Science.gov

Sample records for 71-mile bay area

  1. Urban Greening Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  2. San Francisco Bay Area Cargo Forecast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    CHAlES IN SAY AREA AND PACIFIC COAST SHARES FOREIGN CONTAINER CAKRO Pacftic Coast Bay Area bil Total .1 Share of Total as Share of Ypar lted States...patterns and recent trends, and on evaluation of the key factors and events likely to affect future trade. Thus, it was both "past and forward looking...Bay Area Forecast The baseline, high, and low forecasts of Bay Area Trade Route 29 containerized cargo shown in Table 28 are based on evaluation of

  3. Bay Area Fatherhood Initiatives: Portraits and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsden, Vivian L.; Rethemeyer, R. Karl

    In the past decade, the nature of fathers' involvement with their children and families has become an important topic, with government agencies and nonprofit groups developing programs to help men manage the challenges of fatherhood. This report presents the first set of findings from the Bay Area Fathering Indicators Data System (BAyFIDS)…

  4. Dissociative Reactions to the Bay Area Earthquake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardena, Etzel; Spiegel, David

    This study systematically evaluated the psychological reactions of a non-clinical population to the October 1989 Bay Area earthquake. Within a week of the earthquake, a checklist of anxiety and dissociative symptoms was administered to a representative sample of approximately 100 graduate students and faculty members from two different…

  5. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  6. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou < Shenzhen < Liusha. In spatial distribution, PAHs concentrations were the east < the south < the west in Leizhou; the inside > the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  7. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  8. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.

    Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.

    Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.

    Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is

  9. Evaluating Bay Area Methane Emission Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc; Jeong, Seongeun

    2016-03-01

    As a regulatory agency, evaluating and improving estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area is an area of interest to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Currently, regional, state, and federal agencies generally estimate methane emissions using bottom-up inventory methods that rely on a combination of activity data, emission factors, biogeochemical models and other information. Recent atmospheric top-down measurement estimates of methane emissions for the US as a whole (e.g., Miller et al., 2013) and in California (e.g., Jeong et al., 2013; Peischl et al., 2013) have shown inventories underestimate total methane emissions by ~ 50% in many areas of California, including the SF Bay Area (Fairley and Fischer, 2015). The goal of this research is to provide information to help improve methane emission estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area. The research effort builds upon our previous work that produced methane emission maps for each of the major source sectors as part of the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project (http://calgem.lbl.gov/prior_emission.html; Jeong et al., 2012; Jeong et al., 2013; Jeong et al., 2014). Working with BAAQMD, we evaluate the existing inventory in light of recently published literature and revise the CALGEM CH4 emission maps to provide better specificity for BAAQMD. We also suggest further research that will improve emission estimates. To accomplish the goals, we reviewed the current BAAQMD inventory, and compared its method with those from the state inventory from the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the CALGEM inventory, and recent published literature. We also updated activity data (e.g., livestock statistics) to reflect recent changes and to better represent spatial information. Then, we produced spatially explicit CH4 emission estimates on the 1-km modeling grid used by BAAQMD. We present the detailed activity data, methods and derived emission maps by sector

  10. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  12. 77 FR 14276 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge... for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the... Sullivan Bridges in order to facilitate construction of the Little Bay Bridge between Newington, NH...

  13. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  14. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  15. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  16. Creating Safe Growth Strategies for the San Francisco Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from a technical assistance project with the Association of Bay Area Governments to develop strategies to ensure that growth in the region is resilient to hazards such as earthquakes and sea level rise, but also affordable and transit accessible.

  17. 33 CFR 167.174 - Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area. 167.174 Section 167.174 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.174 Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area. A precautionary area is established as follows: from 38°42.80′ N, 74°58.90′ W; then northerly by...

  18. 33 CFR 167.174 - Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area. 167.174 Section 167.174 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.174 Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area. A precautionary area is established as follows: from 38°42.80′ N, 74°58.90′ W; then northerly by...

  19. Local wind forcing of the Monterey Bay area inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, P.T.; McManus, M.A.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Wind forcing and the seasonal cycles of temperature and currents were investigated on the inner shelf of the Monterey Bay area of the California coast for 460 days, from June 2001 to September 2002. Temperature measurements spanned an approximate 100 km stretch of coastline from a bluff just north of Monterey Bay south to Point Sur. Inner shelf currents were measured at two sites near the bay's northern shore. Seasonal temperature variations were consistent with previous observations from the central California shelf. During the spring, summer and fall, a seasonal mean alongshore current was observed flowing northwestward in the northern bay, in direct opposition to a southeastward wind stress. A barotropic alongshore pressure gradient, potentially driving the northwestward flow, was needed to balance the alongshore momentum equation. With the exception of the winter season, vertical profiles of mean cross-shore currents were consistent with two-dimensional upwelling and existing observations from upwelling regions with poleward subsurface flow. At periods of 15-60 days, temperature fluctuations were coherent both throughout the domain and with the regional wind field. Remote wind forcing was minimal. During the spring upwelling season, alongshore currents and temperatures in the northern bay were most coherent with winds measured at a nearby land meteorological station. This wind site showed relatively low correlations to offshore buoy wind stations, indicating localized wind effects are important to the circulation along this stretch of Monterey Bay's inner shelf. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In the Midst of Transformation: Reflections from the Bay Area Coalition for Equitable Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Route-Chatmon, LaShawn

    2007-01-01

    The Bay Area Coalition for Equitable Schools (BayCES) has been working to build the capacity of people to transform the educational experiences and outcomes of underserved students in the Oakland-San Francisco Bay Area for more than 15 years. BayCES supports people in urban districts and schools undergoing reform efforts to improve their…

  1. GLACIER BAY NATIONAL MONUMENT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ALASKA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, David A.; Kimball, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    Glacier Bay National Monument is a highly scenic and highly mineralized area about 100 mi west of Juneau, Alaska. Four deposits with demonstrated resources of nickel, copper, zinc, and molybdenum have been identified within the monument and eleven areas of probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential have been identified. The monument is highly mineralized in comparison with most areas of similar size elsewhere in southeastern Alaska, and present estimates of mineral resources are considered conservative.

  2. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  3. Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ducts association with evaporative-cooling system. Note battery bank at far right. View to the east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, at the ventilation fan ducts associated with the evaporative cooling system. Stairs to the operating deck above the intakes are at the far left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  5. Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible from left to right are the direct current breaker panel, battery bank, door to stairwell, and hanging tools. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  6. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  7. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  8. 33 CFR 162.15 - Manhasset Bay, N.Y.; seaplane restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manhasset Bay, N.Y.; seaplane restricted area. 162.15 Section 162.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Bay, N.Y.; seaplane restricted area. (a) The restricted area. An area in Manhasset Bay between...

  9. A Contribution to Mitigating Seismic Risk in the Bay Area: The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlie, N.; Romanowicz, B.; Hellweg, P.

    2007-05-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), two million people live in a geologically complex, tectonically active region that has experienced several historic earthquakes, including the 1868 Hayward, the 1906 San Francisco, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Geodetic measurements, which are especially useful for detecting deformation and strain on deep structures throughout the seismic cycle, show that Bay Area deformation is both spatially complex and varying with time. Increasingly, GPS data can also be used in real time to complement seismic data in providing robust real-time earthquake information, and, potentially, early warning. The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network of permanent, continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers monitors crustal deformation in the Bay Area and northern California. BARD is a network collocated with several seismic networks (BDSN, NHFN, mini-PBO) operating in Northern California. As the local determination of magnitude is problematic for large earthquakes, the GPS will provide strong constraints on rupture geometry and amount of slip along the slipping fault. Thus, the collocation of all the networks will help mitigate earthquake- related risks associated with an earthquake in the SFBA or in northern California.

  10. 33 CFR 165.779 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. 165.779 Section 165.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.779 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated navigation area encompasses all waters in Biscayne Bay...

  11. Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K05424, Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht, March 1975. TRANSFER AISLE NORTH DOOR, ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS AND DETAILS. Sheet 79 of 207 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K05424, Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht, March 1975. TRANSFER AISLE NORTH DOOR,ARCHITECTURAL NORTH ELEVATION AND MISC. DETAILS. Sheet 78 of 207 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. Cable trays and two ventilation fans (part of the evaporative-cooling system) are visible at right. The vacuum pump is in the center in front of a concrete partition, and a water discharge pipe is visible beyond the partition at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. 33 CFR 165.T01-0084 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply within the RNA. In addition, the...

  15. 33 CFR 165.T01-0084 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA... regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply within the RNA. In addition, the...

  16. Seafloor geology of the Monterey Bay area continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, S.L.; Anima, R.J.; Stevenson, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic swath-mapping of the greater Monterey Bay area continental shelf from Point An??o Nuevo to Point Sur reveals complex patterns of rock outcrops on the shelf, and coarse-sand bodies that occur in distinct depressions on the inner and mid-shelves. Most of the rock outcrops are erosional cuestas of dipping Tertiary rocks that make up the bedrock of the surrounding lands. A mid-shelf mud belt of Holocene sediment buries the Tertiary rocks in a continuous, 6-km-wide zone on the northern Monterey Bay shelf. Rock exposures occur on the inner shelf, near tectonically uplifting highlands, and on the outer shelf, beyond the reach of the mud depositing on the mid-shelf since the Holocene sea-level rise. The sediment-starved shelf off the Monterey Peninsula and south to Point Sur has a very thin cover of Holocene sediment, and bedrock outcrops occur across the whole shelf, with Salinian granite outcrops surrounding the Monterey Peninsula. Coarse-sand deposits occur both bounded within low-relief rippled scour depressions, and in broad sheets in areas like the Sur Platform where fine sediment sources are limited. The greatest concentrations of coarse-sand deposits occur on the southern Monterey Bay shelf and the Sur shelf. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carson, E.C.; Fournelle, J.H.; Miller, T.P.; Mickelson, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425 ± 350 and 9130 ± 140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300 ± 80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200 ± 75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070 ± 340 and 3600 ± 140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk

  18. General view of the High Bay area of the Space ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the High Bay area of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view shows the specially modified fork lift used for horizontal installation and removal of the SSMEs into and out of the Orbiters. SSME number 2059 is in the background and is in the process of being scanned with a high-definition laser scanner to acquire field documentation for the production of historic documentatin. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. San Francisco Bay Area Fault Observations Displayed in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, H.; Hernandez, M.; Nayak, P.; Zapata, I.; Schumaker, D.

    2006-12-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the San Francisco Bay Area has a 62% probability of experiencing a major earthquake in the next 30 years. The Hayward fault and the San Andreas fault are the two main faults in the Bay Area that are capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 or larger - a size that could profoundly affect many of the 7 million people who live in the Bay Area. The Hayward fault has a 27% probability of producing a major earthquake in next 30 years, and the San Andreas fault has a 21% probability. Our research group, which is part of the SF-ROCKS high school outreach program, studied the Hayward and San Andreas faults. The goal of our project was to observe these faults at various locations, measure the effects of creep, and to present the data in Google Earth, a freeware tool for the public to easily view and interact with these and other seismic-hazard data. We examined the Hayward and San Andreas faults (as mapped by USGS scientists) in Google Earth to identify various sites where we could possibly find evidence of fault creep. We next visited these sites in the field where we mapped the location using a hand- held Global Positioning System, identified and photographed fault evidence, and measured offset features with a ruler or tape measure. Fault evidence included en echelon shears in pavement, warped buildings, and offset features such as sidewalks. Fault creep offset measurements range from 1.5 19 cm. We also identified possible evidence of fault creep along the San Andreas fault in South San Francisco where it had not been previously described. In Google Earth, we plotted our field sites, linked photographs showing evidence of faulting, and included detailed captions to explain the photographs. We will design a webpage containing the data in a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file format for display in Google Earth. Any interested person needs only to download the free version of Google Earth software and visit our

  20. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.320 Section 334.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.1320 Section 334.1320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1320 Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The northwest portion of Kuluk Bay bounded as...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.1320 Section 334.1320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1320 Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The northwest portion of Kuluk Bay bounded as...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.1320 Section 334.1320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1320 Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The northwest portion of Kuluk Bay bounded as...

  4. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.320 Section 334.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay...

  5. Water resources near Dillingham in the Bristol Bay area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Dillingham, the largest community in the Bristol Bay area of Alaska, lies near the confluence of the Wood and Nushagak Rivers. The surface waters are a calcium bicarbonate type and have low concentrations of dissolved solids and suspended sediments. Water in the Wood-Nushagak estuary near Dillingham during a high tide in autumn 1985 had specific conductance values ranging from 110 to 3,000 microsiemens/cm. Groundwater is the predominant source of public, private, and commercial/industrial supply. Samples of groundwater contained < 500 mg/L dissolved solids but concentrations of iron and manganese were as great as 870 and 1,200 mg/L, respectively. Peak water use is in midsummer. In 1986, peak use in the townsite area was between 300,000 and 400,000 gal/day whereas in previous years it has been as great as 1 million gal/day. 6 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at...″, longitude 75°51′00″; thence to the shore at longitude 75°58′48″, and thence northwesterly and...

  7. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at...″, longitude 75°51′00″; thence to the shore at longitude 75°58′48″, and thence northwesterly and...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1260 - Dabob Bay, Whitney Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.1260 Section 334.1260 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1260 Dabob Bay, Whitney Point; naval restricted area. (a) Dabob Bay, Whitney Point, naval restricted area—(1) The...

  9. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1260 - Dabob Bay, Whitney Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.1260 Section 334.1260 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1260 Dabob Bay, Whitney Point; naval restricted area. (a) Dabob Bay, Whitney Point, naval restricted area—(1) The...

  11. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  12. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  13. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1110 - Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons....1110 Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point... his control from this area upon the request of the Commanding Officer of the Naval Weapons...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1110 - Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons....1110 Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point... his control from this area upon the request of the Commanding Officer of the Naval Weapons...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1110 - Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons....1110 Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point... his control from this area upon the request of the Commanding Officer of the Naval Weapons...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1110 - Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons....1110 Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point... his control from this area upon the request of the Commanding Officer of the Naval Weapons...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1110 - Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons....1110 Suisun Bay at Naval Weapons Station, Concord; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point... his control from this area upon the request of the Commanding Officer of the Naval Weapons...

  19. Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Bree

    2011-01-01

    The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people.

  20. The Bay Area Earthquake Cycle:A Paleoseismic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. P.; Seitz, G.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Dawson, T. E.; Hecker, S.; William, L.; Kelson, K.

    2001-12-01

    Stress changes produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake had a profound effect on Bay Area seismicity, dramatically reducing it in the 20th century. Whether the San Francisco Bay Region (SFBR) is still within, is just emerging from it, or is out of the 1906 stress shadow is an issue of strong debate with important implications for earthquake mechanics and seismic hazards. Historically the SFBR has not experienced one complete earthquake cycle--the interval immediately following, then leading up to and repeating, a 1906-type (multi-segment rupture, M7.9) San Andreas event. The historical record of earthquake occurrence in the SFBR appears to be complete at about M5.5 back to 1850 (Bakun, 1999), which is less than half a cycle. For large events (qualitatively placed at M*7) Toppozada and Borchardt (1998) suggest the record is complete back to 1776, which may represent about half a cycle. During this period only the southern Hayward fault (1868) and the San Andreas fault (1838?, 1906) have produced their expected large events. New paleoseismic data now provide, for the first time, a more complete view of the most recent pre-1906 SFBR earthquake cycle. Focused paleoseismic efforts under the Bay Area Paleoearthquake Experiment (BAPEX) have developed a chronology of the most recent large earthquakes (MRE) on major SFBR faults. The San Andreas (SA), northern Hayward (NH), southern Hayward (SH), Rodgers Creek (RC), and northern Calaveras (NC) faults provide clear paleoseismic evidence for large events post-1600 AD. The San Gregorio (SG) may have also produced a large earthquake after this date. The timing of the MREs, in years AD, follows. The age ranges are 2-sigma radiocarbon intervals; the dates in parentheses are 1-sigma. MRE ages are: a) SA 1600-1670 (1630-1660), NH 1640-1776 (1635-1776); SH 1635-1776 (1685-1676); RC 1670-1776 (1730-1776); NC 1670-1830?; and San Gregorio 1270-1776 but possibly 1640-1776 (1685-1776). Based on present radiocarbon dating, the NH

  1. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  7. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A...

  8. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  9. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area. (a) The danger zone. The danger zone shall... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at...

  10. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. 165.811 Section 165.811 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.811 Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a...

  11. Shoalwater Bay Defense Training Area Dugong Research Program Underwater Blast Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Queensland on Triangular Island in the east of the Shoalwater Bay Defense Training Area. Shoalwater Bay is also the home to the largest population of dugongs ...in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park south of Hinchinbrook Channel. Concerns raised about the possible impact on the dugong population of defense...activities within Shoalwater Bay resulted in Defense managing four dugong research projects. As part of one of these projects shock parameters were

  12. Water resources near Dillingham in the Bristol Bay Area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Dillingham, the largest community in the Bristol Bay area of Alaska, lies near the confluence of the Wood and Nushagak Rivers. Mean annual discharges for the Wood and Nushagak Rivers are 4,824 and 22,650 cu ft/sec. Flows generally are greatest in May through July and lowest in January through April. The surface waters are a calcium bicarbonate type and have low concentrations of dissolved solids and suspended sediments. Water in the Wood-Nushagak estuary near Dillingham during a high tide in autumn 1985 had specific conductance values ranging from 110 to 3,000 microsiemens/cm. Groundwater is the predominant source of public, private, and commercial/industrial supply. Wells range in depth from 20 to 213 ft, yield up to 225 gal/min, and have water levels that range from 4 to 76 ft below land surface. All water levels measured during June and July 1986 were above sea level. Samples of groundwater contained < 500 mg/L dissolved solids but concentrations of iron and manganese were as great as 870 and 1,200 mg/L, respectively. Peak water use is in midsummer. In 1986, peak use in the townsite area was between 300,000 and 400,000 gal/day whereas in previous years it has been as great as 1 million gal/day. (Author 's abstract)

  13. 77 FR 74814 - Regulated Navigation Area; Youngs Bay PacifiCorp Sediment Cap; Youngs Bay, Columbia River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes the establishment of a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) at the Youngs Bay PacifiCorp property in Astoria, OR. This RNA is necessary to preserve the integrity of an... action. This proposed RNA will do so by prohibiting activities that could disturb or damage...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1260 - Dabob Bay, Whitney Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph shall be enforced by the Commander, Naval Base, Seattle, or his/her authorized representative. (b... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dabob Bay, Whitney Point; naval..., Whitney Point; naval restricted area. (a) Dabob Bay, Whitney Point, naval restricted area—(1) The...

  15. 33 CFR 165.779 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. 165.779 Section 165.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.779 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL...) Enforcement period. This rule will be in enforced annually on Columbus Day weekend, starting at 12:01 p.m....

  16. Occupation and adult gliomas in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Geetha; Felini, Martha; Carozza, Susan E; Miike, Rei; Chew, Terri; Wrensch, Margaret

    2003-06-01

    The etiology of gliomas is not well understood. Some jobs might involve sustained and elevated exposures to carcinogens. This study compares lifetime job histories of 879 glioma cases diagnosed between August 1991 to April 1994 and May 1997 to August 1999 in the San Francisco Bay Area and 864 controls. Logistic analyses compared longest and ever held occupations of 1 year or more for all astrocytic and nonastrocytic cases and controls overall with adjustment for age, gender, and ethnicity and separately for men and women. Two-fold or higher or statistically significant elevated odds ratios were found overall and in men among those with longest held occupations, as firefighters, physicians, material moving equipment operators, and janitors; such elevated odds ratios were also observed for longest-held occupations among male motor vehicle operators and personal service workers and female messengers, legal/social service workers, electronic equipment operators, painters, and food processors. Odds ratios of 0.50 or less, but not statistically significant, were found for those with longest held jobs as writers/journalists, biological scientists, paper workers, mechanics, chemists, and photographers/photoprocessors. This study supports previously observed occupational associations and is one of the few studies with sufficient numbers to separately analyze occupations by gender.

  17. Riding the storm--landslide danger in the San Francisco Bay Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Movie Synopsis: --A catastrophic 1982 rainstorm triggered 18,000 landslides in the Bay Area, claiming 25 lives and causing $66 million in property damage. --The combination of steep slopes, weak rocks, and intense winter storms make Bay Area uplands an ideal setting for landslides. --Landslides include both swift, potentially deadly debris flows and slower, but destructive deepseated slides. --Learn what USGS scientists have discovered about landslide dynamics and which slopes are most susceptible to sliding. --Hear the devastating stories of Bay Area residents affected by landslides and learn to recognize the danger signs.

  18. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  19. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully

  20. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delaware Bay and River, Salem... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.510 Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina... Regulated Navigation Area: The navigable waters of Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River,...

  1. External impacts of an intraurban air transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, J. Y.; Gebman, J. R.; Kirkwood, T. F.; Mcclure, P. T.; Stucker, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effects are studied of an intraurban V/STOL commuter system on the economic, social, and physical environment of the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area was chosen mainly for a case study; the real intent of the analysis is to develop methods by which the effects of such a system could be evaluated for any community. Aspects of the community life affected include: income and employment, benefits and costs, noise, air pollution, and road congestion.

  2. 78 FR 40651 - Regulated Navigation Area; Special Buzzards Bay Vessel Regulation, Buzzards Bay, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email Mr. John J. Mauro, Waterways Management Division, U.S. Coast Guard First District, (617) 223-8355, email John.J.Mauro@uscg.mil... are single or double hull. Reporting and participation requirements of the VMRS Buzzards Bay....

  3. 77 FR 62437 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend... the Columbus Day weekend regulated navigation area on Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The amended regulated navigation area alters the boundaries of the area and expands the enforcement period....

  4. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  5. Trace elements reconnaissance in the Jakolof Bay area, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.; Nelson, Arthur E.

    1950-01-01

    As a result of inquiries by prospectors in 1948 concerning radioactive ores in the vicinity of Jakolof Bay on the Kenai Peninsula in southern Alaska, the Geological Survey conducted a brief investigation during 1949. No radioactive material was found. Possibly a chromite stockpile in this locality was mistaken for pitchblende.

  6. 78 FR 1760 - Determination of Attainment for the San Francisco Bay Area Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...EPA is taking final action to determine that the San Francisco Bay Area nonattainment area in California has attained the 2006 24-hour fine particle (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination is based upon complete, quality-assured, and certified ambient air monitoring data showing that this area has monitored attainment of the 2006 24-hour......

  7. Estimates of slip rates on Bay Area faults from space geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, M. A.; Schmidt, D. A.; Johanson, I. A.; Bürgmann, R.

    2003-12-01

    In an effort to put together the most comprehensive picture of crustal deformation in the San Francisco Bay Area, The UC Berkeley Active Tectonics Group has created the Bay Area Velocity Unification (BA¯VU¯, ``Bay-View"). This dataset unites campaign and continuous GPS data for nearly 180 GPS stations throughout the greater San Francisco Bay Area from Sacramento to San Luis Obispo. We have reprocessed and combined data collected by six agencies between 1991 and 2003 using a uniform methodology with the GAMIT/GLOBK software package. BA¯VU¯ has 88 GPS stations in the eastern San Francisco Bay Area with 64 of those within 15 km of the Hayward fault. GPS data are complemented by InSAR range-change rates estimated from a stack of > 20 interferograms spanning 1992-2002. Where we can compare the data sets directly, they agree within the reliability of each method. We use the consistent velocity field from BA¯VU¯ to quantify fault slip rates and strain accumulation using a 3-D elastic dislocation model of the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as more a detailed inversion for the creep rate on the Hayward fault. We find that the estimated rates of slip deficit accumulation are mostly consistent with geologic estimates of fault slip rates. On the Hayward fault, creep rates vary along strike and are temporally complex.

  8. Hurricane Katrina induced nutrient runoff from an agricultural area to coastal waters in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Zhong; Kelble, Christopher R.; Fischer, Charles J.; Moore, Lloyd

    2009-09-01

    Water quality surveys conducted in Biscayne Bay, Florida, indicated enhanced nutrient input coupled with increased runoff as a result of precipitation associated with Hurricane Katrina. Nutrient concentrations before Katrina ranged from 0.06-24.2 μM (mean 3.3 μM) for nitrate and 0.01-0.18 μM (mean 0.1 μM) for soluble reactive phosphate. Five days after Katrina, nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.87-80.0 μM (mean 17.0 μM), with a bay-wide mean increase of 5.2-fold over pre-hurricane levels. Soluble reactive phosphate concentrations ranged from 0.07-0.62 μM (mean 0.2 μM), with a bay-wide mean increase of 2-fold over pre-hurricane levels. The maximum concentrations for both nitrate and soluble reactive phosphate were found at a water quality monitoring station near the mouth of Mowry Canal, which drains an agricultural area in the southern Biscayne Bay watershed near Homestead, Florida. At this station, nitrate and soluble reactive phosphate concentrations increased 7- and 10-fold, respectively. Storm-induced fertilizer runoff from this agricultural area caused a bay-wide increase in nutrient concentrations after Hurricane Katrina. Nutrient concentrations in the bay returned to pre-hurricane levels within three months after Hurricane Katrina, showing the resiliency of the Biscayne Bay ecosystem.

  9. 76 FR 24837 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend... Guard proposes to establish a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on Biscayne Bay in Miami... would be: Required to transit the regulated navigation area at no more than 15 knots; subject to...

  10. 76 FR 31895 - Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay... to establish a temporary regulated navigation area (RNA) in certain waters of the Magothy River, in... ADDRESSES. This proposed rule involves establishing a temporary regulated navigation area. We seek...

  11. 77 FR 43554 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend... Guard proposes to establish a regulated navigation area on Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The regulated navigation area will be enforced annually from Saturday of the second week through Monday of the third...

  12. Information Summary, Area of Concern: Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Municipalities Suspected of Generating Intermittent Point Sources (The Chester Engineers 1976) Table 28. Average Erosion Rates (metric tons/acre) and Estimated...Annual Sheet, Rill and Wind Erosion (metric tons/year) on Cropland for Selected Counties in the Saginaw Bay Drainage Basin in 1982 (USDA- SCS et al...Saginaw River tributaries, 1972-1986 Figure 22c. Annual average biochemical oxygen demand in west coastal basin tributaries, 1963-1989 Figure 22d. Annual

  13. Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in earth orbit. North of Mobile the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers join to form the Mobile River. Detailed configuration of the individual stream channels and boundaries can be defined as the Mobile River flows into Mobile Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico. The Mobile River Valley with its numerous stream channels is a distinct light shade in contrast to the dark green shade of the adjacent areas. The red coloration of Mobile Bay reflects the sediment load carried into the bay by the rivers. The westerly movement of the shore currents at the mouth of Mobile Bay is shown by the contrasting light blue of the sediment-laden current the the blue of the Gulf. Agricultural areas east and west of Mobile Bay are characterized by a rectangular pattern in green to white shades. Color variations may reflect

  14. 76 FR 49301 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... establishing a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The RNA will be... Bank and the Rickenbacker Causeway Bridge. All vessels within the RNA are: required to transit the RNA... instructions of all law enforcement vessels in the area. This RNA is necessary to ensure the safe transit...

  15. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area. (a) The Area. The water of the Pacific Ocean in..., under hire to, or performing work for, the Naval Amphibious Base. (3) All vessels entering the... shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Amphibious Base, Coronado, California, and...

  16. Environmental Technology Transfer Needs of Bay Area Business and Environmental Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Robin M.; And Others

    In 1995, Merritt College, in Oakland, California, conducted telephone interviews with 23 hazardous waste generating businesses and 30 environmental professionals in the San Francisco Bay Area to determine interest in receiving training from the college related to waste management and areas of training needed. An analysis of responses revealed the…

  17. 33 CFR 165.753 - Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida. 165.753 Section 165.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  18. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area. 165.1152 Section 165.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  20. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  1. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area. 165.1152 Section 165.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  3. 33 CFR 165.753 - Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida. 165.753 Section 165.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  4. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  5. 33 CFR 165.730 - King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false King's Bay, Georgia-Regulated navigation area. 165.730 Section 165.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area. 165.1152 Section 165.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  7. 33 CFR 165.753 - Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida. 165.753 Section 165.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area. 165.1152 Section 165.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area. 165.1152 Section 165.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  10. 33 CFR 165.753 - Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated navigation area; Tampa Bay, Florida. 165.753 Section 165.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  11. Increasing Hydrogen Ion Activity of Water in Two Reservoirs Supplying the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColl, J. G.

    1981-10-01

    The hydrogen ion activity (H+) of water in two Sierra Nevada reservoirs (Pardee and Hetch Hetchy) that supply the San Francisco Bay area has been increasing with time over the period 1954-1979. This conclusion is based on weekly measurements ofpH at the two reservoirs and is supported by measurements of alkalinity which decreased at Pardee over the period 1944-1979. Based on linear models, the rate of the increasing (H+) was the same at both reservoirs, and (H+) varied concomitantly from year to year, suggesting a common, general cause. Mean monthly variation in (H+) corresponded to mean monthly variation in atmospheric pollution from a nine-county area around San Francisco Bay. The most likely cause of the increasing (H+) of reservoir waters is NOx from automobile exhausts primarily from the San Francisco Bay area.

  12. System designed for issuing landslide alerts in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, D.

    1987-01-01

    A system for forecasting landslides during major storms has been developed for the San Francisco Bay area by the U.S Geological Survey and was successfully tested during heavy storms in the bay area during February 1986. Based on the forecasts provided by the USGS, the National Weather Service (NWS) included landslide warnings in its regular weather forecasts or in special weather statements transmitted to local radio and television stations and other news media. USGS scientists said the landslide forecasting and warning system for the San Francisco Bay area can be used as a prototype in developing similar systems for other parts of the Nation susceptible to landsliding. Studies show damage from landslides in the United States averages an estimated $1.5 billion per year. 

  13. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  14. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of sedimentary bodies in Jiaozhou Bay and Adjacent Sea Areas, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Heping; Li, Guangxue; Li, Shuanglin; Li, Shaoquan; Li, Chun

    2011-06-01

    The distributions of thickness of unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary layers in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao offshore area were studied by using 1079-km high-resolution shallow seismic profiles and drilling core data, and the factors controlling the Quaternary evolution were discussed. The results show that such thickness distributions resulted from the coactions of geologic structures and marine hydrodynamic conditions since the Holocene. The geologic structures controlled the slope deposit, proluvial and fluvial fillings since the late Pleistocene. Holocene marine hydrodynamics eroded away sediments at the bay mouth, and tides carried these eroded materials to the sides of the bay mouth and released them there, forming channel-ridge-alternating geomorphic features. During transgressive processes, the sea level rose rapidly, and insufficient sediment supply and tidal actions yielded the relict sediments in the east of Qingdao offshore area.

  15. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  16. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving Ground Command, U.S. Air Force... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air...

  17. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  18. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving Ground Command, U.S. Air Force... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air...

  19. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  20. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  1. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  2. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  3. 33 CFR 334.750 - Ben's Lake, a tributary of Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base; restricted area. 334.750 Section 334.750 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.750 Ben's Lake, a tributary of Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force..., without the permission of the Commander, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, or his authorized...

  4. 33 CFR 334.750 - Ben's Lake, a tributary of Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base; restricted area. 334.750 Section 334.750 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.750 Ben's Lake, a tributary of Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla., at Eglin Air Force..., without the permission of the Commander, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, or his authorized...

  5. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  8. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  9. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  12. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  13. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  15. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. 162.20 Section 162.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.20 Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area....

  16. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. 162.20 Section 162.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.20 Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area....

  17. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. 162.20 Section 162.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.20 Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area....

  18. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  3. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  4. 33 CFR 334.780 - Pensacola Bay, Fla.; seaplane restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.780 Pensacola Bay...″; thence to latitude 30°20′11″; longitude 87°17′58″; and thence to 272° true to the shore. (b)...

  5. Job Sharing in the Schools: A Study of Nine Bay Area Districts. A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Ways to Work, Palo Alto, CA.

    Under job sharing, two people share responsibility for one full-time position. Each person has a permanent, part-time job with salary and fringe benefits prorated according to hours worked. Job sharing has been available in some Bay Area school districts for the last four years. For this preliminary report, nine districts--Alum rock, Fremont,…

  6. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  7. 33 CFR 162.195 - Santa Monica Bay, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Santa Monica Bay, Calif.; restricted area. 162.195 Section 162.195 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.195...

  8. The State of Latino Education in the San Francisco Bay Area: A Crisis in Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Mario

    A study examined educational attainment among Latino students in the six-county San Francisco Bay Area. California's Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program results for 1998-99 were used to assess student achievement in reading and mathematics for grades 4, 7, and 10. Data were also collected on enrollment, dropout rates, percentage of…

  9. EAST/WEST TRUCK BAY AREA OF TRANSFER BASIN CORRIDOR OF FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST/WEST TRUCK BAY AREA OF TRANSFER BASIN CORRIDOR OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING NORTHWEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-19-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. San Francisco Bay Area Endangered Species Litigation - Center for Biological Diversity v. EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Center for Biological Diversity have agreed to a revised settlement agreement that amends a 2010 court order for effects determinations on 11 endangered or threatened (listed) species in the San Francisco Bay area. Find out about the new order.

  11. Analysis of sediment, water, and biological samples from the Bay Farm Borrow Area, San Francisco Bay, California

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, R.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Bay Farm Borrow Area (BFBA) of San Francisco Bay, California, is under consideration as a dredged-material disposal site by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). As part of the analysis of the site, information is required on the quality of benthic biota, sediment, and water in the BFBA. The objective of this report was to provide data on infauna communities, sediment, and water chemistry from samples collected from the BFBA. The samples were collected, and the data will be analyzed by Science Applications International (SAIC). A total of four samples for sediment chemistry, four samples for water chemistry, and 7 samples for infauna communities were analyzed by the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL). Water analyses included tests for dissolved organic carbon, total suspended solids, four metals, butyltins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phenols, and total phenol. Sediment samples were analyzed for percent solids, total organic carbon, total oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, grain size, 10 metals, butyltins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, four phenols, and total phenol. The data along with controls and spike recovery analyses, are presented in tables, and the results are discussed in the text. The quality assurance/quality control criteria were met for the analyses as were the detection limits specified by the sponsor.

  12. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  13. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  14. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  15. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  16. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1,000 yards having its center on the...

  17. 33 CFR 334.80 - Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area. (a) Beginning at a point on the east shore of Conanicut Island at latitude 41°33′15″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°32′44″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southerly to latitude 41°32′09″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°31′50″, longitude 71°21′10″; thence southeasterly...

  18. 33 CFR 334.80 - Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area. (a) Beginning at a point on the east shore of Conanicut Island at latitude 41°33′15″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°32′44″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southerly to latitude 41°32′09″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°31′50″, longitude 71°21′10″; thence southeasterly...

  19. 33 CFR 334.80 - Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area. (a) Beginning at a point on the east shore of Conanicut Island at latitude 41°33′15″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°32′44″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southerly to latitude 41°32′09″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°31′50″, longitude 71°21′10″; thence southeasterly...

  20. 33 CFR 334.80 - Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area. (a) Beginning at a point on the east shore of Conanicut Island at latitude 41°33′15″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°32′44″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southerly to latitude 41°32′09″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°31′50″, longitude 71°21′10″; thence southeasterly...

  1. 33 CFR 334.80 - Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area. (a) Beginning at a point on the east shore of Conanicut Island at latitude 41°33′15″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°32′44″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southerly to latitude 41°32′09″, longitude 71°21′17″; thence southeasterly to latitude 41°31′50″, longitude 71°21′10″; thence southeasterly...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius of 4,700 yards, centered at a point bearing 316° true, 3,605 yards, from Mare Island Strait Light...

  3. 33 CFR 167.350 - In the approaches to Galveston Bay Traffic Separation Scheme and precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Galveston Bay Traffic Separation Scheme and precautionary areas. 167.350 Section 167.350 Navigation and... Atlantic Gulf Coast § 167.350 In the approaches to Galveston Bay Traffic Separation Scheme...

  4. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  5. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  6. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  7. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  8. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  9. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.20 Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. (a... side of the extended center line of Runway No. 13-31 at La Guardia Airport. (b) The regulations....

  10. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06...′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  11. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06...′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  12. Look before you build; geologic studies for safer land development in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair-Tyler, Martha

    1995-01-01

    This Circular provides a general description of the types of geologic hazards that exist throughout the United States. In nontechnical language this book describes how geologic information can be incorporated in the land-use development process and contains useful discussion of several examples from the San Francisco Bay area and elsewhere in the United States of how geologic information is already being used in the development process by some cities and counties.

  13. Undiscovered Locatable Mineral Resources in the Bay Resource Management Plan Area, Southwestern Alaska: A Probabilistic Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, J.M.; Light, T.D.; Drew, L.J.; Wilson, F.H.; Miller, M.L.; Saltus, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Bay Resource Management Plan (RMP) area in southwestern Alaska, north and northeast of Bristol Bay contains significant potential for undiscovered locatable mineral resources of base and precious metals, in addition to metallic mineral deposits that are already known. A quantitative probabilistic assessment has identified 24 tracts of land that are permissive for 17 mineral deposit model types likely to be explored for within the next 15 years in this region. Commodities we discuss in this report that have potential to occur in the Bay RMP area are Ag, Au, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Pb, Sn, W, Zn, and platinum-group elements. Geoscience data for the region are sufficient to make quantitative estimates of the number of undiscovered deposits only for porphyry copper, epithermal vein, copper skarn, iron skarn, hot-spring mercury, placer gold, and placer platinum-deposit models. A description of a group of shallow- to intermediate-level intrusion-related gold deposits is combined with grade and tonnage data from 13 deposits of this type to provide a quantitative estimate of undiscovered deposits of this new type. We estimate that significant resources of Ag, Au, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Pt occur in the Bay Resource Management Plan area in these deposit types. At the 10th percentile probability level, the Bay RMP area is estimated to contain 10,067 metric tons silver, 1,485 metric tons gold, 12.66 million metric tons copper, 560 million metric tons iron, 8,100 metric tons mercury, 500,000 metric tons molybdenum, 150 metric tons lead, and 17 metric tons of platinum in undiscovered deposits of the eight quantified deposit types. At the 90th percentile probability level, the Bay RMP area is estimated to contain 89 metric tons silver, 14 metric tons gold, 911,215 metric tons copper, 330,000 metric tons iron, 1 metric ton mercury, 8,600 metric tons molybdenum and 1 metric ton platinum in undiscovered deposits of the eight deposit types. Other commodities, which may occur in the

  14. [Impact of artificial reef on community of macrobenthos in Jincheng area of Laizhou Bay, China].

    PubMed

    Ren, Bin-bin; Yuan, Wei; Sun, Jian-qiang; Chen, Rui-sheng; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of artificial reef on the communities of macrobenthos, from 2009 to 2012, samples were collected in four seasons at the artificial reef area and the control area in Jincheng area of Laizhou Bay from 9 cruises. A total of 35 macrobenthos species (4 phyla, 30 families) were recorded in the two areas, with 30 species in the artificial reef area, and 27 species in the control area. Results suggested that the two macrobenthos communities with different species composition could be discriminated. One community was located in artificial reef area, the other outside the reef area. Planktophagous group was the most dissimilarity-contributing species. The species similarity (Jaccard) of the two areas increased from 37.5% in the first year to 58.6% in the second year. The biomass and abundance of macrobenthos in the artificial reef area respectively increased from 1.00 g · m(-2) and 540 ind · m(-2) in the first year to 1.55 g · m(-2) and 622 ind · m(-2) in the second year, which were both higher than those in the control area. Compared with the control area, the Shannon index and abundance index of the artificial reef area were increased, while the evenness index was decreased. The abundance biomass comparison (ABC) curve showed that the macrobenthos communities were more heavily disturbed in the second year than that in the first year after artificial reef set. It was considered that the macrobenthos community was unsteady at the early stage after artificial reef construction (1-2 years). The physical, chemical, biological and human activities were the main factors influencing macrobenthos community in Jincheng area of Laizhou Bay.

  15. Numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in a sea bay water area used for water supply to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    Consideration is given to the numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in sea water areas used for both water supply to and dissipation of low-grade heat from a nuclear power plant on the shore of a sea bay.

  16. Status, trends, and changes in freshwater inflows to bay systems in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, W.H.; Mosier, J. G.; Bush, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    The watershed simulation model Hydrologic Simulation Program—Fortran (HSPF) was used to generate simulated flow (runoff) from the 13 watersheds to the six bay systems because adequate gaged streamflow data from which to estimate freshwater inflows are not available; only about 23 percent of the adjacent contributing watershed area is gaged. The model was calibrated for the gaged parts of three watersheds—that is, selected input parameters (meteorologic and hydrologic properties and conditions) that control runoff were adjusted in a series of simulations until an adequate match between model-generated flows and a set (time series) of gaged flows was achieved. The primary model input is rainfall and evaporation data and the model output is a time series of runoff volumes. After calibration, simulations driven by daily rainfall for a 26-year period (1968–93) were done for the 13 watersheds to obtain runoff under current (1983–93), predevelopment (pre-1940 streamflow and pre-urbanization), and future (2010) land-use conditions for estimating freshwater inflows and for comparing runoff under the three land-use conditions; and to obtain time series of runoff from which to estimate time series of freshwater inflows for trend analysis.

  17. When it happens again: impact of future San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M.; Boatwright, J.; Kornfield, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Rojahn, C.

    2005-12-01

    San Francisco Bay area earthquakes, like major floods and hurricanes, have the potential for massive damage to dense urban population centers concentrated in vulnerable zones-along active faults, in coastal regions, and along major river arteries. The recent destruction of Hurricane Katrina does have precedent in the destruction following the 1906 "San Francisco" earthquake and fire in which more than 3000 people were killed and 225,000 were left homeless in San Francisco alone, a city of 400,000 at the time. Analysis of a comprehensive set of damage reports from the magnitude (M) 7.9 1906 earthquake indicates a region of ~ 18,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Modified Mercalli Intensity of VIII or more - motions capable of damaging even modern, well-built structures; more than 60,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Intensity VII or greater - the threshold for damage to masonry and poorly designed structures. By comparison, Katrina's hurricane force winds and intense rainfall impacted an area of ~100,000 km2 on the Gulf Coast. Thus, the anticipated effects of a future major Bay Area quake to lives, property, and infrastructure are comparable in scale to Katrina. Secondary hazards (levee failure and flooding in the case of Katrina and fire following the 1906 earthquake) greatly compounded the devastation in both disasters. A recent USGS-led study concluded there is a 62% chance of one or more damaging (M6.7 or greater) earthquakes striking the greater San Francisco Bay area over the next 30 years. The USGS prepared HAZUS loss estimates for the 10 most likely forecast earthquakes which range in size from a M6.7 event on a blind thrust to the largest anticipated event, a M7.9 repeat of the 1906 earthquake. The largest economic loss is expected for a repeat of the 1906 quake. Losses in the Bay region for this event are nearly double those predicted for a M6.9 rupture of the entire Hayward Fault in the East Bay. However, because of high density of population along the

  18. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, as indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the center of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hillister is the grey area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soleda

  19. Bathymetric Lidar Mapping of Seagrass Distribution within Redfish Bay State Scientific Area, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Fernandez-Diaz, J. C.; Singhania, A.; Shrestha, R. L.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Su, L.; Reisinger, A. S.; Lord, A.

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring seagrass habitat, species growth, and population decline is an important environmental initiative for coastal ecosystem sustainability. However, measuring details about seagrass distribution and canopy structure over large areas via remote sensing has proved challenging. Developments in airborne bathymetric light detection and ranging (lidar) provide great potential in this regard. Traditional bathymetric lidar systems have been limited in their ability to map within the shallow water zone (< 1 m) where seagrass is typically present due to limitations in receiver response and laser pulse length. Emergent short-pulse width bathymetric lidar sensors and waveform processing algorithms enable depth measurements in shallow water environments not previously accessible. This 3D information of the benthic layer can be applied to extract metrics about the seagrass canopy. On September 10, 2012, researchers with the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) at the University of Houston (UH) and the Coastal and Marine Geospatial Sciences Lab (CMGL) of the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi conducted a coordinated airborne and ground-based survey of the Redfish Bay State Scientific Area as part of a collaborative study to investigate the capabilities of bathymetric lidar and hyperspectral imaging for seagrass mapping (standalone and in-fusion). Redfish Bay, located along the middle Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico, is a state scientific area designated for the purposes of protecting and studying the native seagrasses. For this survey, UH acquired high resolution (2.5 shots/m^2) very-shallow water bathymetry data using their new lidar system , the Optech Aquarius Green (532 nm) system. In a separate flight, UH collected 2 sets of hyperspectral imaging data (1.2-m pixel resolution and 72 bands, and 0.6m pixel resolution and 36 bands) with their CASI 1500 hy sensor. For this survey the sensors were mounted on a PA-31 Chieftain

  20. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Eric C.; Fournelle, John H.; Miller, Thomas P.; Mickelson, David M.

    2002-11-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425±350 and 9130±140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300±80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200±75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070±340 and 3600±140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk/Fisher ash

  1. Particulate Matter Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Train Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsome, L.; Macias, S.; Romero, N.; Lockett, N.; Polar, J.; Madrigal, C.; Lopez, F.; Sanchez, R.; Webster, D.; Torio, M.; Rios, V.; Marks-Block, T.; Toli, F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a general effort to assess air quality in different regions of the San Francisco Bay Area, we collected Particulate Matter (PM) data within passenger train cars along multiple commuter train lines simultaneously during the summer and fall of 2012. We visited numerous Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system stations, including those along the Fremont, Pittsburg and SF/Daly City lines. In conducting this study we used a Dustrak 8530 aerosol sensor equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to measure PM size 2.5 μm concentrations every second. Of all the BART stations we visited, average PM concentration levels at the Embarcadero station in San Francisco were the highest during multiple visits, with a value of 104.95 μg/m3. We also noted that high levels of PM 2.5 were released when the cloth seats on the trains were struck, which resulted in significant, temporary increases of hazardous PM levels of up to 3000 μg/m3! Embarcadero station's high PM concentration correlates to past research in other underground train stations throughout the world, where PM produced through the abrasive interaction of train wheels and tracks or brake pads becomes trapped. Compared to levels measured at outdoor stations (average of 8.52μg/m3) and other underground stations, levels detected at the Embarcadero station are particularly alarming. We believe this is due to the fact that this station is located at one end of a long, underground and underwater transbay tunnel that connects the East San Francisco Bay area to San Francisco to the west. To reduce PM exposure risk to BART employees and passengers, we suggest increasing and/or installing filtration and ventilation systems, which should substantially reduce PM concentrations at Embarcadero station.

  2. Progressive low pressure metamorphism of metapelitic rocks from the Casco Bay area, southwestern Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, T.W. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Lang, H.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geography); Gordon, T.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-03-01

    A prograde sequence of metapelitic rocks occurs in the Casco Bay area, southwestern Maine. Excellent exposure along the coast of Orrs Island, Harpswell Neck, and Small Point have allowed for the delineation of several metamorphic zones which show an increase in metamorphic grade from west to east across the area. These zones are, in order of increasing metamorphic grade, a garnet zone, a staurolite zone, a staurolite + andalusite zone and a sillimanite [plus minus] andalusite [plus minus] staurolite zone. The widespread occurrence of coexisting andalusite + sillimanite in the highest grade portion of the area, along with the presence of andalusite [plus minus] sillimanite veins on Hermit Island suggest peak metamorphism was near the andalusite-sillimanite transition. Staurolite is also found in apparent textural equilibrium in many of the sillimanite-bearing samples. Metamorphic pressures and temperatures were determined using the approach of Gordon. Peak temperatures range from [approx] 440C in garnet zone rocks to [approx] 510C in sillimanite [plus minus] andalusite zone rocks. Metamorphic pressures are [approx] 3-3.5 kbars. These P-T estimates are consistent with those determined using GeO-Calc. In contrast with the static style of metamorphism reported in central and western Maine, metamorphism in the Casco Bay area, located east of the Norumbega Fault, was synchronous with deformation. The same sequence of porphyroblast growth reported for the Orrs Island-Harpswell Neck area is also found in the Small Point area, suggesting the same metamorphic event affected the entire region. However, coarse grained muscovite pseudomorphs after andalusite or staurolite in rocks with stable andalusite and staurolite are found in the Small Point area suggesting these rocks have a polymetamorphic history. Evidence for polymetamorphism is not found elsewhere in the area.

  3. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. 334.1190 Section 334.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  6. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  7. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  8. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  9. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  10. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  11. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew; Jeffers, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  12. Air Quality Benefits of Ship Fuel Regulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L.; Harley, R. A.; Fairley, D.; Martien, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important emission source of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning July 1, 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of low-sulfur marine fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle composition data from 4 urban sites and 2 more remote sites (Point Reyes and Pinnacles) from the IMPROVE network. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a useful and specific tracer for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in primary aerosol emissions from ships. The results indicate a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change, and a 13 to 38% decrease in SO2 concentration, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We inferred from emission factors documented in the literature that marine vessel contributions to primary fine particulate matter mass in the Bay Area, prior to the fuel change, were on the order of 1 to 5%.

  13. Bayes plus Brass: estimating total fertility for many small areas from sparse census data.

    PubMed

    Schmertmann, Carl P; Cavenaghi, Suzana M; Assunção, Renato M; Potter, Joseph E

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of fertility in small areas are valuable for analysing demographic change, and important for local planning and population projection. In countries lacking complete vital registration, however, small-area estimates are possible only from sparse survey or census data that are potentially unreliable. In these circumstances estimation requires new methods for old problems: procedures must be automated if thousands of estimates are required; they must deal with extreme sampling variability in many areas; and they should also incorporate corrections for possible data errors. We present a two-step procedure for estimating total fertility in such circumstances and illustrate it by applying the method to data from the 2000 Brazilian Census for over 5,000 municipalities. Our proposed procedure first smoothes local age-specific rates using Empirical Bayes methods and then applies a new variant of Brass's P/F parity correction procedure that is robust to conditions of rapid fertility decline. Supplementary material at the project website ( http://schmert.net/BayesBrass ) will allow readers to replicate all the authors' results in this paper using their data and programs.

  14. Water - Food Nexus: Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Fishery Production in Jakarta Bay Area, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.; Martosuparno, S.; Bakti, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    An enormous land-use change is envisaged along the coastline of Jakarta Bay both housing, commercial and industrial zones. Housing and business projects in Jakarta coastal area started from late 1980s have had great impact on mangrove areas and coastal water quality. The next mega project will also be conducted, such as giant sea wall as a sea wall defence and reclamation the north coast of Jakarta as a waterfront city. These reclamation projects should ideally not marginalize fishery production and local fisher communities, but hopefully it will increase their welfare. Therefore, some policy concept base on water-food resilience at coastal area should be carried out before the next activities implemented.

  15. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system-speed and flexibility-are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. This study attempts to determine if the aircraft can contribute toward solving the transportation problems of major metropolitan areas and be economically viable in such an environment.

  16. A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, K.C.; Hoppen, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including topography, road networks, and existing settlement distributions, and their modification over time. In addition, the control parameters of the model are allowed to self-modify: that is, the CA adapts itself to the circumstances it generates, in particular, during periods of rapid growth or stagnation. In addition, the model was written to allow the accumulation of probabilistic estimates based on Monte Carlo methods. Calibration of the model has been accomplished by the use of historical maps to compare model predictions of urbanization, based solely upon the distribution in year 1900, with observed data for years 1940, 1954, 1962, 1974, and 1990. The complexity of this model has made calibration a particularly demanding step. Lessons learned about the methods, measures, and strategies developed to calibrate the model may be of use in other environmental modeling contexts. With the calibration complete, the model is being used to generate a set of future scenarios for the San Francisco Bay area along with their probabilities based on the Monte Carlo version of the model. Animated dynamic mapping of the simulations will be used to allow visualization of the impact of future urban growth.

  17. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in the San Francisco Bay area, 1989-99.

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, D. J.; Smitht, D. S.; Hett, E. C.; Reingold, A. L.; Daily, P.; van Beneden, C. A.; Vugia, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections in the San Francisco Bay Area, population-based active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed iGAS was conducted by the California Emerging Infections Program in three California counties. From January 1989 to December 1999, 1415 cases of iGAS were identified. Mean iGAS incidence was 4.06/100,000 person-years and case fatality ratio was 13%, with no linear trends over time. Incidence was lowest in adolescents, was higher in men than women (4.4 vs. 3.2/100,000 person-years), and was higher in African-Americans (6.7) than in non-Hispanic (4.1) or Hispanic (3.4) Whites, Asians (2.2) or Native Americans (17/100,000 person-years). Injecting drug use was the riskiest underlying condition and was associated with the highest attributable risk. Cases were associated with several underlying conditions, but 23% occurred in previously healthy persons. From 1989-1999, iGAS infections in the San Francisco Bay Area became neither more common nor more deadly. PMID:12558329

  18. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hole, J.A.; Brocher, T.M.; Klemperer, S.L.; Parsons, T.; Benz, H.M.; Furlong, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic travel times from the northern California earthquake catalogue and from the 1991 Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment (BASIX) refraction survey were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area. Nonlinear tomography was used to simultaneously invert for both velocity and hypocenters. The new hypocenter inversion algorithm uses finite difference travel times and is an extension of an existing velocity tomography algorithm. Numerous inversions were performed with different parameters to test the reliability of the resulting velocity model. Most hypocenters were relocated 12 km under the Sacramento River Delta, 6 km beneath Livermore Valley, 5 km beneath the Santa Clara Valley, and 4 km beneath eastern San Pablo Bay. The Great Valley Sequence east of San Francisco Bay is 4-6 km thick. A relatively high velocity body exists in the upper 10 km beneath the Sonoma volcanic field, but no evidence for a large intrusion or magma chamber exists in the crust under The Geysers or the Clear Lake volcanic center. Lateral velocity contrasts indicate that the major strike-slip faults extend subvertically beneath their surface locations through most of the crust. Strong lateral velocity contrasts of 0.3-0.6 km/s are observed across the San Andreas Fault in the middle crust and across the Hayward, Rogers Creek, Calaveras, and Greenville Faults at shallow depth. Weaker velocity contrasts (0.1-0.3 km/s) exist across the San Andreas, Hayward, and Rogers Creek Faults at all other depths. Low spatial resolution evidence in the lower crust suggests that the top of high-velocity mafic rocks gets deeper from west to east and may be offset under the major faults. The data suggest that the major strike-slip faults extend subvertically through the middle and perhaps the lower crust and juxtapose differing lithology due to accumulated strike-slip motion. The extent and physical properties of the major geologic units as

  19. Long-period building response to earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, A.H.; Aagaard, B.T.; Heaton, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study of modeled, long-period building responses to ground-motion simulations of earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. The earthquakes include the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, a magnitude 7.8 simulation of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and two hypothetical magnitude 7.8 northern San Andreas fault earthquakes with hypocenters north and south of San Francisco. We use the simulated ground motions to excite nonlinear models of 20-story, steel, welded moment-resisting frame (MRF) buildings. We consider MRF buildings designed with two different strengths and modeled with either ductile or brittle welds. Using peak interstory drift ratio (IDR) as a performance measure, the stiffer, higher strength building models outperform the equivalent more flexible, lower strength designs. The hypothetical magnitude 7.8 earthquake with hypocenter north of San Francisco produces the most severe ground motions. In this simulation, the responses of the more flexible, lower strength building model with brittle welds exceed an IDR of 2.5% (that is, threaten life safety) on 54% of the urban area, compared to 4.6% of the urban area for the stiffer, higher strength building with ductile welds. We also use the simulated ground motions to predict the maximum isolator displacement of base-isolated buildings with linear, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) models. For two existing 3-sec isolator systems near San Francisco, the design maximum displacement is 0.5 m, and our simulations predict isolator displacements for this type of system in excess of 0.5 m in many urban areas. This article demonstrates that a large, 1906-like earthquake could cause significant damage to long-period buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  20. Vulnerable assessment by sea level rise in San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C. J.; Suzuki, T.; Itoigawa, E.; Park, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The San Francisco South Bay Area in California is home to approximately seven million people that consist of nine counties and the prosperous core area of IT technology industry in the West Coast of America, well known as Silicon Valley. Sea level rising due to Global Warming is becoming the main issue in this area. Furthermore, the extreme weather events including flash flooding are observing more frequently. Urban infrastructures are faced vulnerable at risk of long-term flooding. Sea level rise by global warming in this area is estimated that it could rise by up to 16 inches (40 cm) by mid of this century and 55 inches (140 cm) by the end of this century. By the impact of 55 inches of sea level rise, there could be 62 billion dollars loss and 270,000 people could be faced at risk of flooding. Nevertheless, urban areas are expecting to extend approximately 5,063.71 km2 by 2020 and 6,098.20 km2 by year 2050. Thus, the land use legislation need to be discussed following that the 213,000 acres that could be vulnerable to flooding by the end of this century. Adaptation strategies should be considered from various aspects including policy, empirical observations and academic approaches. In this paper, for promoting further discussions, vulnerable areas and its characteristics by flooding is assessed and the finding potential urban growth areas for urban rezoning is implemented using Geographic Information System.

  1. 33 CFR 334.1090 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of the NSC Fuel Department, Point Molate restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... restricted area. (a) The area. Bounded by the easterly shore of upper San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning at a point on shore bearing 17° 800 yards, from “Tree” at Molate Point thence 270°,...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1090 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of the NSC Fuel Department, Point Molate restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... restricted area. (a) The area. Bounded by the easterly shore of upper San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning at a point on shore bearing 17° 800 yards, from “Tree” at Molate Point thence 270°,...

  3. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  4. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Schuylkill River, in an area bounded on the south by a line drawn across the entrance to the Delaware Bay... Cape Henlopen, and bounded on the north by a line drawn across the Delaware River between Trenton, NJ... propulsion; (7) While moored within the regulated navigation area, ensure that at least two wire...

  5. Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

  6. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  11. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  12. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  13. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  14. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  15. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  16. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area... section shall be enforced by the Commander, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida, and/or such persons...

  17. Conceptual ecosystem model of the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montagna, P.A.; Li, J.; Street, G.T.

    1996-01-01

    This report developed a conceptual ecosystem model, both pictorial and narrative, of the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program (CCBNEP) study area. The model demonstrates ecosystem linkages at all trophic levels and substrate types, and provides a conceptual framework with which to assess ecological and environmental impacts (both episodic and cumulative) associated with external influences. The model is based on current scientific consensus regarding the modeling of estuarine ecosystem components, and data and information regarding these relationships within the study area. The model was developed to two levels of detail: (1) a detailed model suitable for the scientific and technical community; and, (2) a simple model suitable for use in CCBNEP public documents and management conference deliberations.

  18. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Eric; Angell, Christopher; Chodash, Perry

    2011-10-01

    We observed fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area beginning approximately 1 week after the earthquake. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products - 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public. Soon after the observation of fallout in rainwater, we also observed low levels of Fukushima fallout in plant and food specimens collected in the the San Francisco area. This work was supported in part by the US Dept. of Homeland Security and by a Nuclear Non-Proliferation International Safeguards Graduate Fellowship (PAC) from the US Dept. of Energy.

  19. Houston-Galveston Bay area, Texas, from space; a new tool for mapping land subsidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stork, Sylvia V.; Sneed, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful new tool that uses radar signals to measure displacement (subsidence and uplift) of the Earth's crust at an unprecedented level of spatial detail and high degree of measurement resolution.The Houston-Galveston Bay area, possibly more than any other metropolitan area in the United States, has been adversely affected by land subsidence. Extensive subsidence, caused mainly by ground-water pumping but also by oil and gas extraction, has increased the frequency of flooding, caused extensive damage to industrial and transportation infrastructure, motivated major investments in levees, reservoirs, and surfacewater distribution facilities, and caused substantial loss of wetland habitat. Ongoing patterns of subsidence in the Houston area have been carefully monitored using borehole extensometers, Global Positioning System (GPS) and conventional spirit-leveling surveys, and more recently, an emerging technology—Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)—which enables development of spatially-detailed maps of land-surface displacement over broad areas. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, briefly summarizes the history of subsidence in the area and the local consequences of subsidence and describes the use of InSAR as one of several tools in an integrated subsidence-monitoring program in the area.

  20. Analysis of modern and Pleistocene hydrologic exchange between Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and the Saginaw Lowlands area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoaglund, J. R.; Kolak, J.J.; Long, D.T.; Larson, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Two numerical models, one simulating present groundwater flow conditions and one simulating ice-induced hydraulic loading from the Port Huron ice advance, were used to characterize both modern and Pleistocene groundwater exchange between the Michigan Basin and near-surface water systems of Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and the surrounding Saginaw Lowlands area. These models were further used to constrain the origin of saline, isotopically light groundwater, and porewater from the study area. Output from the groundwater-flow model indicates that, at present conditions, head in the Marshall aquifer beneath Saginaw Bay exceeds the modern lake elevation by as much as 21 m. Despite this potential for flow, simulated groundwater discharge through the Saginaw Bay floor constitutes only 0.028 m3 s-1 (???1 cfs). Bedrock lithology appears to regulate the rate of groundwater discharge, as the portion of the Saginaw Bay floor underlain by the Michigan confining unit exhibits an order of magnitude lower flux than the portion underlain by the Saginaw aquifer. The calculated shoreline discharge of groundwater to Saginaw Bay is also relatively small (1.13 m3 s-1 or ???40 cfs) because of low gradients across the Saginaw Lowlands area and the low hydraulic conductivities of lodgement tills and glacial-lake clays surrounding the bay. In contrast to the present groundwater flow conditions, the Port Huron ice-induced hydraulic-loading model generates a groundwater-flow reversal that is localized to the region of a Pleistocene ice sheet and proglacial lake. This area of reversed vertical gradient is largely commensurate with the distribution of isotopically light groundwater presently found in the study area. Mixing scenarios, constrained by chloride concentrations and ??18O values in porewater samples, demonstrate that a mixing event involving subglacial recharge could have produced the groundwater chemistry currently observed in the Saginaw Lowlands area. The combination of models and

  1. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  2. The intertidal soft sediments and their macrofauna in the Greater Swansea Bay area (Worm's Head to Nash Point), South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackley, Susan E.

    1981-05-01

    The zonation and abundance of the infauna of 11 soft shores in the Greater Swansea Bay area are described in relation to sediment grain size composition and exposure to wave action. Faunal associations are more characteristic of a boreal sand community but with reduced species diversity. Exposure to wave action accounts, at least in part, for this reduced fauna but the combined effects of industrial and urban development in the Swansea Bay area cannot be ignored. This study provides a baseline for future work in a region subject to pollution, completing the infaunal species lists for the northern coastline of the Bristol Channel.

  3. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I.A.; Burgmann, R.; Schmidt, D.A.; Murray, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (BA??VU??, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ?? 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4??W ?? 0.8?? at San Francisco (??2??). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ?? 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ?? 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ?? 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ?? 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ?? 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/ Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  5. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Vegetation map overlays at a scale of 1:24,000 compiled by multispectral analysis from NASA aircraft imagery for all of Delaware's wetlands are being used as ground truth for ERTS-1 mapping and by state agencies for wetlands management. Six major vegetation species were discriminated and mapped, including percentages of minor species. Analogue enhancements of wetlands vegetation and dredge-fill operations have been produced using General Electric's GEMS data processing and ERTS-1 false color composites. Digital, thematic land use, and vegetation mapping of entire Delaware Bay area is in progress using Bendix Corporation's Earth Resources Data System and ERTS-1 digital tapes. Statistical evaluation of target-group selection reliability has been completed. Three papers have been published on ERTS-1 coastal vegetation and land use. Local and state officials are participating in the ERTS-1 program as co-investigators.

  6. Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilization of an iterative statistical model is presented to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in confunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of Bay Area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation options with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private nonuser costs. It incorporates information modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport cost, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytical capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  7. Evaluation of ERTS MSS digital data for monitoring water in the lower Chesapeake Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Water samples collected during the ERTS overpasses of the lower Chesapeake Bay area have been analyzed for chlorophyll, particles, and sediment. Five ERTS images were sufficiently cloud free that a correlation analysis of radiance values from the MSS bands with the water parameters could be performed. A low correlation was established for chlorophyll, except during algal blooms, when band 6 was responsive. There was a fair to good correlation with particles for combinations of band 5, particularly bands (5 minus 6). Sediment correlations were excellent for band 5 or combinations of band 5 with bands 4 and 6. It was evident that such factors as the atmosphere, tide, and different water masses were tending to confuse the data.

  8. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: Second Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 new fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The first results report was published in August 2011, describing operation of these new FCEBs from September 2010 through May 2011. New results in this report provide an update through April 2012.

  9. Estimating methane emissions from biological and fossil-fuel sources in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Cui, Xinguang; Blake, Donald R.; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Stephen A.; Andrews, Arlyn; Guha, Abhinav; Martien, Philip; Bambha, Ray P.; LaFranchi, Brian; Michelsen, Hope A.; Clements, Craig B.; Glaize, Pierre; Fischer, Marc L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first sector-specific analysis of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) using CH4 and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements from six sites during September - December 2015. We apply a hierarchical Bayesian inversion to separate the biological from fossil-fuel (natural gas and petroleum) sources using the measurements of CH4 and selected VOCs, a source-specific 1 km CH4 emission model, and an atmospheric transport model. We estimate that SFBA CH4 emissions are 166-289 Gg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence), 1.3-2.3 times higher than a recent inventory with much of the underestimation from landfill. Including the VOCs, 82 ± 27% of total posterior median CH4 emissions are biological and 17 ± 3% fossil fuel, where landfill and natural gas dominate the biological and fossil-fuel CH4 of prior emissions, respectively.

  10. Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Jiangang; Zhang, Yujuan; Cao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental characteristics and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in two aquaculture areas in Dapeng Cove of Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2005 and June 2006. Phytoplankton abundance ranged between 5.0 and 8877.5 cells/mL, with an average of 751.8 cells/mL. The seasonal cycle of phytoplankton were demonstrated by frequent oscillations, with recurrent high abundances from late spring to autumn and a peak stage in late winter. Diatoms were the predominant phytoplankton group, accounting for 93.21% of the total abundance. The next most abundant group was the dinoflagellates, which made up only 1.24% of total abundance. High concentrations of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech with a maximum of 603.0 cells/mL were firstly recorded in this area known for high rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contamination. Temperatures and salinities were within the suitable values for the growth of phytoplankton, and were important in phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations. The operation of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DNPS) exerts influences on the phytoplankton community and resulted in the high abundances of toxic dinoflagellate species during the winter months. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved silicate (DSi) were sufficient, and rarely limited for the growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was the most necessary element for phytoplankton growth. The enriched environments accelerated the growth of small diatoms, and made for the shift in predominant species from large diatom Rhizosolenia spp. to chain-forming diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Thalassiosira subtilis.

  11. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE PAGES

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore » Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  12. Impacts of vehicles on natural terrain at seven sites in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Shipley, S.; Prestegaard, K.

    1978-01-01

    The impacts of off-road vehicles on vegetation and soil were investigated at seven representative sites in the San Francisco Bay area. Plant cover of grass and chaparral (with shrubs to 4 m tall) have been stripped by the two- and four-wheel vehicles in use. Impacts on loamy soils include increased surface strength (as much as 275 bars), increased bulk density (averaging 18%) to depths of 90 cm or more, reduction of soil moisture by an average 43% to 30 cm depths, greatly reduced infiltration, extension of the diurnal temperature range by as much as 12??C, and reduction of organic carbon by an average 33% in exposed soils. Very sandy soils respond similarly to vehicular use except that moisture is increased and surface strength of beach sand is decreased. These physical and chemical impacts reduce the land's capability of restoring its vegetative cover, which in turn adversely affects animal populations. Both the loss of plant cover and the physical changes caused by vehicles promote erosion. Measured soil and substrate losses from vehicular use zones range from 7 to 1180 kg/m2. The estimated erosion rate of the Chabot Park site exceeds the rate of erosion considered a serious problem by a factor 30, it exceeds United States Soil Conservation Service tolerance values by a factor of 46, and it exceeds average San Francisco Bay area erosion rates by a factor of 17. The resulting soil losses are effectively permanent. Neither the increased sediment yield nor the increased runoff is accomodated on the sites of use, and both are causing adverse effects to neighboring properties. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.

  14. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  15. Air Pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area. Final Report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Ned; And Others

    Presented in this compendium is the final report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution, one segment of the SWOPSI Program (Stanford Workshops on Political and Social Issues). The workshop's goals were to apply the techniques of a scientific research team to Bay Area air pollution problems; to study all aspects of air pollution in detail; to…

  16. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. 162.20 Section 162.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND...

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  18. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort Richardson, AK AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers... interference with existing waterway traffic, and accordingly, certifies that this proposed rule will have...

  19. Water use and availability in the West Narragansett Bay area, coastal Rhode Island, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1999 drought in Rhode Island, belowaverage precipitation caused a drop in ground-water levels and streamflow was below long-term averages. The low water levels prompted the U. S. Geological Survey and the Rhode Island Water Resources Board to conduct a series of cooperative water-use studies. The purpose of these studies is to collect and analyze water-use and water-availability data in each drainage area in the State of Rhode Island. The West Narragansett Bay study area, which covers 118 square miles in part or all of 14 towns in coastal Rhode Island, is one of nine areas investigated as part of this effort. The study area includes the western part of Narragansett Bay and Conanicut Island, which is the town of Jamestown. The area was divided into six subbasins for the assessment of water-use data. In the calculation of hydrologic budget and water availability, the Hunt, Annaquatucket, and Pettaquamscutt River Basins were combined into one subbasin because they are hydraulically connected. Eleven major water suppliers served customers in the study area, and they supplied an average of 19.301 million gallons per day during 1995–99. The withdrawals from the only minor supplier, which was in the town of East Greenwich in the Hunt River Basin, averaged 0.002 million gallons per day. The remaining withdrawals were estimated as 1.186 million gallons per day from self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows from self-disposed water (individual sewage-disposal systems) and permitted discharges accounted for 5.623 million gallons per day. Most publicly disposed water (13.711 million gallons per day) was collected by the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation, and by the East Greenwich, Fields Point, Jamestown, Narragansett, and Scarborough wastewater-treatment facilities. This wastewater was disposed in Narragansett Bay outside of the study area. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the industrial cogeneration potential in five San Francisco Bay Area counties. Consultant report

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, C. Jr.; Rodden, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of the industrial cogeneration potential in five San Francisco Bay Area counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, and San Francisco are developed. The estimates are developed using survey techniques including mailed questionaires and on-site visits. The following technical and economic feasibility criteria were used in screening potential industrial cogenerators; a heat demand rate criterion of 15,000 pounds of steam per hour and annual heat load factor of 0.60, which was determined by an after-tax return on investment requirement of 16%. Using these screening criteria, a survey was conducted at 75 industrial sites in the five county area, questionaires were received for 34 projects, and site visits were performed at 12 facilities. Based upon the above economic criteria there were 584 MW of viable cogeneration potential identified, about three quarters of which were found in oil refineries, chemical plants, or paper, plastic, or wallboard firms. The total industrial cogeneration capacity estimated for the five county area was 1334 MW. Extrapolating from this sample, this estimate involves a number of approximations and assumptions, and does not consider industrial growth in future years.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All... more (combined), operating within the RNA, with the exception of public vessels, vessels not intending... the area of this RNA. Vessels operating properly installed, operational, type approved...

  2. Monitoring and modeling conditions for regional shallow landslide initiation in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Godt, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Intense winter storms in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California often trigger widespread landsliding, including debris flows that originate as shallow (<3 m) landslides. The strongest storms result in the loss of lives and millions of dollars in damage. Whereas precipitation-based rainfall intensity-duration landslide initiation thresholds are available for the SFBA, antecedent soil moisture conditions also play a major role in determining the likelihood for landslide generation from a given storm. Previous research has demonstrated that antecedent triggering conditions can be obtained using pre-storm precipitation thresholds (e.g., 250-400 mm of seasonal pre-storm rainfall). However, these types of thresholds do not account for the often cyclic pattern of wetting and drying that can occur early in the winter storm season (i.e. October - December), and which may skew the applicability of precipitation-only based thresholds. To account for these cyclic and constantly evolving soil moisture conditions, we have pursued methods to measure soil moisture directly and integrate these measurements into predictive analyses. During the past three years, the USGS installed a series of four subsurface hydrology monitoring stations in shallow landslide-prone locations of the SFBA to establish a soil-moisture-based antecedent threshold. In addition to soil moisture sensors, the monitoring stations are each equipped with piezometers to record positive pore water pressure that is likely required for shallow landslide initiation and a rain gauge to compare storm intensities with existing precipitation-based thresholds. Each monitoring station is located on a natural, grassy hillslope typically composed of silty sands, underlain by sandstone, sloping at approximately 30°, and with a depth to bedrock of approximately 1 meter - conditions typical of debris flow generation in the SFBA. Our observations reveal that various locations respond differently to seasonal

  3. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  4. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  5. Information summary, Area of Concern: Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay. Final report, Aug-Dec 88

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, D.L.; Lee, C.R.; Simmers, J.W.; Tatem, H.E.; Skogerboe, J.G.

    1991-03-01

    A 5-year study and demonstration project, Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) was authorized, with emphasis on the removal of toxic pollutants from bottom sediments. Information from the ARCS program is to be used to guide the development of Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) for 42 identified great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC) as well as Lake-wide Management Plans. The AOCs are areas where serious impairment of beneficial uses of water or biota (drinking, swimming, fishing, navigation, etc.) is known to exist, or where environmental quality criteria are exceeded to the point that such impairment is likely. Research was conducted on the various aspects of contaminant mobility in the aquatic environment. A list of information was developed to evaluate the potential for contaminant mobility. This report summarizes the information obtained for the Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay AOC in Michigan. Data tables include information on discharge, volume and migration of contaminants, sediment transport, oil spills, hazardous materials, superfund sites, bioassay data and biological data (i.e. fish, wildlife habitats, plankton, fish and endangered species).

  6. Fish in shallow areas in Moreton Bay, Queensland and factors affecting their distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H. T.

    1990-06-01

    Five shallow areas (< 4 m in depth) in Moreton Bay were selected to examine fish communities. These areas can be categorized as sand-drifting, sea grass, river mouth, mangrove fringe and sewage outlet. A total of 86 fish species were recorded. Five species (6%) were regarded as true marine fish but these were of rare occurrence (0·5%). Four species (5%) were highly abundant (51%) and 57 species (66%) were represented by low numbers of fish (5%). The sewage outlet and the river mouth sites were found to contain the highest number of fish with relatively low numbers of species. The sand-drifting and the sea grass sites were different in fish fauna, and both were different from the remaining three sites which were of high similarity in fish faunal groups. Food availability, preference for habitats, sea grass vegetation, juvenile/adult segregation, season of juvenile recruitment and hydrological characteristics were thought to be important factors affecting the distribution of these species of fish.

  7. Hydrologic data from urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Michaelis, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrologic data are being collected in 10 urbanized watersheds located in the Tampa Bay area, Florida. The gaged watersheds have impervious areas that range from 19 percent for a residential watershed in north Tampa to nearly 100 percent for a downtown Tampa watershed. Land-use types, including roads, residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, recreational , and open space, have been determined for each watershed. Rainfall and storm runoff data collected since 1971 for one site and since 1975 for six other sites through September 1976, have been processed. These data are recorded at 5-minute intervals and are stored in the U. S. Geological Survey WATSTORE unit values file. Daily rainfall at 12 sites and daily pan evaporation at one site have been stored in the WATSTORE daily values file. Chemical and biological analyses of storm runoff for six sites, base flow for seven sites, and analyses of bottom material for seven sites are also stored in the WATSTORE water-quality files. Rainfall and storm runoff for selected storms, daily rainfall, and daily pan-evaporation data are summarized in this report. Water-quality analyses of all water-quality samples also are listed. (Woodard-USGS).

  8. Variability in Ground Motions in the San Francisco Bay Urban Area from Large Earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard, B. T.

    2006-12-01

    I use 3-D numerical simulations of kinematic earthquake ruptures to characterize the expected long period (T > 2.0 s) strong ground motions in the San Francisco Bay urban area from large earthquakes on the San Andreas fault. The earthquakes include the 1906 M7.9 San Francisco earthquake and hypothetical variations of the 1906 event with different hypocenters, slip distributions, and rupture speeds. The simulations use finite-elements to discretize a 250 km by 110 km by 45 km volume centered around the San Francisco Bay metropolitan area. Using the USGS 3-D geologic model and corresponding velocity model, the simulations incorporate the 3-D geologic structure, including the nonplanar geometry of the faults, the variation in material properties associated with different rock types and depth, and topography and bathymetry. The simulations suggest that much of the currently urbanized area around San Francisco Bay could be subjected to significantly stronger ground motions in the next large earthquake on the northern San Andreas fault compared with the motions in the simulation of the 1906 event. A hypocenter north of the 1906 hypocenter, which was directly off the coast of San Francisco, increases the rupture directivity for the city of San Francisco and cities around the southern half of the bay, raising the MMI one unit over much of the urban area. Alternatively, if instead of having less than average slip along the San Francisco peninsula as in the 1906 earthquake, this portion of the rupture has greater than average slip, the peninsula is subjected to significantly stronger shaking. In addition to these large-scale effects, some smaller scale effects, such as locally intense shaking in the Cupertino and Santa Rosa areas due to sedimentary basins, are present in all of the scenarios. These results corroborate previous studies that show that variations in rupture directivity and slip have a strong influence on the distribution of ground shaking in areas with complex

  9. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  10. A Pilot Study of Retail ‘Vape Shops’ in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Burbank, Andrea D; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of electronic cigarettes or vape devices is increasing, and products are evolving rapidly. This study assessed retail vape shops in the San Francisco Bay Area to describe store characteristics, products offered, advertisements and health claims, as well as employees’ perceptions of their customers’ demographics, and practices to support smoking cessation. METHODS We conducted store audits of shops that exclusively sell vape devices with physical addresses in San Francisco and Alameda counties (n=23, response rate 72%) and interviewed vape shop owners/employees. RESULTS While all stores carried second and third generation vape devices, 83% of stores did not carry first generation devices. Employees estimated the majority of their customers bought devices for smoking cessation or to replace tobacco, and a small minority purchased for first-time recreational use. Employees most frequently recommended dosing nicotine based on usual cigarette consumption, adjusting doses based on “throat hit” or cravings, use of a second or third generation e-cigarette, and encouraged customers to experiment and customize to “whatever works for you” as smoking cessation advice. CONCLUSIONS Vape shops report a significant number of their customers are interested in smoking cessation, and employees are giving smoking cessation advice. A subpopulation of customers includes some nicotine novices. Studies of vape shops should include both observations and interviews with employees in order to detect important informal practices that may differ from posted signs or printed advertising. These practices include cessation counseling, product claims, and custom discount prices or bargaining.

  11. Deployment of the National Transparent Optical Network around the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, K.; Haigh, R.; Armstrong, G.

    1996-06-01

    We report on the deployment and initial operation of the National Transparent Optical Network, an experimental WDM network testbed around the San Francisco Bay Area, during the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC`96) held in San Jose, CA. The deployment aspects of the physical plant, optical and SONET layers are examined along with a discussion of broadband applications which utilized the network during the OFC`96 demonstration. The network features dense WDM technology, transparent optical routing technology using acousto- optic tunable filter based switches, and network modules with add/drop, multicast, and wavelength translation capabilities. The physical layer consisted of over 300 km of Sprint and Pacific Bell conventional single mode fiber which was amplified with I I optical amplifiers deployed in pre-amp, post-amp, and line amp configurations. An out-of-band control network provided datacom channels from remote equipment sites to the SONET network manager deployed at the San Jose Convention Center for the conference. Data transport over five wavelengths was achieved in the 1550 nm window using a variety of signal formats including analog and digital signal transmission on different wavelengths on the same fiber. The network operated throughout the week of OFC`96 and is still in operation today.

  12. STS-109 Astronaut Michael J. Massimino Works in Cargo Bay Stowage Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 Astronaut Michael J. Massimino, mission specialist, perched on the Shuttle's robotic arm is working at the stowage area for the Hubble Space Telescope's port side solar array. Working in tandem with James. H. Newman, Massimino removed the old port solar array and stored it in Columbia's payload bay for return to Earth. The two went on to install a third generation solar array and its associated electrical components. Two crew mates had accomplished the same feat with the starboard array on the previous day. In addition to the replacement of the solar arrays, the STS-109 crew also installed the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera (NICMOS), replaced the power control unit (PCU), and replaced the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS). The 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program, the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 for 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. Five space walks were conducted to complete the HST upgrades. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built.

  13. Mercury speciation in wet deposition samples collected from a coastal area of Minamata Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Matsuyama, Akito

    2014-04-01

    To better understand the methylation and demethylation of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in wet deposition samples collected in the Minamata Bay area from September, 2009 to August, 2010 were determined. The concentrations of total Hg (dissolved Hg + particulate Hg) and dissolved reactive Hg were also measured. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of dissolved MMHg and total Hg were 0.061 and 5.9 ng L-1, respectively. Almost 90% of total Hg was in the dissolved phase and dissolved reactive Hg was the dominant Hg species in the wet deposition. The wet deposition fluxes of total Hg and reactive Hg increased in the rainy season (summer and fall), while the concentrations and wet deposition fluxes of MMHg were higher in winter and spring than in summer. Factors affecting this seasonal variation of MMHg were also considered. The MMHg in wet depositions may be decomposed by the increased levels of UV radiation in summer months, although MMHg can also be emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources and/or produced by photochemical reactions. Long-range transport from the Asian continent may also contribute to the seasonal variation of the wet MMHg deposition flux.

  14. Spatial correlation of shear-wave velocity in the San Francisco Bay Area sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Ground motions recorded within sedimentary basins are variable over short distances. One important cause of the variability is that local soil properties are variable at all scales. Regional hazard maps developed for predicting site effects are generally derived from maps of surficial geology; however, recent studies have shown that mapped geologic units do not correlate well with the average shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 m, Vs(30). We model the horizontal variability of near-surface soil shear-wave velocity in the San Francisco Bay Area to estimate values in unsampled locations in order to account for site effects in a continuous manner. Previous geostatistical studies of soil properties have shown horizontal correlations at the scale of meters to tens of meters while the vertical correlations are on the order of centimeters. In this paper we analyze shear-wave velocity data over regional distances and find that surface shear-wave velocity is correlated at horizontal distances up to 4 km based on data from seismic cone penetration tests and the spectral analysis of surface waves. We propose a method to map site effects by using geostatistical methods based on the shear-wave velocity correlation structure within a sedimentary basin. If used in conjunction with densely spaced shear-wave velocity profiles in regions of high seismic risk, geostatistical methods can produce reliable continuous maps of site effects. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Confirmatory Survey of the Fuel Oil Tank Area - Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Eureka, California

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2012-04-09

    During the period of February 14 to 15, 2012, ORISE performed radiological confirmatory survey activities for the former Fuel Oil Tank Area (FOTA) and additional radiological surveys of portions of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site in Eureka, California. The radiological survey results demonstrate that residual surface soil contamination was not present significantly above background levels within the FOTA. Therefore, it is ORISE’s opinion that the radiological conditions for the FOTA surveyed by ORISE are commensurate with the site release criteria for final status surveys as specified in PG&E’s Characterization Survey Planning Worksheet. In addition, the confirmatory results indicated that the ORISE FOTA survey unit Cs-137 mean concentrations results compared favorably with the PG&E FOTA Cs-137 mean concentration results, as determined by ORISE from the PG&E characterization data. The interlaboratory comparison analyses of the three soil samples analyzed by PG&E’s onsite laboratory and the ORISE laboratory indicated good agreement for the sample results and provided confidence in the PG&E analytical procedures and final status survey soil sample data reporting.

  16. A study of riders' noise exposure on Bay Area Rapid Transit trains.

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis; Powell, Cynthia; King, Margaret Mary

    2011-02-01

    Excessive noise exposure may present a hazard to hearing, cardiovascular, and psychosomatic health. Mass transit systems, such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, are potential sources of excessive noise. The purpose of this study was to characterize transit noise and riders' exposure to noise on the BART system using three dosimetry metrics. We made 268 dosimetry measurements on a convenience sample of 51 line segments. Dosimetry measures were modeled using linear and nonlinear multiple regression as functions of average velocity, tunnel enclosure, flooring, and wet weather conditions and presented visually on a map of the BART system. This study provides evidence of levels of hazardous levels of noise exposure in all three dosimetry metrics. L(eq) and L(max) measures indicate exposures well above ranges associated with increased cardiovascular and psychosomatic health risks in the published literature. L(peak) indicate acute exposures hazardous to adult hearing on about 1% of line segment rides and acute exposures hazardous to child hearing on about 2% of such rides. The noise to which passengers are exposed may be due to train-specific conditions (velocity and flooring), but also to rail conditions (velocity and tunnels). These findings may point at possible remediation (revised speed limits on longer segments and those segments enclosed by tunnels). The findings also suggest that specific rail segments could be improved for noise.

  17. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants.

  18. Proposed tethered unmanned aerial system for the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J.; McKay, J.; Evans, W.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper is based on a proposed unmanned aerial system platform that is to be outfitted with high-resolution sensors. The proposed system is to be tethered to a moveable ground station, which may be a research vessel or some form of ground vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or rover). The sensors include, at a minimum: camera, infrared sensor, thermal, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) camera, global positioning system (GPS), and a light-based radar (LIDAR). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing methods for pollution detection of failing septic systems, and to introduce the proposed system. Future work will look at the high-resolution data from the sensors and integrating the data through a process called information fusion. Typically, this process is done using the popular and well-published Kalman filter (or its nonlinear formulations, such as the extended Kalman filter). However, future work will look at using a new type of strategy based on variable structure estimation for the information fusion portion of the data processing. It is hypothesized that fusing data from the thermal and NDVI sensors will be more accurate and reliable for a multitude of applications, including the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area.

  19. Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.

    2011-10-01

    Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are 214Bi, 40K, and 208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions - such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from 134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed. This work was supported in part by a grant from the U. S. Dept. of Homeland Security.

  20. Heavy metals in produce from urban farms in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Hannah; Chamberlain, C Page

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were analysed in 96 samples of produce from seven urban farms, three suburban farms and three grocery stores in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2011-2012. Cd concentrations were highest in urban chard (0.043 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in urban, suburban and grocery squash (0.003 mg kg(-1)). Pb concentrations were highest in urban kale (0.080 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in grocery squash (0.008 mg kg(-1)). The mean heavy metal concentrations for Cd and Pb in all produce types were well below the maximum limits as set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Individual concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limits of detection in 26 of 192 analyses. Cd and Pb concentrations in produce from urban farms were not significantly different from produce grown in suburban farms or grocery stores. It was concluded that produce from urban community farms in San Francisco, at least for the farms studied, is safe for human consumption.

  1. Using Earthquake Early Warning in the Bay Area Rapid Transit System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPartland, J.

    2013-12-01

    When a major earthquake occurs without warning, the public will have no choice but to REACT to the risks and dangers around them. If earthquake early warning (EEW) can be provided, the public will be able to PROACTIVELY take action to reduce risks and protect themselves and their areas of responsibility. The Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART) is implementing an earthquake retrofit program designed to keep BART operational after a major seismic event. But a critical component of success depends on BART being able to prevent derailments caused by a major earthquake itself. At peak commute, BART runs 64 trains of 8-10 cars each with as many as 100 or more passengers per car and, most importantly, 40-45% of the trains are moving at top speed, ~70 mph. Were a major earthquake to strike at peak commute without warning, we expect many derailments that would result in mass casualties; the higher the speed- the greater the risk of derailments. To address this critical issue, in August 2012 BART implemented a system based on EEW to slow and stop trains before the earthquake shaking starts. When activated, train speeds drop at 3 mph per second reducing the risk both of derailments and casualties. A 70 mph train can be fully stopped within 25 seconds of early warning. In addition, if BART remains operational with few or no derailments, it can provide critical transportation support to the region for response, supply and evacuation until streets and highways can be reopened. Considerations like these, weighing the cost of casualties and damage against the perspective of mitigating disaster, can help to justify the cost of an EEW system to legislators and the public. The figures presented indicate that the aftermath of an earthquake may be overwhelmingly frightening if we don't act, but can be amazingly good for us if we do plan and act. And the good and bad news is: THE CHOICE IS OURS!

  2. Monitoring and appraisal evaluation of wind energy potential for electric power generation in the Bristol Bay Area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zambrano, T.G.; Arcemont, G.J.

    1983-02-01

    An analysis has been made of the technical feasibility of developing wind power in the Dillingham/Naknek-King Salmon area of Bristol Bay, Alaska. The analysis involved a survey of historical wind data records, a field study involving ecological indicators such as bush and tree flagging, and a one-year wind monitoring program using data from existing government weather stations as well as anemometers installed by AeroVironment Inc. Finally, a technical analysis was made of expected energy outputs from selected, promising sites. Since Naknek was the most promising site, an energy production calculation for three representative turbines of 25-kW, 65-kW, and 125-kW rating was made. Conclusions are that a 350-kW turbine wind farm with a capacity factor of 0.34 is feasible at Naknek, and that this is the most promising area for wind energy development in the Bristol Bay region.

  3. Source Apportionment of Elemental Carbon Across the San Francisco Bay Area Using Combined Radiocarbon and Chemical Mass Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area is impacted by ambient particulate matter (PM) from a variety of sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning, off-road vehicles, industry, and meat cooking. Ambient PM, especially fine PM (diameter less than 2.5μm, PM2.5), is known to negatively impact health. Elemental Carbon (EC) is one of the major constituents of PM2.5. It not only negatively affects health but is also a powerful short-lived climate forcer. The State of California and Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) have made efforts in regulating contribution of EC from diesel trucks and wood burning, respectively. These and other efforts have assisted in significantly reducing the annual average PM2.5 concentrations approximately 30% since 2005 and 70% since 1990. Despite these improvements, to better determine the relative contribution of contemporary vs. fossil carbon, radiocarbon source apportionment of EC was conducted on PM2.5 collected in the Bay Area. Measurements of the abundance of 14C in the EC fractions are used to quantify the relative contributions of fossil carbon (fossil fuel combustion, including motor vehicle exhaust) and contemporary carbon (biomass combustion and meat cooking). This comprehensive study included seven sites in the Bay Area and 12 months of sampling starting November 2011 through October 2012. The samples were composited to represent winter (November-February) and non-winter (March-October). In addition to radiocarbon analysis, Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) analysis using bulk PM2.5 composition and selected trace gases was used to understand the split among gasoline, natural gas, and diesel exhaust. Preliminary apportionment of the seven sites shows roughly equal contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning/cooking for both winter and non-winter samples. There is evidence that the diesel contribution to EC, in particular, has decreased substantially over the last decade.

  4. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... portion of the base at latitude 27°51′52.901″ N., longitude 82°29′18.329″ W., thence directly to latitude... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  5. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... portion of the base at latitude 27°51′52.901″ N., longitude 82°29′18.329″ W., thence directly to latitude... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  6. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... portion of the base at latitude 27°51′52.901″ N., longitude 82°29′18.329″ W., thence directly to latitude... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  7. Compilation of a biogenic hydrocarbon emissions inventory for evaluating ozone-control strategies in the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Moreland, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The body of information presented is directed to planners and engineers concerned with developing ozone control strategies. A biogenic hydrocarbon emissions inventory for the San Francisco Bay Area has been prepared for use in determining the degree of hydrocarbon emissions control needed to attain the ozone standard. Remote sensing imagery was used to characterize the regional vegetation distribution, and a Delphi survey of scientists familiar with biogenic emissions was used to provide biogenic hydrocarbon emission factors. For a hypothetical 24-hour period of twelve hours of darkness and twelve hours of light, biogenic sources in the nine-county Bay Area were estimated to produce about 4.5 x 10/sup 5/ kg (500 tons) of total non-methane hydrocarbons; the uncertainty of this estimate was calculated to be +- 50%. The biogenic emissions were found to represent about 33% of the man-made and natural hydrocarbon emissions in the region. The magnitude of the biogenic emissions inventory is not the key factor from which the contribution of biogenic sources to urban ozone production can be discerned. Photochemical dispersion modeling of the total (man-made plus natural) hydrocarbon emissions inventory is recommended as a tool to help understand the contribution of biogenic sources to excessive amounts of the ozone standard in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  8. Contrasts in compliant fault zone properties inferred from geodetic measurements in the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materna, Kathryn; Bürgmann, Roland

    2016-09-01

    In crustal fault zones, regions of damaged rock characterized by reduced elastic shear modulus can influence patterns of near-field interseismic deformation. In order to study these compliant fault zones (CFZs) and how they might develop over the lifetimes of faults, we compare two fault segments with contrasting fault age and lithology along the San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area. New geodetic measurements of the interseismic velocity fields at each location are used to constrain fault zone parameters through a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. At Black Mountain, in the Santa Cruz Mountains of the San Francisco Peninsula, we do not find evidence for a compliant fault zone; instead, we find that the geodetic data are more consistent with a model of a single fault in a homogeneous elastic half-space. At Lake San Andreas, a younger fault segment 35 km farther north, we find evidence for a compliant fault zone about 3.4 +1.1/-1.4 km wide, containing a shear modulus of about 40% of the shear modulus of the surrounding rock. We also find that the best fitting CFZ model at this location, unlike the best fitting homogeneous half-space model, has a locking depth that agrees well with the observed depth of microseismicity. Based on differences in fault age, cumulative displacement, and lithology between Black Mountain and Lake San Andreas, we infer that lithology plays an important and, in this case, perhaps a dominant role in the accumulation of fault zone damage structures and the development of CFZs over the lifetime of a fault.

  9. Slip rates on San Francisco Bay area faults from anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Andrews, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term slip rates on major faults in the San Francisco Bay area are predicted by modeling the anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere in response to regional relative plate motion. The model developed by Bird and Kong [1994] is used to simulate lithospheric deformation according to a Coulomb frictional rheology of the upper crust and a dislocation creep rheology at depth. The focus of this study is the long-term motion of faults in a region extending from the creeping section of the San Andreas fault to the south up to the latitude of Cape Mendocino to the north. Boundary conditions are specified by the relative motion between the Pacific plate and the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley microplate [Argus and Gordon, 2000]. Rheologic-frictional parameters are specified as independent variables, and prediction errors are calculated with respect to geologic estimates of slip rates and maximum compressive stress directions. The model that best explains the region-wide observations is one in which the coefficient of friction on all of the major faults is less than 0.15, with the coefficient of friction for the San Andreas fault being approximately 0.09, consistent with previous inferences of San Andreas fault friction. Prediction error increases with lower fault friction on the San Andreas, indicating a lower bound of ??SAF > 0.08. Discrepancies with respect to previous slip rate estimates include a higher than expected slip rate along the peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault and a slightly lower than expected slip rate along the San Gregorio fault.

  10. Wed. May 13, Hayward, Calif. -- EPA Administrator McCarthy joins San Francisco Bay Area agencies to celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - On Wednesday, May 13, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Bay Area agencies to celebrate the nation's largest local government collaborative for solar power and launch the nation's first federal solar partnership. Administ

  11. Valuation of environmental improvements in a specially protected marine area: a choice experiment approach in Göcek Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Özge; Alp, Emre

    2012-11-15

    Although the Göcek Bay area was declared as a specially protected area by General Directorate of Natural Assets Protection, the region is threatened because of pollution resulting from increased boat tourism and lack of efficient policies. Extensive measures are being planned in order to protect the region. Coastal management requires the use of technical, social political and economic tools to create a comprehensive management strategy. For environmental investments, it is necessary that benefits and the costs of environmental improvements should be identified in monetary terms in order to determine the feasibility of the investments. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of the management alternatives to improve environmental quality in Göcek Bay to aid decision makers. In this study, the environmental benefits that can be obtained with improved water quality and restored marine ecosystem were calculated using the Choice Experiment Method, a non-market valuation technique. Data were analyzed using Multinomial Logit Model and the results showed that, local residents and tourists are willing to pay 18TL/month and 16.6TL/tour, respectively for improvements in water quality. For improvements in marine life, local residents are willing to pay 14.8TL/month and tourists are willing to pay 11.2TL/tour. With this study, it has been seen that the results obtained will pave the way for new policies and measures against the deterioration of the marine environment of Göcek Bay.

  12. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  13. Correlation of chlorophyll, suspended matter, and related parameters of waters in the lower Chesapeake Bay area to LANDSAT-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, P. (Principal Investigator); Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.; Gosink, T. A.; Hanna, W. J.; Ludwick, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An effort to relate water parameters of the lower Chesapeake Bay area to multispectral scanner images of LANDSAT 1 has shown that some spectral bands can be correlated to water parameters, and has demonstrated the feasibility of synoptic mapping of estuaries by satellite. Bands 5 and 6 were shown to be useful for monitoring total particles. Band 5 showed high correlation with suspended sediment concentration. Attenuation coefficients monitored continuously by ship along three baselines were cross correlated with radiance values on three days. Improved correlations resulted when tidal conditions were taken into consideration. A contouring program was developed to display sediment variation in the lower Chesapeake Bay from the MSS bands.

  14. Database of well and areal data, South San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, D.A.; Fio, J.L.; Metzger, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    A database was developed to organize and manage data compiled for a regional assessment of geohydrologic and water-quality conditions in the south San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area in California. Available data provided by local, State, and Federal agencies and private consultants was utilized in the assessment. The database consists of geographicinformation system data layers and related tables and American Standard Code for Information Interchange files. Documentation of the database is necessary to avoid misinterpretation of the data and to make users aware of potential errors and limitations. Most of the data compiled were collected from wells and boreholes (collectively referred to as wells in this report). This point-specific data, including construction, water-level, waterquality, pumping test, and lithologic data, are contained in tables and files that are related to a geographic information system data layer that contains the locations of the wells. There are 1,014 wells in the data layer and the related tables contain 35,845 water-level measurements (from 293 of the wells) and 9,292 water-quality samples (from 394 of the wells). Calculation of hydraulic heads and gradients from the water levels can be affected adversely by errors in the determination of the altitude of land surface at the well. Cation and anion balance computations performed on 396 of the water-quality samples indicate high cation and anion balance errors for 51 (13 percent) of the samples. Well drillers' reports were interpreted for 762 of the wells, and digital representations of the lithology of the formations are contained in files following the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The usefulness of drillers' descriptions of the formation lithology is affected by the detail and thoroughness of the drillers' descriptions, as well as the knowledge, experience, and vocabulary of the individual who described the drill cuttings. Additional data layers were created that

  15. A Study of Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) Concentrations in Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Railway Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, M.; Grzesik, D.; Hailegebreal, A.; Hegde, S.; Johnson, M.; Lieu, E.; Zhen, K.; Stovall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that Embarcadero's BART station has high concentrations of airborne Particulate Matter (PM 2.5). Newly developed, commercially available open-source sensors have been designed to accurately measure PM 2.5 at a cost that is a fraction of the commercially available DustTrak device used in previous work. Our team conducted multiple follow-up sampling events, measuring PM 2.5 using co-located AirBeam and DustTrak devices at BART stations. Overall, our research indicates that PM 2.5 concentrations at Embarcadero have not declined since previous sampling efforts were undertaken in 2013. Also, the low cost AirBeam sensors were found to be less effective at measuring elevated PM 2.5 concentrations such as those found in the Embarcadero BART station. However, the AirBeam devices were effective at quickly identifying areas with elevated PM 2.5. Our research also indicates a decrease in concentration of PM 2.5 as one moves west along the station platform away from the East Bay Tube that connects San Francisco to the East San Francisco Bay Area. We speculate that the East Bay Tube is a reservoir of hazardous fine-grained particulate matter, which poses a significant human health risk, particularly in emergency evacuations or for workers with chronic exposure. The research has been used to refine a conceptual site model of the source for airborne particles found at the Embarcadero Station and suggests that primary source control via high-pressure-washing of the East Bay Tube may be an economical and rapid remedy prior to improved ventilation and engineering controls.

  16. The Adjustment of Native American Students to Public Schools in the East San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molohon, Kathryn Theresa

    Adjustment of American Indians to a major urban institution, exemplified by public schools, and adaptations to urban life in general were examined, using data collected between 1965 and 1969, and focusing on intensive observations of 24 randomly-selected American Indian students (19 high school, 5 elementary) attending East San Francisco Bay Area…

  17. 77 FR 45991 - Regulated Navigation Area; Buzzard's Bay, MA; Navigable Waterways Within the First Coast Guard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...-45992] [FR Doc No: 2012-18832] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 161 and 165...'s Bay, MA; Navigable Waterways Within the First Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces...

  18. Pawcatuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins and Narragansett Bay Local Drainage Area. Appendixes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Refining Corporation terminal 40-foot channel from Mount Hope Bay through the eastern part of the Braga Bridge and then northerly to the terminals north 1...but serious communicatin problems still exist for sudden flood events. To be optimally useful, flood warnings must allow sufficient time for the

  19. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  20. The Deep Biosphere in Terrestrial Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay Area, Virginia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Breuker, Anja; Köweker, Gerrit; Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    For the first time quantitative data on the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya in deep terrestrial sediments are provided using multiple methods (total cell counting, quantitative real-time PCR, Q-PCR and catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization, CARD–FISH). The oligotrophic (organic carbon content of ∼0.2%) deep terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area at Eyreville, Virginia, USA, were drilled and sampled up to a depth of 140 m in 2006. The possibility of contamination during drilling was checked using fluorescent microspheres. Total cell counts decreased from 109 to 106 cells/g dry weight within the uppermost 20 m, and did not further decrease with depth below. Within the top 7 m, a significant proportion of the total cell counts could be detected with CARD–FISH. The CARD–FISH numbers for Bacteria were about an order of magnitude higher than those for Archaea. The dominance of Bacteria over Archaea was confirmed by Q-PCR. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was revealed by Q-PCR for the uppermost 10 m and for 80–140 m depth. Eukarya and the Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae were almost exclusively found in the uppermost meter (arable soil), where reactive iron was detected in higher amounts. The bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi, highly abundant in marine sediments, were found up to the maximum sampling depth in high copy numbers at this terrestrial site as well. A similar high abundance of the functional gene cbbL encoding for the large subunit of RubisCO suggests that autotrophic microorganisms could be relevant in addition to heterotrophs. The functional gene aprA of sulfate reducing bacteria was found within distinct layers up to ca. 100 m depth in low copy

  1. The deep biosphere in terrestrial sediments in the chesapeake bay area, virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Breuker, Anja; Köweker, Gerrit; Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    For the first time quantitative data on the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya in deep terrestrial sediments are provided using multiple methods (total cell counting, quantitative real-time PCR, Q-PCR and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization, CARD-FISH). The oligotrophic (organic carbon content of ∼0.2%) deep terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area at Eyreville, Virginia, USA, were drilled and sampled up to a depth of 140 m in 2006. The possibility of contamination during drilling was checked using fluorescent microspheres. Total cell counts decreased from 10(9) to 10(6) cells/g dry weight within the uppermost 20 m, and did not further decrease with depth below. Within the top 7 m, a significant proportion of the total cell counts could be detected with CARD-FISH. The CARD-FISH numbers for Bacteria were about an order of magnitude higher than those for Archaea. The dominance of Bacteria over Archaea was confirmed by Q-PCR. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was revealed by Q-PCR for the uppermost 10 m and for 80-140 m depth. Eukarya and the Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae were almost exclusively found in the uppermost meter (arable soil), where reactive iron was detected in higher amounts. The bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi, highly abundant in marine sediments, were found up to the maximum sampling depth in high copy numbers at this terrestrial site as well. A similar high abundance of the functional gene cbbL encoding for the large subunit of RubisCO suggests that autotrophic microorganisms could be relevant in addition to heterotrophs. The functional gene aprA of sulfate reducing bacteria was found within distinct layers up to ca. 100 m depth in low copy numbers

  2. Surface Geometry and Geomorphology of the Rodgers Creek Fault, San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Rodgers Creek fault, part of the right-lateral San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area, is geometrically segmented by bends on multiple scales. North of Sonoma Mountain, along the northern half of the fault, sections of the fault trace trend approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion (~N34°W) and display a right-stepping pattern across releasing double bends. Within the releasing bends, the fault trends >5° oblique to plate motion and shows geomorphic evidence of extension. The largest right bend, ~1 km at Santa Rosa, corresponds to the lowest elevations along the fault. To the south, the fault makes a broad restraining double bend around the southwest flank of Sonoma Mountain and trends up to ~13° compressively oblique to plate motion. Long-term uplift (Sonoma Mountain) east of the bend suggests a reduction in slip on the fault to the south. The restraining bend corresponds to the north end of a pronounced aseismic region along the fault that may represent a spatial change in the mode of strain accommodation. Aerial photo analysis (1:6 k) of well-preserved geomorphology at the south end of the Rodgers Creek fault, where the fault makes another left bend with respect to plate motion, reveals a section that is undergoing progressive inversion from localized transtension (at a right bend) to transpression. This inversion is manifest as a northwest- lengthening zone of uplift within the fault zone. The youngest push-ups appear to be overprinting a relict pull-apart and sag pond. This and possibly older sag deposits along the margin of the uplift may mark former positions of a releasing geometry in the fault trace, presently located directly north of the uplift front. Geometric and overprinting relations suggest that the main trace of the fault rotates and translates through the passing bends. This mode of fault-bend migration contrasts with a previously proposed model in which new transverse structures develop progressively

  3. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    Varved clays are commonly found glaciolacustrine sediments representing high-resolution environmental archives of the deglaciation events. We examine varve formation in the Baltic Ice Lake at the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia, during the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian glaciation from the region. The data set of Hang and Kohv (2013) spanning 584 years is used. Analysis of the spatial variation of the seasonal layer thickness distribution based on 26 sediment cores and sub-varve resolution grain size analysis from a single section was performed. The Baltic Ice Lake water level reconstruction indicates that the water depth at the study region was up to 80 m (Rosentau et al., 2009). It is found that during the first ~130 years after the ice retreat the summer sedimentation was dominated by sediment loaded underflows emanating form the ice margin: summer layer thickness is strongly positively correlated with water depth. The winter layer thickness during this period does not demonstrate significant correlation with water depth suggesting that the simple raining-out of the suspended material from a water column was complicated by water circulation. Ice retreat from the Pandivere-Neva line of the marginal formations just north from study area took place during the interval from 96 to 130 local varve years. During the transition marked shift from proglacial to distal sedimentary environment is observed: the summer layer thickens decreased dramatically and it's thickens is markedly higher in the area close to the ice margin. The winter layer thickens becomes strongly correlated to the water depth, suggesting that the simple sedimentation model with no water circulation and addition of no new sediments is valid. The grain size data is used to estimate the "terminal grain size" - the size of the larges particles sedimented at the top of the winter layer. Provided that no significant water circulation took place during the winter, the terminal grain size will be controlled

  4. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  5. Report on Saginaw Bay Area Environmental Policy, Planning and Management survey. Final report, April 1991-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    He, C.; Zhao, W.; Edens, T.C.

    1992-04-01

    An environmental policy, planning, and management survey was conducted in the Saginaw Bay area in the Fall of 1991. The survey identified unemployment, factory closure and environmental quality degradation as the major economic and environmental problems in the area. Surface water contamination, excessive nutrients and zebra mussel infestation were the most serious problems affecting water quality. Soil erosion, excessive fertilization and pesticide applications were the most important non-point sources of water pollution. Toxic chemicals, phosphorus, suspended solids, heavy metals were the major water pollutants in the area. Pollution cleanup, land use planning, and control of zebra mussels were identified as the top implementation priorities for the area. Recommendations made by the respondents for improving environmental quality are summarized in the report.

  6. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills.

    PubMed

    Morales-Caselles, C; Kalman, J; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2007-03-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cádiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work.

  7. Aerosol dynamics above the water area of the Peter the Great Bay during the dust storm in the Gobi desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukin, O. A.; Pavlov, A. N.; Kulchin, J. N.; Shmirko, K. A.; Salyuk, P. A.; Stoluarchuk, S. Y.

    2006-11-01

    This article presents aerosol dynamic monitoring over the Peter the Great bay during dust storms in continental areas of the China and Mongolia. Both satellite and lidar data was analyzed. Vertical profiles of aerosol backscattering coefficient and aerosol optical thickness were calculated. Aerosol optical thickness in different layers were retrieved and compared with the satellite ones. Correlation coefficient between satellite and lidar data was calculated. Aerosol layer location was compared to Brent-Vaisal criterion of stability. Aerosol layer stratification during spring - summer (April - June 2006) period was analyzed.

  8. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  9. Association of earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area using Bayesian inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.; Bakun, W.H.; Perkins, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference provides a method to use seismic intensity data or instrumental locations, together with geologic and seismologic data, to make quantitative estimates of the probabilities that specific past earthquakes are associated with specific faults. Probability density functions are constructed for the location of each earthquake, and these are combined with prior probabilities through Bayes' theorem to estimate the probability that an earthquake is associated with a specific fault. Results using this method are presented here for large, preinstrumental, historical earthquakes and for recent earthquakes with instrumental locations in the San Francisco Bay region. The probabilities for individual earthquakes can be summed to construct a probabilistic frequency-magnitude relationship for a fault segment. Other applications of the technique include the estimation of the probability of background earthquakes, that is, earthquakes not associated with known or considered faults, and the estimation of the fraction of the total seismic moment associated with earthquakes less than the characteristic magnitude. Results for the San Francisco Bay region suggest that potentially damaging earthquakes with magnitudes less than the characteristic magnitudes should be expected. Comparisons of earthquake locations and the surface traces of active faults as determined from geologic data show significant disparities, indicating that a complete understanding of the relationship between earthquakes and faults remains elusive.

  10. Model for isopaching Jurassic-age Norphlet Formation in Mobile Bay, Alabama area

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, L.F.

    1989-03-01

    Deep gas was discovered in the Norphlet Sandstone of Mobile Bay Alabama in 1979. Sixteen wells, of which Exxon Company, U.S.A. has had an interest in eight, have tested gas from depths greater than 20,000 ft and at an average rate of 19 million ft/sub 3/ of gas per day. The dominant structural features in Mobile Bay are large east-west-trending salt-supported anticlines associated with salt pull-apart listric normal faulting. Throws on these faults measure up to 1000 ft. Individual structures have dimensions as large as 15 mi in an east-west strike direction and 8 mi in a north-south dip direction. The Jurassic age (Callovian) Norphlet of Mobile Bay is characterized by eolian dune sand deposits up to 700 ft thick. An important factor affecting future development drilling is the accurate prediction of reservoir thickness. This presentation shows that an integrated study of seismic and well data has facilitated the development of a geological model for isopaching the Norphlet Formation. The isopach exhibits a strong north-northwest-south-southeast orientation of parallel thicks and thins. These trends are believed to be the result of original eolian deposition of complex linear dunes in the Norphlet Sandstone. The major east-west structural grain of faults and anticlines overprints this preserved depositional trend.

  11. Effects of switching to lower sulfur marine fuel oil on air quality in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ling; Fairley, David; Kleeman, Michael J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-09-17

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important source of air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning in July 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of lower sulfur fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle concentration data from four urban sites and two more remote sites. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a specific marker for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in aerosol emissions from ships. We found a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change and a 28-72% decrease in SO2 concentrations, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We estimate that the changes in ship fuel reduced ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations at urban sites in the Bay area by about 3.1 ± 0.6% or 0.28 ± 0.05 μg/m(3). The largest contributing factor to lower PM mass concentrations was reductions in particulate sulfate. Absolute sulfate reductions were fairly consistent across sites, whereas trace metal reductions were largest at a monitoring site in West Oakland near the port.

  12. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  13. Pre-earthquake assessment and recovery planning for the regional transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    In May 1995, ABAG began a cooperative project with Caltrans District 4 to perform a vulnerability analysis of the regional transportation system in the San Francisco Bay Area. This assessment will be used for pre-earthquake planning to speed the recovery process for the transportation system, including both freeways and local roads. The project is using geographic information system (GIS) technology and computer simulation models to assist in the vulnerability analyses, assessment of hazard mitigation strategies, and pre-earthquake planning activities. It is expected that this project will result in improving post-earthquake short-term emergency response as well as in shortening the time for long-term recovery. In addition, this innovative and timely approach should be applicable to other large metropolitan areas of the state, as well as to other metropolitan areas in the nation.

  14. Preliminary report on land-surface subsidence in the area of Burnett, Scott, and Crystal Bays near Baytown, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.

    1973-01-01

    Removal of water, oil, and gas from the subsurface in Harris County has caused declines in fluid pressures which in turn have resulted in subsidence of the land surface. One critical area of subsidence is in the area of Burnett, Scott, and Crystal Bays near Baytown. Much of this area is now subject to inundation by high tides. Production of oil and gas from the Goose Creek Field at the southern edge of Baytown had caused as much as 3.25 feet of subsidence by 1925. The subsidence bowl is restricted to the area of production and has not extended to the area of Burnett, Scott, and Crystal Bays. Withdrawals of water from large-capacity industrial wells, which resulted in declines in artesian pressure, began about 1918; as much as 250 feet of water-pressure decline has occurred in the Evangeline aquifer, Significant subsidence of the land surface probably began about 1920 or later. Possibly as much as 7.5 feet of subsidence had occurred in the area by 1971. The study of subsidence in the area of the three bays included the collection of undisturbed clay samples for laboratory analyses, collection of water-level records, and installation and monitoring of pressure transducers in clays and of observation wells in sands. Probable future subsidence was calculated for two loading situations. Case I provided that the artesian pressure in both the Alta Loma Sand of Rose (1943) and Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at a rate of 6 feet per year until 1980 and then cease. Case II provided that artesian pressure in the Alta Loma Sand would continue to decline at a rate of about 6 feet per year until about 1995, when the potentiometric head would reach the top of the Alta Loma Sand. The artesian pressure in the Evangeline aquifer would also decline about 6 feet per year until 1995. The ultimate subsidence expected for the assumed conditions of case I and case II is 11.2 feet and 14.5 feet, respectively. However, only 1.8 feet of subsidence below present land surface

  15. Executive summary: Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay Area and a technology assessment of transportation system investments. [regional planning for the San Francisco Bay area of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits and costs that would result from an intra-regional air service operation in the San Francisco Bay area were determined by utilizing an iterative statistical decision model to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in conjunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation option with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private non-user costs. In so doing, it incorporates information on modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport costs, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytic capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  16. Creep on the faults of the northern San Francisco Bay Area documented by PS- InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funning, G. J.; Burgmann, R.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Fumagalli, A.

    2006-12-01

    Pacific-North America relative motion is accommodated north of San Francisco on a series of sub-parallel strike-slip faults. These structures are believed to pose an active seismic hazard in the northern San Francisco Bay Area. However, compared with the contiguous structures further south, little is known of the behaviour of these faults in the North Bay -- for instance, how much of the deformation may be accommodated aseismically by creep. In order to address this question, we apply the Permanent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique to a 30 ERS-SAR image dataset covering the North Bay area acquired in the interval 1992-2001. In our preliminary analysis, over 70,000 permanent scatterers have been identified, broadly distributed across an area 100 km square. A plate boundary-perpendicular profile of line-of-sight velocities across the region shows that our observations are largely consistent with measurements made with GPS. On a local scale, a step in the line-of-sight velocities of the order of 1 mm/yr measured from detrended cross- fault profiles across the Rodgers Creek fault in the Santa Rosa area suggests that the fault is creeping in that location. If the line-of-sight velocities are projected into the orientation of the fault and pure right-lateral motion is assumed, this corresponds to a surface creep rate of approximately 4 mm/yr. A similar step in velocities can be identified as the fault continues to the northwest, suggesting that the fault continues to creep until its northern termination. This creep rate is similar to that seen for the northern Hawyard fault to the south (3-6 mm/yr), a structure believed to be the continuation of the Rodgers Creek fault. In addition to fault creep, we also see evidence for relatively rapid (6 mm/yr and greater) subsidence to the south and southwest of Santa Rosa. One area of subsidence, around Rohnert Park, correlates very well with Pleistocene floodplain deposits, and may represent mud settling; another, an elongate

  17. Measuring the effectiveness of the episodic control program Spare the Air in the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.G.; Hinman, T.T.

    1997-12-31

    Episodic control programs that ask the public to voluntarily reduce activities that pollute on days when ozone excesses are predicted are now operating in many parts of the country. The activities include driving, using consumer products that contain reactive organic compounds and lawn and garden equipment with small gasoline engines like lawn mowers and leaf blowers. The effectiveness of these programs as public education tools, their impact in changing behavior and their potential as control tools needs to be assessed. In the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area the Spare the Air program has been operating for five years. The program has a strong employer component as well as a program directed at the general public. During the 1996 ozone season, the Bay Area AQMD, in cooperation with the business community, used several methods to assess awareness and behavior change on Spare the Air days. This included telephone public opinion surveys, a pilot program that offered free transit for employees at 8 companies with measurement feedback from the companies, a telecommuting web page that measured participation, a special carpool matching program and a broad based Capture the Credit initiative by business. This paper describes these initiatives, their results and the next steps anticipated for the 1997 program.

  18. Designing at Scale: Lessons in Relevance, Quality, and Equity from ChangeScale, a Bay Area environmental education collaborative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, E.

    2015-12-01

    The best environmental education equips people with the know-how and drive to create healthy communities and a healthy planet. While there are many wonderful organizations providing environmental learning, ensuring quality, cultural relevance and equity of access remains an elusive goal--especially if environmental education organizations work in isolation. Organizations across 12 counties in the Bay Area have come together to create a different model. They have founded ChangeScale, a regional collaborative dedicated to providing high quality environmental education to hundreds of thousands of youth---by working together. ChangeScale's work involves setting up school district-level partnerships, providing technical assistance to local environmental education networks, and training environmental educators across the region. In this talk, the presenter, who is a founding member and steering committee chair for ChangeScale, will outline the challenges of working at a regional scale with dozens of organizations. She will share the processes ChangeScale has used to develop a business plan and build membership. She will conclude by sharing the short term and long term potential impacts of working collectively for environmental literacy in the Bay Area.

  19. Prevalence of respiratory conditions among schoolchildren exposed to different levels of air pollutants in the Haifa Bay area, Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Goren, A I; Hellman, S; Brenner, S; Egoz, N; Rishpon, S

    1990-01-01

    During spring 1984, 2334 second and 2000 fifth-grade schoolchildren living in three Haifa Bay areas on the eastern Mediterranean coast with different levels of air pollution were studied. The parents of these children filled out American Thoracic Society and National Heart and Lung Institute health questionnaires, and the children performed the following pulmonary function tests (PFT); FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FEV, PEF, FEF50, and FEF75. A trend of higher prevalence of most reported respiratory symptoms was found for schoolchildren growing up in the medium and high pollution areas as compared with the low pollution area. Part of the reported respiratory diseases were significantly more common among children from the high pollution area. Models fitted for the respiratory conditions that differed significantly among the three areas of residence also included background variables that could be responsible for these differences. Relative risk values, which were calculated from the logistic models, were in the range of 1.38 for sputum with cold and 1.81 for sputum without cold for children from the high pollution area as compared with 1.00 for children from the low pollution area. All the measured values of PFT were within the normal range. There was no consistent trend of reduced pulmonary function that characterized any residential area. PMID:2088751

  20. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06′20″; thence to latitude 38°47′48″, longitude 75°06′00″; thence to latitude 38°50′43″, longitude 75°02′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  1. Estimated water use and availability in the East Narragansett Bay study area, Rhode Island, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    2007-01-01

    Water availability became a concern in Rhode Island during a drought in 1999, and further investigation was needed to assess the current demands on the hydrologic system from withdrawals during periods of little to no precipitation. The low ground-water levels and streamflows measured in Rhode Island prompted initiation of a series of studies on water use and availability in each major drainage area in Rhode Island for the period 1995–99. The investigation of the East Narragansett Bay area is the last of these studies. The East Narragansett Bay study area (130.9 square miles) includes small sections of the Ten Mile and Westport River Basins in Rhode Island. The area was divided into three regions (islands and contiguous land areas separated by the bay) within each of which the freshwater water use and availability were assessed. During the study period from 1995 through 1999, three major public water suppliers in the study area withdrew 7.601 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) from ground-water and surface-water reservoirs. The estimated water withdrawals by minor public water suppliers during the study period were 0.063 Mgal/d. Total self-supply domestic, industrial, commercial, and agricultural withdrawals from the study area averaged 1.891 Mgal/d. Total water use in the study area averaged 16.48 Mgal/d, of which about 8.750 Mgal/d was imported from other basins. The average return flow to freshwater within the basin was 2.591 Mgal/d, which included effluent from permitted facilities and septic systems. The average return flow to saltwater (Narragansett Bay) outside of the basin was about 45.21 Mgal/d and included discharges by permitted facilities (wastewater-treatment plants and Rhode Island Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems). The PART program, a computerized hydrographseparation application, was used for the data collected at two selected index stream-gaging stations in the East Narragansett Bay study area to determine water availability on the basis of

  2. 33 CFR 334.360 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. 334.360 Section 334.360....S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. (a) The area. Beginning at latitude...

  3. 33 CFR 334.360 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. 334.360 Section 334.360....S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. (a) The area. Beginning at latitude...

  4. 33 CFR 334.360 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. 334.360 Section 334.360....S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. (a) The area. Beginning at latitude...

  5. 33 CFR 334.360 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. 334.360 Section 334.360....S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. (a) The area. Beginning at latitude...

  6. 33 CFR 334.360 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. 334.360 Section 334.360....S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. (a) The area. Beginning at latitude...

  7. Local and regional governments and age-friendly communities: a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which cities, county departments of adult and aging services, county transportation authorities, and public transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area have in place age-friendly policies, programs, and infrastructure in the areas of community design, housing, transportation, health care and supportive services, and opportunities for community engagement. The most common age-friendly features include those that target alternative forms of mobility (for example, incentives for mixed-use neighborhoods and changes to improve the accessibility of public transit), while the least common policies and programs are those that aim to help older adults continue driving, such as driver education programs, driver assessment programs, and slow-moving vehicle ordinances. The article concludes with policy and research implications of these findings.

  8. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health.

  9. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  10. Distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae in submarine canyons and adjacent continental slope areas in Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Nobuaki; Katayama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae, which included larval stages and postlarval or later stages, were investigated in Toyama Bay located in central Japan. The horizontal distributions in the inner part of the bay were investigated by oblique hauls from 10 m above the sea-bottom to the surface using a Remodeled NORPAC net (LNP net) in May, August, November 2005, January, March, April, July, September, December 2006, March-September, November-December 2007, and January-March 2008. The vertical distributions were investigated by concurrent horizontal hauls at the depths of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m using a Motoda net (MTD net) in January, March, April, July, September, and December 2006. Mean density of larvae was higher in submarine canyons which dissect the continental shelf and run to the mouth of river, than adjacent continental slope areas. Larvae densely aggregated in the canyon head. Vertical distribution of the larval stages concentrated in the depth range of 100-150 m in both daytime and nighttime, and larvae in the postlarval or later stages showed diel vertical distribution over a wider depth range than larval stages. Our results indicate the possibility of a larval aggregation in energy-rich habitats, and indicated two important roles of submarine canyons, which were larval retention and high food supply.

  11. Disease Risk & Landscape Attributes of Tick-Borne Borrelia Pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    PubMed Central

    Carbajales-Dale, Patricia; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity influences pathogen ecology by affecting vector abundance and the reservoir host communities. We investigated spatial patterns of disease risk for two human pathogens in the Borrelia genus–B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi–that are transmitted by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. We collected ticks (349 nymphs, 273 adults) at 20 sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence and density of infected nymphs varied widely across sites and habitat type, though nymphal western black-legged ticks were more frequently found, and were more abundant in coast live oak forest and desert/semi-desert scrub (dominated by California sagebrush) habitats. We observed Borrelia infections in ticks at all sites where we able to collect >10 ticks. The recently recognized human pathogen, B. miyamotoi, was observed at a higher prevalence (13/349 nymphs = 3.7%, 95% CI = 2.0–6.3; 5/273 adults = 1.8%, 95% CI = 0.6–4.2) than recent studies from nearby locations (Alameda County, east of the San Francisco Bay), demonstrating that tick-borne disease risk and ecology can vary substantially at small geographic scales, with consequences for public health and disease diagnosis. PMID:26288371

  12. Seismic-reflection evidence that the hayward fault extends into the lower crust of the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents deep seismic-reflection data from an experiment across San Francisco Peninsula in 1995 using large (125 to 500 kg) explosive sources. Shot gathers show a mostly nonreflective upper crust in both the Franciscan and Salinian terranes (juxtaposed across the San Andreas fault), an onset of weak lower-crustal reflectivity beginning at about 6-sec two-way travel time (TWTT) and bright southwest-dipping reflections between 11 and 13 sec TWTT. Previous studies have shown that the Moho in this area is no deeper than 25 km (~8 to 9 sec TWTT). Three-dimensional reflection travel-time modeling of the 11 to 13 sec events from the shot gathers indicates that the bright events may be explained by reflectors 15 to 20 km into the upper mantle, northeast of the San Andreas fault. However, upper mantle reflections from these depths were not observed on marine-reflection profiles collected in San Francisco Bay, nor were they reported from a refraction profile on San Francisco Peninsula. The most consistent interpretation of these events from 2D raytracing and 3D travel-time modeling is that they are out-of-plane reflections from a high-angle (dipping ~70??to the southwest) impedance contrast in the lower crust that corresponds with the surface trace of the Hayward fault. These results suggest that the Hayward fault truncates the horizontal detachment fault suggested to be active beneath San Francisco Bay.

  13. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Area AP-1. The area is bounded by a line connecting the following coordinates (listed by latitude, then... Mariners and Broadcast Notice to Mariners. (3) Area AP-1. All persons, vessels, and other craft...

  14. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Area AP-1. The area is bounded by a line connecting the following coordinates (listed by latitude, then... Mariners and Broadcast Notice to Mariners. (3) Area AP-1. All persons, vessels, and other craft...

  15. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Area AP-1. The area is bounded by a line connecting the following coordinates (listed by latitude, then... Mariners and Broadcast Notice to Mariners. (3) Area AP-1. All persons, vessels, and other craft...

  16. Biomonitoring of trace metals using transplanted mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chan-Kook; Choi, Man Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mediterranean (blue) mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from a reference site were transplanted to 15 stations in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, an extensively metal polluted area in Korean coastal waters, to assess metal contamination in the coastal oceans of Korea. During the biomonitoring periods (June 30 to July 20, 2003; 21 days), transplanted mussels, seawater, and particulate materials were collected for analysis of 15 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn). Transplanted mussels showed metal enrichment compared to initial concentrations and spatial gradients consistent with dissolved and/or particulate metal concentrations in seawaters. Based on Q mode factor analysis, stations were clustered into three groups. The first group, located on Onsan Bay, showed high Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb and Zn enrichment, presumably arising from non-ferrous metal refineries and chemical industries in this area. The second group was located near the mouth of the Oehwang River and was enriched in Co from petrochemical industries. The third group comprised a site intermediate between Group 1 and Group 2, an isolated station with independent metal sources located in Jangsaengpo harbor, where a number of ship repairing and building companies operate, and a less contaminated station near a small fishing village. Metal accumulation rates (%·day-1) in mussels were estimated to be between 8% (Cr) and 281% (Pb), based on accumulated metal concentrations over 21 days. The active biomonitoring technique using M. galloprovincialis demonstrated here is a useful monitoring method because it reflects the present status of seawaters; furthermore, physiological factors can be standardized, and bioavailable and time-integrated metal concentrations can be obtained. Furthermore, this method can be applied even in coastal seawaters so heavily contaminated that living organisms would not normally survive.

  17. Assessing vulnerable and expanding vegetation stands and species in the San Francisco Bay Area for conservation management under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morueta-Holme, N.; Heller, N. E.; McLaughlin, B.; Weiss, S. B.; Ackerly, D.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of suitable climatic areas for species and vegetation types is expected to shift due to ongoing climate change. While the pace at which current distributions will shift is hard to quantify, predictions of where climatically suitable areas will be in the future can allow us to map 1) areas currently occupied by a species or vegetation type unlikely to persist through the end of this century (vulnerable stands), 2) areas likely to do better in the future and serve as nuclei for population expansion (expanding stands), and 3) areas likely to act as climate refugia (persisting stands). We quantified the vulnerability of 27 individual plant species and 27 vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area as well as the conservation importance, vulnerability, and resilience of selected management sites for climate change resilient conservation. To this end, we developed California-wide models of species and vegetation distributions using climate data from the 2014 California Basin Characterization Model at a 270 m resolution, projected to 18 different end-of century climate change scenarios. Combining these distribution models with high resolution maps of current vegetation, we were able to map projected vulnerable, expanding, and persisting stands within the Bay Area. We show that vegetation and species are expected to shift considerably within the study region over the next decades; although we also identify refugia potentially able to offset some of the negative impacts of climate change. We discuss the implications for managers that wish to incorporate climate change in conservation decisions, in particular related to choosing species for restoration, identifying areas to collect seeds for restoration, and preparing for expected major vegetation changes. Our evaluation of individual management sites highlights the need for stronger coordination of efforts across sites to prioritize monitoring and protection of species whose ranges are contracting

  18. A numerical model simulation of the regional air pollution meteorology of the greater Chesapeake Bay area - Summer day case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.; Mcnider, R. T.; Mcdougal, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The mesoscale numerical model of the University of Virginia (UVMM), has been applied to the greater Chesapeake Bay area in order to provide a detailed description of the air pollution meteorology during a typical summer day. This model provides state of the art simulations for land-sea thermally induced circulations. The model-predicted results agree favorably with available observed data. The effects of synoptic flow and sea breeze coupling on air pollution meteorological characteristics in this region, are demonstrated by a spatial and temporal presentation of various model predicted fields. A transport analysis based on predicted wind velocities indicated possible recirculation of pollutants back onto the Atlantic coast due to the sea breeze circulation.

  19. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  20. Residues of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sediment from CauBay River and Their Impacts on Agricultural Soil, Human Health Risk in KieuKy Area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toan, Vu Duc; Quy, Nguyen Phuong

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the PCB residues from CauBay River and KieuKy area, Vietnam was carried out. CauBay River has been playing an important role in irrigated water supply for agriculture activities at KieuKy area in the downstream. The PCBs concentrations of sediment, soil samples were analyzed and obtained results indicated the wide extent of contamination of PCBs in CauBay River (from 30.74 to 167.35 ng g(-1) dry weight) and KieuKy area (from 21.62 to 60.22 ng g(-1) dry weight). This clearly reflected the effect of PCB residues from CauBay River to the quality of agricultural soil of the KieuKy area. The PCBs composition analyses in the samples reflect their long-time release. The total cancer risk of PCBs in the soil of KieuKy fell into the very low range suggesting low risk. However, since PCBs were the species of POPs with more concern in this area, ecological risk assessment should be further investigated.

  1. An empirical test of the 'shark nursery area concept' in Texas bays using a long-term fisheries-independent data set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Froeschke, John T.; Stunz, Gregory W.; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a long-term fisheries-independent data set, we tested the 'shark nursery area concept' proposed by Heupel et al. (2007) with the suggested working assumptions that a shark nursery habitat would: (1) have an abundance of immature sharks greater than the mean abundance across all habitats where they occur; (2) be used by sharks repeatedly through time (years); and (3) see immature sharks remaining within the habitat for extended periods of time. We tested this concept using young-of-the-year (age 0) and juvenile (age 1+ yr) bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from gill-net surveys conducted in Texas bays from 1976 to 2006 to estimate the potential nursery function of 9 coastal bays. Of the 9 bay systems considered as potential nursery habitat, only Matagorda Bay satisfied all 3 criteria for young-of-the-year bull sharks. Both Matagorda and San Antonio Bays met the criteria for juvenile bull sharks. Through these analyses we examined the utility of this approach for characterizing nursery areas and we also describe some practical considerations, such as the influence of the temporal or spatial scales considered when applying the nursery role concept to shark populations.

  2. Post-stratification sampling in small area estimation (SAE) model for unemployment rate estimation by Bayes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanike, Yusrianti; Sadik, Kusman; Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    This research implemented unemployment rate in Indonesia that based on Poisson distribution. It would be estimated by modified the post-stratification and Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Post-stratification was one of technique sampling that stratified after collected survey data. It's used when the survey data didn't serve for estimating the interest area. Interest area here was the education of unemployment which separated in seven category. The data was obtained by Labour Employment National survey (Sakernas) that's collected by company survey in Indonesia, BPS, Statistic Indonesia. This company served the national survey that gave too small sample for level district. Model of SAE was one of alternative to solved it. According the problem above, we combined this post-stratification sampling and SAE model. This research gave two main model of post-stratification sampling. Model I defined the category of education was the dummy variable and model II defined the category of education was the area random effect. Two model has problem wasn't complied by Poisson assumption. Using Poisson-Gamma model, model I has over dispersion problem was 1.23 solved to 0.91 chi square/df and model II has under dispersion problem was 0.35 solved to 0.94 chi square/df. Empirical Bayes was applied to estimate the proportion of every category education of unemployment. Using Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), Model I has smaller mean square error (MSE) than model II.

  3. Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Ill-Health Attributable to Residential Wood Combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, Z.; Fairley, D.; Smith, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Residential wood combustion is recognized as a major source of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially during the winter heating season. Both indoor and outdoor exposure to air pollution from residential wood combustion negatively impact human health, causing premature deaths and ill-health. Previous research has described the regional impact of wood smoke on air quality. Here, we estimate by county the proportion of ambient (outdoor) PM2.5 air pollution attributable to residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area. We also explore the implications of residential wood burning emissions for human health in the San Francisco Bay Area, reporting the burden of disease associated with this emission source by county. We also describe differences between counties in wood burning behavior, air pollution levels, and human health effects. The results of this research have relevance for air quality regulation and source abatement prioritization in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond.

  4. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

    PubMed

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level.

  6. Population and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in a pollutants' receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-07-01

    The community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms is sensitive to various environmental factors, including pollutions. In this study, real-time PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were adopted to investigate the population and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) temporally and spatially in the sediments of an industrial effluent receiving area in the Qiantang River's estuary, Hangzhou Bay. The abundances of AOA and AOB amoA genes fluctuated in 10(5)-10(7) gene copies per gram of sediment; the ratio of AOA amoA/AOB amoA ranged in 0.39-5.52. The AOA amoA/archaeal 16S rRNA, AOB amoA/bacterial 16S rRNA, and AOA amoA/AOB amoA were found to positively correlate with NH4 (+)-N concentration of the seawater. Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrosomonas-like cluster were the dominant AOA and AOB, respectively. The community structures of both AOA and AOB in the sediments exhibited significant seasonal differences rather than spatial changes in the effluent receiving area. The phylogenetic distribution of AOB in this area was consistent with the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging the effluent but differed from the Qiantang River and other estuaries, which might be an outcome of long-term effluent discharge.

  7. Food supply for waders (Aves: Charadrii) in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masero, José A.; Pérez-González, Maite; Basadre, Marta; Otero-Saavedra, Mónica

    1999-07-01

    We studied the composition, density, size distribution and biomass of the food supply for waders in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula), in winter (January-February) and in the pre-migratory period (late March). The estuarine area comprises an intertidal mudflat and an adjacent salina or salt-pan. On the intertidal mudflat, the biomass was 53 and 37 g AFDW .m -2in winter and the pre-migratory period, respectively. The main food source on mudflat was the polychaete Nereis diversicolor (44-54 % of the total biomass). On the other hand, the biomass in the salina was comparatively very poor, ranging from 0.008 to 0.079 g AFDW .m -2in winter and ranging from 0.011 to 0.09 g AFDW in late March. The main source of food in the salina was the crustacean Artemia. The total biomass on the mudflat during the pre-migratory period was 1.4 times lower than in February. This depletion could be caused by wader predation, mainly by Nereis diversicolor consumption. Although the potential food on the mudflats could allow high intertidal densities of waders, the availability of high tide foraging areas in the salina seems to contribute to the maintenance of these high intertidal densities.

  8. Broadband Waveform Modeling to Evaluate the USGS Seismic Velocity Model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A.; Petersson, A.; Nilsson, S.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes recorded on broadband stations. Satisfactory prediction of ground motions from these events will provide hope for accurate modeling of future scenario earthquakes. Simulations were performed on large parallel computer(s) with a new elastic finite difference code developed at LLNL. We simulated broadband ground motions (0-0.25 Hz) for several moderate (magnitude 3.5-5.0) earthquakes in the region observed at Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) broadband stations. These events are well located and can be modeled with simple point moment tensor sources (taken from the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory catalog), helping to isolate the effects of structure on the waveforms. These data sample the region's diverse tectonic structures, such as the bay muds, sedimentary basins and hard rock complexes. Preliminary results indicate that the simulations reproduce many important features in the data. For example, observed long duration surface waves are often predicted for complex paths (traveling across contrasting structures) and through sedimentary basins. Excellent waveform fits were frequently obtained for long-period comparisons (0.02-0.1) and good fits were often obtained for shorter periods. We will attempt higher frequency simulations to test the ability of the model to match the high frequency response. Finally, we performed large scenario earthquake simulations for the Hayward Fault. These simulations predict large amplifications across the Santa Clara and San Ramon/Livermore Valley sedimentary basins and with the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.

  9. SMALL AREA ESTIMATION OF INDICATORS OF STREAM CONDITION FOR MAIA USING HIERARCHICAL BAYES PREDICTION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Probability surveys of stream and river resources (hereafter referred to as streams) provide reliable estimates of stream condition when the areas for the estimates have sufficient number of sample sites. Monitoring programs are frequently asked to provide estimates for areas th...

  10. 75 FR 49843 - Regulated Navigation Area; Boom Deployment Strategy Testing, Great Bay, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... waters during the maximum tide cycles. To conduct an effective test, boom must be deployed across the... and Fox Point for Area One and just north of rocks marked by the Rock Buoy ``4'' (LLNR 8585) on the... Goat Island for Area One and, from a point starting 350 feet east of the Rock Buoy ``4'' (LLNR 8585)...

  11. Benthic habitat map of U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Faga‘alu Bay priority study area, Tutuila, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; D'Antonio, Nicole L.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2016-05-18

    The coral reef in Faga‘alu Bay, Tutuila, American Samoa, has suffered numerous natural and anthropogenic stresses. Areas once dominated by live coral are now mostly rubble surfaces covered with turf or macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected Faga‘alu Bay as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological Survey mapped nearly 1 km2 of seafloor to depths of about 60 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes slightly greater than 50 percent of the seafloor in the mapped area; reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitment constitute nearly 50 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only slightly greater than 37 percent is covered with at least 10 percent coral, which is fairly evenly distributed between the reef flat, fore reef, and offshore bank/shelf. 

  12. Nitrogen deposition and sensitive ecosystems: a case study from the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2001-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition from urban smog can greatly affect local ecosystems. This paper examines a complex situation in the Santa Clara Valley, CA where N-deposition from existing, new, and proposed developments threatens an ecosystem supporting numerous rare, threatened, and endangered species. Grasslands on nutrient-poor serpentinitic soils are being invaded by nutrient-demanding introduced annual grasses, driven by dry N-deposition of about 10 kg ha-1 yr-1. These grass invasions threaten the native biodiversity of the serpentinitic grasslands, including the federally-protected Bay checkerspot butterfly. Additional NOx and NH3 sources planned for the region include a 600 MW natural gas fired power plant, industrial parks that may eventually draw 20,000 to 50,000 additional cars per day, 25,000 housing units, and associated highway improvements. Ongoing mitigation proposals include purchase and long-term management of hundreds of hectares of habitat. The situation is a model for understanding N-deposition from a scientific and policy viewpoint. Fundamental biogeochemical questions include: 1) What are the relative contributions of NOx and NH3 to increased N-deposition? NH3 slip from power plant NOx scrubbers can release more reactive nitrogen than is removed as NOx, and modern automobiles release NH3 in addition to NOx. 2) How are N-emissions transported, chemically modified, and deposited on the local ecosystems, and are these processes adequately captured in regulatory models? How do point sources differ from line sources such as a heavily traveled freeway? 3) What are the effects of chronic N-deposition on the ecosystem, and is there a critical load or a steady cumulative effect? 4) What are the effects of management such as fire, grazing, mowing on N-cycling and plant composition? Policy issues include: 1) What are the incremental impacts of individual projects relative to high background deposition, 2) What margin of safety should be built into modeling and

  13. 33 CFR 334.310 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334...″; thence westerly along the shore and across the mouth of Little Creek to the point of beginning. (b)...

  14. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. 165.122 Section 165.122... within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. (a) Description of the regulated... navigable waters of the Providence River from Conimicut Point to the Providence hurricane barrier....

  15. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. 165.122 Section 165.122... within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. (a) Description of the regulated... navigable waters of the Providence River from Conimicut Point to the Providence hurricane barrier....

  16. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. 165.122 Section 165.122... within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. (a) Description of the regulated... navigable waters of the Providence River from Conimicut Point to the Providence hurricane barrier....

  17. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. 165.122 Section 165.122... within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. (a) Description of the regulated... navigable waters of the Providence River from Conimicut Point to the Providence hurricane barrier....

  18. 33 CFR 165.122 - Regulated Navigation Area: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Navigable waters within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. 165.122 Section 165.122... within Narragansett Bay and the Providence River, Rhode Island. (a) Description of the regulated... navigable waters of the Providence River from Conimicut Point to the Providence hurricane barrier....

  19. 33 CFR 334.780 - Pensacola Bay, Fla.; seaplane restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Fla.; seaplane restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at latitude 30°22′28″, longitude 87°16′00″; thence to latitude 30°21′02″, longitude 87°14′20″; thence to latitude 30°20′02″, longitude 87°15′16″; thence to latitude 30°20′11″; longitude 87°17′58″; and thence to 272° true to the shore. (b)...

  20. A summary of chemical and biological testing of proposed disposal of sediment from Richmond Harbor relative to the Deep Off-Shelf Reference Area, the Bay Farm Borrow Area, and the Alcatraz Environs Reference Area

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Gruendell, B.D.; Pinza, M.R.

    1993-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers was authorized to dredge Richmond Harbor to accomodate large, deep-draft vessels. An ecological evaluation of the Harbor sediments was performed describing the physical characteristics, toxic substances, effects on aquatic organisms,and potential for bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants. The objective of this report is to compare the sediment chemistry, acute toxicity, and bioaccumulation results of the Richmond Harbor sediments to each of the reference areas; i.e., the Deep Off-Shelf Reference Area, the Bay Farm Borrow Area, and the Alcatraz Environs Reference Area. This report will enable the US Army Corps of Engineers to determine whether disposal at a reference area is appropriate for all or part of the dredged material from Richmond Harbor. Chemical analyses were performed on 30 sediment samples; 28 of those samples were then combined to form 7 composites. The seven composites plus sediment from two additional stations received both chemical and biological evaluations.

  1. Application of the Pearl model to analyze fecal coliform data from conditionally approved shellfish harvest areas in seven Texas bays.

    PubMed

    Conte, F S; Ahmadi, A

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP) 14/43 standard states that conditionally approved shellfish growing areas must be closed for harvest when the geometric mean of fecal coliform concentration exceeds the NSSP limit of 14 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL, or the estimated 90th percentile of fecal coliform concentrations exceeds 43 MPN/100 mL for a five-tube test. The authors hypothesized that the NSSP 14/43 standard is not sufficient to protect the public from risks from consumption of biologically contaminated shellfish and the standard should be modified to 8/26 MPN/100 mL. To verify this hypothesis, the authors analyzed fecal coliform data from conditionally approved shellfish harvest areas of seven Texas bays using the Pearl sanitation model. Results showed that the shellfish closure rules mandated by the Texas Department of State Health Services actually enforced the "Pearl" limits of 8/26 MPN/100 mL, and not the NSSP limit of 14/43 MPN/100 mL.

  2. Occurrence of Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus in mosquitoes at Shoalwater Bay military training area, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Cooper, R D; Rowcliffe, K L; Chen, N; Cheng, Q

    2004-01-01

    Shoalwater Bay military training area (SWBTA), 2,713 km2 of land located 50-80 km north of Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, is used by Australian and allied forces for training purposes. Between March 1998 and February 2000, monthly collections of mosquitoes at 15 sites were conducted using carbon dioxide-baited traps to study the seasonal occurrence of mosquitoes and Ross River virus (RRV) and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) in mosquitoes. A total of 72,616 mosquitoes, comprising 3,897 pools were collected, and 2,428 pools were tested using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 pools of mosquitoes were positive for virus, 10 RRV and five BFV. Blood meals from an additional 763 mosquitoes were tested by a gel diffusion assay, and the majority (96%) of those identified were from kangaroo, which was the most common mammal in the study area. The results indicate that Culex annulirostris Skuse and Ochlerotatus vigilax (Skuse) are the main vectors of RRV at SWBTA.

  3. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  4. [Purification effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on water environment of Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-feng; Zhang, Zhi-yong; Yan, Shao-hua; Zhang, Ying-ying; Liu, Hai-qin; Fan, Cheng-xin

    2011-05-01

    Using water hyacinth and other fast-growing and high biomass of floating plants to purify polluted water has become an efficient and effective ecological restoration method at present. Effects of nutrients adsorption and water purification of planting water hyacinth on water quality in Zhushan Bay were studied. The results indicated that no anoxia was observed in water hyacinth planting areas because of wave disturbance and strong water exchange. Concentrations of TN and TP in water hyacinth planting areas were higher than that in the outside of stocking area (the content ranged 3.03-7.45 mg/L and 0.15-0.38 mg/L, respectively), and the content changes ranged 3.37-8.02 mg/L and 0.15-0.36 mg/L,respectively. The higher concentration of TN and TP in water indicated the water body was heavily polluted. Water hyacinth roots have a strong ability to adsorb suspended solids and algae cells, the concentration of Chl-a in stocking areas was higher than that in stocking fringe and outside, the maximum Chlorophyll in the stocking region in August was 177.01 mg/m3, and at the same time the concentrations in planting fringe and outside were 101.53 mg/m3 and 76.96 mg/m, respectively. Higher Chl-a content on water hyacinth roots indicated that water hyacinth had strong blocking effects on algae cells, and demonstrated it had a great purification effects on eutrophicated water, and it also provides a basis for the larger polluted water bodies purification in using water hyacinth.

  5. Mapping the time-averaged distribution of combustion-derived air pollutants in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Zinniker, D. A.; Moldowan, J.

    2010-12-01

    Urban air pollution is an ongoing and complicated problem for both residents and policy makers. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the geographic source and fate of organic pollutants in a dynamic urban environment. Natural and artificial hydrophobic substrates were employed for the passive monitoring and mapping of ground-level organic pollutants in the San Francisco Bay area. We focused specifically on volatile and semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These compounds are proxies for a broad range of combustion related air pollutants derived from local, regional, and global combustion sources. PAHs include several well-studied carcinogens and can be measured easily and accurately across a broad range of concentrations. Estimates of time-integrated vapor phase and particle deposition were made from measuring accumulated PAHs in the leaves of several widely distributed tree species (including the Quercus agrifolia and Sequoia sempervirens) and an artificial wax film. Samples were designed to represent pollutant exposure over a period of one to several months. The selective sampling and analysis of hydrophobic substrates providess insight into the average geographic distribution of ground-level air pollutants in a simple and inexpensive way. However, accumulated organics do not directly correlated with human exposure and the source signature of PAHs may be obscured by transport, deposition, and flux processes. We attempted to address some of these complications by studying 1) PAH accumulation rates within substrates in a controlled microcosm, 2) differences in PAH abundance in different substrate types at the same locality, and 3) samples near long-term high volume air sampling stations. We also set out to create a map of PAH concentrations based on our measurements. This map can be directly compared with interpolated data from high-volume sampling stations and used to address questions concerning atmospheric heterogeneity of these

  6. 33 CFR 334.1010 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of Hunters Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the shore of the San Francisco Naval Shipyard and the following lines: Beginning at a point on the northerly shore of the Shipyard bearing 292°40′, 950 yards, from Hunters Point Light; thence 35°27′,...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1010 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of Hunters Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the shore of the San Francisco Naval Shipyard and the following lines: Beginning at a point on the northerly shore of the Shipyard bearing 292°40′, 950 yards, from Hunters Point Light; thence 35°27′,...

  8. 33 CFR 162.195 - Santa Monica Bay, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an area extending seaward from the shoreline a distance of about 5 nautical miles (normal to the shoreline) and basically outlined as follows: Station Latitude North Longitude West A 33°54′59″ 118°25′41″...

  9. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... any such vessel is within the danger zone, the officer in charge of firing operations will cause the... entire area involved will be under constant observation of both surface patrol vessels and air patrol... in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida and...

  10. Elliott Bay Action Program: The relationship between source control and recovery of contaminated sediments in two problem areas. Puget Sound Estuary Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick-Howard, L.; Jacoby, J.; Brownlie, W.

    1988-06-01

    Results are presented from a study to evaluate the relationship between source control and mitigation of sediment contamination in two high-priority problem areas in Elliott Bay, Seattle. The time necessary for sediment concentrations to be reduced to target cleanup levels after complete source elimination is estimated for each problem area through application of the Sediment Contamination Assessment Model (SEDCAM), using a mass-balance equation, developed for Commencement Bay. The important variables include: concentration of problem chemicals in recently deposited material and surface sediments; sedimentation rates, mixed layer depth and the rate at which problem chemicals are lost due to biodegradation and diffusion across the sediment-water interface. In addition, the model predicts the fraction of source control required to maintain sediment concentrations at the target cleanup levels for each problem area.

  11. Birds, seals and the suspension culture of mussels in Bantry Bay, a non-seaduck area in Southwest Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roycroft, D.; Kelly, T. C.; Lewis, L. J.

    2004-12-01

    Concerns about the environmental impacts of mariculture have grown in recent years in response to the rapid expansion of the industry. The blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) is the main product of shellfish mariculture in the Northeast Atlantic and Baltic Sea, with approximately one third of the harvest cultured using suspended longlines within sheltered marine areas. The main aim of this study was to examine the interactions, and assess the impacts (if any) of mussel suspension culture on the seabird and seal community, employing a simultaneous study of culture and control sites. The study spanned a 20-month period (from November 2001 to August 2003) and encompassed six sites in Bantry Bay (Southwest Ireland). There was no significant difference in species richness between mussel and control sites. Similarly, species diversity did not significantly differ between the mussel and control sites although control sites were generally more diverse than mussel sites, the latter particularly dominated by large numbers of Laridae. Significantly higher numbers of Phalacrocoracidae, Laridae and Alcidae were recorded in mussel sites than in control sites. However, no significant difference was found between Gaviidae or common seal ( Phoca vitulina) numbers in mussel and control sites. Seasonal patterns of abundance were similar in mussel and control sites, with peak numbers of most species groups occurring in spring. Mussel suspension culture does not appear to have an adverse effect on the abundance of seabirds or common seals in this area. The safe perching platforms provided by suspension culture floats, combined with a number of other factors, contribute to an increased abundance of a number of seabird species, particularly Laridae. The possible interactions between vertebrate predators and mussel suspension aquaculture are discussed and possible explanations for the increased seabird abundance observed in these areas are offered.

  12. [Environmental quality assessment of water body and surface sediment in the sea area of Jiaozhou Bay wetland].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-rui; Chen, Ju-fa; Cui, Yi; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Based on the investigation data from 48 sampling stations in the sea area of Jiaozhou Bay wetland in 2009, and by using Nemerow index, eutrophication index (EI), and Hakanson potential ecological risk index, an assessment was conducted on the environmental quality of water body and surface sediment in the sea area. According to the assessment on the 16 indicators including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorous (DIP), chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), petroleum hydrocarbons, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, hexachlorocyolohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), coliform, and faecal coliform, the water quality was at moderate and serious pollution level in the tidal reach of Dagu River, at slight and moderate pollution level in the intertidal zone, and at slight pollution level in the shallow sea. The eutrophication level differed markedly with the regions, being very serious in the tidal reach of Dagu River (EI value 58.13-327.89), serious in the intertidal zone (EI value 1.34-19.96), and slight in the shallow sea (EI value 0.65-2.10). The surface sediments in the sea area were basically at slight pollution level. The sediment quality was at slight pollution level in the tidal reach of Dagu River, at slight and moderate pollution level in the intertidal zone, and at cleaner and slight pollution level in the shallow sea. The pollution parameter (C(f)(i)) and contamination index (Cd) of the heavy metals in the surface sediments were low, suggesting that the pollution degree was at a lower level. The Cu and Zn were the primary pollution factors in the sediments. The potential ecological risk parameter (E(r)(i)) and risk index (RI) of the heavy metals in the surface sediments were lower, indicating a slight ecological risk of heavy metals pollution.

  13. Uranium-series dating of mollusks and corals, and age of Pleistocene deposits, Chesapeake Bay area, Virginia and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixon, Robert B.; Szabo, B. J.; Owens, James Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Geologic mapping in conjunction with uranium-series dating of fossil mollusks and corals suggests that the low-lying ( < 17 m in altitude) terrace deposits in the central and southern Chesapeake Bay area include two main depositional sequences, each of which represents a high stand of the sea in late Pleistocene time. The older depositional sequence includes the Accomack and Omar beds of the Delmarva area, the fossiliferous deposits along the lower Rappahannock River, and the Norfolk Formation deposits west of the Suffolk scarp. These beds have yielded a single reliable coral age estimate of 184,000?20,000 years B.P., suggesting an early late Pleistocene age. The younger sequence, including the type beds of the Norfolk Formation and equivalent strata east of the Suffolk scarp, has yielded several coral ages ranging from about 62,000 to 86,000 years B.P. (including ages from our samples and previously reported age estimates); thus, it is clearly late Pleistocene in age. Groupings of ages obtained from our quahog analyses also suggest two transgressive sequences; however, the estimated quahog ages are consistently younger than ages based on coral samples from the same and equivalent stratigraphic units. Stratigraphic, paleoclimatic, and geomorphic data suggest that the estimated uranium-series age of 71,000?7,000 years B.P. for the type beds of the Norfolk, obtained by averaging our coral dates, may be too young by as much as several tens of thousands of years. A postulated equivalency of the type Norfolk beds, upper Pleistocene deposits near Charleston, S.C. (apparent uranium-series age = 95,000?5,000 years), and deposits in the Caribbean area thought to represent the highest sea stand during the last interglacial period (apparent age, 125,000?10,000 years) implies diagenetic modification of coralline material possibly in part because of regional differences in depositional and postdepositional environments.

  14. Collaboration in the San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Medical Response System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    a Navy veteran who always emphasized education and did quiet , hard work. For a guy with a GED, he seemed to know a lot of stuff. xviii THIS...synonymous with MMST. 18 5. Increase regional MMTF capability to be self -sufficient during the 72- hour deployment outside of its operational area. 6...He believes that the self -managing teams, strike forces, and the like are examples of flexibility. Flexibility needs protection as well as

  15. Health Cobenefits and Transportation-Related Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Co, Sean; Ostro, Bart; Fanai, Amir; Fairley, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Methods. Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-emission automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose–response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. Results: Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32 466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. Conclusions: Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE reductions sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates. PMID:23409903

  16. Seasonal and spatial variation of bacterial community structure in river-mouth areas of Gokasho bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakami, Tomoko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated seasonal and spatial dynamics of the bacterial community in Gokasho bay with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. The community structure was related to physico-chemical water conditions in the area examined. The bacterial community clustered into three groups: bacteria collected during January-May; those collected from water at the surface in July and September; and those collected from water at the bottom in July and September and from both depths in November. Canonical correspondence analyses indicated that the seasonal variability in bacterial community was associated with water temperature succession. On the other hand, concentrations of particulate organic matter and nitrite plus nitrate were related to the vertical change in community structure in summer and autumn as well as HNF abundance, suggesting that both top-down and bottom-up control affected the community. The influence of salinity was insignificant though bacterial production was related to salinity. No relationship was observed between the variation in community structure and that in hydrolytic enzyme activity. The results indicate that changes in bacterial activity are not coupled with variation in community structure.

  17. Isolation and characterization of benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacteria from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okai, Masahiko; Kihara, Ikumi; Yokoyama, Yuto; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and has serious detrimental effects on human health and aquatic environments. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial strains capable of degrading BaP from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan. The isolated bacteria belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, indicating that the BaP-degrading bacteria were widely present in the hydrosphere. ITB11, which shared 100% 16S rRNA identity with Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens in the phylum Bacteroidetes, showed the highest degradation of BaP (approximately 86%) among the nine isolated strains after 42 days. Moreover, it was found that three of the nine isolated strains collectively removed 50-55% of BaP during the first 7 days. Growth measurement of M. zeaxanthinifaciens revealed that the strain utilized BaP as a sole carbon and energy source and salicylate acted only as an inducer of BaP degradation.

  18. Levels and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in environmental samples near manufacturing facilities in Laizhou Bay area, East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghua; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Lv, Jianxia; Chen, Weihai; Geng, Dawei; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Thanh; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-10-26

    A total of 55 samples including soil, sediment, plants (cypress, reed and seepweed) and aquatic species were collected at locations around hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) manufacturing facilities in Laizhou Bay area, East China. HBCD was determined at concentrations ranging between 0.88 and 6901 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), 2.93-1029 ng g(-1) dw, 8.88-160241 ng g(-1) dw, and 7.09-815 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), respectively. Significant negative correlations (r(2) = 0.54, p = 0.006) were observed between HBCD concentrations in soils and the distance from the manufacturing facility, and the concentrations became constant when the distance was >4 km. The calculation results on the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) suggested that HBCD may be accumulated in plants. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation of HBCD diastereoisomers was found in aquatic species. For example, in crabs the highest concentrations of HBCD (815 ng g(-1) lw for female and 446 ng g(-1) lw for male) were observed in the gill. Besides the gill, α-HBCD was more preferentially accumulated in the spermary and ovary, while β- and γ-HBCD were more accumulated in the muscle. A similar distribution was also observed in roe and muscle of goby fish.

  19. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  20. Lead Concentration Levels in Waters from Public Drinking Fountains in the East San Francisco Bay Area, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, B.; Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, T.; Lewis-Velasco, W.; Lockett, N.; Swamy, S.; Tyner, N.; Quach, C.

    2008-12-01

    Many East San Francisco Bay Area public parks are heavily populated by parents and their children and generally experience high levels of pedestrian traffic during the day, particularly during summer months. Consequently, if ever any of these visitors become thirsty they are likely to drink from the many public water fountains that exist. As most of the parks were established long before lead-related legislation was put in place, and their associated plumbing systems are very old, we decided to collect samples from a variety of locations to determine their lead concentration levels. Our rationale was that the public is generally not well informed about possible lead contamination related to a seemingly innocent source, namely drinking water fountains at parks, or about and the potential hazards related to lead consumption, and that our research could serve as a means of helping to increase public understanding of this important issue. This is especially important given that many young children populate parks during summer months and, according to the EPA, lead consumption in infants and young children is known to cause physical and mental development problems. With this situation in mind, our team collected multiple samples from water fountains in five different East Bay parks: Piedmont, San Antonio, Dracena, Mosswood, and Lake Merritt. Later these samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. Preliminary results indicate that lead concentration levels in waters issuing from fountains in all of the parks we collected samples from exceed the 15 ppb action limit set by the EPA for in-home tap water. Samples collected from the park in Piedmont yielded values as high as 35 ppb, greater than twice the EPA limit. Given these results, it is with most pressing urgency that we continue this study, and that we publicize our results as soon as possible so that the communities using these parks can decide for themselves whether or not to take the risks associated with

  1. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  2. Water resources of the Green Bay area, Wisconsin: G in Water resources of industrial regions: A summary of the source, occurrence, availability, and use of water in the area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Doyle Blewer; Dreher, F.C.; Whetstone, George Walter

    1964-01-01

    In an emergency, industrial and public supply wells could supply at least 6 mgd for a sustained period and probably as much as 10 mgd for a period of several days. Six of the wells that formerly supplied the city of Green Bay are maintained in operating condition and could furnish about the same quantity of water as the industrial and other public supply wells. Small streams in the area would be supplemental sources of water, and the water in the Fox River and Green Bay is easily accessible.

  3. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew Douglas; Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121–302 days). Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3–81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day). All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5–21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments) consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada. PMID:27043209

  4. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew Douglas; Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121-302 days). Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3-81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day). All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5-21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments) consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada.

  5. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius... Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  7. 33 CFR 334.778 - Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., Longitude 87°19′49″ W; (a point on the southerly shoreline of Bayou Grande). (b) The regulations. (1) All... Magazine Point, by which vessels enter and egress Bayous Davenport and Grande into Pensacola Bay...

  8. 33 CFR 334.778 - Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., Longitude 87°19′49″ W; (a point on the southerly shoreline of Bayou Grande). (b) The regulations. (1) All... Magazine Point, by which vessels enter and egress Bayous Davenport and Grande into Pensacola Bay...

  9. 33 CFR 334.778 - Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., Longitude 87°19′49″ W; (a point on the southerly shoreline of Bayou Grande). (b) The regulations. (1) All... Magazine Point, by which vessels enter and egress Bayous Davenport and Grande into Pensacola Bay...

  10. Factors that influence the hydrologic recovery of wetlands in the Northern Tampa Bay area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although of less importance than the other three factors, a low-lying topographical position benefited the hydrologic condition of several of the study wetlands (S-68 Cypress and W-12 Cypress) both before and after the reductions in groundwater withdrawals. Compared to wetlands in a higher topographical position, those in a lower position had longer hydroperiods because of their greater ability to receive more runoff from higher elevation wetlands and to establish surface-water connections to other isolated wetlands and surface-water bodies through low-lying surface-water channels during wet conditions. In addition, wetlands in low-lying areas benefited from groundwater inflow when groundwater levels were higher than wetland water levels.

  11. [Pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters of the sea area of Daya Bay and assessment on potential ecological risks].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shan-Nan; Li, Chun-Hou; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to gain a clear understanding on the status of pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage and the potential ecological risk caused by heavy metal pollution in the sea area of Daya Bay. The contents and spatial distributions of heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in seawater, sediment and fishes collected from Daya Bay were analyzed. The comprehensive pollution index (CPI) and ecological risk indexes (ERIs) were used to evaluate the contaminated severity and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in seawater and sediment. The results showed that the contents of these heavy metals, except for those of Zn and Pb, in several stations set in Daya Bay from 2011 to 2012 were relatively low, which were lower than the quality standard of class I according to the China National Standard Criteria for Seawater Quality, suggesting that the seawater in Daya Bay has not been polluted yet by these heavy metals. The average CPI of heavy metals in seawater during flooding season (0.72) was higher than that during dry season (0.38) whereas the average CPI of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (7.77) was higher than that during flooding season (5.70). Hg was found to be the primary contaminating heavy metal in sediment during dry season, which was followed by As and Zn whereas during flooding season, Hg was the primary contaminating metal in sediment, followed by Zn and Cu. The contents of these 7 heavy metals in fishes collected from the surveyed areas were lower than those of the standard requirements. A correlation analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the correlations between the midst of the heavy metals in sea water and the different periods. The ERIs of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (129.20) was higher than that during flooding season (102.86), and 25% of the sampling sites among all stations were under the risk of high-level alarm. The potential ERIs of heavy metals in sediment in

  12. Preliminary analysis of lineaments and engineering properties of bedrock, Penobscot Bay area, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.; O'Leary, Dennis W.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    1977-01-01

    A remote sensing study of coastal and near coastal Maine was undertaken to identify bedrock features of possible importance to construction. Major lineaments were identified that separate the region into four distinct terrains. Within each terrain, smaller lineaments and other physiographic features show distinctive and consistent patterns, reflecting similarities in bedrock lithology and structure. The major linear features are given the following provisional geographic names: I. Lewiston line 2. Merrymeeting lineament 3. Dover-Foxcroft line 4. Orland lineament 5. Union lineament These linear or curvilinear trends are caused by lithologic contrasts, joints, faults, or foliation in the middle and lower Paleozoic phyllites, schists, gneisses, and granite intrusives. Initial field and laboratory results from a pilot study of bedrock engineering conditions indicate that variations in rock strength and fracture spacing are controlled by lithology, intensity of structural deformation, and alteration. At several locations in the study area faults and major joints are alined with a major lineament. Strength anisotropy ratios are as high as 10 in the foliated rocks but near 1 in the granites. The higher compressive strength direction commonly is perpendicular to foliation and to lineament trends which, in turn, are parallel to faults, major joints, or foliation. Fracture spacing in rocks in the field study area averages 0.5 m for granite and ranges from 0.2 cm to 0.75 m, with an average of 0.15 m, in metamorphic rocks. Diagnostic indications useful for estimating certain construction conditions are shown by point-load and uniaxial compressive strengths. Values for fresh rock range from less than 30 MN/m 2 for weakly bonded phyllite to more than 350 MN/m 2 for dense andesite and metasiltstone. Rock workability is directly related to compressive strength and spacing of joints.

  13. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from the San Francisco Bay area of northern California.

    PubMed

    York, M K; Gibbs, L; Perdreau-Remington, F; Brooks, G F

    1999-06-01

    During 1994 and 1995, 157 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from patients with invasive disease were consecutively collected in the San Francisco Bay area to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards by the disk method and by broth microdilution. For comparison of susceptibility patterns, an additional 149 strains were randomly collected from patients with pharyngitis. For San Francisco County, 32% of the isolates from invasive-disease-related specimens but only 9% of the isolates from throat cultures from the same period were resistant to erythromycin (P = 0.0007). Alameda County and Contra Costa County had rates of resistance of area, were identified. The latter clone exhibited resistance to bacitracin. Of 146 strains that were tested by microdilution, all were susceptible to penicillin. Clindamycin resistance was not seen among the erythromycin-susceptible strains, but two of the 39 erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to clindamycin. An additional 34 strains showed resistance to clindamycin when exposed to an erythromycin disk in the double-disk diffusion test, suggesting that the mechanism of erythromycin resistance is due to an erm gene. This study demonstrates a high rate of resistance to macrolides and tetracycline among S. pyogenes isolates

  14. Probabilistic seismic hazard in the San Francisco Bay area based on a simplified viscoelastic cycle model of fault interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Schwartz, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    We construct a viscoelastic cycle model of plate boundary deformation that includes the effect of time-dependent interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic strain release, and viscoelastic relaxation of the substrate beneath the seismogenic crust. For a given fault system, time-averaged stress changes at any point (not on a fault) are constrained to zero; that is, kinematic consistency is enforced for the fault system. The dates of last rupture, mean recurrence times, and the slip distributions of the (assumed) repeating ruptures are key inputs into the viscoelastic cycle model. This simple formulation allows construction of stress evolution at all points in the plate boundary zone for purposes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Stress evolution is combined with a Coulomb failure stress threshold at representative points on the fault segments to estimate the times of their respective future ruptures. In our PSHA we consider uncertainties in a four-dimensional parameter space: the rupture peridocities, slip distributions, time of last earthquake (for prehistoric ruptures) and Coulomb failure stress thresholds. We apply this methodology to the San Francisco Bay region using a recently determined fault chronology of area faults. Assuming single-segment rupture scenarios, we find that fature rupture probabilities of area faults in the coming decades are the highest for the southern Hayward, Rodgers Creek, and northern Calaveras faults. This conclusion is qualitatively similar to that of Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, but the probabilities derived here are significantly higher. Given that fault rupture probabilities are highly model-dependent, no single model should be used to assess to time-dependent rupture probabilities. We suggest that several models, including the present one, be used in a comprehensive PSHA methodology, as was done by Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities.

  15. Sedimentologic evidence for structural and topographic evolution following the onset of strike slip, E San Francisco Bay area, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Buising, A.V. )

    1992-01-01

    Mid- to Upper Miocene continental (Orinda and Mulholland Fms.) and shallow marine (Neroly Fm.) strata in the Upper San Leandro Reservoir watershed (SLR) area east of San Francisco Bay preserve important information on structural and landscape evolution during the early phases of strike slip along the Pacific-North American plate boundary. The SLR area lies between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults, major strands of the San Andreas Fault system, and is bisected by the NW-striking Cull Creek Fault (CCF). Geologic mapping delineates five completely intercalated lithofacies in the Mulholland Fm. at SLR. The conglomerate-dominated, sandstone-dominated, and interbedded conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone facies represent fluvial channel and floodplain deposits; the sandstone + mudstone facies represent lacustrine-deltaic and shallow lacustrine deposits; the shale facies records open lacustrine deposition. Sparse unidirectional paleocurrent indicators show southerly and easterly transport west of the CCF and both westerly and easterly transport east of the CCF. Conglomerate-rich and sand-rich facies tracts are juxtaposed along the CCF. Clast assemblages in Mulholland conglomerates include abundant chart, graywacke, blueschist, and vein quartz, suggesting derivation from a Franciscan-dominated source terrane. Clast assemblages in the gradationally underlying and interfingering Neroly Fm. suggest that it shared the same source terrane; this is atypical for the primarily andesitic (Sierra-derived) Neroly. Fluvial deposits are volumetrically dominant in the Mulholland Fm. at SLR; open-lacustrine shales occur in stratigraphically isolated lenses ranging from > 1 km to < 100 m along strike. This suggests numerous small lakes on a broad drainage plain rather than the single large lake envisioned by previous workers.

  16. Dynamic characteristics of a coastal area of lateral spreading using ambient noise time series - Anchor Bay, Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Farrugia, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Anchor Bay and surrounding regions are located on the northwest coast of the island of Malta, Central Mediterranean. The area is characterized by a coastal cliff environment having an outcropping layer of hard coralline limestone (UCL) resting on a thick (up to 50m) layer of clays and marls (Blue Clay, BC). This configuration gives rise to a number of processes leading to coastal instability, in particular lateral spreading phenomena and rock falls. Previous and ongoing studies have identified both lateral spreading rates and vertical motions of up to 27mm per year (Mantovani et al, 2012). The area is an interesting natural laboratory as coastal detachment processes in a number of different stages can be identified and are easily accessible. We investigate the site dynamic characteristics of this study area by recording ambient noise time series (20 minutes long) at over 20 points, over an area of 0.07 km2, using a portable 3-component seismograph (Tromino ) The time series are processed to give both horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio graphs (HVSR) as well as frequency-dependent polarisation analysis as proposed by Burjanek (2011, 2012). The HVSR graphs illustrate and quantify aspects of site resonance effects due both to underlying geology as well as to mechanical resonance of partly or wholly detached boulders or blocks. The polarization diagrams indicate predominant directions of vibrational effects. Results from this study show an unambiguous distinction between the behavior of "stable" areas, away from the cliff edges, the region of the unstable cliff edge and the actual rockfall areas. Stable regions are characterized by a single and pronounced HVSR resonance peak at around 1.5Hz that are characteristic of all other areas in the Maltese islands having the same underlying geological sequence, while HVSR curves closer to the cliff edge show more complex responses at higher frequencies characteristic of the dynamic behavior of individual detached blocks

  17. An analysis of human-induced land transformations in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento area

    SciTech Connect

    Kirtland, D.; DeCola, L. ); Gaydos, L.; Acevedo, W. ); Clarke, K. . Dept. of Geology and Geography); Bell, C. )

    1994-06-01

    Part of the US Geological Survey's Global Change Research Program involves studying the area from the Pacific Ocean to the Sierra foothills to enhance understanding of the role that human activities play in global change. The study investigates the ways that humans transform the land and the effects that changing the landscape may have on regional and global systems. To accomplish this research, scientists are compiling records of historical transformations in the region's land cover over the last 140 years, developing a simulation model to predict land cover change, and assembling a digital data set to analyze and describe land transformations. The historical data regarding urban growth focus attention on the significant change the region underwent from 1850 to 1990. The historical change is being used to calibrate a prototype cellular automata model, developed to predict changes in urban land cover 100 years into the future. These data aid in documenting and understanding human-induced land transformations from both historical and predictive perspectives. A descriptive analysis of the region is used to investigate the relationships among data characteristic of the region. These data consist of multilayer topography, climate, vegetation, and population data for a 256-km[sup 2] region of central California. A variety of multivariate analysis tools are used to integrate the data in raster format from map contours, interpolated climate observations, satellite observations, and population estimates.

  18. Plastic litter in sediments from the Croatian marine protected area of the natural park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Blašković, Andrea; Fastelli, Paolo; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports baseline levels of litter (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments collected from different areas of the Croatian MPA of the Natural Park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea, GSA n. 17). The distribution of total abundance according to size, for all analysed locations evidences that microplastics are the dominant fraction concerning item's numbers. In all analysed samples no macroplastics were found, while microplastics are 88.71% and mesoplastics are 11.29% of the total.

  19. Galveston Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  20. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  1. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  2. Comparison Of Downscaled CMIP5 Precipitation Datasets For Projecting Changes In Extreme Precipitation In The San Francisco Bay Area.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milesi, Cristina; Costa-Cabral, Mariza; Rath, John; Mills, William; Roy, Sujoy; Thrasher, Bridget; Wang, Weile; Chiang, Felicia; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James

    2014-01-01

    Water resource managers planning for the adaptation to future events of extreme precipitation now have access to high resolution downscaled daily projections derived from statistical bias correction and constructed analogs. We also show that along the Pacific Coast the Northern Oscillation Index (NOI) is a reliable predictor of storm likelihood, and therefore a predictor of seasonal precipitation totals and likelihood of extremely intense precipitation. Such time series can be used to project intensity duration curves into the future or input into stormwater models. However, few climate projection studies have explored the impact of the type of downscaling method used on the range and uncertainty of predictions for local flood protection studies. Here we present a study of the future climate flood risk at NASA Ames Research Center, located in South Bay Area, by comparing the range of predictions in extreme precipitation events calculated from three sets of time series downscaled from CMIP5 data: 1) the Bias Correction Constructed Analogs method dataset downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid (12km); 2) the Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation method downscaled to a 1km grid; 3) a statistical model of extreme daily precipitation events and projected NOI from CMIP5 models. In addition, predicted years of extreme precipitation are used to estimate the risk of overtopping of the retention pond located on the site through simulations of the EPA SWMM hydrologic model. Preliminary results indicate that the intensity of extreme precipitation events is expected to increase and flood the NASA Ames retention pond. The results from these estimations will assist flood protection managers in planning for infrastructure adaptations.

  3. A Trial of the Efficacy and Cost of Water Delivery Systems in San Francisco Bay Area Middle Schools, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grummon, Anna H.; Hampton, Karla E.; Oliva, Ariana; McCulloch, Charles E.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction US legislation requires that schools offer free drinking water where meals are served. However, little information is available about what types of water delivery systems schools should install to meet such requirements. The study objective was to examine the efficacy and cost of 2 water delivery systems (water dispensers and bottleless water coolers) in increasing students’ lunchtime intake of water in low-income middle schools. Methods In 2013, twelve middle schools in the San Francisco Bay Area participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial in which they received 6 weeks of promotional activities, received provision of cups, and were assigned to 1 of 2 cafeteria water delivery systems: water dispensers or bottleless water coolers (or schools served as a control). Student surveys (n = 595) and observations examined the interventions’ effect on students’ beverage intake and staff surveys and public data assessed intervention cost. Results Analysis occurred from 2013 through 2015. Mixed-effects logistic regression, accounting for clustering and adjustment for student sociodemographic characteristics, demonstrated a significant increase in the odds of students drinking water in schools with promotion plus water dispensers and cups (adjusted odds ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–6.7; P = .004) compared with schools with traditional drinking fountains and no cups or promotion. The cost of dispenser and bottleless water cooler programs was similar ($0.04 per student per day). Conclusion Instead of relying on traditional drinking fountains, schools should consider installing water sources, such as plastic dispensers with cups, as a low-cost, effective means for increasing students’ water intake. PMID:27390074

  4. The Impacts of California's San Francisco Bay Area Gap on Precipitation Observed in the Sierra Nevada during Hmt and Calwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. B.; Neiman, P. J.; Creamean, J.; Coleman, T.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov) conducts research on the meteorological and microphysical processes contributing to orographically enhanced precipitation. Some of HMT's precipitation research has been focused on a shallow rainfall process driven by collision-coalescence that often is undetected by the National Weather Service's operational scanning radar network, especially in the Western U.S., but that can produce rain rates that are capable of creating floods. Originally it was believed that this shallow rainfall process would occur more prevalently over the coastal mountain ranges than over the Sierra Nevada, since the higher mountains of the Sierra would force deeper atmospheric ascent and produce deeper precipitating cloud systems that extend well above the melting level. This notion was disproved when it was recently discovered that a site in the northern Sierra had nearly as large of a contribution to seasonal rainfall from this shallow rainfall process, on average, as did a habitually wet site in the coast range of Sonoma County north of San Francisco. This work examines this apparent paradox using observations collected during HMT and CalWater field campaigns. In particular, a case study from CalWater is used to highlight the interaction between a landfalling atmospheric river (AR) and the Sierra Barrier Jet (SBJ). The gap in coastal terrain associated with the San Francisco Bay area is shown to allow unprocessed, moisture-enhanced flow in the AR to reach the northern Sierra site, where the SBJ provides a lifting mechanism to create enhanced orographic precipitation as compared to a site in the southern Sierra, where AR-associated dynamics are weaker and AR flow is modified by upstream coastal terrain.

  5. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation.

  6. Detection of erosion events using 10Be profiles: example of the impact of agriculture on soil erosion in the Chesapeake Bay area (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valette-Silver, J. N.; Brown, L.; Pavich, M.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1986-01-01

    10Be concentration, total carbon and grain-size were measured in cores collected in undisturbed estuarine sediments of three tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. These cores were previously studied by Davis [1] and Brush [2,3] for pollen content, age and sedimentation rate. In this work, we compare the results obtained for these various analyses. In the cores, we observed two increases in 10Be concentration concomitant with two major changes in the pollen composition of the sediments. These two pollen changes each correspond to well-dated agricultural horizons reflecting different stages in the introduction of European farming techniques [2]. In the Chesapeake Bay area, the agricultural development, associated with forest clearing, appears to have triggered the erosion, transport, and sedimentation into the river mouths of large quantities of 10Be-rich soils. This phenomenon explains the observed rise in the sedimentation rate associated with increases in agricultural land-use. ?? 1986.

  7. Influence of bottom trawling on sediment resuspension in the `Grande-Vasière' area (Bay of Biscay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengual, Baptiste; Cayocca, Florence; Le Hir, Pierre; Draye, Robin; Laffargue, Pascal; Vincent, Benoit; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Sea trials were performed on two zones with different fishing efforts on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay (`Grande-Vasière' area of muddy sand) in order to assess particulate matter resuspension and seabed disturbances (i.e., penetration, reworking, grain size changes) induced by different types of trawls. Optical and acoustic measurements made in the water column indicate a significant trawling-induced resuspension mainly due to the scraping action of doors. It manifests as a highly dynamic turbid plume confined near the seabed, where suspended sediment concentrations can reach 200 mg l-1. Concentration levels measured behind an "alternative" configuration (trawls with jumper doors instead of classical doors penetrating the sediment) are significantly lower (around 10-20 mg l-1), which indicates a potential limiting impact regarding the seabed. Grain size analyses of the surficial sediment led to highlight a potential reworking influence of bottom trawling. On the intensively trawled zone, this reworking manifests as an upward coarsening trend in the first 5 cm of the cores. A significant decrease in mud content (30 %) has been also witnessed on this zone between 1967 and 2014, which suggests an influence on the seabed evolution. The geometric analysis of bottom tracks (4-5-cm depth, 20-cm width) observed with a benthic video sledge was used to compute an experimental trawling-induced erosion rate of 0.13 kg m-2. This erosion rate was combined with fishing effort data, in order to estimate trawling-induced erosion fluxes which were then compared to natural erosion fluxes over the Grande-Vasière at monthly, seasonal and annual scales. Winter storms control the annual resuspended load and trawling contribution to annual resuspension is in the order of 1 %. However, results show that trawling resuspension can become dominant during the fishing high season (i.e., until several times the natural one in summer). In addition, the contribution of trawling

  8. Using twelve years of USGS refraction lines to calibrate the Brocher and others (1997) 3D velocity model of the Bay Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, John; Blair, Luke; Catchings, Rufus; Goldman, Mark; Perosi, Fabio; Steedman, Clare

    2004-01-01

    Campbell (1983) demonstrated that site amplification correlates with depths to the 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 km/s S-wave velocity horizons. To estimate these depths for the Bay Area stations in the PEER/NGA database, we compare the depths to the 3.2 and 4.4 km/s P-wave velocities in the Brocher and others (1997) 3D velocity model with the depths to these horizons determined from 6 refraction lines shot in the Bay Area from 1991 to 2003. These refraction lines range from two recent 20 km lines that extend from Los Gatos to downtown San Jose, and from downtown San Jose into Alum Rock Park, to two older 200 km lines than run axially from Hollister up the San Francisco Peninsula to Inverness and from Hollister up the East Bay across San Pablo Bay to Santa Rosa. Comparison of these cross-sections with the Brocher and others (1997) model indicates that the 1.5 km/s S-wave horizon, which we correlate with the 3.2 km/s P-wave horizon, is the most reliable horizon that can be extracted from the Brocher and others (1997) velocity model. We determine simple adjustments to bring the Brocher and others (1997) 3.2 and 4.4 km/s P-wave horizons into an average agreement with the refraction results. Then we apply these adjustments to estimate depths to the 1.5 and 2.5 km/s S-wave horizons beneath the strong motion stations in the PEER/NGA database.

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Recovered from Recreational and Commercial Areas of Chesapeake Bay and Maryland Coastal Bays

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Kristi S.; Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E.; He, Xin; Jacobs, John M.; Crump, Byron C.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    susceptibility data of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus recovered from the Chesapeake Bay. These data can serve as a baseline against which future studies can be compared to evaluate whether susceptibilities change over time. PMID:24586914

  10. Water-quality characteristics of urban runoff and estimates of annual loads in the Tampa Bay area, Florida, 1975-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, M.A.; Giovannelli, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Rainfall, runoff, and water quality data were collected at nine urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area from 1975 to 1980. Watershed drainage area ranged from 0.34 to 0.45 sq mi. Land use was mixed. Development ranged from a mostly residential watershed with a 19% impervious surface, to a commercial-residential watershed with a 61% impervious surface. Average biochemical oxygen demand concentrations of base flow at two sites and of stormwater runoff at five sites exceeded treated sewage effluent standards. Average coliform concentrations of stormwater runoff at all sites were several orders of magnitude greater than standards for Florida Class III receiving water (for recreation or propagation and management of fish and wildlife). Average concentrations of lead and zinc in stormwater runoff were consistently higher than Class III standards. Stormwater-runoff loads and base-flow concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, and lead were related to runoff volume, land use, urban development, and antecedent daily rainfall by multiple linear regression. Stormwater-runoff volume was related to pervious area, hydraulically connected impervious surfaces, storm rainfall, and soil-infiltration index. Base-flow daily discharge was related to drainage area and antecedent daily rainfall. The flow regression equations of this report were used to compute 1979 water-year loads of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total organic nitrogen, total phosphorus , and total lead for the nine Tampa Bay area urban watersheds. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Self-efficacy, social support and service integration at medical cannabis facilities in the San Francisco Bay area of California.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Amanda E

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to examine and possibly utilise the community-based, bottom-up service design of medical cannabis facilities in the San Francisco Bay area of California, 130 adults who had received medical cannabis recommendations from a physician were surveyed at seven facilities to describe the social service aspects of these unique, community-based programmes. This study used an unselected consecutive sample and cross-sectional survey design that included primary data collection at the medical cannabis facilities themselves. In this exploratory study, individual level data were collected on patient demographics and reported patient satisfaction as gathered by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire III. Surveys were filled out on site. In the case of a refusal, the next person was asked. The refusal rate varied depending on the study site and ranged between 25% and 60%, depending on the facility and the day of sampling. Organisational-level data, such as operating characteristics and products offered, created a backdrop for further examination into the social services offered by these facilities and the attempts made by this largely unregulated healthcare system to create a community-based environment of social support for chronically ill people. Informal assessment suggests that chronic pain is the most common malady for which medical cannabis is used. Descriptive statistics were generated to examine sample- and site-related differences. Results show that medical cannabis patients have created a system of dispensing medical cannabis that also includes services such as counselling, entertainment and support groups - all important components of coping with chronic illness. Furthermore, patients tend to be male, over 35, identify with more than one ethnicity, and earn less than US$20 000 annually. Levels of satisfaction with facility care were fairly high, and higher than nationally reported satisfaction with health care in the USA. Facilities tended to follow a

  12. Particulate Matter 2.5 and Black Carbon concentrations in underground San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A.; Williams, N.; Quartey, R.; Quintana, M.; Bell, B.; Biswas, N.; Hunter, S.; Marks-Block, T.; Yu, X.

    2013-12-01

    A previous Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 study within Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train stations found that concentrations of PM 2.5 at San Francisco's (SF) Embarcadero station were significantly high relative to within the rail system. To follow up on that study, PM 2.5 data was collected within other underground BART stations and the streets surrounding them using the DustTrak Aerosol monitor that measures concentrations every second. In addition, black carbon (BC) data was collected using a microAeth aerosol monitor that also measures concentrations every minute. During each day that measurements were made along three different train routes originating from West Oakland BART station: 1) toward the San Francisco Civic Center station: en route to the Lake Merritt station in Oakland; and toward the Downtown Berkeley station. All of these stations are located underground, and at each one the DustTrak instrument was taken from the train to the ticket level, and on each route data was collected outside of the stations. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were recorded only on the San Francisco route. The highest PM 2.5 concentrations were recorded at SF underground stations, particularly at Embarcadero where concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m3 at train level. These values were much greater than those obtained outside the station, which ranged between 10-20 μg/m3. Other stations along the route to Civic Center had values ranging from 30-64 μg/m3, higher than stations along the route to the Downtown Berkeley station (17-42 μg/m3 ) and the Lake Merritt station (10-38 μg/m3). PM concentrations outside of stations were lower, ranging from 14-33 μg/m3 and 8-27 μg/m3 outside 12th Street Oakland City Center and Lake Merritt stations respectively. Additionally, PM concentration was directly related to depth at all stations. For example, one day at Embarcadero the highest concentrations from train to middle to top level were 119, 84, and 59 μg/m3 respectively. We believe the

  13. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  14. Biological responses of the american oyster 'Crassostrea virginica' (gmelin) to thermal effluent in the Chesapeake-Delaware Bay area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsman, J.C.; Maurer, D.; Pennachi, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a 1979 study of various aspects of the life history of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the effects of temperature-salinity interactions in the mid-Atlantic region. The study was intended to provide input to power plant siting decisions in the Chesapeake Bay area. Eighteen collections of planted oysters were made from effluent and control stations of two power plant sites in the mid-Atlantic region. Oyster mortalities were related to physical extremes at both sites, but were higher at PEPCO. Shell growth was evident at DPL, but not at PEPCO.

  15. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S...′41.6″ 97°15′33.3″ thence to a point on shore at latitude 27°40′44.9″ N.; thence along the shore...

  16. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S...′41.6″ 97°15′33.3″ thence to a point on shore at latitude 27°40′44.9″ N.; thence along the shore...

  17. Flood-prone areas and land-use planning; selected examples from the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waananen, Arvi O.; Limerinos, J.T.; Kockelman, W.J.; Spangle, W.E.; Blair, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The common goal of flood-plain regulation and use is protecting life, minimizing public expenditures, and reducing flood loss. A comprehensive program combining structural and nonstructural measures can yield substantial benefits and may present a practical approach for managing a flood plain. A review of flood-plain planning, management, and regulation in the San Francisco Bay region, Calif., as shown by a study of Napa County , demonstrates complex multijurisdictional involvements. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. The geological record of prehistorical tsunami at a coastal area of Beppu Bay in eastern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Fujino, S.; Chiba, T.; Shinozaki, T.; Okuwaki, R.; Takeda, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunamis are typically generated by plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones, but also vertical displacement associated with intraplate earthquakes. Historical written records documented that coasts of Beppu Bay, eastern Kyushu, Japan was devastated by a tsunami associated with the AD 1596 Keicho-Bungo earthquake (M7.0). It is considered that the earthquake occurred at submarine active faults in the bay. The aim of this study is to unravel the occurrence age and source of tsunamis that struck the coast of the bay in prehistorical ages. This study may also make a contribution to the understanding of tsunami-generating system at submarine active faults. We conducted a coring survey at paddy fields along the north coast of the bay. The 10 cm thick muddy sand layer with a few granules (hereinafter, sand layer), bounded by sharp contacts, was evident in the 1.7 m long sediment core taken at 700 m from the shoreline. Plant materials obtained from mud above the sand layer was dated to 1880-2000 cal. yr BP. Sharp contacts between sand and surrounding muds imply that the sand layer is formed by a sudden event. Existence of mud clast in the sand layer indicates erosion of surface mud. There were no brackish-marine diatoms in surrounding mud, but they accounted for 5-6% of the total within the sand layer, indicating that the sand grains were sourced at least in part from brackish-marine environment. Mean grain size/sorting of the sand layer and beach sand were 2.31/0.94 and 2.03/0.41 phi. The difference in sorting probably suggests that the sand layer partly contains the onshore sediments eroded in inundation process. Additional coring surveys would clarify the distribution of prehistorical tsunami deposits and source of past tsunamis.

  19. Principal facts for gravity data along the Hayward fault and vicinity, San Francisco Bay area, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established over 940 gravity stations along the Hayward fault and vicinity. The Hayward fault, regarded as one of the most hazardous faults in northern California (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999), extends for about 90 km from Fremont in the southeast to San Pablo Bay in the northwest. The Hayward fault is predominantly a right-lateral strike-slip fault that forms the western boundary of the East Bay Hills. These data and associated physical property measurement were collected as part of on-going studies to help determine the earthquake hazard potential of major faults within the San Francisco Bay region. Gravity data were collected between latitude 37°30' and 38°15' N and longitude 121°45' and 122°30' W. Gravity stations were located on the following 7.5 minute quadrangles: Newark, Niles, San Leandro, Hayward, Dublin, Oakland West, Oakland East, Las Trampas Ridge, Diablo, Richmond, Briones Valley, Walnut Creek, and Clayton. All data were ultimately tied to primary gravity base station Menlo Park A, located on the campus of the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif. (latitude 37°27.34' N, longitude 122°10.18' W, observed gravity value 979944.27 mGal).

  20. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  1. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  2. Risk assessment of butyltins based on a fugacity-based food web bioaccumulation model in the Jincheng Bay mariculture area: II. Risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanbing; Song, Xiukai; Gong, Xianghong; Xu, Yingjiang; Liu, Huihui; Deng, Xuxiu; Ru, Shaoguo

    2014-08-01

    A fugacity-based food web bioaccumulation model was constructed, and the biotic concentrations of butyltins in the food web of the Jincheng Bay mariculture area were estimated accordingly, using the water and sediment concentrations described in the accompanying paper (Part I). This paper presents an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA) of the butyltins, based on the estimated tissue residues in the marine life in this area. The results showed that the ecological risk probability was greater than 0.05. At this level, management control is critical since sensitive marine species would be profoundly endangered by butyltin contamination. Few if any detrimental effects, however, would be generated for humans from exposure to butyltins through seafood consumption. The fugacity-based model can refine the ERA and HHRA of pollutants in marine areas, provide a basis for protecting marine ecology and the security of fishery products, and thus help determine the feasibility of a proposed aquaculture project.

  3. Near-Surface Structure of the Peninsula Segment of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, C.; Catchings, R.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Grove, K.; Prentice, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The peninsula segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) is a section of the fault that has the potential to produce the next large earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, yet the slip history of the peninsula segment is relatively unknown. In most places, the surface location of the SAF has been determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features and from mapping surface ruptures associated with the 1906 M7.9 San Francisco earthquake. To more precisely locate traces of the SAF along the San Francisco peninsula in the subsurface, we acquired a high-resolution seismic imaging survey, using both seismic refraction and reflection profiling, south of Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir near Woodside, California in June 2012. We acquired coincident P- and S-wave data using a 60-channel seismograph system connected via cable to 40-Hz vertical-component and 4-Hz horizontal-component geophones, with spacing at 1-m intervals along a 60-m-long transect across the SAF. Seismic sources (shots) were generated by hammer impacts on a steel plate or aluminum block at each geophone location. All shots were recorded on all channels. This survey design permitted simultaneous acquisition of reflection and refraction data such that both refraction tomography and reflection images were developed. Analysis of the P- and S-wave data, using refraction tomography, shows abrupt variations in the P-wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs) velocities, including the 1,500 m/s velocity contour that outlines the top to groundwater and images of Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. P-wave velocities range from about 700 m/s at the surface to more than 4000 m/s at 20-m depth. S-wave velocities range from about 300 m/s at the surface to about 800 m/s at 20-m depth. The combined data indicate that the near-surface trace of the SAF dips steeply to the southwest in the upper few tens of meters. Variations in the velocity images also suggest the possibility of two additional near-surface fault traces within about 25 m of the

  4. Application of year-round atmospheric transmission data, collected with the MSRT multiband transmissometer during the FATMOSE trial in the False Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Cohen, Leo H.; Fritz, Peter J.; Gunter, Willem H.; Vrahimis, George; October, Faith J.

    2011-09-01

    The FATMOSE trial (False Bay Atmospheric Experiment) is a continuation of the cooperative work between TNO and IMT on atmospheric propagation and point target detection and identification in a maritime environment, South Africa). The atmospheric transmission, being of major importance for target detection, was measured with the MSRT multiband optical/IR transmissometer over a path of 15.7 km over sea. Simultaneously a set of instruments was installed on a midpath lighthouse for collection of local meteorological data, including turbulence, scintillation, sea surface temperature and visibility. The multiband transmission data allow the retrieval of the size distribution (PSD) of the particles (aerosols) in the transmission path. The retrieved PSD's can be correlated with the weather data such as windspeed, wind direction, relative humidity and visibility. This knowledge will lead to better atmospheric propagation models. The measurement period covered nearly a full year, starting in November 2009 and ending in October 2010. The False Bay site is ideal for studies on propagation effects over sea because of the large variety of weather conditions, including high windspeed, expected from the South East with maritime air masses, as well as Northerly winds, expected to bring warm and dry air from the continent. From an operational point of view the False Bay area is interesting, being representative for the scenery around the African coast with warships in an active protecting role in the battle against piracy. The yearround transmission data are an important input for range performance calculations of electro-optical sensors against maritime targets. The data support the choice of the proper spectral band and contain statistical information about the detection ranges to be expected. In this paper details on the instrumentation will be explained as well as the methods of calibration and PSD retrieval. Data are presented for various weather conditions, showing

  5. Enrichment of hexabromocyclododecanes in coastal sediments near aquaculture areas and a wastewater treatment plant in a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-02-01

    The contamination status and potential sources of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the coastal environment were investigated using sediment samples from a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea. HBCDs displayed a very different distribution profile compared to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and nonylphenol, indicating different emission sources inside the bay. A strong enrichment of HBCDs was found near aquaculture areas that used expanded polystyrene (EPS) buoys, which were confirmed to be the main source of HBCDs following an analysis of buoys collected from a market and the coast. EPS buoys contained large amounts of HBCDs, with lower levels in the outside layer than inside, implying the leaching of HBCDs from the surface throughout their lifetime. This was reflected in the high levels of HBCDs measured in coastal sediments near aquaculture farms. A wastewater treatment plant was found to be an additional source of HBCDs. A dated core sample revealed an increase in HBCD concentrations over time. The isomeric profiles for most of the surface and core sediment samples were dominated by the γ-diastereoisomer.

  6. Sedimentary records of recent anthropogenic eutrophication and metal contamination in Zhelin Bay, an important mariculture area in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Xin; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Feng, Jie

    2017-01-30

    Dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts), biogenic elements and metals were analyzed from sediment cores collected from Zhelin Bay of the South China Sea in December 2008 to understand the environmental changes over the past 50years. Dinocyst concentrations ranged from 0cysts/g to 770cysts/g, and they were dominated by heterotrophic taxa. There was a clear increase trend upcore for biogenic elements, except for biogenic silica. Metals originated from both the lithogenic source and human activities, and significantly increased after 1985-1995. Environmental changes in the past 50years can be divided into three stages: (1) before 1985, during which biogenic elements, cyst flux and metals were low; (2) from 1985 to the early 2000s, characterized by an obvious increase of dinocysts, TOC, TN and most metals, while TOC/TN and BSi decreased; and (3) after 2000, the period of rapid increase of dinocysts, TOC and TN but decrease of certain contamination metals.

  7. Monitoring of coastal areas using radar altimetry data: examples along the southwest of the Bay of Biscay coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappart, Frédéric; Marieu, Vincent; Spodar, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Paul; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Sottolichio, Aldo

    2015-04-01

    Satellite radar altimetry was developed to accurately measure ocean surface topography. Important effort in the development of new applications of altimetry is oriented towards extending the capabilities of current and future altimeters as close as possible to the coast. We present two examples located along the southwest French Atlantic coast: i) the determination of the shapes of river cross sections and changes in slope related to tide intensity in the Gironde Estuary, ii) the potential of radar altimetry for the monitoring of sea level and along-track topography at low-tide in the Arcachon Bay. In both cases, the results obtained using ENVISAT (2002-2012) and SARAL (since February 2013) are validated against ancillary data (i.e., tide gauges records, LIDAR topography) and show the evolution of the performances from Ku to Ka-bands.

  8. 33 CFR 334.778 - Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., FL; restricted area. (a) The area: Beginning at a point on the northerly shoreline of Grande (Big....; thence, maintaining a minimum distance of 500 feet offshore for the remainder of the area to: PT...

  9. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  10. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species.

  11. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Khalakdina, Asheena; Vugia, Duc J; Nadle, Joelle; Rothrock, Gretchen A; Colford, John M

    2003-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne). There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26) and controls (n = 62) were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults) sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]). Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other. PMID:12689343

  12. Land-Cover and Imperviousness Data for Regional Areas near Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin - 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcone, James A.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the processing and results of land-cover and impervious surface derivation for parts of three metropolitan areas being studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE). The data were derived primarily from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery from the period 1999-2002, and are provided as 30-meter resolution raster datasets. Data were produced to a standard consistent with data being produced as part of the USGS National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Program, and were derived in cooperation with, and assistance from, NLCD01 personnel. The data were intended as surrogates for NLCD01 data because of the EUSE Program's time-critical need for updated land-cover for parts of the United States that would not be available in time from the NLCD01 Program. Six datasets are described in this report: separate land-cover (15-class categorical data) and imperviousness (0-100 percent continuous data) raster datasets for parts of the general Denver, Colorado area (South Platte River Basin), Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas area (Trinity River Basin), and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin area (Western Lake Michigan Drainages).

  13. Mississippi-Louisiana Estuarine Area Study: Salinity and Circulation at and Near Bay Boudreau in Biloxi Marshes Eastern Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Bay Boudreau Plot of SALN4O6O*ATE. Legend: A a I obs, 5 2 abs, etc. 30+ A BA IANS A Ab At 20. AAM BC Be B A AAA A ACCA I B A A SALN4O66 I AA A BA A...Lake River R**2 Wt Pontchartrain R**2 wt Weights for Station 4 PO 0.60 0.24 LPO 0.48 0.19 P1 0.91 0.36 LPI 0.90 0.36 P2 0.56 0.22 LP2 0.59 0.23 P3 0.32...0.13 LP3 0.38 0.15 P4 0.10 0.04 LP4 0.17 0.07 Weights for Stations 5 and 8 PO 0.41 0.22 LPO 0.33 0.17 P1 0.70 0.37 LPI 0.75 0.40 P2 0.48 0.25 LP2 0.47

  14. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... explosives. In general, these explosives will be of an air-burst type, above 1,500 feet. (iii) A circular... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla....

  15. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... explosives. In general, these explosives will be of an air-burst type, above 1,500 feet. (iii) A circular... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla....

  16. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... explosives. In general, these explosives will be of an air-burst type, above 1,500 feet. (iii) A circular... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla....

  17. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... explosives. In general, these explosives will be of an air-burst type, above 1,500 feet. (iii) A circular... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla....

  18. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a circle with a radius of 92 miles centered at latitude 24°35′00″, longitude 81°41′15″ to latitude... areas. (i) A circular area immediately west of Marquesas Keys with a radius of two nautical miles having... rocket exercises. (ii) A circular area located directly west of Marquesas Keys with a radius of...

  19. A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Global Higher Education Hub Could Advance California's Comparative Advantage in Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John; Edelstein, Richard; Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students…

  20. A STUDY OF THE RE-EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCES OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS LAID OFF FROM 62 AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONICS FIRMS IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA DURING 1963-65. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOOMBA, R.P.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS (1) TO ANALYZE SELECTED ASPECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCES OF 1,184 ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS WHO WERE PERMANENTLY LAID OFF BY 62 DEFENSE-ORIENTED AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONICS COMPANIES DURING AN 18-MONTH PERIOD ENDING MARCH 31, 1965, AND (2) TO DESCRIBE THE MAGNITUDE OF THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA'S…

  1. An integrated approach for identifying priority contaminant in the Great Lakes Basin - Investigations in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River and Milwaukee Estuary areas of concern.

    PubMed

    Li, Shibin; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Berninger, Jason P; Blackwell, Brett R; Cavallin, Jenna E; Hughes, Megan N; Jensen, Kathleen M; Jorgenson, Zachary; Kahl, Michael D; Schroeder, Anthony L; Stevens, Kyle E; Thomas, Linnea M; Weberg, Matthew A; Ankley, Gerald T

    2017-02-01

    Environmental assessment of complex mixtures typically requires integration of chemical and biological measurements. This study demonstrates the use of a combination of instrumental chemical analyses, effects-based monitoring, and bio-effects prediction approaches to help identify potential hazards and priority contaminants in two Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs), the Lower Green Bay/Fox River located near Green Bay, WI, USA and the Milwaukee Estuary, located near Milwaukee, WI, USA. Fathead minnows were caged at four sites within each AOC (eight sites total). Following 4d of in situ exposure, tissues and biofluids were sampled and used for targeted biological effects analyses. Additionally, 4d composite water samples were collected concurrently at each caged fish site and analyzed for 132 analytes as well as evaluated for total estrogenic and androgenic activity using cell-based bioassays. Of the analytes examined, 75 were detected in composite samples from at least one site. Based on multiple analyses, one site in the East River and another site near a paper mill discharge in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River AOC, were prioritized due to their estrogenic and androgenic activity, respectively. The water samples from other sites generally did not exhibit significant estrogenic or androgenic activity, nor was there evidence for endocrine disruption in the fish exposed at these sites as indicated by the lack of alterations in ex vivo steroid production, circulating steroid concentrations, or vitellogenin mRNA expression in males. Induction of hepatic cyp1a mRNA expression was detected at several sites, suggesting the presence of chemicals that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. To expand the scope beyond targeted investigation of endpoints selected a priori, several bio-effects prediction approaches were employed to identify other potentially disturbed biological pathways and related chemical constituents that may warrant future monitoring at these sites. For

  2. Total petroleum systems of the Bonaparte Gulf Basin area, Australia; Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic; Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian; Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province (USGS #3910) of northern Australia contains three important hydrocarbon source-rock intervals. The oldest source-rock interval and associated reservoir rocks is the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system. This petroleum system is located at the southern end of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and includes both onshore and offshore areas within a northwest to southeast trending Paleozoic rift that was initiated in the Devonian. The Milligans Formation is a Carboniferous marine shale that sources accumulations of both oil and gas in Carboniferous and Permian deltaic, marine shelf carbonate, and shallow to deep marine sandstones. The second petroleum system in the Paleozoic rift is the Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian. Source rocks include Lower Permian Keyling Formation delta-plain coals and marginal marine shales combined with Upper Permian Hyland Bay Formation prodelta shales. These source-rock intervals provide gas and condensate for fluvial, deltaic, and shallow marine sandstone reservoirs primarily within several members of the Hyland Bay Formation. The Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian petroleum system is located in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, north of the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system, and may extend northwest under the Vulcan graben sub-basin. The third and youngest petroleum system is the Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic system that is located seaward of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf on the Australian continental shelf, and trends southwest-northeast. Source-rock intervals in the Vulcan graben sub-basin include deltaic mudstones of the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation and organic-rich marine shales of the Upper Jurassic Vulcan Formation and Lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals Formation. These intervals produce gas, oil, and condensate that accumulates in, shallow- to deep-marine sandstone reservoirs of the Challis and Vulcan Formations of Jurassic to Cretaceous age. Organic-rich, marginal marine claystones and coals of the

  3. Use of estuarine water column tests for detecting toxic conditions in ambient areas of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Ziegenfuss, M.C.; Anderson, R.D.; Killen, W.D. Jr. )

    1995-02-01

    Various estuarine water column toxicity tests were conducted twice in nine different ambient stations in the Chesapeake Bay watershed over a 2-year period (1991 to 1993) to determine if toxic conditions existed. The following 8-d toxicity tests were conducted: larval sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) survival and growth test; larval grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) survival and growth test; and a copepod (Eurytemora affinis) life-cycle test. During the second year of testing, two 48-h coot clam (Mulinia lateralis) tests were conducted at each station during each testing period. In 1991, the toxicity tests were conducted twice at stations in the Potomac River at Morgantown and Dahlgren, and in the Patapsco River and the Wye River at the Manor House. All of the above tests were conducted during the fall of 1992 and spring of 1993 at two stations in the Wye River, Nanticoke River, and Middle River. Inorganic contaminants, organic contaminants, and water-quality conditions were measured concurrently during the toxicity testing of ambient water. In 1991, reduced growth of sheepshead minnow larvae was reported at both Potomac River stations during the first test. Significant mortality of either the copepod or sheepshead minnow larvae was also reported at the Wye River during both tests. Results from the 1992/93 testing generally showed minimal effects for three of the test species at all stations. Reduced normal shell development was reported for the coot clam at both Middle River stations during the fall and spring tests concurrently with concentrations of various trace metals that exceeded chronic marine water-quality criteria.

  4. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  5. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  6. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  7. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  8. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area, Norfolk, Virginia. (a) The area. (1) The waters within an area beginning at latitude 36°55′55″ N, longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W;...

  9. Extreme Precipitation in the San Francisco Bay Area: Comparing Downscaling Methodologies' Skill in Representing Extreme Precipitation in Hindcasts and Differences in Their Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, F.; Milesi, C.; Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Rath, J.; Wang, W.; Podolske, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the growing availability of high-resolution datasets of spatially downscaled CMIP5 projections, few studies have explored the differences in extreme precipitation events that stem from the choice of downscaling method, or from the specific climatological datasets that are used for the bias correction and spatial disaggregation. Here we take three different statistically downscaled methods applied to CMIP5 global climate models and analyze their extreme precipitation events, hindcasted and projected, for the location of NASA Ames Research Center, in South San Francisco Bay. The downscaling methods analyzed are: i) Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD), ii) Bias Correction Constructed Analogs (BCCA), and iii) Extreme-value model based on synoptic climate predictors. We fit a generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) to datasets i and ii and use statistical tests to determine the significance of differences in the fitted GEV parameters. We explore the implications of the GEV parameter differences by comparing the daily precipitation values corresponding to 100-year, 500-year and 1,000-year return periods in the three datasets. The implications of how extreme daily values are assumed to change with spatial scale, from the gage location (a point location), to a small grid cell (1 km) or a larger grid cell (12 km), are explored. From our preliminary results, BCCA and BCSD projections predict that extreme precipitation events will be on the rise, and may have the potential to cause flooding at NASA Ames, and in the surrounding Bay Area. These downscaling methods can be studied in further detail in different regions of the contiguous US, and be used by local water resource management agencies in planning infrastructural adaptations.

  10. Paleoseismic and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Central Coastal of Ecuador: Insights from Quaternary Geological Data for the Jaramijó bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunga, K.; Maurizio, M.; Garces, D.; Quiñonez, M. F.; Peña, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Late Holocene sequences of loose to weakly consolidated sand and clay sediments intercalated with volcanic-ash layers (particles transported by fall-out), are outcrops on a sea cliff in the Jaramijó bay area (situated 7 km away in the East direction from Manta city, Manabí, at the middle section of Ecuador's Pacific coastline). The main geomorphologic feature in the site is the wave-cut beach platform permanently exposed at the lowest tides and an 18 m-high coastal cliff retreat with an estimated rate of ca. 2.5 meter/year (Chunga, 2014). One of the most remarkable geoarchaeological evidences found in this outcrop, it is the remains of two large bones (ie., radius and radial) of the human forearm of ca. 800 years ago (with archaeological vestiges of the Manteña culture) covered by a 8 to 25 cm-thick volcanic ash layer, stratigraphically at the top, an erosive contact with chaotic deposition of medium to fine-grained sand which indicates a potential tsunami deposit. Moreover, several volcanic ash and lahar layers are well distinguished on the sea cliff, which are associated with pyroclastic products transported as lahars from the Quilotoa and Cotopaxi, Pululahua volcanic structures (northern Andes in Ecuador) situated at a distance between of 150-190 kilometers (Mothes and Hall, 2008; Usselman, 2006). It is not excluded that previous pre-Columbian cultures also have been displaced in the last 2,000 years by disastrous geological events such as subduction earthquakes, local tsunami and volcanic lahar-ash deposits. All of these stratigraphic and palaeoseismologic features will allow us to understand the catastrophic geological events that abruptly shaped the landscape, furthermore, to investigate the changes of moderate to high Late Holocene progradation rates of the Jaramijó bay coastline.

  11. Stone Age settlement and Holocene water level changes of the Baltic Sea in the Torvajoe Basin area, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, NE Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raig, Hanna; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Risberg, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Tõrvajõe basin is located in NE Estonia in the southern part of the Narva-Luga Klint Bay, that is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 0-1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Post-glacial changes of the water-level of the Baltic Sea have at times flooded the area, and at times, it has emerged as terrestrial land. In addition to a complex geological development, the surroundings of the Tõrvajõe basin are interesting from the archaeological point of view because of abundant archaeological findings in the area, of which the oldest (c 8.1 cal ka BP) from the Mesolithic period and the majority, indicating very intense habitation (c 7.1-5.5 cal ka BP), from the Neolithic period. Development of the Tőrvajőe basin area during the period of Stone Age settlement (c 8.1-5.5 cal. ka BP) is studied with multiple geological and archaeological proxies. Sediments are described by lithostratigraphical methods, loss-on-ignition. AMS radiocarbon dates are used to date events and create an age-depth model. Environment is described by pollen analyses and water environment by siliceous microfossil analyses. Palaeogeographical reconstructions for time slices of interest are created to illustrate Stone Age settlement pattern and changes of the coastline and landscape over time. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to investigate and associate palaeoenvironmental conditions and water-level changes with Stone Age settlement pattern in the Tőrvajőe area. Results show four developmental stages in the post-glacial history of the basin: Ancylus Lake lagoon, mire, lagoon during the Litorina Sea and mire. During the Ancylus Lake transgression at about 10.8-10.2 cal. ka BP a spit started to form north of the basin and a lagoon evolved behind it. Following the Ancylus Lake regression river activity and formation of palaeosoil and fen peat took place. Due to the Litorina Sea transgression, that was initially slower but accelerated around 7.8-7.6 cal ka

  12. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  13. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  18. Multi-molecular markers and metals as tracers of organic matter inputs and contamination status from an Environmental Protection Area in the SW Atlantic (Laranjeiras Bay, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Bícego, Marcia C; Figueira, Rubens C L; Angelli, José Lourenço F; Combi, Tatiane; Gallice, Wellington C; Mansur, Andressa V; Nardes, Emanoela; Rocha, Marília L; Wisnieski, Edna; Ceschim, Liziane M M; Ribeiro, Andreza P

    2012-02-15

    The sources and concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), faecal and biogenic sterols, and trace metals at 10 sampling sites located in Laranjeiras Bay, a large Environmental Protection Area in the southern Atlantic region of Brazil, were determined to assess the sources of organic matter and the contamination status of estuarine sediments. Organic compounds were determined by GC-FID and GC-MS, and ICP-OES was used to evaluate trace metals. The total AHs concentration ranged from 0.28 to 8.19 μg g(-1), and n-C(29) and n-C(31) alkanes were predominant, indicating significant inputs from higher terrestrial plants. Unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) were not detected at any site, suggesting that the study area was not significantly contaminated by fossil fuels. The total PAH concentration varied from 3.85 to 89.2 ng g(-1). The ratio between selected PAH isomers showed that combustion of biomass, coal, and petroleum is the main source of PAHs in the study area. The concentrations of the faecal sterols coprostanol and epicoprostanol were below the detection limits, suggesting that sewage was not a significant contributor to sedimentary organic matter. The concentrations of the trace metals (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were low, except near sites located at the mouths of rivers that discharge into the study area and near urbanised regions (Paranaguá city and the adjoining harbour). In general, the concentrations of PAHs were below the threshold effect concentrations (TEL) levels. Although the As, Cr and Ni concentrations were above the TEL levels, the study area can be considered as preserved from human activities.

  19. Results of 1985 Bureau of Mines investigations in the Johns Hopkins Inlet-Margerie Glacier area, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtak, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the mineral investigations of specific sites in the Johns Hopkins-Margerie Glacier area. Approximately 17 square miles were mapped, and over 99 rock and placer samples were collected in an effort to determine possible extensions of known mineralization. Several rock samples contained anomalous copper and gold values, and anomalous gold was detected in several placer samples. The area has been found to contain copper, zinc, molybdenum, and gold.

  20. Risk assessment of butyltins based on a fugacity-based food web bioaccumulation model in the Jincheng Bay mariculture area: I. Model development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanbing; Gong, Xianghong; Xu, Yingjiang; Song, Xiukai; Liu, Huihui; Deng, Xuxiu; Ru, Shaoguo

    2014-08-01

    A fugacity-based model was developed to simulate the bioaccumulation of butyltins in the food web of the Jincheng Bay mariculture area. The predicted biological tissue residues of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) were 0.04-17.09, 0.14-53.54, and 0.27-108.77 ng-Sn g(-1), respectively, and the predicted values in six mollusca agreed well with the measured ones. The lipid-normalized concentrations did not significantly increase across trophic levels, indicating no biomagnification across aquatic food webs. These results were highly consistent with those observed both in the laboratory and field, which had been reported in numerous references. The explanation, from calculating their flux equilibrium in the food web, was that butyltins were primarily taken in via respiration from the water column by marine organisms. The sensitivities of the model parameters were analyzed, revealing that the hydrophobicity of butyltins played the dominant role in their bioaccumulation phenomena. The verified model predictions of the biotic tissue concentrations of the butyltins could be readily applied to perform internal ecological risk and human health risk assessments in this area.

  1. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10−6) and lower than priority risk levels (10−4) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4). PMID:27669274

  2. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  3. Effect of sample area and sieve size on benthic macrofaunal community condition assessments in California enclosed bays and estuaries.

    PubMed

    Hammerstrom, Kamille K; Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Weisberg, Stephen B; Oliver, John S; Fairey, W Russell; Slattery, Peter N; Oakden, James M

    2012-10-01

    Benthic macrofauna are used extensively for environmental assessment, but the area sampled and sieve sizes used to capture animals often differ among studies. Here, we sampled 80 sites using 3 different sized sampling areas (0.1, 0.05, 0.0071 m(2)) and sieved those sediments through each of 2 screen sizes (0.5, 1 mm) to evaluate their effect on number of individuals, number of species, dominance, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination, and benthic community condition indices that are used to assess sediment quality in California. Sample area had little effect on abundance but substantially affected numbers of species, which are not easily scaled to a standard area. Sieve size had a substantial effect on both measures, with the 1-mm screen capturing only 74% of the species and 68% of the individuals collected in the 0.5-mm screen. These differences, though, had little effect on the ability to differentiate samples along gradients in ordination space. Benthic indices generally ranked sample condition in the same order regardless of gear, although the absolute scoring of condition was affected by gear type. The largest differences in condition assessment were observed for the 0.0071-m(2) gear. Benthic indices based on numbers of species were more affected than those based on relative abundance, primarily because we were unable to scale species number to a common area as we did for abundance.

  4. Down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages at Panzano Bay, an impacted area in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Stachowitsch, Michael; Tomasovych, Adam; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We use a historical ecology approach to shed light on the environmental history of the northern Adriatic Sea over the last hundreds to thousands of years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, which serve as proxies for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea is particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure because it is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. We chose a sampling station in Panzano Bay, close the Isonzo River mouth and not far from the major industrial harbours of Trieste (Italy) and Koper (Slovenia), and traced down-core changes in molluscan community structure in correlation to major anthropogenic impacts that occurred here during the last centuries. Five sediment cores (1.5 m in length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm) were taken at a water depth of 12 m. We analysed grain size composition, the concentration of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and radiometrically dated the sediment using 210Pb. Furthermore, we dated shells of the abundant bivalve species Corbula gibba using 14C calibrated amino acid-racemisation (AAR). The whole molluscan community in the cores was analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic conditions of shells. The granulometric analysis shows that silt and clay dominate equally throughout the cores. Radiometric sediment dating revealed an average sedimentation rate of 2.5 mm/yr during the last 120 years. Shell dating points to a comparable overall core age, with only a few shell specimens being older than 500 years in the deepest core layer. In total, 10,452 mollusc individuals were analysed and 104 species identified. The most abundant bivalve species are Kurtiella bidentata, Corbula gibba and Abra nitida. Turritella communis and Nassarius pygmaeus are the most frequent gastropod species. Down-core changes in species composition

  5. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race World Championship, an event scheduled to be held over water. This regulation is necessary to protect...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are about to enter the area while a torpedo is in the water will be contacted by a Navy patrol boat... Naval vessels flying a “Baker” (red) flag. (iv) Notices of temporary suspension and revival of...″; thence northeasterly to a point on the mean high water line at Takutsko Pt.; thence northerly along...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are about to enter the area while a torpedo is in the water will be contacted by a Navy patrol boat... Naval vessels flying a “Baker” (red) flag. (iv) Notices of temporary suspension and revival of...″; thence northeasterly to a point on the mean high water line at Takutsko Pt.; thence northerly along...

  8. 75 FR 3962 - Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Proposed Bay Area Rapid Transit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Area Rapid Transit (BART) Connector Project at Oakland International Airport (OAK), Oakland, Alameda... for the proposed construction and operation of the proposed BART connector project at OAK. The ROD evaluated the proposed BART-OAK connector project at OAK, Oakland, Alameda County, California....

  9. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within the regulated navigation area and: (i) Sustained winds are greater than 25 knots but less than 40 knots, ensure the main engines are ready to provide full power in five minutes or less; and (ii) Sustained winds are 40 knots or over, ensure that the main engines are on line to immediately...

  10. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... within the regulated navigation area and: (i) Sustained winds are greater than 25 knots but less than 40 knots, ensure the main engines are ready to provide full power in five minutes or less; and (ii) Sustained winds are 40 knots or over, ensure that the main engines are on line to immediately...

  11. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... within the regulated navigation area and: (i) Sustained winds are greater than 25 knots but less than 40 knots, ensure the main engines are ready to provide full power in five minutes or less; and (ii) Sustained winds are 40 knots or over, ensure that the main engines are on line to immediately...

  12. Variability among hospitals and staff in collection of race, ethnicity, birthplace, and socioeconomic information in the greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Scarlett L; Satariano, William; Le, Gem M; Weeks, Patricia; McClure, Laura; West, Dee W

    2009-01-01

    Hospital data on race, ethnicity, birthplace, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important for identifying health disparities; however, little is known about the consistency across and within hospitals in the collection of these data. This study examined hospital practices and policies for the collection of these data and the variability across hospital staff and hospital characteristics. Surveys were mailed to selected hospital staff in all 59 hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area, and completed questionnaires were received from 141 (of 367) staff from 41 hospitals. While most hospitals collect race/ethnicity (83% always collect) and birthplace (60% always or sometimes collect), few hospitals collect patient information on education (75% never collect) and income (55% never collect). There is vast variability in reported practices and policies across staff within hospitals, and variability across hospitals with regards to certain hospital characteristics. Nationally standardized policies, including standards for where, what, and when these data should be collected, are necessary for accurate and uniform data collection, and for effectively addressing health disparities.

  13. Archive of single-beam bathymetry data collected from select areas in Weeks Bay and Weeks Bayou, southwest Louisiana, January 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Reich, Christopher D.; Smith, Christopher G.; Reynolds, Billy J.

    2014-01-01

    A team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, collected 92 line-kilometers of dual-frequency single-beam bathymetry data in the tidal creeks, bayous, and coastal areas near Weeks Bay, southwest Louisiana. Limited bathymetry data exist for these tidally and meteorologically influenced shallow-water estuarine environments. In order to reduce the present knowledge gap, the objectives of this study were to (1) develop methods for regional inland bathymetry mapping and monitoring, (2) test inland bathymetry mapping system in pilot locations for integrating multiple elevation (aerial and terrestrial lidar) and bathymetry datasets, (3) implement inland bathymetry mapping and monitoring in highly focused sites, and (4) evaluate changes in bathymetry and channel-fill sediment storage using these methods. This report contains single-beam bathymetric data collected between January 14 and 18, 2013. Data were collected from the RV Mako (5-meter vessel) in water depths that ranged from This report serves as an archive of processed bathymetry data. Geographic information system data provided in this document include a 10-meter cell-size interpolated gridded bathymetry surface, and trackline maps. Additional files include error analysis maps, Field Activity Collection System logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata. Do not use these data for navigational purposes.

  14. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton assemblages and its relation to environmental variables in a scallop culture sea area of Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Hang; Gao, Ya-Hui; Chen, Chang-Ping; Liang, Jun-Rong; Sun, Lin; Zhen, Yu; Qiao, Ling

    2016-12-15

    Seasonal variations of phytoplankton assemblages were examined in a scallop culture sea area of Bohai Bay (China) with regard to some major physical and chemical variables. Samples were collected at three stations from July 2011 to September 2013. A total of 134 species belong to 4 phyla were identified, of which 104 were diatoms, 27 were dinoflagellates, 1 was euglenophyte and 2 were chrysophytes. The cells abundance in autumn (55.44×10(3)cells/L) was higher than that in summer (6.99×10(3)cells/L), spring (3.46×10(3)cells/L) and winter (2.69×10(3)cells/L). The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was higher in summer (3.06), followed by spring (3.02) and winter (2.91), and low in autumn (1.40). Results of canonical correspondence analysis showed that phosphate, salinity, temperature, silicate and DIN/SiO2 ratio were the most important environmental factors influencing the variation of phytoplankton community structure. It is suggested that eutrophication resulted from scallop culture would cause a potential red tide risk.

  15. An age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay area to assess harvest and egg availability for shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweka, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Millard, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this simulation study was to create an age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphenols) in the Delaware Bay region using best available estimates of age-specific mortality and recent harvest levels. Density dependence was incorporated using a spatial model relating egg mortality with abundance of spawning females. Combinations of annual female harvest (0, 50, 100, and 200 thousand), timing of female harvest (before or after spawning), and three levels of density-dependent egg mortality were simulated. The probability of the population increasing was high (> 80%) with low and medium egg mortality and harvest less than 200 thousand females per year. Under the high egg mortality case, the probability of the population increasing was < 50% regardless of harvest. Harvest occurring after spawning increased the probability of population growth. The number of eggs available to shorebirds was highest when egg mortality was lowest and female abundance was at its highest levels. Although harvest and egg mortality influenced population growth and food availability to shorebirds, sensitivity and elasticity analyses showed that early-life stage mortality, age 0 mortality in particular, was the most important parameter for population growth. Our modeling results indicate areas where further research is needed and suggest effective management will involve a combination of harvest management and actions to increase early juvenile survival. ?? 2007 Estuarine Research Federation.

  16. The application of stereo-video technology for the assessment on population change of black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli in a vessel reef area in Haizhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Yingqiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of population structure and abundance of fish assemblages associated with artificial reefs (ARs) is an important aspect of AR management. In the present study, we used a Dive-Operated Stereo Video (stereo-DOV) technique to assess the population structure and abundance of Sebastes schlegeli associated with two metallic, and three wooden, vessel reefs in Haizhou Bay during 2012 and 2013. The study used video systems to obtain length measurements and estimates of abundance. The size composition of S. schlegeli differed among reefs and individuals around vessel reefs were all adults, with total lengths (TL) of >20 cm. Juvenile fish were encountered by divers in a rocky area near the island away from the vessel reefs. The largest individual S. schlegeli (with the highest TL) among five reefs were found around a metallic vessel reef in both 2012 and 2013. TL of S. s chlegeli from all reefs increased by an average of 3.2 cm ( P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013, with an estimated mean weight increase of 250.4 g ( P<0.05). The video survey also indicated a decrease in the biomass of schools near two metallic vessels between the years. Stereo-video technology was found to be suitable for rockfish surveys around the reefs.

  17. Chattonella (Raphidophyceae) bloom spatio-temporal variations in Tachibana Bay and the southern area of Ariake Sea, Japan: Interregional displacement patterns with Skeletonema (Bacillariophyceae).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Onitsuka, Goh; Shimizu, Manabu; Yamatogi, Toshifumi; Ishida, Naoya; Kitahara, Shigeru; Hirano, Keiji

    2015-10-15

    In 2010, a massive bloom of the raphidophycean flagellate Chattonella occurred in the Ariake Sea and Tachibana Bay. Bloom dynamics and hydrographical conditions were examined by field survey. The development and decline of the bloom occurred three times in Tachibana Bay. First and third bloom developments synchronized with precipitation, and the second bloom developed in synchronization with a salinity decrease which occurred in relation to an increase of river discharge from the Chikugo River which takes several days to flow from the Ariake Sea. These results imply that the bloom was transported with the low salinity water from the Ariake Sea to Tachibana Bay. During blooms along the northern coast of Shimabara Peninsula, the predominant phytoplankton species changed from Chattonella to Skeletonema. Low salinity water intrusion induced an interregional difference of the Chattonella and Skeletonema bloom spatially-differentiated by the salinity in the Ariake Sea and Tachibana Bay.

  18. Distribution and geochemical speciation of heavy metals in sediments from coastal area suffered rapid urbanization, a case study of Shantou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yongmin; Yang, Yang; Gu, Jiguang; Zhao, Jiangang

    2013-03-15

    Eight metals in sediment samples at 15 sites from the Shantou Bay were analyzed with BCR sequential extraction protocol to obtain the metal distribution patterns in the bay. The results showed that the heavy metal pollutions in upper bay were more severe than in middle and down reaches of the bay. Both total and non-residual fractions of metals with a exception of Mn showed a seaward decrease trend. More than 54% of the total concentrations of Cd, Mn and Zn existed in the acid soluble fraction. Ni, Co, Cr and Fe mainly (more than 51%) occurred in the residual fraction. While Pb and Cu dominantly presented in the reducible (50%) and oxidable (33%) fraction respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the heavy metals in the non-residual fractions resulted from largely anthropogenic sources, including river input, city runoff and port discharge. These contributing sources are highlighted by cluster analysis.

  19. Observations on the geology and petroleum potential of the Cold Bay-False Pass area, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, Hugh James

    1979-01-01

    Upper Jurassic strata in the Black Hills area consist mainly of fossiliferous, tightly cemented, gently folded sandstone deposited in a shallow marine environment. Upper Cretaceous strata on Sanak Island are strongly deformed and show structural features of broken formations similar to those observed in the Franciscan assemblage of California. Rocks exposed on Sanak Island do not crop out on the peninsular mainland or on Unimak Island, and probably make up the acoustic and economic basement of nearby Sanak basin. Tertiary sedimentary rocks on the outermost part of the Alaska Peninsula consist of Oligocene, Miocene, and lower Pliocene volcaniclastic sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate deposited in nonmarine and very shallow marine environments. Interbedded airfall and ash-flow tuff deposits indicate active volcanism during Oligocene time. Locally, Oligocene strata are intruded by quartz diorite plutons of probable Miocene age. Reservoir properties of Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are generally poor due to alteration of chemically unstable volcanic rock fragments. Igneous intrusions have further reduced porosity and permeability by silicification of sandstone. Organic-rich source rocks for petroleum generation are not abundant in Neogene strata. Upper Jurassic rocks in the Black Hills area have total organic carbon contents of less than 0.5 percent. Deep sediment-filled basins on the Shumagin Shelf probably contain more source rocks than onshore correlatives, but reservoir quality is not likely to be better than in onshore outcrops. The absence of well-developed folds in most Tertiary rocks, both onshore and in nearby offshore basins, reduces the possibility of hydrocarbon entrapment in anticlines.

  20. Regional Sampling of Mantle Peridotites in Serpentinite Blocks Collected from Serpentinite Bodies in the San Francisco Bay Area, California: Petrological Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M.; Kirby, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    We have collected and investigated 278 ultramafic and related rock samples from 18 polygonal-block -and- sheared-matrix-type serpentinite bodies in the Coast Ranges in the San Francisco Bay Area. These sites include Ring Mountain in the north to Silver Creek near San Jose in the south, spanning nearly 100 km of Coast Range geology. These bodies show extensive variation in volume ratios of serpentinite blocks (some including peridotite minerals) to sheared matrix, in peridotite mineral modes, in the degrees of weathering, in the proportions of peridotite minerals versus alteration minerals, and in the degree of late-stage brittle deformation. However, we found remarkable coherence in the serpentinite alteration mineralogy and our samples bear a strong resemblance to those in the Redwood City serpentinite body studied recently by Uno and Kirby (GRL submitted). In particular, we see mineralogical and geochemical evidence for multiple stages of alteration of the original peridotite minerals that reflect partial peridotite alteration, likely in the mantle, and then a later reaction to lizardite + magnetite in the crust. These reactions are followed by localized late-stage partial alteration of serpentinite to silica minerals and magnesite by carbonated water. Our findings suggest that the mantle sources of this type of partially-serpentinized peridotite in this section of the Coast Ranges are remarkably similar and that the processes leading to later-stage alteration reactions have operated repeatedly over the area that we sampled. Internal deformation in these bodies during later stages of alteration probably occurred during ascent through the crust, as reflected by sheared lizardite skins on the serpentinite blocks that we collected. We put forward several working hypotheses that provide insights into the origins and geologic histories of these rocks.

  1. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  2. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  3. Sediment Resuspension by Ship Traffic in Newark Bay, New Jersey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    container ship Dubai Express. ....................................... 63 Figure 130. The container ship MSC Noa departing Newark Bay...63 Figure 131. An ADCP transect through the area in Newark Bay in which the container ship MSC Noa had...An ADCP transect immediately north of the area in Newark Bay in which the container ship MSC Noa had rotated

  4. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  5. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE HIGH BAY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE HIGH BAY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND WINDOW ILLUMINATION AT THE SHRINK PIT AREA, S END OF B BAY; LOOKING SSE. (Ceronie) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  6. 19. INTERIOR WEST BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHWEST. TRACKS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR WEST BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHWEST. TRACKS FOR MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS, TRUSS DETAIL, PERSONNEL DOOR, BAY DOOR AND FENCED STORAGE AREA. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 5. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST OF THE HOT BAY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST OF THE HOT BAY AND ATTACHED OPERATING GALLERIES ALONG THE WEST SIDE OF THE BAY. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. A Qualitative Examination of Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) Peer Referral Challenges Among Young Transwomen in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Wilson, Erin C

    2015-01-01

    Background Efforts have focused on developing innovative recruitment strategies to engage the most marginalized of populations in public health research. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) has been found to be an effective sampling strategy for hard-to-reach, hidden populations. Though studies have documented RDS peer referral as challenging, literature contextualizing these challenges is scant and rarely do they discuss the role of Internet technologies. Objective The objective of the study was to explore reasons for peer referral challenges in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and resilience study among a hidden population of youth, specifically, young transwomen. These findings amplify the unique opportunities Internet technologies bring to public health research and methodology. Methods We conducted focused, semistructured, qualitative interviews with 16 young transwomen to investigate the reasons why youth did or did not refer peers to an RDS study for transwomen ages 16-24 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Qualitative interview data were coded and analyzed using grounded theory. Results Participants discussed specific barriers and facilitators related to four factors that include study design, study implementation, community characteristics, and individual characteristics, which contributed to RDS peer referral challenges. Conclusions Our grounded theory analysis identifies important considerations for future RDS studies with hidden youth populations. Exploring research participants’ experiences is integral in strengthening future epidemiologic research efforts that plan to use RDS to sample and estimate the hidden epidemics among at-risk youth and transgender women. Additionally, Internet technologies and Web-based adaptations offer solutions to traditional RDS peer referral challenges, having the potential to increase accessibility and use among hidden youth populations. PMID:27227143

  9. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of HCHs and DDTs in surface seawater and sediment of the mariculture area of Jincheng Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanbing; Sun, Shan; Song, Xiukai; Ma, Jianxin; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in the surface seawater and sediment of Jincheng Bay mariculture area were investigated in the present study. The concentration of total HCHs and DDTs ranged from 2.98 to 14.87 ng L-1 and were < 0.032 ng L-1, respectively, in surface seawater, and ranged from 5.52 to 9.43 and from 4.11 to 6.72 ng g-1, respectively, in surface sediment. It was deduced from the composition profile of HCH isomers and DDT congeners that HCH residues derived from a mixture of technical-grade HCH and lindane whereas the DDT residues derived from technical-grade DDT and dicofol. Moreover, both HCH and DDT residues may mainly originate from historical inputs. The hazard quotient of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and δ-HCH to marine species was 0.030, 0.157, 3.008 and 0.008, respectively. It was estimated that the overall probability of adverse biological effect from HCHs was less than 5%, indicating that its risk to seawater column species was low. The threshold effect concentration exceeding frequency of γ-HCH, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDE and p, p'-DDT in sediment ranged from 8.3% to 100%, and the relative concentration of the HCH and DDT mixture exceeded their probable effect level in sediment. These findings indicated that the risk to marine benthos was high and potentially detrimental to the safety of aquatic products, e.g., sea cucumber and benthic shellfish.

  10. RESOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS-HYDRATE AND ASSOCIATED FREE-GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN THE PRUDHOE BAY - KUPARUK RIVER AREA ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hunter; Shirish Patil; Robert Casavant; Tim Collett

    2003-06-02

    Interim results are presented from the project designed to characterize, quantify, and determine the commercial feasibility of Alaska North Slope (ANS) gas-hydrate and associated free-gas resources in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), Kuparuk River Unit (KRU), and Milne Point Unit (MPU) areas. This collaborative research will provide practical input to reservoir and economic models, determine the technical feasibility of gas hydrate production, and influence future exploration and field extension of this potential ANS resource. The large magnitude of unconventional in-place gas (40-100 TCF) and conventional ANS gas commercialization evaluation creates industry-DOE alignment to assess this potential resource. This region uniquely combines known gas hydrate presence and existing production infrastructure. Many technical, economical, environmental, and safety issues require resolution before enabling gas hydrate commercial production. Gas hydrate energy resource potential has been studied for nearly three decades. However, this knowledge has not been applied to practical ANS gas hydrate resource development. ANS gas hydrate and associated free gas reservoirs are being studied to determine reservoir extent, stratigraphy, structure, continuity, quality, variability, and geophysical and petrophysical property distribution. Phase 1 will characterize reservoirs, lead to recoverable reserve and commercial potential estimates, and define procedures for gas hydrate drilling, data acquisition, completion, and production. Phases 2 and 3 will integrate well, core, log, and long-term production test data from additional wells, if justified by results from prior phases. The project could lead to future ANS gas hydrate pilot development. This project will help solve technical and economic issues to enable government and industry to make informed decisions regarding future commercialization of unconventional gas-hydrate resources.

  11. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Seligman, Hilary K; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity continues to be a major challenge in the United States, affecting 49 million individuals. Quantitative studies show that food insecurity has serious negative health impacts among individuals suffering from chronic illnesses, including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Formulating effective interventions and policies to combat these health effects requires an in-depth understanding of the lived experience and structural drivers of food insecurity. Few studies, however, have elucidated these phenomena among people living with chronic illnesses in resource-rich settings, including in the United States. Here we sought to explore the experiences and structural determinants of food insecurity among a group of low-income PLHIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thirty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a local non-profit in San Francisco and Alameda County, California, between April and June 2014. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to content analysis methods following an inductive-deductive approach. The lived experience of food insecurity among participants included periods of insufficient quantity of food and resultant hunger, as well as long-term struggles with quality of food that led to concerns about the poor health effects of a cheap diet. Participants also reported procuring food using personally and socially unacceptable strategies, including long-term dependence on friends, family, and charity; stealing food; exchanging sex for food; and selling controlled substances. Food insecurity often arose from the need to pay high rents exacerbated by gentrification while receiving limited disability income--​a situation resulting in large part from the convergence of long-standing urban policies amenable to gentrification and an outdated disability policy that constrains financial viability. The experiences of food insecurity described by participants in this

  12. Residential history, family characteristics and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Paige M; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2006-07-01

    A population-based, case-control study (N = 1,593 cases, N = 2,515 controls) was conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, to determine risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). This report examines residential characteristics, number of siblings, childhood infections, and allergic rhinitis to evaluate the association between NHL and the hygiene hypothesis. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression analyses included HIV-negative participants (N = 1,304 cases, N = 2,402 controls) ages 21 to 74 years, who completed in-person interviews. At childhood ages, odds ratios (OR) for NHL decreased with increasing number of household rooms (age 8 years, P(trend) = 0.08; age 15 years, P(trend) < 0.0001) and increased with more crowded living conditions (quartiles of no. people/no. rooms; age 8 years, P(trend) < 0.0001; age 15 years, P(trend) = 0.0004), whereas at older ages a greater number of people in the household and greater number of household rooms were positively associated with NHL. ORs increased with increasing number of siblings (P(trend) = 0.0003) and increasing birth order (P(trend) = 0.01). Participants with five or more younger siblings had a 50% increased OR for NHL. ORs for NHL decreased with an increasing number of different infections during childhood (age 8 years, P(trend) < 0.0001; age 15 years, P(trend) = 0.0003) and with history of allergic rhinitis (P < 0.0001). Our results are somewhat consistent with the hygiene hypothesis that less crowding and better sanitation results in fewer infections early in life and an increased incidence of immune-related conditions later in life. The role of the complex relationship between residential history, family characteristics, childhood infections, and immune function in the development of NHL warrants further investigation in pooled analyses.

  13. Preliminary analysis of cores from north San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allison, Dan; Hampton, Margaret; Jaffe, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    In March 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment cores in the study area to determine the location of mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris. The study area (Figure 1) comprises 400 km2 and consists of San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay, both of which are part of the San Francisco Bay estuary. Grizzly Bay, a subembayment of Suisun Bay, is also part of the study area. For the purpose of this report the term Suisun Bay will be used collectively for both areas. The present channel system in Suisun Bay is composed of three channels that flow through the bay. The primary channel runs in the southern section of Suisun Bay. A smaller channel flows between Roe Island and Ryer Island. The deepest channel flows through Suisun Cutoff, north of Ryer Island, and past Grizzly Bay. All three channels join at Carquinez Strait where they continue through the southern section of San Pablo Bay, and into San Francisco Bay. The average depths in San Pablo and Suisun Bays at mean sea level are 3.7 m and 5.8 m, respectively (Smith et al., 2002).

  14. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  15. The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake in the Context of the Earthquake Cycle in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the second M ≥ 5.5 earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay region since the 1989 M 7.0 Loma Prieta earthquake. This poster will examine how this earthquake fits into the earthquake history of the Bay region, which has shown considerable variation in the rate of moderate (M 5.5-6.5) earthquakes. A number of models have been developed to explain these changes in moderate earthquake rates, including the Accelerating Moment Release model (e.g., Sykes and Jaumé, Nature, 1990; Bufe and Varnes, J. Geophys. Res., 1993) and the Stress Shadow model (e.g., Harris and Simpson, J. Geophys. Res., 1998). In addition, various groups have made projections of future earthquake activity in the San Francisco Bay region, including the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (Field et al., USGS OFR, 2008) and Bebbington et al. (PAGEOPH, 2010), utilizing different physical models for earthquake occurrence. In my poster I will compare and contrast these different views of seismicity in the Bay region and where the 2014 South Napa earthquake fits into them. In particular, I will explore what these different models imply for future moderate earthquake occurrence and hazards thereof.

  16. Postglacial vegetation history of the Kachemak Bay area, Cook Inlet, south-central Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    Pollen records from two sites on the north shore of Kachemak Bay, south-central Alaska, provide the first radiocarbon-dated histories of postglacial vegetation development for southern Cook Inlet. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval, glaciers covered most of Cook Inlet. Deglaciation of Kachemak Bay began prior to 13,000 yr B.P. Pollen evidence indicates that a pioneering herbaceous tundra began to develop by 12,800 yr B.P., but was soon replaced by a shrub tundra of dwarf birch (Betula), Ericales (Ericaceae and Empetrum) and willows (Salix).By 9,500 yr B.P., a shrub-dominated vegetation of alders (Alnus) and willows, with some deciduous trees (Populus spp.) quickly developed and persisted until late Holocene time. By about 4,000–3,800 yr B.P., spruce trees (Picea glauca and (or) P. mariana) from the interior boreal forests reached the northern Kachemak Bay area from upper Cook Inlet and began to displace the alder-dominated vegetation. A coastal forest of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize Kachemak Bay more recently, about 1,650 yr B.P. (minimum age), apparently from sources in Prince William Sound to the east. Where Sitka spruce came into proximity with boreal white spruce (Picea glauca), hybridization occurred, ultimately influencing the spruce forests over a large area of the Kenai Lowland. Some key findings of this study are: (1) the Kachemak Bay-area pollen records do not display persuasive evidence for a “Younger Dryas” cold, dry interval ca. 11,000–10,000 yr B.P. that has been reported from pollen records on Kodiak Island (Gulf of Alaska) and Pleasant Island (southeastern Alaska); (2) at least one species of alder may have survived in refugia in south-central Alaska during the last glacial interval; (3) coastal forests appear to be still migrating west along the coast of south-central Alaska, but their spread northward is being limited by drier, colder winter climates; (4) the mountainous topography of south-central Alaska

  17. Creating a monthly time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Northern Tampa Bay area, Florida, January 2000-December 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie M.; Fouad, Geoffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    In Florida’s karst terrain, where groundwater and surface waters interact, a mapping time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer offers a versatile metric for assessing the hydrologic condition of both the aquifer and overlying streams and wetlands. Long-term groundwater monitoring data were used to generate a monthly time series of potentiometric surfaces in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a 573-square-mile area of west-central Florida between January 2000 and December 2009. Recorded groundwater elevations were collated for 260 groundwater monitoring wells in the Northern Tampa Bay area, and a continuous time series of daily observations was created for 197 of the wells by estimating missing daily values through regression relations with other monitoring wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevation in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a decade. The mapping time series gives spatial and temporal coherence to groundwater monitoring data collected continuously over the decade by three different organizations, but at various frequencies. Further, the mapping time series describes the potentiometric surface beneath parts of six regionally important stream watersheds and 11 municipal well fields that collectively withdraw about 90 million gallons per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Monthly semivariogram models were developed using monthly average groundwater levels at wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevations and to quantify the uncertainty in the interpolated elevations. Drawdown of the potentiometric surface within well fields was likely the cause of a characteristic decrease and then increase in the observed semivariance with increasing lag distance. This characteristic made use of the hole effect model appropriate for describing the monthly semivariograms and the interpolated surfaces. Spatial variance reflected in the monthly

  18. The Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT): Normative Data and the Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2017-01-01

    Verbal learning tests (VLTs) are widely used to evaluate memory deficits in neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. However, their validity has been called into question by studies showing significant differences in VLT scores obtained by different examiners. Here we describe the computerized Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT), which minimizes inter-examiner differences by incorporating digital list presentation and automated scoring. In the 10-min BAVLT, a 12-word list is presented on three acquisition trials, followed by a distractor list, immediate recall of the first list, and, after a 30-min delay, delayed recall and recognition. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the performance of 195 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. Acquisition trials showed strong primacy and recency effects, with scores improving over repetitions, particularly for mid-list words. Inter-word intervals (IWIs) increased with successive words recalled. Omnibus scores (summed over all trials except recognition) were influenced by age, education, and sex (women outperformed men). In Experiment 2, we examined BAVLT test-retest reliability in 29 participants tested with different word lists at weekly intervals. High intraclass correlation coefficients were seen for omnibus and acquisition scores, IWIs, and a categorization index reflecting semantic reorganization. Experiment 3 examined the performance of Experiment 2 participants when feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury. Although 37% of simulated malingerers showed abnormal (p < 0.05) omnibus z-scores, z-score cutoffs were ineffective in discriminating abnormal malingerers from control participants with abnormal scores. In contrast, four malingering indices (recognition scores, primacy/recency effects, learning rate across acquisition trials, and IWIs) discriminated the two groups with 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Experiment 4 examined the performance of a small group of patients with mild or severe TBI. Overall

  19. Tsunami Inundation modeling for Tolaga Bay, Tokomaru Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Wang, X.; Power, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    South America events with a flooding area of approximately 10km2. There is great variability among the different bays for some of the tsunami scenarios. For example, during the South America event Tolaga Bay is expected to experience severe flooding that covers an area of nearly 10 km2 while for Hicks Bay and Te Araroa it is about 8 km2 and only about 1km2 for Tokomaru Bay. It is important to note that flooding occurs more than once over the course of the tsunami scenarios and large inundation usually is associated with later arrivals. This is an important observation that is not unique to New Zealand and Gisborne District in particular, although the specifics of which wave is responsible for the largest flooding depends on the source, location of the bay and local bathymetric features among other factors. Probably the most striking event in this study is the distant Peru event because it is apparent that low-lying areas are flooded about 6 times during the 24 hours of the simulation and the 4th wave is the one that causes the greatest inundation. The same is not true over all events and local events will have shorter duration with the time in-between wave arrivals being shorter due to the proximity of the source location.

  20. Digenean metacercariae parasites as natural tags of habitat use by 0-group common sole Solea solea in nearshore coastal areas: A case study in the embayed system of the Pertuis Charentais (Bay of Biscay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durieux, Eric D. H.; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Pinet, Patrick; Sasal, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the spatio-temporal variation in the host-parasite system, 0-group sole-digenean metacercariae, in nearshore coastal areas at relatively small spatial scale. 0-group soles were sampled using a standard beam trawl in April, May, June, August and October 2005 at nine different sites in the Pertuis Charentais area (Bay of Biscay, France). Sole density, size, Fulton's condition factor K and digenean metacercariae communities were analysed. 0-group sole concentrated in shallow and muddy areas where they accumulated digenean metacercariae. Parasite communities displayed strong spatial patterns tightly linked to the distribution of the first intermediate mollusc hosts. These parasitological data suggest that 0-group sole during their first period of growth are mainly sedentary with limited movements between the different parts of the habitat. Size and density data revealed spatial heterogeneity in terms of habitat quality so that a limited zone (Aiguillon Bay) within the study area could be identified as sensu stricto nursery habitat for 0-group sole. The use of digenean metacercariae as natural tags appears as a novel powerful tool to evaluate habitat use and movements of juvenile flatfish, which could find applications in fisheries and coastal zone management programs.

  1. 33 CFR 110.120 - San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. (a) Area A-1. Area A-1 is the water area bounded by the San Luis Obispo County wharf, the shoreline, a line...

  2. 33 CFR 110.120 - San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. (a) Area A-1. Area A-1 is the water area bounded by the San Luis Obispo County wharf, the shoreline, a line...

  3. 33 CFR 110.120 - San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. (a) Area A-1. Area A-1 is the water area bounded by the San Luis Obispo County wharf, the shoreline, a line...

  4. 33 CFR 110.120 - San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. (a) Area A-1. Area A-1 is the water area bounded by the San Luis Obispo County wharf, the shoreline, a line...

  5. 33 CFR 110.120 - San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. (a) Area A-1. Area A-1 is the water area bounded by the San Luis Obispo County wharf, the shoreline, a line...

  6. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Ground Water and Finished Water of Community Water Systems in the Northern Tampa Bay Area, Florida, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Berndt, Marian P.; Crandall, Christy A.; Toccalino, Patricia L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS's) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, a Source Water-Quality Assessment (SWQA) was conducted in the unconfined and semiconfined portions of the Upper Floridan aquifer system during 2002-04. SWQAs are two-phased sampling activities, wherein phase 1 was designed to evaluate the occurrence of 258 anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in ground water used as source water for 30 of the largest-producing community water system (CWS) wells in the northern Tampa Bay area, Florida. The 258 AOCs included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and other anthropogenic organic compounds (OAOCs). Phase 2 was designed to monitor concentrations in the source water and also the finished water of CWSs for compounds most frequently detected during phase 1. During phase 1 of the SWQA study, 31 of the 258 AOCs were detected in source-water samples collected from CWS wells at low concentrations (less than 1.0 microgram per liter (ug/L)). Twelve AOCs were detected in at least 10 percent of samples. Concentrations from 16 of the 31 detected AOCs were about 2 to 5 orders of magnitude below human-health benchmarks indicating that concentrations were unlikely to be of potential human-health concern. The potential human-health relevance for the remaining 15 detected unregulated AOCs could not be evaluated because no human-health benchmarks were available for these compounds. Hydrogeology, population, and land use were examined to evaluate the effects of these variables on the source water monitored. Approximately three times as many detections of VOCs (27) and pesticides (34) occurred in unconfined areas than in the semiconfined areas (8 VOCs, 14 pesticides). In contrast, 1 OAOC was detected in unconfined areas, and 13 OAOCs were detected in semiconfined areas with 9 of the OAOC detections occurring in samples from two wells located near septic systems. Analyses of population and land use indicated that the number of

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  8. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

  9. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  10. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  11. 78 FR 55216 - Safety Zone: Suisun Bay Electromagnetic Scan and Ordnance Recovery, Suisun Bay, Concord, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Suisun Bay Electromagnetic Scan and... support of the Military Ocean Terminal Concord (MOTCO) electromagnetic scan and ordnance recovery... intrusive electromagnetic scan and ordnance recovery operation in selected areas of Suisun Bay with a...

  12. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  13. Carbon Biogeochemistry in Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Dehairs, Frank; Gratton, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its carbon cycle are expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic change and, thus the Arctic is thought to be an area where such changes may most easily be detected. In particular the carbon cycle in polar ocean is vulnerable due to the relatively high Revelle factor and correspondingly weaker CO2 buffer capacity. The Arctic ocean is influenced by runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation and melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits as well as the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low(er) salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the Baffin Bay area, at the eastern entrance to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the water masses of three major oceans meet. Atlantic Ocean water traveling into Baffin Bay as the east Greenland current mixes with waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which enter Baffin Bay via Nares Strait and various outflows of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, before the waters head southward along the western side of Baffin Bay, eventually feeding into the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Ocean. Altered mixing ratios of these three water masses and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving Baffin Bay may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and, hence, acidification, of the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic. We present carbon cycle, Barium and stable oxygen isotope composition data of sea water and related data from two east to west section across Baffin Bay at 75N and 76N as well as from shelf sections long the eastern and western shelves of Baffin Bay. We investigate water mass characteristics and mixing pattern of the above three major water masses in Baffin Bay. The data have been collected in the framework of two

  14. Chesapeake Bay TMDL Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) report for the Chesapeake Bay. It includes the executive summary, main report, and appendices. The Chesapeake Bay TMDL was established by U.S. EPA Region 3 on December 29, 2010

  15. Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2010 EPA established the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, a comprehensive pollution diet with accountability measures to restore clean water in the bay and local waters. It set limits for nutrients and sediment to meet water quality standards across the watershed

  16. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  17. Incorporation of in situ exposure and biomarkers response in clams Ruditapes philippinarum for assessment of metal pollution in coastal areas from the Maluan Bay of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaosheng; Yan, Changzhou; Vulpe, Chris D; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao

    2012-01-01

    The clams Ruditapes philippinarum were used to assess the impact of metal contaminants when transplanted to seven study sites along the Maluan Bay (China). Metal concentrations in digestive gland tissues of clams after 7-day in situ cage exposure were determined in conjunction with antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed the importance of specific antioxidant biomarkers to assess complex pollutant mixtures and their good correlations to the pollutant compositions of deployment sites. Multivariate analysis indicated causal relationship between the chemicals at each study site and the biochemical "response" of the caged clams at these sites and demonstrated the potential presence of two different contaminant sources. This study suggested that the incorporation of tissue residue analysis with biomarkers response in caged clams together with factor analysis can be a useful biomonitoring tool for the identification of causal toxic pollutants and the assessment of complex metal pollutions in marine coastal environment.

  18. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  19. Shallow seismic study of the geothermal areas in the Gülbahçe Bay and İzmir Gulf (Aegean Sea, Western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, Zehra; Ocakoğlu, Neslihan

    2016-12-01

    The two seismic units, i.e., the basement and the basin sediments are interpreted as Miocene and Plio-Quaternary deposits, respectively. The basin sediments of approximately 255 m thickness are risen and compressed through the active strike-slip faults, GF1-GF3 extending in N-S direction towards the outer Gülbahçe Bay. These compressed sediments are interpreted as upwelling zones with weak reflection character and internal frequency attenuation. The most significant one is marked as a possible mud diaper zone with a 320 m width and the approximately 500 m. A synthetic model of the field data gathered from the diaper indicates that the top of the diapir is characterised by a strong positive reflection character while the internal diaper is represented by polarity reversals and weak reflections due to a velocity decrease with depth. Moreover, phase changes are observed at the border of the diapiric structure. A relatively thicker basin sediment unit of approximately 700 m was observed on the pro-delta sediments of the Gediz River and the sediments below in the İzmir Gulf. The active strike-slip faults, İF1-İF5 deform the basement and basin deposits. Moreover, two active normal faults, İF6 and İF7 are marked from inner to outer part of the gulf. The seismic attribute sections indicate weak reflection zones and frequency attenuation particularly both inside the pro-delta sediments and the sediments below. Observations suggest to us the existence of possible fluid and/or gas discharges and saturations in the Gülbahçe Bay and İzmir Gulf.

  20. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.