dr. Charles Till, a retired Argonne associate laboratory director who led Argonne’s nuclear engineering programs throughout the 1980’s and ‘90’s. Dr. Agnew painted a vivid picture of the challenges and rewards of working in Enrico Fermi’s group under strict security conditions and the complete faith all in the group had in Fermi’s analyses. He stated that no one ever doubted that CP-1 would achieve criticality, and when the moment came, those present acknowledged the accomplishment with little more than a subdued toast of chianti from a bottle provided by reactor physicist Eugene Wigner. This experimental work on nuclear reactors was continued in the Chicago area and led first by Fermi and then Walter Zinn, another member of Fermi’s CP-1 group, resulting in the formal establishment of Argonne National Laboratory on July 1, 1946. Dr. Koch described how much he enjoyed working at Argonne through the 1950’s and ‘60’s and contributing to many of the research “firsts” that Argonne achieved in the nuclear energy field and led to the foundation of the commercial nuclear power generation industry. His reminiscences about all that was achieved with EBR-I and how that work then led into Argonne’s design, building, and operation of EBR-II as a full demonstration of a fast reactor power plant brought Argonne’s nuclear energy legacy to life for everyone in the auditorium. These

  12. CP-1 70th Anniversary Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    Len Koch; Harold Agnew

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Harold Agnew, retired director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one of 49 people present on December 2, 1942 when the world’s first man-made controlled nuclear chain reaction was achieved with the CP-1 reactor, and Dr. Len Koch, one of Argonne’s earliest staff members and a designer of EBR-I, the first liquid metal-cooled fast reactor, spoke about their early work during “The Dawn of the Nuclear Age”, a Director’s Special Symposium held as one of the events to commemorate the 70th anniversary year of CP-1 achieving criticality. The symposium was moderated by Dr. Charles Till, a retired Argonne associate laboratory director who led Argonne’s nuclear engineering programs throughout the 1980’s and ‘90’s. Dr. Agnew painted a vivid picture of the challenges and rewards of working in Enrico Fermi’s group under strict security conditions and the complete faith all in the group had in Fermi’s analyses. He stated that no one ever doubted that CP-1 would achieve criticality, and when the moment came, those present acknowledged the accomplishment with little more than a subdued toast of chianti from a bottle provided by reactor physicist Eugene Wigner. This experimental work on nuclear reactors was continued in the Chicago area and led first by Fermi and then Walter Zinn, another member of Fermi’s CP-1 group, resulting in the formal establishment of Argonne National Laboratory on July 1, 1946. Dr. Koch described how much he enjoyed working at Argonne through the 1950’s and ‘60’s and contributing to many of the research “firsts” that Argonne achieved in the nuclear energy field and led to the foundation of the commercial nuclear power generation industry. His reminiscences about all that was achieved with EBR-I and how that work then led into Argonne’s design, building, and operation of EBR-II as a full demonstration of a fast reactor power plant brought Argonne’s nuclear

  13. Lateral stability and control derivatives extracted from space shuttle Challenger flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Flight data taken from six flights of the Space Transportation System shuttle Challenger (STS-6, 7, 8, 11, 13 and 17) during atmospheric entry are analyzed to determine the shuttle lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Maximum likelihood estimation is applied to data derived from accelerometer and rate gyro measurements and trajectory, meteorological and control surface data to estimate lateral-directional stability and control derivatives. The vehicle stability and control surface effectiveness are compared across the flights and to preflight predicted values.

  14. Supporting flight data analysis for Space Shuttle Orbiter experiments at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. J.; Budnick, M. P.; Yang, L.; Chiasson, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter experiments program is responsible for collecting flight data to extend the research and technology base for future aerospace vehicle design. The infrared imagery of shuttle (IRIS), catalytic surface effects, and tile gap heating experiments sponsored by Ames Research Center are part of this program. The software required to process the flight data which support these experiments is described. In addition, data analysis techniques, developed in support of the IRIS experiment, are discussed. Using the flight data base, the techniques provide information useful in analyzing and correcting problems with the experiment, and in interpreting the IRIS image obtained during the entry of the third shuttle mission.

  15. Space shuttle orbiter leading-edge flight performance compared to design goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, D. M.; Johnson, D. W.; Kelly, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Thermo-structural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia's leading-edge structural subsystem for the first five (5) flights is compared with the design goals. Lessons learned from thse initial flights of the first reusable manned spacecraft are discussed in order to assess design maturity, deficiencies, and modifications required to rectify the design deficiencies. Flight data and post-flight inspections support the conclusion that the leading-edge structural subsystem hardware performance was outstanding for the initial five (5) flights.

  16. Orbiter/shuttle carrier aircraft separation: Wind tunnel, simulation, and flight test overview and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, D. J.; Denison, D. E.; Elchert, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the approach and landing test phase of the space shuttle program is given from the orbiter/shuttle carrier aircraft separation point of view. The data and analyses used during the wind tunnel testing, simulation, and flight test phases in preparation for the orbiter approach and landing tests are reported.

  17. STS-26 Commander Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck's right hand is propped on Onorbit Station control panel A2 remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  18. STS-5 Fifth Space shuttle mission, first operational flight: Press Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Schedules for the fifth Space Shuttle flight are provided. Launching procedure, extravehicular activity, contingency plans, satellite deployment, and onboard experiments are discussed. Landing procedures, tracking facilities, and crew data are provided.

  19. Space shuttle on-orbit flight control software requirements, preliminary version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Software modules associated with various flight control functions for the space shuttle orbiter are described. Data flow, interface requirements, initialization requirements and module sequencing requirements are considered. Block diagrams and tables are included.

  20. Summary of longitudinal stability and control parameters as determined from space shuttle Columbia flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish the preflight aerodynamics of the Shuttle vehicle. This paper presents the longitudinal, short-period aerodynamics of the space shuttle Columbia as determined from flight test data. These flight-determined results are compared with the preflight predictions, and areas of agreement or disagreement are noted. In addition to the short-period aerodynamics, the pitch RCS effectiveness was determined.

  1. Ion beam plume and efflux characterization flight experiment study. [space shuttle payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Zafran, S.; Cole, A.; Rosiak, G.; Komatsu, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    A flight experiment and flight experiment package for a shuttle-borne flight test of an 8-cm mercury ion thruster was designed to obtain charged particle and neutral particle material transport data that cannot be obtained in conventional ground based laboratory testing facilities. By the use of both ground and space testing of ion thrusters, the flight worthiness of these ion thrusters, for other spacecraft applications, may be demonstrated. The flight experiment definition for the ion thruster initially defined a broadly ranging series of flight experiments and flight test sensors. From this larger test series and sensor list, an initial flight test configuration was selected with measurements in charged particle material transport, condensible neutral material transport, thruster internal erosion, ion beam neutralization, and ion thrust beam/space plasma electrical equilibration. These measurement areas may all be examined for a seven day shuttle sortie mission and for available test time in the 50 - 100 hour period.

  2. An overview of United States manned space flight from Mercury to the Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Technical considerations in the design, development and operation of United States manned spacecraft from Project Mercury to the Space Shuttle are reviewed. The design and mission philosophies, launch vehicle and spacecraft characteristics, mode of operation, flight results and influence on later programs are discussed for Project Mercury, and Gemini Apollo and Skylab programs, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and the Space Shuttle program. The Space Shuttle is shown to represent a major departure from the trend established in previous programs, requiring major advancements in the fields of flight control, thermal protection, and liquid-propellant rocket technology.

  3. The design of flight hardware: Organizational and technical ideas from the MITRE/WPI Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looft, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Mitre Corporation of Bedford Mass. and the Worcester Polytechnic Institute are developing several experiments for a future Shuttle flight. Several design practices for the development of the electrical equipment for the flight hardware have been standardized. Some of the ideas are presented, not as hard and fast rules but rather in the interest of stimulating discussions for sharing such ideas.

  4. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  5. Direct Visualization of Shock Waves in Supersonic Space Shuttle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OFarrell, J. M.; Rieckhoff, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct observation of shock boundaries is rare. This Technical Memorandum describes direct observation of shock waves produced by the space shuttle vehicle during STS-114 and STS-110 in imagery provided by NASA s tracking cameras.

  6. Correlation of Space Shuttle Landing Performance with Post-Flight Cardiovascular Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCluskey, R.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity induces cardiovascular adaptations resulting in orthostatic intolerance on re-exposure to normal gravity. Orthostasis could interfere with performance of complex tasks during the re-entry phase of Shuttle landings. This study correlated measures of Shuttle landing performance with post-flight indicators of orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Relevant Shuttle landing performance parameters routinely recorded at touchdown by NASA included downrange and crossrange distances, airspeed, and vertical speed. Measures of cardiovascular changes were calculated from operational stand tests performed in the immediate post-flight period on mission commanders from STS-41 to STS-66. Stand test data analyzed included maximum standing heart rate, mean increase in maximum heart rate, minimum standing systolic blood pressure, and mean decrease in standing systolic blood pressure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated with the null hypothesis that there was no statistically significant linear correlation between stand test results and Shuttle landing performance. A correlation coefficient? 0.5 with a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no significant linear correlations between landing performance and measures of post-flight cardiovascular dysfunction. Discussion: There was no evidence that post-flight cardiovascular stand test data correlated with Shuttle landing performance. This implies that variations in landing performance were not due to space flight-induced orthostatic intolerance.

  7. Summary of shuttle data processing and aerodynamic performance comparisons for the first 11 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.; Mcconnell, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    NASA Space Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic research is but one part of the most comprehensive end-to-end flight test program ever undertaken considering: the extensive pre-flight experimental data base development; the multitude of spacecraft and remote measurements taken during entry flight; the complexity of the Orbiter aerodynamic configuration; the variety of flight conditions available across the entire speed regime; and the efforts devoted to flight data reduction throughout the aerospace community. Shuttle entry flights provide a wealth of research quality data, in essence a veritable flying wind tunnel, for use by researchers to verify and improve the operational capability of the Orbiter and provide data for evaluations of experimental facilities as well as computational methods. This final report merely summarizes the major activities conducted by the AMA, Inc. under NASA Contract NAS1-16087 as part of that interesting research. Investigators desiring more detailed information can refer to the glossary of AMA publications attached herein as Appendix A. Section I provides background discussion of software and methodology development to enable Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) generation. Actual products generated are summarized in Section II as tables which completely describe the post-flight products available from the first three-year Shuttle flight history. Summary results are presented in Section III, with longitudinal performance comparisons included as Appendices for each of the flights.

  8. STS-26 Commander Hauck looks out window W8 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck looks up at overhead window W8 while on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck rests his right arm between Onorbit Station control panel A7U and aft viewing window W10. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  9. STS-26 Pilot Covey looks up at window W7 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey, leaning on Onorbit Station control panel, looks up at overhead window W7 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Covey's left hand is positioned on Onorbit Station control panel A7U remote manipulator system (RMS) rotation hand control (RHC). Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  10. A method for determining the flight readiness of the integrated Space Shuttle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, I.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Dynamic Integrated Test (DIT) system is described. The DIT is an open-loop system which makes no attempt to simulate Shuttle sensors, and by which the Shuttle redundancy management system is left unmodified. Open-loop operation is shown to inherently require less computing capacity during a test than the closed-loop alternative. DIT tests have generated a high degree of confidence in the Shuttle hardware, allowing the identification of such problems as a sluggish main fuel valve, which caused a countdown hold seconds before the simulated T-zero, and Main Engine Controller software malfunctions. Attention is given to the combination and substitution of sensor data, the modification of nominal flight software, and the preparation of simulation data. It is noted that greater performance would have been achieved if the interface with DIT had been a design requirement from the outset of Space Shuttle development.

  11. Sequencing design for BFS engagement. [Backup Flight System for space shuttle computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurica, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    The Space Shuttle's avionics system is controlled by five onboard computers, four of which are loaded with the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS), and one of which is loaded with the Backup Flight System (BFS). The Shuttle is nominally controlled by the PASS computers. However, in the event of a PASS generic software failure, the BFS is engaged and assumes control of the Shuttle. The BFS Sequencing System problems presented by the engage requirement and the solutions chosen by the developers are discussed. These solutions constitute a technique which can be applied to the design of any real-time backup system.

  12. Protein crystal growth aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle flights STS-31 and STS-32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Lawrence J.; Smith, Craig D.; Carter, Daniel C.; Twigg, Pam; He, Xiao-Min; Snyder, Robert S.; Weber, Patricia C.; Schloss, J. V.; Einspahr, H. M.; Clancy, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Results obtained from the Shuttle flight STS-32 flown in January 1990, and preliminary results from the most recent Shuttle flight, STS-31, flown in April 1990, are presented. Crystals grown in microgravity environment include Canavalin, isocitrate lyase, human serum albumin, and Anti-HPr Fab. It is concluded that about 20 percent of proteins flown exhibit better morphologies or better quality data than their earth-grown counterparts. About 40 percent do not yield crystals at all and the remaining 40 percent yield crystals that are either too small for X-ray analysis or produce data of poorer quality than the best earth-grown crystals.

  13. The Flight of the Space Shuttle "Discovery" (STS-119)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, "Discovery" launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the…

  14. Space shuttle flight readiness firing dress rehearsal for STS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riles, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The static firing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine in preparation for the launch of the Enterprise Orbiter is discussed. The following were also tested: structures and mechanics; thermal design integration; propulsion and power; avionics and software; guidance, navigation, and control; mechanical systems; communications and tracking; and integrated ground systems.

  15. Professor Bolesław Rutkowski's 70th birthday Laudatio

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Durlik, Magdalena; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja; Klinger, Marian; Manitius, Jacek; Sułowicz, Władysław; Więcek, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    On 5 December 2014 Professor Bolesław Rutkowski, the outstanding Polish nephrologist, doctor and researcher, renowned organizer, our teacher, colleague and friend, will celebrate his 70th birthday. We would like to take this opportunity to present to you his life and his scientific achievements.

  16. The 70th anniversary of the death of Lou Gehrig.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Frank

    2012-11-01

    The year 2011 marked the 70th anniversary of the death of Lou Gehrig. This article reviews his history, illness, relationship with his physicians, and what the modern physician can learn from his story. Lou Gehrig's disease continues to be the popular eponym for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  17. Space shuttle orbiter reusable surface insulation flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The first five flights of the orbiter Columbia provided the initial data required to certify the operational performance of the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS). The flight performance characteristics of the RIS TPS are discussed. The discussion is based primarily on postflight inspections and postflight interpretation of the flight instrumentation. TPS modifications of the future orbiters (OV-099, 103, and subs) are also discussed.

  18. Mission Control Center (MCC) System Specification for the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test (OFT) Timeframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    System specifications to be used by the mission control center (MCC) for the shuttle orbital flight test (OFT) time frame were described. The three support systems discussed are the communication interface system (CIS), the data computation complex (DCC), and the display and control system (DCS), all of which may interfere with, and share processing facilities with other applications processing supporting current MCC programs. The MCC shall provide centralized control of the space shuttle OFT from launch through orbital flight, entry, and landing until the Orbiter comes to a stop on the runway. This control shall include the functions of vehicle management in the area of hardware configuration (verification), flight planning, communication and instrumentation configuration management, trajectory, software and consumables, payloads management, flight safety, and verification of test conditions/environment.

  19. Onboard Determination of Vehicle Glide Capability for Shuttle Abort Flight Managment (SAFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straube, Timothy; Jackson, Mark; Fill, Thomas; Nemeth, Scott

    2002-01-01

    When one or more main engines fail during ascent, the flight crew of the Space Shuttle must make several critical decisions and accurately perform a series of abort procedures. One of the most important decisions for many aborts is the selection ofa landing site. Several factors influence the ability to reach a landing site, including the spacecraft point of atmospheric entry, the energy state at atmospheric entry, the vehicle glide capability from that energy state, and whether one or more suitable landing sites are within the glide capability. Energy assessment is further complicated by the fact that phugoid oscillations in total energy influence glide capability. Once the glide capability is known, the crew must select the "best" site option based upon glide capability and landing site conditions and facilities. Since most of these factors cannot currently be assessed by the crew in flight, extensive planning is required prior to each mission to script a variety of procedures based upon spacecraft velocity at the point of engine failure (or failures). The results of this preflight planning are expressed in tables and diagrams on mission-specific cockpit checklists. Crew checklist procedures involve leafing through several pages of instructions and navigating a decision tree for site selection and flight procedures - all during a time critical abort situation. With the advent of the Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU), the Shuttle will have increased on-board computational power to help alleviate crew workload during aborts and provide valuable situational awareness during nominal operations. One application baselined for the CAU computers is Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM), whose requirements have been designed and prototyped. The SAFM application includes powered and glided flight algorithms. This paper describes the glided flight algorithm which is dispatched by SAFM to determine the vehicle glide capability and make recommendations to the crew for site

  20. The HYTHIRM Project: Flight Thermography of the Space Shuttle During the Hypersonic Re-entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Berger, Karen T.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Splinter, Scott C.; Krasa, Paul W.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Gibson, David M.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Tack, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a NASA Langley led endeavor sponsored by the NASA Engineering Safety Center, the Space Shuttle Program Office and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to demonstrate a quantitative thermal imaging capability. A background and an overview of several multidisciplinary efforts that culminated in the acquisition of high resolution calibrated infrared imagery of the Space Shuttle during hypervelocity atmospheric entry is presented. The successful collection of thermal data has demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining remote high-resolution infrared imagery during hypersonic flight for the accurate measurement of surface temperature. To maximize science and engineering return, the acquisition of quantitative thermal imagery and capability demonstration was targeted towards three recent Shuttle flights - two of which involved flight experiments flown on Discovery. In coordination with these two Shuttle flight experiments, a US Navy NP-3D aircraft was flown between 26-41 nautical miles below Discovery and remotely monitored surface temperature of the Orbiter at Mach 8.4 (STS-119) and Mach 14.7 (STS-128) using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. This same Navy aircraft successfully monitored the Orbiter Atlantis traveling at approximately Mach 14.3 during its return from the successful Hubble repair mission (STS-125). The purpose of this paper is to describe the systematic approach used by the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements team to develop and implement a set of mission planning tools designed to establish confidence in the ability of an imaging platform to reliably acquire, track and return global quantitative surface temperatures of the Shuttle during entry. The mission planning tools included a pre-flight capability to predict the infrared signature of the Shuttle. Such tools permitted optimization of the hardware configuration to increase signal-to-noise and to maximize the available

  1. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    A program of flying qualities experiments as part of the Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is defined. Phase 1, published as CR-170391, reviewed flying qualities criteria and shuttle data. The review of applicable experimental and shuttle data to further define the OEX plan is continued. An unconventional feature of this approach is the use of pilot strategy model identification to relate flight and simulator results. Instrumentation, software, and data analysis techniques for pilot model measurements are examined. The relationship between shuttle characteristics and superaugmented aircraft is established. STS flights 1 through 4 are reviewed from the point of view of flying qualities. A preliminary plan for a coordinated program of inflight and simulator research is presented.

  2. Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Gruber, Jennifer R.; Hensley, Doyle W.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Oram, Timothy D.; Berger, Karen T.; Splinter, Scott C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission.

  3. Thermal design, analysis, and testing of the CETA Space Shuttle Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witsil, Amy K.; Foss, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Space Shuttle flight experiment designed to demonstrate techniques and equipment for propelling and restraining crew during EVA. Emphasis is placed on the thermal analysis of the CETA hardware, including thermal design trade-offs, modeling assumptions, temperature predictions, and testing activities.

  4. Forecast of space shuttle flight requirements for launch of commercial communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The number of communication satellites required over the next 25 years to support domestic and regional communication systems for telephony, telegraphy and other low speed data; video teleconferencing, new data services, direct TV broadcasting; INTELSAT; and maritime and aeronautical services was estimated to determine the number of space shuttle flights necessary for orbital launching.

  5. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  6. On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 esc view --- On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is photographed prior to recording still pictures of an Earth observation target of opportunity. A camera lens is temporarily stowed nearby on the aft wall. A crew mate exposed the image with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  7. 70th Anniversary Collection for the Microbiology Society: Microbial Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the Microbiology Society's 70th anniversary celebration, Microbial Genomics (MGen) is the new baby of the Society's publishing family. Born on 15 July 2015, it is still in its infancy but already showing promising signs, and we have great hopes and expectations for the future. The journal captures a new and expanding area of research, one which is already having a major impact on research in microbiology, and has and continues to accelerate discoveries in the field. PMID:28348824

  8. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV): Developing Flight Rationale for the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kezirian, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Introducing composite vessels into the Space Shuttle Program represented a significant technical achievement. Each Orbiter vehicle contains 24 (nominally) Kevlar tanks for storage of pressurized helium (for propulsion) and nitrogen (for life support). The use of composite cylinders saved 752 pounds per Orbiter vehicle compared with all-metal tanks. The weight savings is significant considering each Shuttle flight can deliver 54,000 pounds of payload to the International Space Station. In the wake of the Columbia accident and the ensuing Return to Flight activities, the Space Shuttle Program, in 2005, re-examined COPV hardware certification. Incorporating COPV data that had been generated over the last 30 years and recognizing differences between initial Shuttle Program requirements and current operation, a new failure mode was identified, as composite stress rupture was deemed credible. The Orbiter Project undertook a comprehensive investigation to quantify and mitigate this risk. First, the engineering team considered and later deemed as unfeasible the option to replace existing all flight tanks. Second, operational improvements to flight procedures were instituted to reduce the flight risk and the danger to personnel. Third, an Orbiter reliability model was developed to quantify flight risk. Laser profilometry inspection of several flight COPVs identified deep (up to 20 mil) depressions on the tank interior. A comprehensive analysis was performed and it confirmed that these observed depressions were far less than the criterion which was established as necessary to lead to liner buckling. Existing fleet vessels were exonerated from this failure mechanism. Because full validation of the Orbiter Reliability Model was not possible given limited hardware resources, an Accelerated Stress Rupture Test of a flown flight vessel was performed to provide increased confidence. A Bayesian statistical approach was developed to evaluate possible test results with respect to the

  9. A representational basis for the development of a distributed expert system for Space Shuttle flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helly, J. J., Jr.; Bates, W. V.; Cutler, M.; Kelem, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new representation of malfunction procedure logic which permits the automation of these procedures using Boolean normal forms is presented. This representation is discussed in the context of the development of an expert system for space shuttle flight control including software and hardware implementation modes, and a distributed architecture. The roles and responsibility of the flight control team as well as previous work toward the development of expert systems for flight control support at Johnson Space Center are discussed. The notion of malfunction procedures as graphs is introduced as well as the concept of hardware-equivalence.

  10. Calculation of Shuttle Base Heating Environments and Comparison with Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, T. F.; Lee, Y. C.; Bender, R. L.; Carter, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques, analytical tools, and experimental programs used initially to generate and later to improve and validate the Shuttle base heating design environments are discussed. In general, the measured base heating environments for STS-1 through STS-5 were in good agreement with the preflight predictions. However, some changes were made in the methodology after reviewing the flight data. The flight data is described, preflight predictions are compared with the flight data, and improvements in the prediction methodology based on the data are discussed.

  11. Shuttle Rudder/Speed Brake Power Drive Unit (PDU) Gear Scuffing Tests With Flight Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Krants, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Scuffing-like damage has been found on the tooth surfaces of gears 5 and 6 of the NASA space shuttle rudder/speed brake power drive unit (PDU) number 2 after the occurrence of a transient back-driving event in flight. Tests were conducted using a pair of unused spare flight gears in a bench test at operating conditions up to 2866 rpm and 1144 in.-lb at the input ring gear and 14,000 rpm and 234 in.-lb at the output pinion gear, corresponding to a power level of 52 hp. This test condition exceeds the maximum estimated conditions expected in a backdriving event thought to produce the scuffing damage. Some wear marks were produced, but they were much less severe than the scuffing damaged produced during shuttle flight. Failure to produce scuff damage like that found on the shuttle may be due to geometrical variations between the scuffed gears and the gears tested herein, more severe operating conditions during the flight that produced the scuff than estimated, the order of the test procedures, the use of new hydraulic oil, differences between the dynamic response of the flight gearbox and the bench-test gearbox, or a combination of these. This report documents the test gears, apparatus, and procedures, summarizes the test results, and includes a discussion of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

  12. Subsonic stability and control flight test results of the Space Shuttle /tail cone off/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The subsonic stability and control testing of the Space Shuttle Orbiter in its two test flights in the tailcone-off configuration is discussed, and test results are presented. Flight test maneuvers were designed to maximize the quality and quantity of stability and control data in the minimal time allotted using the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator and the Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MMLE) programs, and coefficients were determined from standard sensor data sets using the MMLE, despite problems encountered in timing due to the different measurement systems used. Results are included for lateral directional and longitudinal maneuvers as well as the Space Shuttle aerodynamic data base obtained using the results of wind tunnel tests. The flight test data are found to permit greater confidence in the data base since the differences found are well within control system capability. It is suggested that the areas of major differences, including lateral directional data with open speedbrake, roll due to rudder and normal force due to elevon, be investigated in any further subsonic flight testing. Improvements in sensor data and data handling techniques for future orbital test flights are indicated.

  13. Canadian medical experiments on Shuttle Flight 41-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.; Bondar, R. L.; Thirsk, R. B.; Garneau, M.

    1985-01-01

    During the 41-G mission, two payload specialist astronauts took part in six Canadian medical experiments designed to measure how the human nervous system adapts to weightlessness, and how this might contribute to space motion sickness. Similar tests conducted pre-flight provided base-line data, and post-flight experiments examined re-adaptation to the ground. No changes were detected in the vestibulo-ocular reflex during this 8-day mission. Pronounced proprioceptive illusions were experienced, especially immediately post-flight. Tactile acuity was normal in the fingers and toes, but the ability to judge limb position was degraded. Estimates of the locations of familiar targets were grossly distorted in the absence of vision. There were no differences in taste thresholds or olfaction. Despite pre-flight tests showing unusual susceptibility to motion sickness, the Canadian payload specialist turned out to be less susceptible than normal on-orbit. Re-adaptation to the normal gravity environment occurred within the first day after landing.

  14. Development of a Catalytic Coating for a Shuttle Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Goekcen, Tahir; Sepka, Steven E.; Leiser, Daniel B.; Rezin, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    A spray-on coating was developed for use on the shuttle wing tiles to obtain data that could be correlated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions to better understand the effect of chemical heating on a fore-body heat shield having a turbulent boundary layer during planetary entry at hypersonic speed. The selection of a spray-on coating was conducted in two Phases 1) screening tests to select the catalytic coating formulation and 2) surface property determination using both arc-jet and side-arm facilities at NASA Ames Research Center. Comparison of the predicted surface temperature profile over a flat-plate with measured values obtained during arc-jet exposure (Phase I study) was used to validate the surface properties obtained during Phase II.

  15. Trends in shuttle entry heating from the correction of flight test maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique was developed to systematically expand the aerothermodynamic envelope of the Space Shuttle Protection System (TPS). The technique required transient flight test maneuvers which were performed on the second, fourth, and fifth Shuttle reentries. Kalman filtering and parameter estimation were used for the reduction of embedded thermocouple data to obtain best estimates of aerothermal parameters. Difficulties in reducing the data were overcome or minimized. Thermal parameters were estimated to minimize uncertainties, and heating rate parameters were estimated to correlate with angle of attack, sideslip, deflection angle, and Reynolds number changes. Heating trends from the maneuvers allow for rapid and safe envelope expansion needed for future missions, except for some local areas.

  16. A Preliminary Data Model for Orbital Flight Dynamics in Shuttle Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, John; Shalin, Valerie L.

    2000-01-01

    The Orbital Flight Dynamics group in Shuttle Mission Control is investigating new user interfaces in a project called RIOTS [RIOTS 2000]. Traditionally, the individual functions of hardware and software guide the design of displays, which results in an aggregated, if not integrated interface. The human work system has then been designed and trained to navigate, operate and integrate the processors and displays. The aim of RIOTS is to reduce the cognitive demands of the flight controllers by redesigning the user interface to support the work of the flight controller. This document supports the RIOTS project by defining a preliminary data model for Orbital Flight Dynamics. Section 2 defines an information-centric perspective. An information-centric approach aims to reduce the cognitive workload of the flight controllers by reducing the need for manual integration of information across processors and displays. Section 3 describes the Orbital Flight Dynamics domain. Section 4 defines the preliminary data model for Orbital Flight Dynamics. Section 5 examines the implications of mapping the data model to Orbital Flight Dynamics current information systems. Two recurring patterns are identified in the Orbital Flight Dynamics work the iteration/rework cycle and the decision-making/information integration/mirroring role relationship. Section 6 identifies new requirements on Orbital Flight Dynamics work and makes recommendations based on changing the information environment, changing the implementation of the data model, and changing the two recurring patterns.

  17. Flight Dynamics Operations: Methods and Lessons Learned from Space Shuttle Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutri-Kohart, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Officer is responsible for trajectory maintenance of the Space Shuttle. This paper will cover high level operational considerations, methodology, procedures, and lessons learned involved in performing the functions of orbit and rendezvous Flight Dynamics Officer and leading the team of flight dynamics specialists during different phases of flight. The primary functions that will be address are: onboard state vector maintenance, ground ephemeris maintenance, calculation of ground and spacecraft acquisitions, collision avoidance, burn targeting for the primary mission, rendezvous, deorbit and contingencies, separation sequences, emergency deorbit preparation, mass properties coordination, payload deployment planning, coordination with the International Space Station, and coordination with worldwide trajectory customers. Each of these tasks require the Flight Dynamics Officer to have cognizance of the current trajectory state as well as the impact of future events on the trajectory plan in order to properly analyze and react to real-time changes. Additionally, considerations are made to prepare flexible alternative trajectory plans in the case timeline changes or a systems failure impact the primary plan. The evolution of the methodology, procedures, and techniques used by the Flight Dynamics Officer to perform these tasks will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to how specific Space Shuttle mission and training simulation experiences, particularly off-nominal or unexpected events such as shortened mission durations, tank failures, contingency deorbit, navigation errors, conjunctions, and unexpected payload deployments, have influenced the operational procedures and training for performing Space Shuttle flight dynamics operations over the history of the program. These lessons learned can then be extended to future vehicle trajectory operations.

  18. The Shuttle Orbiter high resolution accelerometer package experiment - Preliminary flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Rutherford, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    A description of the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) experiment, designed to measure rarefied flow aerodynamic accelerations, is given. The ground test calibration factors, as well as post-flight data processing techniques to extract aerodynamic accelerations, are discussed and applied to the recorded reentry data of the recent STS-6 Shuttle Orbiter flight. The ratio of the measured normal-to-axial aerodynamic accelerations during reentry is used to obtain the first flight measurement of the lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) of a winged entry vehicle in the rarefied flow flight regime. The preliminary result for the free-molecule flow L/D is 0.10 + or - 0.03. The initial flight results on L/D are compared with current predictions which are based upon theoretical and empirical considerations. The measured free-molecule flow L/D value is higher than predicted by a factor of about three, indicating that surface reflection is not completely diffuse as currently assumed. In the rarefied flow transition regime, the Shuttle data book-bridging formula fits the flight data adequately. Upper altitude density profiles are also deduced from the measurements and presented. The density profiles show a wave phenomena with amplitude of about 60 percent, relative to a standard model.

  19. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV): Flight Rationale for the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kezirian, Michael T.; Johnson, Kevin L.; Phoenix, Stuart L.

    2011-01-01

    Each Orbiter Vehicle (Space Shuttle Program) contains up to 24 Kevlar49/Epoxy Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) for storage of pressurized gases. In the wake of the Columbia accident and the ensuing Return To Flight (RTF) activities, Orbiter engineers reexamined COPV flight certification. The original COPV design calculations were updated to include recently declassified Kevlar COPV test data from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and to incorporate changes in how the Space Shuttle was operated as opposed to orinigially envisioned. 2005 estimates for the probability of a catastrophic failure over the life of the program (from STS-1 through STS-107) were one-in-five. To address this unacceptable risk, the Orbiter Project Office (OPO) initiated a comprehensive investigation to understand and mitigate this risk. First, the team considered and eventually deemed unfeasible procuring and replacing all existing flight COPVs. OPO replaced the two vessels with the highest risk with existing flight spare units. Second, OPO instituted operational improvements in ground procedures to signficiantly reduce risk, without adversely affecting Shuttle capability. Third, OPO developed a comprehensive model to quantify the likelihood of occurrance. A fully-instrumented burst test (recording a lower burst pressure than expected) on a flight-certified vessel provided critical understanding of the behavior of Orbiter COPVs. A more accurate model was based on a newly-compiled comprehensive database of Kevlar data from LLNL and elsewhere. Considering hardware changes, operational improvements and reliability model refinements, the mean reliability was determined to be 0.998 for the remainder of the Shuttle Program (from 2007, for STS- 118 thru STS-135). Since limited hardware resources precluded full model validation through multiple tests, additional model confidence was sought through the first-ever Accelerated Stress Rupture Test (ASRT) of a flown flight article

  20. Characterization of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials for Return-to-Flight following the Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2006-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, it was determined that a large chunk of polyurethane insulating foam (= 1.67 lbs) on the External Tank (ET) came loose during Columbia's ascent on 2-1-03. The foam piece struck some of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the leading edge of Columbia's left wing in the mid-wing area. This impact damaged Columbia to the extent that upon re-entry to Earth, superheGed air approaching 3,000 F caused the vehicle to break up, killing all seven astronauts on board. A paper after the Columbia Accident Investigation highlighted thermal analysis testing performed on External Tank TPS materials (1). These materials included BX-250 (now BX-265) rigid polyurethane foam and SLA-561 Super Lightweight Ablator (highly-filled silicone rubber). The large chunk of foam from Columbia originated fiom the left bipod ramp of the ET. The foam in this ramp area was hand-sprayed over the SLA material and various fittings, allowed to dry, and manually shaved into a ramp shape. In Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts following Columbia, the decision was made to remove the foam in the bipod ramp areas. During RTF efforts, further thermal analysis testing was performed on BX-265 foam by DSC and DMA. Flat panels of foam about 2-in. thick were sprayed on ET tank material (aluminum alloys). The DSC testing showed that foam material very close to the metal substrate cured more slowly than bulk foam material. All of the foam used on the ET is considered fully cured about 21 days after it is sprayed. The RTF culminated in the successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on 7-26-05. Although the flight was a success, there was another serious incident of foam loss fiom the ET during Shuttle ascent. This time, a rather large chunk of BX-265 foam (= 0.9 lbs) came loose from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) PAL ramp, although the foam did not strike the Shuttle Orbiter containing the crew. DMA testing was performed on foam samples taken fiom

  1. Protein crystal growth results from shuttle flight 51-F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    The protein crystal growth (PCG) experiments run on 51-F were analyzed. It was found that: (1) sample stability is increased over that observed during the experiments on flight 51-D; (2) the dialysis experiments produced lysozyme crystals that were significantly larger than those obtained in our identical ground-based studies; (3) temperature fluctuations apparently caused problems during the crystallization experiments on 51-F; (4) it is indicated that teflon tape stabilizes droplets on the syringe tips; (5) samples survived during the reentry and landing in glass tips that were not stoppered with plungers; (6) from the ground-based studies, it was expected that equilibration should be complete within 2 to 4 days for all of these vapor-diffusion experiments, thus it appears that the vapor diffusion rates are somewhat slower under microgravity conditions; (7) drop tethering was highly successful, all four of the tethered drops were stable, even though they contained MPD solutions; (8) the PCG experiments on 51-F were done to assess the hardware and experimental procedures that are developed for future flights, when temperature control will be available. Lysozyme crystals obtained by microdialysis are considerably larger than those obtained on the ground, using the identical apparatus and procedures.

  2. Shuttle payload bay thermal environments: Summary and conclusion report for STS Flights 1-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, J. H.; Graves, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal data for the payload bay of the first five shuttle flights is summarized and the engineering evaluation of that data is presented. After a general discussion on mission profiles and vehicle configurations, the thermal design and flight instrumentation systems of the payload bay are described. The thermal flight data sources and a categorization of the data are then presented. A thermal flight data summarization section provides temperature data for the five phases of a typical mission profile. These are: prelaunch, ascent, on-orbit, entry and postlanding. The thermal flight data characterization section encompasses this flight data for flight to flight variations, payload effects, temperature ranges, and other variations. Discussion of the thermal environment prediction models in use by industry and various NASA Centers, and the results predicted by these models, is followed by an evaluation of the correlation between the actual flight data and the results predicted by the models. Finally, the available thermal data are evaluated from the viewpoint of the user concerned with establishing the thermal environment in the payload bay. The data deficiencies are discussed and recommendations for their elimination are presented.

  3. Evolution of Space Shuttle Range Safety (RS) Ascent Flight Envelope Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Joan D.

    2011-01-01

    Ascent flight envelopes are trajectories that define the normal operating region of a space vehicle s position from liftoff until the end of powered flight. They fulfill part of the RS data requirements imposed by the Air Force s 45th Space Wing (45SW) on space vehicles launching from the Eastern Range (ER) in Florida. The 45SW is chartered to protect the public by minimizing risks associated with the inherent hazards of launching a vehicle into space. NASA s Space Shuttle program has launched 130+ manned missions over a 30 year period from the ER. Ascent envelopes were delivered for each of those missions. The 45SW envelope requirements have remained largely unchanged during this time. However, the methodology and design processes used to generate the envelopes have evolved over the years to support mission changes, maintain high data quality, and reduce costs. The evolution of the Shuttle envelope design has yielded lessons learned that can be applied to future endevours. There have been numerous Shuttle ascent design enhancements over the years that have caused the envelope methodology to evolve. One of these Shuttle improvements was the introduction of onboard flight software changes implemented to improve launch probability. This change impacted the preflight nominal ascent trajectory, which is a key element in the RS envelope design. While the early Shuttle nominal trajectories were designed preflight using a representative monthly mean wind, the new software changes involved designing a nominal ascent trajectory on launch day using real-time winds. Because the actual nominal trajectory position was not known until launch day, the envelope analysis had to be customized to account for this nominal trajectory variation in addition to the other envelope components.

  4. Space Shuttle contamination measurements from flights STS-1 through STS-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H. K. F.; Jacobs, S.; Leger, L. J.; Miller, E.

    1983-01-01

    Results of contamination measurements performed on the initial four flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are summarized and compared with requirements contained in the Space Shuttle Flight and Ground System Specifications and those formulated by the Contamination Requirements Definition Group. In general, the results of measurements carried out with the induced environment contamination monitor indicate that molecular fluxes, deposition rates, and average counts of particulates are within the requirements and close to predicted values. Among the exceptions, were such special circumstances as water dumps, payload bay door closures, and RCS engine, APU, and flash evaporator operations which led to molecular and particulate contamination levels exceeding the limits. In cases where these circumstances would interfere with sensitive payload operations, careful mission planning to preclude a contamination source by operational limitation should be done to avoid losses.

  5. Space Shuttle hypersonic aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic flight research and the comparison to ground test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic comparisons between flight and ground test for the Space Shuttle at hypersonic speeds are discussed. All of the comparisons are taken from papers published by researchers active in the Space Shuttle program. The aerodynamic comparisons include stability and control derivatives, center-of-pressure location, and reaction control jet interaction. Comparisons are also discussed for various forms of heating, including catalytic, boundary layer, top centerline, side fuselage, OMS pod, wing leading edge, and shock interaction. The jet interaction and center-of-pressure location flight values exceeded not only the predictions but also the uncertainties of the predictions. Predictions were significantly exceeded for the heating caused by the vortex impingement on the OMS pods and for heating caused by the wing leading-edge shock interaction.

  6. Cardiovascular Aspects of Space Shuttle Flights: At the Heart of Three Decades of American Spaceflight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Space Shuttle era elevated cardiovascular deconditioning from a research topic in gravitational physiology to a concern with operational consequences during critical space mission phases. NASA has identified three primary cardiovascular risks associate with short-duration (less than 18 d) spaceflight: orthostatic intolerance; decreased maximal oxygen uptake; and cardiac arrhythmias. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was observed postflight in Mercury astronauts, studied in Gemini and Apollo astronauts, and tracked as it developed in-flight during Skylab missions. A putative hypotensive episode in the pilot during an early shuttle landing, and well documented postflight hypotension in a quarter of crewmembers, catalyzed NASA's research effort to understand its mechanisms and develop countermeasures. Shuttle investigations documented the onset of OH, tested mechanistic hypotheses, and demonstrated countermeasures both simple and complex. Similarly, decreased aerobic capacity in-flight threatened both extravehicular activity and post-landing emergency egress. In one study, peak oxygen uptake and peak power were significantly decreased following flights. Other studies tested hardware and protocols for aerobic conditioning that undergird both current practice on long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions and plans for interplanetary expeditions. Finally, several studies suggest that cardiac arrhythmias are of less concern during short-duration spaceflight than during long-duration spaceflight. Duration of the QT interval was unchanged and the frequency of premature atrial and ventricular contractions was actually shown to decrease during extravehicular activity. These investigations on short-duration Shuttle flights have paved the way for research aboard long-duration ISS missions and beyond. Efforts are already underway to study the effects of exploration class missions to asteroids and Mars.

  7. Probabilities of good, marginal, and poor flying conditions for space shuttle ferry flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, D. M.; Guttman, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    Empirical probabilities are provided for good, marginal, and poor flying weather for ferrying the Space Shuttle Orbiter from Edwards AFB, California, to Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and from Edwards AFB to Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama. Results are given by month for each overall route plus segments of each route. The criteria for defining a day as good, marginal, or poor and the method of computing the relative frequencies and conditional probabilities for monthly reference periods are described.

  8. On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Mario Runco, Jr., mission specialist,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Mario Runco, Jr., mission specialist, grabs a hand-held 70mm camera and prepares to take still pictures of an Earth observation target of opportunity. A pair of windows just out of frame above Runco's head provide the crew members with a prime operating perspective of Earth observation targets. A crew mate exposed the image with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  9. Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine Heritage Commemorative: Powerhead and Ducts, Test and Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry R.; Willis, Martha

    2009-01-01

    The videos (Powerhead and Ducts, Test and Flight Operations) review the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) program from Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne. They include highlights from the engine's development and lifecycle through the engine testing to the deployment in the space shuttle.

  10. Cardiovascular examinations and observations of deconditioning during the Space Shuttle orbital flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bungo, M. W.; Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    During the first four flights of the Space Shuttle, cardiovascular data were obtained on each crewmember as part of the operational medicine requirements for crew health and safety. From monitoring blood pressure and electrocardiographic data, it was possible to estimate the degree of deconditioning imposed by exposure to the microgravity environment. For this purpose, a quantitative cardiovascular index of deconditioning (CID) was derived to aid the clinician in his assessment. Isotonic saline was then investigated as a countermeasure against orthostatic intolerance and found to be effective in partially reversing the hemodynamic consequences. It was observed that the space flight environment of reentry might potentially be arrhythmogenic in at least one individual.

  11. Integrated digital flight-control system for the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The integrated digital flight control system is presented which provides rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN&C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described along with the input and output. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are given.

  12. The calibration and flight test performance of the space shuttle orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, A. S.; Mena, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air data system (ADS) is used by the guidance, navigation and control system (GN&C) to guide the vehicle to a safe landing. In addition, postflight aerodynamic analysis requires a precise knowledge of flight conditions. Since the orbiter is essentially an unpowered vehicle, the conventional methods of obtaining the ADS calibration were not available; therefore, the calibration was derived using a unique and extensive wind tunnel test program. This test program included subsonic tests with a 0.36-scale orbiter model, transonic and supersonic tests with a smaller 0.2-scale model, and numerous ADS probe-alone tests. The wind tunnel calibration was further refined with subsonic results from the approach and landing test (ALT) program, thus producing the ADS calibration for the orbital flight test (OFT) program. The calibration of the Space Shuttle ADS and its performance during flight are discussed in this paper. A brief description of the system is followed by a discussion of the calibration methodology, and then by a review of the wind tunnel and flight test programs. Finally, the flight results are presented, including an evaluation of the system performance for on-board systems use and a description of the calibration refinements developed to provide the best possible air data for postflight analysis work.

  13. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2010-01-01

    This paper will summarize the thirty-year history of Space Shuttle operations from the perspective of training in NASA Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. It will focus on training and development of flight controllers and instructors, and how training practices have evolved over the years as flight experience was gained, new technologies developed, and programmatic needs changed. Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The audience will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, we will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  14. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. As the space shuttle program ends in 2011, a review of how training for STS-1 was conducted compared to STS-134 will show multiple changes in training of shuttle flight controller over a thirty year period. This paper will additionally give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams have been trained certified over the life span of the space shuttle. The training methods for developing flight controllers have evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  15. In-flight load testing of advanced shuttle thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, B. M.; Meyer, R., Jr.; Sawko, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has conducted in-flight airload testing of some advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The two flexible TPS materials tested, felt reusable surface insulation (FRSI) and advanced flexible reusable surface insulation (AFRSI), are currently certified for use on the Shuttle orbiter. The objectives of the flight tests were to evaluate the performance of FRSI and AFRSI at simulated launch airloads and to provide a data base for future advanced TPS flight tests. Five TPS configurations were evaluated in a flow field which was representative of relatively flat areas without secondary flows. The TPS materials were placed on a fin, the Flight Test fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of the fuselage of an F-104 aircraft. This paper describes the test approach and techniques used and presents the results of the advanced TPS flight test. There were no failures noted during post-flight inspections of the TPS materials which were exposed to airloads 40 percent higher than the design launch airloads.

  16. Insect gravitational biology: ground-based and shuttle flight experiments using the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Abbott, M. K.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Many of the traditional experimental advantages of insects recommend their use in studies of gravitational and space biology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an obvious choice for studies of the developmental significance of gravity vectors because of the unparalleled description of regulatory mechanisms controlling oogenesis and embryogenesis. However, we demonstrate that Drosophila could not survive the conditions mandated for particular flight opportunities on the Space Shuttle. With the exception of Drosophila, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is the insect best characterized with respect to molecular embryology and most frequently utilized for past space flights. We show that Tribolium is dramatically more resistant to confinement in small sealed volumes. In preparation for flight experiments we characterize the course and timing of the onset of oogenesis in newly eclosed adult females. Finally, we present results from two shuttle flights which indicate that a number of aspects of the development and function of the female reproductive system are not demonstrably sensitive to microgravity. Available information supports the utility of this insect for future studies of gravitational biology.

  17. Astronaut Medical Selection and Flight Medicine Care During the Shuttle ERA 1981 to 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, S.; Jennings, R.; Stepaniak, P.; Schmid, J.; Rouse, B.; Gray, G.; Tarver, B.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Shuttle Program began with congressional budget approval in January 5, 1972 and the launch of STS-1 on April 12, 1981 and recently concluded with the landing of STS-135 on July 21, 2011. The evolution of the medical standards and care of the Shuttle Era Astronauts began in 1959 with the first Astronaut selection. The first set of NASA minimal medical standards were documented in 1977 and based on Air Force, Navy, Department of Defense, and the Federal Aviation Administration standards. Many milestones were achieved over the 30 years from 1977 to 2007 and the subsequent 13 Astronaut selections and 4 major expert panel reviews performed by the NASA Flight Medicine Clinic, Aerospace Medicine Board, and Medical Policy Board. These milestones of aerospace medicine standards, evaluations, and clinical care encompassed the disciplines of preventive, occupational, and primary care medicine and will be presented. The screening and retention standards, testing, and specialist evaluations evolved through periodic expert reviews, evidence based medicine, and Astronaut medical care experience. The last decade of the Shuttle Program saw the development of the International Space Station (ISS) with further Space medicine collaboration and knowledge gained from our International Partners (IP) from Russia, Canada, Japan, and the European Space Agencies. The Shuttle Program contribution to the development and implementation of NASA and IP standards and waiver guide documents, longitudinal data collection, and occupational surveillance models will be presented along with lessons learned and recommendations for future vehicles and missions.

  18. Predicted and flight test results of the performance, stability and control of the space shuttle from reentry to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, P. W.; Richardson, D. F.; Wilson, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynaic performance, stability and control data obtained from the first five reentries of the Space Shuttle orbiter are given. Flight results are compared to pedicted data from Mach 26.4 to Mach 0.4. Differences between flight and predicted data as well as probable causes for the discrepancies are given.

  19. Conceptual Inquiry of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station GNC Flight Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranzusch, Kara

    2007-01-01

    The concept of Mission Control was envisioned by Christopher Columbus Kraft in the 1960's. Instructed to figure out how to operate human space flight safely, Kraft envisioned a room of sub-system experts troubleshooting problems and supporting nominal flight activities under the guidance of one Flight Director who is responsible for the success of the mission. To facilitate clear communication, MCC communicates with the crew through a Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) who is an astronaut themselves. Gemini 4 was the first mission to be supported by such a MCC and successfully completed the first American EVA. The MCC seen on television is called the Flight Control Room (FCR, pronounced ficker) or otherwise known as the front room. While this room is the most visible aspect, it is a very small component of the entire control center. The Shuttle FCR is known as the White FCR (WFCR) and Station's as FCR-1. (FCR-1 was actually the first FCR built at JSC which was used through the Gemini, Apollo and Shuttle programs until the WFCR was completed in 1992. Afterwards FCR-1 was refurbished first for the Life Sciences Center and then for the ISS in 2006.) Along with supporting the Flight Director, each FCR operator is also the supervisor for usually two or three support personnel in a back room called the Multi-Purpose Support Room (MPSR, pronounced mipser). MPSR operators are more deeply focused on their specific subsystems and have the responsible to analyze patterns, and diagnose and assess consequences of faults. The White MPSR (WMPSR) operators are always present for Shuttle operations; however, ISS FCR controllers only have support from their Blue MPSR (BMPSR) while the Shuttle is docked and during critical operations. Since ISS operates 24-7, the FCR team reduces to a much smaller Gemini team of 4-5 operators for night and weekend shifts when the crew is off-duty. The FCR is also supported by the Mission Evaluation Room (MER) which is a collection of contractor engineers

  20. 14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  3. 14 CFR § 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  4. 14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  5. Shuttle Return To Flight Experimental Results: Cavity Effects on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of an isolated rectangular cavity on hypersonic boundary layer transition of the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter has been experimentally examined in the Langley Aerothermodynamics Laboratory in support of an agency-wide effort to prepare the Shuttle Orbiter for return to flight. This experimental study was initiated to provide a cavity effects database for developing hypersonic transition criteria to support on-orbit decisions to repair a damaged thermal protection system. Boundary layer transition results were obtained using 0.0075-scale Orbiter models with simulated tile damage (rectangular cavities) of varying length, width, and depth. The database contained within this report will be used to formulate cavity-induced transition correlations using predicted boundary layer edge parameters.

  6. Shuttle Return To Flight Experimental Results: Protuberance Effects on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of isolated roughness elements on the windward boundary layer of the Shuttle Orbiter has been experimentally examined in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory in support of an agency-wide effort to prepare the Shuttle Orbiter for return to flight. This experimental effort was initiated to provide a roughness effects database for developing transition criteria to support on-orbit decisions to repair damage to the thermal protection system. Boundary layer transition results were obtained using trips of varying heights and locations along the centerline and attachment lines of 0.0075-scale models. Global heat transfer images using phosphor thermography of the Orbiter windward surface and the corresponding heating distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer (laminar, transitional, or turbulent). The database contained within this report will be used to formulate protuberance-induced transition correlations using predicted boundary layer edge parameters.

  7. Earth observations on Space Shuttle Flight 43 - It was a dirty world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amsbury, David L.; Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Brumbaugh, Frederick R.; Ackleson, Steven; Chambers, Mark A.; Evans, Cynthia; Helms, David R.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Blaha, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to earth observations made by the crew of Space Shuttle Flight 43, during which atmospheric haze and its various aerosols were investigated. The length-of-record time series from the Space Shuttle Earth Observation Program was used to photograph some of the sites under active investigation. It was found that Lake Chad's northern basin remained dry, and the southern basin showed no appreciable changes in water level. The Okavango Swamp areas in Botswana showed agricultural burning at several sites, and increasing evidence of land use activity in the areas of the swamp that previously had been under natural cover. Consideration is also given to Hurricane Fefa and Tropical Storm Guillermo, the smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires, Mount Pinatubo, dust storms in the Sahara, biomass burning, South Asian monsoon runoff, land use patterns, landforms and geology, and oceans and coastal features.

  8. The Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, with Columbia on top, gets ready for the flight to California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, with the orbiter Columbia strapped to its back, waits at the Shuttle Landing Facility for clear weather to take off for its final destination, Palmdale, Calif. The oldest of four orbiters in NASA's fleet, Columbia is being ferried to Palmdale to undergo extensive inspections and modifications in Boeing's Orbiter Assembly Facility. The nine-month orbiter maintenance down period (OMDP) is the second in Columbia's history. Orbiters are periodically removed from flight operations for an OMDP. Columbia's first was in 1994. Along with more than 100 modifications on the vehicle, Columbia will be the second orbiter to be outfitted with the multifunctional electronic display system, or 'glass cockpit.' Columbia is expected to return to KSC in July 2000.

  9. The Shuttle Student Involvement Project for Secondary Schools - Reports on first flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladwig, A.; Wilson, G. P.

    1982-01-01

    During the 1980-81 academic year, NASA established the Shuttle Student Involvement Project for Secondary Schools (SSIP), an annual competition which invites students to propose experiments suitable for flight aboard the Space Shuttle. The purpose of the project is to stimulate the teaching and study of science and engineering among students in grades 9 through 12. Results of the first year of the project have been reported. The second competition was announced in September 1981. With a February 1, 1982 deadline, 2,800 proposals were submitted. Twenty national winners were announced in May 1982. NASA is now pairing the 20 winners with a corporate sponsor and with a NASA scientist or engineer to work with the student. Most SSIP experiments are performed in the Orbiter's mid-deck, and receive up to one hour of crew time. Attention is given to the desired outcomes of SSIP, and the SSIP experiments.

  10. Developing and flight testing the HL-10 lifting body: A precursor to the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.; Thompson, Milton O.

    1994-01-01

    The origins of the lifting-body idea are traced back to the mid-1950's, when the concept of a manned satellite reentering the Earth's atmosphere in the form of a wingless lifting body was first proposed. The advantages of low reentry deceleration loads, range capability, and horizontal landing of a lifting reentry vehicle (as compared with the high deceleration loads and parachute landing of a capsule) are presented. The evolution of the hypersonic HL-10 lifting body is reviewed from the theoretical design and development process to its selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles for fabrication and piloted flight testing. The design, development, and flight testing of the low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered HL-10 was part of an unprecedented NASA and contractor effort. NASA Langley Research Center conceived and developed the vehicle shape and conducted numerous theoretical, experimental, and wind-tunnel studies. NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden Flight Research Center) was responsible for final low-speed (Mach numbers less than 2.0) aerodynamic analysis, piloted simulation, control law development, and flight tests. The prime contractor, Northrop Corp., was responsible for hardware design, fabrication, and integration. Interesting and unusual events in the flight testing are presented with a review of significant problems encountered in the first flight and how they were solved. Impressions by the pilots who flew the HL-10 are included. The HL-10 completed a successful 37-flight program, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies.

  11. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors. These endeavors could range from going to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle and inspire the next generation of space explorers.

  12. Shuttle Return-to-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC - Flow Field Calibration and CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Kei Y.; Holden, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses one specific aspect of the Shuttle Retrun-To-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC, the test flow field calibration. It showed the versatility of the CUBRC LENS II wind tunnel for an aerothermal test with unique and demanding requirements. CFD analyses were used effectively to extend the test range at the low end of the Mach range. It demonstrated how ground test facility and CFD synergy can be utilitzed iteratively to enhance the confidence in the fedility of both tools. It addressed the lingering concerns of the aerothermal community on use of inpulse facility and CFD analysis. At the conclusion of the test program, members from the NASA Marshall (MSFC), CUBRC and USA (United Space Alliance) Consultants (The Grey Beards) were asked to independently verify the flight scaling data generated by Boeing for flight certification of the re-designed external tank (ET) components. The blind test comparison showed very good results. A more comprehensive discussion of the topics in this paper can be found in Chapter 6 of Reference [1]. The overall aspect of the test program has been discussed in an AIAA paper by Tim Wadhams [2]. The Shuttle Ascent Stack performance and related issues discussed in the Report [1] are not included in this paper. No ITAR data is included in this paper.

  13. Properties of electrophoretic fractions of human embryonic kidney cells separated on space shuttle flight STS-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.; Barlow, G. H.; Todd, P. W.; Kunze, M. E.; Sarnoff, B. E.; Li, Z. K.

    1985-01-01

    Suspensions of cultured primary human embryonic kidney cells were subjected to continuous flow electrophoresis on Space Shuttle flight STS-8. The objectives of the experiments were to obtain electrophoretically separated fractions of the original cell populations and to test these fractions for the amount and kind of urokinase (a kidney plasminogen activator that is used medically for digesting blood clots), the morphologies of cells in the individual fractions, and their cellular electrophoretic mobilities after separation and subsequent proliferation. Individual fractions were successfully cultured after return from orbit, and they were found to differ substantially from one another and from the starting sample with respect to all of these properties.

  14. Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbopump Bearing Testing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Howard; Thom, Robert; Moore, Chip

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has three main engines that are used for lift off into orbit. These engines are fed propellants by low and high pressure turbopumps on each engine. A main element of the pumps are the bearings supporting the main shaft that spins the turbine and pumps. These bearings must spin at high speeds, support the radial and axial thrust loads, and have high wear resistance without the benefit of lubrication. This paper describes the bearing testing that was done at the Marshall Space Flight Center and the results that were obtained to provide the best bearing design possible for safe and reliable engine performance.

  15. A landmark recognition and tracking experiment for flight on the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory (ATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an experiment for landmark recognition and tracking from the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory is described. It makes use of parallel coherent optical processing to perform correlation tests between landmarks observed passively with a telescope and previously made holographic matched filters. The experimental equipment including the optics, the low power laser, the random access file of matched filters and the electro-optical readout device are described. A real time optically excited liquid crystal device is recommended for performing the input non-coherent optical to coherent optical interface function. A development program leading to a flight experiment in 1981 is outlined.

  16. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures, Volume 2: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure (LSS) technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. It is concluded that an LSS flight demonstration using an Automated Beam Builder and the orbiter as a construction base, could be performed in the 1983-1984 time period. The estimated cost is $24 million exclusive of shuttle launch costs. During the mission, a simple space platform could be constructed in-orbit to accommodate user requirements associated with earth viewing and materials exposure experiments needs.

  17. U.S. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster - Return to flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, K. D.; Smith, J. D.; Aldridge, L. L.; Heidemann, W. B.; Langhenry, M. T.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) redesign program instituted in the wake of the Challenger accident encompassed a design requirements review, a failure modes effect analysis/critical items list determination, a hazards analysis, an operational maintenance and requirements specification study, the definition of operational maintenance instructions and launch commit criteria, and design certification and flight readiness reviews. Attention is presently given to the SRB's thrust vector control, separation, and recovery functions, as well as its electrical and instrumentation systems and its case assembly and hardware interfaces.

  18. Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    This Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility (SFOC; SWMU 081; "the Site") of institutional controls that have been implemented at the Site1. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with the SFOC, an institutional land use control (LUC) is necessary to prevent human health exposure to antimony-affected groundwater at the Site. Controls will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  19. Physics at the Moscow State University in 70-th. Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex B.

    The Internet proceeding contains various photographs and autographs of scientists from the Moscow State University, made during 70-th and 80-th years of XX-th Century. While no the album refers to Physics in totality, the main part of the album does refer. It includes photographs and autographs of the Members of the Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R. Il'ya M. Lifshitz, Alexander I. Ishlinskii, Leonid V. Keldysh, Nobel Prize Winners Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Andrej D. Sakharov, Professors: I.M. Ternov, M.I. Kaganov, V.I. Grigor'ev, V.R. Khalilov, V.Ch. Zhukovskij, V.G. Bagrov (Tomsk State University) and other. Another part of peoples on the photographs became later University professors and Members of Academies. A photo concerns the graduated from the Moscow University, astronomer Vladimir A. Albitzky (1892-1952) made in Odessa during the First World War, while another concerns the School "Quantum Particles in intense fields" held in Chisinau in May 1985.

  20. Brine shrimp development in space: ground-based data to shuttle flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; DeBell, L.; Hawkins, L.; Metcalf, J.; Guikema, J. A.; Rosowski, J.

    1992-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been used as a model system to assess microgravity effects on developing organisms. Following fertilization and early development, the egg can arrest in early gastrula as a dehydrated cyst stage that is stable to harsh environments over long time periods. When salt water is added, the cysts can reactivate, with embryonic development and egg hatching occurring in about 24 h. A series of larval molts or instars, over about a 2 week period, results in the adult crustacean. We have assessed these developmental events in a closed syringe system, a bioprocessing module, in ground-based studies, and have conducted preliminary in-orbit experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the flights of STS-37 and STS-43. Although the in-flight data are limited, spectacular degrees of development have been achieved.

  1. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate during shuttle flight, entry and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Moore, T. P.; Uri, J.

    1993-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressures (BP) and heart rates (HR) were recorded on a series of early Shuttle flights during preflight and pre-entry, entry, landing and egress. There were no significant differences between flight and preflight values during routine activity. Systolic blood pressure was slightly elevated in the deorbit period and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rates were all elevated with onset of gravitoinertial loads and remained so through egress. Two of seven subjects had orthostatic problems in egress but their data did not show significant differences from others except in heart rate. Comparison of this data to that from recent studies show even larger increase in HR/BP values during current deorbit and entry phases which is consistent with increased heat and weight loads imposed by added survival gear. Both value and limitations of ambulatory heart rate/blood pressure data in this situation are demonstrated.

  2. Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Bearing Testing for NASA Return to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Dube, Michael J.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle body flap is located beneath the main engine nozzles and is required for proper aerodynamic control during orbital descent. Routine inspection of one of four body flap actuators found one of the actuator bearings had degraded and blackened balls. A test program was initiated to demonstrate that it is acceptable to operate bearings which are degraded from operation over several flights. This test exposed the bearing to predicted flight axial loads, speeds and temperatures. Testing at 140 F has been completed, and results indicate the previously flown bearings are acceptable for up to 12 additional missions. Additional testing is underway to determine the lubricant life at various temperatures and stresses and to further understand the mechanism that caused the blacken balls. Initial results of this testing indicates that bearing life is shorten at room temperature possibly due fact that higher temperature (140 F) accelerates the flow of grease and oil into the wear surface

  3. Design and Implementation of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment on Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, Theodoros A.; Micklos, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to better the understanding of high speed aerodynamics, a series of flight experiments were installed on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-119 and STS-128 missions. This experiment, known as the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLTFE), provided the technical community with actual entry flight data from a known height protuberance at Mach numbers at and above Mach 15. Any such data above Mach 15 is irreproducible in a laboratory setting. Years of effort have been invested in obtaining this valuable data, and many obstacles had to be overcome in order to ensure the success of implementing an Orbiter modification. Many Space Shuttle systems were involved in the installation of appropriate components that revealed 'concurrent engineering' was a key integration tool. This allowed the coordination of all various parts and pieces which had to be sequenced appropriately and installed at the right time. Several issues encountered include Orbiter configuration and access, design requirements versus current layout, implementing the modification versus typical processing timelines, and optimizing the engineering design cycles and changes. Open lines of communication within the entire modification team were essential to project success as the team was spread out across the United States, from NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida, to NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas, to Boeing Huntington Beach, California among others. The forum permits the discussion of processing concerns from the design phase to the implementation phase, which eventually saw the successful flights and data acquisition on STS-119 in March 2009 and on STS-128 in September 2009.

  4. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  5. Summary of longitudinal stability and control parameters as determined from Space Shuttle Challenger flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha), (at different angles of attack), pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub delta e), (at different elevator deflections) and the normal force coefficient, C(z sub alpha), (at different angles of attack) describe 90 percent of the response to longitudinal inputs during Space Shuttle Challenger flights with C(m sub delta e) being the dominant parameter. The values of C(z sub alpha) were found to be input dependent for these tests. However, when C(z sub alpha) was set at preflight predictions, the values determined for C(m sub delta e) changed less than 10 percent from the values obtained when C(z sub alpha) was estimated as well. The preflight predictions for C(z sub alpha) and C(m sub alpha) are acceptable values, while the values of C(z sub delta e) should be about 30 percent less negative than the preflight predictions near Mach 1, and 10 percent less negative, otherwise.

  6. Dr. Nicholas Ionescu-Pallas at His 70-th Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Valentin I.

    The article is devoted to 70-th Anniversary of Dr. Nicholas Ionescu-Pallas (borne on July 30, 1932 in Pallas village close to the town of Constanţa, Romania as the son of Ion Ionescu and Maria Dincă), an outstanding Romanian physicist with contributuions in a large area of theoretical and experimental physics, from Theoretical Classical and Quantum Mechanics to General Relativity and Gravitation. He was graduated from the University of Bucharest (1955), a disciple of Professor Ion Agârbiceanu, Doctor of Physics in 1971. He is the author of more than 300 scientific papers and 3 fundamental monographs in these areas, unique in Romania, and of great international circulation. He was one of the creators of the First Romanian Laser. He was elected the Honorary President of the Romanian Society on Genereal Relativity and Gravitation. A great erudition by Ionescu-Pallas allowed him to make also contributions in History of Sciencs. He has been a member of the Academic Commitee for the Philosophy and history of science, of the European Physical Society (1971), of the European Group for Atomic spectroscopy (1970), of the Institute for Scientific Culture E. Majorana (1976), of the International Society of Gravitation and General Relativity (1978) and of the Astronomical Society of India (1982). He was a representative of the intellectuals in the Scientific Council of the Institute for Atomic Physics, 1970-1975; a member of the National Commitee for physics in 1970, and a member of the Coordinating Commitee for the Romanian Enclclopaedia of Physics in 1983. His biographical data are available in Men of Achievement, Who's Who in the World, and Short History of the Romanian Scientific and Technical Creativeness.

  7. Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Bearing Testing for NASA Return to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jet, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Dube, Michael; Jones, William R., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle body flap (BF) is located beneath the main engine nozzles and is required for proper aerodynamic control during orbital descent. The body flap is controlled by four actuators connected by a common shaft and driven by the hydraulic power drive unit. Inspection of the actuators during refurbishment revealed three shaft bearings with unexpected damage. One was coated with black oxide on the balls and race wear surfaces, a second contained a relatively deep wear scar, and the third with scratches and an aluminum particle in the wear track. A shaft bearing life test program was initiated to measure the wear life and explain the 5.08-micrometer wear scar. A tribological analysis was conducted to demonstrate that the black oxide coated wear surfaces did not damage the bearing, interfere with the lubrication, or cause severe bearing wear. Pre-damaged (equivalent of 30 missions), commercial equivalent bearings and previously flown shaft bearings were tested at axial loads, speeds, and temperatures seen during flight operations. These bearing were successfully life tested at 60 C for 24 hours or 90 flights. With a safety factor of 4X, the bearings were qualified for 22 flights when only a maximum of 12 flights are expected. Additional testing at 23 C was performed to determine the lubricant life and to further understand the mechanism that caused the blackened balls. Test results indicating bearing life was shortened at a lower temperature surprised the investigators. Start\\Stop bearing testing that closely simulates mission profile was conducted at 23 C. Results of this testing showed lubricant life of 12 flights including a safety factor of four. Additional testing with bearings that have the equivalent of 30 missions of damage is being tested at 23 C. These tests are being performed over the Shuttle load profile to demonstrate the residual bearing life in the actuators exceeds 12 missions. Testing showed that the end of the shaft bearing life was

  8. Comparison of CFD Predictions with Shuttle Global Flight Thermal Imagery and Discrete Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.; Tang, chun Y.; Palmer, Grant E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.; Wise, Adam J.; McCloud, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Surface temperature measurements from the STS-119 boundary-layer transition experiment on the space shuttle orbiter Discovery provide a rare opportunity to assess turbulent CFD models at hypersonic flight conditions. This flight data was acquired by on-board thermocouples and by infrared images taken off-board by the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) team, and is suitable for hypersonic CFD turbulence assessment between Mach 6 and 14. The primary assessment is for the Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence models in the DPLR and LAURA CFD codes, respectively. A secondary assessment is made of the Shear-Stress Transport (SST) two-equation turbulence model in the DPLR code. Based upon surface temperature comparisons at eleven thermocouple locations, the algebraic-model turbulent CFD results average 4% lower than the measurements for Mach numbers less than 11. For Mach numbers greater than 11, the algebraic-model turbulent CFD results average 5% higher than the three available thermocouple measurements. Surface temperature predictions from the two SST cases were consistently 3 4% higher than the algebraic-model results. The thermocouple temperatures exhibit a change in trend with Mach number at about Mach 11; this trend is not reflected in the CFD results. Because the temperature trends from the turbulent CFD simulations and the flight data diverge above Mach 11, extrapolation of the turbulent CFD accuracy to higher Mach numbers is not recommended.

  9. Shuttle Return-to-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC - Flow Field Calibration and CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Kei Y.; Holden, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses one specific aspect of the Shuttle Retrun-To-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC), the test flow field calibration. It showed the versatility of the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock Tunnel (LENS) II wind tunnel for an aerothermal test with unique and demanding requirements. CFD analyses were used effectively to extend the test range at the low end of the Mach range. It demonstrated how ground test facility and CFD synergy can be utilitzed iteratively to enhance the confidence in the fedility of both tools. It addressed the lingering concerns of the aerothermal community on use of inpulse facility and CFD analysis. At the conclusion of the test program, members from the NASA Marshall (MSFC), CUBRC and USA (United Space Alliance) Consultants (The Grey Beards) were asked to independently verify the flight scaling data generated by Boeing for flight certification of the re-designed external tank (ET) components. The blind test comparison showed very good results.

  10. Variations in digestive physiology of rats after short duration flights aboard the US space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Rabot, S; Szylit, O; Nugon-Baudon, L; Meslin, J C; Vaissade, P; Popot, F; Viso, M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of microgravity on several endogenous and microbial parameters of digestive physiology. On the occasion of two Spacelab Life Sciences missions, SLS-1 (a 9-day space flight) and SLS-2 (a 14-day space flight), Sprague-Dawley rats flown aboard the US space shuttle were compared to age-matched ground-based controls. In both flights, exposure to microgravity modified cecal fermentation: concentration and profile of short-chain fatty acids were altered, whereas urea and ammonia remained unchanged. Only in SLS-1 was there an induction of intestinal glutathione-S-transferase. Additional analyses in SLS-2 showed a decrease of hepatic CYP450 and of colonic goblet cells containing neutral mucin. After a postflight recovery period equal to the mission length, only modifications of the hepatic and intestinal xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes still persisted. These findings should help to predict the alterations of digestive physiology and detoxification potential likely to occur in astronauts. Their possible influence on health is discussed.

  11. Shuttle payload bay dynamic environments: Summary and conclusion report for STS flights 1-5 and 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, M.; Garba, J.; Kern, D.

    1984-01-01

    The vibration, acoustic and low frequency loads data from the first 5 shuttle flights are presented. The engineering analysis of that data is also presented. Vibroacoustic data from STS-9 are also presented because they represent the only data taken on a large payload. Payload dynamic environment predictions developed by the participation of various NASA and industrial centers are presented along with a comparison of analytical loads methodology predictions with flight data, including a brief description of the methodologies employed in developing those predictions for payloads. The review of prediction methodologies illustrates how different centers have approached the problems of developing shuttle dynamic environmental predictions and criteria. Ongoing research activities related to the shuttle dynamic environments are also described. Analytical software recently developed for the prediction of payload acoustic and vibration environments are also described.

  12. Capturing, using, and managing quality assurance knowledge for shuttle post-MECO flight design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. L.; Fussell, L. R.; Goodwin, M. A.; Schultz, Roger D.

    1991-01-01

    Ascent initialization values used by the Shuttle's onboard computer for nominal and abort mission scenarios are verified by a six degrees of freedom computer simulation. The procedure that the Ascent Post Main Engine Cutoff (Post-MECO) group uses to perform quality assurance (QA) of the simulation is time consuming. Also, the QA data, checklists and associated rationale, though known by the group members, is not sufficiently documented, hindering transfer of knowledge and problem resolution. A new QA procedure which retains the current high level of integrity while reducing the time required to perform QA is needed to support the increasing Shuttle flight rate. Documenting the knowledge is also needed to increase its availability for training and problem resolution. To meet these needs, a knowledge capture process, embedded into the group activities, was initiated to verify the existing QA checks, define new ones, and document all rationale. The resulting checks were automated in a conventional software program to achieve the desired standardization, integrity, and time reduction. A prototype electronic knowledge base was developed with Macintosh's HyperCard to serve as a knowledge capture tool and data storage.

  13. Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Truck Shoe Qualification Tests and Analyses for Return-to-Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi N.; Meyer, Karl A.; Burton, Roy C.; Gosselin, Armand M.

    2005-01-01

    A vital element to Launch Complex 39 (LC39) and NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) mobile launch transfer operation is a 3 million kilogram behemoth known as the Crawler Transporter (CT). Built in the 1960's, two CT's have accumulated over 1700+ miles each and have been used for the Apollo and the Space Shuttle programs. Recent observation of fatigue cracks on the CT shoes led to a comprehensive engineering, structural and metallurgical evaluation to assess the root cause that necessitated procurement of over 1000 new shoes. This paper documents the completed dynamic and compression tests on the old and new shoes respectively, so as to certify them for Space Shuttle's return-to-flight (RTF). Measured strain data from the rollout tests was used to develop stress/loading spectra and static equivalent load for qualification testing of the new shoes. Additionally, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to conduct sensitivity analyses of various contact parameters and structural characteristics for acceptance of new shoes.

  14. MCC level C formulation requirements. Shuttle TAEM guidance and flight control, STS-1 baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, G. L.; Montez, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The TAEM guidance and body rotational dynamics models required for the MCC simulation of the TAEM mission phase are defined. This simulation begins at the end of the entry phase and terminates at TAEM autoland interface. The logic presented is the required configuration for the first shuttle orbital flight (STS-1). The TAEM guidance is simulated in detail. The rotational dynamics simulation is a simplified model that assumes that the commanded rotational rates can be achieved in the integration interval. Thus, the rotational dynamics simulation is essentially a simulation of the autopilot commanded rates and integration of these rates to determine orbiter attitude. The rotational dynamics simulation also includes a simulation of the speedbrake deflection. The body flap and elevon deflections are computed in the orbiter aerodynamic simulation.

  15. Space Shuttle Orbiter flight heating rate measurement sensitivity to thermal protection system uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, P. F.; Throckmorton, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A study was completed to determine the sensitivity of computed convective heating rates to uncertainties in the thermal protection system thermal model. Those parameters considered were: density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat of both the reusable surface insulation and its coating; coating thickness and emittance; and temperature measurement uncertainty. The assessment used a modified version of the computer program to calculate heating rates from temperature time histories. The original version of the program solves the direct one dimensional heating problem and this modified version of The program is set up to solve the inverse problem. The modified program was used in thermocouple data reduction for shuttle flight data. Both nominal thermal models and altered thermal models were used to determine the necessity for accurate knowledge of thermal protection system's material thermal properties. For many thermal properties, the sensitivity (inaccuracies created in the calculation of convective heating rate by an altered property) was very low.

  16. Earth observations during Space Shuttle Flight STS-46: Atlantis' Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Amsbury, David; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Shriver, Loren J.; Allen, Andrew M.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Nicollier, Claude

    1993-01-01

    The photographic and videographic documentation of the Earth during STS-46 mission has enhanced the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) database. Increasing numbers of scientists are using this database; many are downloading the imagery from our electronic database for specific scientific analyses. We believe the scientific returns of the Earth Observations photography from this mission will add to the global change databases and will contribute to the better understanding of our home planet. The use of manned space flights in understanding the global process first hand is a vital component in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The following are discussed along with photographs from the mission: landforms and geologic observation; environmental observations; meteorological/atmospheric observation; and oceanographic observations.

  17. Shuttle flight data and in-flight anomaly list. STS-1 through STS-50, and STS-52 through STS-56. Revision T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains mission data for space shuttle flights and consists of three sections. The first section is a listing of shuttle flight data for flights STS-1 through STS-55 gathered during the mission evaluation process. The second section is a listing of all orbiter in-flight anomalies arranged in order by affected Work Unit Codes of the failed items from shuttle flights STS-1 through STS-50 and STS-52 through STS-56. The third section consists of data derived from the as-flown orbiter attitude timelines and crew activity plans for each mission. The data are presented in chart form and show the progression of the mission from launch to entry interface with the varying orbiter attitudes (roll, pitch, and yaw) and the time duration in each attitude. The chart also shows the orbiter's velocity vector, i.e., which of the orbiter's body axes is pointing forward along the orbital path. The Beta angle, the angle between the sun vector and the orbital plane, is also shown for each 12-hour period of the mission.

  18. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data With and Without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Bruce E.; Panda, Jayanta; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first 2 min of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  19. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data with and without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B. E.; Panda, B. E.; Sutliff, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first two minutes of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  20. Test Results of the Modified Space Shuttle Main Engine at the Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Test Bed Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J.; Dumbacher, D.; Ise, M.; Singer, C.

    1990-01-01

    A modified space shuttle main engine (SSME), which primarily includes an enlarged throat main combustion chamber with the acoustic cavities removed and a main injector with the stability control baffles removed, was tested. This one-of-a-kind engine's design changes are being evaluated for potential incorporation in the shuttle flight program in the mid-1990's. Engine testing was initiated on September 15, 1988 and has accumulated 1,915 seconds and 19 starts. Testing is being conducted to characterize the engine system performance, combustion stability with the baffle-less injector, and both low pressure oxidizer turbopump (LPOTP) and high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) for suction performance. These test results are summarized and compared with the SSME flight configuration data base. Testing of this new generation SSME is the first product from the technology test bed (TTB). Figure test plans for the TTB include the highly instrumented flight configuration SSME and advanced liquid propulsion technology items.

  1. Overview of crew member energy expenditure during Shuttle Flight 61-8 EASE/ACCESS task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Waligora, J. W.; Stanford, J.; Edwards, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    The energy expenditure of the Shuttle Flight 61-B crewmembers during the extravehicular performance of Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept of Construction of Space Structures (ACCESS) construction system tasks are reported. These data consist of metabolic rate time profiles correlated with specific EASE and ACCESS tasks and crew comments. Average extravehicular activity metabolic rates are computed and compared with those reported from previous Apollo, Shylab, and Shuttle flights. These data reflect total energy expenditure and not that of individual muscle groups such as hand and forearm. When correlated with specific EVA tasks and subtasks, the metabolic profile data is expected to be useful in planning future EVA protocols. For example, after experiencing high work rates and apparent overheating during some Gemini EVAs, it was found useful to carefully monitor work rates in subsequent flights to assess the adequacy of cooling garments and as an aid to preplanning EVA procedures. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts.

  2. One of NASA's Two Modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier (SCA) Aircraft in Flight over NASA Dryden Flig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    One of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft flies over the Dryden Flight Research Center main building at Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California, in May 1999. NASA uses two modified Boeing 747 jetliners, originally manufactured for commercial use, as Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). One is a 747-100 model, while the other is designated a 747-100SR (short range). The two aircraft are identical in appearance and in their performance as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. The 747 series of aircraft are four-engine intercontinental-range swept-wing 'jumbo jets' that entered commercial service in 1969. The SCAs are used to ferry space shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights. Features which distinguish the two SCAs from standard 747 jetliners are: o Three struts, with associated interior structural strengthening, protruding from the top of the fuselage (two aft, one forward) on which the orbiter is attached o Two additional vertical stabilizers, one on each end of the standard horizontal stabilizer, to enhance directional stability o Removal of all interior furnishings and equipment aft of the forward No. 1 doors o Instrumentation used by SCA flight crews and engineers to monitor orbiter electrical loads during the ferry flights and also during pre- and post-ferry flight operations. The two SCAs are under the operational control of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tex. NASA 905 NASA 905 was the first SCA. It was obtained from American Airlines in 1974. Shortly after it was accepted by NASA it was flown in a series of wake vortex research flights at the Dryden Flight Research Center in a study to

  3. Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program (update to automatic flight trajectory design, performance prediction, and vehicle sizing for support of Shuttle and Shuttle derived vehicles) engineering manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program and its predecessors, the ROBOT and the RAGMOP programs, have had a long history of supporting MSFC in the simulation of space boosters for the purpose of performance evaluation. The ROBOT program was used in the simulation of the Saturn 1B and Saturn 5 vehicles in the 1960's and provided the first utilization of the minimum Hamiltonian (or min-H) methodology and the steepest ascent technique to solve the optimum trajectory problem. The advent of the Space Shuttle in the 1970's and its complex airplane design required a redesign of the trajectory simulation code since aerodynamic flight and controllability were required for proper simulation. The RAGMOP program was the first attempt to incorporate the complex equations of the Space Shuttle into an optimization tool by using an optimization method based on steepest ascent techniques (but without the min-H methodology). Development of the complex partial derivatives associated with the Space Shuttle configuration and using techniques from the RAGMOP program, the ROBOT program was redesigned to incorporate these additional complexities. This redesign created the MASTRE program, which was referred to as the Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Shuttle TRajectory Evaluation program at that time. Unique to this program were first-stage (or booster) nonlinear aerodynamics, upper-stage linear aerodynamics, engine control via moment balance, liquid and solid thrust forces, variable liquid throttling to maintain constant acceleration limits, and a total upgrade of the equations used in the forward and backward integration segments of the program. This modification of the MASTRE code has been used to simulate the new space vehicles associated with the National Launch Systems (NLS). Although not as complicated as the Space Shuttle, the simulation and analysis of the NLS vehicles required additional modifications to the MASTRE program in the areas of providing

  4. Experimental Space Shuttle Orbiter Studies to Acquire Data for Code and Flight Heating Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadhams, T. P.; Holden, M. S.; MacLean, M. G.; Campbell, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In an experimental study to obtain detailed heating data over the Space Shuttle Orbiter, CUBRC has completed an extensive matrix of experiments using three distinct models and two unique hypervelocity wind tunnel facilities. This detailed data will be employed to assess heating augmentation due to boundary layer transition on the Orbiter wing leading edge and wind side acreage with comparisons to computational methods and flight data obtained during the Orbiter Entry Boundary Layer Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM during STS-119 reentry. These comparisons will facilitate critical updates to be made to the engineering tools employed to make assessments about natural and tripped boundary layer transition during Orbiter reentry. To achieve the goals of this study data was obtained over a range of Mach numbers from 10 to 18, with flight scaled Reynolds numbers and model attitudes representing key points on the Orbiter reentry trajectory. The first of these studies were performed as an integral part of Return to Flight activities following the accident that occurred during the reentry of the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) in February of 2003. This accident was caused by debris, which originated from the foam covering the external tank bipod fitting ramps, striking and damaging critical wing leading edge heating tiles that reside in the Orbiter bow shock/wing interaction region. During investigation of the accident aeroheating team members discovered that only a limited amount of experimental wing leading edge data existed in this critical peak heating area and a need arose to acquire a detailed dataset of heating in this region. This new dataset was acquired in three phases consisting of a risk mitigation phase employing a 1.8% scale Orbiter model with special temperature sensitive paint covering the wing leading edge, a 0.9% scale Orbiter model with high resolution thin-film instrumentation in the span direction, and the primary 1.8% scale Orbiter model with detailed

  5. NASA Research Center Contributions to Space Shuttle Return to Flight (SSRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Barnes, Robert S.; Belvin, Harry L.; Allmen, John; Otero, Angel

    2005-01-01

    Contributions provided by the NASA Research Centers to key Space Shuttle return-to-flight milestones, with an emphasis on debris and Thermal Protection System (TPS) damage characterization, are described herein. Several CAIB recommendations and Space Shuttle Program directives deal with the mitigation of external tank foam insulation as a debris source, including material characterization as well as potential design changes, and an understanding of Orbiter TPS material characteristics, damage scenarios, and repair options. Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers have performed analytic studies, conducted experimental testing, and developed new technologies, analysis tools, and hardware to contribute to each of these recommendations. For the External Tank (ET), these include studies of spray-on foam insulation (SOFI), investigations of potential design changes, and applications of advanced non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technologies to understand ET TPS shedding during liftoff and ascent. The end-to-end debris assessment included transport analysis to determine the probabilities of impact for various debris sources. For the Orbiter, methods were developed, and validated through experimental testing, to determine thresholds for potential damage of Orbiter TPS components. Analysis tools were developed and validated for on-orbit TPS damage assessments, especially in the area of aerothermal environments. Advanced NDE technologies were also applied to the Orbiter TPS components, including sensor technologies to detect wing leading edge impacts during liftoff and ascent. Work is continuing to develop certified TPS repair options and to develop improved methodologies for reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) damage progression to assist in on-orbit repair decision philosophy.

  6. Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Subcomponent Flat Plate Impact Testing for Space Shuttle Orbiter Return to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Brand, Jeremy H.; Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the Space Shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) and various debris materials which could potentially shed on ascent and impact the Orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS DYNA to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the Orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic material model properties of materials of interest, sub-component impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and full-scale impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This paper discusses the second level subcomponent test program in detail and its application to the LS DYNA model validation process. The level two testing consisted of over one hundred impact tests in the NASA Glenn Research Center Ballistic Impact Lab on 6 by 6 in. and 6 by 12 in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated three types of debris projectiles: BX 265 External Tank foam, ice, and PDL 1034 External Tank foam. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile. The information obtained from this testing validated the LS DYNA damage prediction models and provided a certain level of confidence to begin performing analysis for full-size RCC test articles for returning NASA to flight with STS 114 and beyond.

  7. History of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbopump Bearing Testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Howard; Thom, Robert; Moore, Chip; Haluck, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is propelled into orbit by two solid rocket motors and three liquid fed main engines. After the solid motors fall away, the shuttle engines continue to run for a total time of 8 minutes. These engines are fed propellants by low and high pressure turbopumps. A critical part of the turbopump is the main shaft that supports the drive turbine and the pump inducer and impeller. Rolling element bearings hold the shaft in place during rotation. If the bearings were to fail, the shaft would move, allowing components to rub in a liquid oxygen or hydrogen environment, which could have catastrophic results. These bearings are required to spin at very high speeds, support radial and axial loads, and have high wear resistance without the benefit of a conventional means of lubrication. The Rocketdyne built Shuttle turbopumps demonstrated their capability to perform during launches; however, the seven hour life requirement was not being met. One of the limiting factors was the bearings. In the late 1970's, an engineering team was formed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), to develop a test rig and plan for testing the Shuttle s main engine high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) bearings. The goals of the program were to better understand the operation of bearings in a cryogenic environment and to further develop and refine existing computer models used to predict the operational limits of these bearings. In 1982, testing began in a rig named the Bearing and Seal Material Tester or BSMT as it was commonly called. The first testing investigated the thermal margin and thermal runaway limits of the HPOTP bearings. The test rig was later used to explore potential bearing improvements in the area of increased race curvatures, new cage materials for better lubrication, new wear resistant rolling element materials, and other ideas to improve wear life. The most notable improvements during this tester s time was the incorporation of silicon nitride balls and

  8. Exploiting operational vehicles for in-flight research - Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Paul F.; Breckenridge, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    Five Orbiter Experiments in which NASA's Langley Research Center has had significant involvement are described. These experiments are the Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing experiment, the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer experiment, the High Resolution Accelerometer Package experiment, the Orbital Acceleration Research experiment, and the Space Station structural characterization experiment. The Shuttle Entry Air Data System is also described.

  9. First Flight of the ASTROCULTURE™ Experiment as A Part of The U.S. Shuttle/MIR Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Zhou, Weijia

    A number of space-based experiments have been conducted to assess the impact of microgravity on plant growth and development. In general, these experiments did not identify any profound impact of microgravity on plant growth and development, though investigations to study seed development have indicated difficulty in plants completing their reproductive cycle. However, it was not clear whether the lack of seed production was due to gravity effects or some other environmental condition prevailing in the unit used for conducting the experiment. The ASTROCULTURE™ flight unit contains a totally enclosed plant chamber in which all the critically important environmental conditions are controlled. Normal wheat (Triticum asetivum L.) growth and development in the ASTROCULTURE™ flight unit was observed during a ground experiment conducted prior to the space experiment. Subsequent to the ground experiment, the flight unit was transported to MIR by STS-89, as part of the U.S. Shuttle/MIR program, in an attempt to determine if super dwarf wheat plants that were germinated in microgravity would grow normally and produce seeds. The experiment was initiated on-orbit after the flight unit was transferred from the Space Shuttle to MIR. The ASTROCULTURE™ flight unit performed nominally for the first 24 hours after the flight unit was activated, and then the unit stopped functioning abruptly. Since it was not possible to return the unit to nominal operation it was decided to terminate the experiment. On return of the flight unit, it was confirmed that the control computer of the ASTROCULTURE™ flight unit sustained a radiation hit that affected the control software embedded in the computer. This experience points out that at high orbital inclinations, such as that of MIR and that projected for the International Space Station, the danger of encountering harmful radiation effects are likely unless the electronic components of the flight hardware are resistant to such impacts

  10. First flight of the ASTROCULTURE (TM) experiment as a part of the U.S. Shuttle/MIR program.

    PubMed

    Bula, R J; Zhou, W

    2000-01-01

    A number of space-based experiments have been conducted to assess the impact of microgravity on plant growth and development. In general, these experiments did not identify any profound impact of microgravity on plant growth and development, though investigations to study seed development have indicated difficulty in plants completing their reproductive cycle. However, it was not clear whether the lack of seed production was due to gravity effects or some other environmental condition prevailing in the unit used for conducting the experiment. The ASTROCULTURE (TM) flight unit contains a totally enclosed plant chamber in which all the critically important environmental conditions are controlled. Normal wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and development in the ASTROCULTURE (TM) flight unit was observed during a ground experiment conducted prior to the space experiment. Subsequent to the ground experiment, the flight unit was transported to MIR by STS-89, as part of the U.S. Shuttle/MIR program, in an attempt to determine if super dwarf wheat plants that were germinated in microgravity would grow normally and produce seeds. The experiment was initiated on-orbit after the flight unit was transferred from the Space Shuttle to MIR. The ASTROCULTURE (TM) flight unit performed nominally for the first 24 hours after the flight unit was activated, and then the unit stopped functioning abruptly. Since it was not possible to return the unit to nominal operation it was decided to terminate the experiment. On return of the flight unit, it was confirmed that the control computer of the ASTROCULTURE (TM) flight unit sustained a radiation hit that affected the control software embedded in the computer. This experience points out that at high orbital inclinations, such as that of MIR and that projected for the International Space Station, the danger of encountering harmful radiation effects are likely unless the electronic components of the flight hardware are resistant to such

  11. FOREWORD: The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2010-09-01

    information [7] and in Stockholm he had, again, very successful postdocs such as Ulf Leonhardt. Finally, in 2005, Stig Stenholm retired, although he is still active, writing papers, taking part in conferences and making research visits. We honoured his 70th birthday at the CEWQO2009 conference, and hope that the future provides us with further opportunities for such events. Looking at the obituary of Dirk ter Haar, I see that his style with students reminds me of Stig's approach. In my opinion, Stig expects independence and initiative from a student, giving perhaps a broad topic in which the student is expected to find his or her own way, whilst working perhaps with a postdoc. Juha Javanainen has talked about the 'sink or swim' style (not referring to Stig, though). There is a famous series of children's books about Moomin trolls by Tove Jansson (another Swedish-speaking Finn like Stig). In one of them, the Moomin find in early spring a small flower in a patch of land uncovered by snow, pushing its way up. One of them wants to cover it against frost during the night, but another says 'Don't, it'll fare better later if it has some difficulties at first'. At CEWQO2009 Stig gave the full list of his finished PhD students: Rainer Salomaa (1973), Temba Dlodlo (1980), Juha Javanainen (1980), Markus Lindberg (1985), Matti Kaivola (1985), Birger Ståhlberg (1985), Kalle-Antti Suominen (1992), Mackillo Kira (1995), Päivi Törmä (1996), Asta Paloviita (1997), Patrik Öhberg (1998), Martti Havukainen (1999), Erika Andersson (2000), Pawel Piwnicki (2001), Åsa Larson (2001), Markku Jääskeläinen (2003), and Jonas Larson (2005). One should also mention Erkki Kyrölä, who eventually graduated at Rochester and Olli Serimaa, who never graduated but published some important early-stage laser cooling work. As a final note I must mention a passion that Stig and I share, namely books. I have nearly 400 professional physics and mathematics books, but I am certain that the size of Stig

  12. Flight performance of a navigation, guidance, and control system concept for automatic approach and landing of space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.; Hegarty, D. M.; Smith, D. W.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Wingrove, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Unpowered automatic approaches and landings were conducted to study navigation, guidance, and control problems associated with terminal area approach and landing for the space shuttle vehicle. The flight tests were performed in a Convair 990 aircraft equipped with a digital flight control computer connected to the aircraft control system and displays. The tests were designed to evaluate the performance of a navigation and guidance concept that utilized blended radio/inertial navigation with VOR, DME, and ILS as the ground navigation aids. Results from 36 automatic approaches and landings from 11,300 m (37,000 ft) to touchdown are presented. Preliminary results indicate that this concept may provide sufficient accuracy to accomplish automatic landing of the shuttle orbiter without air-breathing engines.

  13. Flight Test Results from the Low Power Transceiver Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, John; Israel, David; Harlacher, Marc; Haas, Lin

    2003-01-01

    The Low Power Transceiver (LPT) is an advanced signal processing platform that offers a configurable and reprogrammable capability for supporting communications, navigation and sensor functions for mission applications ranging from spacecraft TT&C and autonomous orbit determination to sophisticated networks that use crosslinks to support communications and real-time relative navigation for formation flying. The LPT is the result of extensive collaborative research under NASNGSFC s Advanced Technology Program and ITT Industries internal research and development efforts. Its modular, multi-channel design currently enables transmitting and receiving communication signals on L- or S-band frequencies and processing GPS L-band signals for precision navigation. The LPT flew as a part of the GSFC Hitchhiker payload named Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science Technology And Research (FREESTAR) on-board Space Shuttle Columbia s final mission. The experiment demonstrated functionality in GPS-based navigation and orbit determination, NASA STDN Ground Network communications, space relay communications via the NASA TDRSS, on-orbit reconfiguration of the software radio, the use of the Internet Protocol (IP) for TT&C, and communication concepts for space based range safety. All data from the experiment was recovered and, as a result, all primary and secondary objectives of the experiment were successful. This paper presents the results of the LPTs maiden space flight as a part of STS- 107.

  14. Characterization of Ice for Return-to-Flight of the Space Shuttle. Part 2; Soft Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulson, Erland M.; Iliescu, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    In support of characterizing ice debris for return-to-flight (RTF) of NASA's space shuttle, we have determined the microstructure, density and compressive strength (at -10 C at approximately 0.3 per second) of porous or soft ice that was produced from both atmospheric water and consolidated snow. The study showed that the atmospheric material was generally composed of a mixture of very fine (0.1 to 0.3 millimeters) and coarser (5 to 10 millimeter) grains, plus air bubbles distributed preferentially within the more finely-grained part of the microstructure. The snow ice was composed of even finer grains (approximately 0.05 millimeters) and contained more pores. Correspondingly, the snow ice was of lower density than the atmospheric ice and both materials were significantly less dense than hard ice. The atmospheric ice was stronger (approximately 3.8 MPa) than the snow ice (approximately 1.9 MPa), but weaker by a factor of 2 to 5 than pore-free hard ice deformed under the same conditions. Zero Values are given for Young's modulus, compressive strength and Poisson's ratio that can be used for modeling soft ice from the external tank (ET).

  15. Shuttle Flight Experiment on USMP-4: In Situ Monitoring of Crystal Growth Using MEPHISTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; deGroh, Henry C., III; Leonardi, E.; deVahlDavis, Graham; Coriell, Sam; Cambon, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    This reports on the MEPHISTO-4 experiment on the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-87, November 19-December 5, 1997. Involved were NASA; the University of Florida at Gainesville; groups from France that developed and built the furnace; the National Institute of Standards and Technology; The University of New South Wales, Australia; and Purdue University. This was a solidification study in which three long rods of Bismuth- 1 at.% Tin were directionally solidified. The goals were to solidify in an environment free of natural convection; to determine the relationship among solidification growth velocity, growth mode, and temperature; and determine the diffusivity of Sn in Bi. The flight samples grew with a planar solid/liquid interface at velocities less than 3.4 gm/s, and cellular growth was present at velocities greater than 6.7 um/s; grain orientation influenced the planar to cellular transition. The temperature gradient in the liquid was 204 K/cm. The s/l interface was flat with slight concavity. Diffusion-dominated conditions were present during MEPHISTO-4. The Seebeck technique was used to determine the s/I interface temperature during growth, however, to date, analysis of the Seebeck results has not yielded a reliable measurement of the interface temperature. The partition coefficient for Bi alloyed with Sn was measured, k = 0.029.

  16. Reentry heating analysis of space shuttle with comparison of flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, L.; Quinn, R. D.; Ko, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Surface heating rates and surface temperatures for a space shuttle reentry profile were calculated for two wing cross sections and one fuselage cross section. Heating rates and temperatures at 12 locations on the wing and 6 locations on the fuselage are presented. The heating on the lower wing was most severe, with peak temperatures reaching values of 1240 C for turbulent flow and 900 C for laminar flow. For the fuselage, the most severe heating occured on the lower glove surface where peak temperatures of 910 C and 700 C were calculated for turbulent flow and laminar flow, respectively. Aluminum structural temperatures were calculated using a finite difference thermal analyzer computer program, and the predicted temperatures are compared to measured flight data. Skin temperatures measured on the lower surface of the wing and bay 1 of the upper surface of the wing agreed best with temperatures calculated assuming laminar flow. The measured temperatures at bays two and four on the upper surface of the wing were in quite good agreement with the temperatures calculated assuming separated flow. The measured temperatures on the lower forward spar cap of bay four were in good agreement with values predicted assuming laminar flow.

  17. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster initial water impact loads and dynamics - Analysis, tests, and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kross, D. A.; Kiefling, L. A.; Murphy, N. C.; Rawls, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    A series of scale model tests, finite element dynamic response analyses and full scale segment tests have been performed for purposes of developing design criteria for the initial water impact loading conditions applied to the internal stiffener rings located in the aft skirt portion of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). In addition, flight experience has yielded information relative to structural reinforcement requirements. This paper discusses the test and analysis methods and summarizes significant results. It is noted that, although scale model test data are valuable for identifying trends, they have shortcomings concerning definition of full scale design loads criteria. Also, the frequently used static equivalent loads definition approach is not applicable for this type impact loading condition applied to an aft skirt type structure. Various types of ring structural fixes, including the addition of selected types of foam, are presented as well as associated full scale segment test results. Depending on the type and contour shape of the foam, reductions on applied pressures and peak measured strains over 50 percent are noted.

  18. LEO degradation of graphite and carbon-based composites aboard Space Shuttle Flight STS-46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Blaine R.; Synowicki, R. A.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Devries, M. J.; Woollam, John A.; Moore, Arthur W.; Lake, Max

    1995-01-01

    Six different types of carbon and carbon-boron nitride composites were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-46. The samples received a nominal atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm in 42 hours of exposure. Pyrolytic graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite showed significant degradation, and the measured erosion yield was within a factor of two of published values. The erosion yield of pyrolytic boron nitride was found to be 2.6 x 10(exp 26) cu cm/atom in plasma asher exposure, over 42 times lower than that of pyrolytic graphite. This low erosion yield makes graphite plus boron nitride mixtures quite resistant to low Earth orbit exposure. Evidence suggests that the graphitic component was preferentially etched, leaving the surface boron nitride rich. Degradation resistance increases with boron nitride composition. Carbon fiber/carbon composites degraded in low Earth orbit, and the carbon pitch binder was found to etch more easily than the graphite fibers which have much higher degradation resistance.

  19. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-35 - Columbia's Mission to Planet Earth, December 2-10, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Helfert, Michael R.; Brand, Vance D.; Gardner, Guy S.; Lounge, John M.; Hoffman, Jeffery A.; Parker, Robert A.; Durrance, Samuel T.; Parise, Ronald A.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the most significant earth-viewing imagery obtained during Space Shuttle Columbia's flight STS-35, December 2-10, 1990, is reviewed with emphasis on observations of the Southern Hemisphere. In particular, attention is given to environmental observations in areas of Madagascar, Brazil, and Persian Gulf; observation of land resources (Namibia, offshore Australia); and observations of ocean islands (Phillipines, Indonesia, and Reunion). Some of the photographs are included.

  20. Dynamics stability derivatives of space shuttle orbiter obtained from wind-tunnel and approach and landing flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between ground facility measurements, the aerodynamic design data book values, and the dynamic damping derivatives extracted from the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing flight tests. The comparison covers an angle of attack range from 2 deg to 10 deg at subsonic Mach numbers. The parameters of pitch, yaw, and roll damping, as well as the yawing moment due to rolling velocity and rolling moment due to yawing velocity are compared.

  1. Space Technology Experiment Platform (STEP). A Shuttle-borne support facility for structures, structural dynamics, and control technology flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. E.; Pinson, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) is used for technology experiments in space. The Space Technology Experiment Platform (STEP) is a Shuttle-borne experiment support facility for use by structures, structural dynamics, and controls technology flight experiments. STEP represents a key element in the commitment to STS utilization. The STEP concept and definition process is discussed, and the results obtained to date on the configuration and function capability are summarized, and preliminary schedule information is presented.

  2. Low energy stage study. Volume 3: Conceptual design, interface analysis, flight and ground operations. [launching space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Low energy conceptual stage designs and adaptations to existing/planned shuttle upper stages were developed and their performance established. Selected propulsion modes and subsystems were used as a basis to develop airborne support equipment (ASE) design concepts. Orbiter installation and integration (both physical and electrical interfaces) were defined. Low energy stages were adapted to the orbiter and ASE interfaces. Selected low energy stages were then used to define and describe typical ground and flight operations.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of Space Shuttle main engine multiple plume flows at high-altitude flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, N. S.; Holt, J. B.; Liu, B. L.; Johnson, S. L.

    1992-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is providing verification of Space Shuttle flight performance details and is being applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine Multiple plume interaction flow field definition. Advancements in real-gas CFD methodology that are described have allowed definition of exhaust plume flow details at Mach 3.5 and 107,000 ft. The specific objective includes the estimate of flow properties at oblique shocks between plumes and plume recirculation into the Space Shuttle Orbiter base so that base heating and base pressure can be modeled accurately. The approach utilizes the Rockwell USA Real Gas 3-D Navier-Stokes (USARG3D) Code for the analysis. The code has multi-zonal capability to detail the geometry of the plumes based region and utilizes finite-rate chemistry to compute the plume expansion angle and relevant flow properties at altitude correctly. Through an improved definition of the base recirculation flow properties, heating, and aerodynamic design environments of the Space Shuttle Vehicle can be further updated.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of Space Shuttle main engine multiple plume flows at high-altitude flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, N. S.; Holt, J. B.; Liu, B. L.; Johnson, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is providing verification of Space Shuttle flight performance details and is being applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine Multiple plume interaction flow field definition. Advancements in real-gas CFD methodology that are described have allowed definition of exhaust plume flow details at Mach 3.5 and 107,000 ft. The specific objective includes the estimate of flow properties at oblique shocks between plumes and plume recirculation into the Space Shuttle Orbiter base so that base heating and base pressure can be modeled accurately. The approach utilizes the Rockwell USA Real Gas 3-D Navier-Stokes (USARG3D) Code for the analysis. The code has multi-zonal capability to detail the geometry of the plumes based region and utilizes finite-rate chemistry to compute the plume expansion angle and relevant flow properties at altitude correctly. Through an improved definition of the base recirculation flow properties, heating, and aerodynamic design environments of the Space Shuttle Vehicle can be further updated.

  5. 20 Plus Years of Chimera Grid Development for the Space Shuttle. STS-107, Return to Flight, End of the Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress in grid development for the space shuttle, with particular focus on the development from the los of STS-107 and the return to flight, to the end of the program. Included are views from the current Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle (SSLV) grid system, containing 1.8 million surface points, and 95+ million volume points. Charts showing wind tunnel tests comparisons, and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) vs 1A613B wing pressures, wind tunnel test comparison with CFD of the proposed ice/frost ramp configuration are shown. The use of pressure sensitive paint and particle imaging velocimetry was used to support debris transport tools, The actual creation of the grids and the use of overset CFD to assess the external tank redesign was also reviewed. It also asks was the use of the overset tool the right choice. The presentation ends with a review of the work to be done still.

  6. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE), a display building tool developed by Space Shuttle flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Mission Control Center, located at Johnson Space Center, is incrementally moving from a centralized architecture to a distributed architecture. Starting with STS-29, some host-driven console screens will be replaced with graphics terminals driven by workstations. These workstations will be supplied realtime data first by the Real Time Data System (RTDS), a system developed inhouse, and then months later (in parallel with RTDS) by interim and subsequently operational versions of the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) software package. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE) was built by Space Shuttle flight controllers to support the rapid development of multiple new displays to support Shuttle flights. RTIDE is a display building tool that allows non-programmers to define object-oriented, event-driven, mouseable displays. Particular emphasis was placed on upward compatibility between RTIDE versions, ability to acquire data from different data sources, realtime performance, ability to modularly upgrade RTIDE, machine portability, and a clean, powerful user interface. The operational and organizational factors that drove RTIDE to its present form, the actual design itself, simulation and flight performance, and lessons learned in the process are discussed.

  7. Shuttle program. STS-7 conceptual flight profile. IUS/TDRS-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) Flight Assignment Manifest has has scheduled a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) spacecraft for a February 1981 launch on STS Flight 7. The preliminary flight profile that conceptually implements the flight requirements and constraints levied by the STS, inertial upper stage (IUS), and the TDRS spacecraft is presented. The integrated major flight design guidelines and requirements used in the development of the flight profile are included together with a flight sequence of events and time line that describe the profile and reflect implementation of the integrated set of requirements.

  8. Space Shuttle Orbiter Approach and Landing Test Evaluation Report. Captive-Active Flight Test Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Captive-active tests consisted of three mated carrier aircraft/Orbiter flights with an active manned Orbiter. The objectives of this series of flights were to (1) verify the separation profile, (2) verify the integrated structure, aerodynamics, and flight control system, (3) verify Orbiter integrated system operations, and (4) refine and finalize carrier aircraft, Orbiter crew, and ground procedures in preparation for free flight tests. A summary description of the flights is presented with assessments of flight test requirements, and of the performance operations, and of significant flight anomalies is included.

  9. The telerobot workstation testbed for the shuttle aft flight deck: A project plan for integrating human factors into system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The human factors design process in developing a shuttle orbiter aft flight deck workstation testbed is described. In developing an operator workstation to control various laboratory telerobots, strong elements of human factors engineering and ergonomics are integrated into the design process. The integration of human factors is performed by incorporating user feedback at key stages in the project life-cycle. An operator centered design approach helps insure the system users are working with the system designer in the design and operation of the system. The design methodology is presented along with the results of the design and the solutions regarding human factors design principles.

  10. The analysis of the statistical and historical information gathered during the development of the Shuttle Orbiter Primary Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. B.; Marchbanks, M. P., Jr.; Quick, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an effort to thoroughly and objectively analyze the statistical and historical information gathered during the development of the Shuttle Orbiter Primary Flight Software are given. The particular areas of interest include cost of the software, reliability of the software, requirements for the software and how the requirements changed during development of the system. Data related to the current version of the software system produced some interesting results. Suggestions are made for the saving of additional data which will allow additional investigation.

  11. The ocean color experiment (OCE) on the second orbital flight test of the Space Shuttle (OSTA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Piepen, H.; Amann, V.; Helbig, H.; Kim, H. H.; Hart, W. D.; Fiuza, A. F. G.; Viollier, M.; Doerffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Ocean Color Experiment was one of the six remote-sensing experiments which for the first time were launched and successfully operated on board of the second flight of the Space Shuttle during November 1981. The experiment consists of a multispectral image scanner dedicated to the measurement of water color and its interpretation in terms of major water constituents and circulation patterns. The objectives of the experiment, the test site selection, and associated activities are described. The actual mission and results of an initial data analysis is discussed.

  12. A study to define an in-flight dynamics measurement and data applications program for space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, W. P.; Barrett, S.; Payne, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    Data measurement and interpretation techniques were defined for application to the first few space shuttle flights, so that the dynamic environment could be sufficiently well established to be used to reduce the cost of future payloads through more efficient design and environmental test techniques. It was concluded that: (1) initial payloads must be given comprehensive instrumentation coverage to obtain detailed definition of acoustics, vibration, and interface loads, (2) analytical models of selected initial payloads must be developed and verified by modal surveys and flight measurements, (3) acoustic tests should be performed on initial payloads to establish realistic test criteria for components and experiments in order to minimize unrealistic failures and retest requirements, (4) permanent data banks should be set up to establish statistical confidence in the data to be used, (5) a more unified design/test specification philosophy is needed, (6) additional work is needed to establish a practical testing technique for simulation of vehicle transients.

  13. Lateral and longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle discovery as determined from flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.; Schiess, James R.

    1988-01-01

    The Discovery vehicle was found to have longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics similar to those of the Columbia and Challenger vehicles. The values of the lateral and longitudinal parameters are compared with the preflight data book. The lateral parameters showed the same trends as the data book. With the exception of C sub l sub Beta for Mach numbers greater than 15, C sub n sub delta r for Mach numbers greater than 2 and for Mach numbers less than 1.5, where the variation boundaries were not well defined, ninety percent of the extracted values of the lateral parameters fell within the predicted variations. The longitudinal parameters showed more scatter, but scattered about the preflight predictions. With the exception of the Mach 1.5 to .5 region of the flight envelope, the preflight predictions seem a reasonable representation of the Shuttle aerodynamics. The models determined accounted for ninety percent of the actual flight time histories.

  14. Multi-Tasking: First Shuttle Mission Since Columbia Combines Test Flight, Catch-Up ISS Supply and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's space shuttle fleet is nearing its return to flight with a complex mission on board Discovery that will combine tests of new hardware and procedures adopted in the wake of Columbia's loss with urgent repairs and resupply for the International Space Station. A seven-member astronaut crew has trained throughout most of the two-year hiatus in shuttle operations for the 13-day mission, shooting for a three-week launch window that opens May 15. The window, and much else about the STS-114 mission, is constrained by NASA's need to ensure it has fixed the ascent/debris problem that doomed Columbia and its crew as they attempted to reenter the atmosphere on Feb. 1, 2003. The window was selected so Discovery's ascent can be photographed in daylight with 107 different ground- and aircraft-based cameras to monitor the redesigned external tank for debris shedding. Fixed cameras and the shuttle crew will also photograph the tank in space after it has been jettisoned.

  15. Spaceborne computer executive routine functional design specification. Volume 1: Functional design of a flight computer executive program for the reusable shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. T.

    1971-01-01

    A flight computer functional executive design for the reusable shuttle is presented. The design is given in the form of functional flowcharts and prose description. Techniques utilized in the regulation of process flow to accomplish activation, resource allocation, suspension, termination, and error masking based on process primitives are considered. Preliminary estimates of main storage utilization by the Executive are furnished. Conclusions and recommendations for timely, effective software-hardware integration in the reusable shuttle avionics system are proposed.

  16. TACAN operational description for the space shuttle orbital flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, C. L.; Hudock, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The TACAN subsystems (three TACAN transponders, six antennas, a subsystem operating program, and redundancy management software in a tutorial form) are discussed and the interaction between these subsystems and the shuttle navigation system are identified. The use of TACAN during the first space transportation system (STS-1), is followed by a brief functional description of the TACAN hardware, then proceeds to cover the software units with a view to the STS-1, and ends with a discussion on the shuttle usage of the TACAN data and anticipated performance.

  17. Flight design system-1 system design. Volume 5: Data management and data base documentation support system. [for shuttle flight planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Application software intended to reduce the man-hours required per flight design cycle by producing major flight design documents with little or no manual typing is described. The documentation support software is divided into two separately executable processors. However, since both processors support the same overall functions, and most of the software contained in one is also contained in the other, both are collectively presented.

  18. Shuttle derived atmospheric density model. Part 1: Comparisons of the various ambient atmospheric source data with derived parameters from the first twelve STS entry flights, a data package for AOTV atmospheric development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Troutman, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The ambient atmospheric parameter comparisons versus derived values from the first twelve Space Shuttle Orbiter entry flights are presented. Available flights, flight data products, and data sources utilized are reviewed. Comparisons are presented based on remote meteorological measurements as well as two comprehensive models which incorporate latitudinal and seasonal effects. These are the Air Force 1978 Reference Atmosphere and the Marshall Space Flight Center Global Reference Model (GRAM). Atmospheric structure sensible in the Shuttle flight data is shown and discussed. A model for consideration in Aero-assisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle (AOTV) trajectory analysis, proposed to modify the GRAM data to emulate Shuttle experiments.

  19. STS-6 sixth Space Shuttle mission. First flight of the Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A prelaunch summary of the sixth Space Shuttle mission is provided. The Challenger orbiter; launching; uprated engines; lighter weight boosters; lightweight tank; external tank reduction; landing; the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS), TDRS-1 deployment; the inertial upper stage (IUS), the spacewalk;electrophoresis, monodisperse latex reactor, night time/day time optical survey of lightning, and getaway special experiments are described.

  20. Shuttle/Agena study. Annex B: Catalog of existing flight equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Agena space tug design was based on the requirements of representative reference missions, the use of existing hardware, and the experience gained from more than 300 Agena flights. To provide a convenient reference for understanding the Agena tug design selection or for evaluating alternative concepts, this catalog of existing flight equipment was prepared. Equipment descriptions are grouped by Agena subsystem, as follows: spaceframe; propulsion; electrical; guidance and flight controls; and telemetry, tracking, and command. These systems, most of which have been flight qualified on prior Agena programs, permit specialized mission requirements to be satisfied without sacrificing cost or reliability.

  1. Development of a Whole Blood Staining Device for use During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.; Clift, Vaughan L.; Meinelt, Ellen M.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during space flight results in profound physiologic changes. Numerous studies have shown changes in circulating populations of peripheral blood immune cells immediately after space flight. It is currently unknown if these changes result from exposure to microgravity or are caused by the stress of reentry and readaptation to gravity. We have developed the whole blood staining device as a system for the staining of whole blood collected during space flight for subsequent flow cytometric analysis, This device contains all liquids to address safety issues concerned with space flight and also moves the cells through the staining, lyse/fixation and dilution steps.

  2. The Space Shuttle Program Pre-Flight Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Risk/Damage Predictions and Post-Flight Damage Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, George M.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    The pre-flight predictions and postflight assessments carried out in relation to a series of Space Shuttle missions are reviewed, and data are presented for the meteoroid and orbital debris damage observed on the Hubble Space Telescope during the 1994 Hubble repair mission. Pre-flight collision risk analyses are carried out prior to each mission, and in the case of an unacceptable risk, the mission profile is altered until the risk is considered to be acceptable. The NASA's BUMPER code is used to compute the probability of damage from debris and meteoroid particle impacts based on the Poisson statistical model for random events. The penetration probability calculation requires information concerning the geometry of the critical systems, the penetration resistance and mission profile parameters. Following each flight, the orbiter is inspected for meteoroid and space debris damage. The emphasis is on areas such as the radiator panels, the windows and the reinforced carbon-carbon structures on the leading wing edges and on the nose cap. The contents of damage craters are analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to determine the nature and origin of the impactor. Hypervelocity impact tests are often performed to simulate the observed damage and to estimate the nature of the damaging particles. The number and type of damage observed provides information concerning the orbital debris environment.

  3. Shuttle avionics software development trials: Tribulations and successes, the backup flight system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevers, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    The development and verification of the Backup Flight System software (BFS) is discussed. The approach taken for the BFS was to develop a very simple and straightforward software program and then test it in every conceivable manner. The result was a program that contained approximately 12,000 full words including ground checkout and the built in test program for the computer. To perform verification, a series of tests was defined using the actual flight type hardware and simulated flight conditions. Then simulated flights were flown and detailed performance analysis was conducted. The intent of most BFS tests was to demonstrate that a stable flightpath could be obtained after engagement from an anomalous initial condition. The extention of the BFS to meet the requirements of the orbital flight test phase is also described.

  4. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, appendix E: Alternate flight systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.

  5. Analysis of the First Successful Flight of GPS Abroad the Space Shuttle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Beam Landing System MS0 - Aries-mean-of-1950 NASA -- National Aeronautics and Space Administration OMS - Orbital Maneuvering System ORFEUS -- Orbiting...Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Palette Satellite ( ORFEUS -SPAS), the DTO would also permit the evaluation of relative GPSI...and on ORFEUS -SPAS, with Orbiter radar and laser rangefinders as a reference. * Evaluate postflight the accuracy of relative GPS using data from Orbiter

  6. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  7. Space shuttle flight (STS-45) of L8 myoblast cells results in the isolation of a nonfusing cell line variant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulesh, D. A.; Anderson, L. H.; Wilson, B.; Otis, E. J.; Elgin, D. M.; Barker, M. J.; Mehm, W. J.; Kearney, G. P.

    1994-01-01

    Myoblast cell cultures have been widely employed in conventional (1g) studies of biological processes because characteristics of intact muscle can be readily observed in these cultured cells. We decided to investigate the effects of spaceflight on muscle by utilizing a well characterized myoblast cell line (L8 rat myoblasts) as cultured in the recently designed Space Tissue Loss Flight Module "A" (STL-A). The STL-A is a "state of the art," compact, fully contained, automated cell culture apparatus which replaces a single mid-deck locker on the Space Shuttle. The L8 cells were successfully flown in the STL-A on the Space Shuttle STS-45 mission. Upon return to earth, reculturing of these spaceflown L8 cells (L8SF) resulted in their unexpected failure to fuse and differentiate into myotubes. This inability of the L8SF cells to fuse was found to be a permanent phenotypic alteration. Scanning electron microscopic examination of L8SF cells growing at 1g on fibronectin-coated polypropylene fibers exhibited a strikingly different morphology as compared to control cells. In addition to their failure to fuse into myotubes, L8SF cells also piled up on top of each other. When assayed in fusion-promoting soft agar, L8SF cells gave rise to substantially more and larger colonies than did either preflight (L8AT) or ground control (L8GC) cells. All data to this point indicate that flying L8 rat myoblasts on the Space Shuttle for a duration of 7-10 d at subconfluent densities results in several permanent phenotypic alterations in these cells.

  8. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS 50 - Columbia's mission to planet earth (June 25-July 9, 1992)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael; Amsbury, David; Pitts, David; Evans, Cynthia; Wilkinson, Justin; Helms, David; Chambers, Mark; Brumbaugh, Fred; Richards, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the imagery acquired during the STS 50 mission of the Space Shuttle is presented. The earth viewing photography from this flight includes photos of dust plumes over several portions of the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean. Over land, prominent dust plumes were seen over Iraq, North Africa, Sudan, and West Africa. The color infrared photography includes images of the tropical rain forests of South America and South and Southeast Asia. Other examples include photographs of floods in Argentina, photos of Lake Chad in Africa, Coastal Madagascar, the Aswan dam and the Nile, geologic features of North Africa, the center pivot irrigation land areas of Saudi Arabia, flooding in Asian rivers, and sediment plumes of South American and South and Southeast Asian coasts.

  9. Rapid Fabrication of Flat Plate Cavity Phosphor Thermography Test Models for Shuttle Return-to-Flight Aero-Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.; Powers, Michael A.; Nevins, Stephen C.; Griffith, Mark S.; Wainwright, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    Methods, materials and equipment are documented for fabricating flat plate test models at NASA Langley Research Center for Shuttle return-to-flight aeroheating experiments simulating open and closed cavity interactions in Langley s hypersonic 20-Inch Mach 6 air wind tunnel. Approximately 96 silica ceramic flat plate cavity phosphor thermography test models have been fabricated using these methods. On one model, an additional slot is machined through the back of the plate and into the cavity and vented into an evacuated plenum chamber to simulate a further opening in the cavity. After sintering ceramic to 2150 F, and mounting support hardware, a ceramic-based two-color thermographic phosphor coating is applied for global temperature and heat transfer measurements, with fiducial markings for image registration.

  10. Navigation Flight Test Results from the Low Power Transceiver Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Lin; Massey, Christopher; Baraban, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation results from the Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) experiment flown on STS-107. This experiment was the initial flight of a Low Power Transceiver (LPT) that featured high capacity space- space and space-ground communications and GPS- based navigation capabilities. The LPT also hosted the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) orbit determination software. All CANDOS test data were recovered during the mission using LPT communications links via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). An overview of the LPT s navigation software and the GPS experiment timeline is presented, along with comparisons of test results to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) real-time ground navigation vectors and Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET).

  11. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Prediction and Validation for Space Shuttle GPS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Adkins, Antha A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Brown, Lisa C.; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2002-01-01

    A deterministic method for Space Station Global Positioning System (GPS) Signal-To- Noise Ratio (SNR) predictions is proposed. The complex electromagnetic interactions between GPS antennas and surrounding Space Station structures are taken into account by computational electromagnetic technique. This computer simulator is capable of taking into account multipath effects from dynamically changed solar panels and thermal radiators. A comparison with recent collected Space Station GPS system flight experiment data is presented. The simulation results are in close agreement with flight data.

  12. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-29 - Discovery's voyage to the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Whitehead, Victor; Amsbury, David; Coats, Michael; Blaha, John; Buchli, James; Springer, Robert; Bagian, James

    1989-01-01

    The environmental, geologic, meteorologic, and oceanographic phenomena documented by earth photography during the Space Shuttle STS-29 mission are reviewed. A map of the nadir point positions of earth-viewing photographs from the mission is given and color photographs of various regions are presented. The mission photographs include atmospheric dust and smoke over parts of Africa and Asia, Sahelian water sites, center pivot irrigation fields in the Middle East, urban smog over Mexico City, isolated burning in the Bolivian Amazon, and various ocean features and cloud formations.

  13. Integrated guidance, navigation and control verification plan primary flight system. [space shuttle avionics integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The verification process and requirements for the ascent guidance interfaces and the ascent integrated guidance, navigation and control system for the space shuttle orbiter are defined as well as portions of supporting systems which directly interface with the system. The ascent phase of verification covers the normal and ATO ascent through the final OMS-2 circularization burn (all of OPS-1), the AOA ascent through the OMS-1 burn, and the RTLS ascent through ET separation (all of MM 601). In addition, OPS translation verification is defined. Verification trees and roadmaps are given.

  14. Development of the reentry flight dynamics simulator for evaluation of space shuttle orbiter entry systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, L. F.; Powell, R. W.; Stone, H. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A nonlinear, six degree of freedom, digital computer simulation of a vehicle which has constant mass properties and whose attitudes are controlled by both aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control system thrusters was developed. A rotating, oblate Earth model was used to describe the gravitational forces which affect long duration Earth entry trajectories. The program is executed in a nonreal time mode or connected to a simulation cockpit to conduct piloted and autopilot studies. The program guidance and control software used by the space shuttle orbiter for its descent from approximately 121.9 km to touchdown on the runway.

  15. Comparison of current Shuttle and pre-Challenger flight suit reach capability during launch accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, James P.; Schafer, Lauren E.

    1992-01-01

    The Challenger accident prompted the creation of a crew escape system which replaced the former Launch Entry Helmet (LEH) ensemble with the current Launch Entry Suit (LES). However, questions were raised regarding the impact of this change on crew reach capability. This study addressed the question of reach capability and its effects on realistic ground-based training for Space Shuttle missions. Eleven subjects performed reach sweeps in both the LEH and LES suits during 1 and 3 Gx acceleration trials in the Brooks AFB centrifuge. These reach sweeps were recorded on videotape and subsequently analyzed using a 3D motion analysis system. The ANOVA procedure of the Statistical Analysis System program was used to evaluate differences in forward and overhead reach. The results showed that the LES provided less reach capability than its predecessor, the LEH. This study also demonstrated that, since there was no substantial difference between 1 and 3 Gx reach sweeps in the LES, realistic Shuttle launch training may be accomplished in ground based simulators.

  16. Crystallization of a protein aboard the US Space Shuttle flight STS-31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbaere, Louis T. J.; Vandonselaar, Margaret; Prasad, Lata; Quail, J. Wilson; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Bugg, Charles E.

    A monoclonal antibody designated Je142 has been generated against a small bacterial protein, and the interaction of the antibody with this antigen is being studied. The method of x-ray crystallography is being used to study the structures of the Fab fragment (the antigen-binding portion of the antibody) and the Fab fragment - antigen complex. Microgravity conditions have been shown to produce better quality crystals than analogous crystals grown on earth, thereby providing an opportunity to obtain x-ray data of better resolution. The Je142 Fab fragment was selected for microgravity crystallization on the space shuttle mission STS-31. The crystallization procedure was largely based on the hanging drop vapor diffusion method. Protein and precipitant solutions are extruded onto a syringe tip and the combined droplet equilibrates with a concentrated reservoir precipitant that is on an absorbent material which surrounds the droplet. Just before the shuttle leaves orbit, the drop is withdrawn into the syringe to minimize mechanical stress on any protein crystals in the droplet. Je142 Fab fragment crystals typically require 8-9 days to reach optimum size (1 mm in each direction).

  17. Festschrift in the Honor of Stephen H. White’s 70th Birthday

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Symposium ‘Frontiers in membrane and membrane protein biophysics: experiments and theory’, held this year at the University of California, Irvine (August 19–20), celebrated the 70th Birthday of Stephen H. White by bringing together distinguished experimentalists and theoreticians to discuss the state of the art and future challenges in the field of membrane and membrane protein biophysics. The meeting and this special issue highlight the highly interdisciplinary nature of membrane and membrane protein biophysics, and the tremendous contributions that S. H. White and his lab have brought to the field. PMID:21191785

  18. Space Shuttle orbiter entry heating and TPS response: STS-1 predictions and flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C.; Goodrich, W. D.; Li, C. P.; Scott, C. D.; Derry, S. M.; Maraia, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Aerothermodynamic development flight test data from the first orbital flight test of the Space Transportation System (STS) transmitted after entry blackout is given. Engineering predictions of boundary layer transition and numerical simulations of the orbiter flow field were confirmed. The data tended to substantiate preflight predictions of surface catalysis phenomena. The thermal response of the thermal protection system was as expected. The only exception is that internal free convection was found to be significant in limiting the peak temperature of the structure in areas which do not have internal insulation.

  19. Spur Gear Wear Investigated in Support of Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Oswald, Fred B.

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA s Return-To-Flight efforts, the Space Operations Program investigated the condition of actuators for the orbiter s rudder speed brake. The actuators control the position of the rudder panels located in the tail of the orbiter, providing both steering control and braking during reentry, approach, and landing. Inspections of flight hardware revealed fretting and wear damage to the critical working surfaces of the actuator gears. To best understand the root cause of the observed damage and to help establish an appropriate reuse and maintenance plan for these safety critical parts, researchers completed a set of gear wear experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  20. Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiments on Space Shuttle Flights STS-53 and STS-57

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, S. M.; Tegart, J. R.; Driscoll, S. L.; Sledd, J. D.; Hastings, L. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE) program, managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center Space Propulsion Branch with Martin Marietta Civil Space and Communications as the contractor, consisted of two flights designated FARE I and FARE II. FARE I flew in December 1992 on STS-53 with a screen channel liquid acquisition device (LAD) and FARE II flew in June 1993 on STS-57 with a vane-type LAD. Thus, the FARE I and II flights represent the two basic LAD categories usually considered for in-space fluid management. Although both LAD types have been used extensively, the usefulness of the on-orbit data has been constrained by the lack of experimentation beyond predicted performance limits, including both propellant fill and expulsion. Therefore, the FARE tests were designed to obtain data that would satisfy two primary objectives: (1) Demonstrate the performance of the two types of LADs, screen channel and vane, and (2) support the anchoring of analytical models. Both flights were considered highly successful in meeting these two primary objectives.

  1. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures. Volume 3: Thermal analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    the development of large space structure technology is discussed. A detailed thermal analysis of a model space fabricated 1 meter beam is presented. Alternative thermal coatings are evaluated, and deflections, stresses, and stiffness variations resulting from flight orientations and solar conditions are predicted.

  2. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. Definition of a flight demonstration involving an Automated Beam Builder and the building and assembling of large structures is presented.

  3. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  4. Thermal study of interface between the Orbiter cold plate and typical Shuttle spacecraft payload flight electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwangbo, H.; Coyle, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    Spacelab provides a set of Freon line plumbing and cold plates for experiment equipments which are located in the Shuttle pallet and which need active thermal control. The reported study deals with the thermal problem of attaching a Command and Data Handling module with various electronic boxes whose combined footprints on the baseplate are much larger than the cold plate. A description of two modules and the cold plate assembly in the pallet is presented and a thermal model description is provided. The method employed in modeling heat pipes-honey-comb matrix is based upon an effective conductance between the heat pipe vapor and the walls of the heat pipe. The considered thermal models and a computer program are used to perform steady-state thermal analyses. The temperature gradients in the large module baseplate attached to the small cold plate are predicted as a function of the interface plate thickness.

  5. Man-machine interface and control of the shuttle digital flight system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghduff, R. D.; Lewis, J. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine (SSME) presented new requirements in the design of controls for large pump fed liquid rocket engine systems. These requirements were the need for built in full mission support capability, and complexity and flexibility of function not previously needed in this type of application. An engine mounted programmable digital control system was developed to meet these requirements. The engine system and controller and their function are described. Design challenges encountered during the course of development included accommodation for a very severe engine environment, the implementation of redundancy and redundancy management to provide fail operational/fail safe capability, removal of heat from the package, and significant constraints on computer memory size and processing time. The flexibility offered by programmable control reshaped the approach to engine design and development and set the pattern for future controls development in these types of applications.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects Overview to Columbia Air Forces War College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Jody; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of space shuttle projects. Some of the topics include: 1) Space Shuttle Projects; 2) Marshall Space Flight Center Space Shuttle Projects Office; 3) Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; 4) Space Shuttle Program Major Sites; 5) NASA Office of Space flight (OSF) Center Roles in Space Shuttle Program; 6) Space Shuttle Hardware Flow; and 7) Shuttle Flights To Date.

  7. Randall Tobius Schuh: A celebration of his career and accomplishments on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biographical sketch of Dr. Randall Tobius Schuh, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, highlighting his career on the occasion of his 70th birthday is presented and a list of his nearly 100 publications is provided....

  8. Comparison of a space shuttle flight (STS-78) and bed rest on human muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Lee, G. A.; Widrick, J. J.; Costill, D. L.; Fitts, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess muscle fiber size, composition, and in vivo contractile characteristics of the calf muscle of four male crew members during a 17-day spaceflight (SF; Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Shuttle Transport System-78 mission) and eight men during a 17-day bed rest (BR). The protocols and timelines of these two investigations were identical, therefore allowing for direct comparisons between SF and the BR. The subjects' age, height, and weight were 43 +/- 2 yr, 183 +/- 4 cm, and 86 +/- 3 kg for SF and 43 +/- 2 yr, 182 +/- 3 cm, and 82 +/- 4 kg for BR, respectively. Calf muscle strength was examined before SF and BR; on days 2, 8, and 12 during SF and BR; and on days 2 and 8 of recovery. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and within 3 h after SF (gastrocnemius and soleus) and BR (soleus) before reloading. Maximal isometric calf strength and the force-velocity characteristics were unchanged with SF or BR. Additionally, neither SF nor BR had any effect on fiber composition or fiber size of the calf muscles studied. In summary, no changes in calf muscle strength and morphology were observed after the 17-day SF and BR. Because muscle strength is lost during unloading, both during spaceflight and on the ground, these data suggest that the testing sequence employed during the SF and BR may have served as a resistance training countermeasure to attenuate whole muscle strength loss.

  9. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., technicians with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia, maneuver a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, which is to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). The Strehla has been the focus for two Shuttle crews, STS-96 who are at KSC for a Crew Equipment Interface Test, and STS-101, for payload familiarization. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Russian cargo crane; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  10. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two Shuttle crews take part in familiarization activities at Astrotech in Titusville, Fla. From left are STS-96 Mission Specialists Daniel T. Barry and Tamara E. Jernigan, and Pilot Rick Douglas Husband; plus STS-101 Mission Specialists Edward Tsang Lu and Jeffrey N. Williams. They are looking at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace of Bremen and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  11. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews look at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). From left are STS-96 Mission Specialist Julie Payette and Daniel T. Barry, Commander Kent V. Rominger and Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan; three technicians from DaimlerChrysler Aerospace; (in the background, facing right) STS-101 Commander James Donald Halsell Jr.; STS-101 Mission Specialists Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, with the Russian Space Agency, and Edward Tsang Lu; and two more technicians from DaimlerChrysler. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  12. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews take a close look at a component of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). From left, they are STS-101 Mission Specialist Edward Tsang Lu, plus STS-96 Mission Specialist Julie Payette and Pilot Rick Douglas Husband. Payette represents the Canadian Space Agency. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  13. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews take a close look at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). From left are STS-96 Mission Specialists Daniel T. Barry and Tamara E. Jernigan, Pilot Rick Douglas Husband, and Mission Specialist Julie Payette; next to them is STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, with the Russian Space Agency. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  14. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews get a close look at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). At left are STS-96 Mission Specialist Daniel T. Barry and Pilot Rick Douglas Husband. At center, STS-96 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan gives her attention to a technician with DaimlerChrysler while STS-101 Mission Specialist Edward Tsang Lu looks on. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  15. Decreased NK-Cell Cytotoxicity after Short Flights on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Smid, Christine; Kaur, Indreshpal; Feeback, Daniel L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2000-01-01

    Cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and cell surface marker expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from 11 U.S. astronauts on two different missions were determined before and after 9 or 10 days of spaceflight aboard the space shuttle. Blood samples were collected 10 and 3 days before launch, within 3 hours after landing, and 3 days after landing. All PBMC preparations were cryopreserved and analyzed simultaneously in a 4-hour cytotoxicity "Cr-release assay using NK-sensitive K-562 target cells. Compared to preflight values, NK-cell cytotoxicity (corrected for lymphopenia observed on landing day) was significantly decreased at landing (P < 0.0125). It then apparently began to recover and approached preflight values by 3 days after landing. Consistent with decreased NK-cell cytotoxicity, significant increases from preflight values were found in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone at landing. Plasma and urinary cortisol levels did not change significantly from preflight values. Expression of major lymphocyte surface markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD16, CD56), determined by flow cytometric analysis, revealed no consistent phenotypic changes in relative percent of NK or other lymphoid cells after 10 days of spaceflight.

  16. Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights.

    PubMed

    Dijk, D J; Neri, D F; Wyatt, J K; Ronda, J M; Riel, E; Ritz-De Cecco, A; Hughes, R J; Elliott, A R; Prisk, G K; West, J B; Czeisler, C A

    2001-11-01

    Sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance measures were obtained in five astronauts before, during, and after 16-day or 10-day space missions. In space, scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24 h. Light-dark cycles were highly variable on the flight deck, and daytime illuminances in other compartments of the spacecraft were very low (5.0-79.4 lx). In space, the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm was reduced and the circadian rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared misaligned relative to the imposed non-24-h sleep-wake schedule. Neurobehavioral performance decrements were observed. Sleep duration, assessed by questionnaires and actigraphy, was only approximately 6.5 h/day. Subjective sleep quality diminished. Polysomnography revealed more wakefulness and less slow-wave sleep during the final third of sleep episodes. Administration of melatonin (0.3 mg) on alternate nights did not improve sleep. After return to earth, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was markedly increased. Crewmembers on these flights experienced circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and postflight changes in REM sleep.

  17. Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, D. J.; Neri, D. F.; Wyatt, J. K.; Ronda, J. M.; Riel, E.; Ritz-De Cecco, A.; Hughes, R. J.; Elliott, A. R.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance measures were obtained in five astronauts before, during, and after 16-day or 10-day space missions. In space, scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24 h. Light-dark cycles were highly variable on the flight deck, and daytime illuminances in other compartments of the spacecraft were very low (5.0-79.4 lx). In space, the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm was reduced and the circadian rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared misaligned relative to the imposed non-24-h sleep-wake schedule. Neurobehavioral performance decrements were observed. Sleep duration, assessed by questionnaires and actigraphy, was only approximately 6.5 h/day. Subjective sleep quality diminished. Polysomnography revealed more wakefulness and less slow-wave sleep during the final third of sleep episodes. Administration of melatonin (0.3 mg) on alternate nights did not improve sleep. After return to earth, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was markedly increased. Crewmembers on these flights experienced circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and postflight changes in REM sleep.

  18. Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleer, Neil

    This booklet describes the history of the space shuttle, especially after the Challenger accident. Topics include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Return to Flight: The Recovery"; (3) "Space Shuttle Chronology"; (4) "Examples of Other Modifications on Shuttle's Major Systems"; (5) "Space Shuttle Recovery…

  19. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  20. Space Shuttle redesign status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA has conducted an extensive redesign effort for the Space Shutle in the aftermath of the STS 51-L Challenger accident, encompassing not only Shuttle vehicle and booster design but also such system-wide factors as organizational structure, management procedures, flight safety, flight operations, sustainable flight rate, and maintenance safeguards. Attention is presently given to Solid Rocket Booster redesign features, the Shuttle Main Engine's redesigned high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbopumps, the Shuttle Orbiter's braking and rollout (landing gear) system, the entry control mode of the flight control system, a 'split-S' abort maneuver for the Orbiter, and crew escape capsule proposals.

  1. A comparison of paper and computer procedures in a Shuttle flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Michael; Holden, Kritina; Wolf, Steve; Mount, Frances

    1994-01-01

    The Electronic Procedures Experiment (EPROC) was flown as part of the Human Factors Assessment (HFA) experiment aboard the SpaceHab-1/STS-57 mission. EPROC is concerned with future, longer-duration missions which will increasingly rely on electronic procedures since they are more easily launched, updated in-flight, and offer automatic or on-request capabilities not available with paper. A computer-based task simulating a Space Station Propulsion System task was completed by one crewmember. The crewmember performed the task once using paper and once using computer procedures. A soldering and desoldering task was performed by another crewmember. Soldering was completed with paper procedures and desoldering was completed using computer procedures. Objective data was collected during each task session from the computer programs, videotapes, and crew notations in the paper and computer procedures. After each task session, subjective data was collected through the use of a computer-based questionnaire program. Resultant recommendations will be made available to future designers of electronic procedures systems for manned-space missions and other related uses.

  2. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  3. Effect of aerodynamic and angle-of-attack uncertainties on the May 1979 entry flight control system of the Space Shuttle from Mach 8 to 1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A six degree of freedom simulation analysis was performed for the space shuttle orbiter during entry from Mach 8 to Mach 1.5 with realistic off nominal conditions by using the flight control systems defined by the shuttle contractor. The off nominal conditions included aerodynamic uncertainties in extrapolating from wind tunnel derived characteristics to full scale flight characteristics, uncertainties in the estimates of the reaction control system interaction with the orbiter aerodynamics, an error in deriving the angle of attack from onboard instrumentation, the failure of two of the four reaction control system thrusters on each side, and a lateral center of gravity offset coupled with vehicle and flow asymmetries. With combinations of these off nominal conditions, the flight control system performed satisfactorily. At low hypersonic speeds, a few cases exhibited unacceptable performances when errors in deriving the angle of attack from the onboard instrumentation were modeled. The orbiter was unable to maintain lateral trim for some cases between Mach 5 and Mach 2 and exhibited limit cycle tendencies or residual roll oscillations between Mach 3 and Mach 1. Piloting techniques and changes in some gains and switching times in the flight control system are suggested to help alleviate these problems.

  4. Comparison of Space Shuttle Orbiter low-speed static stability and control derivatives obtained from wind-tunnel and approach and landing flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Spencer, B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel to obtain wind tunnel data for comparison with static stability and control parameters measured on the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing flight tests. The longitudinal stability, elevon effectiveness, lateral directional stability, and aileron effectiveness derivatives were determined from the wind tunnel data and compared with the flight test results. The comparison covers a range of angles of attack from approximately 2 deg to 10 deg at subsonic Mach numbers of 0.41 to 0.56. In general the wind tunnel results agreed well with the flight test results, indicating the wind tunnel data is applicable to the design of entry vehicles for subsonic speeds over the angle of attack range studied.

  5. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  6. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, William L.

    2003-01-01

    As missions have become increasingly more challenging over the years, the most adaptable and capable element of space shuttle operations has proven time and again to be human beings. Human space flight provides unique aspects of observation. interaction and intervention that can reduce risk and improve mission success. No other launch vehicle - in development or in operation today - can match the space shuttle's human space flight capabilities. Preserving U.S. leadership in human space flight requires a strategy to meet those challenges. The ongoing development of next generation vehicles, along with upgrades to the space shuttle, is the most effective means for assuring our access to space.

  7. Space Shuttle contamination overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to particle and gaseous contamination associated with Shuttle payload orbital delivery. An approach to control contamination is discussed which consists of analytical environment assessment, vehicle design optimization, and flight environment measurement. The analytical assessment of orbital contamination source characteristics and their effects on the Shuttle orbital environment has resulted in vehicle design changes and a detailed understanding of system operational flexibility. Verification of resulting Shuttle contamination performance will be made by the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor.

  8. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 1: Executive summary. Part 2: Space shuttle nuclear system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear safety integration and operational aspects of transporting nuclear payloads to and from an earth orbiting space base by space shuttle are discussed. The representative payloads considered were: (1) zirconium hydride-Brayton power module, (2) isotope-Brayton power module, and (3) small isotope power systems or heat sources. Areas of investigation also include nuclear safety related integration and packaging as well as operational requirements for the shuttle and payload systems for all phases of the mission.

  9. A comparative study of the Unified System for Orbit Computation and the Flight Design System. [computer programs for mission planning tasks associated with space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, W.

    1977-01-01

    The Flight Design System (FDS) and the Unified System for Orbit Computation (USOC) are compared and described in relation to mission planning for the shuttle transportation system (STS). The FDS is designed to meet the requirements of a standardized production tool and the USOC is designed for rapid generation of particular application programs. The main emphasis in USOC is put on adaptability to new types of missions. It is concluded that a software system having a USOC-like structure, adapted to the specific needs of MPAD, would be appropriate to support planning tasks in the area unique to STS missions.

  10. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  11. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Design and configurations of the Space Shuttle are examined. Attention is given to such features as the Orbiter, the guidance systems, design avionics, system design, and the flight control system centered about a redundant set of general purpose computers.

  12. [Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V; Mazaĭkin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

    2013-05-01

    The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency.

  13. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  14. Post flight operation of a high peak power neodymium YAG laser aboard the G-449 payload flown on Space Shuttle Columbia mission 61-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckerheide, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nd Yag laser flown on board the G-449 payload completed its postflight testing successfully. There was no indication that the laser had undergone any electronic or optical component failure. A postflight video was taken immediately following the return of the payload to the laboratory. Early anticipation of vibration and temperature changes contributed to the successful operation of the laser. Photographic material resulting from post flight videotape are presented. NASA safety reviews and recommendations supplied the insights which helped contribute to the successful operation of the Nd Yag laser. The safety review data is part of the technical presentation and gives some insight into why the system survived the severe environment of temperature and vibration during the flight of Space Shuttle 61-C.

  15. Analysis of space shuttle orbiter entry dynamics from Mach 10 to Mach 2.5 with the November 1976 flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. W.; Stone, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom simulation analysis was performed for the space shuttle orbiter entry from Mach 10 to Mach 2.5 with realistic off-nominal conditions using the flight control system referred to as the November 1976 Integrated Digital Autopilot. The off-nominal conditions included: (1) aerodynamic uncertainties in extrapolating from wind tunnel of flight characteristics, (2) error in deriving angle of attack from onboard instrumentation, (3) failure of two of the four reaction control-system thrusters on each side (design specification), and (4) lateral center-of-gravity offset. Many combinations of these off-nominal conditions resulted in a loss of the orbiter. Control-system modifications were identified to prevent this possibility.

  16. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  17. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  18. Evaluation of the Shuttle GN&C during powered ascent flight phase. [Guidance Navigation and Control equipment system design and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L.; Sunkel, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the ascent trajectory and GN&C (guidance, navigation, and control) system design is followed by a summary of flight test results for the ascent phase of STS-1. The most notable variance from nominal pre-flight predictions was the lofted trajectory observed in first stage due to an unanticipated shift in pitch aerodynamic characteristics from those predicted by wind tunnel tests. The GN&C systems performed as expected on STS-1 throughout powered flight. Following a discussion of the software constants changed for Flight 2 to provide adequate performance margin, a summary of test results from STS-2 and STS-3 is presented. Vehicle trajectory response and GN&C system behavior were very similar to STS-1. Ascent aerodynamic characteristics extracted from the first two test flights were included in the data base used to design the first stage steering and pitch trim profiles for STS-3.

  19. STS-80 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The STS-80 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the eightieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102).

  20. A summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy and the use of digital high-speed photography in the accident investigation and NASA's return-to-flight effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.

    2005-03-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of seven crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA concluded in August, 2003 that the cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into that mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of the left wing which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. Supporting the findings of the CAIB, were numerous ballistic impact testing programs conducted to investigate and quantify the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA turned its focus to returning the Shuttle safely to flight. Supporting this effort are many test programs to evaluate impact threats from various debris sources during ascent that must be completed for certifying the Shuttle system safe for flight. Digital high-speed cameras were used extensively to document these tests as significant advances in recent years have nearly eliminated the use of film in many areas of testing. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory have participated in several of the impact test programs supporting the Accident Investigation and Return-to-Flight efforts. This paper summarizes the Columbia Accident and the nearly seven

  1. Stress Analysis and Testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center to Study Cause and Corrective Action of Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingate, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    After the launch scrub of Space Shuttle mission STS-133 on November 5, 2010, large cracks were discovered in two of the External Tank intertank stringers. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, as managing center for the External Tank Project, coordinated the ensuing failure investigation and repair activities with several organizations, including the manufacturer, Lockheed Martin. To support the investigation, the Marshall Space Flight Center formed an ad-hoc stress analysis team to complement the efforts of Lockheed Martin. The team undertook six major efforts to analyze or test the structural behavior of the stringers. Extensive finite element modeling was performed to characterize the local stresses in the stringers near the region of failure. Data from a full-scale tanking test and from several subcomponent static load tests were used to confirm the analytical conclusions. The analysis and test activities of the team are summarized. The root cause of the stringer failures and the flight readiness rationale for the repairs that were implemented are discussed.

  2. Space shuttle engineering and operations support: Dispersion analysis for the first orbital flight test (OFT-1) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    A dispersion analysis considering 3-sigma uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for the first orbital flight test (OFT-1) mission. The dispersion analysis is based on the nominal trajectory for the OFT-1 reference flight profile. The analysis was performed to determine state vector and performance dispersions (or variations) which result from the indicated 3-sigma uncertainties. The dispersions are determined at major mission events and fixed times from liftoff (time slices). The dispersion results are used to evaluate the capability of the vehicle to perform the mission within a 3-sigma level of confidence and to determine flight performance reserves.

  3. Shuttle Endeavour Flyover of Los Angeles Landmarks

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Endeavour atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft flew over many Los Angeles area landmarks on its final ferry flight Sept. 21, 2012, including the Coliseum, the Hollywood Sign, Griffith...

  4. 14 CFR § 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  5. 14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  6. 14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  8. 14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  9. Calibration of the aerodynamic coefficient identification package measurements from the shuttle entry flights using inertial measurement unit data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, M. L.; Findlay, J. T.; Compton, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (ACIP) is an instrument consisting of body mounted linear accelerometers, rate gyros, and angular accelerometers for measuring the Space Shuttle vehicular dynamics. The high rate recorded data are utilized for postflight aerodynamic coefficient extraction studies. Although consistent with pre-mission accuracies specified by the manufacturer, the ACIP data were found to contain detectable levels of systematic error, primarily bias, as well as scale factor, static misalignment, and temperature dependent errors. This paper summarizes the technique whereby the systematic ACIP error sources were detected, identified, and calibrated with the use of recorded dynamic data from the low rate, highly accurate Inertial Measurement Units.

  10. Separation of bacterial cells by free flow electrophoresis under microgravity: A result of the SpaceLab-Japan project on Space Shuttle flight STS-47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, Teruhiko; Nishi, Atsuko; Takaoki, Muneo; Matsumiya, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Fusao; Usami, Ron; Nagaoka, Shunji

    1995-08-01

    We demonstrated free flow electrophoresis (FFE) of charged cells under microgravity, where gravitational effects are almost eliminated. Separation of a mixture of three bacterial strains (mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT2) by FFE was conducted on NASA Space Shuttle flight STS-47 (September 1992). The experiment was designed to differentiate three strains having different lipopolysaccharide core structures in the cell membrane. The results were compared to those of ground experiments, in order to examine whether or not FFE in a weightless environment provides distinct advantages. Smooth strain SL1027 and rough strain SL3749 migrated to two separated fractions. The quality (viability) and the yields of the separated samples were sufficient to show the advantage of microgravity. Another rough strain, SL1102, exhibited unexpected electrophoretic behavior, which prevented the complete resolution of the three strains. All the strains were recovered as viable cells after 8 days of flight. The present study suggests that electrophoretic separation of bacterial cells is much more effective under microgravity conditions with relatively good resolution in comparison with the ground operation.

  11. Engineering analysis division internal note. OFT-1 margin assessment. [results of analysis to determine space shuttle subsystem margins for orbital flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, L. D., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The results are documented of an analysis conducted to determine space shuttle vehicle (SSV) subsystem margins for the reference flight profile for the first orbital flight test (OFT-1). In general, the results show increased margins for the OFT-1 indicators when compared to Mission 3A resutls. The inclusion of element and wing aerodynamic variations on OFT-1, in combination with winds and systems dispersions, resulted in the forward Z (FTO1) attach load indicator exceeding specified limits. The inboard and outboard elevon hinge moment margins (9 percent and 3 percent, respectively) on OFT-1 reflect values consistent with the load relief requirements dictated by elevon hinge moment variations. All other structural load indicators for OFT-1 had margins in excess of 10 percent. The SSV first stage stagnation heating indicators for OFT-1 were about 45 percent less than for Mission 3A. The hydraulic systems demands for both missions were essentially the same. The results also show OFT-1 performance requirements from the consideration of winds and dispersions to be approximately 3,300 lbs greater than Mission 3A.

  12. Simulator evaluation of display concepts for pilot monitoring and control of space shuttle approach and landing. Phase 2: Manual flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartner, W. B.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the display requirements for final approach management of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle is presented. An experimental display concept, providing a more direct, pictorial representation of the vehicle's movement relative to the selected approach path and aiming points, was developed and assessed as an aid to manual flight path control. Both head-up, windshield projections and head-down, panel mounted presentations of the experimental display were evaluated in a series of simulated orbiter approach sequence. Data obtained indicate that the experimental display would enable orbiter pilots to exercise greater flexibility in implementing alternative final approach control strategies. Touchdown position and airspeed dispersion criteria were satisfied on 91 percent of the approach sequences, representing various profile and wind effect conditions. Flight path control and airspeed management satisfied operationally-relevant criteria for the two-segment, power-off orbiter approach and were consistently more accurate and less variable when the full set of experimental display elements was available to the pilot. Approach control tended to be more precise when the head-up display was used; however, the data also indicate that the head-down display would provide adequate support for the manual control task.

  13. Shuttle target measurements program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, F. M.; Carpenter, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A Space Shuttle vehicle will provide the U.S. Army's Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Technology Center with a cost effective platform with which to acquire comprehensive exoatmospheric optical sensor data. The data requiring minimum interface with the Shuttle, will be collected through experiments, recorded, and then analyzed upon return. The system will occupy a portion of a commercial pallet and is suitable for early flight consideration. Several block diagrams illustrate the selected hardware configuration designed to provide information on trajectories and vehicle dynamics, signature data from scaled targets, contamination data of the Space Shuttle environment, and other background data. The proposed sensor is a Mosaic Optical Sensor Technology Testbed.

  14. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  15. Space Shuttle-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  16. Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

  17. LSRA in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), in flight over NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, for a test of the space shuttle landing gear system. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  18. NASA Now: Shuttle Engineering Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this installment of NASA Now, you’ll meet Guidance, Navigation and Flight Controls engineer George Hatcher, who talks about the complex system needed to fly the space shuttle at extreme speeds...

  19. Impact Testing on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Flat Panels with Ice Projectiles for the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, Michael J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Orbiter Columbia (STS-107) on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the space shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) along with ice and foam debris materials, which could shed on ascent and impact the orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.) to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: Level 1--fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic constitutive model properties of materials of interest, Level 2--subcomponent impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and Level 3--full-scale orbiter leading-edge impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This report discusses the Level 2 test program conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Ballistic Impact Laboratory with ice projectile impact tests on flat RCC panels, and presents the data observed. The Level 2 testing consisted of 54 impact tests in the NASA GRC Ballistic Impact Laboratory on 6- by 6-in. and 6- by 12-in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated three types of debris projectiles: Single-crystal, polycrystal, and "soft" ice. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile and validated the use of the ice and RCC models for use in LS-DYNA.

  20. A Summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia Tragedy and the Use of LS Dyna in the Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly; Gabrys, Jonathan; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of 7 crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA concluded in August, 2003 that the cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the missions launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. In order to gain a better understanding the foam impact on the orbiters RCC wing leading edge, a multi-center team of NASA and Boeing impact experts was formed to characterize the foam and RCC materials for impact analysis using LS Dyna. Dyna predictions were validated with sub-component and full scale tests. LS Dyna proved to be a valuable asset in supporting both the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA s return to flight efforts. This paper summarizes Columbia Accident and the nearly seven month long investigation that followed. The use of LS-DYNA in this effort is highlighted. Contributions to the investigation and return to flight efforts of the multicenter team consisting of members from NASA Glenn, NASA Langley, and Boeing Philadelphia are introduced and covered in detail in papers to follow in these proceedings.

  1. Base pressure and heat transfer tests of the 0.0225-scale space shuttle plume simulation model (19-OTS) in yawed flight conditions in the NASA-Lewis 10x10-foot supersonic wind tunnel (test IH83)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foust, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed to determine pressures, heat transfer rates, and gas recovery temperatures in the base region of a rocket firing model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle during simulated yawed flight conditions. First and second stage flight of the space shuttle were simulated by firing the main engines in conjunction with the SRB rocket motors or only the SSME's into the continuous tunnel airstream. For the correct rocket plume environment, the simulated altitude pressures were halved to maintain the rocket chamber/altitude pressure ratio. Tunnel freestream Mach numbers from 2.2 to 3.5 were simulated over an altitude range of 60 to 130 thousand feet with varying angle of attack, yaw angle, nozzle gimbal angle and SRB chamber pressure. Gas recovery temperature data derived from nine gas temperature probe runs are presented. The model configuration, instrumentation, test procedures, and data reduction are described.

  2. Nonlinear Analysis of the Space Shuttle Superlightweight LO2 Tank. Part 2; Behavior Under 3g End-of-Flight Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Young, Richard D.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H.,Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Results of linear bifurcation and nonlinear analyses of the Space Shuttle super lightweight (SLWT) external liquid-oxygen (LO2) tank are presented for an important end-of-flight loading condition. These results illustrate an important type of response mode for thin-walled shells, that are subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads, that may be encountered in the design of other liquid-fuel launch vehicles. Linear bifurcation analyses are presented that predict several nearly equal eigenvalues that correspond to local buckling modes in the aft dome of the LO2 tank. In contrast, the nonlinear response phenomenon is shown to consist of a short-wavelength bending deformation in the aft elliptical dome of the LO2 tank that grows in amplitude in a stable manner with increasing load. Imperfection sensitivity analyses are presented that show that the presence of several nearly equal eigenvalues does not lead to a premature general instability mode for the aft dome. For the linear bifurcation and nonlinear analyses, the results show that accurate predictions of the response of the shell generally require a large-scale, high fidelity finite-element model. Results are also presented that show that the SLWT LO2 tank can support loads in excess of approximately 1.9 times the values of the operational loads considered.

  3. A decade on board America's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Spectacular moments from a decade (1981-1991) of Space Shuttle missions, captured on film by the astronauts who flew the missions, are presented. First hand accounts of astronauts' experiences aboard the Shuttle are given. A Space Shuttle mission chronology featuring flight number, vehicle name, crew, launch and landing dates, and mission highlights is given in tabular form.

  4. Space Shuttle news reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the space shuttle vehicle and associated subsystems is given. Space transportation system propulsion, power generation, environmental control and life support system and avionics are among the topics. Also, orbiter crew accommodations and equipment, mission operations and support, and flight crew complement and crew training are addressed.

  5. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle is traced. Aerodynamic loads and dynamic characteristics, structural design, ascent and entry heating profiles, and propulsion systems are discussed. Problems in the area of systems management and flight control during entry and in the design of an effective thermal control system are discussed in detail.

  6. The Shuttle Environment Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, J.; Tanner, S. G. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Results of shuttle environmental measurement programs were presented. The implications for plasma, infrared and ultraviolet experiments were discussed. The prelaunch environmental conditions, results of key environmental measurements made during the flights of STS 1, 2, 3, 4, and postlanding environmental conditions were covered.

  7. An Assessment of the Axial and Radial Dilation of a DPIMS Tantalum Cartridge for Space Shuttle Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S.V.; Ghosn, L. J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-based heat treatment tests are planned on an argon gas-filled tantalum cartridge developed as pan of a Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors (DPIMS) experiment conducted on NASA's Space Shuttle. The possibility that the cartridge may creep during testing and touch the furnace walls is of real concern in this program. The present paper discusses the results of calculations performed to evaluate this possibility. Deformation mechanism maps were constructed using literature data in order to identify the creep mechanism dominant under the appropriate stresses and temperatures corresponding to the test conditions. These results showed that power-law creep was dominant when the grain size of the material exceeded 55 gm but Coble creep was the important mechanism below this value of grain size. Finite element analysis was used to analyze the heat treatment tWs assuming a furnace run away condition (which is a worst case scenario) using the appropriate creep parameters corresponding to grain sizes of 1 and 100 gm. Calculations were also conducted to simulate the effect of an initial 3 tilt of the cartridge assembly, the maximum possible tilt angle. The von Mises stress and su-ain distributions were calculated assuming that the cartridge was fixed at one end as it was heated from ambient temperature to 1823 K in 1.42 h, maintained at 1823 K for 9.5 h and then further heated to an over temperature condition of 2028 K in 0.3 h. The inelastic axial and radial displacements of the cartridge walls were evaluated by resolving the von Mises strain along the corresponding directions. These calculations reveal that the maximum axial and radial displacements are expected to be about 2.9 and 0.25 mm, respectively, for both fine and coarse-grained materials at 2028 K. It was determined that these displacements occur during heat-up to temperature and creep of the cartridge is likely to be relatively insignificant irrespective of grain size. Furthermore, with a 3' tilt of

  8. Stennis certifies final shuttle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Steam blasts out of the A-2 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Oct. 22 as engineers begin a certification test on engine 2061, the last space shuttle main flight engine scheduled to be built. Since 1975, Stennis has tested every space shuttle main engine used in the program - about 50 engines in all. Those engines have powered more than 120 shuttle missions - and no mission has failed as a result of engine malfunction. For the remainder of 2008 and throughout 2009, Stennis will continue testing of various space shuttle main engine components.

  9. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  10. STS-55 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the Space Shuttle Payloads, Orbiter, External Tank, Solid Rocket Booster, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, and the Main Engine subsystems performance during the 55th flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the 14th flight of Columbia is presented.

  11. 70th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Rheumatology Association, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, February 4-7, 2015.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Earl D

    2015-05-15

    The 70th Annual Meeting of The Canadian Rheumatology Association (CRA) was held at the Fairmont Chateau Frontenac, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, February 4-7, 2015. The program consisted of presentations covering original research, symposia, awards, and lectures. Highlights of the meeting include 2015 Award Winners: Distinguished Rheumatologist Award: Carter Thorne; Distinguished Investigator Award: Hani El-Gabalawy; Teacher-Educator Award: Andrew E. Thompson; Young Investigator Award: Sindhu Johnson; Summer Studentship Mentor Award: Lori Albert; Innovation in Education Award: Henry Averns; Best Abstract for Basic Science Research by a Trainee: Sina Rusta-Sallehy; Best Abstract for Research by an Undergraduate Student: Tristan Kerr; Best Abstract for Research by a Rheumatology Resident: Claire Barber; Best Poster by a Medical Student: Dennis Wong; Best Poster by a Post-Graduate Resident: Zainab Alabdurubalnabi; CRA/ARF Best Epidemiology/Health Services Research Award: Evelyn Vinet; CRA/ARF Best Clinical Research Award: Glen Hazelwood; CRA/ARF Best Basic Science Research Award: Carolina Landolt-Marticorena; Ian Watson Award for Best Abstract for SLE Research by a Trainee: Ripneet Puar; Phil Rosen Award for Best Abstract for Clinical or Epidemiology Research by a Trainee: Liam O'Neil.

  12. Shuttle operational expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of orbital flight tests (OFT) of the Space Shuttle are reviewed, and modifications planned for upcoming operational flights are discussed. The performance of the solid rocket boosters, external tank, main engines, structural system, propulsion system, reaction control system, electric power system, heat rejection system, hydraulic system, avionics, and other systems is described and evaluated as generally highly satisfactory. Payload servicing and deployment were also successfully demonstrated by OFT. Additional facilities planned for the operational flights are briefly described, and improvements that will make the Challenger spacecraft lighter than Columbia, provide it with more thrust, and give it a larger payload are summarized. Some software modifications being introduced are also mentioned.

  13. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  14. TERSSE. Definition of the total earth resources system for the shuttle era. Volume 9: Earth resources shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alverado, U.

    1975-01-01

    The use of the space shuttle for the Earth Resources Program is discussed. Several problems with respect to payload selection, integration, and mission planning were studied. Each of four shuttle roles in the sortie mode were examined and projected into an integrated shuttle program. Several representative Earth Resources missions were designed which would use the shuttle sortie as a platform and collectively include the four shuttle roles. An integrated flight program based on these missions was then developed for the first two years of shuttle flights. A set of broad implications concerning the uses of the shuttle for Earth Resources studies resulted.

  15. Space shuttle operations integration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Operations Integration Plan is presented, which is to provide functional definition of the activities necessary to develop and integrate shuttle operating plans and facilities to support flight, flight control, and operations. It identifies the major tasks, the organizations responsible, their interrelationships, the sequence of activities and interfaces, and the resultant products related to operations integration.

  16. Shuttle synthetic aperture radar implementation study, volume 1. [flight instrument and ground data processor system for collecting raw imaged radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlis, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Results of an implementation study for a synthetic aperture radar for the space shuttle orbiter are described. The overall effort was directed toward the determination of the feasibility and usefulness of a multifrequency, multipolarization imaging radar for the shuttle orbiter. The radar is intended for earth resource monitoring as well as oceanographic and marine studies.

  17. On the Wings of a Dream: The Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This booklet describes the development, training, and flight of the space shuttle. Topics are: (1) "National Aeronautics and Space Administration"; (2) "The Space Transportation System"; (3) "The 'Enterprise'"; (4) "The Shuttle Orbiter"; (5) "Solid Rocket Boosters"; (6) "The External…

  18. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  19. Space Shuttle payload flight manifest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented covering (1) scheduled launch month and orbiter vehicle, (2) the inclination of the orbit and the altitude in nautical miles, (3) the number of crew members and the duration of the mission, (4) the payload, and (5) the carrier.

  20. Flight Simulations Prep Shuttle Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    As they simulate one of the three spacewalks scheduled for their upcoming mission to the International Space Station, Commander Ken Ham and Mission Specialist Mike Good discuss with Mike Massimino ...

  1. Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, Robert R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)

  2. Astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz organizes shuttle mail message

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On Discovery's aft flight deck, Astronaut Franklin R. Chang-Diaz begins to organize what was believed to be among the longest mail messages in Shuttle history. Though early Shuttle flights could brag of longer teleprinted messages, the Thermal Imaging Printing Systems's day four correspondence, most of which is out of frame here, is a record length for recent flights.

  3. Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of material covered during 'Space Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking Investigation MSFC Fluids Workshop' held November 19-21, 2002. Topics covered include: cracks on fuel feed lines of Orbiter space shuttles, fluid driven cracking analysis, liner structural modes, structural motion in a fluid, fluid borne drivers, three dimensional computational fluid dynamics models, fluid borne drivers from pumps, amplification mechanisms, flow parameter mapping, and flight engine flow map.

  4. Space Shuttle Familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

  5. Space shuttle avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

  6. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbraten, Gordon L.; Henderson, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively flying the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (Ares I). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the Vision for Space Exploration, and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  7. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Norbraten, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively planning the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Implementing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (CLV). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the President s "Vision for Space Exploration," and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  8. Space Shuttle booster thrust imbalance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. R.; Blackwell, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the Shuttle SRM thrust imbalance during the steady-state and tailoff portions of the boost phase of flight are presented. Results from flights STS-1 through STS-13 are included. A statistical analysis of the observed thrust imbalance data is presented. A 3 sigma thrust imbalance history versus time was generated from the observed data and is compared to the vehicle design requirements. The effect on Shuttle thrust imbalance from the use of replacement SRM segments is predicted. Comparisons of observed thrust imbalances with respect to predicted imbalances are presented for the two space shuttle flights which used replacement aft segments (STS-9 and STS-13).

  9. STS-38 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-40/LWT-33), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2022, 2027), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-039. The STS-38 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as much, the classified portions of the mission are not presented in this report. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystem during the mission are summarized and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Space Shuttle Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  10. Main propulsion system test requirements for the two-engine Shuttle-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, E. E.; Platt, G. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Shuttle-C is an unmanned cargo carrying derivative of the space shuttle with optional two or three space shuttle main engines (SSME's), whereas the shuttle has three SSME's. Design and operational differences between the Shuttle-C and shuttle were assessed to determine requirements for additional main propulsion system (MPS) verification testing. Also, reviews were made of the shuttle main propulsion test program objectives and test results and shuttle flight experience. It was concluded that, if significant MPS modifications are not made beyond those currently planned, then main propulsion system verification can be concluded with an on-pad flight readiness firing.

  11. Shuttle being tested at Marshall Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Ground vibration tests of the space shuttle vehicle performed to evaluate the structural dynamics and their effect on the control system of the shuttle are described. Test results are used to verify the system design and mathematical models that predict how the shuttle's control system will react to the much more severe vibrations expected during launch and flight into orbit. The test configurations, the test facility, and the dynamic test suspension system are among the topics discussed.

  12. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  13. STS-63 Space Shuttle report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-63 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during this sixty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-second since the return to flight, and twentieth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the OV-103 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-68; three SSME's that were designated 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-070. The RSRM's that were an integral part of the SRB's were designated 360Q042A for the left SRB and 360L042B for the right SRB. The STS-63 mission was planned as an 8-day duration mission with two contingency days available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The primary objectives of the STS-63 mission were to perform the Mir rendezvous operations, accomplish the Spacehab-3 experiments, and deploy and retrieve the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy-204 (SPARTAN-204) payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the Cryogenic Systems Experiment (CSE)/Shuttle Glo-2 Experiment (GLO-2) Payload (CGP)/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS-2) (CGP/ODERACS-2) payload objectives, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Tests (AMOS). The objectives of the Mir rendezvous/flyby were to verify flight techniques, communication and navigation-aid sensor interfaces, and engineering analyses associated with Shuttle/Mir proximity operations in preparation for the STS-71 docking mission.

  14. Liftoff of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a complement of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest Shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995.

  15. Liftoff of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a compliment of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest Shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995.

  16. Launch of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a complement of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995. In this view the fence line near the launch pad is evident in the foreground.

  17. A Lifeline Home: Goddard's Final Shuttle Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Controllers at Goddard's Network Integration Center share their thoughts as the 30-year-old Shuttle Program comes to an end with the final flight of STS-135, which concluded with a textbook landing...

  18. Shuttle mission simulator software conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Software conceptual designs (SCD) are presented for meeting the simulator requirements for the shuttle missions. The major areas of the SCD discussed include: malfunction insertion, flight software, applications software, systems software, and computer complex.

  19. Student Experiments Fly with the Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Walter; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes various experiments which high school students are preparing, to be carried on NASA's 500 or more Space Shuttle flights in the 1980s. The project is intended to stimulate superior secondary school students. (SA)

  20. NASA's Original Shuttle Carrier Departs Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) No. 905, departed NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Oct. 24, 2012 for the final time, ending a 38-year association with the NASA field center at Ed...

  1. Evaluation philosophy for shuttle launched payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Potential benefits of factory-to-pad testing constitute major cost savings and increase test effectiveness. Overall flight performance will be improved. The factory-to-pad approach is compatible with space shuttle processing and the large space telescope program.

  2. Space shuttle orbiter avionics software: Post review report for the entry FACI (First Article Configuration Inspection). [including orbital flight tests integrated system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markos, H.

    1978-01-01

    Status of the computer programs dealing with space shuttle orbiter avionics is reported. Specific topics covered include: delivery status; SSW software; SM software; DL software; GNC software; level 3/4 testing; level 5 testing; performance analysis, SDL readiness for entry first article configuration inspection; and verification assessment.

  3. Space Shuttle development update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, V.

    1984-01-01

    The development efforts, since the STS-4 flight, in the Space Shuttle (SS) program are presented. The SS improvements introduced in the last two years include lower-weight loads, communication through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, expanded extravehicular activity capability, a maneuvering backpack and the manipulator foot restraint, the improvements in thermal projection system, the 'optional terminal area management targeting' guidance software, a rendezvous system with radar and star tracker sensors, and improved on-orbit living conditions. The flight demonstrations include advanced launch techniques (e.g., night launch and direct insertion to orbit); the on-orbit demonstrations; and added entry and launching capabilities. The entry aerodynamic analysis and entry flight control fine tuning are described. Reusability, improved ascent performance, intact abort and landing flexibility, rollout control, and 'smart speedbrakes' are among the many improvements planned for the future.

  4. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  5. Shuttle ascent GN&C postflight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcswain, G.

    1983-01-01

    The key features of the ascent and Guidance navigation, and control (GN and C) system are discussed. How well this system performed during the orbital flight test program is examined. Flight results are compared with preflight predictions and postflight reconstructions. Variations from expected performance are identified as well as flight-to-flight trends. The most notable variation was the lofted trajectory observed on the Space Transportation System 1 flight. The lessons learned from the orbital flight test program are being used to enhance the overall system performance for future Shuttle flights. Several of the planned GN and C system enhancements are discussed.

  6. Astronaut Curtis Brown works with SAMS on Shuttle Atlantis middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Atlantis' mid-deck, astronaut Curtis L. Brown, pilot, works with the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), which is making its eleventh Shuttle flight. This system supports the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiments onboard by collecting and recording data characterizing the microgravity environment in the Shuttle mid-deck.

  7. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video is an edited approach and landing of the Enterprise on Rogers Dry Lake. The air-to-air shot of the Space Shuttle at a few thousand feet above the lakebed, gives some idea of the steepness required for a Shuttle approach; also note the long pitot tube (an appendage used only for flight testing) extending from the Space Shuttle nose.

  8. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-03-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  9. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  10. Spectral characteristics of Shuttle glow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viereck, R. A.; Mende, S. B.; Murad, E.; Swenson, G. R.; Pike, C. P.; Culbertson, F. L.; Springer, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The glowing cloud near the ram surfaces of the Space Shuttle was observed with a hand-held, intensified spectrograph operated by the astronauts from the aft-flight-deck of the Space Shuttle. The spectral measurements were made between 400 and 800 nm with a resolution of 3 nm. Analysis of the spectral response of the instrument and the transmission of the Shuttle window was performed on orbit using earth-airglow OH Meinel bands. This analysis resulted in a correction of the Shuttle glow intensity in the spectral region between 700 and 800 nm. The data presented in this report is in better agreement with laboratory measurements of the NO2 continuum.

  11. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  12. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  13. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  14. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  15. Shuttle freezer conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design for a kit freezer for operation onboard shuttle was developed. The freezer features a self-contained unit which can be mounted in the orbiter crew compartment and is capable of storing food at launch and returning with medical samples. Packaging schemes were investigated to provide the optimum storage capacity with a minimum weight and volume penalty. Several types of refrigeration systems were evaluated to select one which would offer the most efficient performance and lowest hazard of safety to the crew. Detailed performance data on the selected, Stirling cycle principled refrigeration unit were developed to validate the feasibility of its application to this freezer. Thermal analyses were performed to determine the adequacy of the thermal insulation to maintain the desired storage temperature with the design cooling capacity. Stress analyses were made to insure the design structure integrity could be maintained over the shuttle flight regime. A proposed prototype freezer development plan is presented.

  16. Space Shuttle Launch: STS-129

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-129. Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member crew began an 11-day delivery flight to the International Space Station on Monday, Nov 16, 2009, with a 2:28 p.m. EST launch from NASA's Kennedy S...

  17. The Space Shuttle At Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaway, Howard

    This report describes the Space Shuttle vehicles and is prepared by the Scientific and Technical Information Branch and Division of Public Affairs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The book is divided into nine chapters including information about the launching, flight, and orbit of the ships; the satellites and previous space…

  18. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  19. The fungicidal and phytotoxic properties of benomyl and PPM in supplemented agar media supporting transgenic arabidopsis plants for a Space Shuttle flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, A. L.; Semer, C.; Kucharek, T.; Ferl, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal contamination is a significant problem in the use of sucrose-enriched agar-based media for plant culture, especially in closed habitats such as the Space Shuttle. While a variety of fungicides are commercially available, not all are equal in their effectiveness in inhibiting fungal contamination. In addition, fungicide effectiveness must be weighed against its phytotoxicity and in this case, its influence on transgene expression. In a series of experiments designed to optimize media composition for a recent shuttle mission, the fungicide benomyl and the biocide "Plant Preservative Mixture" (PPM) were evaluated for effectiveness in controlling three common fungal contaminants, as well as their impact on the growth and development of arabidopsis seedlings. Benomyl proved to be an effective inhibitor of all three contaminants in concentrations as low as 2 ppm (parts per million) within the agar medium, and no evidence of phytotoxicity was observed until concentrations exceeded 20 ppm. The biocide mix PPM was effective as a fungicide only at concentrations that had deleterious effects on arabidopsis seedlings. As a result of these findings, a concentration of 3 ppm benomyl was used in the media for experiment PGIM-01 which flew on shuttle Columbia mission STS-93 in July 1999.

  20. The fungicidal and phytotoxic properties of benomyl and PPM in supplemented agar media supporting transgenic arabidopsis plants for a Space Shuttle flight experiment.

    PubMed

    Paul, A L; Semer, C; Kucharek, T; Ferl, R J

    2001-05-01

    Fungal contamination is a significant problem in the use of sucrose-enriched agar-based media for plant culture, especially in closed habitats such as the Space Shuttle. While a variety of fungicides are commercially available, not all are equal in their effectiveness in inhibiting fungal contamination. In addition, fungicide effectiveness must be weighed against its phytotoxicity and in this case, its influence on transgene expression. In a series of experiments designed to optimize media composition for a recent shuttle mission, the fungicide benomyl and the biocide "Plant Preservative Mixture" (PPM) were evaluated for effectiveness in controlling three common fungal contaminants, as well as their impact on the growth and development of arabidopsis seedlings. Benomyl proved to be an effective inhibitor of all three contaminants in concentrations as low as 2 ppm (parts per million) within the agar medium, and no evidence of phytotoxicity was observed until concentrations exceeded 20 ppm. The biocide mix PPM was effective as a fungicide only at concentrations that had deleterious effects on arabidopsis seedlings. As a result of these findings, a concentration of 3 ppm benomyl was used in the media for experiment PGIM-01 which flew on shuttle Columbia mission STS-93 in July 1999.

  1. Electromagnetic Compatibility for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). It includes an overview of the design of the shuttle with the areas that are of concern for the electromagnetic compatibility. It includes discussion of classical electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the work performed to control the electromagnetic interference. Another area of interest is electrostatic charging and the threat of electrostatic discharge and the attempts to reduce damage to the Shuttle from these possible hazards. The issue of electrical bonding is als reviewed. Lastly the presentation reviews the work performed to protect the shuttle from lightning, both in flight and on the ground.

  2. STS-40 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-40 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-first flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-41 (LWT-34), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-044. The primary objective of the STS-40 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Getaway Special (GAS) payloads and the Middeck O-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) payload.

  3. Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Kapanka, Heidi; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    The sleep patterns of 58 Space Shuttle crew members are analyzed statistically on the basis of debriefing forms filled out within 3 days postflight. The data are compiled in a table, and photographs of typical sleep conditions on the Shuttle are provided. It is found that sleep disruption is relatively common on Shuttle missions, especially on the first and last days. Sleep medication was used by 19.4 percent of crew on single-shift flights and 50 percent of crew on dual-shift flights.

  4. The shuttle development and its growth potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, William E.; Dean, Janet L.

    During the next two decades, we will establish the foundation for the 21st century's accomplishments in space. The Space Shuttle vehicle will become the cornerstone for that foundation by providing economical opportunities for space exploration and utilization. Reusability of the Shuttle vehicle is the key to its economy. The major developmental challenges encountered in the Shuttle program are typified by the complexities involved in designing the reusable propulsion and thermal protection subsystems. We successfully met such challenges and are nearing the launch of the first Shuttle orbital flight. Our immediate goal is to enter the Space Shuttle operational phase because only then will we fully understand the unique capabilities of the Shuttle. Concurrent with our effort to begin Shuttle operations are our initial efforts to expand Shuttle capabilities, extending them significantly beyond those of the current baseline system. Shuttle payload capacity and mission-duration capabilities are to increase considerably during the next decade. Just as present Shuttle performance specifications and development timetables were guided by the space program plans and forecasts of the 1960s, so will the development of long-range space programs be determined by our near-future achievements. We anticipate that the Space Shuttle will play a critical role in those achievements.

  5. STS-26: The return to flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The major activities leading up to the return to flight of the Space Shuttles are summarized. Major orbiter modifications and solid rocket motor redesign are described. Shuttle payloads are discussed briefly. Also provided are the biographies of the crew.

  6. Space shuttle navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Sciabarrasi, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of space shuttle navigation for each of the major mission phases is presented. A covariance analysis program for prelaunch IMU calibration and alignment for the orbital flight tests (OFT) is described, and a partial error budget is presented. The ascent, orbital operations and deorbit maneuver study considered GPS-aided inertial navigation in the Phase III GPS (1984+) time frame. The entry and landing study evaluated navigation performance for the OFT baseline system. Detailed error budgets and sensitivity analyses are provided for both the ascent and entry studies.

  7. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On Launch Pad 39A, the Rotating Service Structure has rolled back to reveal Space Shuttle Atlantis poised for launch. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  8. STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

  9. Lunar shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, P.; Garcia, M.; Higham, D.; Spackman, D.; Garcia, J.; Chapman, T.; Cook, M.; Jelke, J.; Slingerland, G.; Anderson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the extension of human presence into the solar system include the establishment of a permanently occupied base on the Moon for use as a source of raw materials, a transportation node, a facility for the fabrication and launch of elements of the space exploration infrastructure, and a base for scientific investigation and astronomical observatories. All of the aforementioned uses of a lunar base foresee the requirement for a lunar shuttle to operate from the lunar surface to one or more orbiting space stations located in low lunar orbits (LLO). The Utah State University lunar shuttle design is baslined for implementation after a mature lunar base has been established. The shuttle is designed to operate between the lunar base and a space station located in a 400-km-altitude orbit. This orbit was chosen with reference to Apollo experience, which has indicated that very low orbits, on the order of 100-km, may be unstable over periods of many months. After a thorough investigation of the anticipated needs and production capabilities of a lunar base, several design requirements were placed upon the shuttle. These requirements are (1) maximum use of lunar-derived propellant; (2) modularity and payload versatility; (3) two-way transport of 25-metric-ton cargo; (4) human transport capability; (5) satellite servicing; and (6) 3000-kg mass budget.

  10. Shuttle entry guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  11. Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-47 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke on September 12, 1992. The primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was the Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  12. A Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brose, H. F.; Stanley, M. D.; Leblanc, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System (RSECS) provides a ground test bed to be used in the early accumulation of component and system operating data, the evaluation of potential system improvements, and possibly the analysis of Shuttle Orbiter test and flight anomalies. Selected components are being subjected to long term tests to determine endurance and corrosion resistance capability prior to Orbiter vehicle experience. Component and system level tests in several cases are being used to support flight certification of Orbiter hardware. These activities are conducted as a development program to allow for timeliness, flexibility, and cost effectiveness not possible in a program burdened by flight documentation and monitoring constraints.

  13. STS-48 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-48 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-42 (LUT-35); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-046. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L018A for the left SRB and 360L018B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the flight was to successfully deploy the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) payload.

  14. STS-39 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2026, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-043. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), Air Force Payload (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-1, and the Multipurpose Experiment Canister (MPEC) payloads.

  15. Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guodace, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

  16. Space shuttle flying qualities and criteria assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1987-01-01

    Work accomplished under a series of study tasks for the Flying Qualities and Flight Control Systems Design Criteria Experiment (OFQ) of the Shuttle Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is summarized. The tasks involved review of applicability of existing flying quality and flight control system specification and criteria for the Shuttle; identification of potentially crucial flying quality deficiencies; dynamic modeling of the Shuttle Orbiter pilot/vehicle system in the terminal flight phases; devising a nonintrusive experimental program for extraction and identification of vehicle dynamics, pilot control strategy, and approach and landing performance metrics, and preparation of an OEX approach to produce a data archive and optimize use of the data to develop flying qualities for future space shuttle craft in general. Analytic modeling of the Orbiter's unconventional closed-loop dynamics in landing, modeling pilot control strategies, verification of vehicle dynamics and pilot control strategy from flight data, review of various existent or proposed aircraft flying quality parameters and criteria in comparison with the unique dynamic characteristics and control aspects of the Shuttle in landing; and finally a summary of conclusions and recommendations for developing flying quality criteria and design guides for future Shuttle craft.

  17. Closed loop performance of a brushless dc motor powered electromechanical actuator for flight control applications. [computerized simulation for Shuttle Orbiter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis and possible optimization of the closed loop dynamic (instantaneous) performance of a power conditioner fed, brushless dc motor powered, electromechanical actuator system (EMA) is presented. This model was developed for the simulation of the dynamic performance of an actual prototype EMA built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators for consideration in Space Shuttle Orbiter applications. Excellent correlation was achieved between numerical model simulation and experimental test results obtained from the actual hardware. These results include: various current and voltage waveforms in the machine-power conditioner (MPC) unit, flap position as well as other control loop variables in response to step commands of change of flap position. These results with consequent conclusions are detailed in the paper.

  18. STS-67 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-67 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides the results of the orbiter vehicle performance evaluation during this sixty-eighth flight of the Shuttle Program, the forty-third flight since the return to flight, and the eighth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition, the report summarizes the payload activities and the performance of the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The serial numbers of the other elements of the flight vehicle were ET-69 for the ET; 2012, 2033, and 2031 for SSME's 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and Bl-071 for the SRB's. The left-hand RSRM was designated 360W043A, and the right-hand RSRM was designated 360L043B. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the ultraviolet astronomy (ASTRO-2) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Protein Crystal Growth - Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES), the Protein Crystal Growth - Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus ITA Experiments (CMIX), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), and two Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  19. Shuttle operations, maintenance, and safety.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beddingfield, S. T.

    1971-01-01

    Review of a systematic search for practical solutions in the areas of space shuttle cryogenics, flight operations, ground operations, and safety. The insulation of the main-propulsion hydrogen tanks for both booster and orbiter to prevent water condensation is considered, as well as the insulation of the orbiter's orbital cryogen tanks for ground storage. Two approaches to the feeding of cryogens are outlined - namely, an approach depending on a periodic axial force to settle propellants and refill the basket, and a method of continuous feed through a capillary network adjacent to the walls throughout the tank, the latter method being independent of vehicle thrust. The development of reliable cryogen components is discussed, and the results of studies of launch-abort problems, shuttle approach and landing techniques, and the tolerance of ?deconditioned' crew and passengers to shuttle reentry g-loads are cited.

  20. Life sciences payloads for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Life Sciences Program for utilization of the Shuttle in the 1980's is presented. Requirements for life sciences research experiments in space flight are discussed along with study results of designs to meet these requirements. The span of life sciences interests in biomedicine, biology, man system integration, bioinstrumentation and life support/protective systems is described with a listing of the research areas encompassed in these descriptions. This is followed by a description of the approach used to derive from the life sciences disciplines, the research functions and instrumentation required for an orbital research program. Space Shuttle design options for life sciences experiments are identified and described. Details are presented for Spacelab laboratories for dedicated missions, mini-labs with carry on characteristics and carry on experiments for shared payload missions and free flying satellites to be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle.

  1. Space shuttle and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  2. Operational Use of GPS Navigation for Space Shuttle Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Propst, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The STS-118 flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was the first shuttle mission flown with three Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in place of the three legacy Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) units. This marked the conclusion of a 15 year effort involving procurement, missionization, integration, and flight testing of a GPS receiver and a parallel effort to formulate and implement shuttle computer software changes to support GPS. The use of GPS data from a single receiver in parallel with TACAN during entry was successfully demonstrated by the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis during four shuttle missions in 2006 and 2007. This provided the confidence needed before flying the first all GPS, no TACAN flight with Endeavour. A significant number of lessons were learned concerning the integration of a software intensive navigation unit into a legacy avionics system. These lessons have been taken into consideration during vehicle design by other flight programs, including the vehicle that will replace the Space Shuttle, Orion.

  3. NASA Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Adrien

    2010-01-01

    The genesis of the space shuttle began in the 1930's when Eugene Sanger came up with the idea of a recyclable rocket plane that could carry a crew of people. The very first Shuttle to enter space was the Shuttle "Columbia" which launched on April 12 of 1981. Not only was "Columbia" the first Shuttle to be launched, but was also the first to utilize solid fuel rockets for U.S. manned flight. The primary objectives given to "Columbia" were to check out the overall Shuttle system, accomplish a safe ascent into orbit, and to return back to earth for a safe landing. Subsequent to its first flight Columbia flew 27 more missions but on February 1st, 2003 after a highly successful 16 day mission, the Columbia, STS-107 mission, ended in tragedy. With all Shuttle flight successes come failures such as the fatal in-flight accident of STS 107. As a result of the STS 107 accident, and other close-calls, the NASA Space Shuttle Program developed contingency procedures for a rescue mission by another Shuttle if an on-orbit repair was not possible. A rescue mission would be considered for a situation where a Shuttle and the crew were not in immediate danger, but, was unable to return to Earth or land safely. For Shuttle missions to the International Space Station (ISS), plans were developed so the Shuttle crew would remain on board ISS for an extended period of time until rescued by a "rescue" Shuttle. The damaged Shuttle would subsequently be de-orbited unmanned. During the period when the ISS Crew and Shuttle crew are on board simultaneously multiple issues would need to be worked including, but not limited to: crew diet, exercise, psychological support, workload, and ground contingency support

  4. STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment

  5. The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brose, H. F.; Greenwood, F. H.; Thompson, C. D.; Willis, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System (RSECS) program was conceived to provide NASA with a prototype system representative of the Shuttle Environmental Control System (ECS). Discussed are the RSECS program objectives, predicated on updating and adding to the early system as required to retain its usefulness during the Shuttle ECS development and qualification effort. Ultimately, RSECS will be replaced with a flight-designed system using either refurbished development or qualification equipment to provide NASA with a flight simulation capability during the Shuttle missions. The RSECS air revitalization subsystem and the waste management support subsystem are being tested. A water coolant subsystem and a freon coolant subsystem are in the development and planning phases.

  6. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise

  7. Shuttle Era: Launch Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space shuttle launch director is the leader of the complex choreography that goes into a shuttle liftoff. Ten people have served as shuttle launch directors, making the final decision whether the...

  8. Shuttle interaction study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implications of using the Shuttle with the SOC were analyzed, including constraints that the Shuttle places upon the SOC design. All the considerations involved in the use of the shuttle as a part of the SOC concept were identified.

  9. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  10. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  11. The space shuttle at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of the orbital flight of the space shuttle and the development of the space transportation system are addressed. How the system came to be, why it is designed the way it is, what is expected of it, and how it may grow are among the questions considered. Emphasis is placed on the effect of the space transportation system on U.S. space exploration in the next decade, including plans to make space an extension of life on the Earth's surface.

  12. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  13. Shuttle ascent guidance and control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovingood, J. A.; Blair, J. C.; Geissler, E. O.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements of a unified optimal guidance scheme are discussed, giving attention to a general formulation, aspects of self-targeting, problems of optimum guidance within the atmosphere, and a unified concept for all flight phases. Since no previous guidance scheme meets these requirements, the shuttle demands a fundamentally new approach. A new unified optimal guidance scheme, called Mascot, was developed. The capabilities of Mascot include the real-time solution of general trajectory-optimization problems and the unification of guidance for all flight phases.

  14. Designing the Space Shuttle Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David; VanHooser, Kathrine; Wlzyn, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. Both the solid rocket motors and the space shuttle main engine throttle during early ascent flight to limit aerodynamic loads on the structure. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, and the SSME's continue operation to achieve orbital velocity approximately eight and a half minutes after liftoff. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970 s. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper discusses a number of the system level technical challenges including development and operations.

  15. STS-36 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mechelay, Joseph E.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-36 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle and the sixth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, Atlantis. In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-33/LWT-26), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2029), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) (designated as BI-036). The STS-36 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as such, the classified portions of the mission are not discussed. The unclassified sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  16. STS-49: Space shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-49 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the first flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavor vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-43 (LWT-36); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's designated as BI-050. The lightweight RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated as 360L022A for the left RSRM and 360L022B for the right RSRM.

  17. STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

  18. STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

  19. Astronauts Weitz and Bobko log some training time in flight deck mock-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Astronauts Paul J. Weitz, right, and Karol J. Bobko log some training time in the flight deck of the engineering mockup for the Space Shuttle orbiter in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. Both are wearing flight suits and helmets.

  20. Impact Testing on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Flat Panels With BX-265 and PDL-1034 External Tank Foam for the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, Michael J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Orbiter Columbia (STS-107) on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the space shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) along with ice and foam debris materials, which could shed on ascent and impact the orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.) to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: Level 1-fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic constitutive model properties of materials of interest, Level 2-subcomponent impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and Level 3-full-scale orbiter leading-edge impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This report discusses the Level 2 test program conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Ballistic Impact Laboratory with external tank foam impact tests on flat RCC panels, and presents the data observed. The Level 2 testing consisted of 54 impact tests in the NASA GRC Ballistic Impact Laboratory on 6- by 6-in. and 6- by 12-in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated two types of debris projectiles: BX-265 and PDL-1034 external tank foam. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile and validated the use of the foam and RCC models for use in LS-DYNA.

  1. Space Shuttle stability and control test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a completely automatic flight test program to test different aspects of the Shuttle flight capability during reentries is described. Data from each flight to date has been employed to devise a sequence of maneuvers which will be keyboard-punched into the Orbiter control system by the astronauts during entry phases of flight. Details of the interaction and cooperation of the Orbiter elevons and bodyflap to provide the vehicle with latitudinal and longitudinal directional control and trim are outlined. Uncertainties predicted for the control of the Orbiter during wind tunnel testing prior to actual flights have been adjusted to actual flight data, leading to the identification of actual flight regimes which need further investigation. Maneuvers scheduled for flights 5-9 are reviewed.

  2. STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

  3. STS-64 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-66; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-068. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L041 A for the left SRB, and 360L041 B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and to deploy the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) -201 payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the planned activities of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment - 2 (SAREX-2), the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) payload, the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS) payload.

  4. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  5. Shuttle crew station astronaut interfaces. [human factors engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    The current shuttle orbiter configuration and its crew module and payload bay accomodations for work and off duty activities are described. The capability of the remote manipulator system and provisions to support extravehicular activities are examined with emphasis on flight crew activities for orbital flight tests and for early operational space transportation system flights. Facilities used to verify crew interfaces are also described.

  6. Shuttle Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, Jack L.; Harding, David J.; Garvin, James B.

    1999-01-01

    The Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) is a Hitchhiker experiment that has flown twice; first on STS-72 in January 1996 and then on STS-85 in August 1997. Both missions produced successful laser altimetry and surface lidar data products from approximately 80 hours per mission of SLA data operations. A total of four Shuttle missions are planned for the SLA series. This paper documents SLA mission results and explains SLA pathfinder accomplishments at the mid-point in this series of Hitchhiker missions. The overall objective of the SLA mission series is the transition of the Goddard Space Flight Center airborne laser altimeter and lidar technology to low Earth orbit as a pathfinder for NASA operational space-based laser remote sensing devices. Future laser altimeter sensors will utilize systems and approaches being tested with SLA, including the Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter (MBLA) and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). MBLA is the land and vegetation laser sensor for the NASA Earth System Sciences Pathfinder Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Mission, and GLAS is the Earth Observing System facility instrument on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter, now well into a multi-year mapping mission at the red planet, is also directly benefiting from SLA data analysis methods, just as SLA benefited from MOLA spare parts and instrument technology experience [5] during SLA construction in the early 1990s.

  7. Shuttle Student Involvement Project for Secondary Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. P.; Ladwig, A.

    1981-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated the Shuttle Student Involvement Project for Secondary Schools (SSIP-S), an annual nationwide competition to select student proposals for experiments suitable for flight aboard the Space Shuttle. The objective of the project is to stimulate the study of science and technology in grades 9 through 12 by directly relating students to a space research program. This paper will analyze the first year of the project from a standpoint of how the competition was administered; the number and types of proposals that were submitted; and will discuss the process involved in preparing the winning experiments for eventual flight.

  8. Space Shuttle Orbital Drag Parachute Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The drag parachute system was added to the Space Shuttle Orbiter's landing deceleration subsystem beginning with flight STS-49 in May 1992. The addition of this subsystem to an existing space vehicle required a detailed set of ground tests and analyses. The aerodynamic design and performance testing of the system consisted of wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations, pilot-in-the-loop simulations, and full-scale testing. This analysis and design resulted in a fully qualified system that is deployed on every flight of the Space Shuttle.

  9. Use of PRA in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri L.

    2010-01-01

    How do you use PRA to support an operating program? This presentation will explore how the Shuttle Program Management has used the Shuttle PRA in its decision making process. It will reveal how the PRA has evolved from a tool used to evaluate Shuttle upgrades like Electric Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) to a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and real-time flight decisions. Specific examples of Shuttle Program decisions that have used the Shuttle PRA as input will be provided including how it was used in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) manifest decision. It will discuss the importance of providing management with a clear presentation of the analysis, applicable assumptions and limitations, along with estimates of the uncertainty. This presentation will show how the use of PRA by the Shuttle Program has evolved overtime and how it has been used in the decision making process providing specific examples.

  10. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Trailing a column of flame-bright smoke, Space Shuttle Atlantis clears the lightning rod on Launch Pad 39A as it climbs into the early evening sky. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:00 p.m. EST.

  11. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- It'''s tail bathed in light, Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into space on mission STS-98. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:00 p.m. EST.

  12. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis leaps up from the flames and smoke behind it as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A into the early evening sky. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:00 p.m. EST.

  13. STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  14. STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  15. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  16. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  17. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  18. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  19. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  20. STS-75 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-75 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fiftieth flight since the return-to-flight, and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-76; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2029, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-078. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-53, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRMs were designated as 36OW53A for the left SRB, and 36OW053B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Tethered Satellite System-1 R (TSS-1R), and the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3). The secondary objectives were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and to meet the requirements of the Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) facility and the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment. Appendix A provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used thorughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  1. STS-73 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-73 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-seventh flight since the return-to-flight, and the eighteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). STS-73 was also the first flight of OV-102 following the vehicle's return from the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-73; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037 (Block 1), 2031 (PH-1), and 2038 (Block 1) in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-075. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-50, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL050A for the left SRB, and 36OW050B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-2 payload.

  2. Shuttle vehicle and mission simulation requirements report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for the space shuttle vehicle and mission simulation are developed to analyze the systems, mission, operations, and interfaces. The requirements are developed according to the following subject areas: (1) mission envelope, (2) orbit flight dynamics, (3) shuttle vehicle systems, (4) external interfaces, (5) crew procedures, (6) crew station, (7) visual cues, and (8) aural cues. Line drawings and diagrams of the space shuttle are included to explain the various systems and components.

  3. STS-71 Shuttle/Mir mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimpfer, Douglas J.

    1995-01-01

    The performance measurements of the space shuttle on-orbit flight control system from the STS-71 mission is presented in this post-flight analysis report. This system is crucial to the stabilization of large space structures and will be needed during the assembly of the International Space Station A mission overview is presented, including the in-orbit flight tests (pre-docking with Mir) and the systems analysis during the docking and undocking operations. Systems errors and lessons learned are discussed, with possible corrective procedures presented for the upcoming Mir flight tests.

  4. Space Flight: The First 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A history of space flight from Project Mercury to the Space Shuttle is told from the perspective of NASA flight programs. Details are given on Mercury missions, Gemini missions, Apollo missions, Skylab missions, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and the Space Shuttle missions.

  5. STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  6. STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

  7. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  8. 14 CFR 1214.802 - Relationship to Shuttle policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to Shuttle policy. 1214.802 Section 1214.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.802 Relationship to Shuttle policy. Except as specifically noted,...

  9. 14 CFR 1214.802 - Relationship to Shuttle policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relationship to Shuttle policy. 1214.802 Section 1214.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.802 Relationship to Shuttle policy. Except as specifically noted,...

  10. 14 CFR § 1214.802 - Relationship to Shuttle policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relationship to Shuttle policy. § 1214.802 Section § 1214.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.802 Relationship to Shuttle policy. Except as specifically noted,...

  11. 14 CFR 1214.802 - Relationship to Shuttle policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Relationship to Shuttle policy. 1214.802 Section 1214.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.802 Relationship to Shuttle policy. Except as specifically noted,...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.802 - Relationship to Shuttle policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relationship to Shuttle policy. 1214.802 Section 1214.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.802 Relationship to Shuttle policy. Except as specifically noted,...

  13. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Off-Loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  14. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Off-Loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters were vertically mated.

  15. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Off-Loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  16. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Arrives at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise atop a 747 landing at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  17. Space Shuttle payload accommodation and trends in customer demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, Daniel L.; Wilson, James R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review payload demands for Shuttle resources and services in the pre-Space Station Freedom time frame. Requests for flight in both the Orbiter cargo bay and middeck will be considered. Factors limiting more efficient use of the Shuttle will also be discussed.

  18. The Next Generation: Access and Opportunity in Continuing Higher Education. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Continuing Higher Education (70th, Nashville, Tennessee, November 8-11, 2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrineau, Irene T., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    These proceedings record the 70th Annual Conference and Meeting of ACHE (Association for Continuing Higher Education) held at the Gaylord Opryland Resort and Convention Center in Nashville, Tennessee. The conference theme, "The Next Generation: Access and Opportunity in CHE" challenged attendees to think about the coming new age and its…

  19. Mate-Demate Device Was Critical to Shuttle Support

    NASA Video Gallery

    The large gantry-like steel structures at the Dryden Flight Research Center and Kennedy Space Center essential to the Space Shuttle Program, being used to hoist the orbiters off the ground during p...

  20. View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly when the hydrodynamic supports were not engaged (removed from structure). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. Astronaut Judith Resnik in the Shuttle mission simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Judith A. Resnik, 41-D mission specialist, prepares to climb some steps leading to the flight deck portion of JSC's Shuttle mission simulator (SMS) in preparation for training for her 41-D mission.

  2. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.

  3. Shuttle Propulsion Overview - The Design Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates, about eight and a half minutes into the flight, after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, with only the SSME s continuing operation to achieve orbital velocity. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970's. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper describes the design challenges and key areas where the design evolved during the program.

  4. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lights on the Fixed Service Structure give a holiday impression at Launch Pad 39A where Space Shuttle Atlantis is poised for launch. Above the yellow-orange external tank is the Gaseous Oxygen Vent Arm, with the '''beanie cap''' vent hood raised. Before cryogenic loading, the hood will be lowered into position over the external tank vent louvers to vent gaseous oxygen vapors away from the Shuttle. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  5. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Debris Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Kristin; Kanner, Howard; Yu, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident revealed a fundamental problem of the Space Shuttle Program regarding debris. Prior to the tragedy, the Space Shuttle requirement stated that no debris should be liberated that would jeopardize the flight crew and/or mission success. When the accident investigation determined that a large piece of foam debris was the primary cause of the loss of the shuttle and crew, it became apparent that the risk and scope of - damage that could be caused by certain types of debris, especially - ice and foam, were not fully understood. There was no clear understanding of the materials that could become debris, the path the debris might take during flight, the structures the debris might impact or the damage the impact might cause. In addition to supporting the primary NASA and USA goal of returning the Space Shuttle to flight by understanding the SRB debris environment and capability to withstand that environment, the SRB debris assessment project was divided into four primary tasks that were required to be completed to support the RTF goal. These tasks were (1) debris environment definition, (2) impact testing, (3) model correlation and (4) hardware evaluation. Additionally, the project aligned with USA's corporate goals of safety, customer satisfaction, professional development and fiscal accountability.

  6. Shuttle Performance: Lessons Learned, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, J. P. (Compiler); Jones, J. J. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Beginning with the first orbital flight of the Space Shuttle, a great wealth of flight data became available to the aerospace community. These data were immediately subjected to analyses by several different groups with different viewpoints and motivations. The results were collected and presented in several papers in the subject areas of ascent and entry aerodynaics; guidance, navigation, and control; aerothermal environment prediction; thermal protection systems; and measurement techniques.

  7. Hydrazine Gas Generator Program. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusak, L.; Marcy, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a flight gas generator for the space shuttle were investigated. Critical performance parameters and stability criteria were evaluated as well as a scaling laws that could be applied in designing the flight gas generator. A test program to provide the necessary design information was included. A structural design, including thermal and stress analysis, and two gas generators were fabricated based on the results. Conclusions are presented.

  8. STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  9. NASA's Boeing 747 SCA with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top climbs out after takeoff from Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top climbs out after takeoff from Edwards Air Force Base on the first leg of its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  10. Descent guidance and mission planning for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle descent mission planning, mission design, deorbit targeting, and entry guidance have necessarily become interrelated because of the nature of the Orbiter's design and mission requirements. The desired descent trajectory has been formulated in a drag acceleration/relative velocity state space since nearly all of the vehicle's highly constraining flight limitations can be uniquely represented in this plane. Constraints and flight requirements that affect the descent are described. The guidance logic which allows the Orbiter to follow the designed trajectory, the impacts of contingency aborts and flightcrew interaction are discussed. The mission planning and guidance techniques remain essentially unchanged through the Shuttle flight test program and subsequent operational flights.

  11. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  12. Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, < 16 days and routinely had 4 to 6 crewmembers for a total of 135 flights. Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and

  13. Shuttle Hitchhiker Experiment Launcher System (SHELS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daelemans, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP), in partnership with the United States Air Force and NASA's Explorer Program, is developing a Shuttle based launch system called SHELS (Shuttle Hitchhiker Experiment Launcher System), which shall be capable of launching up to a 400 pound spacecraft from the Shuttle cargo bay. SHELS consists of a Marman band clamp push-plate ejection system mounted to a launch structure; the launch structure is mounted to one Orbiter sidewall adapter beam. Avionics mounted to the adapter beam will interface with Orbiter electrical services and provide optional umbilical services and ejection circuitry. SHELS provides an array of manifesting possibilities to a wide range of satellites.

  14. NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. “When I hear people say, or listen to media reports [that indicate], that the final shuttle flight marks the end of U.S. human spaceflight, I have to say, ‘these folks must be living on another planet.’ We are not ending human spaceflight; we are recommitting ourselves to it and taking the necessary and difficult steps today to ensure America's preeminence in human space exploration for years to come.”

  15. Particulate contaminant relocation during shuttle ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The dislodgement, venting, and redeposition of particles on a surface in the shuttle bay by the vibroacoustic, gravitational, and aerodynamic forces present during shuttle ascent have been investigated. The particles of different sizes which are displaced, vented, and redistributed have been calculated; and an estimate of the increased number of particles on certain surfaces and the decrease on others has been indicated. The average sizes, velocities, and length of time for certain particles to leave the bay following initial shuttle doors opening and thermal tests have been calculated based on indirect data obtained during several shuttle flights. Suggestions for future measurements and observations to characterize the particulate environment and the techniques to limit the in-orbit particulate contamination of surfaces and environment have been offered.

  16. STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

  17. Advanced Space Shuttle simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; Smith, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A non-recursive model (based on von Karman spectra) for atmospheric turbulence along the flight path of the shuttle orbiter was developed. It provides for simulation of instantaneous vertical and horizontal gusts at the vehicle center-of-gravity, and also for simulation of instantaneous gusts gradients. Based on this model the time series for both gusts and gust gradients were generated and stored on a series of magnetic tapes, entitled Shuttle Simulation Turbulence Tapes (SSTT). The time series are designed to represent atmospheric turbulence from ground level to an altitude of 120,000 meters. A description of the turbulence generation procedure is provided. The results of validating the simulated turbulence are described. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. One-dimensional von Karman spectra are tabulated, while a discussion of the minimum frequency simulated is provided. The results of spectral and statistical analyses of the SSTT are presented.

  18. Microbiology of the Space Shuttle water system.

    PubMed

    Koenig, D W; Pierson, D L

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has a once-through water system that is initially filled on the ground, partially drained before launch and then refilled with fuel-cell generated water on orbit. The microbiological standard for the Space Shuttle potable water system during this study period allowed only 1 microbe of any kind per l00mL and no detectable coliforms. Contamination episodes in more than 15 years of Shuttle operation have been rare; however, for the past 24 missions, bacterial contamination has been detected in 33% of the samples collected 3d before launch. These samples have had on average 55CFU/100mL of bacteria, with the median less than 1CFU/100mL. Burkholderia cepacia has been the primary contaminant of the Shuttle water supply system both before and after flight. Water samples assessed during the STS-70 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery were found to be contaminated (<20CFU/100mL) with B. cepacia and B. pickettii. In 1991, waste and water lines were removed from the Space Shuttle Columbia and the waste lines were found to harbor biofilms containing Bacillus spp. Nevertheless, the water systems of the four Space Shuttle vehicles provide extremely pure water.

  19. STS-37 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-042. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) payload. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Block 2 version, Radiation Monitoring Experiment-3 (RME-3), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA), and the Crew and Equipment Transfer Aids (CETA) payloads.

  20. STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

  1. Pre-flight report on cultured human embryonic kidney cell handling and cell electrophoresis. Prepared prior to continuous-flow electrophoretic separation experiments aboard space shuttle flight STS-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.; Sarnoff, B. E.; Li, Z. K.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the physical properties of continuous-flow zero-G electrophoretic separator (CFES) buffer, the electrokinetic properties of human erythrocytes in the CFES buffer, the electrokinetic properties of human embryonic kidney cells in the CFES buffer, and the viability and yield of human embryonc kidney cells subjected to flight handling procedures are discussed. In general, the procedure for cell handling and electrophoresis of HEK-8514 cells in 1st or 2nd passage on STS-8 is acceptable if executed properly. The CFES buffer has ionic strength that is barely compatible with cell viability and membrane stability, as seen in experiments with human erythrocytes and trypan-blue staining of human kidney cells. Cells suspended in 10% dialysed horse serum for 3 days in the cold appear to be more stable than freshly trypsinized cells. 10% horse serum appears to be superior to 5% horse serum for this purpose. The mean absolute raw mobility of HEK-8514 cells in CFES buffer at 6 degrees, conductivity 0.055 mmho/cm, is 1.1 to 1.4 um-cm/V-sec, with a range of nearly a whole mobility unit.

  2. Shuttle on-orbit contamination and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.; Miller, E.

    1985-01-01

    Ensuring the compatibility of the space shuttle system with payloads and payload measurements is discussed. An extensive set of quantitative requirements and goals was developed and implemented by the space shuttle program management. The performance of the Shuttle system as measured by these requirements and goals was assessed partly through the use of the induced environment contamination monitor on Shuttle flights 2, 3, and 4. Contamination levels are low and generally within the requirements and goals established. Additional data from near-term payloads and already planned contamination measurements will complete the environment definition and allow for the development of contamination avoidance procedures as necessary for any payload.

  3. Redistribution of particulates in shuttle bay during launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1986-01-01

    The dislodgement, venting, and redeposition of particles on a surface in the shuttle bay by the vibroacoustic, gravitational, and aerodynamic forces present during shuttle ascent were investigated. The particles of different sizes which are displaced, vented, and redistributed were calculated. An estimate of the increased number of particles on certain surfaces and the decrease on others is indicated. The average sizes, velocities, and length of time for certain particles to leave the bay following initial shuttle doors opening and thermal tests were calculated based on indirect data obtained during several shuttle flights.

  4. An analysis of the Space Shuttle hypersonic entry trim anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. C.; Findlay, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews a parameter identification methodology developed to investigate the hypersonic longitudinal trim misprediction apparent in the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter entry flights. The method combines an analysis using a measured versus predicted technique in conjunction with a multilinear regression analysis to identify prediction deficiencies using quasi-static longitudinal data in the hypersonic flight regime (Mach 6 through 26). In general, the results of this extraction confirm results previously obtained by other Shuttle investigators with the exception of elevon effectiveness. Further analysis and/or flight data will be required to resolve the conflicting elevon results. A combination of this analytical tool and other flight data will enable flight data interpretation with the potential for identifying the sources of the Shuttle's hypersonic trim misprediction to an accuracy consistent with updating preflight prediction methodology for future spacecraft.

  5. STS-71, Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frike, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance. STS-71 is the 100th United States manned space flight, the sixty-ninth Space Shuttle flight, the forty-fourth flight since the return-to-flight, the fourteenth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle Atlantis, and the first joint United States (U.S.)-Russian docking mission since 1975. In addition to the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-70; three SSMEs that were designated 2028, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated Bl-072. The RSRMs that were an integral part of the SRBs were designated 360L045A for the left SRB and 360W045B for the right SRB. The STS-71 mission was planned as a 1 0-day plus 1-day-extension mission plus 2 additional days for contingency operations and weather avoidance. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform on-orbit joint U.S.-Russian life sciences investigations, logistical resupply of the Mir Space Station, return of the United States astronaut flying on the Mir, the replacement of the Mir-18 crew with the two-cosmonaut Mir-19 crew, and the return of the Mir-18 crew to Earth. The secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Camera and the Shuttle Amateur Radio experiment-2 (SAREX-2).

  6. Shuttle Showcase: Firsts

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space shuttle has defined an era and broken boundaries both in space and on Earth. Among the hundreds of people who have flown on the shuttle, many have been firsts -- for their race, their cou...

  7. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  8. Shuttle interaction study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The following areas of Space Shuttle technology were discussed: variable altitude strategy, spacecraft servicing, propellant storage, orbiter plume impingement, space based design, mating (docking and berthing), shuttle fleet utilization, and mission/traffic model.

  9. Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assist in the decision making for the shuttle design and operation. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a comprehensive, structured, and disciplined approach to identifying and analyzing risk in complex systems and/or processes that seeks answers to three basic questions: (i.e., what can go wrong? what is the likelihood of these occurring? and what are the consequences that could result if these occur?) The purpose of the Shuttle PRA (SPRA) is to provide a useful risk management tool for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to identify strengths and possible weaknesses in the Shuttle design and operation. SPRA was initially developed to support upgrade decisions, but has evolved into a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and near real-time flight decisions. Examples of the use of PRA for the shuttle are reviewed.

  10. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 5: Space shuttle powered explicit guidance. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    An optimum powered explicit guidance algorithm capable of handling all space shuttle exoatospheric maneuvers is presented. The theoretical and practical basis for the currently baselined space shuttle powered flight guidance equations and logic is documented. Detailed flow diagrams for implementing the steering computations for all shuttle phases, including powered return to launch site (RTLS) abort, are also presented. Derivation of the powered RTLS algorithm is provided, as well as detailed flow diagrams for implementing the option. The flow diagrams and equations are compatible with the current powered flight documentation.

  11. Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains all the hearings of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger accident from 26 February to 2 May 1986. Among others is the testimony of L. Mulloy, Manager, Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Program, Marshall Space Flight Center and G. Hardy, Deputy Director, Science and Engineering, Marshall Space Flight Center.

  12. A long telephoto lens captured Space Shuttle Endeavour landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A long telephoto lens captured Space Shuttle Endeavour landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on May 1, 2001. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards would subsequently service the shuttle and mount it on a 747 for the ferry flight to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  13. Christa McAuliffe and Dick Scobee in Shuttle mission simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Francis R. (Dick) Scobee, STS 51-L commander, briefs Payload specialist Sharon Christa McAuliffe about some of the flight systems of the Space Shuttle during a training session in JSC's Shuttle mission simulator. They are on the flight deck with McAuliffe seated at the pilot's station and Scobee at the commander's station.

  14. Space Shuttle Debris Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of debris damage to the Space Shuttle, and the use of computation to assist in the space shuttle applications. The presentation reviews the sources of debris, a mechanism for determining the probability of damaging debris impacting the shuttle, tools used, eliminating potential damaging debris sources, the use of computation to assess while inflight damage, and a chart showing the applications that have been used on increasingly powerful computers simulate the shuttle and the debris transport.

  15. Space Shuttle mission extension capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Space Shuttle missions are currently limited to 11 days, primarily due to depletion of the power reactants (hydrogen and oxygen). A power system Mission Extension Kit (MEK) is described which could provide the capability to stay on orbit 10 additional days. These extra days would benefit Space Station construction and missions such as materials processing, earth and celestial observation, and life science studies (Spacelab). Other constraints to longer missions which may dictate minor Orbiter modifications will be discussed. The power system MEK is particularly desirable because of its existing flight qualified hardware which can be delivered within 3 to 4 years.

  16. Shuttle bioresearch laboratory breadboard simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taketa, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory breadboard simulations (Tests I and II) were conducted to test concepts and assess problems associated with bioresearch support equipment, facilities, and operational integration for conducting manned earth orbital Shuttle missions. This paper describes Test I and discusses the major observations made in Test II. The tests emphasized candidate experiment protocols and requirements: Test I for biological research and Test II for crew members (simulated), subhuman primates, and radioisotope tracer studies on lower organisms. The procedures and approaches developed for these simulation activities could form the basis for Spacelab simulations and developing preflight integration, testing, and logistics of flight payloads.

  17. Probabilistic Analysis of Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis, using the 2-parameter Weibull-Johnson method, was performed on experimental life test data from space shuttle actuator bearings. Experiments were performed on a test rig under simulated conditions to determine the life and failure mechanism of the grease lubricated bearings that support the input shaft of the space shuttle body flap actuators. The failure mechanism was wear that can cause loss of bearing preload. These tests established life and reliability data for both shuttle flight and ground operation. Test data were used to estimate the failure rate and reliability as a function of the number of shuttle missions flown. The Weibull analysis of the test data for the four actuators on one shuttle, each with a 2-bearing shaft assembly, established a reliability level of 96.9 percent for a life of 12 missions. A probabilistic system analysis for four shuttles, each of which has four actuators, predicts a single bearing failure in one actuator of one shuttle after 22 missions (a total of 88 missions for a 4-shuttle fleet). This prediction is comparable with actual shuttle flight history in which a single actuator bearing was found to have failed by wear at 20 missions.

  18. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  19. The first plants to fly on Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    The methods and results are presented concerning experiments using the first plants to make a journey for scientific purposes in earth orbit on board Space Shuttles 2 and 3. These experiments were conducted in order to validate the culture system planned for use in a Spacelab-1 experiment involving the growth and kinetics of sunflower seedlings. The experimental flight package is described and the preparation steps taken prior to the flights are discussed. The conditions to which the plants were exposed during the flights are examined in detail, focusing on the temperature profile and the gravitational forces during reentry to landing.

  20. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, R.; Wicklund, L.; Baughman, J.; Weary, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power units (APUs) provide hydraulic power for the Orbiter vehicle control surfaces (rudder/speed brake, body flap, and elevon actuation systems), main engine gimbaling during ascent, landing gear deployment and steering and braking during landing. Operation occurs during launch/ascent, in-space exercise, reentry/descent, and landing/rollout. Operational effectiveness of the APU is predicated on reliable, failure-free operation during each flight, mission life (reusability) and serviceability between flights (turnaround). Along with the accumulating flight data base, the status and results of efforts to achieve these long-run objectives is presented.

  1. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  2. Inflight Medical Events in the Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Effenhauser, R. K.; Wear, Mary L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the first launch of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the astronauts and their flight surgeons have dealt with a variety of inflight medical issues. A review will be provided of these issues as well as medications used in the treatment of these medical problems. Detailed medical debriefs are conducted by the flight ,surgeon with the individual crewmembers three days after landing. These debriefs were review for Shuttle flights from 1988 through 1999 to determine the frequency of inflight medical events. Medical events were grouped by ICD category and the frequency of medical events within those categories were reviewed. The ICD category of Symptoms, Signs and Ill-defined Conditions had the most medical events. Facial fullness and headache were the most common complaints within this category. The ICD category of Respiratory System had the next most common medical events with sinus congestion being the most common complaint. This was followed by Digestive System complaints and Nervous System/Sense Organ complaints. A variety of inflight medical events have occurred throughout the Shuttle program. Fortunately, the majority of these problems have been minor and have been well within the capability of the medical equipment flown and the skills of the Crew Medical Officers. Medical ,problems/procedures that are routine on the ground often present unique problems in the space flight environment. It is important that the flight surgeon understand the common medical problems encountered.

  3. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like 10,000 fireworks going off at once, Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky while clouds of steam and smoke cascade behind. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  4. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Atlantis blasts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-98, it lights up the nearby water. Billows of smoke and steam fill Launch Pad 39A. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1 p.m. EST.

  5. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky while clouds of steam and smoke cascade behind. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  6. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-98, clouds of smoke and steam appear to surround it. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1 p.m. EST.

  7. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Clouds of smoke and steam roll out from the launch pad as Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  8. Space Shuttle GN and C Development History and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimpfer, Douglas; Hattis, Phil; Ruppert, John; Gavert, Don

    2011-01-01

    Completion of the final Space Shuttle flight marks the end of a significant era in Human Spaceflight. Developed in the 1970 s, first launched in 1981, the Space Shuttle embodies many significant engineering achievements. One of these is the development and operation of the first extensive fly-by-wire human space transportation Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) System. Development of the Space Shuttle GN&C represented first time inclusions of modern techniques for electronics, software, algorithms, systems and management in a complex system. Numerous technical design trades and lessons learned continue to drive current vehicle development. For example, the Space Shuttle GN&C system incorporated redundant systems, complex algorithms and flight software rigorously verified through integrated vehicle simulations and avionics integration testing techniques. Over the past thirty years, the Shuttle GN&C continued to go through a series of upgrades to improve safety, performance and to enable the complex flight operations required for assembly of the international space station. Upgrades to the GN&C ranged from the addition of nose wheel steering to modifications that extend capabilities to control of the large flexible configurations while being docked to the Space Station. This paper provides a history of the development and evolution of the Space Shuttle GN&C system. Emphasis is placed on key architecture decisions, design trades and the lessons learned for future complex space transportation system developments. Finally, some of the interesting flight operations experience is provided to inform future developers of flight experiences.

  9. STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

  10. Shuttle Enterprise Mated to 747 SCA for Delivery to Smithsonian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Enterprise atop the NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft as it leaves NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Enterprise, first orbiter built, was not spaceflight rated and was used in 1977 to verify the landing, approach, and glide characteristics of the orbiters. It was also used for engineering fit-checks at the shuttle launch facilities. Following approach and landing tests in 1977 and its use as an engineering vehicle, Enterprise was donated to the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the

  11. Close-up of LSRA Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is clearly seen between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  12. Shuttle plate braiding machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huey, Jr., Cecil O. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for moving yarn in a selected pattern to form a braided article. The apparatus includes a segmented grid of stationary support elements and a plurality of shuttles configured to carry yarn. The shuttles are supported for movement on the grid assembly and each shuttle includes a retractable plunger for engaging a reciprocating shuttle plate that moves below the grid assembly. Such engagement at selected times causes the shuttles to move about the grid assembly in a selected pattern to form a braided article of a particular geometry.

  13. Scintillation Effects on Space Shuttle GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Kramer, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    Irregularities in ionospheric electron density result in variation in amplitude and phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, or scintillation. GPS receivers tracking scintillated signals may lose carrier phase or frequency lock in the case of phase sc intillation. Amplitude scintillation can cause "enhancement" or "fading" of GPS signals and result in loss of lock. Scintillation can occur over the equatorial and polar regions and is a function of location, time of day, season, and solar and geomagnetic activity. Mid latitude regions are affected only very rarely, resulting from highly disturbed auroral events. In the spring of 1998, due to increasing concern about scintillation of GPS signals during the upcoming solar maximum, the Space Shuttle Program began to assess the impact of scintillation on Collins Miniaturized Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR) units that are to replace Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN) units on the Space Shuttle orbiters. The Shuttle Program must determine if scintillation effects pose a threat to safety of flight and mission success or require procedural and flight rule changes. Flight controllers in Mission Control must understand scintillation effects on GPS to properly diagnose "off nominal" GPS receiver performance. GPS data from recent Space Shuttle missions indicate that the signals tracked by the Shuttle MAGR manifest scintillation. Scintillation is observed as anomalous noise in velocity measurements lasting for up to 20 minutes on Shuttle orbit passes and are not accounted for in the error budget of the MAGR accuracy parameters. These events are typically coincident with latitude and local time occurrence of previously identified equatorial spread F within about 20 degrees of the magnetic equator. The geographic and seasonal history of these events from ground-based observations and a simple theoretical model, which have potential for predicting events for operational purposes, are reviewed.

  14. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This closeup reveals Space Shuttle Atlantis after rollback of the Rotating Service Structure. Extended to the side of Atlantis is the orbiter access arm, with the White Room at its end. The White Room provides entry for the crew into Atlantis's cockpit. Below Atlantis, on either side of the tail are the tail service masts. They support the fluid, gas and electrical requirements of the orbiter's liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen aft T-0 umbilicals. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  15. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  16. Thunderstorm observations from Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonnegut, B.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.; Brook, M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of the Nighttime/Daytime Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiments done on the STS-2 and STS-4 flights are covered. During these two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia, the astronaut teams of J. Engle and R. Truly, and K. Mattingly II and H. Hartsfield took motion pictures of thunderstorms with a 16 mm cine camera. Film taken during daylight showed interesting thunderstorm cloud formations, where individual frames taken tens of seconds apart, when viewed as stereo pairs, provided information on the three-dimensional structure of the cloud systems. Film taken at night showed clouds illuminated by lightning with discharges that propagated horizontally at speeds of up to 10 to the 5th m/sec and extended for distances on the order of 60 km or more.

  17. STS-69 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-69 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-sixth flight since the return-to-flight, and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour(OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-72; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-074. The RSRMS, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL048A for the left SRB, and 36OW048B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirments of Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and SPARTAN-201. The secondary objectives were to perform the operation of the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), the Capillary Pumped Loop-2/GAS Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) and the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Development Flight Test 02 (EDFT-02), the Biological Research in Canister (BRIC) payload, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload, the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) payload, the Space Tissue Loss, National Institute of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-CS) payload, and the Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  18. Shuttle flight experiment 30-day summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A total of 12 AFT training sessions were administered to SL 3 Payload Specialists over a 7 month period. Nine of these sessions were 2 hours in duration and three were 3 hours in duration. A total of three rotating chair tests were conducted in this time frame with four subjects. The performance of these crewmen across tests is shown. Test 1, a baseline motion sickness test, was conducted approximately 10 months prior to the mission, before any AFT was administered. Test 2 was administered after 2 hours of AFT, test 3 after 4 hours and test 4 after 6 hours (total) of training in symptom control. Improvement in performance is reflected by a subject's ability to tolerate a greater number of rotations across tests. Additional training for crewman was not possible within the constraints of the mission. Results of the mission indicate that, as predicted preflight, subject #32 was relatively symptom free inflight while subject #33 was not. Other preflight and postflight tests and analyses are reported.

  19. Shuttle orbiter TPS flight repair kit development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of a TPS repair kit is presented. The repair kit is designed for on orbit use by a crew member working in the manned maneuvering unit (MMU). The kit includes the necessary equipment and materials to accomplish the repair tasks which include the following: HRSI emittance coating repair, damaged tile repair, missing tile repair, and multiple tile repair. Two types of repair materials required to do the small area repair and the large area repair are described. The materials area cure in place, silicone base ablator for small damaged areas and precured ablator tile for repair of larger damaged areas is examined. The cure in place ablator is also used as an adhesive to bond the precured tiles in place. An applicator for the cure in place ablator, designed to contain a two-part silicon compound, mix the two components at correct ratio, and dispense the materials at rates compatible with mission timelines established for the EVA is described.

  20. Space Shuttle Main Engine: Thirty Years of Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jue, F. H.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is the first reusable, liquid booster engine designed for human space flight. This paper chronicles the 30-year history and achievements of the SSME from authority to proceed up to the latest flight configuration - the Block 2 SSME.