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Sample records for 72-h fecal fat

  1. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  2. Fecal fat

    MedlinePlus

    Quantitative stool fat determination; Fat absorption ... This test evaluates fat absorption to tell how well the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestines are working. Fat malabsorption can cause a change in your ...

  3. Sudan stain of fecal fat: new insight into an old test.

    PubMed

    Khouri, M R; Huang, G; Shiau, Y F

    1989-02-01

    The 72-h fecal fat determination is used as the gold standard to document the presence of steatorrhea. Although the Sudan stain for fecal fat is advocated as a sensitive screening test, a quantitative correlation between the 72-h fecal fat quantitation and the fecal Sudan stain is lacking. This study was designed to examine the staining properties of different classes of purified lipids in an experimentally defined artificial matrix, and to elucidate the reasons for the lack of quantitative correlation between these two tests. Our results indicate that the "neutral fat" stain without acidification or heating identifies triglyceride; and at an appropriate pH, the "neutral stain" also identifies fatty acid. The "split fat" stain with acidification and heating identifies both triglyceride and fatty acid. After acidification, fatty acid soaps are converted to the nonionized fatty acid. Thus, fatty acid soaps can be identified indirectly as fat droplets that are stained by the split fat stain. Although cholesterol is stained with Sudan stain after heating, upon cooling, cholesterol forms crystals of anhydrous cholesterol, making its staining pattern distinct. Neither the neutral fat nor the split fat stain can detect phospholipid or cholesteryl ester. The 72-h fecal fat determination is a measure of the total fatty acid content after a specimen is saponified. The resulting fatty acids are derived from a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources, including free fatty acids, soaps of fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids. Therefore, the 72-h fecal fat quantitation does not differentiate between the primary sources of the measured fatty acid. It is concluded that the 72-h fecal fat determination is not specific for documenting triglyceride (fat) malabsorption. Until new methods are developed that specifically measure fecal triglyceride and fatty acid, the Sudan stain of fecal fat appears to be a more specific method for detecting the presence

  4. Effect of dietary fat on the fecal excretion of cholesterol and its degradation products in man

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard B.; Anderson, Joseph T.; Taylor, Henry L.; Keys, Ancel; Frantz, Ivan D.

    1968-01-01

    Fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion rates were determined in five healthy young men when serum cholesterol changes were induced by isocaloric substitution of an unsaturated (safflower oil) for a saturated fat (butter). The isotope balance method was used after the intravenous injection of cholesterol-4-14C. A feces extraction method is presented which permits essentially complete separation of fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. There was a significant increase in the total excretion of the fecal end products of cholesterol metabolism from 966 ± 42 mg/day on saturated fat to 1147 ± 45 mg/day on unsaturated fat, and the increase was equally distributed between the neutral sterol and bile acid fractions. With the substitution of dietary fats, regardless of the sequence of their feeding, there was a 28% reduction in serum cholesterol concentration during ingestion of the unsaturated fat. There were reciprocal changes in serum cholesterol levels and fecal steroid excretion with the substitution of one type of fat for the other. The changes in plasma cholesterol content were more than adequately balanced by the reciprocal changes in fecal cholesterol end product excretion. The findings in this study agree with several previous reports in supporting the hypothesis that the hypocholesteremic action of dietary unsaturated fatty acids is associated with an increase in the fecal loss of bile acids and neutral sterols. PMID:5658585

  5. Influence of diets high and low in animal fat on bowel habit, gastrointestinal transit time, fecal microflora, bile acid, and fat excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, J H; Wiggins, H S; Jenkins, D J; Houston, H; Jivraj, T; Drasar, B S; Hill, M J

    1978-01-01

    Epidemiological observations and animal experiments suggest that large bowel cancer is related to serveral factors. Among them, high dietary intakes of animal fat, the presence in the colon of relatively high levels of bile acids, specific patterns of intestinal microflora, slow transit through the gut, and low stool weights. Under metabolic conditions we have observed the effect on these variables of dietes containing 62 or 152 g/day of fat mainly of animal origin in six healthy young men over 4-wk periods. No change attributable to the diet was observed in the subjects' bowel habit, fecal weight, mean transit time through the gut, or in the excretion of dry matter. Total fecal bile acid excretion was significantly higher on the high fat diet (320 +/- 120 mg/day) than on the low fat diet (139.7) +/- 63 mg/day) t test = 7.78 P less than 0.001 as also was the total fecal fatty acid excretion, 3.1+/-0.71 and 1.14+/-0.35 g/day, respectively t test = 11.4 P less than 0.001). The fecal microflora including the nuclear dehydrogenating clostridia were unaltered by the dietary changes as was fecal beta-glucuronidase activity. Dietary changes which increase animal fat intake clearly influence fecal bile acid excretion in a way that would favor the development of large bowel cancer if current theories prove to be true. Dietary fat however has no effect on overall colonic function so other components of the diet must be responsible for the observed associations of bowel cancer with slow transit and reduced fecal bulk. PMID:659584

  6. Effects of high fat diet on fecal contents of bile acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Furihata, C; Matsushima, T

    1987-11-01

    The effects of dietary oils and fats used in Japan on the fecal contents of bile acids in rats were studied. F344/Du Crj female rats (8 weeks old) were fed on diet containing 20% corn oil, rape seed oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, lard, or tallow as high oil or fat diets or on 0.2% linoleic acid diet as a low fatty acid diet for 4 weeks, and then their feces were collected. Bile acids in the feces were partially purified and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Analyses showed that lard or tallow in the diet resulted in significant increases in the contents of bile acids in the feces, whereas sesame oil in the diet resulted in significant decreases in their contents. PMID:3121554

  7. Cytotoxicity of fecal water is dependent on the type of dietary fat and is reduced by supplemental calcium phosphate in rats.

    PubMed

    Lapré, J A; De Vries, H T; Van der Meer, R

    1993-03-01

    The effects of the type of dietary fat (180 g/kg diet) and of calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) supplementation (25 vs. 225 mmol/kg diet) on luminal solubility of fatty acids and bile acids, cytotoxicity of fecal water and intestinal epitheliolysis were studied in rats. In rats fed the low and high calcium phosphate diets, fecal excretion of fatty acids diminished in the order palm oil > milk fat > corn oil. Palm oil also caused the highest concentration of fatty acids measured in fecal water followed by milk fat and corn oil when fed at both calcium phosphate levels. The differences in concentrations of luminal surfactants in fecal water of rats fed the three fat diets resulted in a fat type-dependent cytotoxicity of fecal water, with that of palm oil-fed rats the most cytotoxic. The concentrations of fatty acids as well as bile acids in fecal water were, however, significantly lowered by calcium phosphate supplementation in rats fed all types of dietary fat. This reduction in concentration of fecal water surfactants resulted in a lower cytotoxicity of fecal water. The concentration of surfactants in fecal water and cytotoxicity were correlated by multiple regression analysis (R = 0.89). Intestinal epitheliolysis measured as alkaline phosphatase activity in fecal water was lowered comparably to the reduction in cytotoxicity by supplemental calcium phosphate. Intestinal epitheliolysis and cytotoxicity of fecal water were correlated (r = 0.92, P < 0.001). The type of dietary fat and the amount of dietary calcium phosphate influence the concentrations of surfactants in fecal water and consequently affect cytotoxicity of fecal water and intestinal epitheliolysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Correlations of Fecal Metabonomic and Microbiomic Changes Induced by High-fat Diet in the Pre-Obesity State.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; An, Yanpeng; Hao, Fuhua; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    Obesity resulting from interactions of genetic and environmental factors becomes a serious public health problem worldwide with alterations of the metabolic phenotypes in multiple biological matrices involving multiple metabolic pathways. To understand the contributions of gut microbiota to obesity development, we analyzed dynamic alterations in fecal metabonomic phenotype using NMR and fecal microorganism composition in rats using pyrosequencing technology during the high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 81 days (pre-obesity state). Integrated analysis of these two phenotypic datasets was further conducted to establish correlations between the altered rat fecal metabonome and gut microbiome. We found that one-week HFD feeding already caused significant changes in rat fecal metabonome and such changes sustained throughout 81-days feeding with the host and gut microbiota co-metabolites clearly featured. We also found that HFD caused outstanding decreases in most fecal metabolites implying enhancement of gut absorptions. We further established comprehensive correlations between the HFD-induced changes in fecal metabonome and fecal microbial composition indicating contributions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis and progression of the HFD-induced obesity. These findings provided essential information about the functions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of metabolic disorders which could be potentially important for developing obesity prevention and treatment therapies. PMID:26916743

  9. Correlations of Fecal Metabonomic and Microbiomic Changes Induced by High-fat Diet in the Pre-Obesity State

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; An, Yanpeng; Hao, Fuhua; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    Obesity resulting from interactions of genetic and environmental factors becomes a serious public health problem worldwide with alterations of the metabolic phenotypes in multiple biological matrices involving multiple metabolic pathways. To understand the contributions of gut microbiota to obesity development, we analyzed dynamic alterations in fecal metabonomic phenotype using NMR and fecal microorganism composition in rats using pyrosequencing technology during the high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 81 days (pre-obesity state). Integrated analysis of these two phenotypic datasets was further conducted to establish correlations between the altered rat fecal metabonome and gut microbiome. We found that one-week HFD feeding already caused significant changes in rat fecal metabonome and such changes sustained throughout 81-days feeding with the host and gut microbiota co-metabolites clearly featured. We also found that HFD caused outstanding decreases in most fecal metabolites implying enhancement of gut absorptions. We further established comprehensive correlations between the HFD-induced changes in fecal metabonome and fecal microbial composition indicating contributions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis and progression of the HFD-induced obesity. These findings provided essential information about the functions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of metabolic disorders which could be potentially important for developing obesity prevention and treatment therapies. PMID:26916743

  10. Correlations of Fecal Metabonomic and Microbiomic Changes Induced by High-fat Diet in the Pre-Obesity State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; An, Yanpeng; Hao, Fuhua; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Obesity resulting from interactions of genetic and environmental factors becomes a serious public health problem worldwide with alterations of the metabolic phenotypes in multiple biological matrices involving multiple metabolic pathways. To understand the contributions of gut microbiota to obesity development, we analyzed dynamic alterations in fecal metabonomic phenotype using NMR and fecal microorganism composition in rats using pyrosequencing technology during the high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 81 days (pre-obesity state). Integrated analysis of these two phenotypic datasets was further conducted to establish correlations between the altered rat fecal metabonome and gut microbiome. We found that one-week HFD feeding already caused significant changes in rat fecal metabonome and such changes sustained throughout 81-days feeding with the host and gut microbiota co-metabolites clearly featured. We also found that HFD caused outstanding decreases in most fecal metabolites implying enhancement of gut absorptions. We further established comprehensive correlations between the HFD-induced changes in fecal metabonome and fecal microbial composition indicating contributions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis and progression of the HFD-induced obesity. These findings provided essential information about the functions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of metabolic disorders which could be potentially important for developing obesity prevention and treatment therapies.

  11. Black tea polyphenols and polysaccharides improve body composition, increase fecal fatty acid, and regulate fat metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Kuan; Zhang, Min

    2016-05-18

    With the current changes in diet and living habits, obesity has become a global health problem. Thus, the weight-reducing function of tea has attracted considerable attention. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect and the mechanism of black tea (BT) polyphenols and polysaccharides in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides reduced the body weight, Lee's index, visceral fat weight, and fat cell size but improved the biochemical profile and increased the fecal fatty acid content, thereby preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. A gene expression profile array was used to screen eight upregulated and five downregulated differentially expressed genes that affect fat metabolic pathways, such as glycerolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid degradation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, bile and pancreatic secretion, the insulin signaling pathway, and steroid hormone secretion. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides suppressed the formation and accumulation of fat and promoted its decomposition to prevent obesity.

  12. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p < 0.01), whereas Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fecal fat and energy excretion increased by 50 and 23% with Flax drink consumption compared to control (p < 0.05), but only fecal fat excretion was increased with Flax bread compared to control (p < 0.05). Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004 PMID:22305169

  13. Cholesterol balance and fecal neutral steroid and bile acid excretion in normal men fed dietary fats of different fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    Connor, William E.; Witiak, Donald T.; Stone, Daniel B.; Armstrong, Mark L.

    1969-01-01

    Six normal men were fed formula diets containing either highly saturated fat (cocoa butter, iodine value 32) or polyunsaturated fat (corn oil, iodine value 125). The sterol balance technique was used to compare the changes in serum cholesterol concentration with the excretion of fecal steroids. The method used for the analysis of fecal steroids was chemical, with a final identification and quantification by gas-liquid chromatography. It was confirmed that the chemical method for fecal steroid analysis was accurate and reproducible. The three dietary periods were each 3 wk in length. In sequence, cocoa butter (period I), corn oil, and cocoa butter (period III) were fed at 40% of the total calories. All diets were cholesterol free, contained similar amounts of plant sterols, and were identical in other nutrients. Corn oil had a hypocholesterolemic effect. Mean serum cholesterol concentrations were 222 mg/100 ml (cocoa butter, period I), 177 during corn oil, and 225 after the return to cocoa butter. Individual fecal steroids were determined from stools pooled for 7 days. Both neutral steroids and bile acids were altered significantly by dietary polyunsaturated fat. The change in bile acid excretion was considerably greater than the change in neutral steroids. Corn oil caused a greater fecal excretion of both deoxycholic and lithocholic acids. The total mean excretion (milligrams per day) of fecal steroids was 709 for cocoa butter (period I), 915 for corn oil, and 629 for the second cocoa butter period. The enhanced total fecal steroid excretion by the polyunsaturated fat of corn oil created a negative cholesterol balance vis-à-vis the saturated fat of cocoa butter. The hypocholesterolemic effect of polyunsaturated fat was associated with total fecal sterol excretion twice greater than the amount of cholesterol calculated to leave the plasma. This finding suggested possible loss of cholesterol from the tissues as well. Images PMID:5796351

  14. Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Sato, Satoko; Ohnishi, Nanae; Inoue, Junji; Iguchi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiro; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Harada, Kazuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0.05), but the burdock diet did not. These results suggest that consumption of fermented burdock improves the intestinal luminal environment and suppresses obesity in rats fed a HF diet. PMID:23291748

  15. Long-term effect of wholemeal bread on stool weight, transit time, fecal bile acids, fats, and neutral sterols.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, M A; Elton, R A; Smith, J H

    1986-03-01

    Stool weight, fecal constituents, bile acids, fat, neutral sterols, and intestinal transit time were recorded in 28 subjects over 18 mo. During the first 12 mo the subjects ate white bread. They were studied for an initial period of 7 days, and after 6 mo (study period 1). For the first 6 mo they ate their usual intake of bread, they then increased their white bread intake by 62 g/day for 6 mo (study period 2). The subjects ate a self-selected diet throughout the 18 mo study. During the last 6 mo (study period 3) the subjects replaced white bread by the same amount of wholemeal bread as in study period 2. No increase in stool weight occurred until study period 3 when there was an increase of 20%. There developed a linear relationship between stool weight and intestinal transit time which was not found during the initial first and second study periods. A seasonal influence on serum cholesterol was not observed during the wholemeal bread period. Fecal bile acid excretion was unchanged throughout the experiment.

  16. Supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum to a high-fat, low-calcium diet lowers cytolytic activity of fecal water in rats injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Seto, Y; Hashiba, H

    1998-02-01

    The effects of supplementing Bifidobacterium longum SBT 2928 and Lactobacillus acidophilus SBT 2062 to a high-fat, low-calcium diet on bile acid concentration, fatty acid concentration, cytolytic activity and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of fecal water in rats injected with and without 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were examined. Male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age were fed a diet containing 18% coconut oil, 2% corn oil and 0.1% calcium for 15 d. Lyophilized cultures were supplemented to test diets at a concentration of 1%. The feeding of a high-fat, low-calcium diet elevated the bile acid concentration, cytolytic activity and ALP activity of fecal water as compared to the AIN-76A diet, whereas the fatty acid concentration was not changed. None of the cultures had any effect on these parameters. Furthermore, 8 week-old rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of DMH at 40 mg/kg body weight, and fed the same diets for 15 d. The DMH injection had no effect on the bile acid concentration but increased the fatty acid concentration and cytolytic activity of fecal water. In contrast, ALP activity was lower in the DMH-treated rats than in the non-treated rats. The ingestion of B. longum lowered cytolytic activity but had no effect on the bile acids, fatty acids and ALP activity of fecal water. L. acidophilus had no effect on these parameters. PMID:9591245

  17. Differential regulation of lipid and protein metabolism in obese vs. lean subjects before and after a 72-h fast.

    PubMed

    Bak, Ann Mosegaard; Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Nielsen, Thomas Svava; Viggers, Rikke; Rungby, Jørgen; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2016-07-01

    Increased availability of lipids may conserve muscle protein during catabolic stress. Our study was designed to define 1) intracellular mechanisms leading to increased lipolysis and 2) whether this scenario is associated with decreased amino acid and urea fluxes, and decreased muscle amino acid release in obese subjects under basal and fasting conditions. We therefore studied nine lean and nine obese subjects twice, after 12 and 72 h of fasting, using measurements of mRNA and protein expression and phosphorylation of lipolytic and protein metabolic signaling molecules in fat and muscle together with whole body and forearm tracer techniques. Obese subjects displayed increased whole body lipolysis, decreased urea production rates, and decreased forearm muscle protein breakdown per 100 ml of forearm tissue, differences that persisted after 72 h of fasting. Lipolysis per fat mass unit was reduced in obese subjects and, correspondingly, adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation and mRNA and protein levels of the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) coactivator CGI58 were decreased. Fasting resulted in higher HSL phosphorylations and lower protein levels of the ATGL inhibitor G0S2. Muscle protein expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 4EBP1 were lower in obese subjects, and MuRf1 mRNA was higher with fasting in lean but not obese subjects. Phosphorylation and signaling of mTOR decreased with fasting in both groups, whereas ULK1 protein and mRNA levels increased. In summary, obese subjects exhibit increased lipolysis due to a large fat mass with blunted prolipolytic signaling, together with decreased urea and amino acid fluxes both in the basal and 72-h fasted state; this is compatible with preservation of muscle and whole body protein. PMID:27245338

  18. Dietary polyphenols increase fecal mucin and immunoglobulin A and ameliorate the disturbance in gut microbiota caused by a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Sayori; Takahashi, Azusa; Okazaki, Yukako; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary polyphenols on human health have mainly been discussed in the context of preventing degenerative diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The antioxidant properties of polyphenols have been widely studied, but it has become clear that the mechanism of action of polyphenols extends beyond the modulation of oxidative stress, as they are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of polyphenols on the colonic environment, intestinal barrier function, and gut microbiota. We demonstrated that dietary polyphenols derived from aronia, haskap, and bilberry, markedly elevated the amount of fecal mucin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as an intestinal barrier function and ameliorated the disturbance in gut microbiota caused by a high fat diet in rats. These results suggest that dietary polyphenols play a significant role in the prevention of degenerative diseases through improvement of the colonic environment without any absorption from the digestive tract. PMID:26566306

  19. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  20. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  1. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  2. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  3. Fecal and urinary lignans, intrafollicular estradiol, and endometrial receptors in lactating dairy cows fed diets supplemented with hydrogenated animal fat, flaxseed or sunflower seed.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Colazo, Marcos Germán; Oba, Masahito; Dyck, Michael Kane; Okine, Erasmus Kojo; Ambrose, Divakar Justus

    2008-12-01

    We hypothesized that the inclusion of flaxseed in the diets of lactating dairy cows will increase urinary and fecal concentrations of the lignans, secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), enterolactone and enterodiol, reduce intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I and estradiol, and subsequently reduce estradiol and oxytocin receptor expression in the endometrium. To test this hypothesis, 27 cycling, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 3 diets supplemented with saturated fatty acids (SAT), flax (FLX), or sunflower (SUN) seed. Rations were formulated to provide 750 g supplemental fat/cow/d in all dietary groups. Ovulation (Day 0) was synchronized, and 5 d later, follicles>8 mm were ablated by an ultrasound-guided procedure in all cows. Samples of blood (Days 0 to 14), follicular fluid (Day 5 and 15), endometrium (Day 15), as well as urine and feces were collected in a subset of the animals. The fecal concentrations of SDG and enterodiol were higher (P<0.05) in cows fed FLX than in those fed SAT or SUN. Enterodiol increased (P<0.05) in urine samples of cows fed FLX, compared to those of cows fed SUN. However, follicular estradiol concentrations on Day 5 and 15 and endometrial concentrations of estradiol and oxytocin receptors on Day 15 did not differ among the dietary groups. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in cows fed FLX and SUN than in those fed SAT. In summary, a diet supplemented with flaxseed increased the concentrations of SDG and enterodiol in feces, as hypothesized, but did not alter intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I or estradiol, or endometrial populations of oxytocin or estrogen receptors in lactating dairy cows.

  4. Effects of a glucoside-hydrolase inhibitor (Bay g 5421) on serum lipids, lipoproteins and bile acids, fecal fat and bacterial flora, and intestinal gas production in hyperlipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Maruhama, Y; Nagasaki, A; Kanazawa, Y; Hirakawa, H; Goto, Y; Nishiyama, H; Kishimoto, Y; Shimoyama, T

    1980-12-01

    Significant decrease in serum very low density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins was observed after Bay g 5421 trial (300 mg/day for 6 weeks) in 14 hyperlipidemic patients. Although no significant changes were demonstrated in serum fractions of bile acids, the alteration in the patterns of fecal bacterial flora including the increase in obligate anaerobes was observed after the trial and this was accompanied by the increase in fecal fat excretion. Thus, the possible change in the intestinal bile acid metabolism with the altered flora may lead to an increased catabolism of cholesterol and to the reduction of serum low density lipoproteins. The meteorism developed in several patients but its etiology was shown to be independent of the patterns of the pre-trial bacterial flora and diet composition.

  5. One-set resistance training elevates energy expenditure for 72 h similar to three sets

    PubMed Central

    Heden, Timothy; Lox, Curt; Rose, Paul; Reid, Steven

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effects of an acute one versus three-set full body resistance training (RT) bout in eight overweight (mean ± SD, BMI = 25.6 ± 1.5 kg m−2) young (21.0 ± 1.5 years) adults on resting energy expenditure (REE) measured on four consecutive mornings following each protocol. Participants performed a single one-set or three-set whole body (10 exercises, 10 repetition maximum) RT bout following the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for RT. REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) by indirect calorimetry were measured at baseline and at 24, 48, and 72 h after the RT bout. Participants performed each protocol in randomized, counterbalanced order separated by 7 days. There was no difference between protocols for REE or RER. However, REE was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated (~5% or ~ 400 kJ day−1) in both the protocols at 24, 48, and 72 h post RT bout compared with baseline. There was a no change in RER in both the protocols at 72 h compared to baseline. A one-set RT bout following the ACSM guidelines for RT and requiring only ~ 15 min to complete was as effective as a three-set RT bout (~ 35 min to complete) in elevating REE for up to 72 h post RT in overweight college males, a group at high risk of developing obesity. The one-set RT protocol may provide an attractive alternative to either aerobic exercise or multiple-set RT programs for weight management in young adults, due to the minimal time commitment and the elevation in REE post RT bout. PMID:20886227

  6. Intracranial pressures and O2 extraction in conscious sheep during 72 h of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Curran-Everett, D C; Iwamoto, J; Meredith, M P; Krasney, J A

    1991-07-01

    High-altitude cerebral edema may occur within several days after a rapid ascent to altitude. However, the mechanisms that produce this potentially lethal condition are unclear. This experiment assessed systemic arterial and intracranial pressures (n = 22) and cerebral blood flow per unit cerebral O2 consumption (Qc/cVo2) and cerebral O2 extraction fraction (cEo2) (n = 9) in conscious sheep before and during 72 h of normobaric hypoxia (arterial O2 tension approximately 40 mmHg, oxygen saturation in arterial blood approximately 50%). Qc/cVo2 and cEo2 were calculated from systemic arterial and cerebral venous O2 contents. Wet-to-dry brain weight ratios were calculated during normoxia (n = 4) or after 72 h of hypoxia (n = 5) in additional sheep. Intracranial pressures did not change during hypoxia (+ 1.3 to +1.8 mmHg, P = 1.0); however, estimated intracranial capillary hydrostatic pressure may have increased 1-20 mmHg depending on the arterial-to-downstream resistance ratio. During the 72 h of hypoxia, Qc/cVO2 doubled (P = 0.02) and cEo2 tended to decrease (5% absolute, P = 1.0). Regional wet-to-dry brain weight ratios after 72 h of hypoxia were 4-13% greater than their respective ratios during normoxia (0.001 less than P less than or equal to 0.05); indirect evidence suggests that this increased brain water content was extravascular. The sheep may be an appropriate model for the further study of high-altitude cerebral edema.

  7. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  8. Impact of Dietary Lipids on Colonic Function and Microbiota: An Experimental Approach Involving Orlistat-Induced Fat Malabsorption in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Pamela; Fujio, Sayaka; Navarrete, Paola; Ugalde, Juan A; Magne, Fabien; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Tralma, Karina; Quezada, MariaPaz; Hurtado, Carmen; Covarrubias, Natalia; Brignardello, Jerusa; Henriquez, Daniela; Gotteland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High-fat diets alter gut microbiota and barrier function, inducing metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation. Whether these effects are due to the high dietary lipid content or to the concomitant decrease of carbohydrate intake is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether higher amounts of dietary fat reaching the colon (through orlistat administration) affect the colonic ecosystem in healthy volunteers and the effect of the prebiotic oligofructose (OF) in this model. METHODS: Forty-one healthy young subjects were distributed among four groups: Control (C), Prebiotic (P), Orlistat (O), and Orlistat/Prebiotic (OP). They consumed a fat-standardized diet (60 g/day) during Week-1 (baseline) and after 1 week of washout, Week-3. During Week-3, they also received their respective treatment (Orlistat: 2 × 120 mg/day, OF: 16 g/day, and maltodextrin as placebo). A 72-h stool collection was carried out at the end of Week-1 (T0) and Week-3 (T1). Fecal fat, calprotectin, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as well as the antioxidant activity of fecal waters (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), fecal microbiota composition (by deep sequencing), and gut permeability (Sucralose/Lactulose/Mannitol test) were determined at these times. RESULTS: Fecal fat excretion was higher in the O (P=0.0050) and OP (P=0.0069) groups. This event was accompanied, in the O group, by an increased calprotectin content (P=0.047) and a decreased fecal antioxidant activity (P=0.047). However, these alterations did not alter gut barrier function and the changes observed in the composition of the fecal microbiota only affected bacterial populations with low relative abundance (<0.01%); in consequences, fecal SCFA remained mainly unchanged. Part of the colonic alterations induced by orlistat were prevented by OF administration. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of an equilibrated diet, the acute exposition of the colonic ecosystem to high amounts of dietary lipids is

  9. Human methamphetamine pharmacokinetics simulated in the rat: behavioral and neurochemical effects of a 72-h binge.

    PubMed

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S; Melega, William P; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J

    2009-10-01

    Bingeing is one pattern of high-dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse, which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats, we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion, DI) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using DI, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72 h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [(3)H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35 and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge-treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24 h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and after a METH binge suggest that for human beings under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles.

  10. [CONCORDANCE IN THE RESULTS OF CONTROL INTAKE PERFORMANCE OF 72 H BY DIFFERENT HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL].

    PubMed

    Benítez Brito, Néstor; Mora Mendoza, Alejandra; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Delgado Brito, Irina; Pérez Méndez, Lina I; Herrera Rodríguez, Eva María; Oliva García, José Gregorio; Pereyra-García Castro, Francisca

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el cribado nutricional CIPA es positivo cuando se cumple uno de los siguientes parametros: Control de Ingestas (CI) 72 h < 50%; albumina < 3 g/dl; Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC) < 18,5 kg/m2 o Circunferencia del Brazo (CB) ≤ 22,5 cm (si no se puede determinar IMC). El unico parametro no totalmente objetivo es el CI, por lo que este estudio busca reforzar la validez del mismo. Objetivos: analizar la concordancia existente entre diferentes profesionales sanitarios a la hora de evaluar un CI de 72 h. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo de pacientes ingresados en plantas de hospitalizacion (febrero-octubre de 2014). Variables recogidas: edad, sexo, servicio medico, CI de 72 h y tipo de dieta. El objetivo del CI es valorar la cantidad de alimento consumido, diferenciando entre ingestas superiores o inferiores al 50%. Se analiza la concordancia de los resultados del CI dictaminados por un medico, una enfermera y un nutricionista (gold-standar) mediante el coeficiente Kappa (K). Posteriormente se calculo la sensibilidad (S) y la especificidad (E) de los CI positivos. Resultados: se analizaron 176 controles de ingestas. Edad: 63,70 } 14,46 anos; 42% mujeres. Servicios: Digestivo (22,2%), Neumologia (42%), Medicina Interna (21,6%), Nefrologia (9,1%), Otros (5,1%). Tipo de dieta: basal (23,3%), terapeutica (67%), consistencia (4%), progresion (3,4%), otros (2,3%). Se comparo el CI de enfermeria vs. nutricionista (K = 0,798; p < 0,001), y del medico vs. nutricionista (K = 0,823; p < 0,001). La S y E de enfermeria vs. nutricionista fue de 84% y 97%, mientras que entre medico y nutricionista fue de 84% y 98%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: la concordancia de los resultados de un CI de 72 horas (ingestas < o > al 50%) realizado en pacientes hospitalizados por un medico, una enfermera y un nutricionista es alta, restando subjetividad a este parametro. El CI resulta util para su uso dentro de la practica clinica habitual y, en concreto, dentro de cribados

  11. Segmental extracellular and intracellular water distribution and muscle glycogen after 72-h carbohydrate loading using spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Shiose, Keisuke; Yamada, Yosuke; Motonaga, Keiko; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-07-01

    Body water content increases during carbohydrate loading because 2.7-4-g water binds each 1 g of glycogen. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) allows separate assessment of extracellular and intracellular water (ECW and ICW, respectively) in the whole body and each body segment. However, BIS has not been shown to detect changes in body water induced by carbohydrate loading. Here, we aimed to investigate whether BIS had sufficient sensitivity to detect changes in body water content and to determine segmental water distribution after carbohydrate loading. Eight subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet containing 12 g carbohydrates·kg body mass(-1)·day(-1) for 72 h after glycogen depletion cycling exercise. Changes in muscle glycogen concentration were measured by (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and total body water (TBW) was measured by the deuterium dilution technique (TBWD2O). ICW and ECW in the whole body (wrist-to-ankle) and in each body segment (arm, trunk, and leg) were assessed by BIS. Muscle glycogen concentration [72.7 ± 10.0 (SD) to 169.4 ± 55.9 mmol/kg wet wt, P < 0.001] and TBWD2O (39.3 ± 3.2 to 40.2 ± 3.0 kg, P < 0.05) increased significantly 72 h after exercise compared with baseline, respectively. Whole-body BIS showed significant increases in ICW (P < 0.05), but not in ECW. Segmental BIS showed significant increases in ICW in the legs (P < 0.05), but not in the arms or trunk. Our results suggest that increase in body water after carbohydrate loading can be detected by BIS and is caused by segment-specific increases in ICW. PMID:27231310

  12. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  13. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  14. [Update on fecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Helena; Nocito, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Fecal incontinence is defined as an accidental loss of stool or the inability to control defecation. There are three subtypes of fecal incontinence: passive incontinence, urge incontinence and soiling. About 8% of the adult population suffer from fecal incontinence, but only 1/3 consults a doctor. Beside the individual handicap, fecal incontinence has a huge socio-economic impact. Causes of fecal incontinence are changes in the quantity or quality of the stool and structural or functional disorders. Diagnostics encompass the medical history, clinical examination including the digital rectal examination, imaging (particularly endoanal ultrasound) as well as functional diagnostics (anal manometry and defecography). Nowadays, the most promising conservative treatment option consists of loperamide and biofeedback therapy. The most successful invasive method is the sacral neuromodulation.

  15. High-fat and fructose intake induces insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and liver steatosis and alters in vivo macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Briand, François; Thiéblemont, Quentin; Muzotte, Elodie; Sulpice, Thierry

    2012-04-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) promotes the egress of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for biliary and fecal excretion. Although not demonstrated in vivo, RCT is thought to be impaired in patients with metabolic syndrome, in which liver steatosis prevalence is relatively high. Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a nonpurified (CON) diet and normal drinking water or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 27% fat, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.25% deoxycholate as well as 10% fructose in drinking water for 4 wk. Compared to CON, the HF diet induced insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, with significantly higher plasma non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations and cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity. The HF diet induced severe liver steatosis, with significantly higher cholesterol and TG levels compared to CON. In vivo RCT was assessed by i.p. injecting ³H-cholesterol labeled macrophages. Compared to CON, HF hamsters had significantly greater ³H-tracer recoveries in plasma, but not HDL. After 72 h, ³H-tracer recovery in HF hamsters was 318% higher in liver and 75% lower in bile (P < 0.01), indicating that the HF diet impaired hepatic cholesterol fluxes. However, macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion was 45% higher in HF hamsters than in CON hamsters. This effect was not related to intestinal cholesterol absorption, which was 89% higher in HF hamsters (P < 0.05), suggesting a possible upregulation of transintestinal cholesterol excretion. Our data indicate a significant increase in macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion in a hamster model of metabolic syndrome, which may not compensate for the diet-induced dyslipidemia and liver steatosis.

  16. Characterization of Clade 7.2 H5 Avian Influenza Viruses That Continue To Circulate in Chickens in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liling; Zeng, Xianying; Chen, Pucheng; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Gu, Chunyang; Kong, Huihui; Suzuki, Yasuo; Jiang, Yongping; Tian, Guobin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The H5N1 avian influenza viruses emerged in Southeast Asia in the late 20th century and have evolved into multiple phylogenetic clades based on their hemagglutinin (HA)-encoding genes. The clade 7.2 viruses were first detected in chickens in northern China in 2006, and vaccines specifically targeted to the clade were developed and have been used in poultry in China since 2006. During routine surveillance and disease diagnosis, we isolated seven H5 viruses between 2011 and 2014 that bear the clade 7.2 HA genes. Here, we performed extensive studies to understand how the clade 7.2 H5 viruses have evolved in chickens in China. Full genome sequence analysis revealed that the seven viruses formed two subtypes (four H5N1 viruses and three H5N2 viruses) and four genotypes by deriving genes from other influenza viruses. All of the viruses had antigenically drifted from the clade 7.2 viruses that were isolated in 2006. Pathogenicity studies of four viruses, one from each genotype, revealed that all of the viruses are highly pathogenic in chickens, but none of them could replicate in ducks. The four viruses exclusively bound to avian-type receptors and replicated only in the turbinates and/or lungs of mice; none of them were lethal to mice at a dosage of 106 50% egg infective doses (EID50). Our study indicates that although the clade 7.2 viruses have not been eradicated from poultry through vaccination, they have not become more dangerous to other animals (e.g., ducks and mice) and humans. IMPORTANCE Animal influenza viruses can acquire the ability to infect and kill humans. The H5N1 viruses have been a concern in recent decades because of their clear pandemic potential. We sorted H5N1 influenza viruses into different phylogenetic clades based on their HA genes. The clade 7.2 viruses were detected in chickens in several provinces of northern China in 2006. Vaccines for these viruses were subsequently developed and have been used ever since to control infection of poultry. Here, we analyzed the genetic and biologic properties of seven clade 7.2 viruses that were isolated from chickens between 2011 and 2014. We found that after nearly 9 years of circulation in chickens, the clade 7.2 viruses still exclusively bind to avian-type receptors and are of low pathogenicity to mice, suggesting that these H5 viruses pose a low risk to human public health. PMID:27558424

  17. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Find a Doctor Join eNewsletter Sidebar × MOBILE MENU About Us What is Incontinence? Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's Guide to Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of ...

  18. Constipation and Fecal Soiling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase fluids in the diet, especially water and water rich foods (which usually are fiber-rich). (continued on next page) Fecal Soiling continued 5. Increase physical activity. Exercise helps the colon move. 6. It is ...

  19. The fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  20. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

  1. [Fecal microbiota transplantation].

    PubMed

    Šturdík, Igor; Hlavatý, Tibor; Payer, Juraj

    2016-02-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a therapeutic method, in which the fecal microflora from healthy donors is transmitted to the patient to restore the healthy microbial composition of the gut. In the recent years, there is a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of FMT in various diseases. The standard FMT protocols do not exist. Procedures of FMT vary in several aspects such as donor selection, preparation of fecal material, preparation of the recipient and administration way. FMT appears to be the most successful in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), randomized controlled studies reported 90 % success rate. There is a limited evidence for FMT as a treatment of ulcerative colitis. FMT has been also studied as treatment of diseases with impaired gut microbiota, such as cardiovascular, autoimmune and metabolic diseases. Many unanswered questions with regard to FMT remain and further research is needed. PMID:27172442

  2. GABA-BZD Receptor Modulating Mechanism of Panax quinquefolius against 72-h Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety like Behavior: Possible Roles of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Priyanka; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng) is known for its therapeutic potential against various neurological disorders, but its plausible mechanism of action still remains undeciphered. GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) plays an important role in sleep wake cycle homeostasis. Thus, there exists rationale in exploring the GABA-ergic potential of Panax quinquefolius as neuroprotective strategy in sleep deprivation induced secondary neurological problems. Objective: The present study was designed to explore the possible GABA-ergic mechanism in the neuro-protective effect of Panax quinquefolius against 72-h sleep deprivation induced anxiety like behavior, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, HPA-axis activation and neuroinflammation. Materials and Methods: Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72-h by using Grid suspended over water method. Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with GABA modulators (GABA Cl− channel inhibitor, GABA-benzodiazepine receptor inhibitor and GABAA agonist) for 8 days, starting 5 days prior to 72-h sleep deprivation period. Various behavioral (locomotor activity, mirror chamber test), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels), mitochondrial complexes, neuroinflammation marker (Tumor Necrosis Factor, TNF-alpha), serum corticosterone, and histopathological sections of brains were assessed. Results: Seventy two hours sleep deprivation significantly impaired locomotor activity, caused anxiety-like behavior, conditions of oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complex activities, raised serum corticosterone levels, brain TNFα levels and led to neuroinflammation like signs in discrete brain areas as compared to naive group. Panax quinquefolius (100 and 200 mg/kg) treatment restored the behavioral, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations. Pre-treatment of GABA Cl− channel

  3. Bile acids and pH values in total feces and in fecal water from habitually omnivorous and vegetarian subjects.

    PubMed

    van Faassen, A; Hazen, M J; van den Brandt, P A; van den Bogaard, A E; Hermus, R J; Janknegt, R A

    1993-12-01

    Twenty habitually omnivorous subjects and 19 habitually lactoovovegetarian subjects aged 59-65 y collected feces during 4 consecutive days. The concentrations of bile acids in total feces did not differ between the omnivores and vegetarians, but the bile acid concentrations in fecal water were significantly lower in the vegetarians. The concentration of the colorectal cancer-predicting bile acid deoxycholic acid in fecal water was explained by the intake of saturated fat and the daily fecal wet weight (r2 = 0.50). Fecal pH did not differ between the omnivores and vegetarians. This variable was significantly (P < 0.05) explained by the intake of calcium (r2 = 0.30); 24-h fecal wet weight and defecation frequency were significantly higher in the vegetarians. In conclusion, our vegetarian subjects had a lower concentration of deoxycholic acid in fecal water, higher fecal wet weight, and higher defecation frequency than the omnivorous subjects.

  4. The impact of stunning methods on stress conditions and quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets stored at 4°C during 72h postmortem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longteng; Li, Qian; Lyu, Jian; Kong, Chunli; Song, Sijia; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate different stunning methods [percussion (T1), immersion in ice/water slurry (T2), and gill cut (T3)] on quality and stress conditions of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets stored at 4°C in 72h postmortem. Rigor index (RI%), behavioral analysis, levels of lactic acid and muscle glycogen were measured for stress level evaluation. Meanwhile, sensory assessment, texture properties, cooking loss, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) related compounds, adenosine monophosphate deaminase (ADA) activity, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity were analyzed. The least stress condition, significantly (P<0.05) higher initial glycogen content was observed in T1. Ice/water stunning reduced the rate of ATP degradation, reflected in the lowest K value during 72h. Aversive behaviors, significantly (P<0.05) higher cooking loss, hypoxanthine riboside (HxR) content, and lower sensory score were observed in T3. The results indicated that gill cut in aquatic processing industry should be avoided for inferior quality and aversive reactions during stunning. PMID:27596401

  5. [Fecal fermentation in meteorism].

    PubMed

    León-Barúa, R; Zapata-Solari, C

    1977-12-01

    An old test to investigate fecal fermentation was modified with the purpose of changing it from qualitative to quantitative. The modified test consists in placing in stove, at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, 5 grams of feces, suspended in water. The fermentable alimentary residues, present in the feces, suffer the action of bacteria, also there present, yielding gas that is collected and measured. Using the test, fecal fermentation was determined in 3 groups of individuals: a) 40 patients with meteorism that had persisted or improved only slightly or fairly with treatment; b) 28 apparently healthy subjects; and c) 6 patients with meteorism that had disappeared or become minimal with treatment. In the group of 28 apparently healthy subject, the obtained results varied from 0.1 to 1.1 ml gas/24 h., with a mean +/- s.d. of 0.55 +/- 0.29 ml. gas/24 h. When a distribution curve was made with the results obtained in the group of 40 patients with meteorism, these results separated into 2 subgroups: one subgroup with 28 patients, in whom results varied from 1.0 to 13.3 ml. gas/24 h., with a mean of 4.8 gas/24 h. (only) in 1 of these 28 patients a normal result of 1.0 ml. gas/24 h. was obtained, while in the remaining 27 patients results of 1.5 or more ml. gas/24 h. were obtained); and the other subgroup with 12 patients, in whom results varied from 0.0 to 0.9 ml. gas/24 h., with a mean of 0.29 ml. gas/24 h. Finally, in the group of 6 patients with successfully treated meteorism, results were from 0.1 to 0.9 ml. gas/24 h., with a mean of 0.4 ml. gas/24 h. The above mentioned results strongly suggest the existence of a relationship between meteorism and exagerated fecal fermentation. The nature of this relationship has not yet been completely clarified. However, the test used to determine fecal fermentation already promises to be very helpful for a better understanding and management of meteorism.

  6. Insulin resistance after a 72-h fast is associated with impaired AS160 phosphorylation and accumulation of lipid and glycogen in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vendelbo, M. H.; Clasen, B. F. F.; Treebak, J. T.; Møller, L.; Krusenstjerna-Hafstrøm, T.; Madsen, M.; Nielsen, T. S.; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H.; Pedersen, S. B.; Jørgensen, J. O. L.; Goodyear, L. J.; Wojtaszewski, J. F. P.; Møller, N.

    2012-01-01

    During fasting, human skeletal muscle depends on lipid oxidation for its energy substrate metabolism. This is associated with the development of insulin resistance and a subsequent reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The underlying mechanisms controlling insulin action on skeletal muscle under these conditions are unresolved. In a randomized design, we investigated eight healthy subjects after a 72-h fast compared with a 10-h overnight fast. Insulin action on skeletal muscle was assessed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and by determining insulin signaling to glucose transport. In addition, substrate oxidation, skeletal muscle lipid content, regulation of glycogen synthesis, and AMPK signaling were assessed. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was reduced profoundly in response to a 72-h fast and substrate oxidation shifted to predominantly lipid oxidation. This was associated with accumulation of both lipid and glycogen in skeletal muscle. Intracellular insulin signaling to glucose transport was impaired by regulation of phosphorylation at specific sites on AS160 but not TBC1D1, both key regulators of glucose uptake. In contrast, fasting did not impact phosphorylation of AMPK or insulin regulation of Akt, both of which are established upstream kinases of AS160. These findings show that insulin resistance in muscles from healthy individuals is associated with suppression of site-specific phosphorylation of AS160, without Akt or AMPK being affected. This impairment of AS160 phosphorylation, in combination with glycogen accumulation and increased intramuscular lipid content, may provide the underlying mechanisms for resistance to insulin in skeletal muscle after a prolonged fast. PMID:22028408

  7. Sequence of a cloned pR72H fragment and its use for detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish with the PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C Y; Pan, S F; Chen, C H

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of pR72H cloned from Vibrio parahaemolyticus 93 was determined. We examined all V. parahaemolyticus gene sequences published in the GenBank-EMBL databases for homology and found that no other DNA sequence of V. parahaemolyticus was highly homologous to the sequence reported in this study. A pair of primers, VP33-VP32, derived from a pR72H fragment were selected to detect V. parahaemolyticus. The sensitivity of PCR detection for a pure culture of V. parahaemolyticus was 10 cells from crude bacterial lysates. Furthermore, a detection level of 2.6 fg, equivalent to 1 cell, was obtained by using purified chromosomal DNA as the template. The expected PCR products were obtained from all V. parahaemolyticus strains tested (n = 124), while no PCR amplicons were found in other vibrios or related genera (n = 50). High levels (10(6) to 10(10) CFU/ml) of Escherichia coli cells did not affect the PCR assay sensitivity. The presence of 10(8) V. parahaemolyticus cells or 10(9) E. coli cells in the PCR mixtures completely inhibited the PCR. When oyster samples were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus 93 and cultured in tryptic soy broth containing 3% NaCl for 3 h at 35 degrees C, an initial sample inoculum level of 9.3 CFU/g was detected in a PCR assay with crude bacterial lysates. The PCR assay with enrichment culturing in salt polymyxin broth was compared with the conventional method for naturally contaminated shellfish and fish samples. We conclude that this PCR assay with enrichment culturing is a good alternative method for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:7747952

  8. Maximal voluntary contraction force, SR function and glycogen resynthesis during the first 72 h after a high-level competitive soccer game.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Ortenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Joachim; Nybo, Lars; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Iaia, F Marcello; Madsen, Klavs; Stephens, Francis; Greenhaff, Paul; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine maximal voluntary knee-extensor contraction force (MVC force), sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and muscle glycogen levels in the days after a high-level soccer game when players ingested an optimised diet. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy and a blood sample collected in a control situation and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after a competitive soccer game. MVC force, SR function, muscle glycogen, muscle soreness and plasma myoglobin were measured. MVC force sustained over 1 s was 11 and 10% lower (P < 0.05) after 0 and 24 h, respectively, compared with control. The rate of SR Ca(2+) uptake at 800 nM [Ca(2+)](free) was lower (P < 0.05) after 0 h (2.5 μmol Ca(2+) g prot(-1) min(-1)) than for all other time points (24 h: 5.1 μmol Ca(2+) g prot(-1) min(-1)). However, SR Ca(2+) release rate was not affected. Plasma myoglobin was sixfold higher (P < 0.05) immediately after the game, but normalised 24 h after the game. Quadriceps muscle soreness (0-10 VAS-scale) was higher (P < 0.05) after 0 h (3.6), 24 h (1.8), 48 h (1.1) and 72 h (1.4) compared with control (0.1). Muscle glycogen was 57 and 27% lower (P < 0.001) 0 and 24 h after the game compared with control (193 and 328 vs. 449 mmol kg d w(-1)). In conclusion, maximal voluntary contraction force and SR Ca(2+) uptake were impaired and muscle soreness was elevated after a high-level soccer game, with faster recovery of SR function in comparison with MVC force, soreness and muscle glycogen.

  9. Association between thermal environment and Salmonella in fecal samples from dairy cattle in midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Likavec, Tasha; Pires, Alda F A; Funk, Julie A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the association between thermal measures in the barn environment (pen temperature and humidity) and fecal shedding of Salmonella in dairy cattle. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted within a commercial dairy herd located in the midwestern United States. Five pooled fecal samples were collected monthly from each pen for 9 mo and submitted for microbiological culture. Negative binomial regression methods were used to test the association [incidence rate ratio (IRR)] between Salmonella pen status (the count of Salmonella-positive pools) and thermal environmental parameters [average temperature and temperature humidity index (THI)] for 3 time periods (48 h, 72 h, and 1 wk) before fecal sampling. Salmonella was cultured from 10.8% [39/360; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.8% to 14.5%] of pooled samples. The highest proportion of positive pools occurred in August. The IRR ranged from 1.26 (95% CI: 1.15 to 1.39, THI 1 wk) to 4.5 (95% CI: 2.13 to 9.51, heat exposure 1 wk) across all thermal parameters and lag time periods measured. For example, the incidence rate of Salmonella-positive pools increased by 54% for every 5°C increment in average temperature (IRR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.85) and 29% for every 5-unit increase in THI (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.42) during the 72 h before sampling. The incidence rate ratio for pens exposed to higher temperatures (> 25°C) was 4.5 times (95% CI: 2.13 to 9.51) the incidence rate ratio for pens exposed to temperatures < 25°C in the 72 h before sampling. Likewise, the incidence rate ratio for pens exposed to THI > 70 was 4.23 times greater (95% CI: 2.1 to 8.28) than when the THI was < 70 in the 72 h before sampling. An association was found between the thermal environment and Salmonella shedding in dairy cattle. Further research is warranted in order to fully understand the component risks associated with the summer season and increased Salmonella shedding. PMID:27408330

  10. Long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor correlates with butyrate production and markers of protein fermentation during in vitro fecal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2014-09-01

    Diet influences gut microbiota composition. Therefore, we hypothesized that diet would impact the extent of dietary fiber utilization and the types of metabolic end-products produced by the microbiota during in vitro fecal fermentation. By obtaining long-term dietary records from fecal donors, we aimed to determine the correlations between dietary intake variables and dietary fiber degradation and short-/branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation. Eighteen subjects completed 1-year diet history questionnaires and provided fecal samples that were used for in vitro fermentation of a whole wheat substrate. The percentage of dietary fiber fermented was not correlated with nutrient intakes; however, butyrate production was correlated with fecal donor intake of many nutrients of which principal component analysis revealed were mostly contributed by grain-, nut-, and vegetable-based foods. Negative correlations were found for propionate with intake of total carbohydrate, added sugar, and sucrose and for ammonia and BCFA production with intake of unsaturated fats. Thus, our analysis did not support our first hypothesis: the percentage of dietary fiber fermented during in vitro fermentation was not correlated with dietary records. However, production of butyrate; BCFA; ammonia; and, to a lesser extent, propionate was correlated with the diet records of fecal donors, thus supporting our second hypothesis. These results suggest that diets high in plant-based foods and high in unsaturated fats are associated with microbial metabolism that is consistent with host health.

  11. Bowel Functions, Fecal Unconjugated Primary and Secondary Bile Acids, and Colonic Transit in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrea; Camilleri, Michael; Vijayvargiya, Priya; Busciglio, Irene; Burton, Duane; Ryks, Michael; Rhoten, Deborah; Lueke, Alan; Saenger, Amy; Girtman, Adam; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims There is an unclear relationship among bowel symptoms, excretion of unconjugated fecal bile acid (UBA), and colonic transit in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We measured total and main individual UBA in fecal samples of patients with IBS, and assessed relationships among stool frequency or consistency, fecal UBA (total and individual), and colonic transit. Methods In a study of 30 healthy volunteers (controls), 31 subjects with IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), and 30 with IBS with constipation (IBS-C) were placed on 4-day diets containing 100 g fat; we measured stool characteristics, total fecal UBA and fat levels, and overall colonic transit. We assessed univariate associations of total and individual levels of fecal UBA with phenotype (controls, IBS-D, IBS-C) using the Kruskal-Wallis test; associations between endpoints were assessed using Spearman correlations. With response surface regression models, we assessed relationships between stool, colonic transit, and fecal total and secretory UBA. Results There was a significant association between total fecal UBA and phenotype (P=.029); the association was greater for IBS-D than IBS-C, compared with controls. Fecal levels of primary UBAs (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids) were higher in subjects with IBS-D, compared with controls (both P<.01). Levels of fecal secretory UBAs (chenodeoxycholic acids, P=.019; deoxycholic acid, P=.025) were lower in subjects with IBS-C compared with controls, whereas levels of the nonsecretory UBA, lithocholic acid, were higher (P=.020). There were significant univariate associations between stool number and form and total fecal UBA (including percentages of lithocholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acids, and cholic acid), fecal fat, and colonic transit at 24 and 48 h after eating. In the regression models, the relative contribution of colonic transit was consistently greater, and largely independent of the contribution of bile acids. Conclusions Measurements of individual UBAs

  12. Surgical Management for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Anandam, Joselin L.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a socially debilitating condition that can lead to social isolation, loss of self-esteem and self-confidence, and depression in an otherwise healthy person. After the appropriate clinical evaluation and diagnostic testing, medical management is initially instituted to treat fecal incontinence. Once medical management fails, there are a few surgical procedures that can be considered. This article is devoted to the various surgical options for fecal incontinence including the history, technical details, and studies demonstrating the complication and success rate. PMID:25320569

  13. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  14. Specific probiotics or 'fecal transplantation'.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem consists mainly of the enteric flora and to a large extent determines intestinal but also extraintestinal health and disease. General alterations and specific molecular changes of intestinal bacteria cause local as well as systemic immune reactions. Nonantibiotic treatment of the enteric flora has a long tradition and spans a range of different interventions from nutrition to specific probiotics and complete fecal transplantation. When comparing therapy to specific probiotics and fecal transplantation, several aspects need to be considered, like biological consequences, safety and therapeutic evidence. The introduction of probiotics into therapy occurred more than hundred years ago. In contrast, experiences with fecal transplantation are more recent and more limited. Safety issues have not been definitively clarified. Because of the different biological activities of probiotics and fecal transplantation, it can be hypothesized that they may play different roles in the treatment of various diseases. More research is needed before the details, safety and therapeutic effects of bacteriotherapy for IBD become sufficiently clear.

  15. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  16. Non-invasive monitoring of core body temperature rhythms over 72 h in 10 bedridden elderly patients with disorders of consciousness in a Japanese hospital: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Sugama, Junko; Okuwa, Mayumi; Dai, Misako; Matsuo, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the body core temperature rhythms of bedridden elderly patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) in a Japanese hospital using a simple, non-invasive, deep-body thermometer. We measured body core temperature on the surface of abdomen in 10 bedridden elderly patients with DOC continuously over 72 h. A non-heated core body temperature thermometer was used. The cycle of the body core temperature rhythm was initially derived by using the least squares method. Then, based on that rhythm, the mean, amplitude, and times of day of the highest and lowest body temperatures during the optimum cycle were determined using the cosinor method. We found a 24-h cycle in seven of the 10 patients. One patient had a 6-h, one a 12-h, and one a 63-h cycle. The mean value of the cosine curve in the respective optimum cycles was 36.48 ± 0.34 °C, and the amplitude was 0.22 ± 0.09 °C. Of the seven subjects with 24-h cycles, the highest body temperature occurred between 12:58 and 14:44 h in four. In addition to 24-h cycles of core temperature rhythm, short cycles of 12 and 6-h and a long cycle of 63-h were seen. In order to understand the temperature rhythms of bedridden elderly patients with DOC, it is necessary to monitor their core body temperatures, ideally using a simple, non-invasive device. In the future, it will be important to investigate the relationship of the core temperature rhythm to nursing care and living environment.

  17. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

  18. Current Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer Y; Abbas, Maher A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the management of fecal incontinence, which affects more than 1 in 10 people and can have a substantial negative impact on quality of life. Methods: The medical literature between 1980 and April 2012 was reviewed for the evaluation and management of fecal incontinence. Results: A comprehensive history and physical examination are required to help understand the severity and type of symptoms and the cause of incontinence. Treatment options range from medical therapy and minimally invasive interventions to more invasive procedures with varying degrees of morbidity. The treatment approach must be tailored to each patient. Many patients can have substantial improvement in symptoms with dietary management and biofeedback therapy. For younger patients with large sphincter defects, sphincter repair can be helpful. For patients in whom biofeedback has failed, other options include injectable medications, radiofrequency ablation, or sacral nerve stimulation. Patients with postdefecation fecal incontinence and a rectocele can benefit from rectocele repair. An artificial bowel sphincter is reserved for patients with more severe fecal incontinence. Conclusion: The treatment algorithm for fecal incontinence will continue to evolve as additional data become available on newer technologies. PMID:24355892

  19. How much dietary fat in therapeutic nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Simko, V.

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fat has a less prominent role in realimentation than the alternate source of energy, carbohydrate. Presently available therapeutic diets, in typical feeding routines, provide only 3 to 120 g of fat per day. Three major factors contribute to fat underutilization: long-standing belief that fat is to blame for various vague symptoms of indigestion, misconception that daily fecal fat in excess of 7 g represents bowel dysfunction, and fear of fat-induced atherogenesis. None of these apply to refeeding starved and malnourished patients. The small intestine has a vastly underutilized capacity for fat absorption, and at the habitual fat intake of 100 g per day absorption is complete in the proximal one fifth of the gut. In patients requiring vigorous realimentation, the remaining small intestine should also be utilized. Dietary fat is well tolerated, and daily intakes of 500 g of polyunsaturated fat in a complete diet have not been associated with important side effects, while there was a significant improvement in body stores of fat and protein. Compared to diets high in carbohydrate, adequate intake of fat results in better nutrient utilization, less CO2 production and decreased lipogenesis and insulin requirements. Diets higher in fat are also better tolerated because of their lower volume and osmolality. The result is more effective absorption of calories and a faster nutritional recovery. Increased adipose tissue and protein reserve benefits patients who are in stress, immunocompromised, or debilitated. Adequate dietary fat should be considered for malnourished subjects with intact gastrointestinal function, and when intestinal absorptive capacity is reduced by surgery or disease. PMID:2194611

  20. Effect of Colesevelam on Fecal Bile Acids and Bowel Functions in Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene; Boldingh, Amy; Dyer, Roy B.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Lueke, Alan; Gray, Amber; Donato, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Background About one-third of patients with IBS-diarrhea (IBS-D) have evidence of increased bile acid (BA) synthesis or excretion. Aims To assess effects of the BA sequestrant, colesevelam, on fecal excretion of BAs, hepatic BA synthesis and diarrhea in IBS-D; to appraise whether individual or random stool samples accurately reflect 48-hour total fecal BA excretion and proportions of the main BAs excreted; to study the fecal fat excretion in response to colesevelam. Methods Study design: A single-center, unblinded, single-dose trial of effects of colesevelam, 1875mg [3 tablets (625mg tablets)] orally, twice daily, for 10 days on total 48-hour fecal BA excretion and fasting serum C4 (surrogate of hepatic BA synthesis). Stool diaries documented bowel functions for 8 days prior and 8 days during colesevelam treatment. Stool 48-hour samples and fasting serum were collected for fecal fat, fecal BA and serum C4. Results Colesevelam was associated with significantly increased fecal total BA excretion and deoxycholic acid excretion, increased serum C4, and more solid stool consistency. There was a significant inverse correlation between number of bowel movements per week and the total BA sequestered into stool during the last 48 hours of treatment. Random stool samples did not accurately reflect 48-hour total or individual fecal BA excretion. Sequestration of BAs by colesevelam did not increase fecal fat. Conclusions Colesevelam increases delivery of BAs to stool while improving stool consistency, and increases hepatic BA synthesis, avoiding steatorrhea in patients with IBS-D. Overall effects are consistent with luminal BA sequestration by colesevelam. PMID:25594801

  1. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  2. Fecal microbiota transplantation: in perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shaan; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Petrof, Elaine O.

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of the human gut microbiome to elucidate the therapeutic potential of its manipulation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the administration of a solution of fecal matter from a donor into the intestinal tract of a recipient in order to directly change the recipient’s gut microbial composition and confer a health benefit. FMT has been used to successfully treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. There are preliminary indications to suggest that it may also carry therapeutic potential for other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26929784

  3. Lactobacillus gasseri NT decreased visceral fat through enhancement of lipid excretion in feces of KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Yonejima, Yasunori; Ushida, Kazunari; Mori, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus gasseri NT significantly decreased visceral fat weight and triglyceride (TG) in the liver in KK-A(y) mice on a high-fat diet, but increased fecal TG. A decrease in lipase activity and down regulation of fatty acid transport proteins in the small intestine was involved in fat accumulation by L. gasseri NT.

  4. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  5. Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Fecal Occult Blood Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... test kit to measure the presence of hidden (occult) blood in your stool (feces). What is fecal ...

  6. Influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2013-05-01

    Little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. In particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. Four animals of each captive exotic species (jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyz jubatus), Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), and Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) were randomized in four 4 × 4 Latin square designs (1 Latin square per species) to 1 of the 4 raw beef-based dietary treatments (94.7 to 96.7% beef trimmings): 2 or 4% cellulose or 2 or 4% beet pulp. Felid species, fiber type, and fiber concentration all impacted digestibility and fecal fermentative end-products. Inclusion of beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal short-chain fatty acids and fecal output in all cats. Inclusion of 2 and 4% cellulose, and 4% beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal bulk and diluted fecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations compared with 2% beet pulp. Apparent total tract DM, OM, fat, and GE digestibility coefficients decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with BW of cats. Additionally, fecal moisture, fecal score, and concentrations of fermentative end-products increased (P ≤ 0.05) with BW. Although the response of many outcomes was dependent on cat size, in general, beet pulp increased wet fecal weight, fecal scores, and fecal metabolites, and reduced fecal pH. Cellulose generally reduced DM and OM digestibility, but increased dry fecal weight and fecal percent DM. Although beet pulp and cellulose fibers were tested individually in this study, these data indicate that the optimum fiber type and concentration for inclusion in captive exotic felid diets is likely a combination of fermentable and

  7. Influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2013-05-01

    Little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. In particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. Four animals of each captive exotic species (jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyz jubatus), Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), and Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) were randomized in four 4 × 4 Latin square designs (1 Latin square per species) to 1 of the 4 raw beef-based dietary treatments (94.7 to 96.7% beef trimmings): 2 or 4% cellulose or 2 or 4% beet pulp. Felid species, fiber type, and fiber concentration all impacted digestibility and fecal fermentative end-products. Inclusion of beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal short-chain fatty acids and fecal output in all cats. Inclusion of 2 and 4% cellulose, and 4% beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal bulk and diluted fecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations compared with 2% beet pulp. Apparent total tract DM, OM, fat, and GE digestibility coefficients decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with BW of cats. Additionally, fecal moisture, fecal score, and concentrations of fermentative end-products increased (P ≤ 0.05) with BW. Although the response of many outcomes was dependent on cat size, in general, beet pulp increased wet fecal weight, fecal scores, and fecal metabolites, and reduced fecal pH. Cellulose generally reduced DM and OM digestibility, but increased dry fecal weight and fecal percent DM. Although beet pulp and cellulose fibers were tested individually in this study, these data indicate that the optimum fiber type and concentration for inclusion in captive exotic felid diets is likely a combination of fermentable and

  8. Clinical value of dual-isotope fat absorption test system (FATS) using glycerol (/sup 125/I)trioleate and glycerol (/sup 75/Se)triether

    SciTech Connect

    Lembcke, B.; Loesler, A.C.; Caspary, W.F.; Schuernbrand, P.E.; Emrich, D.; Creutzfeldt, W.

    1986-08-01

    In order to delineate the clinical value of a dual-isotope fat absorption test system (FATS) using glycerol (/sup 75/Se)triether as lipid-phase marker and glycerol (/sup 125/I)trioleate as the test lipid, fecal isotope ratios from single stools (and a 72-hr stool homogenate) were compared to quantitative fecal fat excretion. The study included 11 patients without and 24 patients with steatorrhea. With a figure of 0.8% as the upper limit of normal, the test was a reliable indicator of steatorrhea with 87.5% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity; efficiency was 85.7%. Related to a prevalence of steatorrhea of 45.9% as the mean value of 1269 consecutive 72-hr specimens investigated for steatorrhea during 1978-1982, the positive (negative) predictive value of the FATS is 80.3% (87.2%). With 2% as the upper limit of normal, no false positive results ensued. It is concluded that a two-step interpretation of the FATS (0.8% limit and 2% limit) may be regarded a valid qualitative index for steatorrhea. The FATS isotope ratio using single stools correlated well with FATS ratios in the 72-hr stool homogenates (r = 0.97). FATS therefore allows a convenient estimate of steatorrhea from measuring single stools. As a quantitative measure of fecal fat excretion, the FATS is unreliable.

  9. Characterisation of Fecal Soap Fatty Acids, Calcium Contents, Bacterial Community and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed with Different sn-2 Palmitic Triacylglycerols Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Ni, Kefeng; Chang, Guifang; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli

    2016-01-01

    The structure of dietary triacylglycerols is thought to influence fatty acid and calcium absorption, as well as intestinal microbiota population of the host. In the present study, we investigated the impact of palmitic acid (PA) esterified at the sn-2 position on absorption of fatty acid and calcium and composition of intestinal microorganisms in rats fed high-fat diets containing either low sn-2 PA (12.1%), medium sn-2 PA (40.4%) or high sn-2 PA (56.3%), respectively. Fecal fatty acid profiles in the soaps were measured by gas chromatography (GC), while fecal calcium concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The fecal microbial composition was assessed using a 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology and fecal short-chain fatty acids were detected by ion chromatograph. Dietary supplementation with a high sn-2 PA fat significantly reduced total fecal contents of fatty acids soap and calcium compared with the medium or low sn-2 PA fat groups. Diet supplementation with sn-2 PA fat did not change the entire profile of the gut microbiota community at phylum level and the difference at genera level also were minimal in the three treatment groups. However, high sn-2 PA fat diet could potentially improve total short-chain fatty acids content in the feces, suggesting that high dietary sn-2 PA fat might have a beneficial effect on host intestinal health. PMID:27783700

  10. Fecal transplant policy and legislation

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Aekka, Apoorva; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has garnered significant attention in recent years in the face of a reemerging Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) epidemic. Positive results from the first randomized control trial evaluating FMT have encouraged the medical community to explore the process further and expand its application beyond C. difficile infections and even the gastrointestinal domain. However promising and numerous the prospects of FMT appear, the method remains limited in scope today due to several important barriers, most notably a poorly defined federal regulatory policy. The Food and Drug Administration has found it difficult to standardize and regulate the administration of inherently variable, metabolically active, and ubiquitously available fecal material. The current cumbersome policy, which classifies human feces as a drug, has prevented physicians from providing FMT and deserving patients from accessing FMT in a timely fashion, and subsequent modifications seem only to be temporary. The argument for reclassifying fecal material as human tissue is well supported. Essentially, this would allow for a regulatory framework that is sufficiently flexible to expand access to care and facilitate research, but also appropriately restrictive and centralized to ensure patient safety. Such an approach can facilitate the advancement of FMT to a more refined, controlled, and aesthetic process, perhaps in the form of a customized and well-characterized stool substitute therapy. PMID:25574076

  11. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Lipids in food are subjected to many chemical reactions during processing and storage. While some of these reactions are desirable, others are undesirable; so, efforts are made to minimize the reactions and their effects. The laboratory deals with the characterization of fats and oils with respect to composition, structure, and reactivity.

  12. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  13. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A ... over each gram of fat. continue Types of Fat You might see ads for foods that say ...

  14. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Know Your Fats Updated:Mar 28,2016 LDL cholesterol is affected ... eat for a period of time. Know Your Fats Saturated fat The majority of saturated fat comes ...

  15. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay close ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay close ...

  16. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... packaged foods have a nutrition label that includes fat content. Reading food labels can help you keep track of how ... of fats. Some have higher amounts of healthy fats than others. Foods and oils with higher amounts of monounsaturated fats ...

  17. DYNAMICS OF AQUATIC FECAL CONTAMINATION, FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, AND CORRELATION OF BACTEROIDALES HOST-SPECIFIC MARKERS DETECTION WITH FECAL PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution impairs the health and productivity of coastal waters and causes human disease. PCR of host-specific 16S rDNA sequences from anaerobic Bacteroidales bacteria offers a promising method of tracking fecal contamination and identifying its source(s). Before Bacteroida...

  18. Colestilan decreases weight gain by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and fecal lipid excretion.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto-Kawabata, Kanami; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakai, Kaoru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kelder, Thomas; Pieterman, Elsbet J; Cohen, Louis H; Havekes, Louis M; Princen, Hans M; van den Hoek, Anita M

    2013-05-01

    Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) are cholesterol-lowering drugs that also affect hyperglycemia. The mechanism by which BASs exert these and other metabolic effects beyond cholesterol lowering remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a BAS, colestilan, on body weight, energy expenditure, and glucose and lipid metabolism and its mechanisms of action in high-fat-fed hyperlipidemic APOE*3 Leiden (E3L) transgenic mice. Mildly insulin-resistant E3L mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1.5% colestilan for 8 weeks. Colestilan treatment decreased body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased food intake. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were decreased, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis demonstrated improved insulin sensitivity, particularly in peripheral tissues. In addition, colestilan decreased energy expenditure and physical activity, whereas it increased the respiratory exchange ratio, indicating that colestilan induced carbohydrate catabolism. Moreover, kinetic analysis revealed that colestilan increased [(3)H]NEFA incorporation in biliary cholesterol and phospholipids and increased fecal lipid excretion. Gene expression analysis in liver, fat, and muscle supported the above findings. In summary, colestilan decreases weight gain and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed E3L mice by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and increased fecal lipid excretion.

  19. Effect of excess dietary calcium on colon mucosal membranes and fecal lipids.

    PubMed

    Awad, A B; Short, M E; Fink, C S

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the present studies was to examine the biochemical alterations in colon apical membranes upon feeding excess calcium to animals on a saturated fatty acid-rich diet. It has been suggested recently that excess dietary calcium may offer a protection to colon membranes as judged by histologic examination. Sprague-Dawley weanling male rats were fed a semisynthetic diet containing 14% beef fat plus 2% corn oil and either the calcium requirement or excess calcium in the form of calcium carbonate. Animals were fed the diets for 4 weeks. Feces were collected in the last 3 days. The results indicate that excess dietary calcium resulted in alteration in the density of 4 protein bands of colon apical membranes upon examination on SDS-gel electrophoresis. These bands contain 20% of membrane proteins. The diet had no effect on either the lipid content or fatty acid composition of the membranes. Excess dietary calcium resulted in a 54% reduction in fecal water bile acids and a 44% reduction in fecal water free fatty acids. The reduction in fecal water lipids was due to alterations in the solubility of these lipids. This was not mediated through alterations in the pH of fecal water. The observed alterations in protein patterns of these membranes may be due to either the reduction of fecal water bile acids and free fatty acids or may be a direct effect of dietary calcium on membrane proteins.

  20. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  1. Fecal Source Identification with Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne diseases that originate from fecal pollution remain a significant public health issue. Current fecal indicator technologies recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water quality testing do not discriminate between different animal sources of fecal ...

  2. TRACKING FECAL CONTAMINATION WITH BACTEROIDALES MOLECULAR MARKERS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TILLAMOOK BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although amplification of source-specific molecular markers from Bacteroidales fecal bacteria can identify several different kinds of fecal contamination in water, it remains unclear how this technique relates to fecal indicator measurements in natural waters. The objectives of t...

  3. Fecal Incontinence: Etiology, Evaluation, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Dana M.; Weiss, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a debilitating problem facing ~2.2% of the U.S. general population over 65 years of age. Etiologic factors include traumatic, neurologic, congenital, and iatrogenic. Most commonly, obstetric trauma causes fecal incontinence as well as poorly performed anorectal surgery or pelvic radiation. Several severity scores and quality of life indexes have been developed to quantify incontinent symptoms. There are several nonsurgical and surgical options for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Biofeedback is among the most successful nonoperative strategies. Depending on the cause, anal sphincter repair, artificial bowel sphincter, and sacral nerve stimulation are used to treat fecal incontinence with some success. Unfortunately, fecal incontinence is an extremely difficult problem to manage: there has not been one, single treatment option that has proven to be both safe and effective in long-term studies. PMID:22379407

  4. Biofeedback therapy for fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D A; Hodges, K; Hershe, T; Jinich, H

    1980-10-01

    Operant conditioning offers a new therapeutic modality for fecal incontinence. Our experience with biofeedback therapy in six male and six female patients (ages 12-78 years) is presented. Incontinence was associated with a surgical procedure in six patients and with a medical condition in six patients. Rectosphincteric manometry was performed using a three balloon technic, with one balloon positioned in the rectum as a distending stimulus and the others at the internal and external sphinchters. Pressure responses to measured volumes of rectal distention were displayed on a polygraph. Rectosphincteric reflexes and sensory thresholds for rectal distention were determined. Patients were then encouraged to elevate sphinchter pressures while observing their manometric responses. Follow-up of 10-96 weeks showed ten patients had good responses, with complete continence in six patients. Nine of 10 responders required only one treatment session. Operant conditioning is a valuable technic in properly selected patients with an 80% probability of success.

  5. Moving fecal microbiota transplantation into the mainstream.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, Robert; Griesbach, Cheryl L; DiBaise, John K

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, fecal microbiota transplantation (aka fecal transplantation, fecal bacteriotherapy, FMT) has become increasing utilized to treat recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Almost 600,000 cases of CDI occur each year in the United States. Of these, an estimated 15,000 patients have a recurrence. The management of recurrent disease has been challenging for patients and clinicians. Increasingly, FMT has been recognized as an effective option for these patients. This article explores why FMT has reemerged as a practical therapeutic modality. In the process, the logistics by which the procedure is performed and the factors that may affect quality, safety, and patient outcomes will be described.

  6. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  7. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... with trans fat . These fats are most often solid at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and ... products (butter, ice cream, pudding, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm ...

  8. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when food makers turn liquid oils into solid fats, like shortening or margarine. Trans fats can ... list. It means oils have been turned to solids and trans fats. Manufacturers can show 0 grams ...

  9. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  10. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  11. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Just a Fancy Trend?

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Pierard, Denis; De Greef, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    The risks and advantages of the administration of fecal material of healthy people to patients are heavily debated. In adults, recurrent Clostridium difficile has become an accepted indication. In addition to all of the possible indications, many other questions need to be answered before pediatric indications and recommendations can be established. Optimal donor selection, fresh versus frozen stools versus capsules containing only microbiota, volume, and route of administration are just a few examples of the areas with missing data to allow in formulating recommendations for fecal microbiota or fecal material administration in children. A careful but not-too-complex regulation is the first priority in order to minimize the risk of administration of fecal slurry from unselected donors at home without medical supervision. PMID:25905546

  12. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Just a Fancy Trend?

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Pierard, Denis; De Greef, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    The risks and advantages of the administration of fecal material of healthy people to patients are heavily debated. In adults, recurrent Clostridium difficile has become an accepted indication. In addition to all of the possible indications, many other questions need to be answered before pediatric indications and recommendations can be established. Optimal donor selection, fresh versus frozen stools versus capsules containing only microbiota, volume, and route of administration are just a few examples of the areas with missing data to allow in formulating recommendations for fecal microbiota or fecal material administration in children. A careful but not-too-complex regulation is the first priority in order to minimize the risk of administration of fecal slurry from unselected donors at home without medical supervision.

  13. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  14. Elevations in plasmatic titers of corticosterone and aldosterone, in the absence of changes in ACTH, testosterone, or glial fibrillary acidic protein, 72 h following D,L-fenfluramine or D-fenfluramine administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, M T; Morford, L L; McCrea, A E; Inman-Wood, S L; Vorhees, C V

    2001-01-01

    Studies in both humans and animals demonstrate that D,L- and D-fenfluramine (D,L-FEN and D-FEN, respectively) can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis following an acute dose. No data exist showing a prolonged effect of either drug, although two studies have hinted at increased adrenal activity. There are also considerable differences in the literature pertaining to the neurotoxic effects of D,L- and D-FEN. Some possible explanations for these differences include: activation of different neurotransmitter systems, the temperature at which the animals were maintained during exposure, or the substance sampled in each study. We investigated the effects of either D,L-FEN or D-FEN on pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormones 72 h after drug exposure. Furthermore, using a dosing regimen adapted from studies on methamphetamine (e.g., four times every 2 h in a single day) known to produce elevations in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) under hyperthermic conditions, we examined the effects of D- and D,L-FEN (15 mg/kg, four times) on GFAP content when the animals were dosed at ambient temperatures of 21 or 32 degrees C. Approximately fivefold increases of corticosterone and threefold increases of aldosterone were found 72 h later under resting conditions following both D- and D,L-FEN. Nonetheless, when animals were dosed with D-FEN at 32 degrees C, no significant elevation in corticosterone was detected. No effect was observed for ACTH, testosterone, or GFAP following D- or D,L-FEN treatment. These data suggest that: (1) FEN treatment causes prolonged elevations in adrenal cortical hormones; (2) FEN-treated animals displayed hormonal characteristics similar to animals undergoing a chronic stressor as suggested by no difference in ACTH titers; (3) D,L-FEN treatment or D-FEN treatment (as reported previously) is not similar to other substituted amphetamines in that it does not increase GFAP, even under hyperthermic conditions.

  15. Effects of Dietary Different Doses of Copper and High Fructose Feeding on Rat Fecal Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoli; Song, Ming; Yin, Xinmin; Schuschke, Dale A; Koo, Imhoi; McClain, Craig J; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-09-01

    The gut microbiota plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Increased fructose consumption and inadequate copper intake are two critical risk factors in the development of NAFLD. To gain insight into the role of gut microbiota, fecal metabolites, obtained from rats exposed to different dietary levels of copper with and without high fructose intake for 4 weeks, were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF MS). In parallel, liver tissues were assessed by histology and triglyceride assay. Our data showed that high fructose feeding led to obvious hepatic steatosis in both marginal copper deficient rats and copper supplementation rats. Among the 38 metabolites detected with significant abundance alteration between groups, short chain fatty acids were markedly decreased with excessive fructose intake irrespective of copper levels. C15:0 and C17:0 long chain fatty acids, produced only by bacteria, were increased by either high copper level or high fructose intake. In addition, increased fecal urea and malic acid paralleled the increased hepatic fat accumulation. Collectively, GC × GC-TOF MS analysis of rat fecal samples revealed distinct fecal metabolome profiles associated with the dietary high fructose and copper level, with some metabolites possibly serving as potential noninvasive biomarkers of fructose induced-NAFLD.

  16. Fecal calprotectin in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Capone, Pietro; Rispo, Antonio; Imperatore, Nicola; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2014-01-14

    We would like to share with the readers the results of our experience in 50 celiac disease (CD) patients, enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013, who were referred to our third-level CD Unit. The fecal calprotectin (FC) concentration of 50 adults with newly diagnosed CD was compared to that of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. FC level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with diagnostic cut-off of 75 μg/g. In addition, we tried to correlate the FC level with symptoms, histological severity of CD (Marsh grade) and level of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (aTg) in CD patients. Finally, FC level was increased in five CD patients and in four controls (10% vs 8%, P = NS); mean FC concentration of patients and controls were 57.7 (SD ± 29.1) and 45.1 (SD ± 38.4) respectively. Furthermore, no significant correlation was seen between FC levels and symptoms/Marsh grade/aTg. The five CD patients did not show inflammatory lesions (e.g., ulcers, erosions) at upper endoscopy. The four healthy controls with positive FC were followed-up for further six months; in this observational period they did not show clinical signs of any underlying disease. On these bases, we think that FC is not able to investigate the subclinical inflammatory changes of active CD and FC should be considered a useless tool in the diagnostic work-up of uncomplicated CD but it should be accompanied by aTg when ruling out organic disease in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  17. Fecal calprotectin in coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Pietro; Rispo, Antonio; Imperatore, Nicola; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    We would like to share with the readers the results of our experience in 50 celiac disease (CD) patients, enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013, who were referred to our third-level CD Unit. The fecal calprotectin (FC) concentration of 50 adults with newly diagnosed CD was compared to that of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. FC level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with diagnostic cut-off of 75 μg/g. In addition, we tried to correlate the FC level with symptoms, histological severity of CD (Marsh grade) and level of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (aTg) in CD patients. Finally, FC level was increased in five CD patients and in four controls (10% vs 8%, P = NS); mean FC concentration of patients and controls were 57.7 (SD ± 29.1) and 45.1 (SD ± 38.4) respectively. Furthermore, no significant correlation was seen between FC levels and symptoms/Marsh grade/aTg. The five CD patients did not show inflammatory lesions (e.g., ulcers, erosions) at upper endoscopy. The four healthy controls with positive FC were followed-up for further six months; in this observational period they did not show clinical signs of any underlying disease. On these bases, we think that FC is not able to investigate the subclinical inflammatory changes of active CD and FC should be considered a useless tool in the diagnostic work-up of uncomplicated CD but it should be accompanied by aTg when ruling out organic disease in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:24574734

  18. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  19. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  20. Comparison of the fecal microflora of Seventh-Day Adventists with individuals consuming a general diet. Implications concerning colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M J; Smith, J W; Nichols, R L

    1977-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative fecal microflora was studied in a double blind fashion in 28 subjects. Fourteen were Seventh-Day Adventists, who were strict vegetarians, while the remaining 14 subjects were individuals consuming a general western diet. No statistically significant differences were identified in the fecal microflora of the two groups. The bacteriologic analysis included total aerobes and total anaerobes as well as each of the major fecal aerobes and anaerobes. This study seems to indicate that the dietary intake of animal fat and protein does not significantly alter the fecal microflora, a possibility which has previously been suggested as being part of the explanation for the higher incidence of colonic carcinoma in those who consume meat compared with vegetarians. It does not, however, invalidate the concept that dietary animal fat does increase bile acid degradation within the gastrointestinal tract, a factor which has been related to colon cancer. Future studies should be directed at identifying the factors that may be present in the gastrointestinal tracts of vegetarians which modify the ability of their colonic microflora to degrade bile acids, an essential step in the production of intraluminal carcinogens or co-carcinogens.

  1. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  2. Intermittent filtration of wastewater--removal of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ausland, G; Stevik, T K; Hanssen, J F; Køhler, J C; Jenssen, P D

    2002-08-01

    Removal of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci was monitored over a period of 13 months in 14 buried pilot scale filters, treating septic tank effluent. The effects of grain size, hydraulic dosing rate and distribution method were investigated. Two different natural sands (sorted sand and unsorted sand) and three different types of light weight aggregates (LWA 0-4 mm, LWA 2-4 mm and crushed LWA 0-3 mm) were used. Intermittent dosing rates from 20 to 80 mm/day in 12 doses per day were applied to the filters by uniform pressure distribution or point application by gravity dosing. Removal of fecal coliforms was more than three orders of magnitude higher in the media with the finest grain sizes (unsorted sand) as compared to the coarsest media (LWA 0-4 mm and LWA 2-4 mm) operated under same conditions. Fecal streptococci were determined only in effluent from filters with LWA 0-4 mm and LWA 2-4 mm. Higher removal of fecal coliforms was observed in pressure dosed filters compared to gravity dosed filters. A lower removal was observed by increasing the hydraulic dosing rate. Minimum retention time was found to be a key parameter for predicting removal of bacteria in unsaturated, aerobic filters. At minimum retention times lower than about 50 h, there was a correlation of 0.96 between retention time and removal of fecal coliforms. Retention times longer than 50 h gave almost complete removal of fecal coliforms. PMID:12230196

  3. Quantitative PCR for Genetic Markers of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantificationapproach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for quantification of two recently described human-...

  4. Quantitative PCR for genetic markers of human fecal pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantification approach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described hum...

  5. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  6. 78 FR 12763 - Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop AGENCY... ``Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to exchange information... fecal microbiota for transplantation (FMT). ] Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on May...

  7. Discovering new indicators of fecal pollution

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Eren, A. Murat

    2014-01-01

    Fecal pollution indicators are essential to identify and remediate contamination sources and protect public health. Historically, easily cultured facultative anaerobes such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, or enterococci have been used, but these indicators generally provide no information as to their source. More recently, molecular methods have targeted fecal anaerobes, which are much more abundant in humans and other mammals and some strains appear to be associated with certain host sources. Next-generation sequencing and microbiome studies have created an unprecedented inventory of microbial communities associated with fecal sources, allowing reexamination of which taxonomic groups are best suited as informative indicators. The use of new computational methods, such as oligotyping coupled with well-established machine learning approaches, is providing new insights into patterns of host association. In this review we examine the basis for host-specificity and the rationale for using 16S rRNA gene targets for alternative indicators and highlight two taxonomic groups, Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae, which are rich in host-specific bacterial organisms. Finally, we discuss considerations for using alternative indicators for water quality assessments with a particular focus on detecting human sewage sources of contamination. PMID:25199597

  8. Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

  9. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    PubMed

    Bojanova, Diana P; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2016-07-01

    Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile) in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets) in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool). Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool), archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool), viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool), fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool), protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component.

  10. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    PubMed Central

    Bojanova, Diana P.

    2016-01-01

    Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile) in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets) in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool). Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool), archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool), viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool), fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool), protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component. PMID:27404502

  11. Lipocytes (fat cells) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person ...

  12. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    PubMed Central

    AMANIDAZ, Nazak; ZAFARZADEH, Ali; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. Results: In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (P<0.05). We observed the concentration of coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Conclusion: Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms. PMID:26811820

  13. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

  14. Evaluation of nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of exotic felids fed horse- or beef-based diets: use of the domestic cat as a model for exotic felids.

    PubMed

    Vester, Brittany M; Beloshapka, Alison N; Middelbos, Ingmar S; Burke, Sarah L; Dikeman, Cheryl L; Simmons, Lee G; Swanson, Kelly S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding commercially available beef- and horse-based diets on nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of large captive exotic felids and domestic cats. Four species of large exotic felids including cheetahs, Malayan tigers, jaguars, and Amur tigers, and domestic cats were utilized in a crossover design. Raw meat diets included a beef-based diet (57% protein; 28% fat) and a horse-based diet (51% protein; 30% fat). All cats were acclimated to the diet for 16 days followed by a 4 day collection period, where total feces, including one fresh sample, were collected. All feces were scored on collection. Intake did not differ due to diet, but fecal output was greater when cats consumed the horse-based diet. Total tract apparent dry matter (DM) digestibility was higher (P<0.05) and organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) digestibilities were lower (P<0.05) when cats were fed the beef-based diet compared with the horse-based diet. CP digestibility was similar in domestic cats and cheetahs, and greater (P<0.05) than Amur tigers. Fecal scores were lower and fecal DM was greater (P<0.05) when cats consumed the horse-based diet compared with the beef-based diet. Domestic cats had lower (P<0.05) fecal ammonia concentrations compared with all other species. Fecal ammonia concentrations were lowest (P<0.05) when cats were fed the horse-based diet. Fecal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA), and butyrate concentrations were higher (P<0.05) when cats consumed the beef-based diet. Our results suggest that the domestic cat serves as an appropriate model for large exotic felid species, but differences among the species exist. Decreased nutrient digestibility by tigers and jaguars should be considered when developing feeding recommendations for these species based on domestic cat data.

  15. Increased fecal viral content associated with obesity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Nagpal, Ravinder; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the presence of total gut viral content in obese mice, and establish correlation with obesity associated metabolic measures and gut microbiome. METHODS Fresh fecal samples were collected from normal and obese (Leptin deficient: Lepob/ob) mice. Total viral DNA and RNA was isolated and quantified for establishing the correlation with metabolic measures and composition of gut bacterial communities. RESULTS In this report, we found that obese mice feces have higher viral contents in terms of total viral DNA and RNA (P < 0.001). Interestingly, these increased viral DNA and RNA content were tightly correlated with metabolic measures, i.e., body weight, fat mass and fasting blood glucose. Total viral content were positively correlated with firmicutes (R2 > 0.6), whilst negatively correlated with bacteroidetes and bifidobacteria. CONCLUSION This study suggests the strong correlation of increased viral population into the gut of obese mice and opens new avenues to explore the role of gut virome in pathophysiology of obesity. PMID:27555892

  16. Controversies in fat perception.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  17. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Hyunjeong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Moon S.

    2016-05-01

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by highlighting contaminated food and food contact surfaces on a display monitor. It can be used under ambient lighting conditions in food processing plants. Critical components of the imaging device includes four 405-nm 10-W LEDs for fluorescence excitation, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, optical filter (670 nm used for this study), and Wi-Fi transmitter for broadcasting real-time video/images to monitoring devices such as smartphone and tablet. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of HFID in enhancing visual detection of fecal contamination on red meat, fat, and bone surfaces of beef under varying ambient luminous intensities (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 foot-candles). Overall, diluted feces on fat, red meat and bone areas of beef surfaces were detectable in the 670-nm single-band fluorescence images when using the HFID under 0 to 50 foot-candle ambient lighting.

  18. [Research progress of fecal microbiota transplantation].

    PubMed

    Dai, Ting; Tang, Tongyu

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal microbial ecosystem is the most complex and the largest micro-ecosystem of the mammals. The use of antibiotics can lead to a lot of major changes of the flora, making the intestinal flora damaged and impacted, even developing Clostridium difficile infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a special organ transplant therapy, which can rebuild the intestinal flora, has raised the clinical concerns. It has been used in the refractory Clostridium difficile, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and some non-intestinal diseases related to the metabolic disorders. But this method of treatment has not become a normal treatment, and many clinicians and patients can not accept it. This paper reviews relevant literature in terms of origin, indications, mechanism, production process, current situation and future research, and provide a reference for the clinical application of the treatment of fecal microbiota transplantation.

  19. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( < 0.05) weight gain during the Trial period than the control ones. Feed consumption was not adversely affected by LY. The CBC values and urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced. PMID:27482677

  20. Novel Treatment Options for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Adam; Hurley, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating condition affecting a substantial portion of the population. The etiologies of FI are wide ranging, as are the treatment options. When conservative measures fail, often surgical intervention is required. As in any area where a wide range of treatment options exist, there is no one perfect solution. Fortunately, novel treatment options for FI are becoming available, namely, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, magnetic anal sphincter, stem cell transplant, pyloric transplantation, and acupuncture. PMID:25320572

  1. Fecal Incontinence: Epidemiology, Impact, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bochenska, Katarzyna; Boller, Anne-Marie

    2016-09-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a chronic and debilitating condition that carries a significant health, economic, and social burden. FI has a considerable psychosocial and financial impact on patients and their families. A variety of treatment modalities are available for FI including behavioral and dietary modifications, pharmacotherapy, pelvic floor physical therapy, bulking agents, anal sphincteroplasty, sacral nerve stimulation, artificial sphincters, magnetic sphincters, posterior anal sling, and colostomy. PMID:27582653

  2. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  3. Fecal shedding of Salmonella in exotic felids.

    PubMed

    Clyde, V L; Ramsay, E C; Bemis, D A

    1997-06-01

    Two collections of exotic felids were screened for the presence of Salmonella by selective fecal culture utilizing selenite broth and Hektoen enteric agar. In > 90% of the samples, Salmonella was isolated from a single culture. A commercial horsemeat-based diet was fed in both collections, and one collection also was fed raw chicken. Salmonella was cultured from the raw chicken and the horsemeat diet for both collections. Multiple Salmonella serotypes were identified, with S. typhimurium and S. typhimurium (copenhagen) isolated most frequently. Approximately half of the Salmonella isolates demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistance. The ability to harbor Salmonella as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation to carnivory. The high rate of fecal shedding of Salmonella in healthy individuals clouds the interpretation of a positive fecal culture in an ill felid, or one with diarrhea. All zoo employees having contact with cat feces or raw diets have a high rate of occupational exposure to Salmonella and should exercise appropriate hygienic precautions.

  4. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation.

    PubMed

    Smits, Loek P; Bouter, Kristien E C; de Vos, Willem M; Borody, Thomas J; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-11-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal conditions that were not previously considered to be associated with the intestinal microbiota. Although it is not clear if changes in the microbiota cause these conditions, we review the most current and best methods for performing fecal microbiota transplantation and summarize clinical observations that have implicated the intestinal microbiota in various diseases. We also discuss case reports of fecal microbiota transplantations for different disorders, including Clostridium difficile infection, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases, insulin resistance, multiple sclerosis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. There has been increasing focus on the interaction between the intestinal microbiome, obesity, and cardiometabolic diseases, and we explore these relationships and the potential roles of different microbial strains. We might someday be able to mine for intestinal bacterial strains that can be used in the diagnosis or treatment of these diseases.

  5. Method Development for Fecal Lipidomics Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Katherine E.; Bird, Susan S.; Gross, Vera S.; Marur, Vasant R.; Lazarev, Alexander V.; Walker, W. Allan; Kristal, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Robust methodologies for the analysis of fecal material will facilitate the understanding of gut (patho)physiology, its role(s) in health and disease and help improve care for individual patients, especially high-risk populations such as premature infants. Because lipidomics offers a biologically and analytically attractive approach, we developed a simple, sensitive, and quantitatively precise method for profiling intact lipids in fecal material. The method utilizes two separate, complementary extraction chemistries, dichloromethane (DCM) and a methyl tert-butyl ether/hexafluoroisopropanol (MTBE) mixture, alone or with high pressure cycling. Extracts were assessed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry-based profiling with all ion higher energy collisional dissociation fragmentation in both positive and negative ionization modes. This approach provides both class-specific and lipid-specific fragments, enhancing lipid characterization. Solvents preferentially extracted lipids based on hydrophobicity. More polar species preferred MTBE; more hydrophobic compounds preferred DCM. Pressure cycling differentially increased the yield of some lipids. The platform enabled analysis of >500 intact lipophillic species with over 300 lipids spanning 6 LIPID MAPS categories identified in the fecal matter from premature infants. No previous report exists that provides these data; thus, this study represents a new paradigm for assessing nutritional health, inflammation, and infectious disease in vulnerable populations. PMID:23210743

  6. Fecal Sterol and Runoff Analysis for Nonpoint Source Tracking.

    PubMed

    Fahrenfeld, N L; Del Monaco, N; Coates, J T; Elzerman, A W

    2016-01-01

    Fecal pollution source identification is needed to quantify risk, target installation of source controls, and assess performance of best management practices in impaired surface waters. Sterol analysis is a chemical method for fecal source tracking that allows for differentiation between several fecal pollution sources. The objectives of this study were to use these chemical tracers for quantifying human fecal inputs in a mixed-land-use watershed without point sources of pollution and to determine the relationship between land use and sterol ratios. Fecal sterol analysis was performed on bed and suspended sediment from impaired streams. Human fecal signatures were found at sites with sewer overflow and septic inputs. Different sterol ratios used to indicate human fecal pollution varied in their sensitivity. Next, geospatial data was used to determine the runoff volumes associated with each land-use category in the watersheds. Fecal sterol ratios were compared between sampling locations and correlations were tested between ratio values and percentage of runoff for a given land-use category. Correlation was not observed between percentage of runoff from developed land and any of the five tested human-indicating sterol ratios in streambed sediments, confirming that human fecal inputs were not evenly distributed across the urban landscape. Several practical considerations for adopting this chemical method for microbial source tracking in small watersheds are discussed. Results indicate that sterol analysis is useful for identifying the location of human fecal nonpoint-source inputs. PMID:26828187

  7. Saturated and Unsaturated Dietary Fats Differentially Modulate Ethanol-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Kirpich, Irina A; Petrosino, Joseph; Ajami, Nadim; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Barve, Shirish S; Yin, Xinmin; Wei, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiang; McClain, Craig J

    2016-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranks among major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diet and crosstalk between the gut and liver are important determinants of ALD. We evaluated the effects of different types of dietary fat and ethanol on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and the effect of these changes on liver injury in ALD. Compared with ethanol and a saturated fat diet (medium chain triglycerides enriched), an unsaturated fat diet (corn oil enriched) exacerbated ethanol-induced endotoxemia, liver steatosis, and injury. Major alterations in gut microbiota, including a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were seen in animals fed an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol but not a saturated fat diet and ethanol. Compared with a saturated fat diet and ethanol, an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol caused major fecal metabolomic changes. Moreover, a decrease in certain fecal amino acids was noted in both alcohol-fed groups. These data support an important role of dietary lipids in ALD pathogenesis and provide insight into mechanisms of ALD development. A diet enriched in unsaturated fats enhanced alcohol-induced liver injury and caused major fecal metagenomic and metabolomic changes that may play an etiologic role in observed liver injury. Dietary lipids can potentially serve as inexpensive interventions for the prevention and treatment of ALD. PMID:27012191

  8. Saturated and Unsaturated Dietary Fats Differentially Modulate Ethanol-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Kirpich, Irina A; Petrosino, Joseph; Ajami, Nadim; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Barve, Shirish S; Yin, Xinmin; Wei, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiang; McClain, Craig J

    2016-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranks among major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diet and crosstalk between the gut and liver are important determinants of ALD. We evaluated the effects of different types of dietary fat and ethanol on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and the effect of these changes on liver injury in ALD. Compared with ethanol and a saturated fat diet (medium chain triglycerides enriched), an unsaturated fat diet (corn oil enriched) exacerbated ethanol-induced endotoxemia, liver steatosis, and injury. Major alterations in gut microbiota, including a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were seen in animals fed an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol but not a saturated fat diet and ethanol. Compared with a saturated fat diet and ethanol, an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol caused major fecal metabolomic changes. Moreover, a decrease in certain fecal amino acids was noted in both alcohol-fed groups. These data support an important role of dietary lipids in ALD pathogenesis and provide insight into mechanisms of ALD development. A diet enriched in unsaturated fats enhanced alcohol-induced liver injury and caused major fecal metagenomic and metabolomic changes that may play an etiologic role in observed liver injury. Dietary lipids can potentially serve as inexpensive interventions for the prevention and treatment of ALD.

  9. The metabolizable energy of dietary resistant maltodextrin is variable and alters fecal microbiota composition in adult men.

    PubMed

    Baer, David J; Stote, Kim S; Henderson, Theresa; Paul, David R; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko; Gordon, Dennis T; Rumpler, William V; Ukhanova, Maria; Culpepper, Tyler; Wang, Xiaoyu; Mai, Volker

    2014-07-01

    Resistant maltodextrin (RM) is a novel soluble, nonviscous dietary fiber. Its metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy (NE) values derived from nutrient balance studies are unknown, as is the effect of RM on fecal microbiota. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study was conducted (n = 14 men) to determine the ME and NE of RM and its influence on fecal excretion of macronutrients and microbiota. Participants were assigned to a sequence consisting of 3 treatment periods [24 d each: 0 g/d RM + 50 g/d maltodextrin and 2 amounts of dietary RM (25 g/d RM + 25 g of maltodextrin/d and 50 g/d RM + 0 g/d maltodextrin)] and were provided all the foods they were to consume to maintain their body weight. After an adaptation period, excreta were collected during a 7-d period. After the collection period, 24-h energy expenditure was measured. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and 454 titanium technology-based 16S rRNA sequencing were used to analyze fecal microbiota composition. Fecal amounts of energy (544, 662, 737 kJ/d), nitrogen (1.5, 1.8, 2.1 g/d), RM (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g/d), and total carbohydrate (11.1, 14.2, 16.2 g/d) increased with increasing dose (0, 25, 50 g) of RM (P < 0.0001). Fat excretion did not differ among treatments. The ME value of RM was 8.2 and 10.4 kJ/g, and the NE value of RM was -8.2 and 2.0 kJ/g for the 25 and 50 g/d RM doses, respectively. Both doses of RM increased fecal wet weight (118, 148, 161 g/d; P < 0.0001) and fecal dry weight (26.5, 32.0, 35.8 g/d; P < 0.0001) compared with the maltodextrin placebo. Total counts of fecal bacteria increased by 12% for the 25 g/d RM dose (P = 0.17) and 18% for the 50 g/d RM dose (P = 0.019). RM intake was associated with statistically significant increases (P < 0.001) in various operational taxonomic units matching closest to ruminococcus, eubacterium, lachnospiraceae, bacteroides, holdemania, and faecalibacterium, implicating RM in their growth in the

  10. Chapter A7. Section 7.2. Fecal Indicator Viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bushon, Rebecca N.

    2003-01-01

    More than 100 types of human pathogenic viruses may be present in fecal-contaminated waters. Coliphages are used as indicators of virus-related fecal contamination and of the microbiological quality of waters. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and laboratory methods that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator viruses.

  11. Fecal Microbial Therapy – Promises and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Merenstein, Daniel; El-Nachef, Najwa; Lynch, Susan V.

    2015-01-01

    A rapidly-expanding range of diverse human diseases are now associated with perturbations to the gastrointestinal microbiome. Fecal microbial transfer (FMT) has been used with high rates of efficacy to treat gastrointestinal microbiome perturbation associated with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and is now being considered for other indications. Here we discuss the gut microbiome, review published and on-going studies using FMT as a treatment modality for human disease, consider the regulatory aspects of FMT and outline some factors that should be considered in cases where this therapeutic strategy is being contemplated. PMID:24796803

  12. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    PubMed

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P < 0.05), whereas total SCFA production was greatest for collagen (P < 0.05). Collagen induced an acetate production comparable with FOS and a markedly high acetate-to-propionate ratio (8.41:1) compared with all other substrates (1.67:1 to 2.97:1). Chicken cartilage was rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (R(max)) compared with all other substrates (P < 0.05). In general, animal substrates showed an earlier occurrence for maximal gas production rate compared with FOS. Rabbit hair, skin, and bone were poorly fermentable substrates, indicated by the least amount of OMCV and total SCFA among animal substrates (P < 0.05). The greatest amount of ammonia production among animal

  13. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    PubMed

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P < 0.05), whereas total SCFA production was greatest for collagen (P < 0.05). Collagen induced an acetate production comparable with FOS and a markedly high acetate-to-propionate ratio (8.41:1) compared with all other substrates (1.67:1 to 2.97:1). Chicken cartilage was rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (R(max)) compared with all other substrates (P < 0.05). In general, animal substrates showed an earlier occurrence for maximal gas production rate compared with FOS. Rabbit hair, skin, and bone were poorly fermentable substrates, indicated by the least amount of OMCV and total SCFA among animal substrates (P < 0.05). The greatest amount of ammonia production among animal

  14. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  15. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  16. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  17. Corandomization of fats improves absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Lien, E L; Yuhas, R J; Boyle, F G; Tomarelli, R M

    1993-11-01

    Human milk fat is well absorbed despite its large concentration of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFA), particularly palmitic acid. The superior absorption has been ascribed in part to the uncommonly high proportion of the palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of the triglycerides, 70% in human milk triglycerides compared with 10-15% in the fats and oils commonly used in infant formula blends. Colipase-dependent pancreatic lipase selectively hydrolyzes the fatty acids at the sn-1 and 3 positions, yielding free fatty acids and the 2-monoglyceride, which are absorbable. Free palmitic acid, but not monopalmitin, can be lost as calcium soaps in the feces. The present study demonstrated that mixtures of coconut oil and palm olein are better absorbed by rats if the proportion of LCSFA in the sn-2 position is increased by the process of chemical randomization, in which the fatty acids of the native oils are redistributed equally to all three positions in the rearranged triglycerides. The fecal excretion of total fatty acids, essentially LCSFA, from the mixtures in which the oils were randomized together (corandomized) was 30 to 60% less than from the mixtures of native oils. PMID:8229301

  18. Rapid seven-hour fecal coliform test.

    PubMed Central

    Reasoner, D J; Blannon, J C; Geldreich, E E

    1979-01-01

    A rapid 7-h fecal coliform (FC) test for the detection of FC in water has been developed. This membrane filter test utilizes a lightly buffered lactose-based medium (m-7-h FC medium) combined with a sensitive pH indicator system. FC colonies appeared yellow against a light purple background after incubation at 41.5 degrees C for 7 to 7.25 h. Comparison of FC test results showed that the mean verified FC count ratio (7-h FC count/24-h FC count) for surface water samples was 1.08. The mean FC count ratio (7-h FC count/24-h FC count) for unchlorinater wastewater ranged from 1.95 to 5.05. Verification of yellow FC colonies from m-7-h FC medium averaged 97%. Data from field tests on Lake Michigan bathing beach water samples showed that unverified 7-h FC counts averaged 96% of the 24-h FC counts. The 7-h FC test was found to be suitable for the examination of surface waters and unchlorinated sewage and could serve as an emergency test for detection of sewage or fecal contamination of potable water. PMID:42349

  19. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

  20. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans.

  1. CULTURE-INDEPENDENT MOLECULAR METHODS FOR FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is widespread in the waterways of the United States. Both to correct the problem, and to estimate public health risk, it is necessary to identify the source of the contamination. Several culture-independent molecular methods for fecal source identification hav...

  2. Global Inter-Laboratory Fecal Source Identification Methods Comparison Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source tracking is key to identifying sources of fecal contamination for remediation as well as risk assessment. Previous intra- and inter-lab studies have investigated the performance of human and cow-associated source tracking markers, as well as library-dependent fecal source ...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  4. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    PubMed

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up.

  5. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. PMID:26298247

  6. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater.

  7. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... with higher amounts of polyunsaturated fats include: Walnuts Sunflower seeds Flax seeds or flax oil Fish, such ... flax seed on your meal. Add walnuts or sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower ...

  8. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  9. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan. PMID:26483700

  10. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  11. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which ({sup 3}H)thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate.

  12. Fecal Impaction: A Cause for Concern?

    PubMed Central

    Obokhare, Izi

    2012-01-01

    Fecal impaction (FI) is a common cause of lower gastrointestinal tract obstruction lagging behind stricture for diverticulitis and colon cancer. It is the result of chronic or severe constipation and most commonly found in the elderly population. Early recognition and diagnosis is accomplished by way of an adequate history and physical examination in conjunction with an acute abdominal series. Prompt identification and treatment minimizes the risks of complications such as bowel obstruction leading to aspiration, stercoral ulcers, perforation, and peritonitis. Treatment options include gentle proximal softening in the absence of complete bowel obstruction, distal washout, and manual extraction. Surgical resection of the involved colon or rectum is reserved for cases of FI complicated by ulceration and perforation leading to peritonitis. Recurrence is common, and can be managed by increasing dietary fiber content to 30 gm/day, increased water intake, and discontinuation of medications that can contribute to colonic hypomotility. PMID:23449376

  13. Fecal microbiota transplantation: an interest in IBD?

    PubMed

    Kahn, Stacy A; Goeppinger, Sarah R; Rubin, David T

    2014-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a targeted microbiome-based therapy that has garnered a great deal of attention from the scientific, clinical, and lay communities. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that FMT is a highly effective therapy for recurrent/refractory Clostridium difficile infection and appears safe in the short term. Uncontrolled reports suggest the possibility of benefit in a select group of IBD patients, but there is quite limited information so far. FMT for IBD raises significant issues and concerns that warrant further systematic investigation. In this review, we discuss the background and rationale for this innovative therapy, the current knowledge for FMT in IBD, the logistical issues, and the important issues regarding ethics, social acceptability, and regulation.

  14. Office-Based Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Costilla, Vanessa C.; Mayer, Anita P.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating disorder that is more prevalent than previously realized. FI is the involuntary loss of stool. Many factors contribute to the pathophysiology of FI, including advanced age, bowel irregularity, parity, and obesity. A detailed history and focused rectal examination are important to making the diagnosis and determining contributing causes. Although multiple diagnostic studies are available to assess the cause of FI, specific guidelines that delineate when testing should be done do not exist. Clinicians must weigh the risk, benefit, and burden of testing against the need for empiric treatment. All types of FI are initially managed in the same way, which includes lifestyle modification to reduce bowel derangements, improved access to toileting, and initiation of a bulking regimen to improve stool consistency. If initial conservative management fails, pharmaco-logic agents, biofeedback, or surgery may be indicated. PMID:23935551

  15. Determining sources of fecal pollution in a rural Virginia watershed with antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal streptococci.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, C; Robinson, S L; Filtz, J R; Grubbs, S M; Angier, T A; Reneau, R B

    1999-12-01

    Nonpoint sources of pollution that contribute fecal bacteria to surface waters have proven difficult to identify. Knowledge of pollution sources could aid in restoration of the water quality, reduce the amounts of nutrients leaving watersheds, and reduce the danger of infectious disease resulting from exposure to contaminated waters. Patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal streptococci were analyzed by discriminant and cluster analysis and used to identify sources of fecal pollution in a rural Virginia watershed. A database consisting of patterns from 7,058 fecal streptococcus isolates was first established from known human, livestock, and wildlife sources in Montgomery County, Va. Correct fecal streptococcus source identification averaged 87% for the entire database and ranged from 84% for deer isolates to 93% for human isolates. To field test the method and the database, a watershed improvement project (Page Brook) in Clarke County, Va., was initiated in 1996. Comparison of 892 known-source isolates from that watershed against the database resulted in an average correct classification rate of 88%. Combining all animal isolates increased correct classification rates to > or = 95% for separations between animal and human sources. Stream samples from three collection sites were highly contaminated, and fecal streptococci from these sites were classified as being predominantly from cattle (>78% of isolates), with small proportions from waterfowl, deer, and unidentified sources ( approximately 7% each). Based on these results, cattle access to the stream was restricted by installation of fencing and in-pasture watering stations. Fecal coliforms were reduced at the three sites by an average of 94%, from prefencing average populations of 15,900 per 100 ml to postfencing average populations of 960 per 100 ml. After fencing, <45% of fecal streptococcus isolates were classified as being from cattle. These results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance profiles in fecal

  16. [Potential Applicability of Fecal NIRs: A Review].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Du, Zhou-he; Bai, Shi-qie; Zuo, Yan-chun; Zhou, Xiao-kang; Kou, Jing; Yan, Jia-jun; Zhang, Jian-bo; Li, Ping; You, Ming-hong; Zhang, Yu; Li, Da-xu; Zhang, Chang-bing; Zhang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is an inexpensive, rapid, environment-friendly and non-invasive analytical technique that has been extensively applied in the analysis of the dietary attributes and the animal products. Acquisition of dietary attributes is essential for nutritional diagnoses to provide animals with reasonable diet. Traditionally, the calibration equations for the prediction of dietary attributes (e. g. crude protein) are developed from feed NIR spectra and the results of conventional chemical analysis (i. e. reference data). It is difficult to obtain the NIR spectra of forages consumed by grazing animals, so the method of this calibration is inappropriate for free-grazing herbivores. Feces, as the animal's metabolites, contain the information about both the animal's diet and the animal itself. Recently, Fecal-NIRS (F. NIRS) has been directly used to monitor diet information (botanical composition, chemical composition and digestibility), based on correlation between reference data and fecal NIR profile. Subsequently, some additional application (such as sex and species discrimination, reproductive and parasite status) of F. NIRS also is outlined. In the last, application of NIRS in animal manure is summarized. NIRS was shown to be an alternative to conventional wet chemical methods for analyzing some nutrient concentrations in animal manure rapidly. Overall, this paper proves that F. NIRS is a rapid and valid tool for the determination of the dietary attributes and of the physiological status of animal, although more efforts need to be done to improve the accuracy of the F. NIRS technique. Several researchers in English have reviewed the applications of F. NIRS. In China, however, there is a paucity of research and application regarding F. NIRS. We expect that this paper in Chinese will be helpful to the development of F. NIRS in China. At the same time, we propose NIRS as a simple and rapid analytical method for predicting the main

  17. Fecal immunochemical test as a biomarker for inflammatory bowel diseases: can it rival fecal calprotectin?

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Sakiko; Nakarai, Asuka; Takashima, Shiho; Inokuchi, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of disease activity is essential for choosing an appropriate treatment and follow-up plan for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopy is required for accurately evaluating disease activity, but the procedures are sometimes invasive and burdensome to patients. Therefore, alternative non-invasive methods for evaluating or predicting disease activity including mucosal status are desirable. Fecal calprotectin (Fcal) is the most widely used fecal marker for IBD, and many articles have described the performance of the marker in predicting disease activity, mucosal healing (MH), treatment efficacy, and risk of relapse. Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) can quantify the concentration of hemoglobin in stool and was originally used for the screening of colorectal cancer. We recently reported that FIT is also a useful biomarker for IBD. A direct comparison between the use of Fcal and FIT showed that both methods predicted MH in ulcerative colitis equally well. However, in the case of Crohn's disease, FIT was less sensitive to lesions in the small intestine, compared to Fcal. FIT holds several advantages over Fcal in regards to user-friendliness, including a lower cost, easy and clean handling, and the ability to make rapid measurements by using an automated measurement system. However, there is insufficient data to support the application of FIT in IBD. Further studies into the use of FIT for evaluating the inflammatory status of IBD are warranted. PMID:26884729

  18. Using fecal glucocorticoids for stress assessment in Mourning Doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, B.E.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Schulz, J.H.; Jones, S.B.; Mong, T.

    2003-01-01

    Fecal glucocorticoid assays provide a potentially useful, noninvasive means to study physiological responses of wildlife to various stressors. The objective of our study was to validate a method for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) feces. We validated the assay using standard procedures (e.g., parallelism, recovery of exogenous corticosterone) to demonstrate that the assay accurately and precisely measured glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove fecal extracts. We conducted adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) challenge experiments to validate the assay's ability to determine biologically important changes in fecal glucocorticoids. Fecal glucocorticoid levels increased significantly approximately 2-3 hr after administration of ACTH at 50 IU per kg body mass to wild Mourning Doves held in captivity. In contrast, fecal glucocorticoid metabolites did not increase in control birds, birds that received saline injections, or a lower dose of ACTH (1 IU per kg body mass). Variation in overall fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels may have been influenced by season and the length of time birds were held in captivity. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analyses, in combination with demographic information, may have considerable utility for monitoring the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on Mourning Dove populations.

  19. Fecal corticoid monitoring in whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, B.K.; Olsen, G.H.; Czekala, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    We used radioimmunoassay to determine fecal corticoid concentrations and assess potential stress in 10 endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction to the wild. Fecal samples were collected shortly after hatching at a captive facility in Maryland, during field training in Wisconsin, and throughout a human-led migration to Florida. After a 14-day decline following hatching, fecal corticoid concentrations stabilized at baseline levels for the duration of the captive period, despite exposure to potentially stressful stimuli. Shipment of the cranes to the field training site was correlated with an eight- to 34-fold increase in fecal corticoid concentrations, which returned to baseline levels within 1 week. Increases were positively correlated with age but not body weight at the time of shipping. Fecal corticoid concentrations during the training period increased slightly and exhibited greater variation than levels observed at the captive facility, but were well within expected norms based on previous studies. Fecal corticoid concentrations increased twofold following premigration physical examinations and placement of radiotransmitters, and persisted for up to 4 days before they returned to baseline levels. Though fecal corticoid concentrations and variation during the migration period were similar to training levels, there was an overall decline in fecal corticoid concentrations during the artificial migration. Acute stressors, such as capture, restraint, and severe storms, were associated with stress responses by the cranes that varied in accordance with lasting physical or psychological stimuli. The overall reintroduction process of costume-rearing, ultralight aircraft habituation, training, and artificial migration was not associated with elevations in fecal corticoid concentrations suggestive of chronic stress. ?? 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Fecal corticoid monitoring in whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, Barry K.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Czekala, Nancy M.

    2005-01-01

    We used radioimmunoassay to determine fecal corticoid concentrations and assess potential stress in 10 endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction to the wild. Fecal samples were collected shortly after hatching at a captive facility in Maryland, during field training in Wisconsin, and throughout a human-led migration to Florida. After a 14-day decline following hatching, fecal corticoid concentrations stabilized at baseline levels for the duration of the captive period, despite exposure to potentially stressful stimuli. Shipment of the cranes to the field training site was correlated with an eight- to 34-fold increase in fecal corticoid concentrations, which returned to baseline levels within 1 week. Increases were positively correlated with age but not body weight at the time of shipping. Fecal corticoid concentrations during the training period increased slightly and exhibited greater variation than levels observed at the captive facility, but were well within expected norms based on previous studies. Fecal corticoid concentrations increased twofold following premigration physical examinations and placement of radiotransmitters, and persisted for up to 4 days before they returned to baseline levels. Though fecal corticoid concentrations and variation during the migration period were similar to training levels, there was an overall decline in fecal corticoid concentrations during the artificial migration. Acute stressors, such as capture, restraint, and severe storms, were associated with stress responses by the cranes that varied in accordance with lasting physical or psychological stimuli. The overall reintroduction process of costume-rearing, ultralight aircraft habituation, training, and artificial migration was not associated with elevations in fecal corticoid concentrations suggestive of chronic stress.

  1. Viability of marine phytoplankton in zooplankton fecal pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, S. W.; Fisher, N. S.

    1983-09-01

    Zooplankton fecal pellets collected from sediment traps or freshly excreted by euphausiids grazing in situ at natural phytoplankton levels in the pelagic Mediterranean were incubated under laboratory conditions and always contained viable marine phytoplankton, usually diatoms. Fecal pellets excreted by euphausiids grazing in the laboratory on unialgal diets also contained living cells, indicating viable gut passage of some species. The rapid sinking of fecal pellets appears to be an effective mechanism for transporting living algae to depth and possibly in seeding marine waters and sediments with such cells.

  2. Comparison of Fecal Coliform Agar and Violet Red Bile Lactose Agar for Fecal Coliform Enumeration in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, A.; Wanegue, C.; Baylac, P.

    2002-01-01

    A 24-h direct plating method for fecal coliform enumeration with a resuscitation step (preincubation for 2 h at 37 ± 1°C and transfer to 44 ± 1°C for 22 h) using fecal coliform agar (FCA) was compared with the 24-h standardized violet red bile lactose agar (VRBL) method. FCA and VRBL have equivalent specificities and sensitivities, except for lactose-positive non-fecal coliforms such as Hafnia alvei, which could form typical colonies on FCA and VRBL. Recovery of cold-stressed Escherichia coli in mashed potatoes on FCA was about 1 log unit lower than that with VRBL. When the FCA method was compared with standard VRBL for enumeration of fecal coliforms, based on counting carried out on 170 different food samples, results were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Based on 203 typical identified colonies selected as found on VRBL and FCA, the latter medium appears to allow the enumeration of more true fecal coliforms and has higher performance in certain ways (specificity, sensitivity, and negative and positive predictive values) than VRBL. Most colonies clearly identified on both media were E. coli and H. alvei, a non-fecal coliform. Therefore, the replacement of fecal coliform enumeration by E. coli enumeration to estimate food sanitary quality should be recommended. PMID:11916678

  3. Contact with beach sand, concentrations of fecal indicators, and enteric illness risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies ofbeach sand fecal contamination have triggered interest among scientists and in the media. Although evidence shows that beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms as well as fecal pathogens, illness risk associated with beach sand contact and fecal indicators...

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF CHICKEN-SPECIFIC FECAL MICROBIAL SEQUENCES USING A METAGENOMIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we applied a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to select for genomic regions that differ between different fecal metagenomes. Competitive DNA hybridizations were performed between chicken fecal DNA and pig fecal DNA (C-P) and between chicken fecal DNA and an ...

  5. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  6. Measurement of Visceral Fat: Should We Include Retroperitoneal Fat?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Yi; Hsieh, Hung-Ren; Ma, Wen-Ya; Lin, Mao-Shin; Liu, Pi-Hua; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lin, Jou-Wei; Wei, Jung-Nan; Li, Hung-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. Methods We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women) in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. Results Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 5.651, p<0.05) and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05). Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r = −0.244, P<0.05), and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05), but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94±0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR) 1.62, p = 0.003) and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009), but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14) were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. Conclusions Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human. PMID:25401949

  7. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  8. Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Environmental Observations: Validation of Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of recreational waters by fecal material is often assessed using indicator bacteria such as enterococci. Enumeration based on culturing methods can take up to 48 hours to complete, limiting the accuracy of water quality evaluations. Molecular microbial techniques em...

  9. Changes of Cattle Fecal Microbiome Under Field Conditions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to study the microbiome in wastewater, sewage sludge, and feces. Previous microbial survival studies have shown different fecal-associated microbes have different decay rates and regrowth behaviors.

  10. Changes of Cattle Fecal Microbiome Under Field Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to study the microbiome in wastewater, sewage sludge, and feces. Previous microbial survival studies have shown different fecal-associated microbes have different decay rates and regrowth behaviors.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonization associated with fecal microbiota treatment failure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Fecal microbiota therapy (FMT) has emerged as the gold standard for treatment of persistent, symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that does not respond to conventional antimicrobial treatment. Probiotics are commonly recommended in addition to antimicrobial treatment for CD...

  12. FECAL POLLUTION, PUBLIC HEALTH AND MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) seeks to provide information about sources of fecal water contamination. Without knowledge of sources, it is difficult to accurately model risk assessments, choose effective remediation strategies, or bring chronically polluted waters into complian...

  13. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  14. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are not seeing trans fat on a product's label. First, products entering interstate commerce on or after ... already begun to declare trans fat on their products' labels. Second, FDA has granted enforcement discretion to some ...

  15. Fecal Pellet Flux in the Mesopelagic Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koweek, D.; Shatova, O.; Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), located 75km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running sediment trap time-series of its kind, continually collecting deep sea particle flux since 1978. Recent application of digital microphotography to the size-fractionated OFP sediment trap material has generated a wealth of new quantitative visual information on particle flux composition, its changes with depth, and its temporal variability. We examined the fecal pellet flux at 1500m depth using image analysis of digital archives, in conjunction with data on the overlying surface ocean from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) and the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) programs, to investigate the role of mesoscale physical forcing on mesopelagic particle flux variability. During 2007, a productive cyclonic eddy, a mode water eddy and an anticyclonic eddy passed over the OFP site. Fecal pellet flux was enhanced during passage of both the cyclonic and mode water eddies. Total mass flux (TMF) was also enhanced during the productive cyclonic eddy, but was not influenced by the passage of the mode water eddy. No increase in fecal pellet flux or TMF was apparent during passage of the anticyclonic eddy despite indications of increased zooplankton abundance from ADCP backscatter intensity. Fecal pellet size frequency distributions indicate the presence of two, and sometimes three, distinct size classes. No seasonal trend in mean size of fecal pellets was observed for any size class, implying that the size distribution of the zooplankton populations producing the pellets is relatively constant throughout the year. We also investigated fecal pellet flux changes with depth at 500, 1500 and 3200m. Fecal pellet flux, and the fecal pellet contribution to TMF, were greatest at 500m and decreased with depth. The use of quantitative image analysis holds great potential as a powerful analytical tool in studies of marine particulate flux.

  16. Fecal incontinence in men: Causes and clinical and manometric features

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Ciriza de los Ríos, Constanza; Muñoz-Garrido, Francisco; Vara, Jesús; Solís-Herruzo, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the causes and characteristics of fecal incontinence in men and to compare these features with those presented by a group of women with the same problem. METHODS: We analyzed the medical history, clinical and manometric data from 119 men with fecal incontinence studied in our unit and compared these data with those obtained from 645 women studied for the same problem. Response to treatment was evaluated after 6 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of patients studied in our unit for fecal incontinence were male. Men took longer than women before asking for medical help. Ano-rectal surgery was the most common risk factor for men related to fecal incontinence. Chronic diarrhea was present in more than 40% of patients in both groups. Decreased resting and external anal sphincter pressures were more frequent in women. No significant differences existed between the sexes regarding rectal sensitivity and recto-anal inhibitory reflex. In 17.8% of men, all presenting soiling, manometric findings did not justify fecal incontinence. Response to treatment was good in both groups, as 80.4% of patients improved and fecal incontinence disappeared in 13.2% of them. CONCLUSION: In our series, it was common that men waited longer in seeking medical help for fecal incontinence. Ano-rectal surgery was the major cause of this problem. Chronic diarrhea was a predisposing factor in both sexes. Manometric differences between groups were limited to an increased frequency of hypotony of the external anal sphincter in women. Fecal incontinence was controllable in most patients. PMID:24976729

  17. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joanna; Grinspan, Ari

    2016-06-01

    The gut bacterial microbiome, particularly its role in disease and inflammation, has gained international attention with the successful use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. This success has led to studies exploring the role of FMT in other conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal system that have multifactorial etiologies. A shift in gut microbial composition in genetically susceptible individuals, an altered immune system, and environmental factors are all hypothesized to have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. While numerous case reports and cohort studies have described the use of FMT in patients with IBD over the last 2 decades, the development of new sequencing techniques and results from 2 recent randomized, controlled trials have allowed for a better understanding of the relationship between the microbiome and the human host. However, despite these efforts, knowledge remains limited and the role of FMT in the management of IBD remains uncertain. Further investigation is necessary before FMT joins the current armamentarium of treatment options in clinical practice. PMID:27493597

  18. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The gut bacterial microbiome, particularly its role in disease and inflammation, has gained international attention with the successful use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. This success has led to studies exploring the role of FMT in other conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal system that have multifactorial etiologies. A shift in gut microbial composition in genetically susceptible individuals, an altered immune system, and environmental factors are all hypothesized to have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. While numerous case reports and cohort studies have described the use of FMT in patients with IBD over the last 2 decades, the development of new sequencing techniques and results from 2 recent randomized, controlled trials have allowed for a better understanding of the relationship between the microbiome and the human host. However, despite these efforts, knowledge remains limited and the role of FMT in the management of IBD remains uncertain. Further investigation is necessary before FMT joins the current armamentarium of treatment options in clinical practice. PMID:27493597

  19. Hyperspectral Imaging of fecal contamination on chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    ProVision Technologies, a NASA research partnership center at Sternis Space Center in Mississippi, has developed a new hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system that is much smaller than the original large units used aboard remote sensing aircraft and satellites. The new apparatus is about the size of a breadbox. Health-related applications of HSI include scanning chickens during processing to help prevent contaminated food from getting to the table. ProVision is working with Sanderson Farms of Mississippi and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ProVision has a record in its spectral library of the unique spectral signature of fecal contamination, so chickens can be scanned and those with a positive reading can be separated. HSI sensors can also determine the quantity of surface contamination. Research in this application is quite advanced, and ProVision is working on a licensing agreement for the technology. The potential for future use of this equipment in food processing and food safety is enormous.

  20. Bacteriotherapy using fecal flora: toying with human motions.

    PubMed

    Borody, Thomas J; Warren, Eloise F; Leis, Sharyn M; Surace, Rosa; Ashman, Ori; Siarakas, Steven

    2004-07-01

    The intestinal flora may play a key role in the pathogenesis of certain gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Components of bowel flora such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidus have long been used empirically as therapeutic agents for GI disorders. More complex combinations of probiotics for therapeutic bacteriotherapy have also recently become available, however the most elaborate mix of human-derived probiotic bacteria is, by definition, the entire fecal flora. Fecal bacteriotherapy uses the complete normal human flora as a therapeutic probiotic mixture of living organisms. This type of bacteriotherapy has a longstanding history in animal health and has been used sporadically against chronic infections of the bowel, especially as a treatment of last resort for patients with severe Clostridium difficile syndromes including recurrent diarrhea, colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis. Encouraging results have also been observed following infusions of human fecal flora in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic constipation. The therapeutic use of fecal bacteriotherapy is reviewed here and possible mechanisms of action and potential applications explored. Published reports on fecal bacteriotherapy are few in number, and detail the results of small uncontrolled open studies and case reports. Nevertheless, given the promising clinical responses, formal research into fecal bacteriotherapy is now warranted. PMID:15220681

  1. Noninvasive fecal monitoring of glucocorticoids in spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta.

    PubMed

    Goymann, W; Möstl, E; Van't Hof, T; East, M L; Hofer, H

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a method for measuring glucocorticoids noninvasively in feces of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Three established enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for cortisol, corticosterone, and 11-oxoetiocholanolone were tested, but proved unsatisfactory. A new EIA using another corticosterone antibody was established and was used for all subsequent analyses; this EIA was validated by demonstrating parallelism between serial dilutions of spotted hyena fecal extracts and dilutions of standard corticosterone and by the recovery of corticosterone added to fecal extracts. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractions analyzed by EIA showed various immunoreactive substances with polarities of unconjugated steroids. The physiological relevance of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites was further validated by demonstrating that (1) injection of exogenous ACTH to four males and two females led to a significant increase in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites within 24-50 h, (2) the translocation of a male spotted hyena to a new enclosure resulted in a fivefold increase compared to baseline concentrations, and (3) agonistic social interactions and physical conflict resulted in large increases of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in both protagonists. Fecal steroid assessment is therefore of use in monitoring adrenal activity in spotted hyenas.

  2. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  3. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  4. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-04-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively. PMID:27099753

  5. Low dietary copper increases fecal free radical production, fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity and cytotoxicity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy D

    2003-02-01

    One possible dietary factor that may increase susceptibility to colon cancer is inadequate copper intake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low and adequate copper intakes on copper nutriture and putative risk factors for colon cancer susceptibility in healthy men. Seventeen healthy free-living nonsmoking men aged 21-52 y completed a 13-wk controlled feeding study in a randomized crossover design. The basal diet contained 0.59 mg Cu/13.65 MJ. After a 1-wk equilibration period in which the men consumed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cu/d, they were randomly assigned to receive either the basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg Cu/d for 6 wk. After the first dietary period, the men immediately began to consume the other level of Cu for the last 6 wk. They collected their feces during the equilibration period and during the last 2 wk of the two dietary periods for free radical and fecal water analysis. Low dietary copper significantly (P < 0.01) increased fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity. Low dietary copper significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased fecal water copper concentrations but did not affect fecal water volume, pH, iron or zinc concentrations. In contrast to the fecal analysis, hematological indicators of copper status were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. These results suggest that low dietary copper adversely affects fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity, which are putative risk factors for colon cancer.

  6. Basin-Wide Analysis of the Dynamics of Fecal Contamination and Fecal Source Identification in Tillamook Bay, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Orin C.; Nietch, Christopher; Simonich, Michael; Younger, Melissa; Reynolds, Don; Field, Katharine G.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate spatial and temporal dynamics in source-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic marker data across a watershed; to compare these dynamics to fecal indicator counts, general measurements of water quality, and climatic forces; and to identify geographic areas of intense exposure to specific sources of contamination. Samples were collected during a 2-year period in the Tillamook basin in Oregon at 30 sites along five river tributaries and in Tillamook Bay. We performed Bacteroidales PCR assays with general, ruminant-source-specific, and human-source-specific primers to identify fecal sources. We determined the Escherichia coli most probable number, temperature, turbidity, and 5-day precipitation. Climate and water quality data collectively supported a rainfall runoff pattern for microbial source input that mirrored the annual precipitation cycle. Fecal sources were statistically linked more closely to ruminants than to humans; there was a 40% greater probability of detecting a ruminant source marker than a human source marker across the basin. On a sample site basis, the addition of fecal source tracking data provided new information linking elevated fecal indicator bacterial loads to specific point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution in the basin. Inconsistencies in E. coli and host-specific marker trends suggested that the factors that control the quantity of fecal indicators in the water column are different than the factors that influence the presence of Bacteroidales markers at specific times of the year. This may be important if fecal indicator counts are used as a criterion for source loading potential in receiving waters. PMID:16885307

  7. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Uebelhack, Ralf; Busch, Regina; Alt, Felix; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Chong, Pee-Win

    2014-01-01

    Background Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) fiber was shown to promote weight loss in a 3-month clinical investigation. As demonstrated by in vitro studies, cactus fiber binds to dietary fat and its use results in reduced absorption, which in turn leads to reduced energy absorption and ultimately the reduction of body weight. Objective The objective of our study was to elucidate the dietary fat binding capacity of cactus fiber through determination of fecal fat excretion in healthy volunteers. Subjects and Methods This clinical investigation was performed as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects for a period of approximately 45 days. Twenty healthy volunteer subjects were randomized to receive cactus fiber or placebo, 2 tablets thrice daily with main meals. All subjects were provided with meals during the study period (except washout) according to a standardized meal plan, with 35% of daily energy need coming from fat. Two 24-hour feces samples were collected during both the baseline and treatment periods for analysis of the fat content. Results Cactus fiber showed an increased fecal fat excretion compared with placebo (mean [SD] = 15.79% [5.79%] vs 4.56% [3.09%]; P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported throughout the study period. Conclusions Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667. PMID:25067985

  8. Loss of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Fecal Dominance in an Organ Transplant Patient With Clostridium difficile Colitis After Fecal Microbiota Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Stripling, Joshua; Kumar, Ranjit; Baddley, John W.; Nellore, Anoma; Dixon, Paula; Howard, Donna; Ptacek, Travis; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Tallaj, Jose A.; Benjamin, William H.; Morrow, Casey D.; Rodriguez, J. Martin

    2015-01-01

    We report the use of fecal microbiota transplantation in a single heart-kidney transplant recipient with recurrent Clostridium difficile, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) fecal dominance, and recurrent VRE infections. Fecal microbiota transplantation resulted in the reconstruction of a diverse microbiota with (1) reduced relative abundance of C difficile and VRE and (2) positive clinical outcome. PMID:26180828

  9. Loss of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Fecal Dominance in an Organ Transplant Patient With Clostridium difficile Colitis After Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

    PubMed

    Stripling, Joshua; Kumar, Ranjit; Baddley, John W; Nellore, Anoma; Dixon, Paula; Howard, Donna; Ptacek, Travis; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Tallaj, Jose A; Benjamin, William H; Morrow, Casey D; Rodriguez, J Martin

    2015-04-01

    We report the use of fecal microbiota transplantation in a single heart-kidney transplant recipient with recurrent Clostridium difficile, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) fecal dominance, and recurrent VRE infections. Fecal microbiota transplantation resulted in the reconstruction of a diverse microbiota with (1) reduced relative abundance of C difficile and VRE and (2) positive clinical outcome.

  10. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 9 Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats Why should I choose healthy fats? Diabetes raises your chances of having a heart ... protect your heart and blood vessels by choosing fats wisely. Some kinds of fat, such as butter ...

  11. The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. PMID:21909269

  12. Human-Induced Trophic Cascades along the Fecal Detritus Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Uriarte, María; Peres, Carlos A.; Louzada, Julio; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Schiffler, Gustavo; Endo, Whaldener; Spector, Sacha H.

    2013-01-01

    Human presence and activity in tropical forest is thought to exert top-down regulation over the various ‘green-world’ pathways of plant-based foodwebs. However, these effects have never been explored for the ‘brown-world’ pathways of fecal-detritus webs. The strong effects of humans on tropical game mammals are likely to indirectly influence fecal detritivores (including Scarabaeine dung beetles), with subsequent indirect impacts on detrivore-mediated and plant-facilitating detrital processes. Across a 380-km gradient of human influence in the western Brazilian Amazon, we conducted the first landscape-level assessment of human-induced cascade effects on the fecal detritus pathway, by coupling data on human impact, game mammal and detritivore community structure, and rate measurements of a key detritus process (i.e. dung beetle-mediated secondary seed dispersal). We found evidence that human impact indirectly influences both the diversity and biomass of fecal detritivores, but not detritivore-mediated processes. Cascade strength varied across detritivore groups defined by species' traits. We found smaller-bodied dung beetles were at higher risk of local decline in areas of human presence, and that body size was a better predictor of cascade structure than fecal resource manipulation strategy. Cascade strength was also stronger in upland, unflooded forests, than in seasonally flooded forests. Our results suggest that the impact of human activity in tropical forest on fecal-detritus food web structure is mediated by both species' traits and habitat type. Further research will be required to determine the conditions under which these cascade effects influence fecal-detritus web function. PMID:24146780

  13. Persistence and Growth of Fecal Bacteroidales Assessed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Sarah P.; Field, Katharine G.

    2006-01-01

    Extraintestinal growth of fecal bacteria can impair accurate assessment of watershed health. Anaerobic fecal bacteria belonging to the order Bacteroidales are attractive candidates for fecal source tracking because they have host-specific distributions and do not grow well in the presence of high oxygen concentrations. Growth of general and human-specific fecal Bacteroidales marker organisms in environmental samples (sewage) and persistence of the corresponding genetic markers were investigated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) DNA labeling and immunocapture, followed by PCR detection. Background amplification of unlabeled controls occasionally occurred when a high number of PCR cycles was used. By using fluorescent detection of PCR products obtained after 15 cycles, which was determined to be quantitative, we enriched for BrdU-labeled DNA and did not detect unlabeled DNA. By using pure cultures of Bacteroides vulgatus, the ability of Bacteroidales bacteria to take up and incorporate BrdU into nascent DNA was confirmed. Fecal Bacteroidales organisms took up and incorporated BrdU into DNA during growth. In sewage incubated aerobically at the in situ temperature, Bacteroidales genetic marker sequences persisted for at least 24 h and Bacteroidales fecal bacteria grew for up to 24 h as well. Detection by PCR using a low, quantitative cycle number decreased the sensitivity of the assay such that we were unable to detect fecal Bacteroidales human-specific marker sequences in unlabeled or BrdU-labeled fractions, even when fluorescent detection was used. Using 30 PCR cycles with unlabeled fractions, human-specific Bacteroidales sequences were detected, and they persisted for up to 24 h in sewage. These data support the utility of BrdU labeling and immunocapture followed by length heterogeneity PCR or fluorescent detection using low numbers of PCR cycles. However, this method may not be sensitive enough to identify cells that are present at low densities in aquatic

  14. Human-induced trophic cascades along the fecal detritus pathway.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Uriarte, María; Peres, Carlos A; Louzada, Julio; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Schiffler, Gustavo; Endo, Whaldener; Spector, Sacha H

    2013-01-01

    Human presence and activity in tropical forest is thought to exert top-down regulation over the various 'green-world' pathways of plant-based foodwebs. However, these effects have never been explored for the 'brown-world' pathways of fecal-detritus webs. The strong effects of humans on tropical game mammals are likely to indirectly influence fecal detritivores (including Scarabaeine dung beetles), with subsequent indirect impacts on detrivore-mediated and plant-facilitating detrital processes. Across a 380-km gradient of human influence in the western Brazilian Amazon, we conducted the first landscape-level assessment of human-induced cascade effects on the fecal detritus pathway, by coupling data on human impact, game mammal and detritivore community structure, and rate measurements of a key detritus process (i.e. dung beetle-mediated secondary seed dispersal). We found evidence that human impact indirectly influences both the diversity and biomass of fecal detritivores, but not detritivore-mediated processes. Cascade strength varied across detritivore groups defined by species' traits. We found smaller-bodied dung beetles were at higher risk of local decline in areas of human presence, and that body size was a better predictor of cascade structure than fecal resource manipulation strategy. Cascade strength was also stronger in upland, unflooded forests, than in seasonally flooded forests. Our results suggest that the impact of human activity in tropical forest on fecal-detritus food web structure is mediated by both species' traits and habitat type. Further research will be required to determine the conditions under which these cascade effects influence fecal-detritus web function. PMID:24146780

  15. Human-induced trophic cascades along the fecal detritus pathway.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Uriarte, María; Peres, Carlos A; Louzada, Julio; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Schiffler, Gustavo; Endo, Whaldener; Spector, Sacha H

    2013-01-01

    Human presence and activity in tropical forest is thought to exert top-down regulation over the various 'green-world' pathways of plant-based foodwebs. However, these effects have never been explored for the 'brown-world' pathways of fecal-detritus webs. The strong effects of humans on tropical game mammals are likely to indirectly influence fecal detritivores (including Scarabaeine dung beetles), with subsequent indirect impacts on detrivore-mediated and plant-facilitating detrital processes. Across a 380-km gradient of human influence in the western Brazilian Amazon, we conducted the first landscape-level assessment of human-induced cascade effects on the fecal detritus pathway, by coupling data on human impact, game mammal and detritivore community structure, and rate measurements of a key detritus process (i.e. dung beetle-mediated secondary seed dispersal). We found evidence that human impact indirectly influences both the diversity and biomass of fecal detritivores, but not detritivore-mediated processes. Cascade strength varied across detritivore groups defined by species' traits. We found smaller-bodied dung beetles were at higher risk of local decline in areas of human presence, and that body size was a better predictor of cascade structure than fecal resource manipulation strategy. Cascade strength was also stronger in upland, unflooded forests, than in seasonally flooded forests. Our results suggest that the impact of human activity in tropical forest on fecal-detritus food web structure is mediated by both species' traits and habitat type. Further research will be required to determine the conditions under which these cascade effects influence fecal-detritus web function.

  16. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet.

    PubMed

    Heinritz, Sonja N; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Louis, Sandrine; Rings, Andreas; Messner, Sabine; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana; Bischoff, Stephan C; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P<0.001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P<0.05) were higher in the LF pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the HF pigs (P<0.001). Higher numbers of proteins affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae were also present in the HF samples. Proteins for polysaccharide breakdown did almost exclusively originate from Prevotellaceae. Total and individual fecal SCFA concentrations were higher for pigs of the LF treatment (P<0.05), whereas fecal ammonia concentrations did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via

  17. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet

    PubMed Central

    Heinritz, Sonja N.; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Louis, Sandrine; Rings, Andreas; Messner, Sabine; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host’s health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P<0.001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P<0.05) were higher in the LF pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the HF pigs (P<0.001). Higher numbers of proteins affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae were also present in the HF samples. Proteins for polysaccharide breakdown did almost exclusively originate from Prevotellaceae. Total and individual fecal SCFA concentrations were higher for pigs of the LF treatment (P<0.05), whereas fecal ammonia concentrations did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available

  18. Distributions of Fecal Markers in Wastewater from Different Climatic Zones for Human Fecal Pollution Tracking in Australian Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, J. P. S.; Smith, K.; Beale, D. J.; Gyawali, P.; Toze, S.

    2015-01-01

    Recreational and potable water supplies polluted with human wastewater can pose a direct health risk to humans. Therefore, sensitive detection of human fecal pollution in environmental waters is very important to water quality authorities around the globe. Microbial source tracking (MST) utilizes human fecal markers (HFMs) to detect human wastewater pollution in environmental waters. The concentrations of these markers in raw wastewater are considered important because it is likely that a marker whose concentration is high in wastewater will be more frequently detected in polluted waters. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to determine the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., HFMs Bacteroides HF183, human adenoviruses (HAdVs), and polyomaviruses (HPyVs) in raw municipal wastewater influent from various climatic zones in Australia. E. coli mean concentrations in pooled human wastewater data sets (from various climatic zones) were the highest (3.2 × 106 gene copies per ml), followed by those of HF183 (8.0 × 105 gene copies per ml) and Enterococcus spp. (3.6 × 105 gene copies per ml). HAdV and HPyV concentrations were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those of FIB and HF183. Strong positive and negative correlations were observed between the FIB and HFM concentrations within and across wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To identify the most sensitive marker of human fecal pollution, environmental water samples were seeded with raw human wastewater. The results from the seeding experiments indicated that Bacteroides HF183 was more sensitive for detecting human fecal pollution than HAdVs and HPyVs. Since the HF183 marker can occasionally be present in nontarget animal fecal samples, it is recommended that HF183 along with a viral marker (HAdVs or HPyVs) be used for tracking human fecal pollution in Australian environmental waters. PMID:26682850

  19. Distributions of Fecal Markers in Wastewater from Different Climatic Zones for Human Fecal Pollution Tracking in Australian Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Sidhu, J P S; Smith, K; Beale, D J; Gyawali, P; Toze, S

    2016-02-01

    Recreational and potable water supplies polluted with human wastewater can pose a direct health risk to humans. Therefore, sensitive detection of human fecal pollution in environmental waters is very important to water quality authorities around the globe. Microbial source tracking (MST) utilizes human fecal markers (HFMs) to detect human wastewater pollution in environmental waters. The concentrations of these markers in raw wastewater are considered important because it is likely that a marker whose concentration is high in wastewater will be more frequently detected in polluted waters. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to determine the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., HFMs Bacteroides HF183, human adenoviruses (HAdVs), and polyomaviruses (HPyVs) in raw municipal wastewater influent from various climatic zones in Australia. E. coli mean concentrations in pooled human wastewater data sets (from various climatic zones) were the highest (3.2 × 10(6) gene copies per ml), followed by those of HF183 (8.0 × 10(5) gene copies per ml) and Enterococcus spp. (3.6 × 10(5) gene copies per ml). HAdV and HPyV concentrations were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those of FIB and HF183. Strong positive and negative correlations were observed between the FIB and HFM concentrations within and across wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To identify the most sensitive marker of human fecal pollution, environmental water samples were seeded with raw human wastewater. The results from the seeding experiments indicated that Bacteroides HF183 was more sensitive for detecting human fecal pollution than HAdVs and HPyVs. Since the HF183 marker can occasionally be present in nontarget animal fecal samples, it is recommended that HF183 along with a viral marker (HAdVs or HPyVs) be used for tracking human fecal pollution in Australian environmental waters. PMID:26682850

  20. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  1. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Its Usage in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Evrensel, Alper; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin

    2016-08-31

    Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 1700-year history. This forgotten treatment method has been put into use again during the last 50 years. The interest in microbiota-gut-brain axis and fecal microbiota transplantation is rapidly increasing. New evidence is obtained in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. There is a large number of experimental and clinical researches in the field of gut-brain axis. There is limited information on fecal microbiota transplantation. Despite this, initial results are promising. It is commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis. It is also experimentally used in the treatment of metabolic and autoimmune diseases. There are case reports that it is effective in the treatment of autism, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Its implementation is easy, and it is a cheap and reliable treatment method. However, the long-term risks are unknown. Additionally, standard application protocols have not yet been established. There are a lot of questions to be answered. A university in Turkey has got official permission this year, and started to apply fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, neuropsychiatric areas of use of fecal microbiota transplantation have been discussed in the light of the current information.

  2. Fecal indicator bacteria variability in samples pumped from monitoring wells.

    PubMed

    Kozuskanich, J; Novakowski, K S; Anderson, B C

    2011-01-01

    The detection of microbiological contamination in drinking water from groundwater wells is often made with a limited number of samples that are collected using traditional geochemical sampling protocols. The objective of this study is to examine the variability of fecal indicator bacteria, as observed using discrete samples, due to pumping. Two wells were instrumented as multilevel piezometers in a bedrock aquifer, and bacterial enumeration was conducted on a total of 166 samples (for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci) using standard membrane filtration methods. Five tests were conducted using pumping rates ranging from 0.3 to 17 L/min in a variety of purging scenarios, which included constant and variable (incremental increase and decrease) flow. The results clearly show a rapid and reproducible, 1 to 2 log-unit decrease in fecal indicator bacteria at the onset of pumping to stabilized, low-level concentrations prior to the removal of three to five well volumes. The pumping rate was not found to be correlated with the magnitude of observed bacterial counts. Based on the results, we suggest sampling protocols for fecal indicator bacteria that include multiple collections during the course of pumping, including early-time samples, and consider other techniques such as microscopic enumeration when assessing the source of bacteria from the well-aquifer system.

  3. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Its Usage in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Evrensel, Alper; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin

    2016-08-31

    Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 1700-year history. This forgotten treatment method has been put into use again during the last 50 years. The interest in microbiota-gut-brain axis and fecal microbiota transplantation is rapidly increasing. New evidence is obtained in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. There is a large number of experimental and clinical researches in the field of gut-brain axis. There is limited information on fecal microbiota transplantation. Despite this, initial results are promising. It is commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis. It is also experimentally used in the treatment of metabolic and autoimmune diseases. There are case reports that it is effective in the treatment of autism, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Its implementation is easy, and it is a cheap and reliable treatment method. However, the long-term risks are unknown. Additionally, standard application protocols have not yet been established. There are a lot of questions to be answered. A university in Turkey has got official permission this year, and started to apply fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, neuropsychiatric areas of use of fecal microbiota transplantation have been discussed in the light of the current information. PMID:27489376

  4. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Its Usage in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Evrensel, Alper; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 1700-year history. This forgotten treatment method has been put into use again during the last 50 years. The interest in microbiota-gut-brain axis and fecal microbiota transplantation is rapidly increasing. New evidence is obtained in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. There is a large number of experimental and clinical researches in the field of gut-brain axis. There is limited information on fecal microbiota transplantation. Despite this, initial results are promising. It is commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis. It is also experimentally used in the treatment of metabolic and autoimmune diseases. There are case reports that it is effective in the treatment of autism, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Its implementation is easy, and it is a cheap and reliable treatment method. However, the long-term risks are unknown. Additionally, standard application protocols have not yet been established. There are a lot of questions to be answered. A university in Turkey has got official permission this year, and started to apply fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, neuropsychiatric areas of use of fecal microbiota transplantation have been discussed in the light of the current information. PMID:27489376

  5. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  6. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  7. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  8. Chinese physicians’ perceptions of fecal microbiota transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Rong-Rong; Sun, Gang; Yang, Yun-Sheng; Peng, Li-Hua; Wang, Shu-Fang; Shi, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Jing-Quan; Ban, Yong-Ling; Pan, Fei; Wang, Xue-Hong; Lu, Wei; Ren, Jian-Lin; Song, Ying; Wang, Jiang-Bin; Lu, Qi-Ming; Bai, Wen-Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Zi-Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore Chinese physicians’ perceptions towards fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and to provide information and an assessment of FMT development in China. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was developed according to the FMT practice guidelines and was distributed to physicians in hospitals via Internet Research Electronic Data Capture (REDcap) software and electronic mails to assess their attitudes toward and knowledge of FMT. The questionnaire included a brief introduction of FMT that was followed by 20 questions. The participants were required to respond voluntarily, under the condition of anonymity and without compensation. Except for the fill-in-the-blank questions, all of the other questions were required in the REDcap data collection systems, and the emailed questionnaires were completed based on eligibility. RESULTS: Up to December 9, 2014, 844 eligible questionnaires were received out of the 980 distributed questionnaires, with a response rate of 86.1%. Among the participants, 87.3% were from tertiary hospitals, and there were 647 (76.7%) gastroenterologists and 197 (23.3%) physicians in other departments (non-gastroenterologists). Gastroenterologists’ awareness of FMT prior to the survey was much higher than non-gastroenterologists’ (54.3 vs 16.5%, P < 0.001); however, acceptance of FMT was not statistically different (92.4 vs 87.1%, P = 0.1603). Major concerns of FMT included the following: acceptability to patients (79.2%), absence of guidelines (56.9%), and administration and ethics (46.5%). On the basis of understanding, the FMT indications preferred by physicians were recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (86.7%), inflammatory bowel disease combined with Clostridium difficile infection (78.6%), refractory ulcerative colitis (70.9%), ulcerative colitis (65.4%), Crohn’s disease (59.4%), chronic constipation (43.7%), irritable bowel syndrome (39.1%), obesity (28.1%) and type 2 diabetes (23.9%). For donor selection, the

  9. Ectopic fat and cardiometabolic and vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Meigs, James B

    2013-11-01

    Given that the variation in how regional adipose tissue handles and stores excess dietary energy has substantial cardiometabolic implications, ectopic fat distribution might be an important predictor of cardiometabolic and vascular risk, in addition to overall obesity itself. Conceptually, ectopic fat depots may be divided into systemically acting fat depots and locally acting fat depots. Systemically acting fat depots include visceral fat, fat in the liver, muscle, or neck, and subcutaneous fat. Accumulation in the abdominal visceral area, compared with overall obesity, has an equally or more important role in the development of cardiometabolic risk. Fat depots in liver/muscle tissue cause adverse cardiometabolic effects by affecting energy metabolism. Fat depots in lower-body subcutaneous areas may be protective regarding cardiometabolic risk, by trapping remnant energy. Fat accumulation in the neck is a unique type of fat depot that may increase cardiovascular risk by increasing insulin resistance. Locally acting fat depots include pericardial fat, perivascular fat, and renal sinus fat. These fat depots have effects primarily on adjacent anatomic organs, directly via lipotoxicity and indirectly via cytokine secretion. Pericardial fat is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Perivascular fat may play an independent role in adverse vascular biology, including arterial stiffness. Renal sinus fat is a unique fat depot that may confer additional cardiometabolic risk. Thus, ectopic fat depots may contribute to the understanding of the link between body composition and cardiometabolic risk. In this review, we focus on the role and clinical implications of ectopic fat depots in cardiometabolic and vascular risk. PMID:24063931

  10. The metabolizable energy of dietary resistant maltodextrin is variable and alters fecal microbiota composition in adult men.

    PubMed

    Baer, David J; Stote, Kim S; Henderson, Theresa; Paul, David R; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko; Gordon, Dennis T; Rumpler, William V; Ukhanova, Maria; Culpepper, Tyler; Wang, Xiaoyu; Mai, Volker

    2014-07-01

    Resistant maltodextrin (RM) is a novel soluble, nonviscous dietary fiber. Its metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy (NE) values derived from nutrient balance studies are unknown, as is the effect of RM on fecal microbiota. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study was conducted (n = 14 men) to determine the ME and NE of RM and its influence on fecal excretion of macronutrients and microbiota. Participants were assigned to a sequence consisting of 3 treatment periods [24 d each: 0 g/d RM + 50 g/d maltodextrin and 2 amounts of dietary RM (25 g/d RM + 25 g of maltodextrin/d and 50 g/d RM + 0 g/d maltodextrin)] and were provided all the foods they were to consume to maintain their body weight. After an adaptation period, excreta were collected during a 7-d period. After the collection period, 24-h energy expenditure was measured. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and 454 titanium technology-based 16S rRNA sequencing were used to analyze fecal microbiota composition. Fecal amounts of energy (544, 662, 737 kJ/d), nitrogen (1.5, 1.8, 2.1 g/d), RM (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g/d), and total carbohydrate (11.1, 14.2, 16.2 g/d) increased with increasing dose (0, 25, 50 g) of RM (P < 0.0001). Fat excretion did not differ among treatments. The ME value of RM was 8.2 and 10.4 kJ/g, and the NE value of RM was -8.2 and 2.0 kJ/g for the 25 and 50 g/d RM doses, respectively. Both doses of RM increased fecal wet weight (118, 148, 161 g/d; P < 0.0001) and fecal dry weight (26.5, 32.0, 35.8 g/d; P < 0.0001) compared with the maltodextrin placebo. Total counts of fecal bacteria increased by 12% for the 25 g/d RM dose (P = 0.17) and 18% for the 50 g/d RM dose (P = 0.019). RM intake was associated with statistically significant increases (P < 0.001) in various operational taxonomic units matching closest to ruminococcus, eubacterium, lachnospiraceae, bacteroides, holdemania, and faecalibacterium, implicating RM in their growth in the

  11. Palm olein in infant formula: absorption of fat and minerals by normal infants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S E; Rogers, R R; Frantz, J A; Ziegler, E E

    1996-09-01

    Palm olein, a low-melting fraction of palm oil, and soy oil can be combined to obtain fat blends with proportions of palmitic and oleic acids similar to those of human milk. We compared the absorption of fat and calcium by infants fed a formula containing a blend of palm olein (53%) and soy oil (47%) (Formula PO/S) with that by infants fed a formula containing a blend of soy oil (60%) and coconut oil (40%) (Formula S/C). In a randomized crossover design, one study was performed with each formula in each of 11 normal infants ranging in age from 27 to 161 d. Six of the infants were admitted for 72-h metabolic balance studies. In the other five infants, feces (with some admixture of urine) were collected at home for 96 h by using acid-washed cloth diapers. Mean (+/- SD) absorption of fat was 90.6 +/- 1.6% of intake when Formula PO/S was fed and 95.2 +/- 1.1% of intake when Formula S/C was fed; the difference was significant (P < 0.001). The difference in excretion of fat by infants fed the two formulas was explained by the difference in excretion of palmitic acid. Absorption of calcium averaged 39.0 +/- 8.3% of intake with Formula PO/S and 48.4 +/- 10.3% with Formula S/C; the difference was significant (P < 0.01). We conclude that fat is less well absorbed from a mixture of 53% palm olein and 47% soy oil than from a mixture of 60% soy oil and 40% coconut oil, and that absorption of calcium is less from a formula containing palm olein, presumably because of the formation of insoluble calcium soaps of unabsorbed palmitic acid. PMID:8780336

  12. Fecal coliform analyses. Method evaluation for stressed organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L B; Winston, H G

    1986-01-01

    No significant difference was found between two tests for fecal coliform densities using water samples from the treated sanitary waste outfalls at the Savannah River Plant, a nuclear materials production site located near Aiken, SC. These two methods of concern were the most probable number index (MPN) and the membrane filtration procedure (MF). The MPN method is the accepted method for determining fecal coliform densities in chlorinated effluents, but requires more than the MF procedure. Per Microbiological Methods for Monitoring the Environment (1978) by EPA, any decision to use the MF test for stressed organisms requires parallel testing with the MPN test. The MPN index is the number of fecal coliform bacteria that, more probably than any other number, would give the results shown by laboratory examination. It is not an actual count of coliform bacteria. The MF procedure is a direct plating method and the colonies are directly counted.

  13. Fecal bile acids of black-footed ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Louise; Johnson, M.K.; Clark, T.W.; Schroder, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fecal bile acid characteristics have been used to identify scats to species of origin. Fecal bile acids in scats from 20 known black-footed ferrets ( Mustela nigripes ), 7 other known small carnivores, and 72 of unknown origin were analyzed to determine if this procedure could be used as a tool to verify ferret presence in an area. Seventeen ferret scats were suitable for analysis and had a mean fecal bile acid index of 156 ± 9. This was significantly different from mean indices for the other carnivores; however, substantial overlap among confidence intervals occurred for badgers, kit foxes, and especially long-tailed weasels. We conclude this method is not useful for making positive identifications if individual ferret scats and suggest that we may be able to definitively identify individual scats with reasonable confidence by using gas-liquid chromatography.

  14. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2014-10-01

    Reliable estimates of fresh manure water output from dairy cows help to improve storage design, enhance efficiency of land application, quantify the water footprint, and predict nutrient transformations during manure storage. The objective of the study was to construct a mechanistic, dynamic, and deterministic mathematical model to quantify urinary and fecal water outputs (kg/d) from individual lactating dairy cows. The model contained 4 body water pools: reticulorumen (QRR), post-reticulorumen (QPR), extracellular (QEC), and intracellular (QIC). Dry matter (DM) intake, dietary forage, DM, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash contents, milk yield, and milk fat and protein contents, days in milk, and body weight were input variables to the model. A set of linear equations was constructed to determine drinking, feed, and saliva water inputs to QRR and fractional water passage from QRR to QPR. Water transfer via the rumen wall was subjected to changes in QEC and total water input to QRR. Post-reticulorumen water passage was adjusted for DM intake. Metabolic water production and respiratory cutaneous water losses were estimated with functions of heat production in the model. Water loss in urine was driven by absorbed N left after being removed via milk. Model parameters were estimated simultaneously using observed fecal and urinary water output data from lactating Holstein cows (n=670). The model was evaluated with data that were not used for model development and optimization (n=377). The observations in both data sets were related to thermoneutral conditions. The model predicted drinking water intake, fecal, urinary, and total fresh manure water output with root mean square prediction errors as a percentage of average values of 18.1, 15.6, 30.6, and 14.6%, respectively. In all cases, >97% of the prediction error was due to random variability of data. The model can also be used to determine saliva production, heat and metabolic water production, respiratory

  15. Fecal transplantation indications in ulcerative colitis. Preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    LASZLO, MIHAELA; CIOBANU, LIDIA; ANDREICA, VASILE; PASCU, OLIVIU

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Fecal microbiota transplantation is used with success in persistent (more than two episodes) Clostridium Difficile Infection; it has also gained importance and started to be used in inflammatory bowel disease. There are theoretical arguments that justify its use in ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. Based on our clinical cases we tried to evaluate the indications of fecal microbiota transplantation young patients with ulcerative colitis and multiple relapses, in which biological or immunosuppressive treatment were ineffective. Methods Five patients with moderate-severe ulcerative colitis or Clostridium Difficile infection who ceased to have a therapeutic response to biological therapy, were given fecal microbiota transplant as an alternative to biological therapy and/or immunosuppression. Fecal microbiota transplant was administered via colonoscopy using healthy donors from their family. Results The results were favorable and spectacular in all patients and complete remission was achieved for at least 10 months. Clinical remission was achieved in all patients. Endoscopic appearance of ulcers in patients improved. In 2 patients the effect of the fecal microbiota transplant diminished after 10–12 months and the tendency to relapse appeared (3–4 stools/day, blood streaks present sometimes in the stool). Reintroduction of systemic therapy or immunosuppression demonstrated that patients regained the therapeutic response to these treatments, and remission was maintained. Conclusion Fecal microbiota transplantation can be used as salvage therapy in patients refractory to biological therapy, as elective therapy in clostridium difficile infection or as an alternative therapy in young patients with multiple relapses who have reservations regarding biological or immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:27152073

  16. Recovery and enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum from animal fecal matrices.

    PubMed

    Davies, Cheryl M; Kaucner, Christine; Deere, Daniel; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2003-05-01

    Accurate quantification of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in animal fecal deposits on land is an essential starting point for estimating watershed C. parvum loads. Due to the general poor performance and variable recovery efficiency of existing enumeration methods, protocols were devised based on initial dispersion of oocysts from feces by vortexing in 2 mM tetrasodium pyrophosphate, followed by immunomagnetic separation. The protocols were validated by using an internal control seed preparation to determine the levels of oocyst recovery for a range of fecal types. The levels of recovery of 10(2) oocysts from cattle feces (0.5 g of processed feces) ranged from 31 to 46%, and the levels of recovery from sheep feces (0.25 g of processed feces) ranged from 21% to 35%. The within-sample coefficients of variation for the percentages of recovery from five replicates ranged from 10 to 50%. The ranges for levels of recovery of oocysts from cattle, kangaroo, pig, and sheep feces (juveniles and adults) collected in a subsequent watershed animal fecal survey were far wider than the ranges predicted by the validation data. Based on the use of an internal control added to each fecal sample, the levels of recovery ranged from 0 to 83% for cattle, from 4 to 62% for sheep, from 1 to 42% for pigs, and from 40 to 73% for kangaroos. Given the variation in the levels of recovery of oocysts from different fecal matrices, it is recommended that an internal control be added to at least one replicate of every fecal sample analyzed to determine the percentage of recovery. Depending on the animal type and based on the lowest approximate percentages of recovery, between 10 and 100 oocysts g of feces(-1) must be present to be detected.

  17. Update on the Management of Fecal Incontinence for the Gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with fecal incontinence respond to conservative measures based upon a careful assessment and a multimodality approach that Is within the expertise of the practicing gastroenterologist. However, there Is a need for new and effective strategies when conservative therapy fails. This article reviews established therapies for fecal incontinence, such as biofeedback, as well as new therapies that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), such as sacral neuromodulation and an injectable bulking agent. Also reviewed are some of the newer approaches that have not yet been approved by the FDA or that have uncertain efficacy. PMID:27231444

  18. Chapter A7. Section 7.1. Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Sylvester, Marc A.

    1997-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the presence of several waterborne disease-causing organisms. The concentration of indicator bacteria is a measure of water safety for body-contact recreation or for consumption. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and identification, enumeration, and calculation procedures that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator bacteria.

  19. A Content Incontinent: Report of Liposomal Bupivacaine Induced Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Proper surgical management of anal fistula demands sound clinical judgment and extraordinary care to prevent incontinence and adequate postoperative pain control and provide satisfactory resolution to optimize quality of life. Fecal incontinence can be a devastating complication of procedures performed for fistula in ano. We report a unique case in which temporary incontinence (for less than 4 days) followed injection of liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative pain control after draining seton placement for fistula in ano. Patients and physicians should be aware as it may be mistaken for a more serious anatomical and permanent cause of fecal incontinence. PMID:27747127

  20. Development of fecal microbiota transplantation suitable for mainstream medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J; Hamilton, Matthew J

    2015-02-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation has emerged as an increasingly common treatment for patients with refractory Clostridium difficile infection. Although it can be relatively simple to perform, a number of challenges need to be overcome before this procedure is widely accepted in mainstream clinical practice. Most of the solutions to these challenges already exist, but some need further optimization and testing. Standardized fecal microbiota is being developed as a therapeutic agent, although it clearly challenges some of the existing paradigms of drug development, delivery, and regulation.

  1. Classification of fecal contamination on leafy greens by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin; Kang, Sukwon; Chan, Diane E.; Lefcourt, Alan

    2010-04-01

    This paper reported the development of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system using ultraviolet-A excitation (320-400 nm) for detection of bovine fecal contaminants on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. Six spots of fecal contamination were applied to each of 40 lettuce and 40 spinach leaves. In this study, the wavebands at 666 nm and 680 nm were selected by the correlation analysis. The two-band ratio, 666 nm / 680 nm, of fluorescence intensity was used to differentiate the contaminated spots from uncontaminated leaf area. The proposed method could accurately detect all of the contaminated spots.

  2. Pregnancy and postpartum bowel changes: constipation and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Shin, Grace Hewon; Toto, Erin Lucinda; Schey, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are often associated with many gastrointestinal complaints, including nausea, vomiting, and heartburn; however, the most troublesome complaints in some women are defecatory disorders such as constipation and fecal incontinence, especially postpartum. These disorders are often multifactorial in etiology, and many studies have looked to see what risk factors lead to these complications. This review discusses the current knowledge of pelvic floor and anorectal physiology, especially during pregnancy, and reviews the current literature on causes and treatments of postpartum bowel symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence.

  3. Topical fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A; Heber, D

    1995-11-01

    The fat on women's thighs is more difficult to mobilize due to increased alpha-2 adrenergic receptor activity induced by estrogen. Lipolysis can be initiated through adipocyte receptor stimulation (beta adrenergic) or inhibition (adenosine or alpha-2 adrenergic) or by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since many women desire regional thigh fat loss, a series of clinical trials were initiated using one thigh as a double-blinded control. Trial #1: Five overweight women had injections of isoproterenol at intervals around the thigh three times a week for 4 weeks with diet and walking. Trial #2: Five overweight woman had ointment containing forskolin, yohimbine and aminophylline applied to the thigh five times a week for 4 weeks after hypertonic warm soaks with a diet and walking. Trial #3: Eighteen overweight women were divided into three groups of six and trial #2 was repeated with each agent alone vs. placebo using forskolin, yohimbine or aminophylline in separate ointments. Trial #4: Thirty overweight women had 10% aminophylline ointment applied to the thigh five times a week for 6 weeks with diet and walking. Chemistry panel, theophylline level and patch testing were performed. Trial #5: Twelve women had trial #4 repeated with 2% aminophylline cream without a diet or walking. Trial #6: Trial #5 was repeated with 0.5% aminophylline cream. All trials except yohimbine ointment gave significantly more girth loss from the treated thigh (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Chemistry panel showed no toxicity. Theophylline was undetectable and patch testing was negative. We conclude that topical fat reduction for women's thighs can be achieved without diet or exercise. PMID:8697059

  4. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni

    2004-10-27

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  5. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  6. Evaluation of Two PCR-Based Swine-Specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the specificity and distribution of these targets have not been adequately assessed. Consequently, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination...

  7. Diversity and Population Structure of Bovine Fecal-Derived Microorganisms from Different Animal Feeding Operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but in odor emissions, agricultural land nutrient loading, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, our understanding of the specif...

  8. Exposure to human source fecal indicators and self-reported illness among bathers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Indicator microorganisms are used to predict the presence of fecal pollution in water and assess associated health risks, usually gastrointestinal illness and diarrhea. Few studies have characterized the health risks associated with human fecal sources using microbi...

  9. HUMAN FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION: REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR METHOD STANDARDIZATION - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Method standardization or the formal development of a protocol that establishes uniform performance benchmarks and practices is necessary for widespread adoption of a fecal source identification approach. Standardization of a human-associated fecal identification method has been...

  10. Human Fecal Source Identification: Real-Time Quantitative PCR Method Standardization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Method standardization or the formal development of a protocol that establishes uniform performance benchmarks and practices is necessary for widespread adoption of a fecal source identification approach. Standardization of a human-associated fecal identification method has been...

  11. Differential decay of Enterococci and Escherichia coli originating from two fecal pollution sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habita...

  12. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Eren, A. Murat; Green, Hyatt C.; Shanks, Orin C.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2015-01-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  13. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Green, Hyatt C; Shanks, Orin C; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-10-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts.

  14. Application of fecal near-infrared spectroscopy and nutritional balance software to monitor diet quality and body condition in beef cows grazing Arizona rangeland.

    PubMed

    Tolleson, D R; Schafer, D W

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of range cows is difficult. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of feces has been used to predict diet quality in cattle. When fecal NIRS is coupled with decision support software such as the Nutritional Balance Analyzer (NUTBAL PRO), nutritional status and animal performance can be monitored. Approximately 120 Hereford and 90 CGC composite (50% Red Angus, 25% Tarentaise, and 25% Charolais) cows grazing in a single herd were used in a study to determine the ability of fecal NIRS and NutbalPro to project BCS (1 = thin and 9 = fat) under commercial scale rangeland conditions in central Arizona. Cattle were rotated across the 31,000 ha allotment at 10 to 20 d intervals. Cattle BCS and fecal samples (approximately 500 g) composited from 5 to 10 cows were collected in the pasture approximately monthly at the midpoint of each grazing period. Samples were frozen and later analyzed by NIRS for prediction of diet crude protein (CP) and digestible organic matter (DOM). Along with fecal NIRS predicted diet quality, animal breed type, reproductive status, and environmental conditions were input to the software for each fecal sampling and BCS date. Three different evaluations were performed. First, fecal NIRS and NutbalPro derived BCS was projected forward from each sampling as if it were a "one-time only" measurement. Second, BCS was derived from the average predicted weight change between 2 sampling dates for a given period. Third, inputs to the model were adjusted to better represent local animals and conditions. Fecal NIRS predicted diet quality varied from a minimum of approximately 5% CP and 57% DOM in winter to a maximum of approximately 11% CP and 60% DOM in summer. Diet quality correlated with observed seasonal changes and precipitation events. In evaluation 1, differences in observed versus projected BCS were not different (P > 0.1) between breed types but these values ranged from 0.1 to 1.1 BCS in Herefords and 0.0 to 0.9 in CGC. In

  15. Mechanisms of Fat Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lee L Q

    2016-02-01

    Although more fat grafting procedures have been performed by plastic surgeons with the primary goal to restore soft tissue loss, the actual mechanism on how fat graft survives remains less completely understood. An established old theory on fat graft survival is still based on the cell survival theory proposed by Peer in the early 1950s. On the basis of his preliminary experimental study, he proposed that the mechanism of fat graft survival is based on established early blood circulation through anastomosis of the fat graft and host blood vessels. Recently, several investigators have demonstrated new concepts of the fat graft survival: One further advanced the old Peer cell survival theory and another based on new discovery and understanding of adipose-derived stem cells. This article serves as a scientific review on how fat graft survives after in vivo transplantation based on a number of well-conducted experimental studies. Both the graft survival and graft replacement theories on how fat graft survives are true based on the previously mentioned well-conducted experimental studies. Each theory may play a role in fat graft survival. It is possible that graft survival may be more dominant in some patients but the graft replacement may be more dominant in other patients.

  16. Making Fat Work*

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and metabolic disease epidemics in the developed world are exerting a terrible toll on society, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for the emergence of these dramatic trends over a relatively short period of time remain poorly understood. Philip A. Wood’s book How Fat Works provides important insights into cellular lipid metabolism, as well as discussing some of the important external contributors to the development of human obesity. The foundation provided by this book allows for the exploration of how body fat has gone from hero during the millennia when starvation was the paramount nutritional risk to its current role as villain in our period of caloric excess. With the incredible personal and societal costs brought about by excess body weight, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for obesity is fundamentally necessary if we are to reverse these dire trends. Here, we delve deeper into some of the forces contributing to the obesity epidemic and discuss some individual measures as well as public policy decisions that may help reverse weight trends, while specifically focusing on the growing problem of pediatric obesity. PMID:21037416

  17. Monitoring Fecal Indicators and Pathogens in Watersheds: Implementing a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    - Many of the nation's rivers, lakes, and estuaries are impaired with fecal indicator bacteria. - Fecal contamination from point and non-point sources is responsible for the presence of fecal pathogens in source and recreational waters - Effective compliance with TMDL regulatio...

  18. Health burden of gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from swimming in fecally-contaminated recreational waters.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Millions of people swim and recreate in oceans and lakes every year. Fecal contamination of these waters can occur from sewage discharges, runoff, and other point and non-point sources. Measures of fecal indicator contamination (e.g., the fecal indicator bacteria E. coli and Ent...

  19. FINGERPRINTING OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI BY MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fecal enterococci group has been suggested as an indicator of fecal contamination in freshwater and marine water systems and as a potential target for bacterial source tracking of fecal pollution. While many studies have described the diversity of enterococci in environmenta...

  20. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  1. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  2. Collecting Fecal Samples for Microbiome Analyses in Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rashmi; Chen, Jun; Amir, Amnon; Vogtmann, Emily; Shi, Jianxin; Inman, Kristin S.; Flores, Roberto; Sampson, Joshua; Knight, Rob; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background The need to develop valid methods for sampling and analyzing fecal specimens for microbiome studies is increasingly important, especially for large population studies. Methods Some of the most important attributes of any sampling method are reproducibility, stability, and accuracy. We compared seven fecal sampling methods (no additive, RNAlater, 70% ethanol, EDTA, dry swab, and pre/post development fecal occult blood test (FOBT)) using 16S rRNA microbiome profiling in two laboratories. We evaluated nine commonly used microbiome metrics: abundance of 3 phyla, two alpha-diversities, and four beta-diversities. We determined the technical reproducibility, stability at ambient temperature, and accuracy. Results While microbiome profiles showed systematic biases according to sample method and time at ambient temperature, the highest source of variation was between individuals. All collection methods showed high reproducibility. FOBT and RNAlater resulted in the highest stability without freezing for four days. In comparison to no-additive samples, swab, FOBT, and 70% ethanol exhibited the greatest accuracy when immediately frozen. Conclusions Overall, optimal stability and reproducibility was achieved using FOBT, making this a reasonable sample collection method for 16s analysis. Impact Having standardized method of collecting and storing stable fecal samples will allow future investigations into the role of gut microbiota in chronic disease etiology in large population studies. PMID:26604270

  3. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Muñoz-González, Irene; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota. PMID:25532710

  4. Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread.

  5. Delayed-Incubation Membrane-Filter Test for Fecal Coliforms

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Raymond H.; Bordner, Robert H.; Scarpino, Pasquale V.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed-incubation membrane-filter technique for fecal coliforms was developed and compared with the immediate fecal coliform test described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (13th ed., 1971). Laboratory and field evaluations demonstrated that the delayed-incubation test, with the use of the proposed vitamin-free Casitone holding medium, produces fecal coliform counts which very closely approximate those from the immediate test, regardless of the source or type of fresh-water sample. Limited testing indicated that the method is not as effective when used with saline waters. The delayed-incubation membrane-filter test will be especially useful in survey monitoring or emergency situations when the standard immediate fecal coliform test cannot be performed at or near the sample site or when time and temperature limitations for water sample storage cannot be met. The procedure can also be used for analyzing the bacterial quality of water or waste discharges by a standardized procedure in a central examining laboratory remote from the sample source. PMID:4572892

  6. Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  7. Assessment of exposures to fecally-contaminated recreational water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fecally-contaminated recreational waters can pose a health risk to swimmers and other recreators. Since 2003, we have interviewed nearly 27,000 respondents at seven beaches impacted by treated sewage discharge. Information was collected about the duration and exposure...

  8. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  9. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nathaniel A; Ben Ami, Ronen; Guzner-Gur, Hanan; Santo, Moshe E; Halpern, Zamir; Maharshak, Nitsan

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a problem most hospital-based physicians will face in their career. This review aims to refresh current knowledge with regard to Clostridium difficile infection and bring physicians up to date with the latest developments in the growing field of fecal microbiota transplantation, the benefits it offers, and the promise this and other developments hold for the future.

  10. What do fecal coliforms indicate in tropical waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    High densities of total and fecal coliform bacteria have been detected in pristine streams and in ground water samples collected from many tropical parts of the world, even in epiphytic vegetation 10 m above ground in the rain forest of Puerto Rico. Nucleic acid (DNA) analyses of Escherichia coli from pristine tropical environs has indicated that they are identical to clinical isolates of E. coli. Many tropical source waters have been shown to have enteric pathogens in the complete absence of coliforms. Diffusion chamber studies with E. coli at several tropical sites reveal that this bacterium can survive indefinitely in most freshwaters in Puerto Rico. An evaluation of methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms showed that currently used media have poor reliability as a result of large numbers of false positive and false negative results when applied to tropical water samples. Total and fecal coliform bacteria are not reliable indicators of recent biological contamination of waters in tropical areas. Fecal streptococci and coliphages in tropical waters, violate the same under lying assumptions of indicator assays as the coliforms. Anaerobic bacteria like Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium perfringens show some promise in terms of survival but not in ease of enumeration and media specificity. The best course at present lies in using current techniques for direct enumeration of pathogens by fluorescent staining and nucleic acid analysis and developing tropical maximum containmant levels for certain resistant pathogens in tropical waters. 66 refs.

  11. FECAL BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF A KARST WATERSHED IN CENTRAL MISSOURI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bonne Femme watershed of Boone County, Missouri has a varied surface geology that includes karst topography with losing streams that are an especially vulnerable setting for ground water contamination. The study objective was to compare fecal contamination and detection of specific pathogenic wa...

  12. Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread. PMID:26598563

  13. Physical activity as a determinant of fecal bile acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Martínez, María Elena; Ashbeck, Erin L.; Roe, Denise J.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Alberts, David S.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity is protective against colon cancer, whereas colonic bile acid exposure is a suspected risk factor. While likely related, the association between physical activity and bile acid levels has not been well studied. Furthermore, the effect of triglycerides, which are known to modify bile acid levels, on this relationship has not been investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline fecal bile acid levels for 735 colorectal adenoma formers obtained from participants in a phase III ursodeoxycholic acid chemoprevention trial. Compared to the lowest quartile of recreational physical activity duration, the highest quartile was associated with a 17% lower fecal bile acid concentration, adjusted for age, sex, dietary fiber intake, and body mass index (P = 0.042). Furthermore, consistent with a previously established relationship between serum triglyceride levels and bile acid metabolism, we stratified by triglyceride level and observed a 34% lower fecal bile acid concentration (highest versus lowest quartiles of physical activity) in individuals with low triglycerides (< 136 mg/dL; P = 0.002). In contrast, no association between physical activity and fecal bile acid concentration was observed for subjects with high triglycerides (≥ 136 mg/dL). Our results suggest that the biological mechanism responsible for the protective effect of physical activity on the incidence of colon cancer may be partially mediated by decreasing colonic bile acid exposure. However, this effect may be limited to individuals with lower triglyceride levels. PMID:19383885

  14. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation. PMID:24248787

  15. Fecal Incontinence and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction in Women: A Review.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Alison; Menees, Stacy

    2016-06-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction and fecal incontinence is a common and debilitating condition in women, particularly as women age, and often goes under-reported to health care providers. It is important for providers to ask patients about possible symptoms. An algorithm for evaluation and treatment is presented. Current and future therapies are described and discussed. PMID:27261895

  16. DETECTION OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI USING A REAL TIME PCR METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In spite of their importance in public health, the detection of fecal enterococci is performed via culturing methods that are time consuming and that are subject to inaccuracies that relate to their culturable status. In order to address these problems, a real time PCR (TaqMan) ...

  17. Measurement of fecal glucocorticoids in parrotfishes to assess stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, J.W.; Nemeth, R.; Rogers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide from a combination of natural and human forces. The environmental compromises faced by coral reef habitats and their associated fishes are potentially stressful, and in this study we examined the potential for assessing stress levels in coral reef fish. We determined the feasibility of using fecal casts from parrotfishes for remote assessment of stress-related hormones (cortisol and corticosterone), and the response of these hormones to the stress of restraint and hypoxia. Measurement of these hormones in fecal extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated using mass spectrometry, chemical derivitization, and radioactive tracer methods. In aquarium-adapted parrotfish, baseline levels of cortisol and corticosterone averaged 3.4??1.1 and 14.8??2.8ng/g feces, respectively, across 32 days. During 13 days of periodic stress these hormones, respectively, average 10.8-fold and 3.2-fold greater than baseline, with a return to near baseline during a 23-day follow-up. Testosterone was also measured as a reference hormone which is not part of the stress-response axis. Levels of this hormone were similar across the study. These fecal hormones were also measured in a field study of parrotfish in 10 fringing coral reef areas around the Caribbean Island of St. John, US Virgin Islands. Extracts of remotely collected fecal casts of three parrotfish species revealed no difference in respective average hormone levels among these species. Also, there was no difference in respective hormone levels between aquarium and field environments. However, levels of both cortisol and corticosterone, but not testosterone, were elevated in two of the 10 reef sites surveyed. This study demonstrates that parrotfish fecals can be collected in aquarium and field conditions and that steroid hormones in these fecals can be extracted and reliably measured. The study also demonstrates that cortisol and corticosterone in parrotfish fecals can

  18. Modeling fecal contamination in the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André Bustorff; Menaia, José; David, Luís Mesquita; Cravo, Alexandra

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at understanding the fecal contamination behavior in a small coastal stream (Aljezur, Portugal), which has significant economic and ecological values. Like in most small coastal systems, circulation and water renewal in the Aljezur stream exhibit a strong variability due to their dependence on tides, waves, intermittent river flows, and a highly variable morphology. Hence, the problem was approached through a combination of field surveys and the development and application of a hard-coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and fecal contamination model. Salinity and temperature results have shown that mixing and transport in the stream are very sensitive to the river flow and wind forcing. The model is able to represent the main patterns and trends observed in Escherichia coli and fecal enterococcus concentrations along the stream, for different environmental and contamination conditions, suggesting die-off rates on the order of 0.50-0.55 day-1. Die-off rate and the representation of the sediment-associated processes were identified as the major remaining sources of uncertainty in the model. Results show that, owing to the processes that occur along the stream, fecal bacteria reach the beaches water in numbers that comply with the European Bathing Waters Directive, even during the summer periods when the upstream concentrations are larger. In particular, results suggest a direct relation between the tidal propagation upstream and the reduction of the fecal bacteria concentrations along the stream that can be relevant for the development of a strategy for the management of the system's water safety.

  19. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  20. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  1. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  2. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet nothing is known relative to their potential impact on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation. Two experiments utilizing a total o...

  3. A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION AND FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION IN TILLAMOOK BAY, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to determine if spatial and temporal dynamics exist in source-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic marker data across a watershed, to study these in relation to fecal indicator counts, general measurements of water quality, and climat...

  4. What Are the Types of Fat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... also found in liquid tropical oils (palm and coconut). Trans fats (partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats) are ... fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack foods, non- dairy creamers, whipped toppings) ...

  5. Effects of saturated and unsaturated fats given with and without dietary cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol synthesis and hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, W; Rodgers, J B

    1978-01-27

    Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was studied in rats after consuming diets of varying neutral lipid and cholesterol content. Cholesterol synthesis was evaluated by measuring 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and by determining the rate of 3H-labeled sterol production from [3H]mevalonate. Results were correlated with sterol balance data and hepatic lipid content. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was relatively great when cholesterol was excluded from the diet. The source of neutral dietary lipids, saturated vs. unsaturated, produced no change in hepatic sterol synthesis. Values for fecal sterol outputs and hepatic cholesterol levels were also similar in rats consuming either saturated or unsaturated fats. When 1% cholesterol was added to the diet, hepatic cholesterol synthesis was suppressed but the degree of suppression was greater in rats consuming unsaturated vs. saturated fats. This was associated with greater accumulation of cholesterol in livers from rats consuming unsaturates and a reduction in fecal neutral sterol output in this group as opposed to results from rats on saturated fats. Cholesterol consumption also altered the fatty acid composition of hepatic phospholipids producing decreases in the percentages of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is concluded that dietary cholesterol alters cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in the liver and that this effect is enhanced by dietary unsaturated fats.

  6. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  7. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. PMID:21951331

  8. Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans

    PubMed Central

    Furey, John S.; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system. PMID:17617670

  9. Post-Katrina fecal contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Furey, John S; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system.

  10. History of fat grafting: from ram fat to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2015-04-01

    Fat injection empirically started 100 years ago to correct contour deformities mainly on the face and breast. The German surgeon Eugene Hollaender (1867-1932) proposed a cocktail of human and ram fat, to avoid reabsorption. Nowadays, fat injection has evolved, and it ranks among the most popular procedures, for it provides the physician with a range of aesthetic and reconstructive clinical applications with regenerative effects on the surrounding tissues. New research from all over the world has demonstrated the role of adipose-derived stem cells, present in the adipose tissue, in the repair of damaged or missing tissues.

  11. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.

  12. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  13. The genetics of fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Schleinitz, Dorit; Böttcher, Yvonne; Blüher, Matthias; Kovacs, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Fat stored in visceral depots makes obese individuals more prone to complications than subcutaneous fat. There is good evidence that body fat distribution (FD) is controlled by genetic factors. WHR, a surrogate measure of FD, shows significant heritability of up to ∼60%, even after adjusting for BMI. Genetic variants have been linked to various forms of altered FD such as lipodystrophies; however, the polygenic background of visceral obesity has only been sparsely investigated in the past. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for measures of FD revealed numerous loci harbouring genes potentially regulating FD. In addition, genes with fat depot-specific expression patterns (in particular subcutaneous vs visceral adipose tissue) provide plausible candidate genes involved in the regulation of FD. Many of these genes are differentially expressed in various fat compartments and correlate with obesity-related traits, thus further supporting their role as potential mediators of metabolic alterations associated with a distinct FD. Finally, developmental genes may at a very early stage determine specific FD in later life. Indeed, genes such as TBX15 not only manifest differential expression in various fat depots, but also correlate with obesity and related traits. Moreover, recent GWAS identified several polymorphisms in developmental genes (including TBX15, HOXC13, RSPO3 and CPEB4) strongly associated with FD. More accurate methods, including cardiometabolic imaging, for assessment of FD are needed to promote our understanding in this field, where the main focus is now to unravel the yet unknown biological function of these novel 'fat distribution genes'.

  14. [Dietary fats and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lourdes Carrillo; Serra, Jaime Dalmau; Álvarez, Jesús Román Martínez; Alberich, Rosa Solà; Jiménez, Francisco Pérez

    2011-03-01

    Although dietary fat and its role in cardiovascular prevention has been one of the most extensively studied nutritional topics, it continues to be an ever-expanding research area. Particularly thanks to studies on Mediterranean diet, we now know that fat quality is more relevant than the amount of fat we eat in the diet. Thus, saturated and trans fats have been found to increase the risk of atherogenic disease. This is why it is recommended to substitute complex carbohydrates or unsaturated fat for unsaturated and trans fats with the aim of reducing saturated and trans fat intake to <10% and <1%, respectively, of the total calorie intake. Recent population studies, particularly that conducted in Kuopio, Finland, and those on Mediterranean diet, stress the important role of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats as key nutrients in preventing cardiovascular disease in modern societies. Furthermore, a special type of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. those of the omega-3 (n-3) series, is increasingly becoming essential nutrients for a healthy diet, especially in the case of children. Therefore, there is a rationale for four the Scientific Societies that are strongly committed to disseminate the benefits of a healthy diet in preventing cardiovascular disease, and to prepare a joint statement with the purpose of spreading improved knowledge on the importance of changing to a healthy diet with a well-balanced fat intake for industrialized populations. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from the following institutions has developed the present joint statement targeted at both adults and children of different ages: Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine, Spanish Association of Paediatrics, Spanish Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Paediatric Nutrition and Dietetics, and Spanish Society for Food Sciences.

  15. Fat grafting in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J; Elyassnia, Dino

    2015-04-01

    Patients with significant facial atrophy and age-related loss of facial fat generally achieve suboptimal improvement from both surface treatments of facial skin and surgical lifts. Restoring lost facial volume by fat grafting is a powerful technique that is now acknowledged by most plastic surgeons and other physicians engaged in treating the aging face as one of the most important advances in aesthetic surgery. Properly performed, the addition of fat to areas of the face that have atrophied because of age or disease can produce a significant and sustained improvement in appearance that is unobtainable by other means.

  16. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Current Applications, Effectiveness, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Cho, Young-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the infusion of liquid filtrate feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to cure a specific disease. A fecal suspension can be administered by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, colonoscope, enema, or capsule. The high success rate and safety in the short term reported for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has elevated FMT as an emerging treatment for a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myoclonus dystopia, multiple sclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and autism. There are many unanswered questions regarding FMT, including donor selection and screening, standardized protocols, long-term safety, and regulatory issues. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of FMT used in treating a variety of diseases, methodology, criteria for donor selection and screening, and various concerns regarding FMT. PMID:26956193

  17. How to Manipulate the Microbiota: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. This is a natural process that occurs already at birth; infants are rapidly colonized by a specific microbial community, the composition of which strongly depends on the mode of delivery and which therefore most likely originates from the mother (Palmer et al. 2007; Tannock et al. 1990). Since this early life microbial community already contains most, if not all, of the predominantly anaerobic microbes that are only found in the GI tract, it is reasonable to assume that early life colonization is the ultimate natural fecal transplantation. PMID:27161356

  18. Neuromodulation for fecal incontinence: An effective surgical intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Asteria, Corrado R; Whitehead, William E

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a disabling symptom with medical and social implications, including fear, embarrassment, isolation and even depression. Most patients live in seclusion and have to plan their life around the symptom, with secondary impairment of their quality of life. Conservative management and biofeedback therapy are reported to benefit a good percentage of those affected. However, surgery must be considered in the non-responder population. Recently, sacral nerve electrostimulation, lately named neuromodulation, has been reported to benefit patients with fecal incontinence in randomized controlled trials more than placebo stimulation and conservative management, by some unknown mechanism. Neuromodulation is a minimally invasive procedure with a low rate of adverse events and apparently favorable cost-efficacy profile. This review is intended to expand knowledge about this effective intervention among the non-surgically skilled community who deals with this disabled group of patients. PMID:24222947

  19. Treating Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Marotz, Clarisse A.; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness. Here we review recent evidence suggesting efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in animal models and humans for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders.

  20. How to Manipulate the Microbiota: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. This is a natural process that occurs already at birth; infants are rapidly colonized by a specific microbial community, the composition of which strongly depends on the mode of delivery and which therefore most likely originates from the mother (Palmer et al. 2007; Tannock et al. 1990). Since this early life microbial community already contains most, if not all, of the predominantly anaerobic microbes that are only found in the GI tract, it is reasonable to assume that early life colonization is the ultimate natural fecal transplantation.

  1. [Effects of nifuroxazide on fecal flora in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Buisson, Y; Larribaud, J

    1989-01-01

    Effect of nifuroxazide on fecal flora was studied in 12 healthy volunteers receiving, in hazardous order and double-blind procedure, three six-days courses of treatment separated by eight-days spaces of time: the conventional dosage of 400 mg twice a day, a dosage of 1200 mg once a day, and placebo. Among six settled bacteriological index (wealth of the fecal flora, percentage of gram-negative bacteria, numbers of E. coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides), no significant variation was found by means of statistical study between D0, D2 and D7, nor between the three courses of treatment. Therefore nifuroxazide, even in high dosage, does not injure integrity of microbial intestinal ecosystem under so defined experimental conditions, similar with clinical conditions. PMID:2756516

  2. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-01-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed. PMID:8593045

  3. Treating Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Marotz, Clarisse A.; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness. Here we review recent evidence suggesting efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in animal models and humans for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. PMID:27698622

  4. Fecal neutral sterols in omnivorous and vegetarian women.

    PubMed

    Korpela, J T; Adlercreutz, H

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a vegetarian diet on human fecal neutral sterol excretion. Free and esterified fecal neutral sterols were analyzed by capillary gas-chromatography in healthy North-American white women who were consuming either a mixed Western diet (n = 19) or a vegetarian diet (n = 20). Vegetarians had lower mean concentrations of bacterial metabolites of cholesterol, coprostanol, and coprostanone, and their relative amounts of esterified neutral sterol metabolism in both populations. Most of the subjects in both groups excreted their neutral sterols mainly as metabolites. However, 25% of the omnivores and 21% of the vegetarians had exceptionally low amounts of these metabolites in their feces. The vegetarians in this study differed only slightly from omnivores with regard to intestinal bacterial metabolism of neutral sterols.

  5. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  6. Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets

    PubMed Central

    Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Avitia, Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  7. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, Terry T.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  8. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, T.T.

    1993-03-02

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  9. Fecal microbiota transplantation for the management of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna; Young, Vincent B

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The disruption of the normal gut microbiota is central to the pathogenesis of CDI, and disruption persists in recurrent disease. The use of FMT for recurrent CDI is characterized by a high response rate and short term safety is excellent, although the long-term effects of FMT are as yet unknown.

  10. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  11. Growth of infant fecal bacteria on commercial prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Bunešová, Věra; Vlková, Eva; Rada, Vojtěch; Kňazovická, Vladimíra; Ročková, Sárka; Geigerová, Martina; Božik, Matěj

    2012-07-01

    Fecal bacteria from 33 infants (aged 1 to 6 months) were tested for growth on commercial prebiotics. The children were born vaginally (20) or by caesarean section (13). Bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, and total anaerobes in fecal samples were enumerated by selective agars and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The total fecal bacteria were inoculated into cultivation media containing 2 % Vivinal® (galactooligosaccharides-GOS) or Raftilose® P95 (fructooligosaccharides-FOS) as a single carbon source and bacteria were enumerated again after 24 h of anaerobic cultivation. Bifidobacteria dominated, reaching counts of 9-10 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g in 17 children born vaginally and in seven children delivered by caesarean section. In these infants, lactobacilli were more frequently detected and a lower number of E. coli and gram-negative bacteria were determined compared to bifidobacteria-negative infants. Clostridia dominated in children without bifidobacteria, reaching counts from 7 to 9 log CFU/g. Both prebiotics supported all groups of bacteria tested. In children with naturally high counts of bifidobacteria, bifidobacteria dominated also after cultivation on prebiotics, reaching counts from 8.23 to 8.77 log CFU/mL. In bifidobacteria-negative samples, clostridia were supported by prebiotics, reaching counts from 7.17 to 7.69 log CFU/mL. There were no significant differences between bacterial growth on Vivinal® and Raftilose® P95 and counts determined by cultivation and FISH. Prebiotics should selectively stimulate the growth of desirable bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. However, our results showed that commercially available FOS and GOS may stimulate also other fecal bacteria.

  12. Fecal incontinence: A review of current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Fejka, Michael David

    2016-09-01

    Fecal incontinence affects patients of all sexes, races, and ethnicities; however, those affected often are afraid or too embarrassed to ask for help. Attention to risk factors and directed physical examinations can help healthcare providers diagnose and formulate treatment plans. Numerous diagnostic tests are available. Diligent follow-up is needed to direct patients to second-line therapies such as sacral nerve stimulation or surgical procedures. PMID:27580000

  13. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    PubMed

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  14. The effects of unsaturated dietary fats on absorption, excretion, synthesis, and distribution of cholesterol in man

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Scott M.; Ahrens, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Cholesterol balance studies were carried out in 11 patients with various types of hyperlipoproteinemia to determine the mechanism by which unsaturated fats lower plasma cholesterol. Unsaturated fats produced no increase in fecal endogenous neutral steroids in 10 of 11 patients and no decrease in absorption of exogenous cholesterol in 5 patients who received cholesterol in the diet. In 8 of 11 patients no changes occurred in excretion of bile acids during the period on unsaturated fat when plasma cholesterol was declining. However, in 3 of 11 patients small but significant increases in bile acid excretion were found during this transitional period; in 2 others increases also occurred after plasma cholesterol had become constant at lower levels on unsaturated fat. Since the majority of patients showed no change in cholesterol or bile acid excretions during the transitional period, we propose that when excretion changes did occur they were probably not the cause of the plasma cholesterol change. Furthermore, turnover data and specific activity curves suggested that cholesterol synthesis was not influenced by exchange of dietary fats. Thus, excluding changes in excretion and synthesis, we conclude that it is most likely that unsaturated fats cause plasma cholesterol to be redistributed into tissue pools. We have also examined the possibility that cholesterol which is redistributed into tissues could be secondarily excreted as neutral steroids or bile acids. In at least 5 of 11 patients excretion patterns were consistent with this explanation. However, we cannot rule out that excretion changes may have been due to alterations in transit time, to changes in bacterial flora, or to transitory changes in absorption or synthesis of cholesterol or bile acids. Our conclusion that unsaturated fats cause a redistribution of cholesterol between plasma and tissue pools points to the necessity in future to explore where cholesterol is stored, to what extent stored cholesterol can

  15. Fecal hormones measured within giant Pacific octopuses Enteroctopus dofleini.

    PubMed

    Larson, Shawn E; Anderson, Roland C

    2010-09-01

    The captive husbandry of giant Pacific octopuses Enteroctopus dofleini is well understood, but their endocrine signatures are not well documented. The major vertebrate reproductive hormones--estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone--and the stress-related hormone corticosterone are relatively well known for many vertebrate species. However, few studies on these hormones within invertebrates have been conducted. Our hypothesis was that endocrine signatures within octopuses are similar to those found within vertebrates in response to reproductive activity and stress. Using standard immunoassay techniques, we measured fecal steroids within fecal samples collected from five female and three male giant Pacific octopuses housed at the Seattle Aquarium. The mean estrogen level ranged from 3.67 to 99.39 ng/g of feces, progesterone ranged from 44.35 to 231.71 ng/g feces, testosterone ranged from 9.30 to 18.18 ng/g feces, and corticosterone ranged from 10.91 to 22.14 ng/g feces. The results suggest that octopus fecal hormones are similar to those in vertebrates and may be useful in measuring ovarian activity and stress within captive female giant Pacific octopuses.

  16. Altered fecal microbiota composition in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyin; Ling, Zongxin; Zhang, Yonghua; Mao, Hongjin; Ma, Zhanping; Yin, Yan; Wang, Weihong; Tang, Wenxin; Tan, Zhonglin; Shi, Jianfei; Li, Lanjuan; Ruan, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Studies using animal models have shown that depression affects the stability of the microbiota, but the actual structure and composition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are not well understood. Here, we analyzed fecal samples from 46 patients with depression (29 active-MDD and 17 responded-MDD) and 30 healthy controls (HCs). High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that, according to the Shannon index, increased fecal bacterial α-diversity was found in the active-MDD (A-MDD) vs. the HC group but not in the responded-MDD (R-MDD) vs. the HC group. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria strongly increased in level, whereas that of Firmicutes was significantly reduced in the A-MDD and R-MDD groups compared with the HC group. Despite profound interindividual variability, levels of several predominant genera were significantly different between the MDD and HC groups. Most notably, the MDD groups had increased levels of Enterobacteriaceae and Alistipes but reduced levels of Faecalibacterium. A negative correlation was observed between Faecalibacterium and the severity of depressive symptoms. These findings enable a better understanding of changes in the fecal microbiota composition in such patients, showing either a predominance of some potentially harmful bacterial groups or a reduction in beneficial bacterial genera. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the temporal and causal relationships between gut microbiota and depression and to evaluate the suitability of the microbiome as a biomarker. PMID:25882912

  17. Artificial Muscle Devices: Innovations and Prospects for Fecal Incontinence Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Elisa; Brusa, Tobia; Gingert, Christian; Hieber, Simone E; Leung, Vanessa; Osmani, Bekim; Dominietto, Marco D; Büchler, Philippe; Hetzer, Franc; Müller, Bert

    2016-05-01

    Fecal incontinence describes the involuntary loss of bowel content, which is responsible for stigmatization and social exclusion. It affects about 45% of retirement home residents and overall more than 12% of the adult population. Severe fecal incontinence can be treated by the implantation of an artificial sphincter. Currently available implants, however, are not part of everyday surgery due to long-term re-operation rates of 95% and definitive explantation rates of 40%. Such figures suggest that the implants fail to reproduce the capabilities of the natural sphincter. This article reviews the artificial sphincters on the market and under development, presents their physical principles of operation and critically analyzes their performance. We highlight the geometrical and mechanical parameters crucial for the design of an artificial fecal sphincter and propose more advanced mechanisms of action for a biomimetic device with sensory feedback. Dielectric electro-active polymer actuators are especially attractive because of their versatility, response time, reaction forces, and energy consumption. The availability of such technology will enable fast pressure adaption comparable to the natural feedback mechanism, so that tissue atrophy and erosion can be avoided while maintaining continence during daily activities. PMID:26926695

  18. Feline fecal virome reveals novel and prevalent enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Nascimento, Maria São José; Kondov, Nikola O; Wong, Walt; Reuter, Gábor; Knowles, Nick J; Vega, Everardo; Esona, Mathew D; Deng, Xutao; Vinjé, Jan; Delwart, Eric

    2014-06-25

    Humans keep more than 80 million cats worldwide, ensuring frequent exposure to their viruses. Despite such interactions the enteric virome of cats remains poorly understood. We analyzed a fecal sample from a single healthy cat from Portugal using viral metagenomics and detected five eukaryotic viral genomes. These viruses included a novel picornavirus (proposed genus "Sakobuvirus") and bocavirus (feline bocavirus 2), a variant of feline astrovirus 2 and sequence fragments of a highly divergent feline rotavirus and picobirnavirus. Feline sakobuvirus A represents the prototype species of a proposed new genus in the Picornaviridae family, distantly related to human salivirus and kobuvirus. Feline astroviruses (mamastrovirus 2) are the closest known relatives of the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1), suggestive of past cross-species transmission. Presence of these viruses by PCR among Portuguese cats was detected in 13% (rotavirus), 7% (astrovirus), 6% (bocavirus), 4% (sakobuvirus), and 4% (picobirnavirus) of 55 feline fecal samples. Co-infections were frequent with 40% (4/10) of infected cats shedding more than one of these five viruses. Our study provides an initial description of the feline fecal virome indicating a high level of asymptomatic infections. Availability of the genome sequences of these viruses will facilitate future tropism and feline disease association studies.

  19. Fecal hormones measured within giant Pacific octopuses Enteroctopus dofleini.

    PubMed

    Larson, Shawn E; Anderson, Roland C

    2010-09-01

    The captive husbandry of giant Pacific octopuses Enteroctopus dofleini is well understood, but their endocrine signatures are not well documented. The major vertebrate reproductive hormones--estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone--and the stress-related hormone corticosterone are relatively well known for many vertebrate species. However, few studies on these hormones within invertebrates have been conducted. Our hypothesis was that endocrine signatures within octopuses are similar to those found within vertebrates in response to reproductive activity and stress. Using standard immunoassay techniques, we measured fecal steroids within fecal samples collected from five female and three male giant Pacific octopuses housed at the Seattle Aquarium. The mean estrogen level ranged from 3.67 to 99.39 ng/g of feces, progesterone ranged from 44.35 to 231.71 ng/g feces, testosterone ranged from 9.30 to 18.18 ng/g feces, and corticosterone ranged from 10.91 to 22.14 ng/g feces. The results suggest that octopus fecal hormones are similar to those in vertebrates and may be useful in measuring ovarian activity and stress within captive female giant Pacific octopuses. PMID:21192544

  20. Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota in Feral and Domestic Goats

    PubMed Central

    De Jesús-Laboy, Kassandra M.; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Pantoja-Feliciano, Ida G.; Rivera-Rivera, Michelle J.; Andersen, Gary L.; Domínguez-Bello, María G.

    2011-01-01

    Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M), tet(S), tet(O), tet(Q) and tet(W)] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats’ feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O) and tet(W), but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q). Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota. PMID:24704840

  1. Fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    Austin, Matthew; Mellow, Mark; Tierney, William M

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, Clostridium difficile infections have become more frequent, more severe, more refractory to standard treatment, and more likely to recur. Current antibiotic treatment regimens for Clostridium difficile infection alter the normal gut flora, which provide colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile. Over the past few years, there has been a marked increase in the knowledge of the gut microbiota and its role in health maintenance and disease causation. This has, fortuitously, coincided with the use of a unique microbial replacement therapy, fecal microbiota transplantation, in the treatment of patients with multiple recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. We briefly review current knowledge of the gut microbiota's functions. We then review the indications for use of fecal microbiota transplantation in Clostridium difficile infection, the techniques employed, and results of treatment. Fecal microbiota transplantation has been shown to be efficacious for patients with multiply recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (reported cure rates of 90%), with an excellent short-term safety profile, and has been included in the American College of Gastroenterology treatment guidelines for this troublesome disease.

  2. Fecal source tracking in water using a mitochondrial DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Nguyet-Minh; Villemur, Richard; Payment, Pierre; Brousseau, Roland; Topp, Edward; Masson, Luke

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial-based microarray (mitoArray) was developed for rapid identification of the presence of 28 animals and one family (cervidae) potentially implicated in fecal pollution in mixed activity watersheds. Oligonucleotide probes for genus or subfamily-level identification were targeted within the 12S rRNA - Val tRNA - 16S rRNA region in the mitochondrial genome. This region, called MI-50, was selected based on three criteria: 1) the ability to be amplified by universal primers 2) these universal primer sequences are present in most commercial and domestic animals of interest in source tracking, and 3) that sufficient sequence variation exists within this region to meet the minimal requirements for microarray probe discrimination. To quantify the overall level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in samples, a quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR) universal primer pair was also developed. Probe validation was performed using DNA extracted from animal tissues and, for many cases, animal-specific fecal samples. To reduce the amplification of potentially interfering fish mtDNA sequences during the MI-50 enrichment step, a clamping PCR method was designed using a fish-specific peptide nucleic acid. DNA extracted from 19 water samples were subjected to both array and independent PCR analyses. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial microarray approach method could accurately detect the dominant animals present in water samples emphasizing the potential for this methodology in the parallel scanning of a large variety of animals normally monitored in fecal source tracking.

  3. Altered fecal microbiota composition in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyin; Ling, Zongxin; Zhang, Yonghua; Mao, Hongjin; Ma, Zhanping; Yin, Yan; Wang, Weihong; Tang, Wenxin; Tan, Zhonglin; Shi, Jianfei; Li, Lanjuan; Ruan, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Studies using animal models have shown that depression affects the stability of the microbiota, but the actual structure and composition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are not well understood. Here, we analyzed fecal samples from 46 patients with depression (29 active-MDD and 17 responded-MDD) and 30 healthy controls (HCs). High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that, according to the Shannon index, increased fecal bacterial α-diversity was found in the active-MDD (A-MDD) vs. the HC group but not in the responded-MDD (R-MDD) vs. the HC group. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria strongly increased in level, whereas that of Firmicutes was significantly reduced in the A-MDD and R-MDD groups compared with the HC group. Despite profound interindividual variability, levels of several predominant genera were significantly different between the MDD and HC groups. Most notably, the MDD groups had increased levels of Enterobacteriaceae and Alistipes but reduced levels of Faecalibacterium. A negative correlation was observed between Faecalibacterium and the severity of depressive symptoms. These findings enable a better understanding of changes in the fecal microbiota composition in such patients, showing either a predominance of some potentially harmful bacterial groups or a reduction in beneficial bacterial genera. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the temporal and causal relationships between gut microbiota and depression and to evaluate the suitability of the microbiome as a biomarker.

  4. Free Fecal Immunochemical Test Disbursement in Eight Family Physician Offices

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Jeanette M.; Levy, Barcey T.; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death. CRC screening with a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is important as occult blood may be detected. To offer Iowa Research Network members in family physician offices the opportunity to provide FITs at no charge to patients in need and determine how many of the tests would be handed out to patients and how many would be returned to the office. Eight family physician offices agreed to participate and 50 two-day FITs were provided, potentially providing 400 patients a CRC screening test. One hundred and eighty (45 %) of the 400 FITs were handed out to patients. Of the 92 (51 %) patients who returned at least one card, 77 (84 %) had negative results, 13 (14 %) were positive, and 2 (2 %) were indeterminate. Of 13 patients with a positive result, 11 (85 %) had a follow-up colonoscopy. Providing 400 FITs at no charge to the offices was an expensive endeavor. Implementing this forced a change in office routine and the type of fecal occult blood test used. Less than half of the FITs were given out to patients and of those given out, about half of the patients returned a FIT. For those who returned FITs and had positive findings, 85 % followed-up with a colonoscopy. Office nurses implementing the CRC screening need to be included in the planning of the type of fecal occult blood test used and receptive to the project PMID:25980522

  5. Diaper type and fecal contamination in child day care.

    PubMed

    Holaday, B; Waugh, G; Moukaddem, V E; West, J; Harshman, S

    1995-01-01

    In this study, modern all-in-one, front closure, reusable cloth diapers were compared with single-use, disposable paper diapers for their effect on fecal contamination in the child day care environment. Four licensed child day care centers were surveyed from which 1722 bacterial samples were cultured. The frequency of isolation of fecal organisms ranged from a low of 12% of the total bacterial isolates at a center using cloth diapers to a high of 46% and 45%, respectively, obtained at a center using first paper and then cloth diapers. Diaper type, cloth versus paper, when the method of application and the handling are made comparable, showed no significant difference in the frequency or the intensity of fecal contamination in child day care centers, as measured in the play/sleep area, the diaper change area, or on the hands of the care givers and children. Future studies to control microbial contamination in child day care centers should focus on effective ways of reducing contamination of sink faucets, hands of the caregivers, and hands of the children. PMID:7769542

  6. SPECIFICITY AND SENSITIVITY OF FECAL BACTEROIDETES HUMAN-SPECIFIC PRIMERS WITH FECAL AND WASTEWATER SAMPLES FROM THE U.S. MIDWEST AND NORTHEAST REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous watersheds throughout the United States are impaired due to fecal contamination. Fecal Bacteroidetes is a group of anaerobic bacteria present in high concentrations in animal feces that has shown promise as a microbial source tracking indicator of human and othe...

  7. Fecal /sup 13/C analysis for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Klein, P.D.; MacLean, W.C. Jr.; Watkins, J.B.; Van Santen, E.

    1981-03-01

    The use of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ breath tests and fecal analyses for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption has been extensively documented in adult subjects. The use of stable isotopes has extended the range of breath test applications to include pediatric and obstetric subjects. Here we report a fecal /sup 13/C analysis that can be used in conjunction with /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ breath tests. Twenty-four-hour fecal samples were collected before and after the administration of a labeled substrate. The samples were homogenized and combusted to CO/sub 2/, and the /sup 13/C abundance was determined by high-precision, differential isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The isotopic variation between successive 24 hr fecal samples was 0.6 per thousand (0.0006 atom percent). This variation limited the sensitivity of the fecal analysis to 13 ..mu..mol of /sup 13/C label per mole of fecal carbon. Simultaneous cholyglycine /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ breath tests and fecal assays were performed in five children. One child with bacterial overgrowth had an abnormal breath test and a normal fecal test. Of three children with ileal dysfunction, only one had an abnormal breath test, whereas the fecal test was abnormal in all three. Both the breath test and fecal test were abnormal for a child who had undergone an ileal resection. Both tests were normal for a child with ulcerative colitis.

  8. Association Between Fecal Incontinence and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Rao, Satish S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brisk physical activity may facilitate fecal incontinence due to physical activity-induced colonic motility. However, there currently are no studies that have examined the relationship between fecal incontinence and free-living physical activity behavior. Aim: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between fecal incontinence and objectively measured physical activity among adults. Materials and Methods: A national sample of adults in the United States (n = 2565, 20-85 years) completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for a week to objectively measure physical activity behavior. Results: After adjustments, fecal incontinence was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β = 0.85, P = 0.04), suggesting that lower perceived severity of fecal incontinence was associated with greater engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Fecal incontinence was not significantly associated with light-intensity physical activity (P = 0.27). Conclusion: Our results suggest that adults in the United States with greater perceived severity of fecal incontinence engage in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; however, those with greater severity of fecal incontinence do not appear to have different levels of light-intensity physical activity behavior. Given the emerging research showing beneficial effects of light-intensity physical activity, health care professionals should encourage light-intensity physical activity to their patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:25535606

  9. The impact of long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor on in vitro fecal fermentation properties of inulin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2016-04-01

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota is of interest, the functionality, or metabolic activity, of the gut microbiota is of equal importance: the gut microbiota can produce either harmful metabolites associated with human disease or beneficial metabolites that protect against disease. The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr. Res., 2014, 34, 749-759). Stool samples from eighteen individuals that had completed one-year dietary records were used in an in vitro fecal fermentation system with long-chain inulin as substrate. Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation. In contrast, intake of dairy and processed meats that provided cholesterol and little fiber, were associated with ammonia and BCFA production. Comparing results between inulin and whole wheat fermentations, significant correlations were only found for butyrate and BCFA, suggesting that regardless of the type of carbohydrate provided to the microbiota, long-term diet may have a pronounced effect on the propensity of the gut microbiota toward either beneficial metabolism (butyrate production) or detrimental metabolism (BCFA production). These results may help in

  10. Fecapentaene excretion and fecal mutagenicity in relation to nutrient intake and fecal parameters in humans on omnivorous and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    de Kok, T M; van Faassen, A; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A; ten Hoor, F; Kleinjans, J C

    1992-02-14

    Fecapentaenes are strong fecal mutagenic compounds presumably occurring in the majority of Western human individuals, and are possibly essential initiators of colon carcinogenesis. Dietary factors have been shown to influence colorectal cancer risk and to modulate both fecal mutagenicity and fecapentaene concentrations. Therefore, in this study, excretion of fecapentaenes is determined in humans consuming either vegetarian or omnivorous diets. The results show that the most predominant fecapentaene forms are excreted in higher concentrations by vegetarians. Consumption of cereal fiber, calcium and carotene as well as fecal concentrations of iso-lithocholic acid were found to correlate positively with excreted concentrations of one or more fecapentaene analogues. On average, 22% of excreted fecapentaene concentrations was found to be related to nutrient intake in stepwise regression models. Dietary calcium intake was found to be the most significant factor positively correlating with excreted fecapentaene concentrations. Intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids or fiber from vegetables and fruit could be shown to correlate with fecapentaene excretion to a lesser degree. Despite high fecapentaene concentrations in fecal dichloromethane extracts, only 1 out of 20 samples revealed significant mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. Further, aqueous extracts of feces from omnivores appeared to be equally mutagenic as feces from vegetarians and contained non-detectable concentrations of fecapentaenes. It is concluded that dietary factors do affect excreted fecapentaene levels, but only to a relatively minor extent. Since vegetarians at low risk for colorectal cancer excrete higher concentrations of fecapentaenes, it could be hypothesized that relatively increased fecapentaene excretion in combination with antimutagenic compounds in feces represents colon cancer prevention.

  11. Cell biology of fat storage.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  12. Cell biology of fat storage

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  13. Cell biology of fat storage.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development.

  14. Fat Grafting for Facial Filling and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R; Katzel, Evan B

    2015-07-01

    Plastic surgeons have come to realize that fat grafting can rejuvenate an aging face by restoring or creating fullness. However, fat grafting does much more than simply add volume. Grafted fat can transform or repair the tissues into which it is placed. Historically, surgeons have hesitated to embrace the rejuvenating potential of fat grafting because of poor graft take, fat necrosis, and inconsistent outcomes. This article describes fat grafting techniques and practices to assist readers in successful harvesting, processing, and placement of fat for optimal graft retention and facial esthetic outcomes.

  15. Improved technique for measuring fecal energy loss in normal and malabsorbing humans.

    PubMed

    Zarling, E J; Ruchim, M A; Makino, D

    1986-01-01

    Fecal energy concentration is measured by bomb calorimetry on freeze-dried stool samples. Some of the energy-containing fecal compounds are volatile in the pH ranges of normal stool and hence may be lost during sample preparation. We found that significant amounts of volatile fatty acids and lactic acid are lost during lyophilization. Fecal alkalization caused an increase of 9.8% of measurable energy in stools from normal individuals and 25% in stools from patients with untreated exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. We conclude that previous reports of fecal energy concentration that did not use an alkalization procedure are probably underestimations. We recommend fecal alkalization before lyophilization in future measurements of fecal energy excretion. PMID:3941294

  16. Improved technique for measuring fecal energy loss in normal and malabsorbing humans.

    PubMed

    Zarling, E J; Ruchim, M A; Makino, D

    1986-01-01

    Fecal energy concentration is measured by bomb calorimetry on freeze-dried stool samples. Some of the energy-containing fecal compounds are volatile in the pH ranges of normal stool and hence may be lost during sample preparation. We found that significant amounts of volatile fatty acids and lactic acid are lost during lyophilization. Fecal alkalization caused an increase of 9.8% of measurable energy in stools from normal individuals and 25% in stools from patients with untreated exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. We conclude that previous reports of fecal energy concentration that did not use an alkalization procedure are probably underestimations. We recommend fecal alkalization before lyophilization in future measurements of fecal energy excretion.

  17. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-03-10

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner.

  18. Dietary chitosan improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiali; Liu, Jingna; Li, Ling; Xia, Wenshui

    2008-06-01

    The hypolipidemic mechanism of chitosan was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 8): a normal fat control group, a high-fat control group (HF), a positive control group (CR), and 2 chitosan groups (CIS1 and CIS2). Chitosan was fed at the beginning (CIS1) and after 2 weeks (CIS2). A commercial diet with 5% (wt/wt) cellulose (HF), cholestyramine (CR), or chitosan (CIS1, CIS2) was fed for 6 weeks. Chitosan did not affect food intake but decreased body weight gain and significantly increased fecal fat and cholesterol excretion, reduced the lipid level in plasma and liver, increased liver hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities compared with HF (P < .05), and tended to relieve the degenerated fatty liver tissue. No significant differences in all measurements were found between the CIS1 and CIS2 groups although the CIS1 rats exhibited lower lipid levels compared to those in the CIS2 group. The results suggest that chitosan reduced the absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol in vivo and could effectively improve hypercholesterolemia in rats.

  19. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  20. Stimulation of fecal bacteria in ambient waters by experimental inputs of organic and inorganic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Chudoba, Elizabeth A; Mallin, Michael A; Cahoon, Lawrence B; Skrabal, Stephen A

    2013-06-15

    Fecal microbial pollution of recreational and shellfishing waters is a major human health and economic issue. Microbial pollution sourced from stormwater runoff is especially widespread, and strongly associated with urbanization. However, non-point source nutrient pollution is also problematic, and may come from sources different from fecal-derived pollution (i.e. fertilization of farm fields, lawns and gardens, and ornamental urban areas). Fecal bacteria require nutrients; thus the impact of such nutrient loading on survival and abundance of fecal coliform bacteria in ambient waters was experimentally investigated in a constructed wetland in coastal North Carolina, USA. A series of nutrient-addition bioassays testing impacts of inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus demonstrated that additions of neither organic nor inorganic nitrogen stimulated fecal coliform bacteria. However, phosphorus additions provided significant stimulation of fecal coliform growth at times; on other occasions such additions did not. Dilution bioassays combined with nutrient additions were subsequently devised to assess potential impacts of microzooplankton grazing on the target fecal bacteria populations. Results demonstrated grazing to be a significant bacterial reduction factor in 63% of tests, potentially obscuring nutrient effects. Thus, combining dilution experiments with nutrient addition bioassays yielded simultaneous information on microzooplankton grazing rates on fecal bacteria, fecal bacterial growth rates, and nutrient limitation. Overall, when tested against a non-amended control, additions of either organic or inorganic phosphorus significantly stimulated fecal coliform bacterial growth on 50% of occasions tested, with organic phosphorus generally providing greater stimulation. The finding of significant phosphorus stimulation of fecal bacteria indicates that extraneous nutrient loading can, at times, augment the impacts of fecal microbial pollution of shellfishing

  1. Contrasts in concentrations and loads of conventional and alternative indicators of fecal contamination in coastal stormwater.

    PubMed

    Converse, Reagan R; Piehler, Michael F; Noble, Rachel T

    2011-10-15

    Fecal contamination in stormwater is often complex. Because conventional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) cannot be used to ascertain source of fecal contamination, alternative indicators are being explored to partition these sources. As they are assessed for future use, it is critical to compare alternative indicators to conventional FIB under a range of stormwater delivery conditions. In this study, conventional FIB and fecal Bacteroides spp. were monitored throughout the duration of five storm events from coastal stormwater outfalls in Dare County, North Carolina, USA to characterize relationships among FIB concentrations, alternative fecal markers, and loading of contaminants. Water samples were collected multiple times during each storm and analyzed for Enterococcus sp. and Escherichia coli using enzymatic tests and fecal Bacteroides spp. by QPCR. Both conventional FIB and fecal Bacteroides spp. concentrations in stormwater were generally high and extremely variable over the course of the storm events. Over the very short distances between sites, we observed statistically significant spatial and temporal variability, indicating that stormwater monitoring based on single grab-samples is inappropriate. Loading of FIB and fecal Bacteroides spp. appeared to be affected differently by various hydrologic factors. Specifically, Spearman correlations between fecal Bacteroides spp. and drainage area and antecedent rainfall were lower than those between conventional FIB and these hydrologic factors. Furthermore, the patterns of fecal Bacteroides spp. concentrations generally increased over the duration of the storms, whereas E. coli and Enterococcus sp. concentrations generally followed the patterns of the hydrograph, peaking early and tailing off. Given the greater source-specificity and limited persistence of fecal Bacteroides spp. in oxygenated environments, differences in these patterns suggest multiple delivery modes of fecal contamination (i.e. landscape scouring

  2. Contrasts in concentrations and loads of conventional and alternative indicators of fecal contamination in coastal stormwater.

    PubMed

    Converse, Reagan R; Piehler, Michael F; Noble, Rachel T

    2011-10-15

    Fecal contamination in stormwater is often complex. Because conventional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) cannot be used to ascertain source of fecal contamination, alternative indicators are being explored to partition these sources. As they are assessed for future use, it is critical to compare alternative indicators to conventional FIB under a range of stormwater delivery conditions. In this study, conventional FIB and fecal Bacteroides spp. were monitored throughout the duration of five storm events from coastal stormwater outfalls in Dare County, North Carolina, USA to characterize relationships among FIB concentrations, alternative fecal markers, and loading of contaminants. Water samples were collected multiple times during each storm and analyzed for Enterococcus sp. and Escherichia coli using enzymatic tests and fecal Bacteroides spp. by QPCR. Both conventional FIB and fecal Bacteroides spp. concentrations in stormwater were generally high and extremely variable over the course of the storm events. Over the very short distances between sites, we observed statistically significant spatial and temporal variability, indicating that stormwater monitoring based on single grab-samples is inappropriate. Loading of FIB and fecal Bacteroides spp. appeared to be affected differently by various hydrologic factors. Specifically, Spearman correlations between fecal Bacteroides spp. and drainage area and antecedent rainfall were lower than those between conventional FIB and these hydrologic factors. Furthermore, the patterns of fecal Bacteroides spp. concentrations generally increased over the duration of the storms, whereas E. coli and Enterococcus sp. concentrations generally followed the patterns of the hydrograph, peaking early and tailing off. Given the greater source-specificity and limited persistence of fecal Bacteroides spp. in oxygenated environments, differences in these patterns suggest multiple delivery modes of fecal contamination (i.e. landscape scouring

  3. Influence of source and concentrations of dietary fiber on in vivo nitrogen excretion pathways in pigs as reflected by in vitro fermentation and nitrogen incorporation by fecal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bindelle, J; Buldgen, A; Delacollette, M; Wavreille, J; Agneessens, R; Destain, J P; Leterme, P

    2009-02-01

    The inclusion of dietary fiber (DF) in diets has been suggested as a way to reduce NH(3) emission in pig barns because it contributes to a shift in N excretion from urine to feces owing to enhanced bacterial growth in the intestines. This study compared an in vitro method to measure bacterial protein synthesis during fermentation with an in vivo N excretion shift induced by diets differing in DF concentrations and solubility. The first experiment measured the effect of graded concentrations of sugar beet pulp (SBP; 0, 10, 20, and 30%) in corn- and soybean meal-based diets on in vivo N excretion partitioning between the urine and feces. A second experiment investigated the replacement of SBP, rich in soluble DF, with oat hulls (OH), rich in insoluble DF (20:0, 10.5:10.5, and 0:22%, respectively). In parallel, the fermentation characteristics of the dietary carbohydrates not digested in the small intestine were evaluated in an in vitro gas test, based on their incubation with colonic microbiota, using a mineral buffer solution enriched with (15)N. The N originating from the buffer solution incorporated into the bacterial proteins (BNI) was measured when half the final gas volume was produced (8.5 to 14.5 h of fermentation) and after 72 h of fermentation. Short-chain fatty acids were determined in the liquid phase. In the first experiment, the inclusion of SBP linearly decreased urinary N excretion from 0.285 to 0.215 g of N excreted in the urine per gram of N ingested and decreased the urinary-N:fecal-N excretion ratio from 2.171 to 1.177 (P < 0.01). In the second experiment, substituting SBP with OH linearly increased the urinary-N:fecal-N excretion ratio (P = 0.009). Unlike short-chain fatty acid production, BNI was greater at half-time to asymptotic gas production than at 72 h of fermentation. Sugar beet pulp enhanced BNI linearly (P < 0.001), 2.01, 2.06, and 2.35 mg g(-1) of diet with 10, 20, and 30% SBP, respectively, as compared with 1.51 mg for the control

  4. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  5. Isolation of fecal coliforms from pristine sites in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S C; Hazen, T C; Toranzos, G A

    1988-02-01

    Samples collected from water accumulated in leaf axilae of bromeliads (epiphytic flora) in a tropical rain forest were found to harbor fecal coliforms. Random identification of fecal coliform-positive isolates demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli. This bacterium was also isolated from bromeliad leaf surfaces. These data indicate that E. coli may be part of the phyllosphere microflora and not simply a transient bacterium of this habitat. The isolation of fecal coliforms from these sites was unexpected and raises questions as to the validity of using fecal coliforms as indicators of biological water quality in the tropics. PMID:3281583

  6. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future. PMID:26545372

  7. Fecal lactoferrin, a marker of intestinal inflammation in children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Borkowska, Anna; Liberek, Anna; Łuczak, Grażyna; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Plata-Nazar, Katarzyna; Korzon, Maria; Kamińska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of fecal lactoferrin in the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children. The study included 52 children with IBD (24 with Crohn's disease and 28 with ulcerative colitis) aged between 0.92 and 18 years, and 41 IBD-free controls of similar age. Fecal concentration of lactoferrin was determined with a quantitative immunoenzymatic test. Fecal concentration of lactoferrin in children with IBD was significantly higher than in the controls. The cut-off value of fecal lactoferrin concentration optimally distinguishing between the children with IBD and the controls was identified as 13 μg/g. The sensitivity and specificity of this cut-off value equaled 80.7% and 92.7%, respectively, and its positive and negative prognostic values were 96.8% and 63.3%, respectively. Patients diagnosed with moderate Crohn's disease had significantly higher fecal concentrations of lactoferrin than children with the mild or inactive disease. Similarly, children with moderate ulcerative colitis showed significantly higher fecal concentrations of lactoferrin than individuals with the mild condition. No significant relationship was found between the fecal concentration of lactoferrin and the severity of endoscopic lesions. Patients with IBD and a positive result of fecal occult blood test were characterized by significantly higher concentrations of lactoferrin than the individuals with IBD and a negative result of this test. In conclusion, fecal concentration of lactoferrin seems to be a useful parameter for diagnosis and monitoring of IBD in children.

  8. Tracking the Sources of Fecal Contaminations: an Interdisciplinary Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanneau, L.; Jarde, E.; Derrien, M.; Gruau, G.; Solecki, O.; Pourcher, A.; Marti, R.; Wéry, N.; Caprais, M.; Gourmelon, M.; Mieszkin, S.; Jadas-Hécart, A.; Communal, P.

    2011-12-01

    Fecal contaminations of inland and coastal waters induce risks to human health and economic losses. In order to improve water management, it is necessary to identify the sources of contamination, which implies the development of specific markers. In order to be considered as a valuable host-specific marker, one must (1) be source specific, (2) occur in high concentration in polluting matrices, (3) exhibit extra-intestinal persistence similar to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and (4) not grow out of the host. However, up to day no single marker has fulfilled all those criteria. Thus, it has been suggested to use a combination of markers in order to generate more reliable data. This has lead to the development of a Microbial Source Tracking (MST) toolbox including FIB and microbial and chemical specific markers in order to differentiate between human, bovine and porcine fecal contaminations. Those specific markers are, (1) genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, (2) bacterial markers belonging to the Bacteroidales (human-specific HF183, ruminant-specific Rum-2-Bac and pig-specific Pig-2-Bac markers), to the Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and pig-specific Lactobacillus amylovorus, (3) fecal stanols and (4) caffeine. The development of this MST toolbox was composed of four steps, from the molecular scale to the watershed scale. At the molecular scale, the specificity and the concentration of those markers were studied in cattle and pig manures and in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and influents. At the microcosm scale, the transfer of bovine and porcine specific markers was investigated by rainfall simulations on agricultural plots amended with cattle or pig manure. Moreover, the relative persistence of FIB and human, porcine and bovine specific markers was investigated in freshwater and seawater microcosms inoculated with a WWTP influent, pig manure and cow manure. Finally, the aforementioned MST toolbox has been validated at the

  9. Fecal Calprotectin Excretion in Preterm Infants during the Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Rougé, Carole; Butel, Marie-José; Piloquet, Hugues; Ferraris, Laurent; Legrand, Arnaud; Vodovar, Michel; Voyer, Marcel; de la Cochetière, Marie-France; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. Objective To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. Methodology F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27–29 weeks, and 880–1320 g, respectively) at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. Principal Findings Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 µg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78) was observed (86% and 67%, respectively). In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001), and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d) (p = 0.009), the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001), and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019) and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047). Conclusion During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment. PMID:20552029

  10. Delorme's operation and sphincteroplasty for rectal prolapse and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pescatori, M; Interisano, A; Stolfi, V M; Zoffoli, M

    1998-01-01

    Clinical and manometric results of Delorme's operation and sphincteroplasty were assessed retrospectively in patients undergoing this procedure for fecal incontinence and rectal prolapse. A series of 33 patients (11 males, 22 females; aged 18-83 years, mean 59) with external rectal prolapse were treated by Delorme's operation between 1989 and 1996. Mean follow-up was 39 months (range 7-84). Sphincteroplasty was associated in 12 cases with severe fecal incontinence due to striated muscle defects. Good results were achieved in 27 patients (79%); prolapse recurrence was observed in 6 (21%), the mean recurrence time being 9 months (range 1-24 months). There were no postoperative deaths. Minor complications occurred in 15 patients. Changes in preoperative and postoperative manometric patterns were as follows (mean +/- SEM): voluntary contraction from 59 +/- 6.9 to 66 +/- 7.1 mmHg (P = 0.05), resting tone from 33 +/- 5 to 32 +/- 4.3 mmHg, rectal sensation from 59 +/- 5 to 61 +/- 5.2 ml of air (n.s.). A solitary rectal ulcer syndrome was detected in five patients. The histological pattern demonstrated pathological changes in 40% of cases. Fecal incontinence was resolved in 6 of 20 cases (30%) and chronic constipation in 4 of 9 (44%). Failure (n = 3) was related primarily to postoperative sepsis. The incontinence score showed a mean improvement of 35% decreasing, from 4.5 +/- 0.39 to 2.9 +/- 0.44 after surgery (P < 0.01). In conclusion, Delorme's procedure did not lead to constipation and improved anal continence when associated with sphincteroplasty.

  11. Fecal microbiome analysis as a diagnostic test for diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Daniels, L; Budding, A E; de Korte, N; Eck, A; Bogaards, J A; Stockmann, H B; Consten, E C; Savelkoul, P H; Boermeester, M A

    2014-11-01

    Disease-specific variations in intestinal microbiome composition have been found for a number of intestinal disorders, but little is known about diverticulitis. The purpose of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of diverticulitis patients with control subjects from a general gastroenterological practice and to investigate the feasibility of predictive diagnostics based on complex microbiota data. Thirty-one patients with computed tomography (CT)-proven left-sided uncomplicated acute diverticulitis were included and compared with 25 control subjects evaluated for a range of gastrointestinal indications. A high-throughput polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based profiling technique (IS-pro) was performed on DNA isolates from baseline fecal samples. Differences in bacterial phylum abundance and diversity (Shannon index) of the resulting profiles were assessed by conventional statistics. Dissimilarity in microbiome composition was analyzed with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on cosine distance measures. To develop a prediction model for the diagnosis of diverticulitis, we used cross-validated partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios and Proteobacteria load were comparable among patients and controls (p = 0.20). The Shannon index indicated a higher diversity in diverticulitis for Proteobacteria (p < 0.00002) and all phyla combined (p = 0.002). PCoA based on Proteobacteria profiles resulted in visually separate clusters of patients and controls. The diagnostic accuracy of the cross-validated PLS-DA regression model was 84 %. The most discriminative species derived largely from the family Enterobacteriaceae. Diverticulitis patients have a higher diversity of fecal microbiota than controls from a mixed population, with the phylum Proteobacteria defining the difference. The analysis of intestinal microbiota offers a novel way to diagnose diverticulitis.

  12. Beta-glucuronidase activities of fecal isolates from healthy swine.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, L; Langlois, B E; Dawson, K A

    1992-01-01

    Research has shown that various percentages of fecal Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy subjects may be beta-glucuronidase negative. The ability to detect beta-glucuronidase activity among fecal E. coli isolates from healthy subjects may be affected by assay conditions. A study was conducted in which agar and broth media containing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) were used to examine beta-glucuronidase activities of fecal isolates from healthy swine. Rectal swabs were plated on MacConkey agar plus 100 mg of MUG per liter (MAC-MUG) and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Each of 986 isolates picked from MAC-MUG was inoculated into duplicate tubes of lauryl tryptose broth plus 50 mg of MUG per liter (LT-MUG). One set of tubes was incubated at 35 degrees C and the other set of tubes was incubated at 44.5 degrees C. Gas production and hydrolysis of MUG, indicated by fluorescence when observed with UV light with a wavelength of 360 nm, were determined after incubation for 24 and 48 h. A higher percentage (P less than 0.01) of isolates was MUG positive at 44.5 degrees C than at 35 degrees C after 24 h of incubation in LT-MUG. A higher percentage (P less than 0.01) of isolates was MUG positive after 48 h than after 24 h of incubation at both 35 and 44.5 degrees C. A lower percentage of isolates (P less than 0.05) was observed to be MUG positive on MAC-MUG agar compared with their MUG reactions in LT-MUG at 35 and 44.5 degrees C. Approximately 89% of the isolates identified were beta-glucuronidase-positive E. coli. The largest proportion of MUG-positive E. coli was detected with LT-MUG at 35 degrees C after 48 h of incubation. PMID:1500519

  13. Effect of Freezing Conditions on Fecal Bacterial Composition in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Magowan, Elizabeth; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Storage of gut samples may affect the extractability of intact DNA and analyzed bacterial composition. In this study, we compared the DNA yield and the abundance of total bacteria and eight bacterial taxa when DNA was extracted from fresh fecal samples of pigs or from freeze stored samples with or without prior snap-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Results showed that the greatest differences in DNA yield and bacterial abundances were found when DNA was extracted from fresh feces compared to freeze stored fecal samples. Abstract Sample preservation and recovery of intact DNA from gut samples may affect the inferred gut microbiota composition in pigs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the freezing process and storage temperature prior to DNA extraction on DNA recovery and bacterial community composition in pig feces using quantitative PCR. Fresh fecal samples from six growing pigs were collected and five aliquots of each prepared: (1) total DNA extracted immediately; (2) stored at −20 °C; (3) snap frozen and stored at −20 °C; (4) stored at −80 °C; and (5) snap frozen and stored at −80 °C. Results showed that DNA yields from fresh fecal samples were, on average, 25 to 30 ng higher than those from the various stored samples. The DNA extracted from fresh samples had more gene copies of total bacteria and all targeted bacterial groups per gram feces compared to DNA extraction from frozen samples. Data presentation also modified the observed effect of freeze storage; as results for Lactobacillus group, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Clostridium cluster IV, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas and Enterobacteriaceae showed the opposite effect when expressed as relative abundance, by being greater in freeze stored feces than in fresh feces. Snap freezing increased the relative proportion of Clostridium cluster IV by 24%. In conclusion, the freezing process affected DNA yield and bacterial abundances, whereas snap freezing and storage

  14. Endoscopic Delivery of Fecal Biotherapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Kerman, David H

    2016-10-01

    The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We are able to use the microbiome as a therapeutic target with use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for cure of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Given our ability to target the dysbiotic state with FMT, its use as therapy in IBD has tremendous potential. This overview discusses the practical considerations of FMT therapy with respect to our current understanding of safety and efficacy in IBD, screening for donors and recipients, specimen handling and storage, methods of delivery, and regulatory considerations. PMID:27633598

  15. Effect of Freezing Conditions on Fecal Bacterial Composition in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Lawlor, Peadar G; Magowan, Elizabeth; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Sample preservation and recovery of intact DNA from gut samples may affect the inferred gut microbiota composition in pigs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the freezing process and storage temperature prior to DNA extraction on DNA recovery and bacterial community composition in pig feces using quantitative PCR. Fresh fecal samples from six growing pigs were collected and five aliquots of each prepared: (1) total DNA extracted immediately; (2) stored at -20 °C; (3) snap frozen and stored at -20 °C; (4) stored at -80 °C; and (5) snap frozen and stored at -80 °C. Results showed that DNA yields from fresh fecal samples were, on average, 25 to 30 ng higher than those from the various stored samples. The DNA extracted from fresh samples had more gene copies of total bacteria and all targeted bacterial groups per gram feces compared to DNA extraction from frozen samples. Data presentation also modified the observed effect of freeze storage; as results for Lactobacillus group, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Clostridium cluster IV, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas and Enterobacteriaceae showed the opposite effect when expressed as relative abundance, by being greater in freeze stored feces than in fresh feces. Snap freezing increased the relative proportion of Clostridium cluster IV by 24%. In conclusion, the freezing process affected DNA yield and bacterial abundances, whereas snap freezing and storage temperature had only little influence on abundances of bacterial populations in pig feces. PMID:26927191

  16. Automatic identification of fungi under complex microscopic fecal images.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Haoting; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Juanxiu; Du, Xiaohui; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Automatic identification of fungi in microscopic fecal images provides important information for evaluating digestive diseases. To date, disease diagnosis is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the operator's expertise and subjective factors. The proposed system automatically identifies fungi in microscopic fecal images that contain other cells and impurities under complex environments. We segment images twice to obtain the correct area of interest, and select ten features, including the circle number, concavity point, and other basic features, to filter fungi. An artificial neural network (ANN) system is used to identify the fungi. The first stage (ANN-1) processes features from five images in differing focal lengths; the second stage (ANN-2) identifies the fungi using the ANN-1 output values. Images in differing focal lengths can be used to improve the identification result. The system output accurately detects the image, whether or not it has fungi. If the image does have fungi, the system output counts the number of different fungi types.

  17. Classification of hyperspectral imagery for identifying fecal and ingesta contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Smith, Douglas P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the research results of the performance of classification methods for hyperspectral poultry imagery to identify fecal and ingesta contaminants on the surface of broiler carcasses. A pushbroom line-scan hyperspectral imager was used to acquire hyperspectral data with 512 narrow bands covered from 400 to 900 nm wavelengths. Three different feces from digestive tracts (duodenum, ceca, colon), and ingesta were used as contaminants. These contaminants were collected from the broiler carcasses fed by corn, milo, and wheat with soybean meals. For the selection of optimum classifier, various widely used supervised classification methods (parallelepiped, minimum distance, Mahalanobis distance, maximum likelihood, spectral angle mapper, and binary coding) were investigated. The classification accuracies ranged from 62.94% to 92.27%. The highest classification accuracy for identifying contaminants for corn fed carcasses was 92.27% with spectral angle mapper classifier. While, the classification accuracy was 82.02% with maximum likelihood method for milo fed carcasses and 91.16% accuracy was obtained for wheat fed carcasses when same classification method was used. The mean classification accuracy obtained in this study for classifying fecal and ingesta contaminants was 90.21%.

  18. Gut microbiota modulation: probiotics, antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation?

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Bibbò, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Gut microbiota is known to have a relevant role in our health, and is also related to both gastrointestinal and extradigestive diseases. Therefore, restoring the alteration of gut microbiota represents an outstanding clinical target for the treatment of gut microbiota-related diseases. The modulation of gut microbiota is perhaps an ancestral, innate concept for human beings. At this time, the restoration of gut microbiota impairment is a well-established concept in mainstream medicine, and several therapeutic approaches have been developed in this regard. Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are the best known and commercially available options to overcome gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation is an old procedure that has recently become popular again. It has shown a clear effectiveness in the treatment of C. difficile infection, and now represents a cutting-edge option for the restoration of gut microbiota. Nevertheless, such weapons should be used with caution. Antibiotics can indeed harm and alter gut microbiota composition. Probiotics, instead, are not at all the same thing, and thinking in terms of different strains is probably the only way to improve clinical outcomes. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation has shown promising results, but stronger proofs are needed. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of gut microbiota, especially with regard to the future use in its modulation for therapeutic purposes.

  19. Automatic identification of fungi under complex microscopic fecal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Haoting; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Juanxiu; Du, Xiaohui; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Automatic identification of fungi in microscopic fecal images provides important information for evaluating digestive diseases. To date, disease diagnosis is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the operator's expertise and subjective factors. The proposed system automatically identifies fungi in microscopic fecal images that contain other cells and impurities under complex environments. We segment images twice to obtain the correct area of interest, and select ten features, including the circle number, concavity point, and other basic features, to filter fungi. An artificial neural network (ANN) system is used to identify the fungi. The first stage (ANN-1) processes features from five images in differing focal lengths; the second stage (ANN-2) identifies the fungi using the ANN-1 output values. Images in differing focal lengths can be used to improve the identification result. The system output accurately detects the image, whether or not it has fungi. If the image does have fungi, the system output counts the number of different fungi types.

  20. Solid-phase microextraction and the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Emma; Clubb, Cynthia; Pittman, Sara; Ammann, Larry; Rasheed, Zeehasham; Kazmi, Nazia; Keshavarzian, Ali; Gillevet, Pat; Rangwala, Huzefa; Couch, Robin D

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein. PMID:21494609

  1. Solid-Phase Microextraction and the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Emma; Clubb, Cynthia; Pittman, Sara; Ammann, Larry; Rasheed, Zeehasham; Kazmi, Nazia; Keshavarzian, Ali; Gillevet, Pat; Rangwala, Huzefa; Couch, Robin D.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein. PMID:21494609

  2. Exploring fecal indicator bacteria in a constructed stormwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, J M; Hunt, W F; Graves, A K; Bass, K L; Caldwell, A

    2011-01-01

    Microbial pollution in surface waters is a concern throughout the world, with both public health and economic implications. One contributing source to such pollution is stormwater runoff, often treated using various types of stormwater control measures. However, relatively little is known regarding microbe sequestration in constructed stormwater wetlands (CSWs), one type of commonly installed stormwater control measure. In this study, indicator bacteria concentrations in both the water and sediment of a CSW were evaluated at multiple locations. Results suggested that fecal coliform concentrations in stormwater runoff decrease through the system, with relatively consistent concentrations noted throughout the second half of the wetland. This potentially indicates a baseline concentration of fecal coliform is present due to internal processes such as animal activity and microbial persistence. However, wetland sediments showed little E. coli present during most sampling events, with minimal patterns existing with respect to sediment sampling location. CSW designs should promote optimization of hydraulic retention time and minimization of stormwater velocities to promote sedimentation and degradation of microbes by way of wetland treatment functions.

  3. Unsealed Tubewells Lead to Increased Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Serre, Marc L.; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Sayler, Gary S.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, 6 unsealed) were monitored for cultured E. coli over 18 months. Additionally, two “snap shot” sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (ETEC E. coli), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using qPCR. No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained cultured E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p<0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

  4. Mailed fecal-immunochemical test for colon cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Daly, Jeanette M; Levy, Barcey T; Merchant, Mary L; Wilbur, Jason

    2010-06-01

    Various interventions have been implemented to increase the rate of colon cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to determine if persons who are regular patients of a clinic, ages 50-64 years, and not up-to-date with colon cancer screening will complete the at-home fecal-immunochemical test (FIT) if it is mailed to them. This intervention was designed to have the subject avoid the signing of an informed consent and having to ask for the screening test; and, only one stool specimen was needed. Three hundred and fifty potential subjects were randomly selected from an electronic medical record database after meeting inclusion criteria. Eighty-seven fecal immunochemical tests were returned. Seven of the FIT kit results were positive for occult blood. Each respondent was sent a letter giving them their results. A minimal cue CRC screening intervention, a FIT kit sent in the mail without prerequisite of a signed informed consent, was offered to the study subjects. Twenty-six percent of the eligible persons were screened for colon cancer by this method. A mailed FIT kit or one handed to the patient at an office visit has minimal cost which can be recovered through insurance coverage. Commitment by health care providers is necessary for prevention. This method is one of several that could reach the hard to screen population.

  5. Urinary and Fecal Incontinence in Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Felix W.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Urinary and fecal incontinence (UI, FI) are co-morbid conditions affecting over 50% of nursing home residents. Both forms of incontinence are risk factors for elderly persons to be placed in the nursing home, and such institutionalization itself is a risk factor for developing incontinence. Management should focus on identifying and treating underlying causes, such as detrusor instability, urinary tract infections, diet- or medication-induced diarrhea, constipation and fecal impaction. Despite appropriate management, residents may remain incontinent because of dementia and health or restraint-related immobility. Nursing homes lack the staff and financial resources to provide residents with sufficiently frequent toileting assistance (including prompted voiding). Use of special undergarments and absorbent pads is the usual practice. The article reviews the results of studies that have documented how prompted voiding programs can significantly reduce UI and FI, particularly if the intervention includes dietary and exercise components. Recent systematic anorectal testing of nursing home residents with FI has documented impaired sphincter function (risk factor for FI), decreased rectal sensation and sphincter dyssynergia (risk factor for constipation and impaction). The data suggest that the use of laxatives and stool softeners for prophylaxis against constipation and impaction related to underlying dyssynergia may have produced sufficient fluidity in the stool to predispose the residents with impaired sphincter function to manifest FI. Documentation of non-invasive and efficacious interventions by RCT and the labor costs of implementing these measures can lead to changes in how nursing home care is provided and funded. PMID:18794004

  6. Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  7. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  8. Teschoviruses as Indicators of Porcine Fecal Contamination of Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Fernández, Carlos; Ortiz, José Antonio; Pro, Javier; Carbonell, Gregoria; Tarazona, José Vicente; Roblas, Neftalí; Ley, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Teschoviruses specifically infect pigs and are shed in pig feces. Hence, their presence in water should indicate contamination with pig fecal residues. To assess this hypothesis, we have developed a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) method that allows the quantitative detection of pig teschovirus (PTV) RNA. The method is able to detect 92 fg of PTV RNA per ml of sample. Using this method, we have detected the presence of PTV RNA in water and fecal samples from all pig farms examined (n = 5). Feces from other animal species (cattle, sheep, and goats) were negative in this test. To compare the PTV RNA detection method with conventional chemical determinations currently in use for evaluation of water contamination, we analyzed water samples collected downstream from a pig slurry spillage site. We have found a positive correlation within both types of determinations. The sensitivity of the PTV detection assay was similar to that achieved by unspecific organic matter determination and superior to all other conventional chemical analyses performed. Furthermore, the new method is highly specific, revealing the porcine origin of the contamination, a feature that is lacking in currently available methods for the assessment of water contamination. PMID:14532098

  9. Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Knappett, Peter S K; McKay, Larry D; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E; Alam, Md J; Mailloux, Brian J; Ferguson, Andrew S; Culligan, Patricia J; Serre, Marc L; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M; Sayler, Gary S; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, six unsealed) were monitored for culturable Escherichia coli over 18 months. Additionally, two 'snapshot' sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (enterotoxigenic E. coli; ETEC), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained culturable E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p < 0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality.

  10. Fecal Microbiota and Diet of Children with Chronic Constipation.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Joyce Gomes; Motta, Maria Eugênia Farias de Almeida; Beltrão, Monique Ferraz de Sá; Salviano, Taciana Lima; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2016-01-01

    Many factors explain dysbiosis in chronic constipation (CC), such as a low-fiber diet. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of constipated and nonconstipated children and their intake frequencies of food. Methods. This observational study included 79 children (M/F 43/36) aged six to 36 months divided into two groups: cases (39 constipated children) and controls (40 nonconstipated children). We used a structured form to collect demographic variables, conducted anthropometric assessment, and collected food intake frequency data. The fecal microbiota of the stool samples was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the fluorophore SYBR® Green. Results. Constipated children had a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus per milligram of stool (p = 0.015) than nonconstipated children, but the concentration of Bifidobacterium per milligram of stool (p = 0.323) and the intake of fruits, vegetables (p = 0.563), and junk food (p = 0.093) of the two groups did not differ. Constipated children consumed more dairy products (0.45 ± 0.8; p > 0.001), were more frequently delivered via caesarean section (69.2%), were weaned earlier (median: 120; 60Q1-240Q3), and had a family history of constipation (71.8%). Conclusions. Children with CC have a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus in their stools and consume more dairy products. PMID:27418934

  11. Fecal Microbiota and Diet of Children with Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Maria Eugênia Farias de Almeida; Beltrão, Monique Ferraz de Sá; Salviano, Taciana Lima

    2016-01-01

    Many factors explain dysbiosis in chronic constipation (CC), such as a low-fiber diet. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of constipated and nonconstipated children and their intake frequencies of food. Methods. This observational study included 79 children (M/F 43/36) aged six to 36 months divided into two groups: cases (39 constipated children) and controls (40 nonconstipated children). We used a structured form to collect demographic variables, conducted anthropometric assessment, and collected food intake frequency data. The fecal microbiota of the stool samples was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the fluorophore SYBR® Green. Results. Constipated children had a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus per milligram of stool (p = 0.015) than nonconstipated children, but the concentration of Bifidobacterium per milligram of stool (p = 0.323) and the intake of fruits, vegetables (p = 0.563), and junk food (p = 0.093) of the two groups did not differ. Constipated children consumed more dairy products (0.45 ± 0.8; p > 0.001), were more frequently delivered via caesarean section (69.2%), were weaned earlier (median: 120; 60Q1–240Q3), and had a family history of constipation (71.8%). Conclusions. Children with CC have a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus in their stools and consume more dairy products. PMID:27418934

  12. Fecal microbiota imbalance in Mexican children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mejía-León, María Esther; Petrosino, Joseph F; Ajami, Nadim Jose; Domínguez-Bello, María Gloria; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón

    2014-01-22

    Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota affecting the gut barrier could be triggering Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the second most frequent autoimmune disease in childhood. This study compared the structure of the fecal microbiota in 29 mestizo children aged 7-18 years, including 8 T1D at onset, 13 T1D after 2 years treatment, and 8 healthy controls. Clinical information was collected, predisposing haplotypes were determined; the fecal DNA was extracted, the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplified and 454-pyrosequenced. The newly diagnosed T1D cases had high levels of the genus Bacteroides (p < 0.004), whereas the control group had a gut microbiota dominated by Prevotella. Children with T1D treated for ≥2 years had levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella compared to those of the control group. The gut microbiota of newly diagnosed T1D cases is altered, but whether it is involved in disease causation or is a consequence of host selection remains unclear.

  13. Fecal microbiota imbalance in Mexican children with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-León, María Esther; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Ajami, Nadim Jose; Domínguez-Bello, María Gloria; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota affecting the gut barrier could be triggering Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the second most frequent autoimmune disease in childhood. This study compared the structure of the fecal microbiota in 29 mestizo children aged 7–18 years, including 8 T1D at onset, 13 T1D after 2 years treatment, and 8 healthy controls. Clinical information was collected, predisposing haplotypes were determined; the fecal DNA was extracted, the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplified and 454-pyrosequenced. The newly diagnosed T1D cases had high levels of the genus Bacteroides (p < 0.004), whereas the control group had a gut microbiota dominated by Prevotella. Children with T1D treated for ≥2 years had levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella compared to those of the control group. The gut microbiota of newly diagnosed T1D cases is altered, but whether it is involved in disease causation or is a consequence of host selection remains unclear. PMID:24448554

  14. Fecal Shedding of Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I. V.; Wells, S. J.; Harmon, K. M.; Green, A.; Schroeder-Tucker, L.; Glover, M.; Siddique, I.

    2000-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-PCR assays. For C. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. Farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for C. jejuni. Statistical significance was set at a P of 0.20. Using these criteria, application of manure with broadcast spreaders (P = 0.17), feeding of whole cottonseed or hulls (P = 0.17) or alfalfa (P = 0.15), and accessibility of feed to birds (P = 0.17) were identified as possible risk factors for C. jejuni infection. C. coli was detected in at least one animal in 19.4% of operations and 1.8% of individual cows (n = 2,085). At the herd level, use of broadcaster spreaders was not a risk factor for C. coli infection. For Arcobacter, cows from 71% of dairy operations (n = 31) and 14.3% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 1,682) were positive. At the herd level, for Arcobacter spp., feeding of alfalfa (P = 0.11) and use of individual waterers (P = 0.19) were protective. This is the first description of Arcobacter spp. in clinically healthy dairy cattle and the first attempt to correlate their presence with C. jejuni. PMID:10788372

  15. Abdominal fat weight and thickness as predictors of total body fat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sonaiya, E B

    1985-10-01

    In two experiments broilers of both sexes from two strains were reared to 16 weeks of age to determine how total body fat could be estimated and predicted from some carcase traits. In the first experiment, age, carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness were found to be significant factors in the prediction of total body fat weight estimated from abdominal fat weight. In the second experiment abdominal fat weight was the best predictor of total body fat weight, obtained by ether extraction of the minced whole carcase. Inclusion of abdominal fat weight in the prediction equation after carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness significantly improved the regression. If the carcase cannot be weighed and abdominal fat weight is not available, because of the more laborious nature of its determination, then the measurement of abdominal fat thickness can be useful in predicting the total body fat content.

  16. Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise and diet.

    PubMed

    Achten, Juul; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2004-01-01

    Interventions aimed at increasing fat metabolism could potentially reduce the symptoms of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes and may have tremendous clinical relevance. Hence, an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease fat oxidation is important. Exercise intensity and duration are important determinants of fat oxidation. Fat oxidation rates increase from low to moderate intensities and then decrease when the intensity becomes high. Maximal rates of fat oxidation have been shown to be reached at intensities between 59% and 64% of maximum oxygen consumption in trained individuals and between 47% and 52% of maximum oxygen consumption in a large sample of the general population. The mode of exercise can also affect fat oxidation, with fat oxidation being higher during running than cycling. Endurance training induces a multitude of adaptations that result in increased fat oxidation. The duration and intensity of exercise training required to induce changes in fat oxidation is currently unknown. Ingestion of carbohydrate in the hours before or on commencement of exercise reduces the rate of fat oxidation significantly compared with fasted conditions, whereas fasting longer than 6 h optimizes fat oxidation. Fat oxidation rates have been shown to decrease after ingestion of high-fat diets, partly as a result of decreased glycogen stores and partly because of adaptations at the muscle level. PMID:15212756

  17. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE APPLICATION OF MST METHODOLOGIES TO DIFFERENTIATE SOURCES OF FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal variability in the gastrointestinal flora of animals impacting water resources with fecal material can be one of the factors producing low source identification rates when applying microbial source tracking (MST) methods. Understanding how bacterial species and genotype...

  18. An investigation of variables in a fecal flotation technique.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, M R; Slocombe, J O

    1980-04-01

    Several variables in a standard vial fecal gravitational flotation technique were investigated. These were the specific gravity of the sodium nitrate flotation solution, duration of flotation and mesh sizes of strainers. The number of eggs which floated and adhered to a coverslip were counted and estimates of the number of eggs remaining in the strained fecal suspension and in the feces trapped on the strainer were made. Eggs from hookworms, Trichuris vulpis and Toxocara canis in feces from dogs, Nematodirus spp. from sheep and Parascaris equorum from horses floated equally well in solutions with specific gravities (SpGr) ranging from 1.22-1.38. Taenia spp. from dogs had a slightly narrower range (SpGr 1.27-1.38) for best recovery. Eggs from Haemonchus contortus from sheep appeared to float best between SpGr 1.22- 1.32. Strongyles from one horse floated best with SpGr 1.27-1.32 and from another with SpGr 1.11-1.38. Coccidial oocysts from sheep floated best in a narrow range of SpGr from 1.22-1.27. However, as the SpGr of the solution was increased the recognition of eggs under the coverslip was increasingly difficult and especially so at SpGr 1.38 with sheep feces. This was due to the increasing amount of debris and the more rapid formation of crystals with evaporation with solutions of higher SpGr. It appeared, therefore, that solutions with SpGr of 1.22-1.35 would be best for routine laboratory use. At specific gravity 1.27, there appeared to be no difference in the number of eggs recovered for a four, eight and 12 min flotation period. Only 3-7% of the eggs in 4 g of feces were counted under the coverslip. This poor efficacy resulted first because approximately 50% of the eggs were trapped in the feces and retained on the strainer. Secondly, only one half of the strained fecal suspension, containing approximately 25% of the eggs, was placed in the vial for examination. Thirdly, of those eggs in the vial only 16-29% were counted under the coverslip. When the

  19. An investigation of variables in a fecal flotation technique.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, M R; Slocombe, J O

    1980-04-01

    Several variables in a standard vial fecal gravitational flotation technique were investigated. These were the specific gravity of the sodium nitrate flotation solution, duration of flotation and mesh sizes of strainers. The number of eggs which floated and adhered to a coverslip were counted and estimates of the number of eggs remaining in the strained fecal suspension and in the feces trapped on the strainer were made. Eggs from hookworms, Trichuris vulpis and Toxocara canis in feces from dogs, Nematodirus spp. from sheep and Parascaris equorum from horses floated equally well in solutions with specific gravities (SpGr) ranging from 1.22-1.38. Taenia spp. from dogs had a slightly narrower range (SpGr 1.27-1.38) for best recovery. Eggs from Haemonchus contortus from sheep appeared to float best between SpGr 1.22- 1.32. Strongyles from one horse floated best with SpGr 1.27-1.32 and from another with SpGr 1.11-1.38. Coccidial oocysts from sheep floated best in a narrow range of SpGr from 1.22-1.27. However, as the SpGr of the solution was increased the recognition of eggs under the coverslip was increasingly difficult and especially so at SpGr 1.38 with sheep feces. This was due to the increasing amount of debris and the more rapid formation of crystals with evaporation with solutions of higher SpGr. It appeared, therefore, that solutions with SpGr of 1.22-1.35 would be best for routine laboratory use. At specific gravity 1.27, there appeared to be no difference in the number of eggs recovered for a four, eight and 12 min flotation period. Only 3-7% of the eggs in 4 g of feces were counted under the coverslip. This poor efficacy resulted first because approximately 50% of the eggs were trapped in the feces and retained on the strainer. Secondly, only one half of the strained fecal suspension, containing approximately 25% of the eggs, was placed in the vial for examination. Thirdly, of those eggs in the vial only 16-29% were counted under the coverslip. When the

  20. Overview of Microbial Source Tracking Methods Targeting Human Fecal Pollution Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to human fecal waste can be a public health risk dueto the presence of human pathogens. Human fecal pollutioncan be introduced into water resources from damagedsewer lines, faulty septic systems, combined sewer overflows,illicit dumping activities, and even recreational ...

  1. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BACTEROIDES DNA PROBES FOR THE SPECIFIC DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because Bacteroides spp. are obligate anaerobes that dominate the human fecal flora, and because some species may live only in the human intestine, these bacteria might be useful to distinguish human from nonhuman sources of fecal pollution. To test this hypothesis, PCR primers s...

  2. A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

  3. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Freshwater Impacted by Animal Fecal Material (proceedings)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the potential for human illness from a hypothetical recreational exposure to freshwater that was impacted by land-applied, agricultural animal fecal material. The scenario included 1) fresh cattle manure, pig slurry, or chicken litter (fecal material) land-applied, a...

  4. Community structure of cattle fecal bacteria from different animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provide adequate detail ab...

  5. Lachnospiraceae- and Bacteroidales alternative fecal indicators reveal chronic human sewage contamination in an urban harbor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complexity of fecal microbial communities and overlap among human and other animal sources has made it difficult to identify source-specific fecal indicator bacteria. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has provided increased power to resolve microbial community compos...

  6. Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provid...

  7. Current management of fecal incontinence: Choosing amongst treatment options to optimize outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Van Koughnett, Julie Ann M; Wexner, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    The severity of fecal incontinence widely varies and can have dramatic devastating impacts on a person’s life. Fecal incontinence is common, though it is often under-reported by patients. In addition to standard treatment options, new treatments have been developed during the past decade to attempt to effectively treat fecal incontinence with minimal morbidity. Non-operative treatments include dietary modifications, medications, and biofeedback therapy. Currently used surgical treatments include repair (sphincteroplasty), stimulation (sacral nerve stimulation or posterior tibial nerve stimulation), replacement (artificial bowel sphincter or muscle transposition) and diversion (stoma formation). Newer augmentation treatments such as radiofrequency energy delivery and injectable materials, are minimally invasive tools that may be good options before proceeding to surgery in some patients with mild fecal incontinence. In general, more invasive surgical treatments are now reserved for moderate to severe fecal incontinence. Functional and quality of life related outcomes, as well as potential complications of the treatment must be considered and the treatment of fecal incontinence must be individualized to the patient. General indications, techniques, and outcomes profiles for the various treatments of fecal incontinence are discussed in detail. Choosing the most effective treatment for the individual patient is essential to achieve optimal outcomes in the treatment of fecal incontinence. PMID:24409050

  8. Fecal progestagens to detect and monitor pregnancy in captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Adachi, Itsuki; Kusuda, Satoshi; Kawai, Hitomi; Ohazama, Megumi; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Kondo, Natsuko; Yoshihara, Masato; Okuda, Ryuta; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kanda, Iwai; Doi, Osamu

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish a noninvasive monitoring assay of fecal progestagen measurement to detect pregnancy and to identify the components of fecal progestagens in early, middle and late pregnancy in cheetahs. Feces were collected from 7 female cheetahs and analyzed from 30 days before the last copulation to parturition in 9 pregnancies. Blood was collected from one cheetah. Fecal progestagen and serum progesterone concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The profiles of the fecal progestagen concentrations were similar to the serum progesterone profile. Fecal progestagen and serum progesterone concentrations remained at the baseline until copulation. In the mean fecal progestagen profile during pregnancy (92.8 ± 0.4 days; from the last copulation to parturition), the concentrations increased 3-4 days after the last copulation and remained high until parturition. To investigate changes in the components of progestagen metabolites in the tripartite periods of gestation, fecal progestagens were analyzed by HPLC-EIA. Marked immunoreactive peaks consistent with 5α-pregnan-3α/β-ol-20-one and 5α-pregnan-3,20-dione and small peaks consistent with 5β-pregnan-3α/β-ol-20-one were detected. There were no distinct difference in the components of progestagens among the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The hormone assay, as an indicator of fecal 5α-reduced pregnanes, is useful for detecting pregnancy and monitoring pregnant luteal activity in cheetahs.

  9. Development of Cross-Assembly Phage PCR-Based Methods for Human Fecal Source Identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technologies that can characterize human fecal pollution in environmental waters offer many advantages over traditional general indicator approaches. However, many human-associated methods cross-react with non-human animal sources and lack suitable sensitivity for fecal source id...

  10. Development and Testing of Novel Canine Fecal Source-Identification Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent to which dogs contribute to aquatic fecal contamination is unknown despite the potential for zoonotic transfer of harmful human pathogens. Recent method comparison studies have shown that available Bacteroidales 16S rRNA-based methods for the detection of canine fecal ...

  11. Water quality indicators and the risk of illness at beaches with nonpoint sources of fecal contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Indicator bacteria are a good predictor of illness at marine beaches that have point sources of pollution with human fecal content. Few studies have addressed the utility of indicator bacteria where nonpoint sources are the dominant fecal input. Extrapolating current ...

  12. Waveband selection and algorithm development to distinguish fecal contamination using multispectral imaging with solar light

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal contamination in fresh produce fields caused by animals or livestock entering the fields can lead to outbreaks of foodbourne illnesses. E.coli O157:H7 originating in the intestines of animals can transfer onto leafy greens via fecal matter. Leafy greens are often eaten fresh without thermal tr...

  13. Detection and Quantification of Human Fecal Pollution with Real-Time PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described ...

  14. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF COW FECAL POLLUTION WITH REAL-TIME PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with cow fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described cow-specific g...

  15. Correlative Assessment of Fecal Indicators Using Human Mitochondrial DNA as a Direct Marker

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the source of surface water fecal contamination is paramount to mitigating pollution and risk to human health. Fecal bacteria such as E. coli have been staple indicator organisms for over a century, however there remains uncertainty with E. coli-based metrics since t...

  16. Chemical tracers as indicator of human fecal coliforms at storm water outfalls.

    PubMed

    Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Guo, Qizhong

    2005-10-01

    Indicators to distinguish between fecal coliforms of human and animal origin were investigated in water from storm sewer outfalls to a coastal lake during wet and dry weather. The ratio of fecal coliform relative to fecal streptococci count was used as the microbiological indicator. Concentrations of human-activities originated caffeine, anionic surfactant, fluoride, and fluorescence whitening agent (FWA) were used as chemical indicators. The ratio of fecal coliform to fecal streptococci ranged from 0.2 to 3.0, during wet weather making it difficult to interpret the origin of fecal pollution. However, concentrations of caffeine, anionic surfactant, fluoride, and FWA in storm water outflow during wet weather were much higher than those in the lake water during dry weather, indicating the presence of human waste at storm water outfall. Strong correlation between fecal coliform counts and chemical parameter values further indicated the human contribution to the fecal coliform count. In addition, a strong correlation among the chemical parameters suggested that only one of them is needed as chemical tracer to detect the presence of human input. PMID:15932771

  17. Evaluation of Two PCR-based Swine-specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination on a broad geographic scale is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the specificity, distr...

  18. Differential decay of enterococci and Escherichia coli originating from two fecal pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Korajkic, Asja; McMinn, Brian R; Harwood, Valerie J; Shanks, Orin C; Fout, G Shay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2013-04-01

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habitats. In this study, sunlight exposure and indigenous aquatic microbiota were also important contributors, whose effects on FIB also differed between water types.

  19. Modeling seasonal variability of fecal coliform in natural surface waters using the modified SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal coliforms are indicators of pathogens and thereby, understanding of their fate and transport in surface waters is important to protect drinking water sources and public health. We compiled fecal coliform observations from four different sites in the USA and Korea and found a seasonal variabili...

  20. Occurrence of fecal coliform bacteria in selected streams in Wyoming, 1990-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Norris, Jodi R.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ), is collecting water samples for analysis of fecal coliform bacteria at 18 stream sites as part of a statewide network. Contamination by bacteria of fecal origin in streams where contact recreation is a designated water use is a concern because of potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Fecal coliform concentrations are temporally and spatially variable in Wyoming streams-concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 45,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water during 1990-99. Fecal coliform concentrations were less than the water-quality criterion of 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in 83 percent of the samples, indicating fecal coliform contamination is not a widespread problem in these Wyoming streams. However, 14 of the 18 monitoring sites had at least one sample in which the fecal coliform concentration exceeded 400 colonies per 100 milliliters at some time during the 10-year period. Fecal coliform concentrations generally are higher during April through September than during October through March. The higher concentrations coincide with the time period when the public-health risk is higher because summer months are when contact recreation use is more likely occurring. Fecal coliform concentrations were positively correlated with discharge and stream temperature and generally were negatively correlated with pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen.

  1. Fat digestion in veal calves fed milk replacers low or high in calcium and containing either casein or soy protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Yuangklang, C; Wensing, Th; Van den Broek, L; Jittakhot, S; Beynen, A C

    2004-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the inhibitory effect of dietary soy protein versus casein on fat digestion in veal calves would be smaller when diets were fed with high instead of low calcium content. Male calves, 1 wk of age, were fed 1 of 4 experimental milk replacers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. There were 19 animals per dietary group. The milk replacers contained either casein or soy protein isolate as variable protein source and were either low or high in calcium. Body weight gain was not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Soy protein isolate versus casein significantly reduced apparent fat digestibility. High versus low calcium intake also depressed fat digestion. The protein effect was smaller (2.9% units) for the high than the low calcium diets (3.6% units), but the interaction did not reach statistical significance. Soy protein isolate versus casein raised fecal bile acid excretion and so did high versus low calcium intake. The difference in bile acid excretion between the soy and casein containing diets was significantly greater for the high than low calcium diets. The absorption of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium was higher for the casein diets than for the soy-containing diets. This study shows for the first time that soy protein isolate versus casein depressed fat digestion and raised fecal bile acid excretion in veal calves.

  2. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fats URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Calories and fat per serving (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and stores the rest in the form of fat. A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes ... between them is the number of calories, nutrients, fat, and other ingredients in a typical serving . Calories ...

  4. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  5. COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

  6. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  7. Detection of human-derived fecal contamination in Puerto Rico using carbamazepine, HF183 Bacteroides, and fecal indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wade, Christina; Otero, Ernesto; Poon-Kwong, Brennan; Rozier, Ralph; Bachoon, Dave

    2015-12-30

    The level of fecal pollution in 17 sites in Puerto Rico was determined by Escherichia coli (E.coli) enumeration using an enzyme substrate medium and Quanti-Tray®/2000. Human fecal pollution was identified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of carbamazepine (CBZ) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of the human Bacteroides marker, HF183. Carbamazepine was detected in 16 out of 17 sites, including Condado Lagoon, a popular recreational area. Elevated E.coli levels (>410 CFU 100 mL(-1)) were detected in 13 sites. Average CBZ concentrations ranged from 0.005 μg L(-1) to 0.482 μg L(-1) and 7 sites were positive for HF183. Higher CBZ concentrations were associated with the detection of HF183 (Mann-Whitney test; U=42.0; df=7; 1-tailed P value=0.013). This was the second study to determine surface water concentrations of CBZ in the Caribbean and the first in Puerto Rico.

  8. Fecal coliform-related bacterial and coliphage populations in five lakes of southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Calvo, C; Gómez, M A; González-López, J

    1998-11-01

    Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, fecal and total coliforms, fecal streptococci and coliphages were isolated from five protected lakes in the Antequera area of Spain over the time from January to March (1994-96). The water samples contained large number of heterotrophic bacteria (mean counts 0.2 to 5.0 x 10(7) cfu per 100 ml). Most of the lakes contained fecal streptococci and a relationship between streptococci and salinity of the water samples was established. Coliphages were isolated from lakes containing fecal coliform and these bacteria were taxonomically identified as E. coli. Coliform bacilli do not seem to be an adequate indicator of fecal pollution for these ephemeral small lakes. PMID:9880932

  9. The abundance of fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in relation to obesity and gender in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Tang, Huang; Li, Min; Pang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Shen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The influence of gender and obesity on the abundance of human colonic Feacalibacterium prausnitzii is currently unclear. We collected fecal samples from 54 obese and 54 sex- and age-matched normal-weight Chinese adults and quantified the fecal F. prausnitzii as percentage of 16S rRNA gene copies of F. prausnitzii accounting to that of total gut bacteria with quantitative PCR. The fecal F. prausnitzii amount was not significantly different between obese and lean subjects. Men possessed significantly lower level of fecal F. prausnitzii than women, and the significant and positive correlation of fecal F. prausnitzii quantity with fasting glucose level was observed in men, not in women. Our results suggest that the gender effect, in addition to other factors including the geographic location, ethnicity, diet and gut transit times of study subjects, has to be considered when studying the relationship between gut F. prausnitzii and diseases.

  10. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of domestic cats fed extruded, raw beef-based, and cooked beef-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Vester Boler, B M; Morris, C L; Liu, K J; Swanson, K S

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine differences in apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal and urine characteristics, and serum chemistry of domestic cats fed raw and cooked meat-based diets and extruded diet. Nine adult female domestic shorthair cats were utilized in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a high-protein extruded diet (EX; 57% CP), a raw beef-based diet (RB; 53% CP), and a cooked beef-based diet (CB; 52% CP). Cats were housed individually in metabolic cages and fed to maintain BW. The study consisted of three 21-d periods. Each period included diet adaptation during d 0 to 16; fecal and urine sample collections during d 17 to 20; and blood sample collection at d 21. Food intake was measured daily. Total feces and urine were collected for determination of nutrient digestibility. In addition, a fresh urine sample was collected from each cat for urinalysis, and a fresh fecal sample was collected from each cat for determination of DM percentage and ammonia, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) concentrations. All feces were scored after collection using a scale ranging from 1 (hard, dry pellets) to 5 (watery, liquid that can be poured). Blood was analyzed for serum metabolites. Apparent total tract DM, OM, CP, fat, and GE digestibilities were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in cats fed RB and CB than those fed EX. Total fecal SCFA concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments; however, molar ratios of SCFA were modified by diet, with cats fed RB and CB having an increased (P ≤ 0.05) proportion of fecal propionate and decreased (P ≤ 0.05) proportion of fecal butyrate compared with cats fed EX. Fecal concentrations of ammonia, isobutyrate, valerate, isovalerate, and total BCFA were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in cats fed EX compared with cats fed RB and CB. Our results indicated that cooking a raw meat diet does not alter apparent total tract energy and

  11. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Nam, Jong Hee

    2002-12-01

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen.

  12. Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R; Saboeiro, Alesia P

    2015-07-01

    The controversy over fat grafting to the breasts has now been settled. In 2009, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force stated that "Fat grafting may be considered for breast augmentation and correction of defects associated with medical conditions and previous breast surgeries; however, results are dependent on technique and surgeon expertise." This article discusses the history, indications, planning, complications, and present technique of fat grafting to the breast using the Coleman technique.

  13. Impact of Population and Latrines on Fecal Contamination of Ponds in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; Escamilla, Veronica; Layton, Alice; McKay, Larry D.; Emch, Michael; Williams, Daniel E.; Huq, Md. R.; Alam, Md. J.; Farhana, Labony; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andy; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A majority of households in Bangladesh rely on pond water for hygiene. Exposure to pond water fecal contamination could therefore still contribute to diarrheal disease despite the installation of numerous tubewells for drinking. The objectives of this study are to determine the predominant sources (human or livestock) of fecal pollution in ponds and examine the association between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and E. coli, Bacteroidales and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation spatial data were collected and measured against pond fecal contamination. Humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds according to Bacteroidales measurements. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (up to 106 Most Probable Number (MPN) of culturable E. coli per 100 mL). Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.05) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines (visible effluent or open pits) within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). Water in the vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination attributable primarily to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is derived from human waste, continued use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural South Asia. PMID:21632095

  14. Storm loads of culturable and molecular fecal indicators in an inland urban stream.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hehuan; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Cully Hession, W; Benitez, Romina; Sawyer, Richard; Schaberg, Erin; von Wagoner, Emily; Badgley, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    Elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria in receiving waters during wet-weather flows are a considerable public health concern that is likely to be exacerbated by future climate change and urbanization. Knowledge of factors driving the fate and transport of fecal indicator bacteria in stormwater is limited, and even less is known about molecular fecal indicators, which may eventually supplant traditional culturable indicators. In this study, concentrations and loading rates of both culturable and molecular fecal indicators were quantified throughout six storm events in an instrumented inland urban stream. While both concentrations and loading rates of each fecal indicator increased rapidly during the rising limb of the storm hydrographs, it is the loading rates rather than instantaneous concentrations that provide a better estimate of transport through the stream during the entire storm. Concentrations of general fecal indicators (both culturable and molecular) correlated most highly with each other during storm events but not with the human-associated HF183 Bacteroides marker. Event loads of general fecal indicators most strongly correlated with total runoff volume, maximum discharge, and maximum turbidity, while event loads of HF183 most strongly correlated with the time to peak flow in a hydrograph. These observations suggest that collection of multiple samples during a storm event is critical for accurate predictions of fecal indicator loading rates and total loads during wet-weather flows, which are required for effective watershed management. In addition, existing predictive models based on general fecal indicators may not be sufficient to predict source-specific genetic markers of fecal contamination.

  15. Chemical composition of fat and oil products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fats and oils are an important dietary component, and contribute to the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. This chapter focuses on the chemical composition of fats and oils, and how these compositions affect the functional properties of fats and oils in foods. The focus will remain on the mos...

  16. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF FECAL POLLUTION SOURCES IN PLUM CREEK WATERSHED USING PCR AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF BACTEROIDETES 16S RDNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional methods for assessing fecal pollution in environmental systems, such as monitoring for fecal coliforms are not capable of discriminating between different sources fecal pollution. Recently, 16S rDNA Bacteroidetes-targeted PCR assays were developed to discriminate betw...

  18. Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of cocoa powder supplementation on obesity-related inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J (n = 126) were fed with either low-fat (LF, 10 % kcal from fat) or HF (60 % kcal from fat) diet for 18 weeks. After 8 weeks, mice from HF group were randomized to HF diet or HF diet supplemented with 8 % cocoa powder (HF–HFC group) for 10 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results Cocoa powder supplementation significantly reduced the rate of body weight gain (15.8 %) and increased fecal lipid content (55.2 %) compared to HF-fed control mice. Further, cocoa supplementation attenuated insulin resistance, as indicated by improved HOMA-IR, and reduced the severity of obesity-related fatty liver disease (decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and liver triglyceride) compared to HF group. Cocoa supplementation also significantly decreased plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, 30.4 %), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 25.2 %), and increased adiponectin (33.7 %) compared to HF-fed mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Il6, Il12b, Nos2, and Emr1) in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) was significantly reduced (37–56 %) in the cocoa-supplemented mice. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease in HF-fed obese mice, principally through the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in WAT. These effects appear to be mediated in part by a modulation of dietary fat absorption and inhibition of macrophage infiltration in WAT. PMID:23494741

  19. Transient bladder and fecal incontinence following epidural blood patch

    PubMed Central

    Palomero-Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; Palacio-Abinzada, Francisco J.; Campollo, Sara Chacón; Laporta-Báez, Yolanda; Mendez Cendón, Jose Carlos; López-García, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Epidural blood patch (EBP) is the currently accepted treatment of choice for postdural puncture headache because of its high initial success rates and infrequent complications. Many authors recommended a small volume (10-20 mL) of blood to be delivered for an effective EBP. Here, we report an obstetric patient who developed a transient bladder and fecal incontinence after 19 mL of blood EBP at L1 -L2 level. Since the magnetic resonance image did not demonstrate any definitive spinal cord lesion, the exact mechanism remains unclear. We suggest that accumulation of blood performed at L1 to L2 level in a closed relationship with the sacral cord, may have trigger a significant pressure elevation of the epidural space at this level, resulting in a temporal spinal cord-related injury in the sacral cord. PMID:26543470

  20. Pelvic Floor Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a prevalent problem that can drastically affect quality of life. Pelvic floor rehabilitation is an important first-line treatment for patients with FI, and many published case reports and a small number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide limited evidence for its efficacy. Pelvic floor rehabilitation approaches to the treatment of FI include pelvic floor muscle training, biofeedback, and volumetric training with rectal balloon catheters. Various forms of external electrical stimulation have also been described and may be of added benefit. Behavioral bowel retraining is an important part of a good rehabilitative approach as well. Pelvic floor rehabilitation treatment for FI is thought to be effective and safe, with reported success rates in a majority of studies at 50 to 80%. Many more high-quality RCTs are needed to define optimal treatment protocols. PMID:25320568

  1. Determination of seasonality in southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) by analysis of fecal androgens.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R A; Stanton, P G; O'Donnell, L; Steele, V R; Taggart, D A; Temple-Smith, P D

    2000-08-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of Australia's critically endangered northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii), largely due to its cryptic nature and the difficulty in accessing the small remaining population of about 70 animals. Using the noninvasive technique of fecal steroid analysis, we have examined the endocrinology of the more common yet closely related southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons). The aims of this study were to 1) develop and validate fecal androgen analysis in this species, 2) examine and compare seasonal differences in fecal and plasma androgens in male wombats, and 3) correlate seasonal differences in androgens with changes in male accessory glands (prostate and bulbourethral gland). Fecal androgens were extracted in ether; concentrated; separated by HPLC into testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (Adiol) fractions; and quantitated by RIA. The concentrations of androgens in fecal pellets from 14 wild southern hairy-nosed wombats as determined by RIA varied over the range 6.6-25.0 ng/g dry weight for T, 4.0-24.2 ng/g dry weight for DHT, and 0-34.8 ng/g dry weight for Adiol. For each androgen, a highly significant linear correlation was observed between plasma and fecal concentrations. When individuals were grouped into either breeding season (pellets collected between August-November) or nonbreeding season (collected between February-April), significant (P < 0.05) differences between seasons were observed for both plasma and fecal T, plasma DHT, and fecal Adiol. For all androgens, the mean fecal and plasma concentrations were higher during the breeding season than the nonbreeding season. A significant (P < 0.001) correlation was observed between fecal T and prostate weight, while DHT and Adiol correlations were nonsignificant. Significant correlations were observed, however, between all three fecal androgens and bulbourethral gland weight. These studies

  2. Determination of seasonality in southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) by analysis of fecal androgens.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R A; Stanton, P G; O'Donnell, L; Steele, V R; Taggart, D A; Temple-Smith, P D

    2000-08-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of Australia's critically endangered northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii), largely due to its cryptic nature and the difficulty in accessing the small remaining population of about 70 animals. Using the noninvasive technique of fecal steroid analysis, we have examined the endocrinology of the more common yet closely related southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons). The aims of this study were to 1) develop and validate fecal androgen analysis in this species, 2) examine and compare seasonal differences in fecal and plasma androgens in male wombats, and 3) correlate seasonal differences in androgens with changes in male accessory glands (prostate and bulbourethral gland). Fecal androgens were extracted in ether; concentrated; separated by HPLC into testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (Adiol) fractions; and quantitated by RIA. The concentrations of androgens in fecal pellets from 14 wild southern hairy-nosed wombats as determined by RIA varied over the range 6.6-25.0 ng/g dry weight for T, 4.0-24.2 ng/g dry weight for DHT, and 0-34.8 ng/g dry weight for Adiol. For each androgen, a highly significant linear correlation was observed between plasma and fecal concentrations. When individuals were grouped into either breeding season (pellets collected between August-November) or nonbreeding season (collected between February-April), significant (P < 0.05) differences between seasons were observed for both plasma and fecal T, plasma DHT, and fecal Adiol. For all androgens, the mean fecal and plasma concentrations were higher during the breeding season than the nonbreeding season. A significant (P < 0.001) correlation was observed between fecal T and prostate weight, while DHT and Adiol correlations were nonsignificant. Significant correlations were observed, however, between all three fecal androgens and bulbourethral gland weight. These studies

  3. Microbial groundwater sampling protocol for fecal-rich environments.

    PubMed

    Harter, Thomas; Watanabe, Naoko; Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R; Samuels, William

    2014-09-01

    Inherently, confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) and other intense fecal-rich environments are potential sources of groundwater contamination by enteric pathogens. The ubiquity of microbial matter poses unique technical challenges in addition to economic constraints when sampling wells in such environments. In this paper, we evaluate a groundwater sampling protocol that relies on extended purging with a portable submersible stainless steel pump and Teflon(®) tubing as an alternative to equipment sterilization. The protocol allows for collecting a large number of samples quickly, relatively inexpensively, and under field conditions with limited access to capacity for sterilizing equipment. The protocol is tested on CAFO monitoring wells and considers three cross-contamination sources: equipment, wellbore, and ambient air. For the assessment, we use Enterococcus, a ubiquitous fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), in laboratory and field tests with spiked and blank samples, and in an extensive, multi-year field sampling campaign on 17 wells within 2 CAFOs. The assessment shows that extended purging can successfully control for equipment cross-contamination, but also controls for significant contamination of the well-head, within the well casing and within the immediate aquifer vicinity of the well-screen. Importantly, our tests further indicate that Enterococcus is frequently entrained in water samples when exposed to ambient air at a CAFO during sample collection. Wellbore and air contamination pose separate challenges in the design of groundwater monitoring strategies on CAFOs that are not addressed by equipment sterilization, but require adequate QA/QC procedures and can be addressed by the proposed sampling strategy.

  4. Microbial Groundwater Sampling Protocol for Fecal-Rich Environments

    PubMed Central

    Harter, Thomas; Watanabe, Naoko; Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R; Samuels, William

    2014-01-01

    Inherently, confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) and other intense fecal-rich environments are potential sources of groundwater contamination by enteric pathogens. The ubiquity of microbial matter poses unique technical challenges in addition to economic constraints when sampling wells in such environments. In this paper, we evaluate a groundwater sampling protocol that relies on extended purging with a portable submersible stainless steel pump and Teflon® tubing as an alternative to equipment sterilization. The protocol allows for collecting a large number of samples quickly, relatively inexpensively, and under field conditions with limited access to capacity for sterilizing equipment. The protocol is tested on CAFO monitoring wells and considers three cross-contamination sources: equipment, wellbore, and ambient air. For the assessment, we use Enterococcus, a ubiquitous fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), in laboratory and field tests with spiked and blank samples, and in an extensive, multi-year field sampling campaign on 17 wells within 2 CAFOs. The assessment shows that extended purging can successfully control for equipment cross-contamination, but also controls for significant contamination of the well-head, within the well casing and within the immediate aquifer vicinity of the well-screen. Importantly, our tests further indicate that Enterococcus is frequently entrained in water samples when exposed to ambient air at a CAFO during sample collection. Wellbore and air contamination pose separate challenges in the design of groundwater monitoring strategies on CAFOs that are not addressed by equipment sterilization, but require adequate QA/QC procedures and can be addressed by the proposed sampling strategy. PMID:24903186

  5. Microbial groundwater sampling protocol for fecal-rich environments.

    PubMed

    Harter, Thomas; Watanabe, Naoko; Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R; Samuels, William

    2014-09-01

    Inherently, confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) and other intense fecal-rich environments are potential sources of groundwater contamination by enteric pathogens. The ubiquity of microbial matter poses unique technical challenges in addition to economic constraints when sampling wells in such environments. In this paper, we evaluate a groundwater sampling protocol that relies on extended purging with a portable submersible stainless steel pump and Teflon(®) tubing as an alternative to equipment sterilization. The protocol allows for collecting a large number of samples quickly, relatively inexpensively, and under field conditions with limited access to capacity for sterilizing equipment. The protocol is tested on CAFO monitoring wells and considers three cross-contamination sources: equipment, wellbore, and ambient air. For the assessment, we use Enterococcus, a ubiquitous fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), in laboratory and field tests with spiked and blank samples, and in an extensive, multi-year field sampling campaign on 17 wells within 2 CAFOs. The assessment shows that extended purging can successfully control for equipment cross-contamination, but also controls for significant contamination of the well-head, within the well casing and within the immediate aquifer vicinity of the well-screen. Importantly, our tests further indicate that Enterococcus is frequently entrained in water samples when exposed to ambient air at a CAFO during sample collection. Wellbore and air contamination pose separate challenges in the design of groundwater monitoring strategies on CAFOs that are not addressed by equipment sterilization, but require adequate QA/QC procedures and can be addressed by the proposed sampling strategy. PMID:24903186

  6. Specificity of a Polyclonal Fecal Elastase ELISA for CELA3

    PubMed Central

    Budde, Christoph; Lerch, Markus M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elastase is a proteolytic pancreatic enzyme that passes through the gastrointestinal tract undergoing only limited degradation. ELISA tests to determine stool elastase concentrations have therefore been developed for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Five different isoforms of pancreatic elastase (CELA1, CELA2A, CELA2B, CELA3A, CELA3B) are encoded in the human genome. We have investigated three different polyclonal antisera that are used in a commercial fecal elastase ELISA to determine their specificity for different pancreatic elastase isoforms. Material and Methods Different polyclonal rabbit antisera against human elastase peptides (BIOSERV Diagnostics GmbH, Germany) were tested by Western blot analysis of human pancreatic juice, in HEK-293 cells expressing Elastase constructs, and in the protein content of porcine pancreatin, used for treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Results In human pancreatic juice the polyclonal antisera detected proteins at the corresponding size of human pancreatic elastase isoforms (~29kDa). Transiently expressed GFP fusion protein of elastase isoform CELA3A (CELA3A-GFP), but not CELA2A (CELA2A-GFP) could be precipitated from HEK-293 cell lysates with the elastase antisera. We detected no cross-reactivity with elastases in the porcine pancreatic extracts (pancreatin) used for enzyme replacement therapy. Conclusion The polyclonal antisera used in a commercial fecal elastase ELISA are specific for the human pancreatic elastase isoform CELA3 and do not cross-react with elastase contained in pig pancreatin. While pancreatic elastase 1 (CELA1) is not expressed in the adult human pancreas, possible differences between the other isoforms regarding their cellular expression, pathophysiological role and relevance in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency deserve further investigation. PMID:27459204

  7. Pancreatic enzyme secretion during intravenous fat infusion.

    PubMed

    Burns, G P; Stein, T A

    1987-01-01

    The nutritional support of patients with pancreatic and high gastrointestinal fistulas and severe pancreatitis frequently involves intravenous fat infusion. There are conflicting reports on the effect of intravenous fat on pancreatic exocrine secretion. In 10 dogs with chronic pancreatic fistulas, pancreatic juice was collected during secretin (n = 10) or secretin + cholecystokinin (n = 4) stimulation, with and without intravenous fat infusion (5 g/hr). The hormonal-stimulated secretion of lipase, amylase, trypsin, total protein, bicarbonate, and water was unchanged during fat infusion. This study supports the use of intravenous fat as a nutritional source when it is desirable to avoid stimulation of the pancreas.

  8. Fat and Bone: An Odd Couple

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Richard; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we will first discuss the concept of bone strength and introduce how fat at different locations, including the bone marrow, directly or indirectly regulates bone turnover. We will then review the current literature supporting the mechanistic relationship between marrow fat and bone and our understanding of the relationship between body fat, body weight, and bone with emphasis on its hormonal regulation. Finally, we will briefly discuss the importance and challenges of accurately measuring the fat compartments using non-invasive methods. This review highlights the complex relationship between fat and bone and how these new concepts will impact our diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the very near future. PMID:27014187

  9. The effect of fucoxanthin rich power on the lipid metabolism in rats with a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2013-08-01

    This study determined the effects of fucoxanthin on gene expressions related to lipid metabolism in rats with a high-fat diet. Rats were fed with normal fat diet (NF, 7% fat) group, high fat diet group (HF, 20% fat), and high fat with 0.2% fucoxanthin diet group (HF+Fxn) for 4 weeks. Body weight changes and lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces were determined. The mRNA expressions of transcriptional factors such as sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1), Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase1 (CYP7A1) as well as mRNA expression of several lipogenic enzymes were determined. Fucoxanthin supplements significantly increased plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (P < 0.05). The hepatic total lipids, total cholesterols, and triglycerides were significantly decreased while the fecal excretions of total lipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly increased in HF+Fxn group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of hepatic Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), Fatty acid synthase (FAS), and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as well as SREBP-1C were significantly lower in HF+Fxn group compared to the HF group (P < 0.05). The hepatic mRNA expression of Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) were significantly low while lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was significantly high in the HF+Fxn group (P < 0.05). There was significant increase in mRNA expression of CPT1 and CYP7A1 in the HF+Fxn group, compared to the HF group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, consumption of fucoxanthin is thought to be effective in improving lipid and cholesterol metabolism in rats with a high fat diet. PMID:23964316

  10. Local fat treatments: classification proposal

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as “fat reduction methods.” A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, “reversibility,” “membrane disruption or inflammation,” and “action selectivity,” have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  11. Local fat treatments: classification proposal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as "fat reduction methods." A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, "reversibility," "membrane disruption or inflammation," and "action selectivity," have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  12. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights.

  13. Ovarian cycle approach by rectal temperature and fecal progesterone in a female killer whale, Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Kakizoe, Yuka; Kanda, Koji; Sengoku, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yohei; Adachi, Itsuki; Watanabe, Yoko; Doi, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the measurements of body temperature and fecal progesterone concentrations as minimally invasive techniques for assessing ovarian cycle in a single sexually mature female killer whale. Rectal temperature data, fecal and blood samples were collected in the dorsal position using routine husbandry training on a voluntary basis. The correlations between rectal temperature and plasma progesterone concentration and between fecal and plasma progesterone concentrations were investigated. Fecal progesterone metabolites were identified by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. Plasma progesterone concentrations (range: 0.2-18.6 ng/ml) and rectal temperature (range: 35.3-35.9°C) changed cyclically, and cycle lengths were an average (±SD) of 44.9±4.0 days (nine cycles) and 44.6±5.9 days (nine cycles), respectively. Rectal temperature positively correlated with the plasma progesterone concentrations (r=0.641, P<0.01). There was a visual trend for fecal progesterone profiles to be similar to circulating plasma progesterone profiles. Fecal immunoreactive progestagen analysis resulted in a marked immunoreactive peak of progesterone. The data from the single killer whale indicate that the measurement of rectal temperature is suitable for minimally invasive assessment of the estrous cycle and monitoring the fecal progesterone concentration is useful to assess ovarian luteal activity.

  14. Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal Continence in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Thamm, Reinhard; Keller, Monika; Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian; Pehl, Christian; Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina; Busch, Raymonde; Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal continence in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal continence were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for {<=}1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal continence deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.

  15. Non-invasive monitoring of fecal androgens in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Dloniak, Stephanie M; French, Jeffrey A; Place, Ned J; Weldele, Mary L; Glickman, Stephen E; Holekamp, Kay E

    2004-01-01

    Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) exhibit an array of behavioral and morphological characteristics that set them apart from other mammals: females are heavier and more aggressive than males, and females have external genitalia that closely resemble those of the male. Because androgenic hormones might mediate the expression of these traits, androgens are of great interest in this species. Past work on circulating androgens in wild hyenas has been limited, in part because of small sample sizes. In this study we validated a non-invasive method of monitoring variation in androgens by measuring total androgen metabolites in the feces of wild and captive spotted hyenas with an enzyme immunoassay. HPLC analysis revealed multiple immunoreactive androgen metabolites in fecal extracts from both males and females. LHRH challenge in three male and two female hyenas in captivity caused an increase in fecal androgens one to three days after LHRH injection. Furthermore, presence of bone in the diet did not affect fecal androgen concentrations in captive female hyenas. In wild spotted hyenas, time of day of fecal deposition, time elapsed between deposition and freezing of the sample, and time elapsed between freezing and extraction did not systematically affect fecal androgen concentrations. Finally, in wild hyenas, fecal androgen patterns mirrored plasma testosterone patterns in that adult immigrant males had higher concentrations than adult natal males, and pregnant females had higher concentrations than lactating females. These methods can therefore be used in future studies addressing relationships among fecal androgens, social status, reproductive state, and behavior in spotted hyenas.

  16. Identification of Bacterial DNA Markers for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Water▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Orin C.; Domingo, Jorge W. Santo; Lu, Jingrang; Kelty, Catherine A.; Graham, James E.

    2007-01-01

    We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human and pig fecal samples, 351 plasmid clones were sequenced and were determined to define 289 different genomic DNA regions. These putative human-specific fecal bacterial DNA sequences were then analyzed by dot blot hybridization, which confirmed that 98% were present in the source human fecal microbial community and absent from the original pig fecal DNA extract. Comparative sequence analyses of these sequences suggested that a large number (43.5%) were predicted to encode bacterial secreted or surface-associated proteins. Deoxyoligonucleotide primers capable of annealing to a subset of 26 of the candidate sequences predicted to encode factors involved in interactions with host cells were then used in the PCR and did not amplify markers in DNA from any additional pig fecal specimens. These 26 PCR assays exhibited a range of specificity in tests with 11 other animal sources, with more than half amplifying markers only in specimens from dogs or cats. Four assays were more specific, detecting markers only in specimens from humans, including those from 18 different human populations examined. We then demonstrated the potential utility of these assays by using them to detect human fecal contamination in several impacted watersheds. PMID:17209067

  17. Reproductive effects on fecal nitrogen as an index of diet quality: an experimental assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteith, Kyle B.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Leslie,, David M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of fecal nitrogen has been used widely as an indicator of dietary quality for free-ranging ruminants. Differences in digestive function between species of dimorphic ungulates render interspecific comparisons of fecal nitrogen unreliable; however, whether intraspecific sexual differences in digestive function also bias this nutritional index is unknown. Our objective was to compare sex-specific variation in concentration of fecal nitrogen using male, nonlactating female, and lactating female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on high- and low-quality diets. During weekly trials over spring and summer (2008-2009), we monitored intake rates, collected feces twice daily, and used micro-Kjeldahl procedures to determine percent fecal nitrogen. We also determined nitrogen content of feces following a neutral detergent fiber (NDF) rinse during pre-, peak, and postlactation. Fecal nitrogen reflected general differences in dietary quality between diets; however, fecal nitrogen of lactating females in both dietary groups was lower than for males or nonlactating females throughout lactation. Nitrogen concentration following an NDF rinse also was lower for lactating females during peak lactation. We hypothesize that the remodeling of the digestive tract and increased rumination by lactating females may enhance their ability to extract nitrogen from their forage. These adjustments may expand the foraging options of lactating females by increasing their ability to process low-quality foods, but also affects the interpretation of fecal nitrogen during the season of lactation.

  18. Enhancing fecal coliform total maximum daily load models through bacterial source tracking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, K.E.; Moyer, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Surface water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 400 stream and river segments are on the Commonwealth's 2002 303(d) list because of fecal coliform impairment. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) will be developed for most of these listed streams and rivers. Information regarding the major fecal coliform sources that impair surface water quality would enhance the development of effective watershed models and improve TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking (BST) is a recently developed technology for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria and it may be helpful in generating improved TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking was performed, watershed models were developed, and TMDLs were prepared for three streams (Accotink Creek, Christians Creek, and Blacks Run) on Virginia's 303(d) list of impaired waters. Quality assurance of the BST work suggests that these data adequately describe the bacteria sources that are impairing these streams. Initial comparison of simulated bacterial sources with the observed BST data indicated that the fecal coliform sources were represented inaccurately in the initial model simulation. Revised model simulations (based on BST data) appeared to provide a better representation of the sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three streams. The coupled approach of incorporating BST data into the fecal coliform transport model appears to reduce model uncertainty and should result in an improved TMDL.

  19. Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon S; Lefcourt, Alan M; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2003-07-01

    Fecal contamination of food products is a critical health issue. To test the feasibility of the use fluorescent techniques to detect fecal contamination, fluorescence excitation and emission characteristics of fecal matter from cows, deer, swine, chickens, and turkeys in the UV to far-red regions of the spectrum were evaluated. To allow the optimization of the detection of fecal contamination on animal carcasses and cut meats, emission-excitation spectra of the feces were compared with spectra for animal meats. The feedstuffs for the swine, chickens, and turkeys were also analyzed. Excitation at approximately 410 to 420 nm yielded the highest level of fluorescence for both feces and feedstuffs. Emission maxima were in the red region (at 632 nm for chicken feces and at 675 nm for the feces of the other species). The major constituent responsible for emission at 632 nm was tentatively identified as protoporphyrin IX; emission at 675 nm most likely emanates from chlorophyll a or its metabolites. Animal meats emitted strong fluorescence in the blue-green regions, but no emission peaks were observed in the red region for these meats. These results suggest that fluorescence emissions from naturally occurring chlorophyll a and its metabolites are good markers for fecal contamination and that with excitation at 410 to 420 nm, the responses of fecal matter can easily be differentiated from the responses of animal meats. We suggest that the detection of fecal contamination can be enhanced by requiring a minimum chlorophyll a content in the finishing diets of all farm animals.

  20. Fecal contamination of agricultural soils before and after hurricane-associated flooding in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Michael J; Sobsey, Mark D; Mueller, J Paul

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Floyd and other storms in 1999 caused widespread and extensive flooding of eastern North Carolina and environmental contamination with fecal wastes from municipal wastewater and livestock operations. Because wastewater contains high levels of pathogenic micro-organisms, principal health risks to humans from flooding are consumption of crops grown in fecally contaminated soil and ingestion of contaminated water. Flood waters polluted with microbial and other contaminants also may be detrimental to the health of livestock and plant crops. In the present study, agricultural soils impacted by flood waters were analyzed for bacterial and viral indicators of fecal contamination. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, spores of Clostridium perfringens, and both male specific (F+) and somatic coliphages were recovered from soil and assayed in liquid culture media. A number of samples were positive for the presence of fecal coliforms, E. coli, and coliphages, indicating the presence of human or animal feces. Most samples were positive for total coliforms, and almost all samples contained high levels of Cl. perfringens spores. The levels of Cl. perfringens spores were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in flooded soil (post-Hurricane Floyd) compared to pre-flood soil. Persistent fecal contamination of soil, as demonstrated by the high levels of Cl. perfringens spores, suggests the need for additional or alternative measures to protect crop-growing areas, including prospective microbiological monitoring and improved protection of watersheds from incidents capable of releasing fecal material. PMID:16423723

  1. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P < 0.05) during the breeding season, and brief spikes were associated with estrus and mating. A postovulatory increase in PdG was not always detected, but sustained baseline T after mating appeared consistent with ovulation. Parturient bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P < 0.05) during expected time of embryo implantation in Fall, and a late gestational rise in fecal T occurred 30 days prepartum. Many nonparturient bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P < 0.05) fecal T during summer months, whereas parturient bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations.

  2. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everard, Colm D.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoonsoo; O'Donnell, Colm P.

    2016-05-01

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer avoid harvesting fecal contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil, and spinach leaves are compared. A common aperture imager designed with two identical monochromatic cameras, a beam splitter, and optical filters was used to simultaneously capture two-spectral images of leaves contaminated with both fecal matter and soil. The optical filters where 10 nm full width half maximum bandpass filters, one at 690 nm and the second at 710 nm. These were mounted in front of the object lenses. New images were created using the ratio of these two spectral images on a pixel by pixel basis. Image analysis results showed that the fecal matter contamination could be distinguished from soil and leaf on the ratio images. The use of this technology has potential to allow detection of fecal contamination in produce fields which can be a source of foodbourne illnesses. It has the added benefit of mitigating cross-contamination during harvesting and processing.

  3. Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration in tropical waters.

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Mercado, J; Hazen, T C

    1987-01-01

    Four membrane filter methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms were compared for accuracy, specificity, and recovery. Water samples were taken several times from 13 marine, 1 estuarine, and 4 freshwater sites around Puerto Rico, from pristine waters and waters receiving treated and untreated sewage and effluent from a tuna cannery and a rum distillery. Differences of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in the levels of fecal coliforms were observed in some samples by different recovery techniques. Marine water samples gave poorer results, in terms of specificity, selectivity, and comparability, than freshwater samples for all four fecal coliform methods used. The method using Difco m-FC agar with a resuscitation step gave the best overall results; however, even this method gave higher false-positive error, higher undetected-target error, lower selectivity, and higher recovery of nontarget organisms than the method using MacConkey membrane broth, the worst method for temperate waters. All methods tested were unacceptable for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in tropical fresh and marine waters. Thus, considering the high densities of fecal coliforms observed at most sites in Puerto Rico by all these methods, it would seem that these density estimates are, in many cases, grossly overestimating the degree of recent fecal contamination. Since Escherichia coli appears to be a normal inhabitant of tropical waters, fecal contamination may be indicated when none is present. Using fecal coliforms as an indicator is grossly inadequate for the detection of recent human fecal contamination and associated pathogens in both marine and fresh tropical waters. PMID:3324970

  4. Synthesis and estimation of calorific value of a structured lipid-potential reduced calorie fat.

    PubMed

    Kanjilal, S; Prasad, R B; Kaimal, T N; Ghafoorunissa; Rao, S H

    1999-10-01

    previous day. Body weights were recorded during the experiment. Calorific value of the SL was estimated by comparing the 21 st-d mean body weight gain of the control group with that of the experimental group. Estimated calorific value of the SL was 5.36 kcal/g. Most of the behenic acid fed was excreted, as indicated by the analysis of the fatty acids of plasma and fecal total lipid. A second growth experiment on ad libitum diet was conducted over 21 d on weanling Wistar male rats to compare the absorption behavior of the SL with that of natural oil. SO (10%) was added to the diet of the control group, and SL (10%) was added to the diet of the experimental group. Feed consumption, as well as body weights, was recorded during the experiment. The growth pattern of the experimental group was identical to that of the control group during the period of study. The mean feed intake (9.8 g/d/rat for the control group vs. 9.9 g/d/rat for the experimental group) indicated good palatability of the product. In conclusion, the enzymatically synthesized SL containing EFA and natural antioxidants has nutritional properties almost identical to those of natural fats, and can be used as a reduced calorie fat.

  5. Effects of saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets on the chemical composition and metabolism of low density lipoproteins in man.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J; Packard, C J; Grundy, S M; Yeshurun, D; Gotto, A M; Taunton, O D

    1980-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary saturated and polyunsaturated fat on the chemical composition and metabolism of low density lipoproteins (LDL) in eight normal male subjects. The influence of these diets on fecal sterol excretion was also measured in four of the subjects. When compared with the saturated fat diet, the polyunsaturated diet lowered both plasma cholesterol polyunsaturated diet lowered both plasma cholesterol (23%, P less than 0.001) and triglyceride (14%, P less than 0.001) levels. Sixty-seven percent of the reduction in the former lipid resulted from a fall in LDL cholesterol (23%, P less than 0.001), although very low density (VLDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels also fell (by 27% and 20% of their respective control value). These changes were accompanied by significant alterations in LDL composition. Specifically, during polyunsaturated fat feeding, the relative percentage cholesterol in the LDL fraction fell while that of phospholipid rose. There was no change in the percentage protein or triglyceride. The fatty acid components of LDL triglyceride, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipid were also affected by dietary fat saturation level. Overall, polyunsaturated fat feeding produced an enrichment in linoleate with reciprocal changes in palmitate, stearate, and oleate which affected triglycerides more than cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. The above changes in LDL composition were associated with alterations in the metabolism of LDL apoprotein (apoLDL). The polyunsaturated deit lowered plasma apoLDL by 13% (P less than 0.05). This resulted from an increase in the fractional catabolic rate of LDL (whether determined by plasma decay curve analysis (P less than 0.05) or urine/plasma radioactivity ratios (P less than 0.001) without significant alteration of its corporeal distribution or synthetic rate. The polyunsaturated fat diet did not cause a consistent change in fecal neutral or acidic steroid excretion. We

  6. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in creeks, Anchorage, Alaska, August and September 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Love, Andra

    1999-01-01

    Water samples were collected from five creeks in undeveloped, semi-developed, and developed areas of Anchorage, Alaska, during August and September 1998 to determine concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. In undeveloped areas of Ship, Chester, and Campbell Creeks, and the semi-developed area of Rabbit Creek, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from less than 1 to 16 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In the semi-developed area of Little Rabbit Creek, concentrations ranged from 30 to 860 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In developed areas of the creeks, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 6 to 80 colonies per 100 milliliters of water.

  7. Relationships among fecal daidzein metabolites, dietary habit and BMI in healthy volunteers: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Motoi; HORI, Sachiko; NAKAGAWA, Hiroyuki; KATADA, Kazuhiro; KAMADA, Kazuhiro; UCHIYAMA, Kazuhiko; HANDA, Osamu; TAKAGI, Tomohisa; NAITO, Yuji; YOSHIKAWA, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationships among fecal isoflavone metabolism, dietary habit and Body Mass Index (BMI), 15 healthy men and 15 healthy women were recruited and provided stool samples for analysis of ex vivo anaerobic incubation of fecal suspension with daidzein. A negative correlation was observed between BMI and the dihydrodaidzein (DHD) production in men, and between BMI and the equol production in women. There was a positive correlation between intake of soluble dietary fiber and the DHD production in men. The results suggest that dietary habits and BMI are related to the metabolic activity of isoflavonoids by fecal intestinal microbiota. PMID:26221577

  8. Membrane filter method for recovery of fecal coliforms in chlorinated sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Lin, S D

    1976-10-01

    The standard one-step M-FC broth-membrane-filter procedure for recovery of fecal coliforms from chlorinated sewage effluents is much less effective than the multiple-tube (most-probable-number) technique. A two-step membrane-filter method, using a pre-enrichment technique with phenol red lactose broth and incubation at 35 degrees C for 4 h, followether 18+/-2 h, enhanced fecal coliform recovery from chlorinated effluents. The results of 126 comparisons using chlorinated effluents from five wastewater plants showed that fecal coliform recovery by using the two-step membrane-filter method is comparable to that using the multiple-tube procedure.

  9. Comparisons between myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, calprotectin and lipocalin-2, as fecal biomarkers of intestinal inflammation in malnourished children

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Mara de Moura Gondim; Havt, A; Bolick, DT; Pinkerton, R; Lima, AAM; Guerrant, RL

    2016-01-01

    Fecal biomarkers have emerged as important tools to assess intestinal inflammation and enteropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the fecal markers, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin (FL), calprotectin (FC) and lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2), and to compare differences by breastfeeding status as well as normalization by fecal protein or by fecal weight. Simultaneous, quantitative MPO, FL, FC and Lcn-2, levels were determined in frozen fecal specimens collected from 78 children (mean age 15.2 ± 5.3 months) in a case-control study of childhood malnutrition in Brazil. The biomarker concentrations were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. The correlations among all biomarkers were significant (P<0.01). There were stronger correlations of fecal MPO with fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin, with lower, but still highly significant correlations of all 3 inflammatory biomarkers with Lcn-2 likely because the latter may also reflect enterocyte damage as well as neutrophil presence. Furthermore, the biomarker results with protein normalized compared to simple fecal weight normalized values showed only a slightly better correlation suggesting that the added cost and time for protein normalization added little to carefully measured fecal weights as denominators. In conclusion, fecal MPO correlates tightly with fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin irrespective of breastfeeding status and provides a common, available biomarker for comparison of human and animal model studies.

  10. Further understanding of fat biology: Lessons from a fat fly

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joung-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a leading risk factor for insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular complications, collectively referred to as metabolic diseases. Given the prevalence of obesity and its associated medical problems, new strategies are required to prevent or treat obesity and obesity-related metabolic effects. Here we summarize contributors of obesity, and molecular mechanisms controlling adipogenesis from studies in mammalian systems. We also discuss the possibilities of using Drosophila as a genetic model system to advance our understanding of players in fat biology. PMID:19887892

  11. Dietary Fat in Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Makarem, Nour; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.; Parekh, Niyati

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests a plausible role for dietary fat in breast cancer pathophysiology. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the epidemiological evidence on the impact of total dietary fat and fat subtypes, measured pre- and/or postcancer diagnosis, in relation to breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality among breast cancer survivors. Studies were included if they were in English, had a sample size ≥200, and presented the hazard ratio/rate ratio for recurrence, diseasespecific mortality, or all-cause mortality (n = 18). Although the results are mixed, most studies suggested that higher saturated fat intake prediagnosis was associated with increased risk of breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality. Postdiagnostic trans fat intake was associated with a 45% and 78% increased risk of all-cause mortality. Higher monounsaturated fat intake before and after diagnosis was generally associated with increased risk of all-cause and breast cancer–specific mortality, albeit the majority of the studies were statistically nonsignificant. Two studies evaluating omega-3 fat intake suggested an inverse association with all-cause mortality. Although there were too few studies on fat subtypes to draw definitive conclusions, high consumption of saturated fatmay exert a detrimental effect on breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality, whereas omega-3 fat may be beneficial. The inconsistent and limited evidence warrants research to assess the impact of consumption of fat subtypes on breast cancer recurrence and mortality. PMID:23701588

  12. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kasbi Chadli, Fatima; Nazih, Hassane; Krempf, Michel; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA) supplemented high fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group) were studied for 20 weeks: 1) control diet: Control, 2) HFD group: HF and 3) HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA): HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3)H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight, plasma TG (p<0.01) and cholesterol (p<0.001) with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001). Compared to HF, HFω3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFω3 showed less plasma TG (p<0.001) and cholesterol (p<0.001) related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p<0.05) compared to HF. HFω3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p<0.05) compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05) compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFω3 compared to Control and HF groups (<0.05) and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p<0.05). A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFω3 using (3)H- cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT. PMID:23613796

  13. Assessment of carprofen and buprenorphine on recovery of mice after surgical removal of the mammary fat pad.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Trinka W; Kendall, Lon V; Goss, Sherri; Grayson, Kevin; Touma, Chadi; Palme, Rupert; Chen, Jane Q; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of pain elicited by mammary fat pad removal surgery and the effects of postoperative analgesics on recovery. Female FVB mice were anesthetized, and mammary fat pad removal was performed. After surgery, mice received carprofen, buprenorphine, a combination of carprofen and buprenorphine, or saline treatment. Additional mice received anesthesia but no surgery or treatment. Food and water intake, body weight, wheel running activity, and a visual assessment score were recorded daily for 4 d after surgery and compared with presurgical findings. Corticosterone metabolites in fecal samples were analyzed at 12 and 24 h postsurgically and compared with baseline values. All surgical groups had significantly decreased food intake at 24 h, with a return to baseline by 48 h. The combination treatment resulted in a significantly decreased water intake and body weight at 24 h. All surgical groups had significantly decreased wheel running activity at 24 h only. The visual assessment scores indicated mild pain for all surgical groups, with the buprenorphine treated mice showing the highest pain index scores, as compared with nonsurgical controls. Fecal corticosterone metabolite levels did not differ significantly between any of the groups or across time. The parameters used in this study did not indicate that administration of these analgesic regimens improved recovery as compared with that of saline-treated mice. Care should be taken when using visual assessment scores to evaluate pain in mice, given that analgesics may have side effects that inadvertently elevate the score. PMID:20858363

  14. Assessment of carprofen and buprenorphine on recovery of mice after surgical removal of the mammary fat pad.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Trinka W; Kendall, Lon V; Goss, Sherri; Grayson, Kevin; Touma, Chadi; Palme, Rupert; Chen, Jane Q; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of pain elicited by mammary fat pad removal surgery and the effects of postoperative analgesics on recovery. Female FVB mice were anesthetized, and mammary fat pad removal was performed. After surgery, mice received carprofen, buprenorphine, a combination of carprofen and buprenorphine, or saline treatment. Additional mice received anesthesia but no surgery or treatment. Food and water intake, body weight, wheel running activity, and a visual assessment score were recorded daily for 4 d after surgery and compared with presurgical findings. Corticosterone metabolites in fecal samples were analyzed at 12 and 24 h postsurgically and compared with baseline values. All surgical groups had significantly decreased food intake at 24 h, with a return to baseline by 48 h. The combination treatment resulted in a significantly decreased water intake and body weight at 24 h. All surgical groups had significantly decreased wheel running activity at 24 h only. The visual assessment scores indicated mild pain for all surgical groups, with the buprenorphine treated mice showing the highest pain index scores, as compared with nonsurgical controls. Fecal corticosterone metabolite levels did not differ significantly between any of the groups or across time. The parameters used in this study did not indicate that administration of these analgesic regimens improved recovery as compared with that of saline-treated mice. Care should be taken when using visual assessment scores to evaluate pain in mice, given that analgesics may have side effects that inadvertently elevate the score.

  15. Effects of clay after a grain challenge on milk composition and on ruminal, blood, and fecal pH in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Sulzberger, S A; Kalebich, C C; Melnichenko, S; Cardoso, F C

    2016-10-01

    Oral supplementation of clay has been reported to function as buffer in dairy cows. However, its effects on rumen, blood, and fecal pH have varied among studies. Our objective was to determine the effects of 3 concentrations of dietary clay supplementation after a grain challenge. Ten multiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± standard deviation)=648±12kg] with 142±130 (60 to 502) days in milk were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a replicated 5×5 Latin square design balanced to measure carryover effects. Periods (21d) were divided into an adaptation phase (d 1 to 18, with regular total mixed ration fed ad libitum) and a measurement phase (d 19 to 21). Feed was restricted on d 18 to 75% of the average of the total mixed ration fed from d 15 to 17 (dry matter basis), and on d 19 cows received a grain challenge. The challenge consisted of 20% finely ground wheat administered into the rumen via a rumen cannula, based on the average dry matter intake obtained on d 15 to 17. Treatments were POS (no clay plus a grain challenge), 3different concentrations of clay (0.5, 1, or 2% of dietary dry matter intake), and control (C; no clay and no grain challenge). Statistical analysis was performed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Contrasts 1 (POS vs. C) and 2 (POS vs. the average of 0.5, 1, or 2%) were compared, along with linear and quadratic treatment effects. Rumen, fecal, and blood pH, along with blood metabolites, were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, and 48h relative to the grain challenge. Cows fed POS had lower rumen pH [(mean ± standard error) 6.03±0.06] than cows fed C (6.20±0.06). Cow fed POS had lower fecal pH (6.14±0.04) than cows fed C (6.38±0.04). We observed a linear treatment effect for rumen pH and fecal pH. Fecal pH (6.22±0.04) was higher for cows fed clay (contrast 2) then for cows fed POS (6.14±0.04). We also observed a treatment difference (contrast 2) for negative incremental area

  16. Effects of clay after a grain challenge on milk composition and on ruminal, blood, and fecal pH in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Sulzberger, S A; Kalebich, C C; Melnichenko, S; Cardoso, F C

    2016-10-01

    Oral supplementation of clay has been reported to function as buffer in dairy cows. However, its effects on rumen, blood, and fecal pH have varied among studies. Our objective was to determine the effects of 3 concentrations of dietary clay supplementation after a grain challenge. Ten multiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± standard deviation)=648±12kg] with 142±130 (60 to 502) days in milk were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a replicated 5×5 Latin square design balanced to measure carryover effects. Periods (21d) were divided into an adaptation phase (d 1 to 18, with regular total mixed ration fed ad libitum) and a measurement phase (d 19 to 21). Feed was restricted on d 18 to 75% of the average of the total mixed ration fed from d 15 to 17 (dry matter basis), and on d 19 cows received a grain challenge. The challenge consisted of 20% finely ground wheat administered into the rumen via a rumen cannula, based on the average dry matter intake obtained on d 15 to 17. Treatments were POS (no clay plus a grain challenge), 3different concentrations of clay (0.5, 1, or 2% of dietary dry matter intake), and control (C; no clay and no grain challenge). Statistical analysis was performed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Contrasts 1 (POS vs. C) and 2 (POS vs. the average of 0.5, 1, or 2%) were compared, along with linear and quadratic treatment effects. Rumen, fecal, and blood pH, along with blood metabolites, were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, and 48h relative to the grain challenge. Cows fed POS had lower rumen pH [(mean ± standard error) 6.03±0.06] than cows fed C (6.20±0.06). Cow fed POS had lower fecal pH (6.14±0.04) than cows fed C (6.38±0.04). We observed a linear treatment effect for rumen pH and fecal pH. Fecal pH (6.22±0.04) was higher for cows fed clay (contrast 2) then for cows fed POS (6.14±0.04). We also observed a treatment difference (contrast 2) for negative incremental area

  17. Pediatric fecal microbiota harbor diverse and novel antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Aimée M; Patel, Sanket; Forsberg, Kevin J; Wang, Bin; Bentley, Gayle; Razia, Yasmin; Qin, Xuan; Tarr, Phillip I; Dantas, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance threatens human health. Gut microbes are an epidemiologically important reservoir of resistance genes (resistome), yet prior studies indicate that the true diversity of gut-associated resistomes has been underestimated. To deeply characterize the pediatric gut-associated resistome, we created metagenomic recombinant libraries in an Escherichia coli host using fecal DNA from 22 healthy infants and children (most without recent antibiotic exposure), and performed functional selections for resistance to 18 antibiotics from eight drug classes. Resistance-conferring DNA fragments were sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000), and reads assembled and annotated with the PARFuMS computational pipeline. Resistance to 14 of the 18 antibiotics was found in stools of infants and children. Recovered genes included chloramphenicol acetyltransferases, drug-resistant dihydrofolate reductases, rRNA methyltransferases, transcriptional regulators, multidrug efflux pumps, and every major class of beta-lactamase, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme, and tetracycline resistance protein. Many resistance-conferring sequences were mobilizable; some had low identity to any known organism, emphasizing cryptic organisms as potentially important resistance reservoirs. We functionally confirmed three novel resistance genes, including a 16S rRNA methylase conferring aminoglycoside resistance, and two tetracycline-resistance proteins nearly identical to a bifidobacterial MFS transporter (B. longum s. longum JDM301). We provide the first report to our knowledge of resistance to folate-synthesis inhibitors conferred by a predicted Nudix hydrolase (part of the folate synthesis pathway). This functional metagenomic survey of gut-associated resistomes, the largest of its kind to date, demonstrates that fecal resistomes of healthy children are far more diverse than previously suspected, that clinically relevant resistance genes are present even without recent selective antibiotic

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis in fecal samples from greenhouse workers after exposure to B. thuringiensis-based pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gert B; Larsen, Preben; Jacobsen, Bodil L; Madsen, Bodil; Smidt, Lasse; Andrup, Lars

    2002-10-01

    In a study of occupational exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis, 20 exposed greenhouse workers were examined for Bacillus cereus-like bacteria in fecal samples and on biomonitoring filters. Bacteria with the following characteristics were isolated from eight individuals: intracellular crystalline inclusions characteristic of B. thuringiensis, genes for and production of B. cereus enterotoxins, and positivity for cry11 as determined by PCR. DNA fingerprints of the fecal isolates were identical to those of strains isolated from the commercial products used. Work processes (i.e., spraying) correlated with the presence of B. thuringiensis in the fecal samples (10(2) to 10(3) CFU/g of feces). However, no gastrointestinal symptoms correlated with the presence of B. thuringiensis in the fecal samples.

  19. Differential Decay of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the decomposition of different human fecal pollution sources is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decay of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fe...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard W; Cochran, Philip A; Dowd, Scot E; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, Deanna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; Tencate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De'andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Philip A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, DeAnna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; TenCate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De’andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  2. Differential Decomposition of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Types

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water qualitymanagement practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, thedecomposition of select cultiva...

  3. ENHANCED CONCENTRATION AND ISOLATION OF CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS OOCYSTS FROM HUMAN FECAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is the causative agent of cyclosporiasis, an emerging infections disease. A new method for the purification of Cycloposra cayetanensis oocysts from fecal matter has been developed, using a modified detachment solution and a Renocal-sucrose gradient sedimen...

  4. Effect of pH on fecal recovery of energy derived from volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; Liechty, E A

    1987-01-01

    We assessed the effect of pH on volatilization of short-chain fatty acids during lyophilization. Acetic, propionic, valeric, and butyric acids were added to a fecal homogenate in amounts sufficient to raise the energy density by 18-27%. Fecal homogenate samples were either acidified (pH 2.8-3.2), alkalinized (pH 7.9-8.7), or left unchanged (4.0-4.8) prior to lyophilization and subsequent bomb calorimetry. Alkalinizing the fecal samples prevented the 20% loss of energy derived from each of these volatile fatty acids observed in samples either acidified or without pH adjustment. These data suggest that in energy balance studies involving subjects with active colonic fermentation, fecal samples should be alkalinized prior to lyophilization and bomb calorimetry. PMID:3681570

  5. INFLUENCE OF DIET ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BOVINE FECAL POLLUTION DETECTION METHODS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practi...

  6. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, Summer 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    1999-01-01

    Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations were determined in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway to assess whether pathogenic organisms pose a potential problem for recreational use. Samples were collected from May through September 1999 at 22 locations on the St. Croix and Namekagon Rivers. No concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria or standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Maximum fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were measured in the St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. Median fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were greater in the St. Croix River near Woodland Corner, Wisconsin, and at Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota than at other locations sampled. There were no consistent short-term variations in fecal coliform or E. coli concentrations during the summer period or any significant relations between concentrations and stream discharge, based on these results.

  7. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Freshwater Impacted by Animal Fecal Material

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the potential for human illness from a hypothetical recreational exposure to freshwater impacted by land-applied, agricultural animal fecal material. The hypothetical exposure scenario included the following characteristics: 1) fresh cattle manure, pig slurry, or ch...

  8. DETECTING AND MITIGATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FECAL PATHOGENS ORIGINATING FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS: REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a review of literature regarding the potential impact of fecal pathogens originating from animal agriculture in the United States. Livestock production and dairy operations continue their trend toward larger and more concentrated facilities. These operations ...

  9. Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

  10. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION OF MARINE AND FRESHWATER BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring methods for microbial indicators of fecal contamination are an integral component for protecting the health of swimmers exposed to potentially contaminated bathing beach waters. The design of monitoring systems which will accurately characterize the quality of water is...

  11. Effect of pH on fecal recovery of energy derived from volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; Liechty, E A

    1987-01-01

    We assessed the effect of pH on volatilization of short-chain fatty acids during lyophilization. Acetic, propionic, valeric, and butyric acids were added to a fecal homogenate in amounts sufficient to raise the energy density by 18-27%. Fecal homogenate samples were either acidified (pH 2.8-3.2), alkalinized (pH 7.9-8.7), or left unchanged (4.0-4.8) prior to lyophilization and subsequent bomb calorimetry. Alkalinizing the fecal samples prevented the 20% loss of energy derived from each of these volatile fatty acids observed in samples either acidified or without pH adjustment. These data suggest that in energy balance studies involving subjects with active colonic fermentation, fecal samples should be alkalinized prior to lyophilization and bomb calorimetry.

  12. Assessing fecal coliform fate and transport in a coastal watershed using HSPF.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Kenya; Gitau, Margaret W; Chen, Gang; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing concern regarding spread and proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms in watersheds and their impacts on water quality. In agricultural and rural watersheds fecal coliform occurrence, an indicator of pathogenic contamination, is often thought to be a result of land applications of animal waste. This study used the Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) along with the Bacterial Indicator Tool to model fecal coliform transport in a coastal watershed with a view to identifying contaminant sources and key contributing areas. Results indicated that the highest levels of fecal coliform contamination (often exceeding the 400 counts/100 ml standard for the area) emanated from areas with and without livestock operations, and from largely forested areas, indicating that livestock operations were not the determining source of fecal coliform as suggested in previous studies. This study found HSPF to be an effective tool for identifying key coliform contributing areas in coastal watersheds. PMID:22797240

  13. [Fecal microbiota transplantation, a novel therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection].

    PubMed

    Terveer, E M; van Beurden, Y H; Kuijper, E J; Keller, J J

    2016-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is caused by a disturbance of the gut microbiota, often resulting from the use of antibiotics. Among a sub group of patients with this disorder, treatment with antibiotics is not effective. They develop a chronic, recurrent infection. Such patients can be treated with a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), or fecal transplantation. The crucial steps for safe application of fecal transplantation are central donor selection and screening. To optimise safety and to guarantee the availability of donor feces for fecal transplantation, the Nederlandse Donor Feces Bank (Dutch Donor Feces Bank) was established. At this facility, ready-to-use, screened donor feces can be ordered for patients with (recurrent) Clostridium difficile infections, who can then be treated at their own hospital. PMID:27643493

  14. [Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of cats in Andradina City, São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; de Soutello, Ricardo Velludo Gomes; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from cats of the Andradina city, SP. This work was carried out from March to November of 2007, and used 51 cats delivered to the Center of Zoonoses Control of that city. Techniques of Willis and Faust were used in the fecal examination and resulted in detection of Ancylostoma spp. in 96.1% of the animals; Toxocara spp. in 43.1%; Cystoisospora spp. in 43.1%; Dipylidium caninum in 21.6% and Giardia spp. in 5.9% samples. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 3.9% fecal samples by the use of malachite green negative stain. There was no significant association between the occurrence of endoparasites and consistency of fecal samples. The results confirm that these cats represent important hosts of parasites, some of those with high zoonotic potential.

  15. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  16. Dietary fat restriction increases fat taste sensitivity in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lisa P.; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Torres, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals with obesity may be less sensitive to the taste of fat, and it is hypothesized that this is due to excess dietary fat intake. This study assessed the effect of a 6‐week low‐fat (LF) or portion control (PC) diet matched for weight loss on fat taste thresholds, fat perception, and preference in people with overweight/obesity. Methods Participants (n = 53) completed a randomized dietary intervention and consumed either a LF diet (25% fat) or PC diet (33% fat) for 6 weeks. Fat taste thresholds (lowest detectable fat concentration), fat perception (discrimination ability), preference, and anthropometry were assessed at baseline and week 6. Results Consumption of a LF diet (n = 26) and PC diet (n = 27) reduced participants' weight (P < 0.001), with no significant differences between groups (LF, −2.9%, PC, −2.7%). Both diets resulted in a decrease in fat taste thresholds (P = 0.014), and the effect tended to be stronger in the LF diet vs. the PC diet (P = 0.060). The ability to perceive different fat concentrations in foods was increased after the LF diet only (P = 0.017); however, food preference did not change on either diet. Conclusions A PC and LF diet both increase fat taste sensitivity in people with overweight/obesity, with the strongest effect after the LF diet. PMID:26813525

  17. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  18. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  19. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    PubMed

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties.

  20. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis producing ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Prout, G R

    1976-05-01

    We present 3 cases of a rare syndrome of extrinsic ureteral obstruction produced by retroperitoneal fat necrosis and compare the medical records and histopathology to 19 cases of classic idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Clinical similarities include average age of onset in the fourth and fifth decades, male preponderance, abdominal or back pain as the presenting symptom, elevation of the blood urea concentration prior to diagnosis and tendency toward bilateral involvement. Histologically, the 2 conditions were different. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis is characterized by coalescence of fat cells into fat cysts bordered by foreign body giant cell granulomas, foam cells, light chronic inflammatory infiltrate and unimpressive fibrosis. The microscopic pathology of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis is dominated by densely collagenized fibrous tissue of varying cellularity without evidence of fat necrosis. Of the 3 cases of retroperitoneal fat necrosis 2 featured prior ischiorectal abscesses and this is considered in a discussion of the etiology of this unusual cause of ureteral compression.

  1. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreña-Barroso, E

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings

  2. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F.; Velázquez-Tavera, N.; Fargher, L.; Derrien, M.; Noreña-Barroso, E.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g- 1) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g- 1). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate

  3. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreña-Barroso, E

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings

  4. Fecal corticoid monitoring in whooping cranes trained to follow ultralight aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, B.K.; Czekala, Nancy M.; Olsen, G.H.; Langenberg, J.A.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The use of fecal corticoid assays to measure stress in North American cranes has been limited to laboratory validation and a single field project involving reintroduced sandhill cranes (Ludders et aI., 1998, 2001; Hartup et aI., 2004). In 2001, we documented trends in corticoid concentrations among a cohort of ten costume-reared whooping cranes subjected to ultralight aircraft training and migration. All samples were analyzed by a validated corticosterone 1251 radioimmunoassay for determination of corticoid levels. Fecal corticoid concentrations in chicks exhibited a logarithmic decline over the first 14 days after hatching (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Fecal corticoid concentrations then stabilized at baseline levels (median 68 ng/g, range 17-186 ng/g, n = 116) during the subsequent six weeks of costume-rearing and aircraft habituation in captivity. Fecal corticoid concentrations of eight cranes increased 8-34 fold during shipment in crates to Wisconsin for field training. Increases in fecal corticoid concentrations were positively correlated with age (r = 0.81, p = 0.01), but not body weight (r = 0.44, P = 0.28) at the time of shipping. Fecal corticoid concentrations returned to baseline levels within seven days, and were sustained throughout the remainder of the training period (median 77 ng/g, range 22- 292 ng/g, n=190). Elevations in fecal corticoid concentrations were observed one (p = 0.035) and four days (p = 0.003) following physical examination and placement of leg bands compared to three days prior to the procedures (median 176 ng/g, range 116 - 553 ng/g, n = 19). Fecal corticoid concentrations decreased to pre-procedure levels within seven days. Fecal corticoid concentrations and variation during the 50 day migration period were similar to training levels in Wisconsin, except for a one day increase observed following a violent storm and escape from the temporary holding pen the preceding night (median 243 ng/g, range 228 - 280 ng/g, n = 7). There was an

  5. Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.

    2015-01-01

    The 'biological pump' is the process by which photosynthetically-produced organic matter in the ocean descends from the surface layer to depth by a combination of sinking particles, advection or vertical mixing of dissolved organic matter, and transport by animals. Particulate organic matter that is exported downward from the euphotic zone is composed of combinations of fecal pellets from zooplankton and fish, organic aggregates known as 'marine snow' and phytodetritus from sinking phytoplankton. Previous reviews by Turner and Ferrante (1979) and Turner (2002) focused on publications that appeared through late 2001. Since that time, studies of the biological pump have continued, and there have been >300 papers on vertical export flux using sediment traps, large-volume filtration systems and other techniques from throughout the global ocean. This review will focus primarily on recent studies that have appeared since 2001. Major topics covered in this review are (1) an overview of the biological pump, and its efficiency and variability, and the role of dissolved organic carbon in the biological pump; (2) zooplankton fecal pellets, including the contribution of zooplankton fecal pellets to export flux, epipelagic retention of zooplankton fecal pellets due to zooplankton activities, zooplankton vertical migration and fecal pellet repackaging, microbial ecology of fecal pellets, sinking velocities of fecal pellets and aggregates, ballasting of sinking particles by mineral contents, phytoplankton cysts, intact cells and harmful algae toxins in fecal pellets, importance of fecal pellets from various types of zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton fecal pellets in picoplankton export; (3) marine snow, including the origins, abundance, and distributions of marine snow, particles and organisms associated with marine snow, consumption and fragmentation of marine snow by animals, pathogens associated with marine snow; (4) phytodetritus, including pulsed export of

  6. Determination of ovarian cyclicity and pregnancy using fecal progesterone in forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Hua; Liu, Shu-Qiang; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Tian-Xiang; Wei, Yu-Ting; Zhou, Jun-Tong; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Lin-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The forest musk deer (FMD, Moschus berezovskii) is a threatened species in China. Although crucial for its artificial breeding management and thus protection, to date, gonadal steroidogenic activity data are unavailable in this species. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to characterize ovarian activity throughout the estrous cycle, non-pregnant luteal phase, and gestation in female FMD. These goals were accomplished using an enzyme immunoassay to measure fecal concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone. Fecal samples were collected from female FMD (aged 3-4 years) for one year, including during breeding and non-breeding seasons. Non-pregnant estrous cycles were recorded in females, based on fecal progesterone concentrations, their overall estrous cycle length was (mean±SEM) 24.3±0.5 days, with 21.6±0.5 days in the luteal phase and 2.7±0.3 days in the inter-luteal phase. Fecal progesterone and E2 concentrations were also measured in females that became pregnant and gave birth after gestating approximately 6 months. Two weeks after becoming pregnant, the average fecal progesterone concentration was significantly greater than that during non-pregnancy. The average fecal progesterone concentrations during pregnancy increased 3.2-fold above non-pregnant concentrations, decreasing to non-pregnant concentrations only after parturition. By contrast, average fecal E2 concentrations during gestation and after parturition were not different from average non-pregnant concentration. In addition, no difference was observed between progesterone concentration in the first month after pregnancy and the value during the luteal phase. However, progesterone concentration during the second month of pregnancy was significantly higher than the value during the luteal phase. In conclusion, monitoring fecal progesterone is an effective method for assessing ovarian function in FMD and will be a useful tool for breeding management and development of assisted

  7. Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations.

  8. Human parvovirus 4 in nasal and fecal specimens from children, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen; Drosten, Christian; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria

    2012-10-01

    Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ≤ 6-7 log(10) copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal-oral modes of PARV4 transmission.

  9. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab Devices for Storage and Transportation of Diarrheagenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at −20°C or −70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At −70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At −20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions. PMID:24740083

  10. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  11. Incidence and Characteristics of Incontinence Associated Dermatitis in Community-Dwelling Persons with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Zimmaro; Funk, Taylor; Jacobson, Megan; Savik, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the incidence and characteristics of incontinence associated dermatitis (IAD) in community-living individuals with fecal incontinence. The primary aim of this study was to describe the incidence and characteristics of self-reported IAD among community-living individuals with fecal incontinence. The study also examined whether IAD was associated with older age, gender, presence of urinary incontinence, or fecal incontinence severity. Design Secondary data analysis using a prospective cohort design. Subjects and Setting Community-living adults (N = 98) with fecal incontinence (76% female, 34% aged 65+ years, 90% White) who participated in a study about dietary fiber supplementation and were free of IAD at the start. Thirty five percent also had urinary incontinence. Methods Subjects assessed their skin for IAD daily for 52 days reporting types of IAD damage (redness, rash/fungal infection, and skin loss), location of IAD, and symptoms. They reported fecal incontinence on a diary for the first and last 14 study days. Results The incidence of IAD was 41% (40/98). The fecal incontinence severity score for subjects developing IAD was 1.2 higher than those who never had IAD (p < .001). There was no significant association of IAD with age, gender, or dual fecal and urinary incontinence. Incontinence Associated Dermatitis developed within 2 weeks and healed in approximately 1 week. The most common sign and symptom were redness (60% patients) and soreness (78%), respectively. Most subjects (85%) had IAD in one location. Conclusions Assessing for IAD in community-living patients with fecal incontinence is important as IAD is common and causes discomfort. The relatively mild severity of IAD offers WOC nurses opportunity for improving patient outcomes by preventing and managing this problem. PMID:26336048

  12. Effects of Long Term Antibiotic Therapy on Human Oral and Fecal Viromes.

    PubMed

    Abeles, Shira R; Ly, Melissa; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in bacterial community membership. Alterations to human bacterial biota can result in human disease including a reduction in the host's resilience to pathogens. Here we report the ecology of oral and fecal viral communities and their responses to long-term antibiotic therapy in a cohort of human subjects. We found significant differences between the viral communities of each body site with a more heterogeneous fecal virus community compared with viruses in saliva. We measured the relative diversity of viruses, and found that the oral viromes were significantly more diverse than fecal viromes. There were characteristic changes in the membership of oral and fecal bacterial communities in response to antibiotics, but changes in fecal viral communities were less distinguishing. In the oral cavity, an abundance of papillomaviruses found in subjects on antibiotics suggests an association between antibiotics and papillomavirus production. Despite the abundance of papillomaviruses identified, in neither the oral nor the fecal viromes did antibiotic therapy have any significant impact upon overall viral diversity. There was, however, an apparent expansion of the reservoir of genes putatively involved in resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics in fecal viromes that was not paralleled in oral viromes. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in fecal viromes in response to long-term antibiotic therapy in humans suggests that viruses play an important role in the resilience of human microbial communities to antibiotic disturbances. PMID:26309137

  13. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  14. Metabolite analysis of human fecal water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with ethyl chloroformate derivatization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xianfu; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Martin, Jean-François; Galan, Pilar; Juste, Catherine; Jia, Wei; Sebedio, Jean-Louis

    2009-10-15

    Fecal water is a complex mixture of various metabolites with a wide range of physicochemical properties and boiling points. The analytical method developed here provides a qualitative and quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, with high sensitivity and efficiency, coupled with derivatization of ethyl chloroformate in aqueous medium. The water/ethanol/pyridine ratio was optimized to 12:6:1, and a two-step derivatization with an initial pH regulation of 0.1M sodium bicarbonate was developed. The deionized water exhibited better extraction efficiency for fecal water compounds than did acidified and alkalized water. Furthermore, more amino acids were extracted from frozen fecal samples than from fresh samples based on multivariate statistical analysis and univariate statistical validation on GC/MS data. Method validation by 34 reference standards and fecal water samples showed a correlation coefficient higher than 0.99 for each of the standards, and the limit of detection (LOD) was from 10 to 500pg on-column for most of the standards. The analytical equipment exhibited excellent repeatability, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 4% for standards and lower than 7% for fecal water. The derivatization method also demonstrated good repeatability, with the RSD lower than 6.4% for standards (except 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and lower than 10% for fecal water (except dicarboxylic acids). The qualitative means by searching the electron impact (EI) mass spectral database, chemical ionization (CI) mass spectra validation, and reference standards comparison totally identified and structurally confirmed 73 compounds, and the fecal water compounds of healthy humans were also quantified. This protocol shows a promising application in metabolome analysis based on human fecal water samples. PMID:19573517

  15. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  16. Determination of fat in vegetable foods.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, I; Merin, U; Popel, G; Bernstein, S

    1985-01-01

    The fat in vegetable foods--tree nuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, avocado, and olives--can be determined volumetrically by acid digestion of the material and separation of the fat. The assay can be performed conveniently by using the equipment developed for fat determination of milk (Gerber method). The results agree well with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The advantages of using the Gerber method for vegetable foods are simplicity, speed, low operation cost, and elimination of the use of inflammable solvents.

  17. Ant fat extraction with a Soxhlet extractor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris R; Tschinkel, Walter R

    2009-07-01

    Stored fat can be informative about the relative age of an ant, its nutritional status, and the nutritional status of the colony. Several methods are available for the quantification of stored fat. Before starting a project involving fat extraction, investigators should weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different methods in order to choose the one that is best suited to the question being addressed. This protocol, although not as accurate as some alternatives, facilitates the rapid quantification of many individuals. PMID:20147208

  18. Ultrastructural study of a tetratrichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Lupisan, Albert Joseph B; Baking, John Michael P

    2008-11-01

    Trichomonads found in pigs include the commensal Tritrichomonas suis (more well known because of its synonymy to Tritrichomonas foetus, a trichomonad parasite of cattle and other animals) and Tetratrichomonas buttreyi, which appear similar to Tritrichomonas suis under the light microscope. A trichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples was subjected to scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural study. The organism's ultrastructure revealed features commonly found in trichomonads; however, features such as the number and length of flagella, type of undulating membrane, general body form, and shape and location of organelles such as the nucleus, Golgi complex, and hydrogenosomes indicated that the isolated trichomonad is not Tritrichomonas suis nor Tritrichomonas foetus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) corroborated these results. Moreover, the ultrastructure was similar to the ultrastructure of previously described tetratrichomonads. It is especially suggested that the isolate is T. buttreyi. These findings could be of significance in the differentiation among different porcine trichomonads in diagnostic procedures. In addition, this is the first known detailed ultrastructural study of T. buttreyi isolated from pigs; thus, this can serve as an aid for future comparison between porcine and bovine T. buttreyi.

  19. Kirtland's warbler diet as determined through fecal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deloria-Sheffield, C.M.; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Bocetti, C.I.; Sykes, P.W.; Kepler, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    The endangered Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) nests primarily in large (>32 ha) stands of young (5- to 25-yr-old) jack pine (Pinus banksiana) which grow on Grayling sand soil. These specific habitat requirements restrict the Kirtland's Warbler breeding range to only 13-16 counties in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan. Although the nature of the species' affinity for this habitat is poorly understood, one theory suggests that higher prey abundance in young jack pine may play a role. To explore further the hypothesis that Kirtland's Warblers choose nesting habitat due to prey abundance, a more thorough knowledge of the warblers' diet is needed. To better understand the diet, we identified arthropod and plant fragments found in 202 Kirtland's Warbler fecal samples, collected from June to September, 1995-1997. The major food items recorded were spittlebugs and aphids (Homoptera; found in 61% of all samples), ants and wasps (Hymenoptera; 45%), blueberry (Vaccinium augustifolium; 42%), beetles (Coleoptera; 25%), and moth larvae (Lepidoptera; 22%).

  20. Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria along the Malibu, California, Coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John

    2011-01-01

    Each year, over 550 million people visit California's public beaches. To protect beach-goers from exposure to waterborne disease, California state law requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli), at beaches having more than 50,000 yearly visitors. FIB are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the occurrence of certain waterborne diseases. Tests show that FIB concentrations occasionally exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) public health standards for recreational water in Malibu Lagoon and at several Malibu beaches (Regional Water Quality Control Board, 2009). Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) California Water Science Center are doing a study to identify the distribution and sources of FIB in coastal Malibu waters (fig. 1). The study methods were similar to those used in a study of FIB contamination on beaches in the Santa Barbara, California, area (Izbicki and others, 2009). This report describes the study approach and presents preliminary results used to evaluate the distribution and source of FIB in the Malibu area. Results of this study will help decision-makers address human health issues associated with FIB contamination in Malibu, and the methods used in this study can be used in other coastal areas affected by FIB contamination.

  1. Fecal contamination of wastewater treatment plants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Serrano, Isa; Van Harten, Sofia; Bessa, Lucinda J; Bernardo, Fernando; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2016-07-01

    Reutilization of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for non-potable applications is increasing due to the reduction of sustainable water resources. These products mostly come from municipal WWTP and also from slaughterhouses effluents. The microbiological certification of these products is mandatory before their discharge into the environment. This study evaluates if the treatment applied in WWTP to municipal waters or to poultry slaughterhouse effluents distributed over the Portuguese continental territory is efficient in reducing the microbiological risk associated with the reutilization of those wastewaters and sludges. Fecal indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were evaluated in 42 and 24 wastewater samples from 14 municipal WWTP and 8 poultry slaughterhouse treatment plants, respectively, by the conventional culture method and a rapid Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Bacterial enumeration in inflow water from most WWTP was rather high (generally >10(5) cells/ml), for both E. coli and Enterococcus spp., and the bacterial quantification by FISH was generally higher than enumeration by the conventional culture method. In both types of treatment plants studied, bacterial load from effluents and sludges was not statistically different from the inflows, indicating that the treatment applied seems to be equally unable to reduce the microbiological load of the effluents. These findings may jeopardize the safe reuse of treated wastewaters in agriculture and the quality of the water environment. Therefore, products like water, sewage sludge, and biosolids originated from the municipal and slaughterhouse WWTP studied should not be reutilized, and effluents treatment should be urgently reviewed. PMID:27236442

  2. Fecal microbiota transplantation broadening its application beyond intestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Que; Cao, Hai-Long; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiao-Cang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is now known to be a complication in a myriad of diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on FMT in metabolic syndrome by infusing microbiota from lean donors or from self-collected feces, with the resultant findings showing that the lean donor feces group displayed increased insulin sensitivity, along with increased levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota. Case reports of FMT have also shown favorable outcomes in Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, myoclonus dystonia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. FMT is a promising approach in the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota and has potential applications in a variety of extra-intestinal conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis.

  3. Fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile, a major cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea due to perturbation of the normal gastrointestinal microbiome, is responsible for significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditures. The incidence and severity of C difficile infection (CDI) is increasing, and recurrent disease is common. Recurrent infection can be difficult to manage with conventional antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which involves instillation of stool from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of the patient, restores the gut microbiome to a healthy state. FMT has emerged as a promising new treatment for CDI. There are limited data on FMT for treatment of primary CDI, but FMT appears safe and effective for recurrent CDI. The safety and efficacy of FMT in patients with severe primary or severe recurrent CDI has not been established. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who undergo FMT for CDI may be at increased risk of IBD flare, and caution should be exercised with use of FMT in that population. The long-term safety of FMT is unknown; thus, rigorously conducted prospective studies are needed.

  4. Fecal microbiota transplantation in inflammatory bowel disease: beyond the excitement.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Bibbò, Stefano; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).There is an increasing interest of both physicians and patients in assessing the possible role of the FMT in the treatment of IBD.Electronic and manual bibliographic searches were performed to identify original reports in which subjects with IBD were treated with FMT. Because of the scarcity of studies with adequate sample size, case series and case reports were also considered. A critical appraisal of the clinical research evidence on the effectiveness, safety, and other parameters related to FMT was made. Data extraction was independently performed by 2 reviewers.We found a total of 31 publications on the use of FMT in IBD. The majority were case reports or case series, whereas 8 publications reported data from open-label trials including a very less number of patients. A total of 133 patients with IBD were managed with FMT. Of these, 57 subjects (43%) had a Clostridium difficile infection. A resolution or reduction of symptoms was reported in 80 of 113 (71%) patients with evaluable IBD. Moreover, FMT does not seem to provide the same safety profile showed for non-IBD individuals with C difficile infection.The available evidence is limited and weak. FMT has the potential to be somehow of help in managing patients with IBD, but considerable further efforts are necessary to make this procedure a valid option for these subjects.

  5. Transport and variability of fecal bacteria in carbonate conglomerate aquifers.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary rocks are generally considered non-karstifiable and thus less vulnerable to pathogen contamination than karst aquifers. However, dissolution phenomena have been observed in clastic carbonate conglomerates of the Subalpine Molasse zone of the northern Alps and other regions of Europe, indicating karstification and high vulnerability, which is currently not considered for source protection zoning. Therefore, a research program was established at the Hochgrat site (Austria/Germany), as a demonstration that karst-like characteristics, flow behavior, and high vulnerability to microbial contamination are possible in this type of aquifer. The study included geomorphologic mapping, comparative multi-tracer tests with fluorescent dyes and bacteria-sized fluorescent microspheres, and analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in spring waters during different seasons. Results demonstrate that (1) flow velocities in carbonate conglomerates are similar as in typical karst aquifers, often exceeding 100 m/h; (2) microbial contaminants are rapidly transported toward springs; and (3) the magnitude and seasonal pattern of FIB variability depends on the land use in the spring catchment and its altitude. Different groundwater protection strategies that currently applied are consequently required in regions formed by karstified carbonatic clastic rocks, taking into account their high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability.

  6. Patterns of fecal coliform contamination in day-care centers.

    PubMed

    Holaday, B; Pantell, R; Lewis, C; Gilliss, C L

    1990-12-01

    During a six-month period, on four separate occasions, six licensed day-care centers had cultures taken from environmental surfaces as well as the hands of children and teachers. Fecal coliforms were recovered from 64 (9.5%) of the 675 surfaces sampled. Recovery rate was not influenced by a center's socioeconomic status, time of year, or presence of children who were not toilet trained. Recovery rates did differ significantly in different areas, with the kitchen showing a relatively high recovery rate (19%), and toys and toilets showing remarkably low rates (2% and 4%). Centers with formal hand-washing procedures had lower recovery rates than those without such practices. We also demonstrated a high recovery rate from hands of staff (16%); 6% of children had positive cultures. Contamination of hands and classroom objects is a potential source for the transmission of enteric diseases for children in day-care centers. A program directed at reducing contamination would be important in preventing the spread of diarrheal illness. PMID:2270220

  7. What's New in the Toolbox for Constipation and Fecal Incontinence?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Constipation and fecal incontinence (FI) are common complaints predominantly affecting the elderly and women. They are associated with significant morbidity and high healthcare costs. The causes are often multi-factorial and overlapping. With the advent of new technologies, we have a better understanding of their underlying pathophysiology which may involve disruption at any levels along the gut-brain-microbiota axis. Initial approach to management should always be the exclusion of secondary causes. Mild symptoms can be approached with conservative measures that may include dietary modifications, exercise, and medications. New prokinetics (e.g., prucalopride) and secretagogues (e.g., lubiprostone and linaclotide) are effective and safe in constipation. Biofeedback is the treatment of choice for dyssynergic defecation. Refractory constipation may respond to neuromodulation therapy with colectomy as the last resort especially for slow-transit constipation of neuropathic origin. Likewise, in refractory FI, less invasive approach can be tried first before progressing to more invasive surgical approach. Injectable bulking agents, sacral nerve stimulation, and SECCA procedure have modest efficacy but safe and less invasive. Surgery has equivocal efficacy but there are promising new techniques including dynamic graciloplasty, artificial bowel sphincter, and magnetic anal sphincter. Despite being challenging, there are no short of alternatives in our toolbox for the management of constipation and FI.

  8. Transport and variability of fecal bacteria in carbonate conglomerate aquifers.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary rocks are generally considered non-karstifiable and thus less vulnerable to pathogen contamination than karst aquifers. However, dissolution phenomena have been observed in clastic carbonate conglomerates of the Subalpine Molasse zone of the northern Alps and other regions of Europe, indicating karstification and high vulnerability, which is currently not considered for source protection zoning. Therefore, a research program was established at the Hochgrat site (Austria/Germany), as a demonstration that karst-like characteristics, flow behavior, and high vulnerability to microbial contamination are possible in this type of aquifer. The study included geomorphologic mapping, comparative multi-tracer tests with fluorescent dyes and bacteria-sized fluorescent microspheres, and analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in spring waters during different seasons. Results demonstrate that (1) flow velocities in carbonate conglomerates are similar as in typical karst aquifers, often exceeding 100 m/h; (2) microbial contaminants are rapidly transported toward springs; and (3) the magnitude and seasonal pattern of FIB variability depends on the land use in the spring catchment and its altitude. Different groundwater protection strategies that currently applied are consequently required in regions formed by karstified carbonatic clastic rocks, taking into account their high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability. PMID:20678141

  9. Evaluation of media for monitoring fecal streptococci in seawater.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshpe-Purer, Y

    1989-01-01

    The selectivity of KF streptococcus agar (KF) for monitoring fecal streptococci (FS) in seawater was examined in 234 samples of Mediterranean water and compared with the selectivity of M-Enterococcus agar (M-Ent) for 124 samples and with bile-esculin-azide agar (BEA) for 17 samples. KF was found to be unsuitable for marine water because Vibrio alginolyticus and other gram-negative bacilli indigenous to this environment grew well on it and produced red colonies identical to those of FS. In 26% of samples, some with high counts of red colonies on the membrane filters (MF), there were no streptococci, only gram-negative bacilli and staphylococci, and in an additional 23.1% the streptococci constituted less than 50% of the "typical" red colonies on the MF. V. alginolyticus also produced FS-like colonies on MF incubated on BEA but was not isolated from MF incubated on M-Ent. Although staphylococci grew and produced FS-like colonies on all three media, M-Ent was the most selective since no gram-negative bacilli were isolated from MF incubated on it. PMID:2782876

  10. The Fecal Viral Flora of California Sea Lions▿†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Shan, Tongling; Wang, Chunlin; Côté, Colette; Kolman, John; Onions, David; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Delwart, Eric

    2011-01-01

    California sea lions are one of the major marine mammal species along the Pacific coast of North America. Sea lions are susceptible to a wide variety of viruses, some of which can be transmitted to or from terrestrial mammals. Using an unbiased viral metagenomic approach, we surveyed the fecal virome in California sea lions of different ages and health statuses. Averages of 1.6 and 2.5 distinct mammalian viral species were shed by pups and juvenile sea lions, respectively. Previously undescribed mammalian viruses from four RNA virus families (Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, and Reoviridae) and one DNA virus family (Parvoviridae) were characterized. The first complete or partial genomes of sapeloviruses, sapoviruses, noroviruses, and bocavirus in marine mammals are reported. Astroviruses and bocaviruses showed the highest prevalence and abundance in California sea lion feces. The diversity of bacteriophages was higher in unweaned sea lion pups than in juveniles and animals in rehabilitation, where the phage community consisted largely of phages related to the family Microviridae. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in marine mammals, highlights the high rate of enteric viral infections in these highly social carnivores, and may be used as a baseline viral survey for comparison with samples from California sea lions during unexplained disease outbreaks. PMID:21795334

  11. Antibiotics in Feed Induce Prophages in Swine Fecal Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Heather K.; Looft, Torey; Bayles, Darrell O.; Humphrey, Samuel; Levine, Uri Y.; Alt, David; Stanton, Thaddeus B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibiotics are a cost-effective tool for improving feed efficiency and preventing disease in agricultural animals, but the full scope of their collateral effects is not understood. Antibiotics have been shown to mediate gene transfer by inducing prophages in certain bacterial strains; therefore, one collateral effect could be prophage induction in the gut microbiome at large. Here we used metagenomics to evaluate the effect of two antibiotics in feed (carbadox and ASP250 [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin]) on swine intestinal phage metagenomes (viromes). We also monitored the bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. ASP250, but not carbadox, caused significant population shifts in both the phage and bacterial communities. Antibiotic resistance genes, such as multidrug resistance efflux pumps, were identified in the viromes, but in-feed antibiotics caused no significant changes in their abundance. The abundance of phage integrase-encoding genes was significantly increased in the viromes of medicated swine over that in the viromes of nonmedicated swine, demonstrating the induction of prophages with antibiotic treatment. Phage-bacterium population dynamics were also examined. We observed a decrease in the relative abundance of Streptococcus bacteria (prey) when Streptococcus phages (predators) were abundant, supporting the “kill-the-winner” ecological model of population dynamics in the swine fecal microbiome. The data show that gut ecosystem dynamics are influenced by phages and that prophage induction is a collateral effect of in-feed antibiotics. PMID:22128350

  12. Evaluation of Fecal Immunochemical Tests for CRC Screening

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Jeanette M.; Bay, Camden P.; Levy, Barcey T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces the mortality due to CRC. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the variation in the products available for CRC screening. Purpose The purpose of this study was to summarize the accuracy of results of individual FIT products across pathology proficiency testing programs. Methods Secondary data analysis of proficiency testing programs’ FIT results. Results Four of seven proficiency testing program’s FIT evaluations were obtained for a two-year period. Fourteen unique FIT brands were evaluated by at least one of the four proficiency testing programs. Five of the products performed similarly with sensitivities ranging from 98.1% to 98.8% and specificities from 98.1% to 99.6%. Ninety-three percent of the FIT tests completed were manual CLIA-waived FITs. Conclusions About two-thirds of the commonly used FIT products performed acceptably on spiked samples of human hemoglobin. However, some had low sensitivity and specificity and probably should not be used for population-based or other screening. Further investigation to determine appropriate, reliable products for fecal occult blood testing is warranted. PMID:23799674

  13. Fecal microbiota transplantation broadening its application beyond intestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng-Que; Cao, Hai-Long; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiao-Cang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is now known to be a complication in a myriad of diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on FMT in metabolic syndrome by infusing microbiota from lean donors or from self-collected feces, with the resultant findings showing that the lean donor feces group displayed increased insulin sensitivity, along with increased levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota. Case reports of FMT have also shown favorable outcomes in Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, myoclonus dystonia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. FMT is a promising approach in the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota and has potential applications in a variety of extra-intestinal conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis. PMID:25574083

  14. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  15. Breast Augmentation With Autologous Fat Injection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fa-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autologous fat transplantation has attracted great interest in breast augmentation for cosmetic purpose. In the present study, we reported our experience in fat grafting in breast in 105 cases, and some detailed procedure concerning efficacy and safety of grafting was evaluated. Methods Fat was harvested using 20-mL syringe attached to a 3-hole blunt cannula in a diameter not beyond 3 mm. After washing with cool normal saline to remove blood, the fat was managed with open method using cotton towel as a platform for concentration fat tissue and separating them from fluids, oil, and debris. A 14-gauge, 1-hole blunt cannula was used to place the fat through 3-mm incision on inframammary fold. The fat was infiltrated into the breast from deep to superficial subcutaneous plane. Results Between July 2002 and August 2010, 105 patients have undergone this procedure. The age distribution of the patients ranged from 18 to 45 years, with a mean of 31.3 years. Grafted fat volume has ranged from 120 to 250 mL (average, 205 mL) per breast per session. All women had a significant improvement in their breast size and shape postoperatively, and the breasts were soft and natural in appearance. Conclusions Liposuction and autologous fat transplantation is a suitable approach for augmentation mammaplasty. PMID:25003461

  16. Evaluation of Fecal Microbiota Transfer as Treatment for Postweaning Diarrhea in Research-Colony Puppies.

    PubMed

    Burton, Erin N; O'Connor, Erin; Ericsson, Aaron C; Franklin, Craig L

    2016-01-01

    Frequently just prior to or at weaning (approximate age, 6 to 8 wk), puppies in research settings often develop diarrheal disease, which may be due, in part, to an immature and unstable intestinal microbiota that is permissive to opportunistic pathogens. The overall objective of this study was to assess whether fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) increased the transmission of a stable maternal microbiota to pups and decreased the incidence of postweaning diarrhea. Puppies were designated by litter as treated (FMT) or sham-treated. The FMT group received fecal inoculum orally for 5 consecutive days during weaning (at 6 to 8 wk of age). Diarrhea was evaluated according to a published scoring system for 11 d during the weaning period. Fresh feces were collected from dams and puppies at 3 d before weaning and 3, 10, and 24 d after weaning for analysis of the fecal microbiota by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The composition of fecal inoculum refrigerated at 3 to 5 °C was stable for at least 5 d. No diarrhea was reported in either group during the study period, making comparison of treated and control groups problematic. However, 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed microbial variability across time in both groups. Therefore, although the fecal microbiota of neither group of puppies mirrored the dam at any of the designated time points, the data provided fundamental and novel information regarding the dynamic maturation process of the fecal microbiota of puppies after weaning. PMID:27657714

  17. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child.

    PubMed

    Kilway, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic.

  18. Competitive Metagenomic DNA Hybridization Identifies Host-Specific Microbial Genetic Markers in Cow Fecal Samples†

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Orin C.; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Lamendella, Regina; Kelty, Catherine A.; Graham, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host-specific markers. Here we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to identify host-specific genetic markers from fecal microbial community DNA. As a proof of concept, bovine fecal DNA was challenged against a porcine fecal DNA background to select for bovine-specific DNA sequences. Bioinformatic analyses of 380 bovine enriched metagenomic sequences indicated a preponderance of Bacteroidales-like regions predicted to encode membrane-associated and secreted proteins. Oligonucleotide primers capable of annealing to select Bacteroidales-like bovine GFE sequences exhibited extremely high specificity (>99%) in PCR assays with total fecal DNAs from 279 different animal sources. These primers also demonstrated a broad distribution of corresponding genetic markers (81% positive) among 148 different bovine sources. These data demonstrate that direct metagenomic DNA analysis by the competitive solution hybridization approach described is an efficient method for identifying potentially useful fecal genetic markers and for characterizing differences between environmental microbial communities. PMID:16751515

  19. NMR metabolomic analysis of fecal water from subjects on a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Jenny; Karlsson, Pernilla Christina; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Rafter, Joseph James; Bohlin, Lars

    2008-06-01

    A vegetarian diet rich in phytochemicals may prevent colon carcinogenesis by affecting biochemical processes in the colonic mucosa. Compounds passing the digestive system reaching the colon could potentially be detected in fecal water. We previously reported that intact fecal water samples from human volunteers significantly decreased prostaglandin production and COX-2 protein expression in colonic cells. The aim with the present study was to further study the composition of the fecal waters, using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis, and to trace the COX-2 inhibiting activity. Intact fecal water samples and fractions thereof were analyzed for their ability to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production in the human colon cell line HT-29. The majority of the tested aqueous phases derived from intact fecal water showed ability to inhibit prostaglandin production in cells (13.8+/-1.34% inhibition, p=0.01). NMR analysis indicated the presence of significant quantities of amino acids and fatty acids. Major metabolites included; acetic acid, butanoic acid, propanoic acid, glutamic acid and alanine. Smaller amounts of glycine and fumaric acid, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties, were also detected. This study describes for the first time NMR metabolomic analysis of fecal water from subjects on a vegetarian diet.

  20. Identification, quantification and treatment of fecal odors released into the air at two wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yubin; Hallis, Samantha A; Vitko, Tadeo; Suffet, Irwin H Mel

    2016-09-15

    Odorous emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an annoyance for neighboring communities. This article, for the first time, quantitatively reports on an evaluation of the presence of fecal odorants identified in air samples from two exemplary WWTPs by the odor profile method (OPM) and chemical analysis. The fecal odorants indole and skatole were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The odor threshold concentration of skatole was determined to be 0.327 ng/L (60 pptV) in Teflon Bags by an expert panel. Skatole was found to be the primary chemical leading to fecal odor, due to its odor concentration to odor threshold concentration ratio that ranged from 2.8 to 22.5. The Weber-Fechner law was followed by pure skatole, but was not applicable when there was a mixture of fecal odorants and other odorant types present in WWTP air emission samples. This is probably caused by antagonism with other odorant types. Several existing odor control treatment methods for fecal odorants were evaluated at different wastewater treatment operations at two WWTPs by the OPM and chemical analysis for indole and skatole. Chemical scrubbing and biofiltration performed best in removing fecal odors among current control technologies. PMID:27235805