Science.gov

Sample records for 72-year-old caucasian male

  1. A 72-year-old woman with an uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot presenting with possible pulmonary endocarditis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most common forms of cyanotic congenital heart disease and in the absence of surgical correction it has an elevated early mortality, with most patients dying in childhood. The authors reported this case because of the unusual course of an uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot. There are only a few reports of patients with an uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot who reach an advanced age and to the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of a possible endocarditis in a patient with an uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot who is older than 70 years. Case presentation The authors present a case of a 72-year-old Caucasian woman with uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot who was admitted with fever and heart failure to our Cardiology Department with possible infective endocarditis. Conclusions The longevity of this patient is probably due to the association between a large ventricular septal defect, a balanced subpulmonary stenosis and to the presence of systemic hypertension. After empiric antibiotic therapy, the patient was discharged and no surgical intervention was performed due to her previous benign evolution. PMID:23725101

  2. TCF12 microdeletion in a 72-year-old woman with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Piard, Juliette; Rozé, Virginie; Czorny, Alain; Lenoir, Marion; Valduga, Mylène; Fenwick, Aimée L; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Maldergem, Lionel Van

    2015-08-01

    Heterozygous mutations in TCF12 were recently identified as an important cause of craniosynostosis. In the original series, 14% of patients with a mutation in TCF12 had significant developmental delay or learning disability. We report on the first case of TCF12 microdeletion, detected by array-comparative genomic hybridization, in a 72-year-old patient presenting with intellectual deficiency and dysmorphism. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis indicated that exon 19, encoding the functionally important basic helix-loop-helix domain, was included in the deleted segment in addition to exon 20. We postulate that the TCF12 microdeletion is responsible for this patient's intellectual deficiency and facial phenotype. PMID:25871887

  3. Lack of racial differences in the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous golimumab in healthy Japanese and Caucasian male subjects.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jie; Lyn, Sally; Xu, Zhenhua; Achira, Meguru; Bouman-Thio, Esther; Shishido, Akira; Ford, Joyce; Shankar, Gopi; Wagner, Carrie; Kim, Kenneth T; Davis, Hugh M; Zhou, Honghui

    2010-07-01

    This phase 1 study evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of subcutaneous golimumab, a human anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody, in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Eligible subjects were males, aged 20 to 45 years, weighing 50 to 90 kg with a body mass index of 19 to 30 kg/m(2). Japanese and Caucasian subjects were matched by body weight and dose group. Blood samples were collected through day 50 following a single subcutaneous injection of golimumab 50 or 100 mg. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. All 51 subjects (24 Japanese, 27 Caucasian) were included in the safety analysis; 47 completed the study and were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetics of golimumab were comparable in both race groups. Peak concentrations were observed approximately 4 to 6 days after administration. No significant differences in exposure or mean half-life (range, 11-13 days) were observed between Japanese and Caucasian subjects at the same dose level. Regardless of race, serum golimumab exposure increased with increasing dose. Mean apparent clearance ranged from 12 to 19 mL/kg/d. Mean apparent volume of distribution (224-262 mL/kg) remained constant with an increase in dose. No antibodies to golimumab were detected. Single subcutaneous injections of golimumab 50 mg or 100 mg were generally well tolerated in these healthy male Japanese and Caucasian subjects. PMID:20133508

  4. Physiological changes due to mild cooling in healthy lean males of white Caucasian and South Asian descent: A metabolomics study.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Kimberly J; Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Jazet, Ingrid M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O

    2016-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, non-shivering thermogenesis increases to maintain core body temperature by increasing utilization of substrates, especially fatty acids (FA), ultimately affecting lipid-associated metabolites. We aimed to investigate whether mild cooling induces changes in other metabolites and whether this response differs between white Caucasians and South Asians, who have a disadvantageous metabolic phenotype. 12 lean male Dutch white Caucasians and 12 matched Dutch South Asians were exposed to mild cold. Before and after 100 min exposure, serum samples were collected for analysis of 163 metabolites and 27 derived parameters using high throughput metabolomics. The overall response to mild cooling between both ethnicities was not different, therefore the data were pooled. After Bonferroni correction, mild cooling significantly changed 44 of 190 (23%) metabolic parameters. Specifically, cooling increased 19 phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, only those containing very long chain FAs, and increased the total class of PC containing mono-unsaturated FAs (+12.5%). Furthermore, cooling increased 10 sphingomyelin species as well as the amino acids glutamine (+18.7%), glycine (+11.6%) and histidine (+10.6%), and decreased short-chain (C3 and C4) acylcarnitines (-17.1% and -19.4%, respectively). In conclusion, mild cooling elicits substantial effects on serum metabolites in healthy males, irrespective of white Caucasian or South Asian ethnicity. PMID:26384768

  5. Male/Female Role Values: A Comparison of Caucasian and Japanese American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Research in America on sex role attitudes and beliefs tends to neglect the views of minorities. While there is some research on the sex role attitudes of Chinese Americans, little is known about Japanese American attitudes and beliefs. To assess and compare Japanese and Caucasian American college students' attitudes, a questionnaire assessing…

  6. Female and Male Perceptions of Ideal Body Shapes: Distorted Views among Caucasian College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Lawrence D.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1992-01-01

    Using body silhouettes, 87 college women and 118 college men indicated their own body shapes and shapes they and same-sex and other-sex peers find most attractive. Focus was on whether women overestimate desirability of thin figures among female peers. Males and females misjudged same-sex peers' preferences compared with ideals. (SLD)

  7. Craniofacial characteristics of Caucasian and Afro-Caucasian Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion

    PubMed Central

    JANSON, Guilherme; QUAGLIO, Camila Leite; PINZAN, Arnaldo; FRANCO, Eduardo Jacomino; de FREITAS, Marcos Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the skeletal, dental and soft tissue characteristics of Caucasian and Afro-Caucasian Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion and to evaluate sexual dimorphism within the groups. Material and Methods The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of untreated normal occlusion subjects, divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 40 Caucasian subjects (20 of each sex), with a mean age of 13.02 years; group 2 included 40 Afro-Caucasian subjects (20 of each sex), with a mean age of 13.02 years. Groups 1 and 2 and males and females within each group were compared with t tests. Results Afro-Caucasian subjects presented greater maxillary protrusion, smaller upper anterior face height and lower posterior face height, larger upper posterior face height, greater maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar protrusion as well as soft tissue protrusion than Caucasian subjects. The Afro-Caucasian female subjects had less mandibular protrusion and smaller total posterior facial height and upper posterior facial height than males. Conclusions Brazilian Afro-Caucasian subjects have greater dentoalveolar and soft tissue protrusion than Brazilian Caucasian subjects, with slight sexual dimorphism in some variables. PMID:21552712

  8. The dermatoglyphics of American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Plato, C C; Cereghino, J J; Steinberg, F S

    1975-03-01

    Digital and palmar dermatoglyphics were collected from 360 male and 360 female seven year old Caucasians from the greater Boston area. All participants were screened and found to be free of minor anomalies or chronic diseases. All individuals with I. Q. scores below 70 were also excluded. The results were presented in such a way as to give information on bilateral symmetry as well as overall frequencies of the various dermatoglyphic features. The results were compared with those of the corresponding sample of seven year old normal male and female Negroes of the accompanying report. A review of the distribution of the dermatoglyphic features in different Caucasian populations has also been presented and the overall dermatoglyphics of the Caucasians were discussed in reference to the distribution of the same features in the other major "racial" groups. The method of collection and selection of the subjects, described in the text, makes this set of data unique and one of the most suitable for use as controls in studying the dermatoglyphics of the individuals with diseases or congenital anomalies. PMID:1119541

  9. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  10. Finasteride associated melasma in a Caucasian male.

    PubMed

    Famenini, Shannon; Gharavi, Nima M; Beynet, David P

    2014-04-01

    Melasma is an acquired hypermelanosis that typically affects sun-exposed areas on the face and presents as symmetric brownish macules and patches. It is most commonly reported in women and thought to be related to the effects of estrogen and progesterone on melanocytes. Since the advent of finasteride 1mg daily tablets for the treatment of androgenic alopecia, we have noticed an increase in the number of men presenting with melasma. Here we present one of those cases. We hypothesize this could be related to the effects of finasteride on estrogen and progesterone concentrations in the skin. PMID:24719069

  11. Neurotic-Stable Tendencies Among Japanese-American Sanseis and Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoda, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    This study examines neurotic-stable tendencies among Japanese-American Sanseis and Caucasian students. An investigation was also carried out on Sansei high achievers and underachievers, and Sansei males and females. (Author)

  12. Blood pressure changes following aerobic exercise in Caucasian and Chinese descendants.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Yan, H; Ranadive, S M; Lane, A D; Kappus, R M; Bunsawat, K; Baynard, T; Li, S; Fernhall, B

    2015-03-01

    Acute aerobic exercise produces post-exercise hypotension (PEH). Chinese populations have lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease compared to Caucasians. PEH may be associated cardiovascular disease through its influence on hypertension. The purpose of this study was to compare PEH between Caucasian and Chinese subjects following acute aerobic exercise. 62 (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) subjects underwent measurement of peripheral and central hemodynamics as well as arterial and cardiac evaluations, 30 min and 60 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise. Caucasians exhibited significantly higher baseline BP than the Chinese. While the reduction in brachial artery systolic BP was greater in Caucasian than in the Chinese, there was no difference in changes in carotid systolic BP between the groups. The increase in cardiac output and heart rate was greater in the Chinese than Caucasians, but total peripheral resistance and leg pulse wave velocity decreased by a similar magnitude in the Chinese and Caucasian subjects. We conclude that acute aerobic exercise produces a greater magnitude of PEH in peripheral systolic BP in Caucasian compared to Chinese subjects. The different magnitude in PEH was caused by the greater increase in cardiac output mediated by heart rate, with no change in stroke volume. It is possible that initial BP differences between races influenced the findings. PMID:25329430

  13. Attitudes toward Rape: Gender and Ethnic Differences across Asian and Caucasian College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Lisa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined 302 Asian and Caucasian college students' attitudes towards rape victims and belief in rape myths. Results show significant differences between both groups. Asians more often endorsed negative attitudes toward rape victims than whites, and males endorsed more negative attitudes and more acceptance of rape myths than females. Results are…

  14. Recurrent simple tandem repeat mutations during human Y-chromosome radiation in Caucasian subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Ciminelli, B M; Pompei, F; Malaspina, P; Hammer, M; Persichetti, F; Pignatti, P F; Palena, A; Anagnou, N; Guanti, G; Jodice, C

    1995-12-01

    The haplotypes at four polymorphic loci of the Y chromosome were determined in 245 Caucasian males from 12 subpopulations. The data show that haplotype radiation occurred among Caucasians. Haplotype radiation was accompanied by recurrent mutations at STR loci that caused partial randomization of haplotype structure. The present distribution of alleles at short tandem repeats (STRs) can be explained by a mutation pattern similar to those described for autosomal STRs. The degree of variation among groups of subpopulations was assayed by using the Analysis of Molecular Variance. The results confirm a faster divergence of the Y chromosome as compared to the rest of the genome. PMID:8587142

  15. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  16. Desipramine pharmacokinetics in Chinese and Caucasian volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Rudorfer, M V; Lane, E A; Chang, W H; Zhang, M D; Potter, W Z

    1984-01-01

    In order to better define the role of pharmacokinetic variation in reported cross-ethnic differences in dosing patterns of some psychoactive drugs, single dose kinetics of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DMI) were studied in 14 Chinese and 16 Caucasian healthy volunteers. DMI and 2-OH-DMI concentrations were assayed with h.p.l.c. in serial plasma and 24 h urine samples over 5 days following an oral 100 mg dose of DMI. Mean total clearance of DMI ( CLDMI ) from plasma was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in the Caucasians (123 +/- 57 l/h) than in the Chinese (73.5 +/- 38.8 l/h). There was no significant difference in the apparent clearance of DMI by hydroxylation, fraction of dose metabolized to the hydroxy metabolite, DMI t1/2 or plasma protein binding between the two groups. Trimodal distribution of CLDMI was found, with 4/14 (29%) Chinese demonstrating slow CL (less than 33 l/h) and 4/16 (25%) Caucasians rapid CL (greater than 195 l/h). Correcting CL values for the greater mean weight of the Caucasians did not alter the pattern of distribution. CLDMI did not correlate with body weight. Although environmental factors cannot be ruled out, these results are consistent with genetically based differences in hepatic metabolism, probably affecting pathways in addition to hydroxylation, and suggest that 30% of Orientals would be at risk for toxicity from routine doses of tricyclics or similarly metabolized drugs. PMID:6721989

  17. Attitudes toward rape: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C; Yoo, Seo-Koo; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in attitudes toward rape between Asian and Caucasian college students. The Attitudes Toward Rape scale was used to measure beliefs about rape in a convenience sample of 169 college students. Three items regarding stranger rape myths were added. Findings suggest that Asian students are more likely than Caucasian students to believe women should be held responsible for preventing rape and to view sex as the primary motivation for rape. Asians also have stronger beliefs than Caucasians do that victims cause the rape and that most rapists are strangers. This research suggests that outreach programs can play an important role in providing information, education, and prevention regarding rape and that males and Asian students should be target populations for such programs. PMID:16043546

  18. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Caucasian patients: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Bertrand; Lidove, Olivier; Delbot, Thierry; Aslangul, Elisabeth; Hausfater, Pierre; Papo, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Secondary hypokalemic periodic paralysis is rare. However, when it occurs, it is usually associated with Graves' disease and it is mostly diagnosed in Asiatic male patients. In this report, we analyze the diagnostic procedure in three cases of hypokalemic periodic paralysis associated with Graves' disease, diagnosed in three different emergency care units over the last 3 years. Three Caucasian men (26, 30, and 39 years of age) came to the emergency care unit for acute tetraparesia. One of them had suffered 15 stereotypical episodes of tetraparesia during the last 2 years. Goiter was present in each case. Kalemia was 1.8, 2.1, and 3 mmol/l, respectively. Triggering events such as considerable sugar intake and physical exercise were present in two cases. In all cases, low TSH levels, high FT4 levels, and anti-TSH receptor antibodies led to the diagnosis of Graves' disease. All patients were treated with potassium supplementation and neomercazole. Outcome was good with a follow-up of 6, 9, and 24 months, respectively. Emergency care practitioners should be aware of this diagnosis, which may affect Caucasian patients presenting with transient tetraparesia in a primary care unit. PMID:16137557

  19. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites. PMID:27085012

  20. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  1. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  2. Phenotypic and clinical differences between Caucasian and South Asian patients with psoriatic arthritis living in North East London.

    PubMed

    Roussou, Euthalia; Chopra, Sunil; Ngandu, Danny Lunda

    2013-05-01

    To test for demographic and clinical differences between Caucasian and South Asian patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) living in the same environment and for differences between sexes. The demographic characteristics of patients attending outpatient clinics were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Clinical parameters included disease activity (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein), function (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI)) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for well-being and night pain (10 cm, where 10 = worst possible response). The first symptom experienced at disease onset and the main symptoms during the disease course were recorded in the questionnaire. A total of 217 patents were assessed of whom 151 were Caucasians and 66 were Asians. South Asian patients were significantly younger [(mean) 45.9 years [(SD)(±11.4)] for Asians and 53.1 years (±14.2) for Caucasians (p < 0.005)] and were diagnosed at an earlier age [40.7 years (±11.7) for Asians and 46.7 years (±15.8) for Caucasians (p < 0.05)] compared to Caucasians patients. Asian females with PsA had worse disease in terms of activity (ESR = 23.9 mmHg/h; BASDAI = 6.7), function (BASFI = 5.5), night pain (7.1 on VAS) and well-being (6.6 on VAS) compared with Asian males (13.2 mmHg/h, 5.3, 3.6, 4.1, 4.6, respectively) or Caucasian males and females (15.8 mmHg/h, 5.9, 5.3, 5.4, 5.4; 18.9 mmHg/h, 6.1, 6.1, 5.3, 5.8, respectively). There were no significant differences in symptoms at disease onset or the main symptoms during the disease course between Caucasian and Asian patients, although there was a trend towards more frequent enthesitis in Asian females during the course of disease suggested by pain with pressure compared to Asian males. South Asian patients may develop PsA earlier in life than Caucasian patients do, but their clinical characteristics are generally similar. Asian

  3. Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V F; Prosdocimi, F; Santos, L S; Ortega, J M; Pena, S D J

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups). The same phenomenon has been observed in several other Latin American countries, suggesting that it might constitute a universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. However, it has also recently been detected in the Black population of the United States. We thus wondered if the same could be observed in American Caucasians. To answer that question, we retrieved 1387 hypervariable I Caucasian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the FBI population database and established their haplogroups and continental geographical sources. In sharp contrast with the situation of the Caucasian population of Latin American countries, only 3.1% of the American Caucasian sequences had African and/or Amerindian origin. To explain this discrepancy we propose that the finding of elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depends not only on the occurrence of directional mating, but also on the "racial" categorization of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Latin America and in the United States diverge considerably; in the former socially significant "races" are normally designated according to physical appearance, while in the latter descent appears to be the most important factor. PMID:17573655

  4. Differences in Subjective Response to Alcohol in Heavy and Light Drinking Chinese Men versus Caucasian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Hu, Hongxing; McNamara, Patrick; Cao, Dingcai; Hao, Wei; King, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Compare subjective responses to alcohol among Han Chinese and Caucasian American males. Design Double-blinded, placebo-controlled human laboratory design. Participants completed three randomized experimental sessions with high and low alcohol, and placebo beverage. Setting Chinese participants were examined at Xinjiang Medical University, China. Caucasian participants were examined at the University of Chicago, USA. Participants 70 Han Chinese (35 heavy/35 light drinkers) and 75 Caucasian Americans (43 heavy/32 light drinkers). Measurements Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the Stimulation and Sedation subscales of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale were assessed at pre-drink baseline and four timepoints after beverage consumption. The Like and Want subscales of the Drug Effects Questionnaire were also assessed at the post-drink assessments. Findings Comparisons with light drinkers showed that high and low dose alcohol produced decreases in stimulation, liking, and wanting in Chinese vs. Caucasians (ps<.05), and dose-dependent increases in sedation in both groups (ps<0.001). Among heavy drinkers, high dose alcohol produced higher stimulation (p<0.001) but with concomitant higher sedation for both doses (ps<0.05) for Chinese vs. Caucasians. Alcohol also demonstrated significantly lower liking (ps<0.001) in Chinese vs. Caucasian heavy drinkers for both doses. Interestingly, both groups showed dose dependent increases in wanting relative to placebo (ps<0.05), but the magnitude of the increase was lower in Chinese. Conclusions Stimulating effects of alcohol are predominant in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but with less hedonic and motivational reward, potentially explaining some of the lower risk for alcohol disorders in Asian subgroups. PMID:25203488

  5. Atrial fibrillation among African Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians: clinical features and outcomes from the AFFIRM trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, David; Martin, Lisa W.; Leman, Robert; Chandler, Mary; Haywood, L. Julian

    2006-01-01

    The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study concluded that rate control with anticoagulation was equivalent overall to rhythm control with cardioversion for long-term survival and that anticoagulation reduced the risk of stroke. We compared baseline and follow-up data for three ethnic groups: Caucasians (n=3,599), African Americans (n=265) and Hispanics (n=132). Caucasians were older and more likely male, African Americans were more likely female and hypertensive, and Hispanics had higher prevalence of cardiomyopathy. Survival was better for rate control than rhythm control in Caucasians, equivalent in African Americans and better for rhythm control in Hispanics. Outcomes may be influenced by differential baseline characteristics, but low numbers of African Americans and Hispanics warrant caution in data interpretation. BACKGROUND: The AFFIRM study compared a rate-control strategy to a rhythm-control strategy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients at high risk for stroke or death. It concluded that the rhythm-control strategy offered no survival advantage, and it also confirmed the value of anticoagulation to prevent complications of AF. Data have not previously been available for specific racial ethnic populations. METHODS: We compared baseline and follow-up data for the patients randomized to rate-control versus rhythm-control in three population groups-Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic. RESULTS: Among 4,060 total patients, 3,599 were Caucasian, 265 were African-American and 132 were Hispanic. At baseline, Caucasians were older and had a higher percentage of males, normal ejection fractions, AF as their only cardiac diagnosis, a prior antiarrhythmic drug failure and less congestive heart failure. African Americans were more likely to be female, had more hypertension and qualified for the study with a first episode of AF, compared to Caucasians. Hispanics had more cardiomyopathy at baseline than

  6. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R–R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684 PMID:26784109

  7. Influence of ethnic origin (Asian v. Caucasian) and background diet on the bioavailability of dietary isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Vergne, Sébastien; Sauvant, Patrick; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Soya isoflavones: genistein and daidzein are increasingly consumed in Western countries. Their beneficial effects are discussed considering nutrition and health in Asia. The present study aimed to check whether chronic ingestions, ethnic origin and dietary context can influence soya phyto-oestrogen bioavailability. Two prospective trials were carried out to blindly assess the pharmacokinetics after acute and chronic intake of soya-based cheese (45.97 (sd1.57) mg isoflavones) taken once a day for 10 d. Twelve healthy young Asians immersed for 2 months in France were randomised in a cross-over design to compare the influence of a Western v. Asian dietary context. The second trial partly nested in the first one, compared Asians under the Western diet to twelve healthy young male Caucasians under the same diet. All volunteers were non-equol producers. After an acute intake of soya in Western diet, Asians exhibited higher maximum concentration measured in plasma (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for genistein and daidzein than Caucasians (P = 0.005, 0.006, 0.032 and 0.008, respectively). In Caucasians under Western diet, AUC and Cmax values significantly increased after chronic intake. This was not the case for daidzein in Asians whatever the dietary context. For the first time, it is evidenced that on acute intake of soya cheese, Asians absorb soya phyto-oestrogens better than Caucasians, regardless of whether the background diet is Western or Asian. On chronic ingestions, AUC and Cmax values were increased for daidzein and genistein in Caucasians but not in Asians. There are ethnic differences in isoflavone pharmacokinetic and bioavailability. This may influence health outcomes. PMID:19622188

  8. Brief daily exposures to Asian females reverses perceptual narrowing for Asian faces in Caucasian infants

    PubMed Central

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins in infancy. The present study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants’ visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of three weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Further, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared to infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing in infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding. PMID:22625845

  9. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior. PMID:19806443

  10. Alcohol use and depression among African-American and Caucasian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maag, John W; Irvin, Deborah M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent Drinking Index (ADI). Extreme groups were formed using upper (> 75%) and lower (< 25%) quartiles. Three other groups were formed using each instrument's normatively derived cutoff scores: depressed only (RADS > 77), heavy drinking (ADI > 16) and mixed (RADS > 77, ADI > 16). Several results were obtained. First, Caucasians obtained significantly higher scores on the ADI than African-Americans, although no differences were obtained for the RADS. Females scored higher on the RADS but lower on the ADI than males. In terms of extreme scores, females were less likely to belong to the severe depression group, while older adolescents in general and African-Americans in particular had a greater probability of belonging to the heavy-drinking group. Finally, using RADS and ADI cutoff scores, females were less likely than males to belong to the depression only group as were African-Americans. Older adolescents, in general, and African-Americans in particular had a greater probability of belonging to the mixed group than did their counterparts. PMID:15861619

  11. Association analyses of vitamin D-binding protein gene with compression strength index variation in Caucasian nuclear families

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X.-H.; Xiong, D.-H.; Liu, X.-G.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.; Recker, R. R.; Deng, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study was conducted to test whether there exists an association between vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene and compression strength index (CSI) phenotype. Candidate gene association analyses were conducted in total sample, male subgroup, and female subgroup, respectively. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant association results were found in males, suggesting the importance of DBP gene polymorphisms on the variation in CSI especially in Caucasian males. Introduction CSI of the femoral neck (FN) is a newly developed phenotype integrating information about bone size, body size, and bone mineral density. It is considered to have the potential to improve the performance of risk assessment for hip fractures because it is based on a combination of phenotypic traits influencing hip fractures rather than a single trait. CSI is under moderate genetic determination (with a heritability of ~44% found in this study), but the relevant genetic study is still rather scarce. Methods Based on the known physiological role of DBP in bone biology and the relatively high heritability of CSI, we tested 12 SNPs of the DBP gene for association with CSI variation in 405 Caucasian nuclear families comprising 1,873 subjects from the Midwestern US. Association analyses were performed in the total sample, male and female subgroups, respectively. Results Significant associations with CSI were found with two SNPs (rs222029, P=0.0019; rs222020, P=0.0042) for the male subgroup. Haplotype-based association tests corroborated the single-SNP results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the DBP gene might be one of the genetic factors influencing CSI phenotype in Caucasians, especially in males. PMID:19543766

  12. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of rotigotine transdermal system in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects following multiple-dose administration.

    PubMed

    Cawello, Willi; Kim, Seong Ryul; Braun, Marina; Elshoff, Jan-Peer; Masahiro, Takeuchi; Ikeda, Junji; Funaki, Tomoo

    2016-08-01

    Rotigotine is a dopamine receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and moderate-to-severe restless legs syndrome. Continuous transdermal delivery of rotigotine via a silicon-based patch maintains stable plasma concentrations over 24 h. The objective of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of a multiple-dose schedule of rotigotine transdermal patch in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. In this open-label, repeated-dose, parallel-group study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01854216), healthy male and female subjects of Japanese or Caucasian ethnic origin were matched by gender, body mass index, and age. Subjects underwent a 9-day patch application period. 12 Japanese and 12 Caucasian subjects were included in the pharmacokinetic analyses. Mean apparent doses (actual amount of drug delivered) increased proportionally with rotigotine nominal dosages (1, 2, and 4 mg/24 h) and were similar for both ethnic groups, with large inter-individual variability. Mean plasma concentration-time profiles for unconjugated rotigotine were similar in both ethnic groups at day 3 for each dosage. Peak concentrations (C max,ss) and area under the concentration-time curves from pre-dose to the concentration measured 24 h after administration of patch (AUC(0-24,ss)) showed similar exposure in both groups; higher values in Japanese subjects were explained by differences in body weight. For total rotigotine, C max,ss and AUC(0-24,ss) values were higher in Caucasian subjects and could be explained by small differences in apparent dose. Rotigotine was generally well tolerated following multiple applications up to 4 mg/24 h. These findings suggest similar dosage requirements for rotigotine transdermal system in Japanese and Caucasian populations. PMID:25773763

  13. Average Heart Rates of Hispanic and Caucasian Adolescents during Sleep: Longitudinal Analysis from the TuCASA Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hedger-Archbold, Kristen; Sorensen, Seth T.; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study describes sleeping heart rate patterns in an adolescent cohort of Hispanic and Caucasian children over approximately a 5-year period to determine how sex, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) contribute to sleeping heart rate patterns over time. Methods: Participants were recruited from a large urban school district in the southwest United States as part of the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea Study (TuCASA). Heart rate data was obtained through electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during in-home polysomnography, approximately 5 years apart. Second-wave cohort data were analyzed to determine how age, sex, ethnicity, physical activity, and BMI contribute to average sleeping heart rates. The same variables were used to investigate how sleeping heart rate patterns change longitudinally from school-age (6–11 years) to adolescence (10–17 years) during sleep. Results: Female adolescents had significantly faster average heart rates during sleep. Sleeping heart rate decreased significantly with increasing age in the adolescent cohort. Although the Hispanic group had a statistically significant higher body mass index than Caucasians, there were no significant differences in heart rate observed between ethnicities or in those who were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age). Longitudinal analysis between the school-aged and adolescent cohort revealed a significant overall decrease in heart rate across a 5-year period. Conclusions: Hispanic and Caucasian adolescents experience a similar decrease in sleeping heart rate with age. Female adolescents had significantly faster heart rates than males, and no significant differences were observed between Caucasians and Hispanics, or obese vs. nonobese adolescents. Citation: Hedger-Archbold K, Sorensen ST, Goodwin JL, Quan SF. Average heart rates of Hispanic and Caucasian adolescents during sleep: longitudinal analysis from the TuCASA cohort. J Clin Sleep Med 2014

  14. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  15. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory. PMID:24574201

  16. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  17. Do Caucasian and black adolescents differ at psychiatric intake?

    PubMed

    Fabrega, H; Ulrich, R; Mezzich, J E

    1993-03-01

    A large sample of adolescents brought for psychiatric evaluation to a public University based facility are the subjects of the study. Material incorporated in a DSM-III multiaxial formulation plus symptoms constituted the dependent variables. Analyses concentrated on ethnic differences, with variation associated with gender and social class controlled statistically. Caucasians showed comparatively greater clinical morbidity: higher number of Axis I definite diagnoses and level of symptoms. Eating disorder diagnoses were more common in Caucasians. There were no significant differences pertaining to level of stress or social impairment. Blacks showed higher levels of symptoms scored as "social aggression" and diagnosed as conduct disorders. The pattern of results raised the question of a possible referral bias, with blacks shunted to the psychiatric facility with lower levels of standard clinical psychopathology, but higher levels of social oppositional behavior. Further research is needed to verify if such a bias does exist. PMID:8444771

  18. Genetic differences between Asian and Caucasian chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Norihiko; Moreilhon, Chimene; Saitoh, Takayuki; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Bernstein, Brian K; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Ogawa, Seishi; Raynaud, Sophie; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2013-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common hematological malignancy in Western countries. However, this disease is very rare in Asian countries. It is not clear whether the mechanisms of development of CLL in Caucasians and Asians are the same. We compared genetic abnormalities in Asian and Caucasian CLL using 250k GeneChip arrays. Both Asian and Caucasian CLL had four common genetic abnormalities: deletion of 13q14.3, trisomy 12, abnormalities of ATM (11q) and abnormalities of 17p. Interestingly, trisomy 12 and deletion of 13q14.3 were mutually exclusive in both groups. We also found that deletions of miR 34b/34c (11q), caspase 1/4/5 (11q), Rb1 (13q) and DLC1 (8p) are common in both ethnic groups. Asian CLL more frequently had gain of 3q and 18q. These suggest that classic genomic changes in the Asian and Caucasina CLL are same. Further, we found amplification of IRF4 and deletion of the SP140/SP100 genes; these genes have been reported as CLL-associated genes by previous genome-wide-association study. We have found classic genomic abnormalities in Asian CLL as well as novel genomic alteration in CLL. PMID:23708256

  19. The construction of a Chinese MRI brain atlas: a morphometric comparison study between Chinese and Caucasian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuchun; Hojatkashani, Cornelius; Dinov, Ivo D; Sun, Bo; Fan, Lingzhong; Lin, Xiangtao; Qi, Hengtao; Hua, Xue; Liu, Shuwei; Toga, Arthur W

    2010-05-15

    We developed a novel brain atlas template to facilitate computational brain studies of Chinese subjects and populations using high quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and well-validated image analysis techniques. To explore the ethnicity-based structural brain differences, we used the MRI scans of 35 Chinese male subjects (24.03+/-2.06 years) and compared them to an age-matched cohort of 35 Caucasian males (24.03+/-2.06 years). Global volumetric measures were used to identify significant group differences in the brain length, width, height and AC-PC line distance. Using the LONI BrainParser, 56 brain structures were automatically labeled and analyzed for all subjects. We identified significant ethnicity differences in brain structure volumes, suggesting that a population-specific brain atlas may be more appropriate for studies involving Chinese populations. To address this, we constructed a 3D Chinese brain atlas based on high resolution 3.0T MRI scans of 56 right-handed male Chinese volunteers (24.46+/-1.81 years). All Chinese brains were spatially normalized by using linear and nonlinear transformation via the "AIR Make Atlas" pipeline workflow within the LONI pipeline environment. This high-resolution Chinese brain atlas was compared to the ICBM152 template, which was constructed using Caucasian brains. PMID:20152910

  20. Low density lipoprotein subclasses in Asian and Caucasian adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Verena; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Bermingham, Margaret A; Steinbeck, Kate

    2006-01-01

    South Asian adults are known to have very high rates of Coronary heart disease (CHD) and insulin resistance and, even as adolescents, may show higher risk factors for CHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) subclasses in a cohort of adolescent boys. The specific objective was to investigate the relationship between measures of fatness, ethnicity and LDL diameter in this cohort. Preformed native (non-denaturing) polyacrylamide 3-13% gradient gels and a multipurpose vertical electrophoresis system were used for the separation of LDL sub-fractions in a single school year cohort of boys aged 15-16 years (n=135). Latex beads and thyroglobulin standards were used to construct a calibration curve in order to calculate LDL particle diameters by regression (Total Lab Software v1.11). ANOVA was used to compare LDL size among different ethnic groups (SPSS and Stat View). The study sample was comprised of 45.2% Caucasians, 41.5% East Asians and 13.3% from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians). There was a non-significant trend for South Asians to have a lower LDL diameter than either Caucasians or East Asian boys which was independent of % total body fat (%TBF) and body mass index (BMI). This is the first adolescent cohort to examine sdLDL which included Caucasians, East and South Asians. It appears that the higher risk profile for CHD and diabetes noted in South Asian adults may be evident even during adolescence. PMID:17077065

  1. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Burt, Howard J; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D; Crewe, H Kim; Gill, Katherine L; Neuhoff, Sibylle

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  2. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class II Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Howe, Sara C.; Kummet, Colleen; Vela, Kaci C.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class II malocclusion affects about 15 % of the US population and is characterized by a convex profile and occlusion disharmonies. The specific etiological mechanisms resulting in the range of Class II dento-skeletal combinations observed is not yet understood. Most studies describing the class II phenotypic diversity have utilized moderate sample sizes or have focused on younger individuals that later in life may outgrow their class II discrepancies; such a focus may also preclude the visualization of adult class II features. The majority have utilized simple correlation methods resulting in phenotypes that may not be generalizable to different samples and thus may not be suitable for studies of malocclusion etiology. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps by capturing the maximum phenotypic variation present in a large Caucasian sample of class II individuals selected with strict eligibility criteria and rigorously standardized multivariate reduction analyses. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 309 Class II Caucasian adults (82 males, 227 females; ages 16–60 years). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to generate comprehensive phenotypes in an effort to identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals reducing heterogeneity and improving the power of future malocclusion etiology studies. RESULTS PCA resulted in 7 principal components that accounted for 81% of the variation. The first three components represented variation on mandibular rotation, upper incisor angulation and mandibular length, respectively. The cluster analysis identified 5 distinct Class II phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive spectrum of Class II phenotypic definitions was obtained that could be generalized to other samples advancing our efforts to the identification of etiological factors underlying Class II malocclusion. PMID:24582022

  3. Counselling Expectations of a Sample of East Asian and Caucasian Canadian Undergraduates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Darren M.; Glenwright, Brittni J.; Bhatia, Maneet; Drapeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether East Asians differ from Caucasian Canadians in their expectations about counselling. Participants in this study included 31 East Asian and 53 Caucasian Canadian university students. The East Asian participants were all first-generation East Asians living in Canada, originally from China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam.…

  4. A Comparison of the Motor Performance of Black and Caucasian Girls Age 6-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinucci, James M.; Shows, David A.

    1977-01-01

    No significant differences in measures of flexibility, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, speed, balance, or muscular power were found between black and Caucasian girls ages six, seven, and eight. Blacks were significantly superior on two agility measurements, and Caucasians better on shuttle run and grip strength. (MJB)

  5. Oral Reading Fluency and Prediction of Reading Comprehension in African American and Caucasian Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, John M.; Callahan, James E., III; Matthews, William J.; Williams, Stacy A.S.; Tobin, Kevin G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the differential predictive bias of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading across African American and Caucasian students. Results of this study suggest that CBM continues to appear to be a sensitive form of direct reading assessment in the local curriculum for both African American and Caucasian elementary-age students. (Contains…

  6. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas: One Case with a Metastatic Evolution in a Caucasian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Lestelle, Valentin; de Coster, Claire; Sarran, Anthony; Poizat, Flora; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a Caucasian woman, operated on for a solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in 2009, who recurred 4 years later with multiple liver metastases requiring liver resection. This disease is infrequent, particularly among the Caucasian population, and metastatic evolution is very rare. PMID:26557078

  7. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas: One Case with a Metastatic Evolution in a Caucasian Woman.

    PubMed

    Lestelle, Valentin; de Coster, Claire; Sarran, Anthony; Poizat, Flora; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a Caucasian woman, operated on for a solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in 2009, who recurred 4 years later with multiple liver metastases requiring liver resection. This disease is infrequent, particularly among the Caucasian population, and metastatic evolution is very rare. PMID:26557078

  8. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  9. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  10. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class III Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Vela, Kaci C.; Kummet, Colleen; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class III malocclusion is characterized by a composite of dento-skeletal patterns that lead to the forward positioning of the mandibular teeth in relation to the maxillary teeth and a concave profile. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with this condition, which affects 1% of the US population and imposes significant esthetic and functional burdens on affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to capture the phenotypic variation present in a large sample of white adults with Class III malocclusion by using multivariate reduction methods. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 292 Class II Caucasian adults (126 males, 166 females; ages 16-57 years). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to capture the phenotypic variation and identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals to reduce genetic heterogeneity. RESULTS Principal component analysis resulted in 6 principal components that accounted for 81.2% of the variation. The first three components represented variations in mandibular horizontal and vertical position, maxillary horizontal position, and mandibular incisor angulation, respectively. The cluster model identified 5 distinct subphenotypes of Class III malocclusion. CONCLUSIONS A spectrum of phenotypic definitions was obtained replicating results of previous studies and supporting the validity of these phenotypic measures in future research of genetic and environmental etiology of Class III malocclusion. PMID:23810043

  11. Factors Associated with Underestimation of Weight Status among Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans—DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiWon; Bender, Melinda S.; Arai, Shoshana; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe weight misperception and to examine the influence of sociodemographic factors on underestimation of weight status in Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design Data from 886 non-pregnant adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey administered in English, Spanish, and Korean, were analyzed. The actual weight status derived from the participants’ body mass index (BMI) categories and their perceived weight status were compared. A multiple logistic regression model was used to explore if underestimation of weight status was associated with ethnicity, gender, and education level. Results Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Koreans represented 19.4%, 26.8%, 27.4%, and 26.4% of the total sample of 886. Overall, 2 in 3 participants correctly perceived their weight status, but 42% of Latinos underestimated their weight status and 22% of Koreans overestimated their weight status. Latino ethnicity, male, and low education (≤ high school) were related to greater underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). In contrast, Korean ethnicity was related to less underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). Conclusions Misperception of weight status should be counted in any efforts to develop a weight management intervention for Latino and Korean Americans. PMID:26118149

  12. Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in African American and Caucasian Men’s Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke W.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys’ antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social context longitudinally across 20 years, those men with the low activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at ages 1.5, 2, and 5 years showed more antisocial behavior from ages 15 through 20 years. Effects of punitive discipline on antisocial behavior differed by caregiver and age at which it occurred, suggesting sensitive periods throughout early childhood in which low MAOA activity elevated boys’ vulnerability to harsh parenting and risk for antisocial behavior. This genetic vulnerability to punitive discipline—and not just extreme, maltreatment experiences—may generalize to other male populations at risk for antisocial behavior. PMID:27014508

  13. Low frequency of axial involvement in Caucasian pediatric patients with seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy syndrome after 5 years of disease.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, I; Foto, M; Ruju, G P; Gemignani, G; Giustarini, S; Pasero, G

    1992-03-01

    In order to establish how many children with seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA) starting with peripheral arthritis and/or enthesitis will develop ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 13 consecutive Caucasian pediatric patients, (11 with the seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy (SEA) syndrome and 2 with isolated B27 associated peripheral arthritis or enthesitis at entry), were followed prospectively with no loss for more than 5 years. Sacroiliac joint plain films obtained at the last visit were mixed with those of 14 control subjects and read blindly. The course of SpA was self-limiting in 6 patients and recurrent in the other 7. Six patients had episodes of inflammatory cervical and/or lumbar pain during followup. However, none showed any limitation of spinal movement in the asymptomatic periods. Only one patient (9.1%) of 11 with the SEA syndrome showed bilateral sacroiliitis and met New York criteria for AS after 5 years of disease. Our results suggest that the proportion of Caucasian children with the SEA syndrome developing AS is much lower than the 75% found in a similar study on Mexican children. Lack of evaluation of all patients after 5 years, the reading of pelvic plain films without reducing observer error, and the male predominance in the Mexican study, probably in addition to ethnic or environmental factors, may account for differences. PMID:1578464

  14. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace. PMID:25084315

  15. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication. PMID:21533235

  16. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Olckers, A

    2007-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972

  17. Heritability of left ventricular structure and function in Caucasian families

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Bochud, Murielle; Richart, Tom; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cusi, Daniele; Fagard, Robert; Staessen, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the heritability as well as genetic and environmental correlations of left ventricular (LV) structural and functional traits in complex pedigrees of a Caucasian population. Methods and results We randomly recruited 459 white European subjects from 52 families (50% women; mean age 45 years). LV structure was measured by M-mode and 2D echocardiography and LV function was measured by conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Other measurements included blood pressure, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements. We estimated the heritability of LV traits while adjusting for covariables, including sex, age, body height and weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and heart rate. With full adjustment, heritability of LV mass was 0.23 (P= 0.025). The TDI-derived mitral annular velocities Ea and Aa showed moderate heritability (h2= 0.36 and 0.53, respectively), whereas the mitral inflow A peak had weak heritability (h2 = 0.25) and the E peak was not heritable (h2 = 0.11). We partitioned the total phenotypic correlation when it reached significance, into a genetic and an environmental component. The genetic correlations were 0.61 between the E and Ea peaks and 0.90 between the A and Aa peaks. Conclusion Our study demonstrated moderate heritability for LV mass as well as the mitral annular Ea and Aa peaks. We also found significant genetic correlations between the E and Ea peaks and between the A and Aa peaks. Our current findings support the ongoing research to map and detect genetic variants that contribute to the variation in LV mass and other LV structural and functional phenotypes. PMID:21398654

  18. Control beliefs and faith as stress moderators for Korean American versus Caucasian American protestants.

    PubMed

    Bjorck, J P; Lee, Y S; Cohen, L H

    1997-02-01

    Examined relationships among negative life events, four locus of control attributions (Internality, Powerful Others, Chance and God Control), and psychological distress for Korean American versus Caucasian American Protestants. Negative events and Powerful Others beliefs were positively related to distress, whereas Internality was negatively related to distress. Ethnicity and God Control interacted: The relationship between God Control beliefs and anxiety was negative for Caucasians but positive for Koreans. Three-way interactions (Ethnicity x Locus of Control x Negative Events) also emerged. As Caucasians' Powerful Others beliefs increased, the positive relationship between negative events and depression became stronger; Koreans' Powerful Others beliefs had no such effect. As Caucasians' God Control beliefs increased, the negative event-depression relationship changed from positive to negative; the reverse was true for Koreans. Findings support the value of assessing ethnoculture and religiousness in stressful life events research. PMID:9231996

  19. HLA-A, B and DR in Caucasians with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Saunders, P H; Anderson, S A; Stogdill, V D; Lamm, D L

    1983-11-01

    When HLA-A, B and DR antigens in Caucasian patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder were compared with controls, no significant alterations in antigen frequencies were found. PMID:6581580

  20. Cultural and gender differences in coping strategies between Caucasian American and Korean American older people.

    PubMed

    Lee, HeeSoon; Mason, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Coping strategies have significant effects on older people's health. This study examined whether gender and ethnic differences influence the coping strategies chosen by older adults when they encounter daily life stressors. Data were collected from 444 community-dwelling people over the age of 65, including 238 Caucasian Americans and 206 Korean Americans. Results showed significant differences between the two groups. Korean Americans had higher scores on problem and emotion-focused coping strategies as well as avoidant coping strategies than Caucasian Americans. Caucasian older women employed more active coping, planning, and positive reframing skills; relied more on religion; and sought emotional support more than Caucasian men. For Korean Americans, older women utilized religion and denial; whereas older men employed instrumental support and substance abuse. The results suggest that practitioners should develop ethnic, gender-specific programs to help older adults cope more effectively with their daily life stressors. PMID:25260229

  1. Perceived Discrimination, Coping, and Quality of Life for African-American and Caucasian Persons with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; Philip, Errol J.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed “threshold-constraint” theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and thus may use more active coping strategies. 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p< 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race/ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = −.39;CI .13–.83) and African Americans (B = −.20;CI .07–.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = −.48;CI .18–.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. PMID:25090144

  2. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  3. Serum Vitamin D Is Significantly Inversely Associated with Disease Severity in Caucasian Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kerley, Conor P.; Hutchinson, Katrina; Bolger, Kenneth; McGowan, Aisling; Faul, John; Cormican, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and possible relationships to OSAS severity, sleepiness, lung function, nocturnal heart rate (HR), and body composition. We also aimed to compare the 25(OH)D status of a subset of OSAS patients compared to controls matched for important determinants of both OSAS and vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban, clinical sleep medicine outpatient center. We recruited newly diagnosed, Caucasian adults who had recently undergone nocturnal polysomnography. We compared body mass index (BMI), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), neck circumference, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), lung function, and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydrpoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) across OSAS severity categories and non-OSAS subjects. Next, using a case-control design, we compared measures of serum 25(OH)D from OSAS cases to non-OSAS controls who were matched for age, gender, skin pigmentation, sleepiness, season, and BMI. Results: 106 adults (77 male; median age = 54.5; median BMI = 34.3 kg/m2) resident in Dublin, Ireland (latitude 53°N) were recruited and categorized as non-OSAS or mild/moderate/severe OSAS. 98% of OSAS cases had insufficient 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L), including 72% with VDD (< 50 nmol/L). 25(OH)D levels decreased with OSAS severity (P = 0.003). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with BMI, percent body fat, AHI, and nocturnal HR. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis revealed that 25(OH)D was independently associated with both AHI (P = 0.016) and nocturnal HR (P = 0.0419). Our separate case-control study revealed that 25(OH)D was significantly lower in OSAS cases than matched, non-OSAS subjects (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We observed widespread vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a Caucasian, OSAS population. There were significant, independent, inverse relationships between 25(OH)D and AHI as well as

  4. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Bzowej, Natalie; Han, Steven; Degertekin, Bulent; Keeffe, Emmet B.; Emre, Sukru; Brown, Robert; Reddy, Rajender; Lok, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Several previous studies found that Asians transplanted for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection had worse post-transplant outcomes than Caucasians. Data on post-transplant outcomes of African Americans and waitlist outcomes of Asian Americans and African Americans with hepatitis B are scant. The aim of this study was to compare waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasians who had HBV-related liver disease. Data from a retrospective-prospective study on liver transplantation for HBV infection were analyzed. A total of 274 patients (116 Caucasians, 135 Asians, and 23 African Americans) from 15 centers in the United States were enrolled. African Americans were younger and more Asian Americans had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the time of liver transplant listing. The probability of undergoing transplantation and the probability of survival on the waitlist were comparable in the 3 racial groups. Of the 170 patients transplanted, 19 died during a median follow-up of 31 months. The probability of post-transplant survival at 5 years was 94% for African Americans, 85% for Asian Americans, and 89% for Caucasians (P = 0.93). HCC recurrence was the only predictor of post-transplant survival, and recurrence rates were similar in the 3 racial groups. Caucasians had a higher rate of HBV recurrence: 4-year recurrence was 19% versus 7% and 6% for Asian Americans and African Americans, respectively (P = 0.043). In conclusion, we found similar waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with hepatitis B. Our finding of a higher rate of HBV recurrence among Caucasians needs to be validated in other studies. PMID:19718627

  5. Arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during 7 consecutive days. American Indians had a higher percentage of body fat than Caucasians (p = 0.002), whereas daily ambulatory activity measures were similar (p > 0.05). American Indians had a 16% lower large artery elasticity index (p = 0.007) and a 19% lower small artery elasticity index (p < 0.001) than Caucasians. The regression model for large artery elasticity index included average cadence (p = 0.001), fat-free mass (p < 0.001), age component (Caucasian only) (p < 0.001), and sex (p = 0.025). The regression model for small artery elasticity index included fat-free mass (p < 0.001), maximum cadence for 30 continuous minutes (p = 0.009), race (p = 0.005), and average cadence (p = 0.049). Between 8 and 30 years of age, elasticity means for the large and small arteries is lower in American Indians than in Caucasians. A smaller difference was observed in children, with a trend to a much larger difference in young adults. Furthermore, greater fat-free mass and higher daily ambulatory cadence are associated with higher arterial elasticity in both American Indians and Caucasians. PMID:21828174

  6. Glucocorticoid receptor density correlates with health risk factors and insulin resistance in Caucasian and African American subjects.

    PubMed

    Islam, A; Chen, Y; Poth, M; Smith, Z P; Deuster, P A

    2012-09-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to secretion of cortisol, which binds to peripheral glucocorticoid receptor and mediates a complex series of metabolic and immune effects. Cortisol also binds to receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary, and inhibits further secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone thus preventing an excessive response. Excess glucocorticoid effect is seen in Cushings disease, adrenal adenomas/carcinomas and in glucocorticoid resistance. Within such pathology there are health consequences of excessive glucocorticoid action, including obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance or diabetes. We hypothesized that increased glucocorticoid receptor in peripheral tissue might mediate an excess glucocorticoid effect in the absence of increased cortisol secretion. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between glucocorticoid receptor density in leukocytes and health risk indices relevant to obesity and diabetes in a sample of Caucasian and African American subjects. Comparison of glucocorticoid receptor concentration with subject body mass index, percentage body fat, waist circumference, insulin resistance, plasma cortisol levels, gender, and lipid profiles were conducted. Increased glucocorticoid receptor density significantly correlated with body mass index, percentage body fat, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. No significant correlation was observed for glucocorticoid receptor density with lipid profiles. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in glucocorticoid receptor density between Caucasian and African American subjects or male and female participants. Our results show that high risk health conditions, such as obesity and type-2 diabetes, may be associated with a form of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, characterized by localized leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor over-expression. PMID:22851186

  7. Assessing inflammatory bowel disease-associated antibodies in Caucasian and First Nations cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Charles N; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Sargent, Michael; Landers, Carol J; Rawsthorne, Patricia; Elias, Brenda; Targan, Stephan R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First Nation populations in Canada have a very low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on typical infections in this population, it is plausible that the First Nations react differently to microbial antigens with a different antibody response pattern, which may shed some light as to why they experience a low rate of IBD. OBJECTIVE: To compare the positivity rates of antibodies known to be associated with IBD in Canadian First Nations compared with a Canadian Caucasian population. METHODS: Subjects with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (as an immune disease control) and healthy controls without a personal or family history of chronic immune diseases, were enrolled in a cohort study aimed to determine differences between First Nations and Caucasians with IBD or RA. Serum from a random sample of these subjects (n=50 for each of First Nations with RA, First Nations controls, Caucasians with RA, Caucasians with Crohn’s disease, Caucasians with UC and Caucasians controls, and as many First Nations with either Crohn’s disease or UC as could be enrolled) was analyzed in the laboratory for the following antibodies: perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), and four Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the outer membrane porin C of Escherichia coli, I2 – a fragment of bacterial DNA associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the bacterial flagellin CBir-1. The rates of positive antibody responses and mean titres among positive results were compared. RESULTS: For pANCA, First Nations had a positivity rate of 55% in those with UC, 32% in healthy controls and 48% in those with RA. The pANCA positivity rate was 32% among Caucasians with RA. The rates of the Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies for the First Nations and Caucasians were comparable. Among First Nations, up to one in four healthy controls were positive for any one of the Crohn

  8. Hip fracture incidence among Caucasians in Hawaii is similar to Japanese. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ross, P D; Huang, C

    2000-10-01

    Age-specific hip fracture incidence has been increasing in some parts of the world. The incidence of hip fractures among Japanese on the island of Oahu, Hawaii in 1979-1981 was approximately half that of Caucasians in North America, but similar to the incidence in Japan. We surveyed the incidence on Oahu again in 1991-1995 for all races to compare the incidence among Japanese to the earlier rates, and to other populations, including Caucasians on Oahu. The incidence of hip fracture among Japanese in Hawaii between 1991-1995 had not changed appreciably (compared to 1979-1981), and was similar to that among Caucasians on Oahu. The incidence among Hawaii Japanese and Caucasians was similar to, or lower than Japan overall, and much lower (one-third to one-half) than that reported for Caucasians in North America and Northern Europe, suggesting that the prevalence of certain risk factors may be lower in Hawaii. These findings confirm other studies suggesting that nongenetic factors may be responsible for much of the observed differences in hip fracture incidence between countries, and between races. PMID:11126521

  9. Genes identified in Asian SLE GWASs are also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan; Ahlford, Annika; Järvinen, Tiina M; Nordmark, Gunnel; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Padyukov, Leonid; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Jönsen, Andreas; Bengtsson, Anders A; Truedsson, Lennart; Eriksson, Catharina; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Sjöwall, Christopher; Julkunen, Heikki; Criswell, Lindsey A; Graham, Robert R; Behrens, Timothy W; Kere, Juha; Rönnblom, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Sandling, Johanna K

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in Asian populations have identified novel risk loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight such loci and investigated their disease associations in three independent Caucasian SLE case–control cohorts recruited from Sweden, Finland and the United States. The disease associations of the SNPs in ETS1, IKZF1, LRRC18-WDFY4, RASGRP3, SLC15A4, TNIP1 and 16p11.2 were replicated, whereas no solid evidence of association was observed for the 7q11.23 locus in the Caucasian cohorts. SLC15A4 was significantly associated with renal involvement in SLE. The association of TNIP1 was more pronounced in SLE patients with renal and immunological disorder, which is corroborated by two previous studies in Asian cohorts. The effects of all the associated SNPs, either conferring risk for or being protective against SLE, were in the same direction in Caucasians and Asians. The magnitudes of the allelic effects for most of the SNPs were also comparable across different ethnic groups. On the contrary, remarkable differences in allele frequencies between Caucasian and Asian populations were observed for all associated SNPs. In conclusion, most of the novel SLE risk loci identified by GWASs in Asian populations were also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations. We observed both similarities and differences with respect to the effect sizes and risk allele frequencies across ethnicities. PMID:23249952

  10. Body Composition in Asians and Caucasians: Comparative Analyses and Influences on Cardiometabolic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sumanto; Chia, Siok Ching; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Within the last four decades Asia has witnessed major transformation in its population demographics, which gave rise to changes in food availability, food habits and lifestyle. A significant consequence of these changes has been the continuing rise in overweight and obesity across Asia. In parallel, there has been a significant rise in Asians in the incidence of the major chronic diseases, particularly in cardiometabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. Given that the majority of the evidence, to date, investigating the associations between adiposity and cardiometabolic disorder risk have been obtained from studies undertaken either in European or in North American Caucasians, in this chapter, we have reviewed differences in body fat content and distribution between East Asians, South Asians, and Caucasians. The evidence is consistent that the content and distribution of body fat are markedly different between the various ethnic groups. We found that Asians have a greater predisposition towards adiposity at higher BMI than in Caucasians. Moreover, at any given level of adiposity, Asians have a much greater predisposition to risk of cardiometabolic disorders than Caucasians. We therefore strongly endorse the need for different adiposity cutoffs in Asians as compared to the Caucasians. We have also reviewed the predictive abilities of the various body composition/adiposity measures in determining risk of cardiometabolic disorders in Asians. PMID:26319906

  11. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23046273

  12. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Results Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. Conclusion The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample. PMID:25279521

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes in Alzheimer's Disease in a Cohort of Older African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Howell, J Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Dorbin, Cornelya D; Hu, William T

    2016-06-01

    African American participation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine whether older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older caucasians in the greater Atlanta area as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than older caucasians, with race only accounting for 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-2.61, P < .001) points of difference in a multivariate model. Attitudes toward AD were also similar between the 2 groups but 1 (35.7%) in 3 adults reported control over general health but not AD risks. In addition to enhancing education content in outreach efforts, there is an urgent need to address the perception that future AD risks are beyond one's own internal control. PMID:26646115

  14. Association of COMT Haplotypes and Breast Cancer Risk in Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    PETERSON, NEERAJA B.; TRENTHAM-DIETZ, AMY; GARCIA-CLOSAS, MONTSERRAT; NEWCOMB, POLLY A.; TITUS-ERNSTOFF, LINDA; HUANG, YIFAN; CHANOCK, STEPHEN J.; HAINES, JONATHAN L.; EGAN, KATHLEEN M.

    2011-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is an important estrogen-metabolizing enzyme, and common genetic variants in this gene could affect breast cancer risk. We conducted a large population-based case control study in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin to examine six strategically selected COMT haplotype-tagging (ht) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), including the val158met polymorphism (rs4680), in relation to breast cancer risk. Analyses were based on 1,655 Caucasian women with invasive breast cancer and 1,470 Caucasian controls. None of the six individual SNPs were associated with breast cancer risk. The global test for haplotype associations was nonsignificant (p- value=0.097), although two uncommon haplotypes present in 6% of the study population showed statistically significant inverse associations with risk. These results suggest that genetic variation in COMT has no significant association with breast cancer risk among Caucasian women. PMID:20150638

  15. The TOMM40 gene rs2075650 polymorphism contributes to Alzheimer's disease in Caucasian, and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Biyun; Ma, Xu; Dai, Qiaoyun; Li, Taishun; Xue, Fangjing; Chen, Bingwei

    2016-08-15

    Largescale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) showed that the TOMM40 rs2075650 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry and Asian population. Here, we evaluated this association with large-scale samples from selected 12 studies (N=28,515; 10,358 cases and 18,157 controls) through the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar. We identified a significant association between rs2075650 and AD with P=0.000, OR=4.178 and 95% CI 1.891-9.228. In subgroup analysis, we identified significant association between rs2075650 polymorphism and AD in both Asian and Caucasians but not mixed populations. Collectively, our analysis shows TOMM40 rs2075650 polymorphism is associated with AD susceptibility in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed populations. We believe that our analysis will be helpful for future genetic researches on AD. PMID:27328316

  16. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY? If the sperm contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms ... receptacle) on the end of it (to collect semen), place the condom against the top of the ...

  17. Average heterozgosity of STRPs in the Pima Indians is lower than in Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.; Norman, R.A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-09-01

    The Pima Indians of Arizona have the highest reported prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in the world. To localize regions of the genome which may contain genes important in the predisposition to NIDDM, we are producing a high density genetic map in this population. In contrast to previous studies in the Pima which have examined polymorphisms in single genes or small genetic regions, we are using short tandem repeated polymorphisms (STRPs) as genetic markers covering the entire genome. We have genotyped over 150 STRPs in a sample consisting of approximately 1000 individuals comprising 250 nuclear families. Many of these STRPs were originally typed in a sample of Caucasians (CEPH) thus allowing direct comparisons between populations. Our analyses indicate that the average heterozygosity of the STRPs is 11% lower in the Pima (P<0.001). A survey of 8 different blood group markers in the Pima showed a 17% difference in average heterozygosity when compared with North American Caucasians (P<0.001). In contrast, a sample of 11 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) does not show a similar difference in average heterozygosity. The average heterozygosity is 3% higher in the Pima as compared to Caucasians for these 11 RFLPs (P<0.001). There is a significant correlation between estimates of heterozygosity based on the sample of STRP markers in Pima and Caucasians (R=0.48 P<0.001), but less than 25% of the variance is explained by this relationship, presumably reflecting different evolutionary histories for each group since divergence of these two populations. In addition to differences in allele frequencies between the two populations, we have tentatively identified a number of markers which differ from Caucasians in the allele sizes. The decrease in average heterozygosity observed with STRP markers supports the view that the Pima Indians represent a more genetically homogenous population than Caucasians.

  18. Single-dose kinetics of mefloquine in Brazilian male subjects

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, J. M.; Heizmann, P.; Schwartz, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    Ten male subjects from a region of the state of Pará, Brazil, where malaria is endemic received a single oral dose of 1000 mg mefloquine. The plasma levels of the drug and of its metabolite, 2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4-quinolinecarboxylic acid, were determined densitometrically on thin-layer chromatography plates. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained fell well within the range of values reported previously for Africans and Caucasians. PMID:3499250

  19. The Effect of BCMO1 Gene Variants on Macular Pigment Optical Density in Young Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Kyle-Little, Zachary; Zele, Andrew J.; Morris, C. Phillip; Feigl, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    Background: Serum lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) positively correlate with macular pigment optical density (MPOD); hence, the latter is a valuable indirect tool for measuring L and Z content in the macula. L and Z have been attributed antioxidant capacity and protection from certain retinal diseases but their uptake within the eye is thought to depend on genetic, age, and environmental factors. In particular, gene variants within beta-carotene monooxygenase (BCMO1) are thought to modulate MPOD in the macula. Objectives: To determine the effect of BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs11645428, rs6420424, and rs6564851 on MPOD in a cohort of young healthy participants of Caucasian origin with normal ocular health. Design: In this cohort study, MPOD was assessed in 46 healthy participants (22 male and 24 female) with a mean age of 23.8 ± 4.0 years (range 19–33). The three SNPs, rs11645428, rs6420424, rs6564851 that have established associations with MPOD were determined using MassEXTEND (hME) Sequenom assay. One-way analysis of variance was performed on groups segregated into homozygous and heterozygous BCMO1 genotypes. Correlations between body mass index (BMI), iris color, gender, central retinal thickness (CRT), diet, and MPOD were investigated. Results: Macular pigment optical density neither significantly varied with BCMO1 rs11645428 (F2,41 = 0.70, p = 0.503), rs6420424 (F2,41 = 0.21, p = 0.801) nor rs6464851 homozygous or heterozygous genotypes (F2,41 = 0,13, p = 0.88), in this young healthy cohort. The combination of these three SNPs into triple genotypes based on plasma conversion efficiency did not affect MPOD (F2,41 = 0.07, p = 0.9). There was a significant negative correlation with MPOD and CRT (r = −0.39, p = 0.01) but no significant correlation between BMI, iris color, gender, and MPOD. Conclusion: Our results indicate that macular pigment deposition within the central retina is not dependent on

  20. Identification of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2S1 in a Finnish Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Suitiala, Tuula; Holmila, Reetta; Impivaara, Olli; Järvisalo, Jorma; Hirvonen, Ari; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2004-10-01

    CYP2S1 is a recently discovered member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily. Interestingly, even though the DNA sequence identifies it as the sole member of the new CYP2S family, CYP2S1 exhibits many features typical to CYP1 family members, e.g. dioxin-inducibility mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). In addition, CYP2S1 metabolises some aromatic hydrocarbons as well as cellular substances. These characteristics, together with a wide extrahepatic tissue distribution, suggest that CYP2S1 may have an important role in both exogenous and endogenous metabolism. This is the first study characterising CYP2S1 alleles and naming them with the recommended CYP allele nomenclature. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and direct sequencing to investigate genetic variation of CYP2S1 in 100 male Finnish Caucasians. Those exons in which variation was found were examined in subsequent 100 subjects. The coding region of all of the nine exons, as well as a 449 bp fragment of the proximal promoter region, was analysed. This systematic investigation revealed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which comprise nine different variant alleles (haplotypes), in addition to the wild-type allele. Seven of the SNPs occurred in the protein-coding areas and one in the proximal 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Two of these sequence variations (10347C > T and 13106C > T) result in non-conservative amino acid substitutions, i.e. Arg380Cys and Pro466Leu, respectively. The respective allelic variants, CYP2S1*2 ([10347C > T]) and CYP2S1*3 (13106C > T; 13255A > G]), occurred in our study population at frequencies of 0.50 and 3.75%, respectively. The most common of the variant alleles was CYP2S1*1H (23.8%), harbouring a 13255A > G substitution located in the 3'UTR. PMID:15450424

  1. Does the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin reduce HbA1c to a greater extent in Japanese patients than in Caucasian patients?

    PubMed Central

    Foley, James E; Bhosekar, Vaishali; Kawamori, Ryuzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous work suggests that Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may respond more favorably to a DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitor than Caucasians. We aimed to compare the efficacy of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily [bid]) between Japanese and Caucasian populations. Methods This analysis pooled data from 19 studies of drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were treated for 12 weeks with vildagliptin 50 mg bid as monotherapy. The pool comprised Japanese patients (n=338) who had been treated in Japan and Caucasian patients (n=1,275) who were treated elsewhere. Change from baseline (Δ) in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 12 weeks (in millimoles per mole) versus baseline HbA1c (both in percentage National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program units [NGSP%] and millimoles per mole) for each population was reported. Universal HbA1c in millimoles per mole was calculated from either the Japanese Diabetes Society or the NGSP% HbA1c standards. Results At baseline, mean values for Japanese and Caucasian patients, respectively, were as follows: age, 59 years and 56 years; % male, 69% and 57%. The average HbA1c was reduced from 7.90% to 6.96% (Japanese Diabetes Society) and from 8.57% to 7.50% (United States National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), while HbA1c was reduced from 63 mmol/mol to 53 mmol/mol and from 70 mmol/mol to 58 mmol/mol in Japanese and Caucasians, respectively. ΔHbA1c increased with increasing baseline in both populations. The slopes were the same (0.41, r2=0.36; and 0.41, r2=0.15), and the intercepts were 15.4 mmol/mol and 17.2 mmol/mol, respectively. In Japanese patients, mean ΔHbA1c was greater by 1.7 mmol/mol (0.2% NGSP HbA1c) at any given baseline HbA1c than in Caucasians (P=0.01). Conclusion The present pooled analysis suggests that Japanese patients respond better to vildagliptin treatment compared with Caucasians. However, when glycemic control was corrected by using the same glycemic

  2. Gender Differences in Lay Knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Among Community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Adults - DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in lay knowledge of type 2 diabetes symptoms among community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design and Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 904 adults (172 Caucasians, 248 Latinos, 234 Koreans, and 250 Filipinos) without diabetes at community events, community clinics, churches, and online in the San Francisco Bay Area and San Diego from August to December 2013. Participants were asked to describe in their own words signs and/or symptoms of diabetes. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of lay symptom knowledge with gender after controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Overall, the average age of the sample populations was 44 (SD ±16.1) years, 36% were male, and 58% were married. Increased thirst/dry mouth following increased urinary frequency/color/odor and increased fatigue/lethargy/low energy were the most frequently reported signs and symptoms (19.8%, 15.4%, and 13.6%, respectively). After controlling for known confounding factors, women were 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.3, P = .004) times more likely than men to report at least 1 diabetes symptom. However, this gender difference in knowledge of diabetes signs and symptoms did not significantly differ across Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Korean Americans (P = .87). Conclusion The findings underscore the importance of improving public knowledge and awareness of signs and symptoms of diabetes, particularly in men. PMID:25227121

  3. The Impact of Instructional Methodology on the Reading Achievement of African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terri I.

    2012-01-01

    The academic achievement gap that exists between African American students and their Caucasian peers is a challenging national concern for which an absolute solution has been elusive. Specifically, the African American male over-represents failure in most academic categories. Policy makers and educators acknowledge that this represents a national…

  4. Comparison of Selected Physical Parameters between American and Chinese Male College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok W.; Chai, Dennis X.

    The physical fitness status of Chinese college students was evaluated, and selected physical fitness characteristics were compared between American and Chinese college students. Male college freshmen (112 Americans, mostly Caucasian, from a university in the Midwest and 261 Chinese from a college in southern China) were the subjects. All subjects…

  5. A Prospective Analysis of Juvenile Male Sex Offenders: Characteristics and Recidivism Rates as Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male…

  6. Moderate Association of Anthropometry, but Not Training Volume, with Race Performance in Male Ultraendurance Cyclists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 28 male Caucasian nonprofessional ultracyclists, we investigated whether anthropometry or training volume had an influence on race speed in the 600 km at the Swiss Cycling Marathon 2007. Anthropometric parameters (age, body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses) were determined before the race to calculate body mass index and percent body…

  7. Changes in Drinking Patterns across the Transition to College among First-Year College Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph; Lamb, Toby; Pedersen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Few studies examine changes in drinking behavior during the transition from high school to college. Using a sample of 239 first-year males, we hypothesized that participants would increase drinking from pre-college to the first month of college. Results reveal a general trend toward increased drinking upon entering college. Caucasians increased…

  8. Income Parity through Different Paths: Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 277 Caucasian, Chinese American, and Japanese American men at the University of Hawaii was surveyed in 1969, and again in 1979. Analysis of variables from the human capital and the labor market formulations reveals that race/ethnicity remains an important factor in explaining income attainment. (BJV)

  9. Reliability and Validity of the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories in Caucasian Americans and Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Sandra; Fernandez, Senaida; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Vaccarino, Vivian Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    Although the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory are two of the most widely used instruments for assessing depressive and anxious symptoms in both clinical and nonclinical populations, their cross-cultural reliability and validity have yet to be fully established. In this study, 2,703 Caucasian American and 1,110 Latino college…

  10. Cross-Cultural Validity of Alcohol Dependence across Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Caucasians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Adam C.

    2008-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses for ordered-categorical measures probed for differential item functioning on a standardized measure of alcohol dependence across Hispanics (n = 834) and non-Hispanic Caucasians (n = 14,001) in a nationally representative survey of alcohol use in the United States conducted in 1992. Analyses investigated whether 30…

  11. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  12. [Struggle against typhus in the Caucasian front during the 1st World War].

    PubMed

    Karatepe, Mustafa

    2002-01-01

    As an infectious disease, typhus has triggered many epidemics during the course of wars and caused thousands of death all through the ages. The French physician Charles Nicolle (1886-1936) defined its agent as a louse transferring the disease from man to man in 1909 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1928. Many cases were reported during the 1st World War both in the European and the Ottoman armies; and one of the most severe epidemics broke in the Caucasian front; a great number of civilians and soldiers died at winter in 1914 and 1915. Lice had to be destroyed in order to prevent the epidemic, but etuves in the Caucasian front was too few to achieve it. Clothes were cleansed in ovens by means of a method proposed by Dr. Abdülkadir Noyan (1886-1977). On March 28, 1915 the first typhus vaccination, obtained from the infected blood of the patients, was applied by Dr. Tevfik Salim (Saklam) (1882-1963). In 1916 Dr. Ahmet Fikri Tüzer discovered a disinfection apparatus called "buğu sandiği" (vapour box) which was widely used in the Caucasian front after 1917. This apparatus was highly useful in controlling the typhus epidemics. 164 health officers lost their lifes in the Caucasian front between 1914-1918, in addition, 7310 military casualties were recorded from 1915 to the end of the war. PMID:17152154

  13. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  14. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  15. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared…

  16. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  17. Photoprotection by melanin--a comparison of black and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Agin, P P; Sayre, R M; Kligman, A M

    1979-09-01

    The photoprotective role of melanin was evaluated by comparing the transmission of ultraviolet (UV) radiation through skin samples of blacks and Caucasians, using both biologic and spectroscopic techniques. UVA transmission was measured using fluoranthene, which causes a phototoxic response to UVA wavelength. UVB was measured by monitoring erythema produced by either a 150-watt xenon arc or FS-20 sunlamps. It was found that on the average, five times as much ultraviolet light (UVB and UVA) reaches the upper dermis of Caucasians as reaches that of blacks. Differences in transmission between the stratum corneum of blacks and of Caucasians were far less striking. The main site of UV filtration in Caucasians is the stratum corneum, whereas in blacks it is the malpighian layers. Melanin acts as a neutral density filter, reducing all wavelengths of light equally. The superior photoprotection of black epidermis is due not only to increased melanin content but also to other factors related to packaging and distribution of melanosomes. Not only are these data consistent with epidemiologic evidence, but they also may indicate why blacks are less disposed to phototoxic drug responses as well as less susceptible to acute and chronic actinic damage. PMID:512075

  18. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  19. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  20. Melodies in Motherese in Tonal and Nontonal Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Caucasian American, and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papousek, Mechthild

    In a comparison of the melodies in the speech of Mandarin Chinese and Caucasian American mothers, striking similarities were found: (1) in the overall distribution and average structure of melodic contours; (2) in close contextual links to given forms of intuitive parental care; and (3) in a tendency to neglect lexical tones in favor of pitch…

  1. Visible Minority, Aboriginal, and Caucasian Children Investigated by Canadian Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Chantal; Dufour, Sarah; Trocme, Nico; Larrivee, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to compare the report profiles of Caucasian, Aboriginal, and other visible minority children whose cases were assessed by child protective services in Canada. The results show that children of Aboriginal ancestry and from visible minority groups are selected for investigation by child protective services 1.77…

  2. Cross-Cultural Variations in Stress and Adjustment among Asian and Caucasian Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined cross-cultural variations in stress among Asian and Caucasian graduate students (N=204). Analyzed surveys measuring life stress, physical health complaints, and psychological health. Findings indicated some cross-cultural variations in stress and adjustment among graduate students, with Asian graduate students experiencing fewer stressful…

  3. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    PubMed

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture. PMID:25157829

  4. Comparative Validity of MMPI-2 Scores of African American and Caucasian Mental Health Center Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stein, L. A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores for 123 African American and 561 Caucasian clients from a community mental health center was studied by contrasting mean MMPI-2 scores and correlations between these scores and therapists' ratings. Correlations were not significantly different for racial…

  5. Biomarkers of Coronary Artery Disease Differ Between Asians and Caucasians in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Gijsberts, Crystel M; den Ruijter, Hester M; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Chan, Mark Y; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Hoefer, Imo E

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) markers have not been thoroughly investigated among Asians. The incidence of CAD, however, is rising rapidly in Asia. In this review, we systematically discuss publications that compare CAD biomarkers between Asians and Caucasians in the general population. A PubMed search yielded 5,570 hits, containing 59 articles describing 47 unique cohorts that directly compare Asians with Caucasians. Ten biomarkers were taken into account for this review: total cholesterol; triglycerides; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; C-reactive protein; glucose; insulin; glycated hemoglobin; fibrinogen; and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Triglycerides were 1.13-fold higher in South Asians than in Caucasians, and insulin levels were 1.33-fold higher. In Japanese and Chinese subjects, lower C-reactive protein levels were reported: 0.52 and 0.36-fold, respectively. Ethnicity-specific prognostic measures of CAD biomarkers were rarely reported. CAD biomarker levels differ between Asians and Caucasians and among Asian ethnic groups in population-based cohorts. The ethnicity-specific prognostic value of CAD biomarkers is yet to be determined. PMID:26014657

  6. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  7. Information Processed by Negro and Caucasian Children Engaged in Problem-Solving Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felen, Barbara K.

    The memory model, based on information theory proposed by Moser (see SE 013 578), was used to compare the cognitive processing patterns of second and eighth grade Negro and Caucasian students in solving the "parallel circuits" problem. (Connecting two light bulbs and a dry cell so that when both bulbs light, one bulb can be unscrewed, leaving the…

  8. Cultural Differences in Optimism, Pessimism, and Coping: Predictors of Subsequent Adjustment in Asian American and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    Cultural differences were examined between 111 Asian American and 111 Caucasian American students matched on age and sex in a prospective design study. Using separate optimism and pessimism scores, Asian Americans were found to be more pessimistic than Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans were also found to use more problem avoidance and social…

  9. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  10. Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

  11. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  12. HLA disease association and protection in HIV infection among African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Cruse, J M; Brackin, M N; Lewis, R E; Meeks, W; Nolan, R; Brackin, B

    1991-01-01

    In a previous investigation, we demonstrated an increased progression of overt AIDS in the African American population compared to the Caucasian population as reflected by the significantly lower absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes detected in the African American population in an earlier study. The present study elucidates some of the possible genetic factors which may contribute to disease association or protection against HIV infection. The HLA phenotypes expressed as A, B, C, DR and DQw antigens were revealed by the Amos-modified typing procedure. NIH scoring was utilized to designate positive cells taking up trypan blue. A test of proportion equivalent to the chi 2 approximation was used to compare the disease population (n = 62; 38 African Americans, 24 Caucasians) to race-matched normal heterosexual local controls (323 African Americans, 412 Caucasians). Significant p values were corrected for the number of HLA antigens tested. HLA markers associated with possible protection from infection for African Americans were Cw4 and DRw6, whereas Caucasians expressed none. Disease association markers present in the African American population were A31, B35, Cw6, Cw7, DR5, DR6, DRw11, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7, whereas in the Caucasian population A28, Aw66, Aw48, Bw65, Bw70, Cw7, DRw10, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7 were demonstrated. The highest phenotypic frequency for a disease association marker in the study was for HLA-DR5 (62.9%) in the HIV-infected African American population without Kaposi's sarcoma compared to a frequency of 28.9% for the regional control group (p = 0.0012). We conclude that genetic factors do have a role in HIV infection since only 50-60% of those exposed to the AIDS virus will become infected. PMID:1910527

  13. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes in the Italian Caucasian population

    PubMed Central

    Bontadini, A; Testi, M; Cuccia, MC; Martinetti, M; Carcassi, C; Chiesa, A; Cosentini, E; Dametto, E; Frison, S; Iannone, AM; Lombardo, C; Malagoli, A; Mariani, M; Mariotti, L; Mascaretti, L; Mele, L; Miotti, V; Nesci, S; Ozzella, G; Piancatelli, D; Romeo, G; Tagliaferri, C; Vatta, S; Andreani, M; Conte, R

    2006-01-01

    Background Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of inhibitory and activatory receptors that are expressed by most natural killer (NK) cells. The KIR gene family is polymorphic: genomic diversity is achieved through differences in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The number of KIR loci has been reported to vary among individuals, resulting in different KIR haplotypes. In this study we report the genotypic structure of KIRs in 217 unrelated healthy Italian individuals from 22 immunogenetics laboratories, located in the northern, central and southern regions of Italy. Methods Two hundred and seventeen DNA samples were studied by a low resolution PCR-SSP kit designed to identify all KIR genes. Results All 17 KIR genes were observed in the population with different frequencies than other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations; framework genes KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL2 were present in all individuals. Sixty-five different profiles were found in this Italian population study. Haplotype A remains the most prevalent and genotype 1, with a frequency of 28.5%, is the most commonly observed in the Italian population. Conclusion The Italian Caucasian population shows polymorphism of the KIR gene family like other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. Although 64 genotypes have been observed, genotype 1 remains the most frequent as already observed in other populations. Such knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in populations is very useful in the study of associations with diseases and in selection of donors for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation. PMID:17069649

  14. The Y-STR genetic diversity of an Idaho Basque population, with comparison to European Basques and US Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Zubizarreta, Josu; Davis, Michael C; Hampikian, Greg

    2011-12-01

    Fifty unrelated Basque males from southwest Idaho were typed for the 17 Y-STR loci in the Yfiler multiplex kit (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA H4.1 and DYS385a/b). In total, 42 haplotypes were identified, with no more than two individuals sharing a single haplotype. The haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.9935, and gene diversity (D) over loci was 0.457 ± 0.137. The Idaho Basque population was compared to the source population from the Basque autonomous region of Northern Spain and Southern France, as well as a United States Caucasian population. The haplotype diversity for the immigrant Basque sample is within 0.4% of the haplotype diversity of the European Basques (0.9903); thus the power of discrimination is similar for each population. The Idaho Basque population has less diversity in 9 out of 16 loci (considering DYS385a/b together) and 3% less diversity across all loci, compared to the European Basque population. A multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) was created using pairwise R(ST) values to compare the Idaho Basques to other populations. Based upon R(ST) and F(ST) measures, no significant differentiation was found between the Idaho and source European Basque population. PMID:22276968

  15. Elemental content of anagen hairs in a normal Caucasian population studies with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.; Li, H.K.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Wiegleb, D.

    1986-01-01

    The elemental content of anagen hair fibers in a Caucasian population of healthy females and males in the age range 10-69 years was performed to constitute a baseline for further studies of pathological conditions. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses were performed on single hair fibers in triplicate from 103 individuals in order to determine sulfur, zinc, calcium, and chlorine content. The hair fibers were all anagen hairs collected from a site little influenced by genetic and hormonal influences 1.5 cm above the right ear of the probands. An area 5-8 mm from the follicle bottom was chosen for the analysis in all cases to minimize effect of hair-do contamination. The average sulfur content was 0.049 g/g and the average zinc content 170 micrograms/g. These results were not significantly influenced by chloroform/ethanol rinsing before analysis. The calcium and chlorine contents were 330 micrograms/g and 0.0033 g/g respectively. The latter data are expected to be more seriously influenced by external factors (e.g., contamination) than sulfur and zinc. No correlation between elemental concentration and sex was found for sulfur and zinc in the present material. PIXE analysis of single hair fibers yields valuable information on the elemental composition of hair fibers and can be rapidly and efficiently performed after simple mounting procedures.

  16. Male Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Matthew T.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Osteoporosis is now recognized as a major threat to health in aging men. Morbidity and mortality, particularly following hip fracture, are substantial. Whereas trabecular bone loss starts in early adulthood, loss of cortical bone only appears to occur from mid-life onwards. Declining bioavailable estradiol levels play an integral role in male age-associated bone loss. Both pharmacologic and supportive care interventions are important for optimal care in men at increased fracture risk. PMID:22877433

  17. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  18. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  19. Current evidence on the four polymorphisms of VDR and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baohong; Liu, Shuzhen; Yang, Xueling; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Xianzhi; Zheng, Dejie; Gao, Jianfeng; Chen, Kaili; Gao, Yanfang; Liu, Liang; Ren, Haipeng; Wang, Wenhui; Qi, Yuanling; Yu, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    There have been a few epidemiological studies reporting VDR polymorphisms including Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1with breast cancer incidence and therefore risk. The results however are controversial, often due to smaller sample size. Concerning most of the studies were performed on Caucasian women, we conducted this comprehensive meta-analysis encompassing 38,151 cases and 47,546 controls (Fok1: 13,152 cases, 17,443 controls; Bsm1: 14,755 cases, 18,633 controls; Apa1: 3080 cases, 3412 controls; Taq1: 7164 cases, 8068 controls) to better understand roles of the polymorphisms in breast cancer development among Caucasian population. We did not find any association of the most controversial genotype Fok1 with breast cancer risk in Caucasian women (ff vs. FF: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.95-1.22, P = 0.32 for heterogeneity; ff vs. Ff: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.94-1.17, P = 0.40; ff vs. Ff + FF: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.95-1.14, P = 0.37 and ff + Ff vs. FF: OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.09, P = 0.23). For Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1, no significant association was also not found in the homozygote comparison, heterozygote comparison, recessive and dominant models respectively. In conclusion, the current analysis suggested that the four polymorphisms (Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1) of VDR may be not associated with breast cancer risk in Caucasian women. PMID:25606388

  20. Two independent apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes modulate postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in a healthy Caucasian population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) plays an important role in plasma triacylglycerol (TG) homeostasis. Five polymorphisms (1131T>C, c.-3A>G, c.56C>G, IVS3+476G>A, c.1259T>C) in the APOA5 gene define three common haplotypes (APOA5'1, APOA5'2 and APOA5'3) in Caucasian individuals. Our aim was to de...

  1. A comparison of African-American and Caucasian college students' attitudes toward computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Pamela Gail

    1997-09-01

    As computer usage becomes mandatory on college campuses across the world, the issue of examining students' attitudes toward computers becomes very important. The major goal of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and ethnicity and African American and Caucasian college students attitudes toward computers. The Computer Attitude Scale instrument was used to measure the students' attitudes. During the Summer of the 1996 academic year, a university in the southeastern United States was selected to participate in this study. A total of 230 African American and Caucasian undergraduate students participated in the study. The students were pre-tested during the first week of the semester to access their initial computer attitudes. The students were enrolled in one of the mandatory computer literacy courses (Computer Literacy Awareness Course or C, Pascal or FORTRAN Programming Course) for 12 weeks. There were a total of seven different instructors for the courses. During the 12th week of class, the students were post-tested to access their computer attitudes after completing one of the computer literacy courses. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA. While both African Americans and Caucasian students showed a slight increase in their attitudes toward computers after completing the course, no significant difference between the groups was found. However, all groups were found to have positive attitudes toward computers in general. Data analysis also indicated no significant gender difference among African American and Caucasian undergraduate students. This confirmed findings of previous studies in which no significant gender difference was found to exist among college students.

  2. Current evidence on the four polymorphisms of VDR and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women☆

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Baohong; Liu, Shuzhen; Yang, Xueling; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Xianzhi; Zheng, Dejie; Gao, Jianfeng; Chen, Kaili; Gao, Yanfang; Liu, Liang; Ren, Haipeng; Wang, Wenhui; Qi, Yuanling; Yu, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    There have been a few epidemiological studies reporting VDR polymorphisms including Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1with breast cancer incidence and therefore risk. The results however are controversial, often due to smaller sample size. Concerning most of the studies were performed on Caucasian women, we conducted this comprehensive meta-analysis encompassing 38,151 cases and 47,546 controls (Fok1: 13,152 cases, 17,443 controls; Bsm1: 14,755 cases, 18,633 controls; Apa1: 3080 cases, 3412 controls; Taq1: 7164 cases, 8068 controls) to better understand roles of the polymorphisms in breast cancer development among Caucasian population. We did not find any association of the most controversial genotype Fok1 with breast cancer risk in Caucasian women (ff vs. FF: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.95–1.22, P = 0.32 for heterogeneity; ff vs. Ff: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.94–1.17, P = 0.40; ff vs. Ff + FF: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.95–1.14, P = 0.37 and ff + Ff vs. FF: OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.09, P = 0.23). For Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1, no significant association was also not found in the homozygote comparison, heterozygote comparison, recessive and dominant models respectively. In conclusion, the current analysis suggested that the four polymorphisms (Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1) of VDR may be not associated with breast cancer risk in Caucasian women. PMID:25606388

  3. Risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal Caucasian and Chinese-Canadian women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Striking differences exist between countries in the incidence of breast cancer. The causes of these differences are unknown, but because incidence rates change in migrants, they are thought to be due to lifestyle rather than genetic differences. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine breast cancer risk factors in populations with different risks for breast cancer. Methods We compared breast cancer risk factors among three groups of postmenopausal Canadian women at substantially different risk of developing breast cancer - Caucasians (N = 413), Chinese women born in the West or who migrated to the West before age 21 (N = 216), and recent Chinese migrants (N = 421). Information on risk factors and dietary acculturation were collected by telephone interviews using questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken at a home visit. Results Compared to Caucasians, recent Chinese migrants weighed on average 14 kg less, were 6 cm shorter, had menarche a year later, were more often parous, less often had a family history of breast cancer or a benign breast biopsy, a higher Chinese dietary score, and a lower Western dietary score. For most of these variables, Western born Chinese and early Chinese migrants had values intermediate between those of Caucasians and recent Chinese migrants. We estimated five-year absolute risks for breast cancer using the Gail Model and found that risk estimates in Caucasians would be reduced by only 11% if they had the risk factor profile of recent Chinese migrants for the risk factors in the Gail Model. Conclusions Our results suggest that in addition to the risk factors in the Gail Model, there likely are other factors that also contribute to the large difference in breast cancer risk between Canada and China. PMID:20053286

  4. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield. PMID:22313756

  5. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  6. Differences in legal characteristics between Caucasian and African-American women diverted into substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Scott, Melanie C; Edwards, Laurie; Lussier, Lauren R; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we examined differences in the legal characteristics of Caucasian and African-American female offenders (n = 122) who were diverted into substance abuse treatment, to identify any racial disparities. We also examined the differences between groups in demographics and in substance abuse, family, and violence histories. In terms of legal characteristics, the results showed that African-American female offenders were significantly more likely to have been incarcerated at the time of their substance dependency evaluation than were Caucasian female offenders. Also, African-American women were more likely to have served 13 months for the current legal charge in comparison to the 4 months served by Caucasian women, although no differences were found between groups in the severity of the current legal charge. Comparison of demographics and substance abuse, family, and violence histories indicated that African-American women were more likely to be undereducated, crack cocaine dependent, and overly exposed to violence. Overall, the sample of female offenders evidenced severe substance dependency problems, a strong need for inpatient substance abuse treatment, and chronic legal and social difficulties. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to unbalanced sentencing policies and increasing awareness of the treatment needs of this unique population. PMID:21389168

  7. Dosing Algorithms to Predict Warfarin Maintenance Dose in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schelleman, Hedi; Chen, Jinbo; Chen, Zhen; Christie, Jason; Newcomb, Craig W.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Price, Maureen; Whitehead, Alexander S.; Kealey, Carmel; Thorn, Caroline F.; Samaha, Frederick F.; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine whether clinical, environmental, and genetic factors can be used to develop dosing algorithms for Caucasians and African Americans that perform better than giving empirical 5 mg/day. Methods From April 2002 through December 2005, 259 warfarin initiators were prospectively followed until they reached maintenance dose. Results The Caucasian algorithm included 11 variables (R2=0.43). This model (51% within 1 mg) performed better compared with 5 mg/day (29% within 5±1 mg). The African American algorithm included 10 variables (R2=0.28). This model predicted 37% of doses within 1 mg of the observed dose; a small improvement compared with 5 mg/day (34%). These results were similar to the results we obtained from testing other (published) algorithms. Conclusions The dosing algorithms in Caucasians explained <45% of the variability and the algorithms in African Americans performed only marginally better than giving 5 mg empirically. PMID:18596683

  8. CLU rs9331888 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Caucasian But Not East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xuling; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Jiafeng; Wang, Guangyu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Qinghua; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11136000, rs2279590, and rs9331888 in CLU gene to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry. Both rs11136000 and rs2279590 variants were successfully replicated in Asian population. However, previous studies reported either a weak association or no association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in Asian population. Here, we searched the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We selected 12 independent studies that evaluated the association between the rs9331888 polymorphism and AD using a case-control design. Using an additive model, we did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 12 studies. We observed significant association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 2.26E - 07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.14). In subgroup analysis, we did not identify significant heterogeneity in both Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified significant association in Caucasian population (P = 1.67E - 08, OR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.08-1.18) but not in East Asian population (P = 0.49, OR = 1.02, 95 % CI 0.96-1.10). PMID:25633098

  9. Geographic variation in organ availability is responsible for disparities in liver transplantation between Hispanics and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Volk, M L; Choi, H; Warren, G J W; Sonnenday, C J; Marrero, J A; Heisler, M

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether disparities in waiting list outcomes exist for Hispanics and African Americans during the post-MELD era, and to investigate interactions between disparities and geography. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data were used to compare Hispanics and African Americans to Caucasians listed between 2003 and 2008. Endpoints included (i) receipt of a liver transplant and (ii) death or removal from the waiting list for being too sick or medically unsuitable. Adjustment for possible confounders was performed using multivariate Cox regression, with adjustment for geographic variation using a fixed-effects multilevel model. In multivariate analysis, African Americans have similar hazard of transplantation and death/removal as Caucasians during the post-MELD era. However, Hispanics are less likely to receive a transplant than Caucasians despite adjustment for potential confounders (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.83), while having a similar hazard of death/removal. This effect disappeared after adjusting for unequal regional distribution of Hispanics, who represent 8% of patients in donation service areas (DSAs) having median waiting times of < or = 155 days versus 19% in DSAs with median waiting times of >155 days. In conclusion, disparities in liver transplantation exist for Hispanics during the post-MELD era, caused by geographic variation in organ availability. PMID:19624565

  10. Looking at faces from different angles: Europeans fixate different features in Asian and Caucasian faces.

    PubMed

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Armann, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Race categorization of faces is a fast and automatic process and is known to affect further face processing profoundly and at earliest stages. Whether processing of own- and other-race faces might rely on different facial cues, as indicated by diverging viewing behavior, is much under debate. We therefore aimed to investigate two open questions in our study: (1) Do observers consider information from distinct facial features informative for race categorization or do they prefer to gain global face information by fixating the geometrical center of the face? (2) Does the fixation pattern, or, if facial features are considered relevant, do these features differ between own- and other-race faces? We used eye tracking to test where European observers look when viewing Asian and Caucasian faces in a race categorization task. Importantly, in order to disentangle centrally located fixations from those towards individual facial features, we presented faces in frontal, half-profile and profile views. We found that observers showed no general bias towards looking at the geometrical center of faces, but rather directed their first fixations towards distinct facial features, regardless of face race. However, participants looked at the eyes more often in Caucasian faces than in Asian faces, and there were significantly more fixations to the nose for Asian compared to Caucasian faces. Thus, observers rely on information from distinct facial features rather than facial information gained by centrally fixating the face. To what extent specific features are looked at is determined by the face's race. PMID:24796509

  11. Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

  12. Large-scale in-vivo Caucasian facial soft tissue thickness database for craniofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    De Greef, S; Claes, P; Vandermeulen, D; Mollemans, W; Suetens, P; Willems, G

    2006-05-15

    A large-scale study of facial soft tissue depths of Caucasian adults was conducted. Over a 2-years period, 967 Caucasian subjects of both sexes, varying age and varying body mass index (BMI) were studied. A user-friendly and mobile ultrasound-based system was used to measure, in about 20min per subject, the soft tissue thickness at 52 facial landmarks including most of the landmarks used in previous studies. This system was previously validated on repeatability and accuracy [S. De Greef, P. Claes, W. Mollemans, M. Loubele, D. Vandermeulen, P. Suetens, G. Willems, Semi-automated ultrasound facial soft tissue depth registration: method and validation. J. Forensic Sci. 50 (2005)]. The data of 510 women and 457 men were analyzed in order to update facial soft tissue depth charts of the contemporary Caucasian adult. Tables with the average thickness values for each landmark as well as the standard deviation and range, tabulated according to gender, age and BMI are reported. In addition, for each landmark and for both sexes separately, a multiple linear regression of thickness versus age and BMI is calculated. The lateral asymmetry of the face was analysed on an initial subset of 588 subjects showing negligible differences and thus warranting the unilateral measurements of the remaining subjects. The new dataset was statistically compared to three datasets for the Caucasian adults: the traditional datasets of Rhine and Moore [J.S. Rhine, C.E. Moore, Tables of facial tissue thickness of American Caucasoids in forensic anthropology. Maxwell Museum Technical series 1 (1984)] and Helmer [R. Helmer, Schädelidentifizierung durch elektronische bildmischung, Kriminalistik Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, 1984] together with the most recent in vivo study by Manhein et al. [M.H. Manhein, G.A. Listi, R.E. Barsley, R. Musselman, N.E. Barrow, D.H. Ubelbaker, In vivo facial tissue depth measurements for children and adults. J. Forensic Sci. 45 (2000) 48-60]. The large-scale database

  13. Obesity-related non-communicable diseases: South Asians vs White Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Khurana, L

    2011-02-01

    South Asians are at higher risk than White Caucasians for the development of obesity and obesity-related non-communicable diseases (OR-NCDs), including insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Rapid nutrition and lifestyle transitions have contributed to acceleration of OR-NCDs in South Asians. Differences in determinants and associated factors for OR-NCDs between South Asians and White Caucasians include body phenotype (high body fat, high truncal, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and low muscle mass), biochemical parameters (hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, low levels of adiponectin and high levels of C-reactive protein), procoagulant state and endothelial dysfunction. Higher prevalence, earlier onset and increased complications of T2DM and CHD are often seen at lower levels of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in South Asians than White Caucasians. In view of these data, lower cut-offs for obesity and abdominal obesity have been advocated for Asian Indians (BMI; overweight >23 to 24.9 kg m(-2) and obesity ≥ 25 kg m(-2); and WC; men ≥ 90 cm and women ≥ 80 cm, respectively). Imbalanced nutrition, physical inactivity, perinatal adverse events and genetic differences are also important contributory factors. Other differences between South Asians and White Caucasians include lower disease awareness and health-seeking behavior, delayed diagnosis due to atypical presentation and language barriers, and religious and sociocultural factors. All these factors result in poorer prevention, less aggressive therapy, poorer response to medical and surgical interventions, and higher morbidity and mortality in the former. Finally, differences in response to pharmacological agents may exist between South Asians and White Caucasians, although these have been inadequately studied. In view of these data, prevention and management strategies should be more

  14. Pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers following intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Toublanc, Nathalie; Okagaki, Takuya; Boyce, Malcolm; Chan, Robert; Mugitani, Ayumi; Watanabe, Shikiko; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2015-12-01

    The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg. PMID:25283522

  15. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  16. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  17. Body composition is the main determinant for the difference in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology between Japanese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jonas B; Pedersen, Maria; Tanaka, Haruhiko; Ohsugi, Mitsuru; Overgaard, Rune V; Lynge, Jan; Almind, Katrine; Vasconcelos, Nina-Maria; Poulsen, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte; Ueki, Kohjiro; Ingwersen, Steen H; Pedersen, Bente K; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This cross-sectional clinical study compared the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in Japanese and Caucasians and investigated the role of demographic, genetic, and lifestyle-related risk factors for insulin resistance and β-cell response. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 120 Japanese and 150 Caucasians were enrolled to obtain comparable distributions of high/low BMI values across glucose tolerance states (normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes), which were assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. BMI in the two cohorts was distributed around the two regional cutoff values for obesity. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity was higher in Japanese compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda indices, whereas β-cell response was higher in Caucasians, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function, the insulinogenic indices, and insulin secretion ratios. Disposition indices were similar for Japanese and Caucasians at all glucose tolerance states, indicating similar β-cell response relative to the degree of insulin resistance. The main determinants for differences in metabolic indices were measures of body composition, such as BMI and distribution of adipose tissue. Differences in β-cell response between Japanese and Caucasians were not statistically significant following adjustment by differences in BMI. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed similar disposition indices in Japanese and Caucasians and that the major part of the differences in insulin sensitivity and β-cell response between Japanese and Caucasians can be explained by differences in body composition. PMID:24130359

  18. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  19. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  20. Intraoperative anaphylaxis due to gelofusine in a patient undergoing intramedullary nailing of the femur: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although uncommon, anaphylaxis due to a colloid plasma expander can occur peri-operatively Case presentation We present a case of an intra-operative cardiac arrest in a 72 year old Caucasian male patient who underwent prophylactic intramedullary nailing for a proximal femoral metastasis from prostate cancer. The patient was resuscitated successfully and the procedure was completed uneventfully. Elevated serum tryptase levels confirmed the diagnosis of an anaphylactic reaction and positive allergy skin prick testing identified gelofusine as the causative agent. Conclusion A high index of suspicion, prompt diagnosis and rapid institution of treatment are essential for a safe outcome following such reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of such a severe reaction to gelofusine infusion that occurs during an orthopaedic procedure. PMID:19126195

  1. Health Information Seeking Among Rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics: It Is Built, Did They Come?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment. PMID:26333608

  2. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  3. [Genetics and anthropology of Caucasian nations and the problem of "caucasoids" origin].

    PubMed

    Nazarova, A F; Aslanishvili, V O; Alkhutov, S M

    2004-01-01

    Anthropological investigations have shown that representatives of European and mongoloid races lived in the river basin of Aragvi from late Stone Age. These data confirm a viewpoint of academician V.P. Alekssev (1974) that population of the Caucasus was compound in race terms from the ancient times. Situation of the Caucasian peoples on the dendrogrammes built corresponds in general to the data of national anthropologists. Clusterization of other europeoid ethnic groups also corresponds in general to the anthropological and historical data and confirms hypothesis which we have set up earlier about differentiation of europeoids, north mongoloids and amerinds of the same population which lived in Asia in palaeolith. PMID:15771089

  4. Rocuronium blockade reversal with sugammadex vs. neostigmine: randomized study in Chinese and Caucasian subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 μg/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects. Methods This was a randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, safety-assessor-blinded study (NCT00825812) in American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 subjects undergoing surgery with propofol anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for endotracheal intubation, with 0.1–0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required. NMB was monitored using TOF-Watch® SX. At second twitch reappearance, after last rocuronium dose, subjects received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 μg/kg plus atropine 10–20 μg/kg, according to randomization. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex/neostigmine to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Results Overall, 230 Chinese subjects (sugammadex, n = 119, neostigmine, n = 111); and 59 Caucasian subjects (sugammadex, n = 29, neostigmine, n = 30) had evaluable data. Geometric mean (95% CI) time to recovery to TOF ratio 0.9 was 1.6 (1.5–1.7) min with sugammadex vs 9.1 (8.0–10.3) min with neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Corresponding times for Caucasian subjects were 1.4 (1.3–1.5) min and 6.7 (5.5–8.0) min, respectively. Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. There was no residual NMB or recurrence of NMB. Conclusion Both Chinese and Caucasian subjects recovered from NMB significantly faster after sugammadex 2 mg/kg vs neostigmine 50 μg/kg, with a ~5.7 times (p < 0.0001) faster recovery with sugammadex vs neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00825812. PMID:25187755

  5. Vitamin D status in Well-Controlled Caucasian HIV Patients in Relation to Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers – A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Missailidis, C; Höijer, J; Johansson, M; Ekström, L; Bratt, G; Hejdeman, B; Bergman, P

    2015-01-01

    To study vitamin D (25OH D3) in relation to (i) microbial translocation (ii) systemic inflammation and (iii) blood lipid markers, in Caucasian, well-controlled HIV patients and healthy controls, plasma and serum samples from n = 97 male, HIV patients on HAART with immeasurable viral load (<20 copies/ml) since median 6.5 years and no concurrent inflammatory or infectious disease and n = 30 healthy controls were analysed for (i) LPS; (ii) sCD14, hsCRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, MCP-1 and IFN-γ; as well as (iii) blood lipids. Vitamin D levels were similarly distributed and equally low in both HIV patients and controls. There was no association between vitamin D levels and markers of microbial translocation, systemic inflammation or dyslipidemia. LPS levels were similar in both groups but HIV patients expressed higher levels of sCD14 and hsCRP, with HIV as an independent risk factor. HIV patients had higher cholesterol and Apo B levels. Notably, more HIV patients smoked and smoking was associated with lower vitamin D levels. In conclusion; these well-treated Caucasian HIV patients had similar vitamin D levels as healthy controls. However, despite perfect virological control, they exhibited slightly increased inflammatory markers and disturbed blood lipids. However, neither of these parameters were associated with low vitamin D levels but appeared to be linked to the HIV-disease per se. Thus, the rationale for vitamin D substitution as a way to improve microbial translocation and systemic inflammation is not fully supported in this HIV population. PMID:25833795

  6. Vitamin D status in Well-Controlled Caucasian HIV Patients in Relation to Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers--A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Missailidis, C; Höijer, J; Johansson, M; Ekström, L; Bratt, G; Hejdeman, B; Bergman, P

    2015-07-01

    To study vitamin D (25OH D3 ) in relation to (i) microbial translocation (ii) systemic inflammation and (iii) blood lipid markers, in Caucasian, well-controlled HIV patients and healthy controls, plasma and serum samples from n = 97 male, HIV patients on HAART with immeasurable viral load (<20 copies/ml) since median 6.5 years and no concurrent inflammatory or infectious disease and n = 30 healthy controls were analysed for (i) LPS; (ii) sCD14, hsCRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, MCP-1 and IFN-γ; as well as (iii) blood lipids. Vitamin D levels were similarly distributed and equally low in both HIV patients and controls. There was no association between vitamin D levels and markers of microbial translocation, systemic inflammation or dyslipidemia. LPS levels were similar in both groups but HIV patients expressed higher levels of sCD14 and hsCRP, with HIV as an independent risk factor. HIV patients had higher cholesterol and Apo B levels. Notably, more HIV patients smoked and smoking was associated with lower vitamin D levels. In conclusion; these well-treated Caucasian HIV patients had similar vitamin D levels as healthy controls. However, despite perfect virological control, they exhibited slightly increased inflammatory markers and disturbed blood lipids. However, neither of these parameters were associated with low vitamin D levels but appeared to be linked to the HIV-disease per se. Thus, the rationale for vitamin D substitution as a way to improve microbial translocation and systemic inflammation is not fully supported in this HIV population. PMID:25833795

  7. Converging Evidence of Ubiquitous Male Bias in Human Sex Perception.

    PubMed

    Gaetano, Justin; van der Zwan, Rick; Oxner, Matthew; Hayward, William G; Doring, Natalie; Blair, Duncan; Brooks, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Visually judging the sex of another can be achieved easily in most social encounters. When the signals that inform such judgements are weak (e.g. outdoors at night), observers tend to expect the presence of males-an expectation that may facilitate survival-critical decisions under uncertainty. The present aim was to examine whether this male bias depends on expertise. To that end, Caucasian and Asian observers targeted female and male hand images that were either the same or different to the observers' race (i.e. long term experience was varied) while concurrently, the proportion of targets changed across presentation blocks (i.e. short term experience change). It was thus found that: (i) observers of own-race stimuli were more likely to report the presence of males and absence of females, however (ii) observers of other-race stimuli--while still tending to accept stimuli as male--were not prone to rejecting female cues. Finally, (iii) male-biased measures did not track the relative frequency of targets or lures, disputing the notion that male bias derives from prior expectation about the number of male exemplars in a set. Findings are discussed in concert with the pan-stimulus model of human sex perception. PMID:26859570

  8. Pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine hydrochloride in healthy Chinese, Japanese, and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, An; Sharma, Om; Tianmei, Si; Aquilina, Joseph W; Vandebosch, An; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Mudumbi, Ramagopal; Hsiao, Hsiu-Ling

    2010-12-01

    Dapoxetine is a short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor developed for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation and is approved in some European Union countries, as well as Mexico and Korea, for this indication. The pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg in healthy Chinese (single dose), Japanese, and Caucasian men (single and multiple dose) were assessed in 2 studies. In the 3 ethnic groups, dapoxetine was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations evident approximately 1 hour after dosing, independent of dose, dosing frequency (single or multiple dosing), or ethnicity. Dapoxetine was eliminated in a biphasic manner with an apparent mean terminal half-life of 14 to 17 hours. There was a dose-proportional increase in dapoxetine maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under concentration-time curves (AUCs). The single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of dapoxetine metabolites were also similar for the 3 ethnic groups, as were the pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine and its metabolites following single and multiple dosing in Caucasian and Japanese men. Dapoxetine was well tolerated by all 3 ethnic groups. PMID:20097934

  9. Anterior Segment Dimensions in Asian and Caucasian Eyes Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bing; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Chu, Renyuan; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Anterior segment OCT images were obtained in normal subjects. Four line scans were acquired at the 90°, 45°, 0°, and 135° meridians of each eye. Computer calipers acquired anterior segment dimensions of corneal diameter, anterior chamber width, corneal vault, and anterior chamber depth on OCT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess correlations. RESULTS Corneal diameter was 0.5 mm narrower (P < .01), anterior chamber width was 0.46 mm narrower (P < .01), and corneal vault was 0.22 mm lower (P < .01) in Asian eyes. All anterior segment dimensions decreased with age. CONCLUSION Asian eyes had smaller anterior segments compared to Caucasian eyes. Regardless of race, anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lenses. PMID:22320411

  10. Burkitt-type lymphoma in France among non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas in Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Philip, T; Lenoir, G M; Bryon, P A; Gerard-Marchant, R; Souillet, G; Philippe, N; Freycon, F; Brunat-Mentigny, M

    1982-05-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 87 cases of Caucasian childhood non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML) from Lyon, France, all the case were diffuse lymphomas, but 47 were diagnosed as monomorphic small non-cleaved NHML, pathologically indistinguishable from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). BL could then be the most frequent childhood lymphoma in France. This homogeneous series allows better definition of the characteristics of BL within NHML. Age distribution is similar to that of endemic BL, with a sex ratio of 3.7/1. Abdominal masses are initially present in 68% of the cases, whereas jaw is involved in only 4%. The disease is characterized by its overwhelming evolution in the absence of therapy. However, complete remission (CR) is usually obtained after the first chemtherapy regimen. Most relapses occur at 3-8 months. Death could be related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) involvement, local recurrence or secondary marrow involvement. Ninety per cent of the patients alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 8 months after CR can be considered as definitely cured. Our study on Caucasian children with NHML indicates that, from histological and clinical criteria, nearly half the cases are very similar to African BL. Even though EBV rarely associated with our cases, BL could be a worldwide lymphoma. PMID:7082553

  11. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). The change in vellus hair proportion (<40 μm) was significantly lower in the adenosine group than that in the placebo group (P = 0.0154). The change in hair density compared with baseline of the adenosine group was also significantly higher compared with that of the placebo group (P = 0.0470). No adverse effects due to treatment were noted during this study by dermatological evaluation. Adenosine is effective in increasing the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women. PMID:26508659

  12. Gene-environment interactions on mental development in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The health impact of environmental toxins has gained increasing recognition over the years. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are known to affect nervous system development in children, but no studies have investigated how polymorphisms in PAH metabolic or detoxification genes affect child cognitive development following PAH exposure during pregnancy. In two parallel prospective cohort studies of nonsmoking African American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City and of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we explored the effect of gene-PAH interaction on child mental development index (MDI), as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised (BSID-II). Genes known to play important roles in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs were selected. Genetic variations in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. We explored the effects of interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 21 polymorphisms or haplotypes in these genes on MDI at 12, 24, and 36 months among 547 newborns and 806 mothers from three different ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interaction effects between haplotypes and PAHs were observed in mothers and their newborns in all three ethnic groups after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The strongest and most consistent effect observed was between PAH and haplotype ACCGGC of the CYP1B1 gene. PMID:19860743

  13. Comparison of the dentofacial patterns for native Greek and American-Caucasian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, E; Sassouni, V

    1989-03-01

    The study of the craniofacial relations and variations in man has long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. Morphologic features of different races and ethnic groups are not randomly distributed but appear in geographic clusters. Richardson wonders whether there is only one race, comprising ethnic groups separated by cultural, climatic, and geographic boundaries, causing subtle changes in facial morphology. Since the introduction of roentgenographic cephalometry in orthodontics, several methods of analysis have been developed for clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. Also, these methods have been used to establish the cephalometric norms of different ethnic groups: American Negro, Australian aborigine, American Mexican, Norwegian, Indian, Japanese, Swedish, and Iranian. Sassouni, Ricketts, and others have concluded that norms differ between Caucasians and other ethnic and racial groups. Ethnic differences in facial traits do exist. Awareness of the normal dentofacial pattern of each ethnic group will undoubtedly ensure better success of treatment to establish optimal facial harmony. These conclusions prompted the present investigation, which compares Greek and American-Caucasian dentofacial patterns of adolescents, and provides information on the facial characteristics of Greek adolescents. To date, no similar study has been made. PMID:2923103

  14. Oculocutaneous albinism with TYRP1 gene mutations in a Caucasian patient.

    PubMed

    Rooryck, Caroline; Roudaut, Christel; Robine, Eulalie; Müsebeck, Jörg; Arveiler, Benoît

    2006-06-01

    Non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with mutations identified in several genes: OCA1 (tyrosinase, TYR), OCA2 (OCA2), OCA3 (tyrosinase-related protein 1, TYRP1), and OCA4 (membrane-associated transporter protein, MATP). OCA3 was thought to be restricted to black populations, where it was clinically described as rufous or brown albinism, until the recent report of a homozygous TYRP1 mutation in Caucasian patients from a consanguineous Pakistani family. Here, we describe a German patient of Caucasian origin, with a light-yellow skin, yellow-gold hair with orange highlights, fair eyelashes, several pigmented naevi, and no tendency to tan, only to burn. Eye-colour is blue-green with substance defects of the iris. Molecular analysis did not reveal any mutation in the TYR and OCA2 genes. Two mutations were found in the TYRP1 gene: a missense mutation (c.1066G>A/p.Arg356Glu) that was inherited from the mother, and a de novo single-base deletion (c.106delT/p.Leu36X). This finding suggests that mutation screening should be extended to the TYRP1 gene in patients from all ethnic origins, at least in cases where no mutations have been identified in the other OCA genes. PMID:16704458

  15. Male ironman triathletes lose skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumann, Barbara; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose body mass in the form of fat mass or skeletal muscle mass in a field study at the Ironman Switzerland in 27 male Caucasian non-professional Ironman triathletes. Pre- and post-race body mass, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass were determined. In addition, total body water, hematological and urinary parameters were measured in order to quantify hydration status. Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (p< 0.05), skeletal muscle decreased by 1.0 kg (p< 0.05) whereas fat mass showed no changes. Urinary specific gravity, plasma urea and plasma volume increased (p< 0.05). Pre- to post-race change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with ? skeletal muscle mass. Additionally, there was no association between Delta plasma urea and Delta skeletal muscle mass; Delta plasma volume was not associated with Delta total body water (p< 0.05). We concluded that male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose 1.8 kg of body mass and 1 kg of skeletal muscle mass, presumably due to a depletion of intramyocellular stored glycogen and lipids. PMID:20199992

  16. Facial morphology and children's categorization of facial expressions of emotions: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian faces.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, P; Larocque, C

    2000-09-01

    The effects of Asian and Caucasian facial morphology were examined by having Canadian children categorize pictures of facial expressions of basic emotions. The pictures were selected from the Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion set developed by D. Matsumoto and P. Ekman (1989). Sixty children between the ages of 5 and 10 years were presented with short stories and an array of facial expressions, and were asked to point to the expression that best depicted the specific emotion experienced by the characters. The results indicated that expressions of fear and surprise were better categorized from Asian faces, whereas expressions of disgust were better categorized from Caucasian faces. These differences originated in some specific confusions between expressions. PMID:10971913

  17. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2011-06-01

    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women. PMID:21596635

  18. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal-adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal-adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32-36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6-10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min(-1) and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min(-1) in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min(-1) at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal-adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. PMID:25545472

  19. Exercise intensity and oxygen uptake kinetics in African-American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Nicola; Tolentino-Silva, Fatima; Nasca, Melita M.; Silva, Marco A.; Gladden, L. Bruce; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exercise intensity on the on- and off-transient kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2) was investigated in African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women. African American (n=7) and Caucasian (n=6) women of similar age, body mass index and weight, performed an incremental test and bouts of square-wave exercise at moderate, heavy and very heavy intensities on a cycle ergometer. Gas exchange threshold (LTGE) was lower in AA (13.6±2.3mL·kg−1min−1) than C (18.6±5.6mL·kg−1min−1). The dynamic exercise and recovery VO2 responses were characterized by mathematical models. There were no significant differences in 1) peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) between AA (28.5±5mL kg−1min−1) and C (31.1±6.6mL kg−1min−1) and 2) VO2 kinetics at any exercise intensity. At moderate exercise, the on- and off- VO2 kinetics was described by a mono-exponential function with similar time constants τ1,on (39.4±12.5s;38.8±15s) and τ1,off (52.7±10.1s;40.7±4.4s) for AA and C, respectively. At heavy and very heavy exercise, the VO2 kinetics was described by a double-exponential function. The parameter values for heavy and very heavy exercise in the AA group were respectively: τ1,on (47.0±10.8;44.3±10s), τ2,on (289±63;219±90s), τ1,off (45.9±6.2;50.7±10s), τ2,off (259±120;243±93s) while in the C group were respectively: τ1,on (41±12;43.2±15s); τ2,on(277±81;215±36s), τ1,off (40.2±3.4;42.3±7.2s), τ2,off (215±133;228±64s). The on- and off-transients were symmetrical with respect to model order and dependent on exercise intensity regardless of race. Despite similar VO2 kinetics, LTGE and gain of the VO2 on-kinetics at moderate intensity were lower in AA than C. However, generalization to the African American and Caucasian populations is constrained by the small subject numbers. PMID:21717119

  20. Evaluation of Markers of Bone Turnover During Lactation in African-Americans: A Comparison With Caucasian Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Raquel M.; Prebehalla, Linda; Tedesco, Mary Beth; Sereika, Susan M.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Stewart, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The African-American skeleton is resistant to PTH; whether it is also resistant to PTHrP and the hormonal milieu of lactation is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess bone turnover markers in African-Americans during lactation vs Caucasians. Design and Participants: A prospective cohort study with repeated measures of markers of bone turnover in 60 African-American women (3 groups of 20: lactating, bottle feeding, and healthy controls), compared with historic Caucasian women. Setting: The study was conducted at a university medical center. Outcome Measures: Biochemical markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism were measured. Results: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and PTH were similar among all 3 African-American groups, but 25-OHD was 30%–50% lower and PTH 2-fold higher compared with Caucasians (P < .001, P < .002), with similar 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] values. Formation markers [amino-terminal telopeptide of procollagen-1 (P1NP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)] increased significantly (2- to 3-fold) in lactating and bottle-feeding African-American women (P1NP, P < .001; BSAP, P < .001), as did resorption [carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen-1 (CTX) and serum amino-terminal telopeptide of collagen 1 (NTX), both P < .001]. P1NP and BSAP were comparable in African-American and Caucasian controls, but CTX and NTX were lower in African-American vs Caucasian controls. African-American lactating mothers displayed quantitatively similar increases in markers of bone formation but slightly lower increases in markers of resorption vs Caucasians (P = .036). Conclusions: Despite reported resistance to PTH, lactating African-American women have a significant increase in markers of bone resorption and formation in response the hormonal milieu of lactation. This response is similar to that reported in Caucasian women despite racial differences in 25-OHD and PTH. Whether this is associated with similar bone

  1. Evaluation of independence assumptions for PCR-based and protein-based genetic markers in New Jersey Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Jankowski, L B; Corey, H W; Swec, N T; Freck-Tootell, S; Pino, J A; Schwartz, R; Kelley, C A; Tarver, M L

    1997-03-01

    Allele frequencies for six PCR-based loci and three protein-based (i.e., enzyme systems) loci were determined in a Caucasian sample population from New Jersey. The loci are LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, Gc, HLA-DQA1, PGM1, ESD, and EAP. All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg expectations. In addition, there is little evidence for association of alleles among the nine loci. The allelic frequency data generally are similar to another Caucasian population database. PMID:9068180

  2. Male pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  3. Phlebotomy improves histology in chronic hepatitis C males with mild iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Massimo; Andorno, Silvano; Rossini, Angelo; Boldorini, Renzo; Bozzola, Cristina; Carmagnola, Stefania; Piano, Mario Del; Albano, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of mild iron depletion and the factors predictive for histological improvement following phlebotomy in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: We investigated 28 CHC Caucasians with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and non responders to, or unsuitable for, antiviral therapy who underwent mild iron depletion (ferritin ≤ 70 ng/mL) by long-term phlebotomy. Histological improvement, as defined by at least one point reduction in the staging score or, in case of unchanged stage, as at least two points reduction in the grading score (Knodell), was evaluated in two subsequent liver biopsies (before and at the end of phlebotomy, 48 ± 16 mo apart). RESULTS: Phlebotomy showed an excellent safety profile. Histological improvement occurred in 12/28 phlebotomized patients. Only males responded to phlebotomy. At univariate logistic analysis alcohol intake (P = 0.034), high histological grading (P = 0.01) and high hepatic iron concentration (HIC) (P = 0.04) before treatment were associated with histological improvement. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that in males high HIC was the only predictor of histological improvement following phlebotomy (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.94, P = 0.031). Accordingly, 12 out of 17 (70%) patients with HIC ≥ 20 μmol/g showed histological improvements at the second biopsy. CONCLUSION: Male CHC Caucasian non-responders to antiviral therapy with low-grade iron overload can benefit from mild iron depletion by long-term phlebotomy. PMID:20128028

  4. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    PubMed

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena. PMID:26160332

  5. Lateral intercrural suture in the caucasian nose: Decreased domal divergence angle in endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Mocelin, Marcos; Soares, Caio Márcio Correia; Pasinato, Rogério; Frota, Andreia Ellery

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to improve nasal tip definition such as cartilage resection, tip grafts, or sutures. Objctive: To evaluate the outcome of lateral intercrural suture at the lower lateral cartilage by endonasal rhinoplasty with a basic technique without delivery in decreasing the angle of domal divergence and improving the nasal tip definition. Method: This prospective study was performed in 64 patients in which a suture was made on the board head of the lower lateral cartilage in the joint between the dome and lateral crus, using polydioxanone (PDS) with sharp, curved needle. Results: In all of the cases, better definition of the nasal tip was achieved by intercrural suturing for at least 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Lateral intercrural suture of the lower lateral cartilage provides improved nasal tip definition and can be performed by endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery in the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991941

  6. Comparative studies on Asian and Caucasian children. 2: Nutrition, feeding practices and health.

    PubMed

    Warrington, S; Storey, D M

    1988-01-01

    The growth of children whose parents originated from the Indian subcontinent (Asians) and of indigenous, white children in Rochdale (Caucasians) has been related to dietary intake which was estimated by 3-day weighed intakes during a longitudinal study at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age. The use of human milk vis-à-vis infant milk formulas, the age of introduction of solid food and the effect of other environmental factors were also evaluated. Multiple regression analysis revealed the effects of diet per se on growth to be fairly minimal; a maximum of 28 per cent of the variation in growth could be explained by diet and the few individual nutrients significantly correlated with a growth index were not consistent. PMID:3371300

  7. Alar-spanning suture for tip contouring in closed approach rhinoplasty for African-Caucasian noses.

    PubMed

    Cedin, Antonio Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The alar-spanning suture is one of the easiest techniques for correcting the width of the alar complex that reduces the bulbous tip of African-Caucasian patients. This conservative technique does not weaken the lateral crura and yields long- term predictable results. Rhinoplastic surgeons should keep in mind this useful and reliable tool in their options for refinement of these challenging wide tips and not create so dramatic a change that the appearance is not consonant with the patient's ethnic heritage. Despite cosmetic surgeons usually performing it through an external columellar incision approach, it is possible, in many cases, to do it in a closed access, and thus avoid the risk of hyperpigmentation or hypertrophic scarring. PMID:23761120

  8. Eccrine Porocarcinoma of the Eyelid in a Non-Caucasian Patient.

    PubMed

    Mak, Shiu Ting; Li, Kenneth K W

    2015-01-01

    A 60-year-old lady of Chinese origin presented with a right medial canthal mass. The lesion had been present for many years but progressively increased in size a few months prior to the consultation. Clinical examination revealed a medial canthal mass measuring 1.8 cm in diameter. It was firm with an irregular crusting surface. It was not attached to underlying deep lamella, and there were overlying telangiectatic vessels with contact bleeding. Excisional biopsy of the lesion confirmed a diagnosis of eccrine porocarcinoma. Eccrine porocarcinoma rarely occurs in the eyelid, and this is the first reported case of its occurrence in non-Caucasian patient. Given the significant risk of recurrence and metastasis, long-term surveillance is warranted. Although being rare, ophthalmologists should be vigilant of this potentially life-threatening lesion in the management of eyelid tumors. PMID:24841732

  9. Type 2 diabetes in South Asians: similarities and differences with white Caucasian and other populations

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Unjali P; Pradeepa, R; Weber, Mary Beth; Narayan, KM Venkat; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While all ethnic groups are affected, the prevalence of T2DM in South Asians, both in their home countries and abroad, is extremely high and is continuing to rise rapidly. Innate biological susceptibilities coupled with rapid changes in physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle behaviors are contributing factors propelling the increased burden of disease in this population. The large scope of this problem calls for investigations into the cause of increased susceptibility and preventative efforts at both the individual and population level that are aggressive, culturally sensitive, and start early. In this review, we outline the biological and environmental factors that place South Asians at elevated risk for T2DM, compared with Caucasian and other ethnic groups. PMID:23317344

  10. [Genetic differentiation of Caucasian wood mice: comparison of isozymic, chromosomal and molecular divergence].

    PubMed

    Chelomina, G N; Pavlenko, M V; Kartavtseva, I V; Boeskorov, G G; Liapunova, E A; Vorontsov, N N

    1998-02-01

    Data on the complex genetic analysis of three sympatric species of Caucasian wood mice, Apodemus ponticus, A. fulvipectus, and A. uralensis are presented. A high degree of genetic differentiation at the isozymic, karyological and molecular (nuclear DNA) levels was revealed. The genetic distances between each pair of species varied significantly within a wide range depending on the analyzed level of the organization of genetic material. Mean values of genetic divergence from one species to another were also variable. These findings indicated that evolution of chromosomes was slower than that of isozymes, and the degree of species divergence was similar on cytogenetic and molecular levels. They also suggested that the rates of species evolution could vary in different phyletic lineages and on different levels of organization. Some phyletic lineages of Apodemus could be distinguished by different directions of evolution. PMID:9589852

  11. Main Stages of Geodynamic Evolution of the Caucasian Segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamkrelidze, Irakli; Shengelia, David; Maisadze, Ferando; Tsutsunava, Tamara; Chichinadze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Within the oceanic area of Tethys, with a typical oceanic crust, in geological past relatively small continental or subcontinental plates (terranes) were situated. The Greater Caucasian, Black Sea - Central Transcaucasian, Baiburt - Sevanian and Iran - Afghanian accretionary terranes, which in geological past represented island arcs or microcontinents, are identified in the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean belt. They are separated by ophiolite sutures (relics of small or large oceanic basins) of different age. During the Late Precambrian, Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic these terranes underwent horizontal displacement in different directions and ultimately they joined the Eurasian continent. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating along with available geologic, petrologic and geochemical investigations, allow to trace with confidence the main stages of regional metamorphism, granite formation and, consequently, pre-Alpine continental crust making within the Caucasus. At the pre-Grenville stage (1200 Ma and more) between the Baltica and Gondvana ancient continents, on the oceanic crust of Prototethys accumulation mainly of terrigenous sediments and of basic volcanites took place. At the Grenville stage (1000-800 Ma) subcontinental or primitive continental crust (gneiss-migmatite complex and synmetamorphic grenitoids of sodium series) were formed in suprasubduction conditions by both sides of Proto-Paleotethys and along the northern peripheries of comparatively small oceanic basins of the Arkhiz and Southern Slope of the Greater Caucasus. At the Baikalian stage (650-550 Ma) plagiogneissic complex has been cut by Precambrian gabbroids and intruded by large bodies of quartz-diorites. The next, Late Baikalian stage (540-500 Ma) is determined by the intrusion of Cambrian basites and Late Baikalian granitoids and by manifestation of intensive suprasubduction regional metamorphism. Late Baikalian tectogenesis is accompanied by contraction of the small oceanic basin of

  12. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values=0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value=0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  13. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  14. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  15. Features of the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Caucasus Mountain System is a part of the Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian Convergence Zone (AHICZ) which lasted throughout Eurasia from Western Mediterranean to Western Pacific. This belt has been formed after closure of the Mesozoic Tethys and is marked by mountains building processes, appearance of riftogenic structures, numerous late Cenozoic basaltic plateaus, and chain of often within-continental andesite-latite volcanic arcs, which trace suture zones of the continental plates collision. Caucasus Mountains are located in eastern part of the proper Alpine Zone in zone of Arabian-Eurasian syntaxis and appeared as a result of submeridional pressure which generated by oncoming moving of these plates. The Great Caucasus is represent the south border of the Eurasian plate, uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (Thrust). The latter is a part of super-regional deep-seated fault ranged from the Kopetdag through Caspian Sea, Caucasus and Crimea; very likely, that its further continuation is Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. This superfault separates areas of Alpine convergence from Eurasian plate sensu stricto. The Caucasus occurred between Black and Caspian seas with passive margins and oceanic crust, covered by sediments of 10-15 km thick. Depressions of the seas form large "downfall", or caldrons which cut off pre-Pliocene structures of Caucasus and Kopetdag. These seas are, probably, small remnants of the Tethys which gradually shallowing in the Miocene (Zonenshain, Le Pichon, 1986). New essential deepening of the Black Sea and South-Caspian deep began in the Pliocene- Quaternary; it occurred simultaneously with uprising of Crimea and Caucasus, which were not marked in relief before (Grachev, 2000). Large positive isostatic anomaly beneath the Trans-Caucasian Transverse Uplift (TCTU) of the Great Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus, which stretch out to Arabian plate, occurred between "subsides" Black and especially Caspian seas with neutral to negative isostatic

  16. A Case of Unexplained Cerebral Sinus Thrombosis in a 22-Year-Old Obese Caucasian Woman.

    PubMed

    Seheult, Jansen N; Chibisov, Irina

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we present the case of a 22-year old obese Caucasian woman female with no acquired thrombophilic risk factors who was diagnosed with extensive cerebral sinus thrombosis. A detailed thrombophilia workup demonstrated persistently elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity levels, with an elevated PAI-1 antigen concentration and homozygosity for the PAI-1 4G allele (4G/4G genotype). The patient was treated with indefinite warfarin anticoagulation medication due to the unprovoked nature of her thrombotic event. Disturbances in the fibrinolytic system, in particular PAI-1, have been related to an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of hypofibrinolysis associated with elevated PAI-1 levels and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. PMID:27287941

  17. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

    PubMed Central

    Huseynova, Tukezban; Abdulaliyeva, Farah; Lanza, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC) using Scheimpflug camera. Setting Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1) eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber volume (ChV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (AC angle), keratometric power deviation (KPD), maximum front elevation (Max FE), and maximum back elevation (Max BE), as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI), Ambrosio relational thickness (ART), index of surface variance (ISV), index of vertical asymmetry (IVA), center keratoconus index (CKI), index of height asymmetry (IHA), index of height decentration (IHD), and radius minimum (RM) were collected and statistically compared between the two groups. Results PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05) between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all). Conclusion Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with steep cornea, in Caucasians. PMID:27099469

  18. Prevalence of daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes differs between Caucasian and Korean American women and girls.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Bin; Atkinson, Charlotte; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Jokela, Tuija; Wähälä, Kristiina; Thomas, Wendy K; Lampe, Johanna W

    2006-05-01

    Interindividual differences in metabolism of the soy isoflavone, daidzein, to equol and O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) by human gut bacteria, have been associated with altered risk of cancer and other chronic diseases, according to some studies. Differences have been reported in the prevalence of the equol-producer phenotype among populations, with a higher prevalence in soy-consuming Asian populations than in Western populations. To date, prevalence of the daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in Asians, compared with Caucasians, has not been evaluated in the context of a standardized phenotyping method. We assessed the prevalence of equol- and ODMA-producer phenotypes in 91 Korean American (KA) women and girls living in the Seattle, Washington area and compared this with previous similarly collected prevalence data in Caucasian American (CA) women and girls (n = 222). We also compared the dietary habits of the 2 groups. Isoflavonoid concentrations in first-void morning urines, collected after a 3-d soy challenge, were used to establish equol-, and ODMA-producer phenotypes (>44 microg/L). The prevalence of the equol-producer phenotype was higher (51 vs. 36%; P = 0.015) and the ODMA-producer phenotype was lower (84 vs. 92%, P = 0.03) in KA than in CA women and girls. KAs consumed approximately 3 times more soy foods than the CAs, but no significant associations were found between the consumption of soy foods and equol-producer phenotype. Our findings support the reports that, compared with Western populations, Asian populations have a higher equol-producer prevalence. The additional observation that the prevalence of the ODMA-producer phenotype is lower in KAs suggests that daidzein-metabolizing patterns in general may differ between KAs and CAs. PMID:16614428

  19. Time Orientation of Young Male First Offenders as a Function of Period of Imprisonment and Race. Criminal Justice Monograph Volume VI, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Paul J.

    This research attempted to identify differences, or lack of them, in time orientation of Caucasian, Black and Chicano young male first offenders at various periods of imprisonment; beginning, middle, and end. The instrument that was chosen to measure time orientation was a combination of two questionnaires--the Time Competence scale of the…

  20. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009

  1. Latino and Caucasian Students' Academic and Non-Academic Characteristics as Predictors of Educational Outcomes, High School and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jafeth Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    The pathway to a postsecondary education is challenging for many students, including students from the growing Latino population in the United States. This research project focused on Latino and Caucasian students' academic and non-academic characteristics as predictors of educational outcomes, high school and beyond. The introduction to the…

  2. Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNucci, James M.

    This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

  3. Ethnic Differences in Early Math Learning: A Comparison of Chinese-American and Caucasian-American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; And Others

    This study compared Chinese-American and Caucasian-American children and families in order to better understand which cultural and family characteristics, parent beliefs, and parent practices operate at the early childhood level to produce the more uniform high level of math achievement among Asian-American children. Forty second-generation…

  4. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  5. Cultural Diversity and Saccade Similarities: Culture Does Not Explain Saccade Latency Differences between Chinese and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Paul C.; Wolohan, Felicity D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour. PMID:24709988

  6. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  7. A Meta-Analytic Review of Racial-Ethnic Matching for African American and Caucasian American Clients and Clinicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sung-Man; Chow, Clifton; Camacho-Gonsalves, Teresita; Levy, Rachel J.; Allen, I. Elaine; Leff, H. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of client-clinician matching on the basis of race-ethnicity on overall functioning, service retention, and total number of sessions attended for African American and Caucasian American adult populations in mental health services. The analysis included 10 published and unpublished studies…

  8. Social Support as a Moderator between Dating Violence Victimization and Depression/Anxiety among African American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Melissa K.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Victimization in dating relationships was examined among 681 African American and Caucasian adolescents. Specifically, perceived social support was evaluated as a moderator between (a) physical dating violence victimization and anxiety/depression and (b) emotional abuse in dating relationships and anxiety/depression. Youth completed self-report…

  9. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  10. Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

  11. The first Caucasian patient with p.Val122Ile mutated-transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis treated with isolated heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ammirati, Enrico; Marziliano, Nicola; Vittori, Claudia; Pedrotti, Patrizia; Bramerio, Manuela A; Motta, Valentina; Orsini, Francesco; Veronese, Silvio; Merlini, Piera A; Martinelli, Luigi; Frigerio, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Effective treatments for mutated transthyretin (TTR)-related cardiac amyloidosis are limited. Heart transplantation or combined liver-heart transplantation are the most successful options, although results rely on underline mechanism and systemic nature of the disease. In this report, we present the first case of a Caucasian patient with the p.Val122Ile mutated TTR-related cardiac amyloidosis treated with heart transplantation due to this gene mutation frequent in Afro-Americans with a prevalent isolated heart involvement. The choice of isolated heart transplantation instead of combined heart and liver transplantations was based on (1) severe and progressive cardiac disease, (2) evidence of a gene mutation generally associated with isolated cardiac disease and (3) absence of relevant extra-cardiac involvement (with the possible exception of mild peripheral neuropathy). In any case, the very short post-transplant observation period of 10 months does not allow any conclusions on the long-term course of the presented strategy. Finally, it is the first European Caucasian family with the p.Val122Ile TTR mutation that has been described. Till now, very few Caucasian cases of p.Val122Ile mutated TTR-related cardiac amyloidosis have been reported. The patient and some members of his family also had mild peripheral neuropathy suggesting a regional phenotypic heterogeneity of European Caucasian TTR p.Val122Ile. PMID:22449240

  12. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Polymorphism (V16A) is Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Slovene (Caucasians) Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Petrovič, Mojca Globočnik; Cilenšek, Ines; Petrovič, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Substantial data indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Two candidate genes that affect the oxidative stress are manganese mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the V16A polymorphism of the Mn-SOD gene and the 4a/b polymorphism of the eNOS gene in the development of diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes. In this cross sectional case-control study 426 unrelated Slovene subjects (Caucasians) with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled: 283 patients with diabetic retinopathy and the control group of 143 subjects with type 2 diabetes of duration of more than 10 years who had no clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy. A significantly higher frequency of the VV genotype of the V16A polymorphism of the Mn-SOD was found in patients with diabetic retinopathy compared to those without diabetic retinopathy (OR=2.1, 95% CI = 1.2–3.4; p = 0.006), whereas the 4a/b polymorphism of the eNOS gene failed to yield an association with diabetic retinopathy. We may conclude that the VV genotype of the V16A polymorphism of the Mn-SOD gene was associated with diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes, therefore it might be used as a genetic marker of diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians. PMID:18057537

  13. Absence of bias in clinician ratings of everyday functioning among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sabbag, Samir; Prestia, Davide; Robertson, Belinda; Ruiz, Pedro; Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-09-30

    A substantial research literature implicates potential racial/ethnic bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and in clinical ratings of psychosis. There is no similar information regarding bias effects on ratings of everyday functioning. Our aims were to determine if Caucasian raters vary in their ratings of the everyday functioning of schizophrenia patients of different ethnicities, to find out which factors determine accurate self-report of everyday functioning in different ethnic groups, and to know if depression has similar effects on the way people of different ethnicities self-report their current functionality. We analyzed data on 295 patients with schizophrenia who provided their self-report of their everyday functioning and also had a Caucasian clinician rating their functionality. Three racial/ethnic groups (African American (AA), Hispanic and Caucasian) were studied and analyzed on the basis of neurocognition, functional capacity, depression and real-world functional outcomes. No differences based on racial/ethnic status in clinician assessments of patients' functionality were found. Differences between racial groups were found in personal and maternal levels of education. Severity of depression was significantly correlated with accuracy of self-assessment of functioning in Caucasians, but not in AAs. Higher scores on neurocognition and functional capacity scales correlated with reduced overestimation of functioning in AAs, but not in Hispanics. This data might indicate that measurement of everyday functionality is less subject to rater bias than measurement of symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26160197

  14. Use of oral anticoagulants in African-American and Caucasian patients with atrial fibrillation: is there a treatment disparity?

    PubMed

    Akinboboye, Olakunle

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae. The possible reasons for this paradox include poorer access to health care, lower health literacy, and a higher prevalence of other stroke-risk factors among African-Americans. Consequently, it is important for providers to evaluate the effects of race, health literacy, access to health care, and cultural barriers on the use of anticoagulation in the management of AF. Warfarin-dose requirements vary across racial groups, with African-American patients requiring a higher dose than Caucasians to maintain a therapeutic international normalized ratio; the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) seem to differ in this regard, although data are currently limited. Minority racial groups are not proportionally represented in either real-world studies or clinical trials, but as more information becomes available and other social issues are addressed, the treatment disparities between African-American and Caucasian patients should decrease. PMID:26056467

  15. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA. PMID:26288425

  16. Differential Associations Between Partner Violence and Physical Health Symptoms Among Caucasian and African American Help-Seeking Women

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated in a larger investigation of the psychological and psychophysiological correlates of recent partner violence among women seeking help for the abuse. Race was examined as a moderator of the relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms. Although mean levels of partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms did not significantly differ between African American and Caucasian women, linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant positive relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for African American women; whereas there was no association observed between these variables for Caucasian women. Post hoc analyses revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms partially mediated the association between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for the African American women. The current findings underscore the importance of considering race when studying the effect of partner violence on women’s health. PMID:23616911

  17. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred…

  18. Body Image and Disordered Eating among Asian American and Caucasian College Students: An Examination of Race and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences within race and race differences within gender regarding various body image and disordered eating variables among Caucasian and Asian American college students. Regardless of race, women reported more problem attitudes and behaviors than men. Gender differences were common and similar for both ethnic groups. Race made…

  19. Knowledge, quality of life, and use of complementary and alternative medicine and therapies in inflammatory bowel disease: a comparison of Chinese and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Leong, Rupert W L; Lawrance, Ian C; Ching, Jessica Y L; Cheung, Carrian M Y; Fung, Sara S L; Ho, Jenny N C; Philpott, Jillian; Wallace, Alison R; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2004-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is rare in the Chinese population, which may result in limited support, misinformation, and unalleviated fears and adversely affect quality of life (QOL). This study compared the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related knowledge, QOL, and use of complementary and alternative medicines and therapies (CAMT) in two contrasting IBD populations. Chinese and Caucasian IBD patients completed a questionnaire on IBD knowledge and CAMT usage. QOL was evaluated using the validated Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. One hundred sixty-two IBD patients were recruited, 81 Chinese and 81 Caucasian. The IBD knowledge score was higher in Caucasian than in Chinese IBD patients (median difference, 6.5; P = 0.001) and was independent of education and occupation. Twenty-one-percent of Chinese subjects incorrectly identified their IBD type (0% in the Caucasian group; P < 0.001). QOL was higher in the Chinese than the Caucasian group, but not significantly different after adjusting for disease activity. QOL was unassociated with IBD knowledge. The overall use of CAMT was similar in both groups (33% of Chinese and 37% of Caucasian patients) and similar for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD-related knowledge was inferior in Chinese compared to Caucasian IBD patients. Health-related QOL is unlikely to be greatly influenced by disease-related knowledge or education. A high proportion of Chinese and Caucasian IBD patients uses CAMT. PMID:15573925

  20. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR) between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03), were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01), and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06). Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better) transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2). LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01) with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46–0.86). Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40–0.79) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions/Significance Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  1. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  2. Converging Evidence of Ubiquitous Male Bias in Human Sex Perception

    PubMed Central

    Gaetano, Justin; van der Zwan, Rick; Oxner, Matthew; Hayward, William G.; Doring, Natalie; Blair, Duncan; Brooks, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Visually judging the sex of another can be achieved easily in most social encounters. When the signals that inform such judgements are weak (e.g. outdoors at night), observers tend to expect the presence of males–an expectation that may facilitate survival-critical decisions under uncertainty. The present aim was to examine whether this male bias depends on expertise. To that end, Caucasian and Asian observers targeted female and male hand images that were either the same or different to the observers’ race (i.e. long term experience was varied) while concurrently, the proportion of targets changed across presentation blocks (i.e. short term experience change). It was thus found that: (i) observers of own-race stimuli were more likely to report the presence of males and absence of females, however (ii) observers of other-race stimuli–while still tending to accept stimuli as male–were not prone to rejecting female cues. Finally, (iii) male-biased measures did not track the relative frequency of targets or lures, disputing the notion that male bias derives from prior expectation about the number of male exemplars in a set. Findings are discussed in concert with the pan-stimulus model of human sex perception. PMID:26859570

  3. Association of a tagging single nucleotide polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene region with susceptibility to severe hypospadias in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Adamovic, T; Thai, H T T; Liedén, A; Nordenskjöld, A

    2013-01-01

    Hypospadias is a congenital malformation and a milder form of 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). In the present study, we investigated 13 haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the steroid-5-alpha reductase (SRD5A2) and androgen receptor(AR) gene region, respectively, in a cohort consisting of 260 individuals with mild hypospadias and 77 with severe disease, in addition to 471 healthy male controls. The investigated genes are known to have an important role in the hormone-dependent stage of sexual development. Our study revealed one novel marker located in the AR gene region (rs5919436; g.67024320C>G) to be significantly associated with an increased risk of severe hypospadias (adjusted p value: 0.02; odds ratio: 2.98). In concordance with this finding, we detected an association of a haplotype tagged by the minor allele of rs5919436 (adjusted p value: 0.04). We further detected no association between the investigated disease and the haplotype tagging polymorphisms covering the SRD5A2 gene, which is of importance considering the conflicting results reported previously. In conclusion, our data implicate that the AR rs5919436 (g.67024320C>G) polymorphism may act as a novel genetic marker for increased susceptibility to severe hypospadias in Caucasians. PMID:23571770

  4. The inhibition by levocetirizine and fexofenadine of the histamine-induced wheal and flare response in healthy Caucasian and Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Schoepke, Nicole; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-05-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study compared inhibition by one 5 mg dose of levocetirizine with two 60 mg doses of fexofenadine separated by 12 h of histamine-induced wheal and flare responses in 9 Caucasian and 9 Japanese healthy male volunteers. Levocetirizine was more inhibitory than fexofenadine on wheal, flare and pruritus (p < 0.005). Variability, evaluated from the standard deviation of inhibition, ranged from 14% to 23.2% for levocetirizine and 65.4% to 112.4% for fexofenadine. Levocetirizine had a faster onset of action (30-90 min versus 2 h), shorter time to maximum effect (3-4 versus 3-6 h) and longer duration of action (at least 24 h versus ~12 h) than fexofenadine. The plasma levels of levocetirizine rose more quickly, reached higher levels, were more consistent and decreased slower than those of fexofenadine. There were no clinically significant ethnic differences in responsiveness to the drugs. PMID:23147964

  5. Coronary artery calcifications predict long term cardiovascular events in non diabetic Caucasian hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Noce, Annalisa; Canale, Maria Paola; Capria, Ambrogio; Rovella, Valentina; Tesauro, Manfredi; Splendiani, Giorgio; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Manzuoli, Micol; Simonetti, Giovanni; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcifications are frequent in chronic renal disease and are associated to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The long term predictive value of coronary artery calcifications detected by multi-layer spiral computed tomography for major cardiovascular events was evaluated in non-diabetic Caucasian patients on maintenance hemodialysis free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Two-hundred and five patients on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled into this observational, prospective cohort study. Patients underwent a single cardiac multi-layer spiral computed tomography. Calcium load was quantified and patients grouped according to the Agatston score: group 1 (Agatston score: 0), group 2 (Agatston score 1-400), group 3 (Agatston score 401-1000) and group 4 (Agatston score >1000). Follow-up was longer than seven years. Primary endpoint was death from a major cardiovascular event. Actuarial survival was calculated separately in the four groups with Kaplan-Meier method. Patients who died from causes other than cardiovascular disease and transplanted patients were censored. The “log rank” test was employed to compare survival curves. One-hundred two patients (49.7%) died for a major cardiovascular event during the follow-up period. Seven-year actuarial survival was more than 90% for groups 1 and 2, but failed to about 50% for group 3 and to <10% for group 4. Hence, Agatston score >400 predicts a significantly higher cardiovascular mortality compared with Agatston score <400 (p<0.0001); furthermore, serum Parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/l were associated to a lower survival (p < 0.05). Extended coronary artery calcifications detected by cardiac multi-layer spiral computed tomography, strongly predicted long term cardiovascular mortality in non-diabetic Caucasian patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Moreover, it was not related to conventional indices of atherosclerosis, but to other non-traditional risk factors, as serum Parathyroid

  6. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  7. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal–adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal–adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32–36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6–10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min−1 and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min−1 in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min−1 at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal–adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Key points Asian women have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasian

  8. Breast cancer survival disparity between African American and Caucasian women in Arkansas: A race-by-grade analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Siegel, Eric R.; Medarametla, Srikanth; Makhoul, Issam; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in breast cancer treatment, disparity persists in survival time between African American (AA) and Caucasian women in the US. Tumor stage and tumor grade are the major prognostic factors that define tumor aggressiveness and contribute to racial disparity between AA and Caucasian women. Studying the interaction of race with tumor grade or stage may provide further insights into the role of intrinsic biological aggressiveness in disecting the AA-Caucasian survival disparity. Therefore, the current study was performed to evaluate the interaction of race with tumor grade and stage at diagnosis regarding survival in a cohort of patients treated at the Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Little Rock, AR, USA). The cohort included 1,077 patients, 208 (19.3%) AA and 869 (80.7%) Caucasian, diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1997 and December 2005. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated and Cox regressions were performed to analyze the associations of race with breast cancer-specific survival time. Over a mean follow-up time of 1.5 years, AA women displayed increased mortality risk due to breast cancer-specific causes [hazard ratio (HR), 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23–2.46]. The magnitude of racial disparity varied strongly with tumor grade (race-x-grade interaction; P<0.001). No significant interaction was observed between race and tumor stage or race and age at diagnosis. Among women diagnosed with grade I tumors, the race disparity in survival time after controlling for tumor stage and age was strong (HR, 9.07; 95% CI, 2.11–38.95), but no significant AA-Caucasian disparity was observed among women with higher-grade tumors. The data suggest that, when diagnosed with grade I breast cancer, AA may experience poorer survival outcomes compared with Caucasian patients, regardless of tumor stage or age. The findings potentially provide significant clinical and public health

  9. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  10. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Bretherton-Watt, D; Given-Wilson, R; Mansi, J L; Thomas, V; Carter, N; Colston, K W

    2001-07-20

    There is increasing evidence that vitamin D can protect against breast cancer. The actions of vitamin D are mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We have investigated whether polymorphisms in the VDR gene are associated with altered breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population. We recruited 241 women following a negative screening mammogram and 181 women with known breast cancer. The VDR polymorphism Bsm I, an intronic 3' gene variant, was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk: odds ratio bb vs BB genotype = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.23-4.39). The Bsm I polymorphism was in linkage disequilibrium with a candidate translational control site, the variable length poly (A) sequence in the 3' untranslated region. Thus, the 'L' poly (A) variant was also associated with a similar breast cancer risk. A 5' VDR gene variant, Fok I, was not associated with breast cancer risk. Further investigations into the mechanisms of interactions of the VDR with other environmental and/or genetic influences to alter breast cancer risk may lead to a new understanding of the role of vitamin D in the control of cellular and developmental pathways. PMID:11461072

  11. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24896777

  12. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock lizard Darevskia dahlia.

    PubMed

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24618670

  13. Clonal Diversity and Clone Formation in the Parthenogenetic Caucasian Rock Lizard Darevskia dahli

    PubMed Central

    Vergun, Andrey A.; Martirosyan, Irena A.; Semyenova, Seraphima K.; Omelchenko, Andrey V.; Petrosyan, Varos G.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Tokarskaya, Olga N.; Korchagin, Vitaly I.; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24618670

  14. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age. PMID:25906836

  15. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A.; Cook, Marc D.; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  16. Bioequivalence study of 8 mg ondansetron film-coated tablets in healthy Caucasian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, P J; Kaza, M; Leś, A; Gilant, E; Ksycińska, H; Serafin-Byczak, K; Troć, M; Raszek, J; Piątkowska-Chabuda, E; Skowrońska-Smolak, M; Tarasiuk, A; Wilkowska, E; Łazowski, T

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioequivalence of a generic product of 8 mg film-coated tablets (test) to the branded product (reference) at the same strength in order to apply for regulatory approval. The secondary objective of the study was to compare the tolerability of both products. A double blinded, randomized, cross-over, 2-period, comparative study was conducted in healthy Caucasian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was followed by a 7-day wash-out period. The ondansetron concentration was determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detection method. The 90% confidence interval of the point estimate (test over reference products) for C(max) and AUC(0-t) fell within the 80.00-125.00% acceptance range. The results of the study indicate that the film-coated tablets of Ondatron 8 mg manufactured by Tarchomińskie Zakłady Farmaceutyczne Polfa S.A. (test product) are bioequivalent to those of Zofran manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Export Ltd (reference product). Both products were well tolerated. PMID:24132707

  17. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  18. In vivo Kinematics of the Knee after a Posterior Cruciate-Substituting Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Comparison between Caucasian and South Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ji-Hoon; Hosseini, Ali; Nha, Kyung-Wook; Park, Sang-Eun; Tsai, Tsung Yuan; Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study compared in vivo kinematic differences between Caucasian and South Korean patients after a posterior-substituting total knee arthroplasty (PS-TKA). Materials and Methods In vivo motions of 9 Caucasian and 13 South Korean knees with a PS-TKA during weight bearing single leg lunge were determined using a dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Normalized tibiofemoral condylar motions and articular contact locations were analyzed. Results Femoral condylar motions of the two groups showed a similar trend in anteroposterior translation, but the South Korean patients were more anteriorly positioned than the Caucasian patients at low flexion and maximal flexion angles in both medial and lateral compartments (p<0.05). Mediolateral femoral condyle translations were similar between the two groups. For tibiofemoral articular contact kinematics, the South Korean patients had significantly more anterior contact locations at the medial compartment at low flexion angles, and more lateral contact locations at the lateral compartment at 0° and 90° flexion compared to the Caucasian patients (p<0.05). The South Korean patients had significantly larger distances between the medial and lateral contact locations at 60° and 90° flexion compared to the Caucasian patients (p<0.05). Conclusions The study revealed that while the Caucasian and South Korean knees had similar femoral condylar motions, after PS-TKA the South Korean patients showed different articular contact point kinematics compared to the Caucasian patients. PMID:27274467

  19. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  20. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than ...

  1. mtDNA and the origin of Caucasians: identification of ancient Caucasian-specific haplogroups, one of which is prone to a recurrent somatic duplication in the D-loop region.

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, A.; Lott, M. T.; Cabell, M. F.; Chen, Y. S.; Lavergne, L.; Wallace, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 175 Caucasians from the United States and Canada by PCR amplification and high-resolution restriction-endonuclease analysis. The majority of the Caucasian mtDNAs were subsumed within four mtDNA lineages (haplogroups) defined by mutations that are rarely seen in Africans and Mongoloids. The sequence divergence of these haplogroups indicates that they arose early in Caucasian radiation and gave raise to modern European mtDNAs. Although ancient, none of these haplogroups is old enough to be compatible with a Neanderthal origin, suggesting that Homo sapiens sapiens displaced H. s. neanderthaliensis, rather than mixed with it. The mtDNAs of one of these haplogroups have a unique homoplasmic insertion between nucleotide pair (np) 573 and np 574, within the D-loop control region. This insertion makes these mtDNAs prone to a somatic mutation that duplicates a 270-bp portion of the D-loop region between np 309 and np 572. This finding suggests that certain nonpathogenic mtDNA mutations could predispose individuals to mtDNA rearrangements. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7942855

  2. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma in a non-Caucasian patient: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JINGXIN; YANG, SHIPING; CHEN, JIMIN; LIAO, TIANAN; DENG, WEI; LI, WEIZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is extremely rare among Asians, with the majority of cases presenting in Caucasian individuals. The current study describes the case of a 38-year-old Chinese woman who presented with a 10 year history of a mass in the upper lip. A biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of MAC. The patient underwent complete surgical resection and the tumor was successfully excised. During 6 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first Chinese case to be reported in the English literature, and is presented with the aim of increasing the awareness and aiding in the management of MAC in non-Caucasian populations. PMID:27073500

  3. A Caucasian Australian presenting with human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We report the first known case of human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in an Australian Caucasian, a disease reported in Aboriginal and immigrant populations where the virus is often endemic. Case presentation A 41-year-old Caucasian Australian man had a 3-year background of progressive functional decline from a myelopathy with spastic paraparesis and sphincteric dysfunction. Conclusions Although studies have shown a very low prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I in the greater Australian population, increased focus on Aboriginal health, and the expanding diversity and integration of the Australian population means that presentation of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated disease is likely to increase. PMID:25416840

  4. Genetic variants in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes and breast cancer risk in Caucasians and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hongmei; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Elevated circulating levels of the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are associated with increased breast cancer risk in prospective studies. Genetic variants in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis genes may contribute to these circulating hormone levels, and consequently to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have examined the effects of genetic variants in HPA axis genes on breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five HPA axis genes (NR3C1, NR3C2, CRH, CRHR1, and CRHBP) with the risk of breast cancer in the Women's Insights and Shared Experiences (WISE) Study of Caucasians (346 cases and 442 controls), as well as African Americans (149 cases and 246 controls). Of the 49 SNPs evaluated, one showed a nominal significant association (P for trend < 0.05) with breast cancer risk among Caucasians, and another two among African Americans. The age-adjusted additive odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) of the SNP rs11747190[A] in the CRHBP gene for the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian women was 1.45 (1.09-1.94). The age-adjusted additive ORs (95% CIs) of two SNPs (CRHBP rs1700688[T] and CRHR1 rs17689471[C]) for the risk of breast cancer among African American women were 1.84 (1.13-2.98) and 2.48 (1.20-5.13), respectively. However, these SNPs did not show significant associations after correction for multiple testing. Our findings do not provide strong supportive evidence for the contribution of genetic variants in these HPA axis genes to the risk of developing breast cancer in either Caucasians or African Americans. PMID:26417403

  5. SORL1 Is Genetically Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease in Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-San; Matsubara, Etsuro; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Shoji, Mikio; Tomita, Naoki; Arai, Hiroyuki; Asada, Takashi; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Hanyu, Haruo; Higuchi, Susumu; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Suga, Masaichi; Kawase, Yasuhiro; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Kosaka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Imagawa, Masaki; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Moriaha, Takashi; Takeda, Masatoshi; Takao, Takeo; Nakata, Kenji; Sasaki, Ken; Watanabe, Ken; Nakashima, Kenji; Urakami, Katsuya; Ooya, Terumi; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Serikawa, Kayoko; Yoshimoto, Seishi; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Won, Hong-Hee; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won; Mook-Jung, Inhee; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Yoshida, Makiko; Nishida, Nao; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Yamamoto, Ken; Tsuji, Shoji; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Kuwano, Ryozo

    2013-01-01

    To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD), Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC). In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n = 1,008) and controls (n = 1,016). Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values <2×10−5 were genotyped in a second Japanese sample (885 cases, 985 controls), and evidence of association was confirmed for one SORL1 SNP (rs3781834, P = 7.33×10−7 in the combined sample). Subsequent analysis combining results for several SORL1 SNPs in the Japanese, Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls) and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls) revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P = 1.77×10−9) and rs3781834 (P = 1.04×10−8). SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P = 1.71×10−5) and rs744373 near BIN1 (P = 1.39×10−4). The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations. PMID:23565137

  6. Trichosporon loubieri Fungemia in a 39-Year-Old Caucasian Woman With B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Archana; Obeid, Karam M; Arbefeville, Sophie; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of Trichosporon loubieri (T. loubieri) fungemia with likely liver involvement in a 39-year-old Caucasian patient with relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia after an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. This is the fifth published case of T. loubieri infection and only the third case of T. loubieri fungemia, to our knowledge. All 3 cases of T. loubieri infection with fungemia had liver involvement. PMID:27406143

  7. Genetic variants in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes and breast cancer risk in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Hongmei; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Elevated circulating levels of the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are associated with increased breast cancer risk in prospective studies. Genetic variants in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis genes may contribute to these circulating hormone levels, and consequently to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have examined the effects of genetic variants in HPA axis genes on breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five HPA axis genes (NR3C1, NR3C2, CRH, CRHR1, and CRHBP) with the risk of breast cancer in the Women’s Insights and Shared Experiences (WISE) Study of Caucasians (346 cases and 442 controls), as well as African Americans (149 cases and 246 controls). Of the 49 SNPs evaluated, one showed a nominal significant association (P for trend < 0.05) with breast cancer risk among Caucasians, and another two among African Americans. The age-adjusted additive odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) of the SNP rs11747190[A] in the CRHBP gene for the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian women was 1.45 (1.09-1.94). The age-adjusted additive ORs (95% CIs) of two SNPs (CRHBP rs1700688[T] and CRHR1 rs17689471[C]) for the risk of breast cancer among African American women were 1.84 (1.13-2.98) and 2.48 (1.20-5.13), respectively. However, these SNPs did not show significant associations after correction for multiple testing. Our findings do not provide strong supportive evidence for the contribution of genetic variants in these HPA axis genes to the risk of developing breast cancer in either Caucasians or African Americans. PMID:26417403

  8. African-American and Caucasian disparities in colorectal cancer mortality and survival by data source: An epidemiologic review

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Waterbor, John; Hughes, Timothy; Funkhouser, Ellen; Grizzle, William; Manne, Upender

    2009-01-01

    Over the past four decades in the United States, there has been a divergent trend in mortality rates between African-Americans and Caucasians with colorectal cancer (CRC). Rates among Caucasians have been steadily declining, whereas rates among African-Americans have only started a gradual decline in recent years. We reviewed epidemiologic studies of CRC racial disparities between African-Americans and Caucasians, including studies from SEER and population-based cancer registries, Veterans Affairs (VA) databases, healthcare coverage databases, and university and other medical center data sources. Elevated overall and stage-specific risks of CRC mortality and shorter survival for African-Americans compared with Caucasians were reported across all data sources. The magnitude of racial disparities varied across study groups, with the strongest associations observed in university and non-VA hospital-based medical center studies, while an attenuated discrepancy was found in VA database studies. An advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis among African-Americans is a major contributing factor to the racial disparity in survival. Several studies, however, have shown that an increased risk of CRC death among African-Americans remains even after controlling for tumor stage at diagnosis, socioeconomic factors, and comorbidity. Despite advances in treatment, improvements in the standard of care, and increased screening options, racial differences persist in CRC mortality and survival. Therefore, continued research efforts are necessary to disentangle the clinical, social, biological, and environmental factors that constitute the racial disparity. In addition, results across data sources should be considered when evaluating racial differences in cancer outcomes. PMID:18048968

  9. Clustering of Caucasian Leber hereditary optic neuropathy patients containing the 11778 or 14484 mutations on an mtDNA lineage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.D.; Sun, F.; Wallace, D.C.

    1997-02-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a type of blindness caused by mtDNA mutations. Three LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, and 14484 are specific for LHON and account for 90% of worldwide cases and are thus designated as {open_quotes}primary{close_quotes} LHON mutations. Fifteen other {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} LHON mtDNA mutations have been identified, but their pathogenicity is unclear. mtDNA haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of the primary LHON mutations in North American Caucasian patients and controls has shown that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, which are distributed throughout the European-derived (Caucasian) mtDNA phylogeny, patients containing the 14484 mutation tended to be associated with European mtDNA haplotype J. To investigate this apparent clustering, we performed {chi}{sup 2}-based statistical analyses to compare the distribution of LHON patients on the Caucasian phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, the 14484 mutation was not distributed on the phylogeny in proportion to the frequencies of the major Caucasian mtDNA haplogroups found in North America. The 14484 mutation was next shown to occur on the haplogroup J background more frequently that expected, consistent with the observation that {approximately}75% of worldwide 14484-positive LHON patients occur in association with haplogroup J. The 11778 mutation also exhibited a moderate clustering on haplogroup J. These observations were supported by statistical analysis using all available mutation frequencies reported in the literature. This paper thus illustrates the potential importance of genetic background in certain mtDNA-based diseases, speculates on a pathogenic role for a subset of LHON secondary mutations and their interaction with primary mutations, and provides support for a polygenic model for LHON expression in some cases. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms in relation to circulating levels among African American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Schroeder, Jane C.; North, Kari E.; Poole, Charles; West, Suzanne L.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Baird, Donna D.

    2010-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels have been associated with common diseases. Although family-based studies suggest that genetic variation contributes to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, analyses of associations with multiple IGF-I and IGFBP-3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been limited, especially among African Americans. We evaluated 30 IGF-I and 15 IGFBP-3 SNPs and estimated diplotypes in association with plasma IGF-I and IGFBP-3 among 984 premenopausal African American and Caucasian women. In both races, IGFBP-3 rs2854746 (Ala32Gly) was positively associated with plasma IGFBP-3 (CC versus GG mean difference among Caucasians = 631 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 398, 864; African Americans = 897 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 656, 1138), and IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the rs2854746 GG genotype had lower mean IGFBP-3 levels than referent diplotypes with the CG genotype, while IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the CC genotype had higher mean IGFBP-3 levels. IGFBP-3 rs2854744 (−202 A/C) was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2854746 in Caucasians only, but was associated with plasma IGFBP-3 in both races. Eight additional IGFBP-3 SNPs were associated with 5% or greater differences in mean IGFBP-3 levels, with generally consistent associations between races. Twelve IGF-I SNPs were associated with 10% or greater differences in mean IGF-I levels, but associations were generally discordant between races. Diplotype associations with plasma IGF-I did not parallel IGF-I SNP associations. Our study supports that common IGFBP-3 SNPs, especially rs2854746, influence plasma IGFBP-3 levels among African Americans and Caucasians, but provides less evidence that IGF-I SNPs affect plasma IGF-I levels. PMID:19240240

  11. [Molecular-genetic analysis of the yeast Komagataea (williopsis) pratensis populations from Caucasian and Tien Shan regions].

    PubMed

    Naumova, E S; Tokareva, N G; Bab'eva, I P; Naumov, G I

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of sixteen Komagataea (Williopsis) pratensis from the Caucasian and Tien Shan soils by the PCR, blot hybridization, and isoenzyme electrophoresis techniques showed that fifteen of them do belong to the species K. pratensis. The isolates from the two geographic areas differed in some physiological characteristics and in the PCR product profiles obtained with the microsatellite primers (CAC)5 and (GACA)4. PMID:11386057

  12. Lesion comparison of multiple sclerosis in hispanic and caucasian patients utilizing an imaging informatics-based eFolder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Fernandez, James; Amezcua, Lilyana; Lerner, Alex; Shiroishi, Mark; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Genetics have been considered as a leading factor in the prevalence and disease course of MS. We have presented an informatics-based eFolder system for integrating patients' clinical data with MR images and lesion quantification results. The completed eFolder system has been designed and developed in aiding to evaluate disease manifestation differences in Hispanic and Caucasian MS patients. MS lesion data, as shown in MRI, can be extracted by the 3-D automatic lesion detection tool in the eFolder, and data storing and mining tools in eFolder is able to extract and compare data from individual patients. The computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm has been modified and enhanced to include spatial information as detection criteria. For this study, 36 Caucasian MS patients and 36 matched Hispanic patients have been selected. Most recent MR images of the patients are collected, and images are evaluated both by the CAD tool in the eFolder and radiologists. The results are compared between Caucasian and Hispanic patients and statistically evaluated to see if the two populations have significant difference in lesion presentations. The results can be used to evaluate differences in the two groups of patients and to evaluate the new CAD algorithm's performance with radiologists' contours. Significant findings can further evaluate effectiveness of MS eFolder in MS-related research.

  13. Immune Imbalance in Nasal Polyps of Caucasian Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Is Associated with a Downregulation of E-Selectin

    PubMed Central

    Böscke, Robert; Waldmann, Anja; Bruchhage, Karl-Ludwig; Pries, Ralph; Wollenberg, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) in Caucasians is a chronic Th2 inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal mucosa and the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation is poorly understood. We studied mRNA and protein expression profiles of adhesion molecules in nasal polyp and associated inferior turbinate tissues using molecular, biochemical, and immunohistological methods. Analysis showed a strongly decreased E-selectin expression in nasal polyps with a significant difference between eosinophil and neutrophil counts in nasal polyps and balanced counts in inferior turbinates. E-selectin expression is known to be downregulated in a Th2 milieu and has an essential role in immunosurveillance by locally activating neutrophil arrest and migratory function. A downregulation of E-selectin may come along with an immune imbalance in Caucasian nasal polyps due to a significant inhibition of neutrophil recruitment. Therefore, we suggest that an upregulation of E-selectin and the associated influx of neutrophils may play a significant role in the resolution of inflammation as well as for the pathophysiology of nasal polyps of Caucasian chronic rhinosinusitis patients. PMID:24995349

  14. Immune imbalance in nasal polyps of Caucasian chronic rhinosinusitis patients is associated with a downregulation of E-selectin.

    PubMed

    Könnecke, Michael; Böscke, Robert; Waldmann, Anja; Bruchhage, Karl-Ludwig; Linke, Robert; Pries, Ralph; Wollenberg, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) in Caucasians is a chronic Th2 inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal mucosa and the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation is poorly understood. We studied mRNA and protein expression profiles of adhesion molecules in nasal polyp and associated inferior turbinate tissues using molecular, biochemical, and immunohistological methods. Analysis showed a strongly decreased E-selectin expression in nasal polyps with a significant difference between eosinophil and neutrophil counts in nasal polyps and balanced counts in inferior turbinates. E-selectin expression is known to be downregulated in a Th2 milieu and has an essential role in immunosurveillance by locally activating neutrophil arrest and migratory function. A downregulation of E-selectin may come along with an immune imbalance in Caucasian nasal polyps due to a significant inhibition of neutrophil recruitment. Therefore, we suggest that an upregulation of E-selectin and the associated influx of neutrophils may play a significant role in the resolution of inflammation as well as for the pathophysiology of nasal polyps of Caucasian chronic rhinosinusitis patients. PMID:24995349

  15. Gene polymorphisms of novel immunotolerant molecule BTLA: distribution of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes in Polish Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Anna; Woszczyk, Dariusz; Strzała, Tomasz; Szczepańska, Anna; Tomkiewicz, Anna; Frydecka, Irena; Karabon, Lidia

    2015-02-01

    B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is one of the members of immunoglobulin superfamily which, like CTLA-4 and PD-1, is involved in down regulation of immune response. Despite the important role of BTLA in maintaining immune homeostasis, relatively little studies were devoted to the relationship of polymorphisms in the gene encoding BTLA with susceptibility to autoimmune disease and cancer. Moreover, all published works were done in Asian populations. BTLA gene is located on chromosome 3 in q13.2 and consists of five exons. The aim of this study was to investigate the alleles, genotypes and haplotypes frequency of selected BTLA gene polymorphisms in Caucasian population originating from Poland. For this study, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen on the basis of literature data. Additionally, the tag dSNP under linkage equilibrium r (2) > 0.8 and available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) for Caucasian population of rare alleles at a frequency greater than 5 % have been chosen using the NCBI database. The ten BTLA SNPs investigated were: rs1844089, rs2705535, rs9288952, rs9288953, rs1982809, rs2633580, rs2705511, rs2705565, rs76844316, rs16859633. For all SNPs selected on the basis of literature data the significantly different distributions of genotypes between Asian and Caucasian populations were observed. PMID:25182981

  16. Individualism-collectivism, self-efficacy, and other factors associated with risk taking among gay Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Mao, Limin; Van de Ven, Paul; McCormick, John

    2004-02-01

    A theoretical framework, which included perspectives of individualism-collectivism and self-efficacy, was used to investigate factors associated with sexual risk practice among gay Asian and Caucasian men. "Risk" was defined as unprotected anal intercourse with any casual partner or with a regular partner whose HIV status was not concordant with the participant's. Altogether, 201 Caucasian and 199 Asian gay men, largely recruited from gay social venues in inner Sydney, completed an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants were gay self-identified and gay community attached, and more than half of the Asian men had been living in Sydney for at least 3 years. Overall, the Asian men were more collectivist oriented and the Caucasian men more individualist oriented. Data analyses revealed that higher self-efficacy in avoiding casual risk encounters and smaller proportion of gay friends were associated with less risk. The inclusion of individualism-collectivism and social cognitive variables in the examination of sexual risk practices among gay men from different cultural backgrounds holds promise. PMID:15058711

  17. Comprehensive analysis of oculocutaneous albinism among non-Hispanic caucasians shows that OCA1 is the most prevalent OCA type.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Saunie M; Spritz, Richard A

    2008-10-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by absent or reduced pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. In humans, four genes have been associated with "classical" OCA and another 12 genes with syndromic forms of OCA. To assess the prevalence of different forms of OCA and different gene mutations among non-Hispanic Caucasian patients, we performed DNA sequence analysis of the four genes associated with "classical" OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC45A2), the two principal genes associated with syndromic OCA (HPS1, HPS4), and a candidate OCA gene (SILV), in 121 unrelated, unselected non-Hispanic/Latino Caucasian patients carrying the clinical diagnosis of OCA. We identified apparent pathologic TYR gene mutations in 69% of patients, OCA2 mutations in 18%, SLC45A2 mutations in 6%, and no apparent pathological mutations in 7% of patients. We found no mutations of TYRP1, HPS1, HPS4, or SILV in any patients. Although we observed a diversity of mutations for each gene, a relatively small number of different mutant alleles account for a majority of the total. This study demonstrates that, contrary to long-held clinical lore, OCA1, not OCA2, is by far the most frequent cause of OCA among Caucasian patients. PMID:18463683

  18. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness. PMID:24518421

  19. Genetic variation of the whole ICAM4 gene in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kshitij; Almarry, Noorah Salman; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) is the human blood group system no. 16, which comprises 2 antithetical antigens, LWa and LWb and the high prevalence antigen LWab. LW is encoded by the Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 4 (ICAM4) gene. The ICAM4 protein is part of the Rhesus complex in the red cell membrane and is involved in cell-cell adhesion. Methods We developed a method to sequence the whole 1.9 kb ICAM4 gene from genomic DNA in 1 amplicon. We determined the nucleotide sequence of exons 1 to 3, the 2 introns and 402 bp 5′-UTR and 347 bp 3′-UTR in 97 Caucasian and 91 African American individuals. Results Seven variant ICAM4 alleles were found, distinct from the wild type ICAM4 allele (GenBank KF712272), known as LW*05 and encoding LWa. An effect of the LWa/LWb amino acid substitution on the protein structure was predicted by 2 of the 3 computational modeling programs used. Conclusions We describe a practical approach for sequencing and determining the ICAM4 alleles using genomic DNA. LW*05 is the ancestral allele, which had also been observed in a Neandertal sample. All 7 variant alleles are immediate derivatives of the prevalent LW*05 and caused by 1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in each allele. Our data were consistent with the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and the dbSNP databases, as all SNPs had been observed before. Our study has the advantage over the other databases in that it adds haplotype (allele) information for the ICAM4 gene, clinically relevant in the field of transfusion medicine. PMID:24673173

  20. [Caucasian cryptic species of rodents as models for studying the problem of species and speciation].

    PubMed

    Baskevich, M I; Potapov, S G; Mironova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The problem of species and speciation is considered using as a model the cryptic species of rodents inhabiting the Caucasus, the mountain chain with prominent altitude environmental gradient and insular pattern of mountain habitats. These circumstances open additional possibilities for the choice of species conception (biological or phylogenetic), exploration of ancestry pathways (sympatric or allopatric speciation) of model cryptic species groups, and testing the 'refuge' hypothesis. As model species, sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' (a group of unstriped birch mice) and representatives of the vole subspecies Terricola (Microtus, Arvicolinae) were used. Based on the new data on karyology, nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial gene cytb, multivariate statistical analysis of odontologic traits, and biogeography of sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' and voles from subspecies Terricola (Microtus, Arvicolinae), their evolutionary history is reconstructed and applicable species concepts are examined. For the present sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' the allopatric dispersion is typical, which agrees with the hypothesis of speciation in refuges. The sympatry of Terricola sibling-species in the Caucasus is considered as being secondary, and their phenotypic likeness--as an adaptation to similar environmental conditions. Affirmed coexistence of sibling-species Microtus (Terricola) majori and Microtus (Terricola) daghestanicus in the Caucasus (without their hybridization) supports the biological conception of species. The existence of Sicista allospecies from the group of Caucasian unstriped birch mice is best conformed to the phylogenetic conception. However, the high level of chromosomal differences between sibling-species and, in particular, between extreme variants of common evolutionary line (Sicista kazbegica, Sicista kluchorica) does not contradict the biological conception of species. PMID:26353399

  1. A 13-year-old caucasian boy with cleidocranial dysplasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital autosomal dominant skeletal disorder. The disorder is caused by heterozygosity of mutations in human RUNX2, which is present on the short arm of chromosome 6p21. The incidence of CCD is one per million births. CCD appears spontaneously with no apparent genetic cause in approximately 40% of affected patients, and one in three patients has unaffected parents. The most prevalent features associated with CCD are aplastic or hypoplastic clavicles, supernumerary teeth, failed eruption of permanent teeth, and a hypoplastic maxilla. Case presentation A 13-year-old Caucasian boy presented with a chief complaint of delayed eruption of the permanent anterior teeth. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with CCD based on the clinical examination, panoramic X-ray, anterior-posterior and lateral cephalogram, and chest radiograph findings. The details of this case are herein reported because of the extremely low incidence of this disorder. Conclusions CCD is of clinical importance in dentistry and medicine because it affects the bones and teeth and is characterized by many changes in skeletal patterning and growth. Particularly in dentistry, CCD is of great clinical significance because is associated with delayed ossification of the skull sutures, delayed exfoliation of the primary teeth, lack of permanent teeth eruption, multiple supernumerary teeth, and morphological abnormalities of the maxilla and mandible. Patients with CCD seek treatment mainly for dental problems. Knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic tools of CCD will enable clinicians to render the appropriate treatment to improve function and aesthetics. Early diagnosis of CCD is crucial for timely initiation of an appropriate treatment approach. PMID:23289840

  2. Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to STAR mutations in a Caucasian patient

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Casas, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Summary Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), the most severe form of CAH, is most commonly caused by mutations in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), which is required for the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membranes to synthesize pregnenolone. This study was performed to evaluate whether the salt-losing crisis and the adrenal inactivity experienced by a Scandinavian infant is due to a de novo STAR mutation. The study was conducted at the University of North Dakota, the Mercer University School of Medicine and the Memorial University Medical Center to identify the cause of this disease. The patient was admitted to a pediatric endocrinologist at the Sanford Health Center for salt-losing crisis and possible adrenal failure. Lipoid CAH is an autosomal recessive disease, we identified two de novo heterozygous mutations (STAR c.444C>A (STAR p.N148K) and STAR c.557C>T (STAR p.R193X)) in the STAR gene, causing lipoid CAH. New onset lipoid CAH can occur through de novo mutations and is not restricted to any specific region of the world. This Scandinavian family was of Norwegian descent and had lipoid CAH due to a mutation in S TAR exons 4 and 5. Overexpression of the STAR p.N148K mutant in nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells supplemented with an electron transport system showed activity similar to the background level, which was ∼10% of that observed with wild-type (WT) STAR. Protein-folding analysis showed that the finger printing of the STAR p.N148K mutant is also different from the WT protein. Inherited STAR mutations may be more prevalent in some geographical areas but not necessarily restricted to those regions. Learning points STAR mutations cause lipoid CAH.This is a pure population from a caucasian family.Mutation ablated STAR activity.The mutation resulted in loosely folded conformation of STAR. PMID:27047663

  3. Characteristics of a Spina Bifida Population Including North American Caucasian and Hispanic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Au, Kit Sing; Tran, Phong X.; Tsai, Chester C.; O’Byrne, Michelle R.; Lin, Jone-Ing; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hampson, Amy W.; Cirino, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M.; Ostermaier, Kathryn K.; Tyerman, Gayle H.; Doebel, Sabine; Northrup, Hope

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meningomyelocele (MM) is a common human birth defect. MM is a disorder of neural development caused by contributions from genes and environmental factors that result in the neural tube defect and lead to a spectrum of physical and neurocognitive phenotypes. METHODS A multi-disciplinary approach has been taken to develop a comprehensive understanding of MM through collaborative efforts from investigators specializing in genetics, development, brain imaging, and neurocognitive outcome. Patients have been recruited from five different sites: Houston and the Texas-Mexico border area; Toronto, Canada; Los Angeles, California; and Lexington, Kentucky. Genetic risk factors for MM have been assessed by genotyping and association testing using the transmission disequilibrium test. RESULTS A total of 509 affected child/parent trios and 309 affected child/parent duos have been enrolled to date for genetic association studies. Subsets of the patients have also been enrolled for studies assessing development, brain imaging, and neurocognitive outcomes. The study recruited two major ethnic groups with 45.9% Hispanics of Mexican descent and 36.2% North American Caucasians of European descent. The remaining patients are African American, South and Central American, Native American and Asian. Studies of this group of patients have already discovered distinct corpus callosum morphology and neurocognitive deficits that associate with MM. We have identified maternal MTHFR 667T allele as a risk factor for MM. In addition, we also found that several genes for glucose transport and metabolism are potential risk factors for MM. CONCLUSIONS The enrolled patient population provides a valuable resource for elucidating the disease characteristics and mechanisms for MM development. PMID:18937358

  4. Association analysis of the FTO gene with obesity in children of Caucasian and African ancestry reveals a common tagging SNP.

    PubMed

    Grant, Struan F A; Li, Mingyao; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kim, Cecilia E; Annaiah, Kiran; Santa, Erin; Glessner, Joseph T; Casalunovo, Tracy; Frackelton, Edward C; Otieno, F George; Shaner, Julie L; Smith, Ryan M; Imielinski, Marcin; Eckert, Andrew W; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Berkowitz, Robert I; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2008-01-01

    Recently an association was demonstrated between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, within the FTO locus and obesity as a consequence of a genome wide association (GWA) study of type 2 diabetes in adults. We examined the effects of two perfect surrogates for this SNP plus 11 other SNPs at this locus with respect to our childhood obesity cohort, consisting of both Caucasians and African Americans (AA). Utilizing data from our ongoing GWA study in our cohort of 418 Caucasian obese children (BMI>or=95th percentile), 2,270 Caucasian controls (BMI<95th percentile), 578 AA obese children and 1,424 AA controls, we investigated the association of the previously reported variation at the FTO locus with the childhood form of this disease in both ethnicities. The minor allele frequencies (MAF) of rs8050136 and rs3751812 (perfect surrogates for rs9939609 i.e. both r(2) = 1) in the Caucasian cases were 0.448 and 0.443 respectively while they were 0.391 and 0.386 in Caucasian controls respectively, yielding for both an odds ratio (OR) of 1.27 (95% CI 1.08-1.47; P = 0.0022). Furthermore, the MAFs of rs8050136 and rs3751812 in the AA cases were 0.449 and 0.115 respectively while they were 0.436 and 0.090 in AA controls respectively, yielding an OR of 1.05 (95% CI 0.91-1.21; P = 0.49) and of 1.31 (95% CI 1.050-1.643; P = 0.017) respectively. Investigating all 13 SNPs present on the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip in this region of linkage disequilibrium, rs3751812 was the only SNP conferring significant risk in AA. We have therefore replicated and refined the association in an AA cohort and distilled a tag-SNP, rs3751812, which captures the ancestral origin of the actual mutation. As such, variants in the FTO gene confer a similar magnitude of risk of obesity to children as to their adult counterparts and appear to have a global impact. PMID:18335027

  5. CFTR mutation analysis of a Caucasian father with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens, a Taiwanese mother, and twins resulting from ICSI procedure.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Han-Sun; Wu, Chien-Chih; Wu, Yi-No; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Lin, Gin-Hong; Hwang, Jiann-Loung

    2008-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases in Caucasians. We screened for the CFTR gene mutation in a Caucasian father with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), a Taiwanese mother, and twins resulting from an intracytoplasmic single sperm injection (ICSI) procedure. DNA fragments that showed abnormal banding patterns on temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis analysis followed by analysis of DNA sequence was used. The Caucasian father with CBAVD had _F508 and p.L375F mutations. The two children were heterozygous for the _F508 and p.L375F mutations, respectively. Mutation analysis of the CFTR gene should always be recommended for infertile couples seeking ICSI. The possibility of the children resulting from ICSI being a victim or carrier of CBAVD or CF, especially when the father is Caucasian with CBAVD, should be discussed during genetic counseling. PMID:18796364

  6. Urea metabolism in beef steers grazing bermudagrass, caucasian bluestem, or gamagrass pastures varying in plant morphology, protein content, and protein composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate pastures of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, BG), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica, CBS), and gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, GG) from the perspectives of forage composition, selection during grazing, and N metabolism in beef steers. All pastures were ferti...

  7. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  8. The diagnostic performance of mid-regional portion of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide for the detection of left ventricular hypertrophy in Caucasian hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, S S; Davies, J E; Struck, J; Ng, L L

    2012-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is predictive of cardiovascular disease. The vasodilator, natriuretic and diuretic actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) support a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Measuring the redundant precursor fragment mid-regional portion of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP) overcomes the technical difficulties of quantifying the bioactive ANP. This study sought to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of MRproANP in a hypertensive Caucasian patient population. A total of 194 hypertensive patients (39 patients with LVH, 69±7.82 years of age, 74% female vs 155 patients without LVH, 68±6.51 years of age, 71% female) were derived from a screening study. Plasma MRproANP concentrations were quantified using immunoluminometric assays. Hypertensive patients with LVH had higher MRproANP concentrations than those without LVH (103.04 (50.58) vs 84.11 pmol l(-1) (44.82); P=0.014). Independent predictors of left ventricular mass index were LogMRproANP (P=0.022), male gender (P<0.001), body mass index (P=0.001) and history of angina or myocardial infarction (P=0.009). The receiver operating curve for MRproANP for the detection of LVH was limited, yielding an area under the curve of only 0.628 (confidence interval 0.523-0.733; P=0.014). Therefore, the role of MRproANP may not lie in the diagnosis of LVH but in monitoring the response to therapy. A nonsignificant trend towards greater mortality in patients with above-median MRproANP levels compared with below-median levels (P=0.167) was observed. Larger studies are required to assess its prognostic utility further. PMID:22113442

  9. Distribution of Toenail Selenium Levels in Young Adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Morris, J. Steve; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-01-01

    Background Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and Methods Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g) and the median was 0.837 μg/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 μg/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 μg/g, respectively. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. PMID:21316044

  10. Epistatic selection of a sequence 5{prime} of the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis may account for the high frequency of this disease in the Caucasian population

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, M. Jr. |; Nash, E.; Cutting, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the more common lethal autosomal recessive disorders in Caucasian populations. Numerous hypotheses including genetic drift, founder effect, sex ratio, segregation distortions and various forms of heterozygote advantage have been proposed to explain the relatively high frequency of CF alleles. The observation of high linkage disequilibrium between markers at the 5{prime} end of CFTR and mutations that cause CF raised the possibility of epistatic selection. CF-linked marker allele frequencies were determined in 417 elderly individuals from a stable Czech population that survived high levels of infant and childhood mortality in the pre-antibiotic era. These data were compared with allele frequencies of 646 contemporary newborns and 345 young adults drawn from the same population who had significantly lower mortality rates in the antibiotic era. Allele frequencies of markers CS7/Hhal and KM19/Pstl from the D7S23 locus are significantly different (p<0.05) between elderly female and male subjects in this population. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in the allele frequencies of marker CS7/Hhal when newborn females and elderly women are compared (p<0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the allele status at the CS7 region influenced female survival in the period of high infant and childhood mortality in the pre-antibiotic era. Under this selective pressure, CFTR mutations that occurred on the {open_quotes}favorable{close_quotes} background would marginally increase in frequency in each successive generation and more ancient mutations residing on this background would become the most frequent in the general population.

  11. Effect of the sun on visible clinical signs of aging in Caucasian skin

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Aging signs can be classified into four main categories: wrinkles/texture, lack of firmness of cutaneous tissues (ptosis), vascular disorders, and pigmentation heterogeneities. During a lifetime, skin will change in appearance and structure not only because of chronological and intrinsic processes but also due to several external factors such as gravity, sun and ultraviolet exposure, and high levels of pollution; or lifestyle factors that have important and obvious effects on skin aging, such as diet, tobacco, illness, or stress. The effect of these external factors leads to progressive degradations of tegument that appear with different kinetics. The aim of this study was to clinically quantify the effect of sun exposure on facial aging in terms of the appearance of new specific signs or in terms of increasing the classical signs of aging. Materials and methods This study was carried out on 298 Caucasian women from 30 years to 78 years old. The participants were divided into two groups according to their sun exposure history: 157 women were characterized as sun-seeking, and the other 141 were classified as sun-phobic. This division was made possible by dermatologist grading of heliodermal status on the basis of several observations of classic criteria: wrinkles, sagging, pigmentation heterogeneities, vascular disorders, elastosis, and so on. This work was an opportunity to complete clinical photographic tools by adding in our portfolio new scales for signs observed in the two groups. Thus, 22 clinical parameters were investigated by a panel of twelve trained experts to characterize each woman’s face regarding standardized photographic scales, and thus describe the aging process. Results By calculating statistical correlations between the four clinical clusters (wrinkles/texture, ptosis, vascular disorders, and pigmentation disorders), and real age and apparent age on the one hand and heliodermal status on the other hand, we identified a link between

  12. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  13. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  14. Black Male Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

  15. Connecting Males and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2011-01-01

    The problems facing males and reading continues to be a topic of concern and discussion in communities across the country. The author has interviewed school librarians and teachers, however, who are coordinating programs that are successfully connecting male students and reading. This article includes summaries of those interviews. The author has…

  16. Monitoring landscape changes in Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) habitat in Iran during the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Asef; Fakheran, Sima; Soffianian, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) is on the 'red' list of species of high conservation concern as nearest threatened (NT) and also in level (I) of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The black grouse distribution range in Iran is restricted to the Arasbaran region, Northwest of Iran, and the populations and range of this specialist bird species have been declining over the last decades. Management of forest and grassland structures is important for black grouse population survival. The main goals of this study were to monitor and quantify the landscape pattern changes in Caucasian black grouse habitat in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve in two periods of 14 years (1987-2001) and 10 years (2001-2011). For quantifying landscape pattern changes, various landscape metrics were derived by spatial analysis software FRAGSTATS 3.3, including NP (number of habitat patches), LPI (largest patch index) and TE (total edge). The results indicated that the proportion of forest decreased from 39.95 to 31.95% and the proportion of grassland decreased from 44.45 to 38.44% in the 24-year span. NP of forests increased in the first period and decreased in the second period of study. TE of dense forest at altitude above 1800 m decreased. Reduction of forest edge is an indicator of reduction in habitat availability for Caucasian black grouse which use the forest edge for living, lekking and hatching in upland. Our results provided quantitative data on habitat loss and fragmentation in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and indicated negative impacts of the landscape structure changes on Black grouse habitat. PMID:26088757

  17. Clinical and Immunologic Manifestations of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease in a Miami Population Compared to a Midwestern US Caucasian Population

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Marcos E.; Perez, Magdalena; Pignac-Kobinger, Judith; Marx, Emily Triana; Tozman, Elaine M.; Greidinger, Eric L.; Hoffman, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective A cross-sectional study of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) was performed to determine if there were identifiable differences in the clinical expression of MCTD associated with race or ethnicity. Methods Miami, Florida, and Midwestern US (Missouri) Caucasian MCTD cohorts were studied. Clinical and laboratory features of the 2 MCTD cohorts were compared. A concurrently collected cohort of Sm-positive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was studied as a control. Disease activity and severity and functional status were measured. CD4+CD25high-expressing T-regulatory cells were enumerated and serum soluble L selectin was measured as biomarkers of disease activity. Results The Miami and Missouri Caucasian MCTD groups, while differing from the SLE group, were largely similar; however, gastroesophageal reflux, sclerodactyly, and malar rash were significantly more frequent in the Missouri MCTD group and alopecia was more frequent in the Miami MCTD group. Significant clinical and laboratory differences were found between the Miami MCTD and Miami SLE groups despite similar disease duration, activity, severity and functional status. Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), hand swelling, synovitis, myositis, and sclerodactyly were all significantly more common in RNP-positive MCTD versus Sm-positive SLE subjects. Conclusion Ethnic differences were observed in the frequency of end-organ involvement in the Miami MCTD versus the Missouri Caucasian MCTD groups. Clinical and laboratory features of all MCTD groups were clearly different from the SLE group, despite similar disease activity, disease severity, and functional status. Disease activity measures appeared to behave similarly as valid measures of disease activity in SLE and MCTD. PMID:18260175

  18. Comparison of Anthropometric Data Between Asian and Caucasian Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hoon; Choi, Ji Ho; Suh, Jeffrey D.; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is considered to be one of the most important risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but less is known about the role of ethnicity in OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interethnic difference of obesity-related phenotypes in OSA and to reveal the role of ethnicity in OSA. Methods We searched MEDLINE, LILACS, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library using the key words “sleep apnea,” “body mass index,” “neck circumference,” “waist circumference,” “waist to hip ratio,” etc. Inclusion criteria were adults over 18 years of age, and studies that included polysomnography, obesity-related parameters, and a clear demarcation of ethnicity in the patient population. Included studies were reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. The following information was collected for controls and OSA: number, age, gender, country, ethnicity (Asian or Caucasian), study design, apnea-hypopnea index/respiratory disturbance index, body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), and/or waist to hip ratio (WHR). Results A total of 8,312 publications were retrieved with a subsequent 19 manuscripts that met the selection criteria. A total of 2,966 patients were included for analysis. The main findings were as follows: There was no difference in BMI, WC, and WHR between patients with OSA and controls after accounting for publication bias; Patients with OSA have greater NC than controls (standard mean difference, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 1.14); and There was no difference in NC between Asian and Caucasians patients (P=0.178). Conclusion OSA might not be related with BMI, WC, and WHR. Only NC demonstrated a strong association with OSA, and this finding was not different between Asians and Caucasians. PMID:26976019

  19. Excess Body Weight and 4-Year Function Outcomes: Comparison of African-Americans and Caucasians in the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Colbert, Carmelita J.; Almagor, Orit; Chmiel, Joan S.; Song, Jing; Dunlop, Dorothy; Hayes, Karen W.; Sharma, Leena

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether African-Americans in the Osteoarthritis Initiative have a greater risk (vs. Caucasians) of poor 4-year function outcome within strata defined by gender, BMI, and waist circumference. Using WOMAC function, 20 meter walk, and chair stand performance, poor outcome was defined as moving into a worse function group or remaining in the 2 worst groups over 4 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between racial group and outcome within each stratum, adjusting for age, education, and income, and then further adjusting for BMI, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, physical activity, knee pain, and OA severity. In 3695 persons with or at higher risk for knee OA, higher BMI and large waist circumference were each associated with poor outcome. Among women with high BMI and among women with large waist circumference, African-Americans were at greater risk for poor outcome by every measure, adjusting for age, education, and income. From fully adjusted models, potential explanatory factors included income, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, pain, and disease severity. Findings were less consistent for men, emerging only for the 20 meter walk or chair stand outcomes, and potentially explained by age and knee pain. Among OAI women with excess body weight, African-Americans are at greater risk than Caucasians for poor 4-year outcome. Modifiable factors that may help to explain these findings in the OAI include comorbidity, depressive symptoms, and knee pain. Targeting such factors, while supporting weight loss, may help to lessen the outcome disparity between African-American and Caucasian women. PMID:22833527

  20. Association between XRCC1 polymorphism 399 G->A and glioma among Caucasians: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The x-ray cross complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1) is crucial to proper repair of DNA damage such as single-strand DNA breaks. A non-synonymous polymorphism in XRCC1, 399 G → A, has been shown to reduce effectiveness of such DNA repair and has been associated with the risk of certain cancers. The known risk for glioma from high dose ionizing radiation makes associations between this polymorphism and glioma of particular interest. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore the association between XRCC1 399 G → A and glioma. Subgroup analyses by grade, gender, genotyping method, country in which study was conducted, and study size were conducted when data were available and validity of the results were assessed by influence analyses and exploration of potential publication bias. Results Six studies were eligible for meta-analysis including data on 2,362 Caucasian glioma cases and 3,085 Caucasian controls. Pooled analysis yielded a significant association between the variant of interest and risk of glioma (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30) which was found to be disproportionately driven by a single study. Exclusion of this study, in an influence analysis, produced no statistically significant evidence of association with glioma (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.98-1.23), and no evidence of publication bias. Conclusions This meta-analysis does not suggest a major role of the XRCC1 399 G → A polymorphism in influencing risk of glioma among Caucasians. Future studies should report data separately for glioma subtypes to permit stratified analyses for Grade III and Grade IV glioma and examine other polymorphisms in this gene. PMID:23101479

  1. Visceral adipose tissue is not increased in Pima Indians compared with equally obese Caucasians and is not related to insulin action or secretion.

    PubMed

    Gautier, J F; Milner, M R; Elam, E; Chen, K; Ravussin, E; Pratley, R E

    1999-01-01

    Pima Indians are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinaemic compared with Caucasians. We investigated whether abdominal fat distribution was different between Pimas and Caucasians and whether differences in the amount of visceral fat explained metabolic differences between the groups. Total body fat (absorptiometry) and abdominal fat distribution at L4-L5 (magnetic resonance imaging) were compared in 20 Pima Indians (10 men/10 women) and 20 age-, sex- and BMI-matched Caucasians. Insulin action was measured as glucose disposal during a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic glucose clamp and insulin secretion was assessed in response to oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. By design, percent body fat was similar in Pimas and Caucasians. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were also similar in the two groups (151+/-16 vs 139+/-15 cm2 and 489+/-61 vs 441+/-7 cm2 respectively). Plasma insulin concentrations were higher in Pimas than Caucasians in the fasting state (27+/-6 vs 11+/-2 mU/ml; p < 0.01) and after a 75-g oral glucose load (area under the curve 19975+/-2626 vs 9293+/-1847 mU x l(-1) x 180 min(-1); p < 0.005). Glucose disposal was lower in Pimas than Caucasians during both steps of the clamp and negatively correlated (after adjustment for percent body fat and sex) with visceral adipose tissue in Caucasians (partial r = -0.51, p = 0.03), but not in Pima Indians (r = -0.03, p = 0.92). Insulin secretion was not related to visceral fat independently of percent body fat in either group. We conclude that a relative increase in visceral fat does not explain insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in Pima Indians. PMID:10027574

  2. An additional defective allele, CYP2C19*5, contributes to the S-mephenytoin poor metabolizer phenotype in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Ibeanu, G C; Blaisdell, J; Ghanayem, B I; Beyeler, C; Benhamou, S; Bouchardy, C; Wilkinson, G R; Dayer, P; Daly, A K; Goldstein, J A

    1998-04-01

    The metabolism of the anticonvulsant drug mephenytoin exhibits a genetic polymorphism in humans. This polymorphism exhibits marked racial heterogeneity, with the poor metabolizer PM phenotype representing 13-23% of oriental populations, but only 2-5% of Caucasian populations. Two defective CYP2C19 alleles (CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3) have been described, which account for more than 99% of Oriental poor metabolizer alleles but only approximately 87% of Caucasian poor metabolizer alleles. Therefore, additional defects presumably contribute to the poor metabolizer in Caucasians. Recent studies have found a third mutation CYP2C19*4, which accounts for approximately 3% of Caucasian poor metabolizer alleles. A fourth rare mutation (CYP2C19*5A) (C99,A991,Ile331;C1297T,Arg433-->Trp) resulting in an Arg433 to Trp substitution in the heme-binding region has been reported in a single Chinese poor metaboliser outlier belonging to the Bai ethnic group. The present study identifies a second variant allele CYP2C19*5B (C99-->T; A991-->G, Ile331-->Val; C1297-T, Arg433-->Trp in one of 37 Caucasian poor metabolizers. The frequency of the CYP2C19*5 alleles is low in Chinese (approximately 0.25% in the Bai ethnic group) and Caucasians (< 0.9%). However, these alleles contribute to the poor metabolizer phenotype in both ethnic groups and increases the sensitivity of the genetic tests for identifying defective alleles to approximately 100% in Chinese poor metabolizers and 92% in Caucasian poor metabolizers genotyped in our laboratory. The Arg433 to Trp mutation in the heme-binding region essentially abolishes activity of recombinant CYP2C19*5A toward S-mephenytoin and tolbutamide, which is consistent with the conclusion that CYP2C19*5 represents poor metabolizer alleles. PMID:10022751

  3. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Steve Morris, J.; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  4. Genetic variants in pigmentation genes, pigmentary phenotypes, and risk of skin cancer in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hongmei; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J; Han, Jiali

    2009-08-15

    Human pigmentation is a polygenic quantitative trait with high heritability. Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in pigmentation genes, very few SNPs have been examined in relation to human pigmentary phenotypes and skin cancer risk. We evaluated the associations between 15 SNPs in 8 candidate pigmentation genes (TYR, TYRP1, OCA2, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, POMC, ASIP and ATRN) and both pigmentary phenotypes (hair color, skin color and tanning ability) and skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases and 870 common controls. We found that the TYR Arg402Gln variant was significantly associated with skin color (p-value = 7.7 x 10(-4)) and tanning ability (p-value = 7.3 x 10(-4)); the SLC45A2 Phe374Leu variant was significantly associated with hair color (black to blonde) (p-value = 2.4 x 10(-7)), skin color (p-value = 1.1 x 10(-7)) and tanning ability (p-value = 2.5 x 10(-4)). These associations remained significant after controlling for MC1R variants. No significant associations were found between these polymorphisms and the risk of skin cancer. We observed that the TYRP1 rs1408799 and SLC45A2 1721 C>G were associated with melanoma risk (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.98 and OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.95, respectively). The TYR Ser192Tyr was associated with SCC risk (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.50). The TYR haplotype carrying only the Arg402Gln variant allele was significantly associated with SCC risk (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04-1.74). The OCA2 Arg419Gln and ASIP g.8818 A>G were associated with BCC risk (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.06-2.13 and OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-1.00, respectively). The haplotype near ASIP (rs4911414[T] and rs1015362[G]) was significantly associated with fair skin color (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.46-3.57) as well as the risks of melanoma (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.18-2.39) and SCC

  5. Anxiety Disorders in Caucasian and African American Children: A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Treatment Process Variables, and Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T; Becker, Emily M; Ginsburg, Golda S; Keeton, Courtney; Compton, Scott N; Birmaher, Boris B; Sakolsky, Dara J; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne M; Kendall, Philip C; Suveg, Cynthia M; March, John S

    2015-10-01

    This study examined racial differences in anxious youth using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) [1]. Specifically, the study aims addressed whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3) treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7-17 and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data, as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics. However, African American participants attended fewer psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse. Implications of these findings suggest African American and Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance and therapist engagement. PMID:25293650

  6. What do community-dwelling Caucasian and South Asian 60–70 year olds think about exercise for fall prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Maria; Speed, Shaun; Skelton, Dawn; Todd, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background: strategies to prevent falls often recommend regular exercise. However, 40% of over 50s in the UK report less physical activity than is recommended. Even higher rates of sedentary behaviour have been reported among South Asian older adults. Objective: to identify salient beliefs that influence uptake and adherence to exercise for fall prevention among community-dwelling Caucasian and South Asian 60–70 year olds in the UK. Methods: we undertook an ethnographic study using participant observation, 15 focus groups (n = 87; mean age = 65.7 years) and 40 individual semi-structured interviews (mean age = 64.8 years). Data analysis used framework analysis. Results: young older adults do not acknowledge their fall risk and are generally not motivated to exercise to prevent falls. Those who had fallen are more likely to acknowledge risk of future falls. Whilst many of the beliefs about falls and exercise expressed were very similar between Caucasians and South Asians, there was a tendency for South Asians to express fatalistic beliefs more often. Conclusion: fall prevention should not be the focus of strategies to increase uptake and adherence to exercise. The wider benefits of exercise, leading to an active healthy lifestyle should be encouraged. PMID:19039019

  7. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  8. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, vitamin D receptor genotype and breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Lorraine C; Guy, Michelle; Mansi, Janine L; Peckitt, Clare; Bliss, Judith; Wilson, Rosalind Given; Colston, Kay W

    2005-05-01

    Low levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) have been found separately to increase risk of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether low 25(OH)D levels, alone and in combination with BsmI VDR genotype, increased breast cancer risk in a United Kingdom (UK) Caucasian population. Breast cancer patients (n=179) and control women (n=179) were recruited and 25(OH)D levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). VDR genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme digest. Analysis showed that subjects with 25(OH)D levels <50 nM and the bb BsmI VDR genotype are 6.82 times more likely to have breast cancer than subjects with levels of 25(OH)D>50 nM and either the BB or Bb genotype (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31-14.7, P<0.001). This study indicates that low levels of circulating 25(OH)D, both alone and in combination with BsmI VDR genotype, may increase risk of breast cancer in a UK Caucasian population. PMID:15911240

  9. The Catalase –262C/T Promoter Polymorphism and Diabetic Complications in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Tschiedel, Balduíno; Souto, Kátia Elisabete Pires; Roisenberg, Israel

    2006-01-01

    Catalase is a central antioxidant enzyme constituting the primary defense against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether the functional –262C/T polymorphism in the promoter of catalase gene is associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic nephropathy (DN) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) in 520 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes. The –262C/T polymorphism was also examined in 100 Caucasian blood donors. Patients underwent a clinical and laboratory evaluation consisting of a questionnaire, physical examination, assessment of diabetic complications and laboratory tests. Genotype analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by digestion with restriction enzyme. The genotype and allele frequencies of the –262C/T polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were very similar to those of blood donors (T allele frequency = 0.20 and 0.18, respectively). Likewise, there were no differences in either genotype or allele frequencies between type 2 diabetic patients with or without DR, DN or IHD. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis that the –262C/T polymorphism is related to the development of DR, DN or IHD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of catalase gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. PMID:17264407

  10. Stereotype confirmation concern and fear of negative evaluation among African Americans and Caucasians with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Anderson, Page L.

    2014-01-01

    Fear of negative evaluation is a central component of social anxiety. The current study examines the relation between fear of negative evaluation and fears of confirming stereotypes about a social group to which one belongs among people diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. Participants (N = 94) with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who self-identified as either African American (n = 41) or Caucasian (n = 53) completed standardized self-report measures of stereotype confirmation concerns and fear of negative evaluation. Results from hierarchical logistical regression showed that stereotype confirmation concerns predicted fear of negative evaluation for both racial groups, with greater concern predicting greater fear. This association was moderated by race, B = −.24, t = −2.67, p < .01, such that stereotype confirmation concerns had a stronger association with fear of negative evaluation for Caucasians (b = .38, p < .01) than for African Americans (b = .14, p < .05). This study is the first to directly examine the relation between stereotypes and fear of negative evaluation within a socially anxious sample. Although we cannot identify the specific social group to which each participant’s stereotype confirmation concerns apply, this study provides quantitative evidence that the social context within which socially anxious individuals view themselves impacts their fear of negative evaluation and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:24746163

  11. Male skin care needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen M; Ford, Kay

    2008-08-01

    Male skin care has undergone significant development over the past decade, with many companies now marketing skin care products directly to the male consumer. Despite the claims of many of these companies, few over-the-counter products have data to support their efficacy at a clinical level. A basic, effective regimen for preventive male skin care should include twice-daily facial cleansing and twice-daily moisturizer application, which should include sunscreen during the day. This article focuses on topical therapies directed at the maintenance and repair of photoaged male skin. The future holds promise for new developments in skin care. However, in the absence of significant scientific breakthroughs, the most cost-effective intervention will continue to be prevention. PMID:18620985

  12. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  13. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  14. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  15. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  16. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  17. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  18. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization is accomplished by inserting a catheter (a hollow tube, often with and inflatable balloon tip) into ... catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable ...

  19. A multivariate comparison of elderly African Americans and Caucasians voting behavior: how do social, health, psychological, and political variables effect their voting?

    PubMed

    Bazargan, M; Kang, T S; Bazargan, S

    1991-01-01

    No study until now has examined the impact of the physical and psychological condition on voter turnout among elderly African Americans and Caucasians. Utilizing data from a national survey (Aging in the Eighties) and using multiple logistic regression, the present study examines the impact of health rating and life satisfaction as well as other socio-psychological characteristics on voting turnout among elderly Caucasian and African Americans. The results provide some empirical evidence that the pattern of election participation can be significantly influenced by the self-assessment of health and life satisfaction. For elderly Caucasians self-assessment of health is significantly related to voting behavior, whereas among elderly African Americans life satisfaction shows significant impact on turnout. Elderly African Americans who identified their personal political philosophy as "liberal" were more likely to vote, while among elderly Caucasians, those who identified their personal political philosophy as "conservative" were more likely to vote. In addition, SES, age, and organizational activity proved to have significantly independent impact on elderly Caucasian turnout, whereas among elderly African Americans, education was detected as a significant predictor. PMID:2060982

  20. Molecular portrait of breast cancer in China reveals comprehensive transcriptomic likeness to Caucasian breast cancer and low prevalence of luminal A subtype

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Dugo, Matteo; Callari, Maurizio; Sandri, Marco; De Cecco, Loris; Valeri, Barbara; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Xue, Jingyan; Bi, Rui; Veneroni, Silvia; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Ménard, Sylvie; Tagliabue, Elda; Shao, Zhimin; Wu, Jiong; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence across China with progressive urbanization and economic development has signaled the urgent need for molecular and clinical detailing of breast cancer in the Chinese population. Our analyses of a unique transethnic collection of breast cancer frozen specimens from Shanghai Fudan Cancer Center (Chinese Han) profiled simultaneously with an analogous Caucasian Italian series revealed consistent transcriptomic data lacking in batch effects. The prevalence of Luminal A subtype was significantly lower in Chinese series, impacting the overall prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease in a large cohort of Chinese/Caucasian patients. Unsupervised and supervised comparison of gene and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of Chinese and Caucasian samples revealed extensive similarity in the comprehensive taxonomy of transcriptional elements regulating breast cancer biology. Partition of gene expression data using gene lists relevant to breast cancer as “intrinsic” and “extracellular matrix” genes identified Chinese and Caucasian subgroups with equivalent global gene and miRNA profiles. These findings indicate that in the Chinese and Caucasian groups, breast neoplasia and the surrounding stromal characteristics undergo the same differentiation and molecular processes. Transcriptional similarity across transethnic cohorts may simplify translational medicine approaches and clinical management of breast cancer patients worldwide. PMID:25787708

  1. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jepson, A S; Fentiman, I S

    1998-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, often with a late presentation and poor prognosis. The mainstay of treatment is modified radical mastectomy, with axillary node dissection to assess stage, prognosis and the need for adjuvant treatment. When matched for age, tumour size, grade and axillary nodal status, the prognosis is similar for males and females. Concerted efforts must be made to educate both the public and health professionals, in order to make earlier diagnoses and thereby improve prognosis. PMID:10622057

  2. Comparative analysis of geodynamic activity of the Caucasian and Eastern Mediterranean segments of the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelidze, Tamaz; Eppelbaum, Lev

    2013-04-01

    The Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone (AHCZ) underwent recent transverse shortening under the effect of collisional compression. The process was accompanied by rotation of separate microplates. The Caucasian and Eastern Mediterranean regions are segments of the of the AHCZ and are characterized by intensive endogenous and exogenous geodynamic processes, which manifest themselves in occurrence of powerful (with magnitude of 8-9) earthquakes accompanied by development of secondary catastrophic processes. Large landslides, rock falls, avalanches, mud flows, etc. cause human deaths and great material losses. The development of the aforesaid endogenous processes is set forth by peculiarities of the deep structure of the region and an impact of deep geological processes. The Caucasus is divided into several main tectonic terranes: platform (sub-platform, quasi-platform) and fold-thrust units. Existing data enable to perform a division of the Caucasian region into two large-scale geological provinces: southern Tethyan and northern Tethyan located to the south of and to the north of the Lesser Caucasian ophiolite suture, respectively. The recent investigations show that the assessments of the seismic hazard in these regions are not quite correct - for example in the West Caucasus the seismic hazard can be significantly underestimated, which affects the corresponding risk assessments. Integrated analysis of gravity, magnetic, seismic and thermal data enables to refine the assessment of the seismic hazard of the region, taking into account real rates of the geodynamic movements. Important role play the last rheological constructions. According to Reilinger et al. (2006) tectonic scheme, the West flanking of the Arabian Plate manifests strike-slip motion, when the East Caucasian block is converging and shortening. The Eastern Mediterranean is a tectonically complex region located in the midst of the progressive Afro-Eurasian collision. The recent increasing geotectonic

  3. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3745498

  4. Promoting positive youth development by examining the career and educational aspirations of African American males: implications for designing educational programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Felecia A; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia R; Carmack, Chakema; Roberts, Shani R; Basore, Polly

    2011-01-01

    African American males experience poor academic performance, high absenteeism at school, and are at increased risk of being involved in violence than other racial groups. Given that the educational outlook for African American males appears bleak, it is important to assess the aspirations of these adolescent males in order to find the gap between aspirations and educational attainment. In order to promote positive development within this population, it is essential that factors that affect African American males be identified. A survey was administered to male students attending elementary, middle, and high schools in a local school district. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the career and educational aspirations of African American males. A total of 473 males were surveyed: 45% African American, 22% Caucasian, 13% biracial, and 19% Other (including Asian American, Hispanic, Native American). The results revealed that African American males aspired to attend college at the same rate as other ethnic groups. Also, African American males were more likely to aspire to be professional athletes than males from other ethnic groups. Important factors to consider when designing a program are discussed as well as future research and limitations. PMID:21992020

  5. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  6. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  7. Male-male homosexology: seven short discourses.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2004-09-01

    Homosexology is that branch of the science of sexology that deals with same sex relationships. It is subdivided into ideation, imagery, and praxis. Praxeology is the science of praxis. There are two doctrines by which homosexuality is defined: elective and developmental. Elective is like joining a political party and is more likely bisexual than exclusively homosexual. Complete developmental homosexuality is a state of being and is characteristically immutable. Both types of homosexuality are determined multivariately and sequentially, not univariately. Male and female mammals are phylogenically programmed to be reciprocal, not identical, in the praxeology of their courtship and mating. In primate, notably human, evolution, the eyes have taken over from the nose as organs of erotic arousal, but the molecular biology of how this happens in individual development, gay, straight or ambivalent, remains to be ascertained. The different personal histories of homosexual development also remain to be ascertained and cataloged. PMID:15506674

  8. Techniques of Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

  9. Visual scanning and recognition of Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces: contributions from bottom-up facial physiognomic information and top-down knowledge of racial categories.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Hu, Chao S; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time. PMID:25497461

  10. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders and orofacial parafunction in 4-6-year-old African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, S E; Christiansen, R L; Gunn, S M; Hawley, L M

    1995-02-01

    Children, 4-6 years old, 153 Caucasian and 50 African-American, from a pre-school and kindergarten programme in a low income industrial area, who participated in a voluntary oral health examination, were questioned and examined for signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and of oral parafunctions. Most of the CMD signs and symptoms were mild. Eight per cent had recurrent (at least 1-2 times per week) TMJ pain, and 5% had recurrent neck pain, African-American children more often than Caucasian children (P < 0.05). Seventeen per cent had recurrent headache. Three per cent had recurrent earache. Pain or tiredness in the jaws during chewing was reported by 25% of the children, more often by African-American than by Caucasian children (P < 0.001) and more often by girls than by boys (P < 0.05). Pain at jaw opening occurred in 10% of the children, more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian group (P < 0.001). Thirteen per cent of the children had problems in opening the mouth. Deviation during opening was observed in 17% and reduced opening in 2%. Reduced lateral movements, locking or luxation were not observed in any child. Palpation pain was found in the lateral TMJ area in 16%, in the posterior TMJ area in 25%, in the temporalis and masseter areas in 10%, and pain for all regions was found more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian children (P < 0.01). Thirty-four per cent of the African-American, and 15% of the Caucasian children admitted to having ear noises (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7722749

  11. Visual scanning and recognition of Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces: Contributions from bottom-up facial physiognomic information and top-down knowledge of racial categories

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Hu, Chao S.; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese faces, Caucasian faces, and racially ambiguous morphed face stimuli. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information of racial categories that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time. PMID:25497461

  12. Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder: A comparison of African Americans and Caucasians in the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Fu, Jinmiao; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fochtmann, Laura J; Medeiros, Helena; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported differences between African Americans and Caucasians in relative proportion of psychotic symptoms and disorders, but whether this reflects racial bias in the assessment of psychosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of psychotic symptoms and potential bias in symptoms assessed via semi-structured interview using a cohort of 3,389 African American and 5,692 Caucasian participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. In this cohort, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was relatively more common, and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder-bipolar type was less relatively common, among African Americans than Caucasians. With regard to symptoms, relatively more African Americans than Caucasians endorsed hallucinations and delusions symptoms, and this pattern was striking among cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective-bipolar disorder. In contrast, the relative endorsement of psychotic symptoms was more similar among cases diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder-depressed type. Differential item function analysis revealed that African Americans with mild psychosis over-endorsed "hallucinations in any modality" and under-endorsed "widespread delusions" relative to Caucasians. Other symptoms did not show evidence of racial bias. Thus, racial bias in assessment of psychotic symptoms does not appear to explain differences in the proportion of symptoms between Caucasians and African Americans. Rather, this may reflect ascertainment bias, perhaps indicative of a disparity in access to services, or differential exposure to risk factors for psychosis by race. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663585

  13. An adaptation of the Moyers mixed dentition space analysis for a Western Cape Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, S W; Rossouw, P; van Wyk Kotze, T J; Trutero, H

    1991-09-01

    200 dental plaster casts of Western Cape Caucasoid subjects, all of whom were under the age of 21 years, were used in this study. Mesio-distal measurements (MD lengths) were obtained of all the teeth, disregarding the third molars. This data was used to develop regression equations, for maxillary and for mandibular arches, to enable the prediction of the mesio-distal lengths of the canine and two premolars. The study identified the sum of the MD lengths of the permanent lower incisors as the best predictor. It appears that separate predictions for male and female are not warranted. The equations and the predicted values were compared with those of Moyers (1973 and 1988) and some significant differences were found. The Prediction Tables will be useful in analysis of the mixed dentition phase in patients from this population group. PMID:1820683

  14. Treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients using a novel 694-nm Q-switched ruby fractional laser

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melasma is a common hypermelanosis of the face. The use of a classical Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) to treat melasma is discussed controversially and is associated with frequent adverse effects, such as hyper- or hypopigmentation. Recently a fractional-mode (FRx) QSRL was developed to minimize the adverse effects of classical QSRL. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel FRx-QSRL in the treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 25 Caucasian melasma patients (Fitzpatrick skin types I to III). Patients received one to three FRx-QSRL treatments (Tattoostar FRx, Asclepion Laser Technologies, Jena, Germany) at pulse energies of 4 to 8 J/cm2. Three blinded investigators independently evaluated the melasma area and severity index (MASI) score before treatment and at the four- to six-week follow-ups. At additional three-month follow-ups, patients evaluated subjective improvement, pain and over-all satisfaction with the treatment according to a numeric analogue score (NAS). Side effects were documented. Results At four to six weeks post laser treatment for a mean of 1.4 sessions, we observed a significant (P = 0.0001) reduction of the MASI score from 6.54 to 1.98 (72.3%). Patients rated the pain of the intervention at a mean 2.46 points (0 = no pain; 10 = maximum pain), the improvement at a mean 5.55 points (0 = no improvement; 10 = maximum improvement) and the overall satisfaction at a mean 4.66 points (0 = not satisfied; 10 = maximum satisfaction). After three months, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and/or recurring melasma were observed in 7 (28%) and 11 (44%) patients, respectively. Conclusion The 694-nm FRx-QSRL is a safe and effective option for treating melasma in Caucasian patients. Over periods of >3 months, PIH and/or recurring melasma may develop at significant rates and may reduce patient satisfaction. Multiple treatment

  15. BMI1, Stem Cell Factor Acting as Novel Serum-biomarker for Caucasian and African-American Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Hifzur Rahman; Parray, Aijaz; Zhong, Weixiong; Karnes, R. Jeffery; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Rhim, Johng S.; Konety, Badrinath R.; Saleem, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of reliable predictive biomarkers is a stumbling block in the management of prostate cancer (CaP). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) widely used in clinics has several caveats as a CaP biomarker. African-American CaP patients have poor prognosis than Caucasians, and notably the serum-PSA does not perform well in this group. Further, some men with low serum-PSA remain unnoticed for CaP until they develop disease. Thus, there is a need to identify a reliable diagnostic and predictive biomarker of CaP. Here, we show that BMI1 stem-cell protein is secretory and could be explored for biomarker use in CaP patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Semi-quantitative analysis of BMI1 was performed in prostatic tissues of TRAMP (autochthonous transgenic mouse model), human CaP patients, and in cell-based models representing normal and different CaP phenotypes in African-American and Caucasian men, by employing immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and Slot-blotting. Quantitative analysis of BMI1 and PSA were performed in blood and culture-media of siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells by employing ELISA. BMI1 protein is (i) secreted by CaP cells, (ii) increased in the apical region of epithelial cells and stromal region in prostatic tumors, and (iii) detected in human blood. BMI1 is detectable in blood of CaP patients in an order of increasing tumor stage, exhibit a positive correlation with serum-PSA and importantly is detectable in patients which exhibit low serum-PSA. The clinical significance of BMI1 as a biomarker could be ascertained from observation that CaP cells secrete this protein in higher levels than cells representative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Conclusions/Significance BMI1 could be developed as a dual bio-marker (serum and biopsy) for the diagnosis and prognosis of CaP in Caucasian and African-American men. Though compelling these data warrant further investigation in a cohort of African-American patients. PMID:23308129

  16. CYP2D6 phenotype-genotype relationships in African-Americans and Caucasians in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Leathart, J B; London, S J; Steward, A; Adams, J D; Idle, J R; Daly, A K

    1998-12-01

    CYP2D6 genotyping (CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*5, CYP2D6*13, CYP2D6*16 alleles and gene duplications) was previously performed on 1053 Caucasian and African-American lung cancer cases and control individuals and no significant difference in allele frequencies between cases and control individuals detected. We have carried out additional genotyping (CYP2D6*6, CYP2D6*7, CYP2D6*8, CYP2D6*9, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*17 alleles) and debrisoquine phenotyping on subgroups from this study to assess phenotype-genotype relationships. African-Americans showed significant differences from Caucasians with respect to frequency of defective CYP2D6 alleles, particularly CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*5. The CYP2D6*17 allele occurred at a frequency of 0.26 among 87 African-Americans and appeared to explain higher average metabolic ratios among African-Americans compared with Caucasians. CYP2D6*6, CYP2D6*8, CYP2D6*9 and CYP2D6*10 were rare in both ethnic groups but explained approximately 40% of higher than expected metabolic ratios among extensive metabolizers. Among individuals phenotyped with debrisoquine, 32 out of 359 were in the poor metabolizer range with 24 of these (75%) also showing two defective CYP2D6 alleles. Additional single strand conformational polymorphism analysis screening of samples showing large phenotype-genotype discrepancies resulted in the detection of three novel polymorphisms. If subjects taking potentially interfering drugs were excluded, this additional screening enabled the positive identification of 88% of phenotypic poor metabolizers by genotyping. This sensitivity was comparable with that of phenotyping, which identified 90% of those with two defective alleles as poor metabolizers. PMID:9918137

  17. Treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Gianpiero D; Kocent, Justin; Monahan, Devin; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Major difficulties exist in the accurate and meaningful diagnosis of male reproductive dysfunction, and our understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of male infertility has proven quite complex.The numerous spermatozoa produced in mammals and other species provides some degree of protection against adverse environmental conditions represented by physical and chemical factors that can reduce reproductive function and increase gonadal damage even resulting in testicular cancer or congenital malformations. The wide fluctuations of sperm production in men, both geographical and temporal, may reflect disparate environmental exposures, occurring on differing genetic backgrounds, in varying psychosocial conditions, and leading to the diversified observed outcomes.Sperm analysis is still the cornerstone in diagnosis of male factor infertility, indeed, individually compromised semen paramaters while adequately address therapeutic practices is progressively flanked by additional tests. Administration of drugs, IUI, correction of varicocele, and, to a certain extent, IVF although they may not be capable of restoring fertility itself often result in childbearing. PMID:24782020

  18. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors. During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breast cancer (FBC). Little is known about the etiology of MaleBC: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in its pathogenesis. Major risk factors include clinical disorders carrying hormonal imbalances, radiation exposure and, in particular, a positive family history (FH) for BC, the latter suggestive of genetic susceptibility. Rare mutations in high-penetrance genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) confer a high risk of BC development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  19. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments. PMID:27502429

  20. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  1. Eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J

    2002-04-01

    Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328

  2. Reference data for ultrasonic bone measurement: variation with age in 2087 Caucasian women aged 16-93 years.

    PubMed

    Truscott, J G

    1997-10-01

    Data from the measurement of broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS), using the Lunar Achilles ultrasonic densitometer, were collected for Caucasian women from five centres in the United Kingdom (Leeds, London, Nottingham, Lincoln and Sheffield). After correcting for machine variability at each site, the data were combined into a central reference database comprising 2087 women aged 16-93 years. The data are presented in 5-year bands and show a mean fall of 0.36% per year for BUA and 0.08% per year for SOS in the 60 years following the attainment of peak bone mass. This fall in BUA compares with that observed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of 0.32% per year and 0.44% per year, respectively, for the age range 25-65 years. PMID:9404204

  3. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents. PMID:19830913

  4. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass. PMID:16358400

  5. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in neuromyelitis optica: a prospective study of 13 Caucasian patients and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bălaşa, Rodica; Maier, Smaranda; Bajko, Zoltan; Motataianu, Anca; Crişan, Alexandra; Bălaşa, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a homogenous disease that can be diagnosed by an association of clinical, neuroimaging and serological aspects. We analysed our 4 years NMO series with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) during the disease course. We included consecutive adult Caucasian patients who were diagnosed with definite NMO, or cases of NMO-IgG seropositive LETM considered as limited forms of NMO. Patients included were negative for other diseases (autoimmune, infectious, etc.). We report the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), brain and spine MRI, CSF, NMO-IgG, treatment, motor and visual outcome. Thirteen cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and the mean follow-up period was 3.74 ± 1.8 years. The initial motor deficit was severe with the mean value of motor functional parameter of 4.46 ± 1 and improved at discharge to 2.53 ± 1.4 (p < 0.001). With treatment, the outcome after LETM attack was good in 10 patients, with a significant improvement of the EDSS mainly upon motor deficit, while visual function had a very slight amelioration. The CSF analysis was normal in 8 cases; spinal MRI showed evidence of LETM in all patients while brain MRI was normal in 7. NMO-IgG is a biomarker for NMO that is of diagnostic value in cases of isolated LETM. LETM has a better outcome than ON in NMO Caucasians. Spinal MRI is essential for NMO diagnosis in the presence of LETM and the absence of multiple brain MRI lesions. Maintenance immunosuppressive therapy reduces the frequency of attacks. PMID:25944511

  6. The functional "KL-VS" variant of KLOTHO is not associated with type 2 diabetes in 5028 UK Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Freathy, Rachel M; Weedon, Michael N; Melzer, David; Shields, Beverley; Hitman, Graham A; Walker, Mark; McCarthy, Mark I; Hattersley, Andrew T; Frayling, Timothy M

    2006-01-01

    Background Klotho has an important role in insulin signalling and the development of ageing-like phenotypes in mice. The common functional "KL-VS" variant in the KLOTHO (KL) gene is associated with longevity in humans but its role in type 2 diabetes is not known. We performed a large case-control and family-based study to test the hypothesis that KL-VS is associated with type 2 diabetes in a UK Caucasian population. Methods We genotyped 1793 cases, 1619 controls and 1616 subjects from 509 families for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) F352V (rs9536314) that defines the KL-VS variant. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls. Family-based analysis was used to test for over- or under-transmission of V352 to affected offspring. Results Despite good power to detect odds ratios of 1.2, there were no significant associations between alleles or genotypes and type 2 diabetes (V352 allele: odds ratio = 0.96 (0.84–1.09)). Additional analysis of quantitative trait data in 1177 healthy control subjects showed no association of the variant with fasting insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDL- or LDL-cholesterol (all P > 0.05). However, the HDL-cholesterol levels observed across the genotype groups showed a similar, but non-significant, pattern to previously reported data. Conclusion This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between common functional variation in KL and type 2 diabetes risk. We have found no evidence that the functional KL-VS variant is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in a large UK Caucasian case-control and family-based study. PMID:16753056

  7. Longitudinal predictors of reading and math trajectories through middle school for African American versus Caucasian students across two samples.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Joanne; Sideris, John; Burchinal, Margaret; Zeisel, Susan

    2010-09-01

    This study's primary purpose was to examine the relative contribution of social-behavioral predictors to reading and math skills. The study expands on Duncan et al.'s (2007) work by using longitudinal methodology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) databases, and by focusing on potential differences in patterns of early predictors of later reading and math trajectories for African American versus Caucasian students. Predictor measures were selected at kindergarten, and the outcomes included standardized reading and math scores obtained from Grades 1, 3, 5, and 9 for the SECCYD sample, and Grades 3, 5, and 8 for the ECLS-K sample. Consistent with Duncan et al.'s findings, results reflect the relative contributions of early reading and math skills to later functioning in these respective academic domains for both samples, and there are indications for the importance of early expressive language skills to both reading and math in the SECCYD sample. Findings related to the power of social-behavioral predictors, however, are not consistent across samples. Although the SECCYD sample evidenced no such predictors, several interactions in the ECLS-K sample suggested the moderating effects of early ratings of aggressive behaviors and internalizing behaviors on later reading and math for African American students. The moderating effects of early teacher ratings of attention and internalizing behaviors for African American students as compared with Caucasian students in later math growth also were noted. The importance of early social-behavioral functions as related to later academic skills remains an important area of inquiry. PMID:20822220

  8. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P < 0.001), hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P < 0.001), chemical relaxer use (P < 0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P < 0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P < 0.001), density (P = 0.0016), diameter (P = 0.01), number of broken hairs (P < 0.001), and blood flow (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth. PMID:26300276

  9. Significant association between rare IPO11-HTR1A variants and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lingjun; Saba, Laura; Lin, Xiandong; Tan, Yunlong; Wang, Kesheng; Krystal, John H; Tabakoff, Boris; Luo, Xingguang

    2015-10-01

    We comprehensively examined the rare variants in the IPO11-HTR1A region to explore their roles in neuropsychiatric disorders. Five hundred seventy-three to 1,181 rare SNPs in subjects of European descent and 1,234-2,529 SNPs in subjects of African descent (0 < minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05) were analyzed in a total of 49,268 subjects in 21 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric disorders. Associations between rare variant constellations and diseases and associations between individual rare variants and diseases were tested. RNA expression changes of this region were also explored. We identified a rare variant constellation across the entire IPO11-HTR1A region that was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Caucasians (T5: P = 7.9 × 10(-31) ; Fp: P = 1.3 × 10(-32) ), but not with any other disorder examined; association signals mainly came from IPO11 (T5: P = 3.6 × 10(-10) ; Fp: P = 3.2 × 1 0(-10) ) and the intergenic region between IPO11 and HTR1A (T5: P = 4.1 × 10(-30) ; Fp: P = 5.4 × 10(-32) ). One association between ADHD and an intergenic rare variant, i.e., rs10042956, exhibited region- and cohort-wide significance (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) ) and survived correction for false discovery rate (q = 0.006). Cis-eQTL analysis showed that, 29 among the 41 SNPs within or around IPO11 had replicable significant regulatory effects on IPO11 exon expression (1.5 × 10(-17) ≤P < 0.002) in human brain or peripheral blood mononuclear cell tissues. We concluded that IPO11-HTR1A was a significant risk gene region for ADHD in Caucasians. PMID:26079129

  10. Significant association between rare IPO11-HTR1A variants and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Saba, Laura; Lin, Xiandong; Tan, Yunlong; Wang, Kesheng; Krystal, John H.; Tabakoff, Boris; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-01-01

    Objective We comprehensively examined the rare variants in the IPO11-HTR1A region to explore their roles in neuropsychiatric disorders. Method Five hundred seventy-three to 1,181 rare SNPs in subjects of European descent and 1,234-2,529 SNPs in subjects of African descent (0 < minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05) were analyzed in a total of 49,268 subjects in 21 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric disorders. Associations between rare variant constellations and diseases and associations between individual rare variants and diseases were tested. RNA expression changes of this region were also explored. Results We identified a rare variant constellation across the entire IPO11-HTR1A region that was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Caucasians (T5: p=7.9×10−31; Fp: p=1.3×10−32), but not with any other disorder examined; association signals mainly came from IPO11 (T5: p=3.6×10−10; Fp: p=3.2×10−10) and the intergenic region between IPO11 and HTR1A (T5: p=4.1×10−30; Fp: p=5.4×10−32). One association between ADHD and an intergenic rare variant, i.e., rs10042956, exhibited region- and cohort-wide significance (p=5.2×10−6) and survived correction for false discovery rate (q=0.006). Cis-eQTL analysis showed that, 29 among the 41 SNPs within or around IPO11 had replicable significant regulatory effects on IPO11 exon expression (1.5×10−17≤p<0.002) in human brain or peripheral blood mononuclear cell tissues. Conclusion We concluded that IPO11-HTR1A was a significant risk gene region for ADHD in Caucasians. PMID:26079129

  11. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  12. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems. PMID:9385085

  13. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  14. Male mating biology

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

  15. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males Left…

  16. Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

  17. Contributing Factors That Affect the Achievement of African-American Females Taught by Caucasian Teachers on the Arkansas Literacy Exam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Felicia R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…

  18. A Comparison Between Caucasians and African Americans in Willingness to Participate in Cancer Clinical Trials: The Roles of Knowledge, Distrust, Information Sources, and Religiosity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingbo; McLaughlin, Margaret; Pariera, Katrina; Murphy, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to (a) examine the roles of knowledge, distrust in medical professionals, information sources, and 2 dimensions of religiosity (i.e., religious activity and religious belief) in influencing willingness to participate (WTP) in cancer clinical trials and to (b) compare the results for Caucasians and African Americans in order to inform future recruitment. An online survey was fielded via a Knowledge Networks panel with a nationally representative sample including 478 Caucasians and 173 African Americans. The results showed that distrust in medical professionals was a strong barrier to WTP for both ethnic groups, whereas factual knowledge about trial procedures was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. Seeking trial information from doctors was positively associated with WTP for Caucasians; seeking trial information from hospitals was positively associated with WTP for African Americans. More interestingly, levels of religious activity negatively predicted WTP for Caucasians but positively predicted WTP for African Americans. Self-reported religious belief was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. In sum, although distrust is a common barrier to WTP, the influence of preferred information sources and religious activity on WTP varies as a function of ethnicity. PMID:27175604

  19. The Relating Level of Teacher Candidates Based on Scientific Information with Their Daily Lives: A Case of Ataturk and Caucasian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine and compare candidate teachers' level of relating scientific information with their daily lives. The teachers were studying in the 1st and 4th classes in Atatürk and Caucasian Universities, Education Faculty, Elementary School Science Teaching Department during the 2012-2013 academic year. The research…

  20. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  1. Graft-versus-Host Disease after HLA-Matched Sibling Bone Marrow or Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Comparison of North American Caucasian and Japanese Populations.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Junya; Brazauskas, Ruta; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Nagafuji, Koji; Kanamori, Heiwa; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Miyamura, Koichi; Murata, Makoto; Fukuda, Takahiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kimura, Fumihiko; Seo, Sachiko; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Yoshimi, Ayami; Milone, Giuseppe; Wood, William A; Ustun, Celalettin; Hashimi, Shahrukh; Pasquini, Marcelo; Bonfim, Carmem; Dalal, Jignesh; Hahn, Theresa; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Saber, Wael

    2016-04-01

    The risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients. However, race may have differential effect on GVHD dependent on the graft source. North American Caucasian and Japanese patients receiving their first allogeneic BMT or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling for leukemia were eligible. BMT was performed in 13% of the Caucasian patients and in 53% of the Japanese patients. On multivariate analysis, the interaction term between race and graft source was not significant in any of the models, indicating that graft source does not affect the impact of race on outcomes. The risk of grade III or IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in the Japanese patients compared with the Caucasian patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.96), which resulted in lower risk of nonrelapse mortality in the Japanese patients (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.89). The risk of relapse was also lower in this group. The lower risks of nonrelapse mortality and relapse resulted in lower overall mortality rates among the Japanese patients. In conclusion, our data indicate that irrespective of graft source, the risk of severe acute GVHD is lower in Japanese patients, resulting in a lower risk of nonrelapse mortality. PMID:26762681

  2. Barriers to Career Mobility/Advancement by African-American and Caucasian Female Administrators in Minnesota Organizations: A Perception or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jo Evans

    The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…

  3. A prospective analysis of juvenile male sex offenders: characteristics and recidivism rates as adults.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M

    2006-05-01

    This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male who was arrested for sexual assault or indecency with a child. The majority of the victims are females with an average age of 8. Although only 13 are rearrested during the follow-up period for a sex offense, more than half of the sample is arrested at least once for a nonsexual offense. The results of a Cox regression indicate that victim age, offender age, and victim sex are significant predictors of recidivism during adulthood. PMID:16574639

  4. Anthropometric and craniofacial sexual dimorphism in obstructive sleep apnea patients: is there male-female phenotypical convergence?

    PubMed

    Perri, Rita A; Kairaitis, Kristina; Wheatley, John R; Amis, Terence C

    2015-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in men than women. Body size is greater in males (sexual dimorphism), but large body habitus is associated with OSA for both genders. We speculated that male-female phenotypical convergence (reduced sexual dimorphism via identical phenotype acquisition) occurs with OSA and tested hypotheses: (1) phenotypical features pathogenic for OSA differ between OSA and healthy subjects irrespective of gender; and (2) such characteristics exhibit phenotypical convergence. Utilizing an existing database, we calculated male-female (group average) ratios for eight anthropometric and 33 surface cephalometric variables from 104 Caucasian OSA patients [72 males; apnea-hypopnea index (events h(-1) ): males: 42.3 ± 24.7 versus females: 42.6 ± 26.1 (P > 0.9)] and 85 Caucasian, healthy, non-OSA, community volunteers (36 males). Log-transformed data were analysed using a general linear model with post-hoc unpaired t-tests and significance at P < 0.0012 (Bonferroni multiple-comparison correction). OSA patients were older (56.9 ± 14.4 versus 38.0 ± 13.8 years), but there were no within-group gender-based age differences. All anthropometric variables (except height), plus cranial base width, mandibular breadth and retromandibular width diagonal were larger in gender-matched OSA versus healthy comparisons; thus satisfying hypothesis (1). Male-female ratios were mostly >1.0 across groups, but with no significant group × gender interactions no variable satisfied hypothesis (2). Thus, in this exploratory study, OSA patients had gender-common phenotypical differences to healthy subjects, but sexual dimorphism was preserved. Lack of complete phenotypical convergence may indicate gender-based critical phenotype-level attainment for OSA and/or gender-based OSA prevalence arises from factors other than those in this study. PMID:25113616

  5. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  6. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. Methods The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Results Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3), indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01). On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p = 0.01). The best

  7. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  8. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  9. Newborn male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male. PMID:26435672

  10. Male osteoporosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-12-18

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism.Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  11. Male osteoporosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism. Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  12. Male Body Contouring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient. PMID:26355627

  13. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  14. Association of clusterin (CLU) variants and exfoliation syndrome: An analysis in two Caucasian studies and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bao J; Pasquale, Louis R; Kang, Jae H; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hani; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2015-10-01

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an important risk factor for glaucoma (XFG) worldwide. LOXL1 variants are highly associated with XFS in most populations; however, the high frequency of risk alleles in normal individuals and the reversal of risk alleles in different ethnic populations suggest that other factors contribute to XFS pathogenesis. Clusterin (CLU) is an extracellular matrix chaperone that prevents protein aggregation and is highly expressed in ocular tissues affected by XFS. Studies examining common CLU variants for association with XFS have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CLU variants for association with XFS in two independent datasets from the United States (222 cases and 344 controls) and Israel (92 cases and 102 controls). Seven tag SNPs that captured >95% of alleles at r(2) greater than 0.8 across the CLU genomic region were genotyped using TaqMan assays. Genotypes for an additional SNP, rs2279590, were imputed using phased haplotypes of HapMap reference CEU samples. Of the 8 CLU SNPs selected for the study, none were significantly associated with XFS in either case-control group (age and sex adjusted P > 0.14 and 0.36, respectively, in the US and Israeli datasets), or when they were meta-analyzed together (age and sex adjusted P > 0.13). Haplotype analysis using all 8 SNPs or only the promoter region SNPs also did not show significant associations of CLU with XFS in the combined US and Israeli dataset (P > 0.28). Meta-analysis of the data from this study and previous studies in Caucasian populations (1184 cases and 978 controls) resulted in statistically significant association of rs2279590 with XFS (summary OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03-1.33, P = 0.01). Significant association between rs2279590 and XFS was also found in Indian populations (summary OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.96; P = 0.02); however, significant heterogeneity between the Caucasian and Indian populations possibly due to reversal of the risk allele

  15. Better short-term clinical response to etanercept in Chinese than Caucasian patients with active ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chung-Tei; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Liang, Tung-Hua; Chang, Te-Ming; Lai, Chen-Hung; Wei, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kun-Hung; Lin, Shih-Chang; Yu, Chia-Li; Liou, Lieh-Bang; Luo, Shue-Fen; Lee, Chyou-Shen; Hsue, Yin-Tzu; Huang, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jiunn-Hong; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Cheng, He-Hsiung; Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Lai, Han-Ming; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Lu, Ling-Ying; Chang, Chung-Pei

    2010-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors including etanercept have been demonstrated to be very effective in severe ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Caucasian patients. However, clinical efficacy of etanercept to treat active AS in Chinese patients has not been reported. In this study, a prospective, open-label trial of etanercept (25 mg BIW), involving 46 AS patients from 16 medical centers of Taiwan, was conducted. Questionnaire was utilized to record demographic data and clinical parameters, including Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), Bath AS Global Index (BASGI), Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) 20, 50, and 70, and others, before and at different time intervals after etanercept treatment. Laboratory tests including blood chemistry, hematology, urine analysis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were done at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. In this 12-week study, etanercept demonstrated rapid and significant improvement in the ASAS20 response criteria (91.3%), at as early as 2 weeks of therapy (71.3%). Partial remission of AS was achieved in 49.3% of patients after 12 weeks of treatment. Disease activity (BASDAI) and function (BASFI) were also significantly improved after 12 weeks etanercept treatment (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, significant increase of chest expansion (2.77 ± 1.69 cm versus 3.56 ± 1.82 cm, p = 0.0004) and lumbar flexion (2.11 ± 2.76 cm versus 2.58 ± 3.42 cm, p = 0.0075) and significant reduction of occiput-to-wall distance (6.59 ± 7.14 cm versus 5.32 ± 6.65 cm, p = 0.0006) were also demonstrated. Both ESR and CRP declined significantly after patients were treated with etanercept. There were no severe adverse effects during the treatment period. Etanercept is generally safe, well tolerated, and effective in Chinese patients with severe AS. Clinical efficacy, including partial remission and BASDAI, is even better in Chinese

  16. Phenotype and frequency of STUB1 mutations: next-generation screenings in Caucasian ataxia and spastic paraplegia cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the gene STUB1, encoding the protein CHIP (C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein), have recently been suggested as a cause of recessive ataxia based on the findings in few Chinese families. Here we aimed to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of STUB1 mutations, and to assess their frequency in different Caucasian disease cohorts. Methods 300 subjects with degenerative ataxia (n = 167) or spastic paraplegia (n = 133) were screened for STUB1 variants by whole-exome-sequencing (n = 204) or shotgun-fragment-library-sequencing (n = 96). To control for the specificity of STUB1 variants, we screened an additional 1707 exomes from 891 index families with other neurological diseases. Results We identified 3 ataxia patients (3/167 = 1.8%) with 4 novel missense mutations in STUB1, including 3 mutations in its tetratricopeptide-repeat domain. All patients showed evidence of pyramidal tract damage. Cognitive impairment was present only in one and hypogonadism in none of them. Ataxia did not start before age 48 years in one subject. No recessive STUB1 variants were identified in families with other neurological diseases, demonstrating that STUB1 variants are not simply rare polymorphisms ubiquitous in neurodegenerative disease. Conclusions STUB1-disease occurs also in Caucasian ataxia populations (1.8%). Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of STUB1-disease, showing that pathogenic mutations affect also the tetratricopeptide-repeat domain, thus providing clinical evidence for the functional importance of this domain. Moreover, they further delineate the phenotypic core features of STUB1-ataxia. Pyramidal tract damage is a common accompanying feature and can include lower limb spasticity, thus adding STUB1-ataxia to the differential diagnosis of “spastic ataxias”. However, STUB1 is rare in subjects with predominant spastic paraplegia (0/133). In contrast to previous reports, STUB1-ataxia can start even above age 40

  17. Comparative pharmacogenetic analysis of risk polymorphisms in Caucasian and Vietnamese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prediction of therapeutic outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Vu Hoang, Phuong Thu; Ambroise, Jérôme; Dekairelle, Anne-France; Durant, Jean-François; Butoescu, Valentina; Dang Chi, Vu Luan; Huynh, Nghia; Nguyen, Tan Binh; Robert, Annie; Vermylen, Christiane; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Aims Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common of all paediatric cancers. Aside from predisposing to ALL, polymorphisms could also be associated with poor outcome. Indeed, genetic variations involved in drug metabolism could, at least partially, be responsible for heterogeneous responses to standardized leukemia treatments, hence requiring more personalized therapy. The aims of this study were to (a) to determine the prevalence of seven common genetic polymorphisms including those that affect the folate and/or thiopurine metabolic pathways, i.e. cyclin D1 (CCND1-G870A), γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH-C452T), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C), thymidylate synthase promoter (TYMS-TSER), thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT*3A and TPMT*3C) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA-C94A), in Caucasian (n = 94, age < 20) and Vietnamese (n = 141, age < 16 years) childhood ALL and (b) to assess the impact of a multilocus genetic risk score (MGRS) on relapse-free survival (RFS) using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model. Results The prevalence of MTHFR-677TT genotype was significantly higher in Caucasians (P = 0.008), in contrast to the prevalence of TYMS-TSER*3R/3R and ITPA-94AA/AC genotypes which were significantly higher in Vietnamese (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Compared with children with a low MGRS (≤3), those with a high MGRS (≥4) were 2.06 (95% CI = 1.01, 4.22; P = 0.04) times more likely to relapse. Adding MGRS into a multivariate Cox regression model with race/ethnicity and four clinical variables improved the predictive accuracy of the model (AUC from 0.682 to 0.709 at 24 months). Conclusion Including MGRS into a clinical model improved the predictive accuracy of short and medium term prognosis, hence confirming the association between well determined pharmacogenotypes and outcome of paediatric ALL. Whether variants on other genes associated with folate metabolism can substantially improve the

  18. Unmet supportive care needs: a cross-cultural comparison between Hong Kong Chinese and German Caucasian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wendy W T; Au, Angel H Y; Wong, Jennifer H F; Lehmann, Claudia; Koch, Uwe; Fielding, Richard; Mehnert, Anja

    2011-11-01

    The comparison of psychosocial needs across different cultural settings can identify cultural and service impacts on psychosocial outcomes. We compare psychosocial needs in Hong Kong Chinese and German Caucasian women with breast cancer. Completed questionnaires were collected from 348 Chinese and 292 German women with breast cancer for assessing unmet psychosocial needs (Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form), psychological distress (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), and listed physical and psychological symptoms. Only 11% of the participants reported not needing help for any of the 34 items. More German (14%) than Chinese women (8%) reported no unmet needs (χ(2) = 6.16, P = .013). With both samples combined, the Health System and Information domain unmet needs were the most prevalent, apart from one Psychological need domain item, "Fear about the cancer spreading." Chinese and German samples differed significantly in prevalence and patterns of unmet psychosocial needs. Multivariate adjustment for demographic, clinical, and sample characteristics, psychological distress, and symptoms showed that significantly greater unmet Health system and Information, and Patient care and support domain needs, associated with the presence of symptoms (β = .232, P < .001), high HADS Anxiety (β = .187, P < .001), higher education attainment (β = .120, P = .002), and Chinese sample membership (β = .280, P < .001). Greater unmet Psychological, Physical and Daily Living, and Sexuality domain needs were associated with the presence of symptoms, psychological distress, and German group membership, among others. German women reported more anxiety (t = 10.45, P < .001) and depression (t = 3.71, P < .001). In post hoc analyses, German, but not Chinese women reporting greater anxiety and depression had greater unmet Psychological and Sexuality domain needs (P < .001). It can be concluded that culture-specific differences in supportive care needs exist. Hong Kong Chinese

  19. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  20. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  1. Genetic Association Between Androgen Receptor Gene CAG Repeat Length Polymorphism and Male Infertility: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bihui; Li, Rui; Chen, Yao; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Liping; Lu, Chuncheng; Pan, Feng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2016-03-01

    The association between polymorphism of androgen receptor gene CAG (AR-CAG) and male infertility in several studies was controversial. Based on studies on association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in recent years, an updated meta-analysis is needed. We aimed to evaluate the association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in advantage of the data in all published reports.We searched for reports published before August 2015 using PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang. Data on sample size, mean, and standard deviation (SD) of AR-CAG repeat length were extracted independently by 3 investigators.Forty-four reports were selected based on criteria. The overall infertile patients and azoospermic patients were found to have longer AR-CAG repeat length (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.28, P < 0.01; SMD = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.10-0.61, P < 0.01). AR-CAG repeat length was longer in infertile men in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races (SMD = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.43, P <0.01; SMD = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02-0.25, P <0.05; SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.15-0.63, P <0.01). The overall study shows that increased AR-CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility. The subgroup study on races shows that increased AR-CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races. Increased AR-CAG repeat length was also associated with azoospermia.This meta-analysis supports that increased androgen receptor CAG length is capable of causing male infertility susceptibility. PMID:26962784

  2. Fibrosis and coronary perfusion - a cardiovascular disease risk in an African male cohort: The SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Jansen van Vuren, Esmé; Malan, Leoné; Cockeran, Marike; Scheepers, Jacobus D; Oosthuizen, Woudri; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation has been correlated with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Whether the pro-inflammatory and thrombotic ratio (fibrosis) may contribute to CVD is not known. We therefore aimed to assess whether Cornell Product left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with fibrosis and coronary perfusion (silent ischemia) in a bi-ethnic male cohort from South Africa. A cross sectional study was conducted including 165 African and Caucasian men between the ages of 20-65. Fasting blood samples were obtained to measure fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Ambulatory blood pressure, ECG and 12 lead ECG measures were obtained to determine silent ischemic events (ST events) and LVH, respectively. Africans revealed more silent ischemia, higher 24 h blood pressure, inflammatory, coagulation as well as fibrosis levels than Caucasians. In a low-grade inflammatory state (CRP > 3 mg/l), Africans revealed higher fibrosis (p ≤ 0.01) values, but lower IL-6 and TNF-α values than Caucasians. Linear regression analyses in several models demonstrated positive associations between silent ischemia and fibrosis [Adj. R(2) 0.23; ß 0.35 (95% CI 0.13, 0.58), p ≤ 0.01]. In a low-grade inflammatory state (CRP>3mg/l), fibrinogen predicted AV-block in African men [OR 3.38 (95% CI 2.24, 4.53); p = 0.04]. Low-grade inflammation may induce AV-block through mechanisms involving fibrosis and ischemia to increase the burden on the heart in African men. PMID:27380493

  3. Association between MDR1 gene polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease in Asian and Caucasian populations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shiek S S J; Husain, R S Akram; Kumar, Suresh; Ramakrishnan, V

    2016-09-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease, its etiology is largely unknown. Studies demonstrate the association of genetic and environment factors in causing neuronal degeneration. Reports suggest that the multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1) plays a vital role in preventing the toxic substance in entering the brain, which is associated with PD. However, the association between the MDR1 polymorphisms (C1236T and C3435T) and its susceptibility to PD is inconclusive. Meta analysis was carried by retrieving literatures from databases to search the case-control studies on the associations between the MRD1 polymorphisms and PD. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed and random model to determine the association between the polymorphisms and PD susceptibility. Significant association was noticed for C1236T polymorphism and PD risk in the recessive model OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.66-0.97. Further, ethnicity based analysis showed significant association for C1236T in allelic model of Asian population and also in the recessive models of both Asian and Caucasian populations. However, insignificant associations were noticed for C3435T in all the four models. Overall, the analysis suggested that MDR1 C1236T polymorphism substantially contribute to Parkinson's disease in the recessive genetic model. PMID:27538645

  4. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) deficiency in the first Caucasian patient: biochemistry, muscle culture and 31P-MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vita, G; Toscano, A; Bresolin, N; Meola, G; Fortunato, F; Baradello, A; Barbiroli, B; Frassineti, C; Zaniol, P; Messina, C

    1994-03-01

    Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) deficiency has been so far identified in only six patients, five of these being African Americans. We report the results of clinical, morphological, biochemical, muscle culture and 31P-MR spectroscopy studies in the first Caucasian patient with muscle PGAM deficiency. A 23-year-old man had a 10-year history of cramps after physical exertion with one episode of pigmenturia. Neurological examination and EMG study were normal. ECG and echocardiography revealed hypertrophy of the interventricular septum and slight dilation of the left chambers of the heart. Muscle biopsy revealed increased glycogen content and some accumulation of mitochondria. Muscle PGAM activity was markedly decreased (6.5% and 9.7% of control value in two different biopsies). Citrate synthase and other mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities were much higher than normal. In contrast to the marked decrease of PGAM activity observed in muscle biopsy, total enzyme activity in the patient's aneural muscle culture was normal, being represented exclusively by BB isoenzyme. The deficiency of PGAM-MM isoenzyme was reproduced in the patient's innervated muscle culture. Muscle 31P-MR spectroscopy showed accumulation of phosphomonoesters only on fast "glycolytic" exercise. On "aerobic" exercise, Vmax, calculated from the work-energy cost transfer function, showed an increase consistent with the morphological and biochemical evidence of mitochondrial proliferation. This might represent a sort of compensatory aerobic effort in an attempt to restore muscle power. PMID:8006681

  5. FokI polymorphism in vitamin D receptor gene and risk of breast cancer among Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jin-lu; Dai, Nan; Yang, Xue-qin; Qian, Cheng-yuan; Yang, Zhen-zhou; Jin, Feng; Li, Mengxia; Wang, Dong

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin D plays a central role in cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, and tumor growth suppression. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a crucial mediator for the cellular effects of vitamin D. A series of epidemiological studies have examined the association between the VDR FokI polymorphism and breast cancer risk, but the findings remain inconclusive. Fifteen eligible case-control studies involving 15,681 cancer cases and 20,632 control subjects were identified through searching PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. Heterogeneity across studies was examined with the chi-square-based Q test and the I (2) index. Begg's and Egger's test were also performed to determine publication bias. All statistical data were analyzed by STATA software. The combined estimates did not show significant risks correlated with the FokI polymorphism. However, we found an increased risk in the subgroup analysis by source of control (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01-1.22; heterogeneity test: P = 0.116, I(2) = 0.0% for ff vs FF; OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01-1.21; heterogeneity test: P = 0.832, I(2) = 0.0% for ff vs Ff + FF). This meta-analysis suggests that the presence of FokI polymorphism may contribute to the risk of breast cancer in Caucasians. PMID:24318991

  6. Needs and Concerns of Family Caregivers of American Indians, African Americans, and Caucasians With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Scarton, Lisa J; Bakas, Tamilyn; Poe, G Doug; Hull, Margie A; Ongwela, Loice A; Miller, Wendy R

    2016-04-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness affecting the entire family, scant literature exists in this area. This study's purpose was to identify needs of family caregivers of persons with type 2 diabetes across cultures. Using a semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions, a convenience sample of 33 family caregivers of American Indians (n = 14), African Americans (n = 11), and Caucasians (n = 8) with type 2 diabetes were interviewed by telephone. Qualitative content analysis was conducted based on five pre-determined categories derived from an existing conceptual model. Results were similar across groups and provided support for the conceptual model with themes emerging within the five pre-determined categories: (a) information about type 2 diabetes, (b) managing emotions and behaviors, (c) physical care, (d) instrumental care, and (e) personal responses to caregiving. No additional themes emerged. Although small and exploratory, findings provide information that may be useful to the future development of culturally based interventions. PMID:25505159

  7. Involvement of Acetobacter orientalis in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt ("Caspian Sea yogurt") in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H

    2009-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt. PMID:19109260

  8. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified. PMID:24578106

  9. [Treatment of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Jardin, A

    1995-10-28

    Progress in medically assisted procreation has made it possible to obtain an embryon with a single spermatozoid or even a single spermatid. But such advanced technology must not overshadow the basic principles of patient management since there are many other medical or surgical possibilities for improving male fertility. Although the physiological mechanisms leading to azoospermia are relatively well understood, many questions remain as to the origin of oligo-asthenoteratospermia. Varicocela had been incriminated by many authors: in 25% of the cases, surgical care is followed by pregnancy. Other factors including autoimmunity, infection, environment and drugs also have an effect. Careful history taking can identify the main causes of male infertility before the problem of procreation occurs and in cases of definitive azoospermia the principles of management are relatively simple. The true problem is the fact that new techniques such as in vitro fertilization have acquired popularity in the general population but cannot be accepted as the gold standard by the medical community. It must not be forgotten that these artificial techniques cause a major psychological trauma to the couple and can lead to difficult situations (multiple pregnancies, extra embryos) with no totally satisfactory solution. PMID:8545356

  10. Developmental Transitions in Male Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The article defines and elaborates on eight transitions in male sexuality, the first being the gender identity transition, and the last being the male climacteric. It discusses society's lack of support. Originally presented at the American Sociological Association Session on the Male Role in Society, New York City, 1976. (LPG)

  11. TNF-α -308 polymorphisms and male infertility risk: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Taymour; Taymour, Mai

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies discussing TNF-α -308 polymorphism and male infertility. This study was conformed to Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies by two independent reviewers. Hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effects models when appropriate. Q-test was performed to evaluate study heterogeneity and publication bias appraised using funnel plots. The search yielded five studies (three of Caucasians ethnicity and 2 of Asian ethnicity) comprising 2939 men (2262 infertile men and 677 fertile controls). Most of the studied cases were carried out on TNF-α promoter region at positions -308 G/A (four studies) where -308 C/T was dealt with in one study. Overall, significant associations between TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility risk were observed (fixed effect: OR = 0.472, 95% CI: 0.378-0.589; P = 0.001; random effect: OR = 0.407, 95% CI: 0.211-0.785; P = 0.007) with robust findings according to sensitivity analyses. Funnel plot inspections did not give evidences of publication bias. A stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed significant association in both Caucasian and Asian populations. It is concluded that there are evidences of associations between TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms and male infertility risk. PMID:26966560

  12. Differences in parental attitudes towards sleep and associations with sleep-wake patterns in Caucasian and Southeast Asian school-aged children in Australia.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Sarah N; Pizzorno, Violeta A; van den Heuvel, Cameron J; Kennedy, J Declan; Martin, A James; Lushington, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Caucasian (N = 47) and Southeast (SE) Asian (N = 36) families completed a questionnaire on their attitudes toward sleep, as well as a 7-day sleep diary for their children aged 5 to 11 years. Cultural differences were found in the perceived importance of sleep, particularly compared to homework and belief of how much sleep a child needs. Differences were also found in sleep-wake behaviors and amount of time spent on homework, with SE Asian children reporting a shift in sleep timing and increased homework load compared to Caucasian counterparts. Parental attitudes toward sleep, perception of sleep need, and homework load were not associated with the regulation of actual sleep behaviors in children, regardless of cultural heritage. PMID:20924834

  13. Meiosis in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Bruce D.; Yan, Rihui; Tsai, Jui-He

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis entails sorting and separating both homologous and sister chromatids. The mechanisms for connecting sister chromatids and homologs during meiosis are highly conserved and include specialized forms of the cohesin complex and a tightly regulated homolog synapsis/recombination pathway designed to yield regular crossovers between homologous chromatids. Drosophila male meiosis is of special interest because it dispenses with large segments of the standard meiotic script, particularly recombination, synapsis and the associated structures. Instead, Drosophila relies on a unique protein complex composed of at least two novel proteins, SNM and MNM, to provide stable connections between homologs during meiosis I. Sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila is mediated by cohesins, ring-shaped complexes that entrap sister chromatids. However, unlike other eukaryotes Drosophila does not rely on the highly conserved Rec8 cohesin in meiosis, but instead utilizes two novel cohesion proteins, ORD and SOLO, which interact with the SMC1/3 cohesin components in providing meiotic cohesion. PMID:23087836

  14. Overactive bladder in males

    PubMed Central

    Dmochowski, Roger R.; Gomelsky, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms is considerable in both men and women and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is equally substantial. Ironically, despite nearly equal prevalence, OAB symptoms in men are infrequently treated, and often with medical therapies aimed at bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). In this review, we examine the pathophysiology of OAB and its evaluation in the context of benign prostatic hypertrophy and concomitant BOO. We then consider the efficacy and safety of individual therapeutic options for lower urinary tract symptoms in men, focusing on the mainstays of medical therapy: α-adrenergic blockers, 5-α reductase inhibitors, and antimuscarinic agents. Finally, we aim to comment on new therapeutic strategies and targets that may one day be available for the treatment of male OAB. PMID:21789068

  15. Population density influences male-male competition in guppies.

    PubMed

    Jirotkul

    1999-12-01

    This study tested the general prediction that population density affects male-male competition, female mate choice and the opportunity for sexual selection. By manipulating the density of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, while keeping the sex ratio constant, I found that male mating tactics were phenotypically plastic with respect to density. As density increased, males decreased their courtship displays. Male-male competition and mate searching were highest at intermediate densities. Population density had no significant effect on the total number of copulations, copulatory tactics or the percentage of postcopulatory guarding. Female preference for males with a higher percentage of orange coloration was similar at all density levels. The 'opportunity for sexual selection', which estimates the upper limit to which a selected trait can shift if directional selection is operating and was calculated as the variance in number of copulations per male divided by the square of the mean number of copulations, was negatively associated with population density. This may be due to the decrease in male-male competition at high density rather than female preference which was similar across density treatments. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10600137

  16. What makes male mice paternal?

    PubMed

    Elwood, R W

    1986-07-01

    Both copulation and postcopulatory cohabitation with pregnant females reduce infanticide and enhance paternal responsiveness in male CS1 mice. The effectiveness of copulation in this process, however, depends on the number of occasions that males have previously encountered infants. Infanticidal males which have been subordinated in brief encounters with other males are less likely to commit infanticide in subsequent tests than are those which became dominant to other males. Males which copulate and cohabit with a relatively large female are less likely to be infanticidal than are those with a relatively small female. These data suggest that males are subordinated after copulation by their mates and that this subordination is a factor in the reduction of infanticide and the initiation of paternal responsiveness. PMID:3729896

  17. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  18. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, caucasians, and hispanics in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.X.; Liu, X.H.; Stern, Y.

    1996-03-01

    Apolipoprotein-E {epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-{epsilon}4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR = 7.3, 95% CI = 2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-{epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR = 1.6,95% CI = 1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygous and APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-{epsilon}4 in some populations. 58 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Genetic variants in anti-Mullerian hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone receptor genes and breast cancer risk in Caucasians and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hongmei; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) regulates ovarian folliculogenesis by signaling via its receptors, and elevated serum AMH levels are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. No previous studies have examined the effects of genetic variants in AMH-related genes on breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AMH and its receptor genes, including AMH type 1 receptor (ACVR1) and AMH type 2 receptor (AMHR2), with the risk of breast cancer in the Women's Insights and Shared Experiences (WISE) Study of Caucasians (346 cases and 442 controls), as well as African Americans (149 cases and 246 controls). Of the 62 SNPs evaluated, two showed a nominal significant association (P for trend < 0.05) with breast cancer risk among Caucasians, and another two among African Americans. The age-adjusted additive odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) of those two SNPs (ACVR1 rs12694937[C] and ACVR1 rs2883605[T]) for the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian women were 2.33 (1.20-4.52) and 0.68 (0.47-0.98), respectively. The age-adjusted additive ORs (95% CI) of those two SNPs (ACVR1 rs1146031[G] and AMHR2 functional SNP rs2002555[G]) for the risk of breast cancer among African American women were 0.63 (0.44-0.92) and 1.67 (1.10-2.53), respectively. However, these SNPs did not show significant associations after correction for multiple testing. Our findings do not provide strong supportive evidence for the contribution of genetic variants in AMH-related genes to the risk of developing breast cancer in either Caucasians or African Americans. PMID:25379134

  20. Genetic variants in anti-Mullerian hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone receptor genes and breast cancer risk in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Hongmei; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) regulates ovarian folliculogenesis by signaling via its receptors, and elevated serum AMH levels are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. No previous studies have examined the effects of genetic variants in AMH-related genes on breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AMH and its receptor genes, including AMH type 1 receptor (ACVR1) and AMH type 2 receptor (AMHR2), with the risk of breast cancer in the Women’s Insights and Shared Experiences (WISE) Study of Caucasians (346 cases and 442 controls), as well as African Americans (149 cases and 246 controls). Of the 62 SNPs evaluated, two showed a nominal significant association (P for trend < 0.05) with breast cancer risk among Caucasians, and another two among African Americans. The age-adjusted additive odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) of those two SNPs (ACVR1 rs12694937[C] and ACVR1 rs2883605[T]) for the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian women were 2.33 (1.20-4.52) and 0.68 (0.47-0.98), respectively. The age-adjusted additive ORs (95% CI) of those two SNPs (ACVR1 rs1146031[G] and AMHR2 functional SNP rs2002555[G]) for the risk of breast cancer among African American women were 0.63 (0.44-0.92) and 1.67 (1.10-2.53), respectively. However, these SNPs did not show significant associations after correction for multiple testing. Our findings do not provide strong supportive evidence for the contribution of genetic variants in AMH-related genes to the risk of developing breast cancer in either Caucasians or African Americans. PMID:25379134

  1. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M. X.; Maestre, G.; Tsai, W. Y.; Liu, X. H.; Feng, L.; Chung, W. Y.; Chun, M.; Schofield, P.; Stern, Y.; Tycko, B.; Mayeux, R.

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein-E epsilon 4 (APOE-epsilon 4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-epsilon 4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-epsilon 4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR]=3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR=7.3, 95% CI=2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR=2.5, 95% CI=1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-epsilon 3/epsilon 3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR=2.9, 95% CI=1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR=0.6, 95% Ci=0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-epsilon 4 homozygous and APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-epsilon 4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-epsilon 4 in some populations. PMID:8644717

  2. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  3. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  4. Chromoblastomycosis associated with a lethal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Torres, Edoardo; Beristain, Javier Gil; Lievanos, Zahide; Arenas, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dermatophytic fungi Fonsecaea, Phialophora and Cladophialophora. Usual complications include secondary infection, lymphedema and elephantiasis. Associated malignancies have been found in chronic cases. This case report describes a 72 year-old male with a 30 year history of chromoblastomycosis in the gluteal region, who went on to develop a squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:20520950

  5. LIFETIME RISK FACTORS FOR HIV/STI INFECTIONS AMONG MALE-TO-FEMALE TRANSGENDER PERSONS

    PubMed Central

    Nuttbrock, Larry; Hwahng, Sel; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Objective Describe and evaluate risk factors for HIV/STIs among male-to-female (MTF) transgender persons. Method Using the Life Chart Interview, potential lifetime risk factors for HIV/STIs among MTFs were measured and evaluated in conjunction with lifetime exposures for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The participants were 517 MTFs between the ages of 19 and 59 from the New York Metropolitan Area. Results HIV/STIs were low among Caucasian Americans and very high among Hispanics and African Americans. In the latter groups, HIV and hepatitis B were associated with an androphillic sexual orientation, lifetime number of commercial sex partners (sex work), and the social expression of transgender identity; syphilis was associated with lifetime number of casual sex partners; hepatitis C was associated with injection drug use, unemployment, and social expression of transgender identity. In multivariate models, the social expression of transgender identity was the strongest and most consistent predictor of HIV/STIs. Consistent with their lower levels of infections, Caucasian Americans reported significantly lower levels of the risk factors found to be predictive of HIV/STI among Hispanics and African Americans. Conclusion HIV/STI prevention in this population should be targeted at Hispanic and African Americans. Prevention programs should incorporate multiple components designed to address the diverse issues confronting ethnic minority transgender persons, with an emphasis on the social expression of transgender identity. PMID:19550351

  6. Perspectives on perceived stigma and self-stigma in adult male patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There are two principal types of stigma in mental illness, ie, "public stigma" and "self-stigma". Public stigma is the perception held by others that the mentally ill individual is socially undesirable. Stigmatized persons may internalize perceived prejudices and develop negative feelings about themselves. The result of this process is "self-stigma". Stigma has emerged as an important barrier to the treatment of depression and other mental illnesses. Gender and race are related to stigma. Among depressed patients, males and African-Americans have higher levels of self-stigma than females and Caucasians. Perceived stigma and self-stigma affect willingness to seek help in both genders and races. African-Americans demonstrate a less positive attitude towards mental health treatments than Caucasians. Religious beliefs play a role in their coping with mental illness. Certain prejudicial beliefs about mental illness are shared globally. Structural modeling indicates that conformity to dominant masculine gender norms ("boys don't cry") leads to self-stigmatization in depressed men who feel that they should be able to cope with their illness without professional help. These findings suggest that targeting men's feelings about their depression and other mental health problems could be a more successful approach to change help-seeking attitudes than trying to change those attitudes directly. Further, the inhibitory effect of traditional masculine gender norms on help-seeking can be overcome if depressed men feel that a genuine connection leading to mutual understanding has been established with a health care professional. PMID:25114531

  7. Applicability of dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 to Asian adult males: Monte Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2007-05-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reported comprehensive dose conversion coefficients for adult population, which is exposed to external photon sources in the Publication 74. However, those quantities were calculated from so-called stylized (or mathematical) phantoms composed of simplified mathematical surface equations so that the discrepancy between the phantoms and real human anatomy has been investigated by several authors using Caucasian-based voxel phantoms. To address anatomical and racial limitations of the stylized phantoms, several Asian-based voxel phantoms have been developed by Korean and Japanese investigators, independently. In the current study, photon dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 were compared with those from a total of five Asian-based male voxel phantoms, whose body dimensions were almost identical. Those of representative radio-sensitive organs (testes, red bone marrow, colon, lungs, and stomach), and effective dose conversion coefficients were obtained for comparison. Even though organ doses for testes, colon and lungs, and effective doses from ICRP 74 agreed well with those from Asian voxel phantoms within 10%, absorbed doses for red bone marrow and stomach showed significant discrepancies up to 30% which was mainly attributed to difference of phantom description between stylized and voxel phantoms. This study showed that the ICRP 74 dosimetry data, which have been reported to be unrealistic compared to those from Caucasian-based voxel phantoms, are also not appropriate for Asian population. PMID:17337194

  8. Genetic variability of HLA in the Dariusleut Hutterites. A comparative genetic analysis of the Hutterities, the Amish, and other selected Caucasian populations.

    PubMed

    Morgan, K; Holmes, T M; Schlaut, J; Marchuk, L; Kovithavongs, T; Pazderka, F; Dossetor, J B

    1980-03-01

    There are three endogamous subdivisions of the Hutterite population, a North American religious isolate. These individuals live on communal farms, and residence is strictly patrilocal. We report on the distributions of HLA-A and B alleles and haplotypes in 203 married women from one subdivision--the Dariusleut--in Alberta, Canada. We demonstrate that there is significant linkage disequilbrium among a large fraction of the distinct haplotypes in the Dariusleut Hutterite data; there is a restriction in the number of distinct haplotypes present in the Dariusleut; the Hutterites and the Old Order Amish (Lancaster County, Pennsylvania) are the most genetically distant pair of populations in an ensemble of 11 Caucasian populations; and, finally, the Old Order Amish and the Hutterites are approximately as distant from the Indiana Amish as they are from the eight other Caucasian populations, which are tightly clustered in the space of gene frequencies. These results are consistent with the fact that the Amish and the Hutterites are genetic isolates with small numbers of founders. Certain haplotypes show significant linkage disequilibrium in these as well as in other Caucasian samples. Thus, some of the linkage disequilibrium antedates the formation of these Anabaptist sects. PMID:7386460

  9. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  10. Development and risk behavior among African American, Caucasian, and mixed-race adolescents living in high poverty inner-city neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Bolland, John M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Lian, Bradley E; McCallum, Debra M; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Barth, Joan M

    2007-12-01

    Youths growing up in low-income inner-city neighborhoods are at substantial risk for initiating substance use, violent behavior, and sexual intercourse at early ages; these risk behaviors continue at comparatively high rates through adolescence. Hopelessness has been implicated as a risk factor for these behaviors. In this paper, we consider how race influences this process. African Americans form a demographic minority within the United States, but they are often the majority within inner-city neighborhoods. For Caucasians, the opposite typically holds. Mixed-race populations form a minority within both contexts. Using longitudinal data, we examine the relationship between race and risk behaviors in several impoverished inner-city neighborhoods where African Americans form the distinct majority and Caucasians and people of mixed racial heritage form a small minority. We also consider how race moderates the relationship between hopelessness and risk behavior. Our findings show that compared to Caucasian or mixed-race adolescents, African American adolescents are less likely to engage in risk behaviors, and that hopelessness has a less important impact on their behaviors. PMID:17932741

  11. Persistence of depression in African American and Caucasian women at midlife: findings from the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN).

    PubMed

    Brown, Charlotte; Bromberger, Joyce T; Schott, Laura L; Crawford, Sybil; Matthews, Karen A

    2014-12-01

    This study prospectively examined the course of depression in African American and Caucasian midlife women over an 11-year period. Racial differences in lifetime history of depression, severity of depressive symptoms and rates of depressive disorders at baseline, and persistence or recurrence of depression over an 11 year period were examined. Predictors of persistence/recurrence of depression were also examined. The sample was comprised of 423 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN) Mental Health Study (MHS). All participants completed baseline and annual assessments, which included self-reported measures of health, functioning, and psychosocial factors, and clinician administered assessments of psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine predictors of depression persistence/recurrence. Findings indicated that African American and Caucasian women did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and baseline depressive disorders, or severity of depressive symptoms. Annual assessments revealed no significant differences between the groups in rates of persistent/recurrent depression. While African American and Caucasian women do not differ in recurrence of depression at midlife, factors associated with depression differed by race. PMID:24996377

  12. Differential expression of miRNAs in colon cancer between African and Caucasian Americans: Implications for cancer racial health disparities

    PubMed Central

    LI, ELLEN; JI, PING; OUYANG, NENGTAI; ZHANG, YUANHAO; WANG, XIN YU; RUBIN, DEBORAH C.; DAVIDSON, NICHOLAS O.; BERGAMASCHI, ROBERTO; SHROYER, KENNETH R.; BURKE, STEPHANIE; ZHU, WEI; WILLIAMS, JENNIE L.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality are higher in African Americans (AAs) than in Caucasian Americans (CAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be dysregulated in colonic and other neoplasias. The aim of this exploratory study was to identify candidate miRNAs that could contribute to potential biological differences between AA and CA colon cancers. Total RNA was isolated from tumor and paired adjacent normal colon tissue from 30 AA and 31 CA colon cancer patients archived at Stony Brook University (SBU) and Washington University (WU)-St. Louis Medical Center. miRNA profiles were determined by probing human genome-wide miRNA arrays with RNA isolated from each sample. Using repeated measures analysis of variance (RANOVA), miRNAs were selected that exhibited significant (p<0.05) interactions between race and tumor or significant (fold change >1.5, p<0.05) main effects of race and/or tumor. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) was used to confirm miRNAs identified by microarray analysis. Candidate miRNA targets were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. RANOVA results indicated that miR-182, miR152, miR-204, miR-222 and miR-202 exhibited significant race and tumor main effects. Of these miRNAs, q-PCR analysis confirmed that miR-182 was upregulated in AA vs. CA tumors and exhibited significant race:tumor interaction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the levels of FOXO1 and FOXO3A, two potential miR-182 targets, are reduced in AA tumors. miRNAs may play a role in the differences between AA and CA colon cancer. Specifically, differences in miRNA expression levels of miR-182 may contribute to decreased survival in AA colon cancer patients. PMID:24865442

  13. Association of the SNP rs2623047 in the HSPG modification enzyme SULF1 with an Australian Caucasian breast cancer cohort.

    PubMed

    Okolicsanyi, Rachel K; Faure, Marion; Jacinto, Jose M E; Chacon-Cortes, Diego; Chambers, Suzanne; Youl, Philippa H; Haupt, Larisa M; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2014-08-15

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the most common cancer reported in women. This malignant tumour is characterised by a number of specific features including uncontrolled cell proliferation. It ranks fifth in the world as a cause of cancer death overall in developed countries and is the second most frequent cause of cancer death in women. Early diagnosis increases 5-year survival rates up to 95%. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are complex proteins composed of a core protein to which a number of highly sulfated side chains attach, ubiquitous to the cell surface and within the extracellular matrix. HSPG side chains are synthesised by a highly co-ordinated process resulting in distinct sulfation patterns, which determine specific interactions with cell-signalling partners including growth factors, their receptors, ligands and morphogens. The enzymes responsible for chain initiation, elongation and sulfation are critical for creating HS chain variability conferring biological functionality. This study investigated a single nucleotide polymorphism in SULF1, the enzyme responsible for the 6-O desulfation of heparan sulfate side chains. We investigated this SNP in an Australian Caucasian case-control breast cancer population and found a significant association between SULF1 and breast cancer at both the allelic and genotypic levels (allele, p=0.016; genotype, p=0.032). Our results suggest that the rs2623047 SNP in SULF1 may impact breast cancer susceptibility. Specifically, the T allele of rs2623047 in SULF1 is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer in our cohort. The identification of markers including SULF1 may improve detection of this disease at its earliest stages improving patient treatment and prognosis. PMID:24911625

  14. Determinants of vitamin D status in Caucasian adults: influence of sun exposure, dietary intake, sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Montourcy, Marion; Sutton, Angela; Charnaux, Nathalie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Assmann, Karen E; Fezeu, Léopold; Latino-Martel, Paule; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Guinot, Christiane; Latreille, Julie; Malvy, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Le Clerc, Sigrid; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2015-02-01

    Very few studies have investigated the determinants of serum vitamin D levels using a set of variables that include simultaneously sun exposure, phototype, dietary intake, sociodemographics, anthropometric, lifestyle data, and genetic polymorphisms. Our objective was to investigate the associations between all these parameters and vitamin D status in a large sample of French adults. This cross-sectional survey was based on 1,828 middle-aged Caucasian adults from the SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration was lower among women (P<0.0001), older subjects (P=0.04), obese/underweight (P<0.0001), those living at higher latitudes (P<0.0001), those whose blood draw occurred in early spring (P<0.0001), less physically active (P<0.0001), with low sun exposure (P<0.0001), and with no-to-low alcohol intake (P=0.0001). Mutant GC rs4588 and rs7041 single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with lower and higher 25OHD concentrations, respectively (P<0.0001). Dietary intake was not a major determinant of vitamin D status (P=0.7). This study provides an overall picture of determinants of vitamin D status. Several modifiable factors were identified, such as daily-life moderate sun exposure, physical activity, and normal-weight maintenance, which should be targeted by public health policies in order to improve vitamin D status in the general population, while avoiding active/intensive sun exposure, in line with recommendations for skin cancer prevention. PMID:25211176

  15. African American men with low-grade prostate cancer have increased disease recurrence after prostatectomy compared with Caucasian men

    PubMed Central

    Yamoah, Kosj; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Spangler, Elaine; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Malkowicz, Bruce; Lee, David I.; Kattan, Michael; Dicker, Adam P.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore whether disparities in outcomes exist between African-American (AA) and Caucasian (CS) men with low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) and similar Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post-Surgery (CAPRA-S) features following prostatectomy (RP) METHODS The overall cohort consisted of 1,265 men (234 AA, and 1,031 CS) who met National comprehensive cancer network (NCCN) criteria for low-intermediate risk PCa and underwent RP between 1990 and 2012. We first evaluated whether clinical factors were associated with adverse pathologic outcomes and freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) using the entire cohort. Next, we studied a subset of 705 men (112 AA, and 593 CS) who had pathologic Gleason score ≤6 (low-grade disease). Using this cohort, we determined whether race impacted FFbF in men with prostatectomy-proven low-grade disease and similar CAPRA-S score. RESULTS With a median follow up time of 27 months, the overall 7-year FFbF rate was 86% vs. 79% in CS and AA men, respectively (p=0.035). There was no significant difference in ≥1 adverse pathologic features between CS vs. AA men (27% vs. 31%; P =0.35) or CAPRA-S score (p=0.28). In the subset analysis of patients with low-grade disease, AA race was associated with worse FFbF outcomes (p=0.002). Furthermore, AA race was a significant predictor of FFbF in men with low-grade disease (HR 2.01, 95%CI 1.08–3.72; p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS AA race is a predictor of worse FFbF outcomes in men with low-grade disease after RP. These results suggest that a subset of AA men with low-grade disease may benefit from more aggressive treatment. PMID:25304288

  16. Development and cross-validation of prediction equations for estimating resting energy expenditure in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lazzer, Stefano; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2006-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop and cross-validate new equations for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) in severely obese children and adolescents, and to determine the accuracy of new equations using the Bland-Altman method. The subjects of the study were 574 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean BMI z-score 3.3). REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 287 subjects and the equations were cross-validated in the remaining 287 subjects. Two new specific equations based on anthropometric parameters were generated as follows: (1) REE=(Sex x 892.68)-(Age x 115.93)+(Weight x 54.96)+(Stature x 1816.23)+1484.50 (R(2) 0.66; se 1028.97 kJ); (2) REE=(Sex x 909.12)-(Age x 107.48)+(fat-free mass x 68.39)+(fat mass x 55.19)+3631.23 (R(2) 0.66; se 1034.28 kJ). In the cross-validation group, mean predicted REE values were not significantly different from the mean measured REE for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and for girls (difference <2 %) and the limits of agreement (+/-2 sd) were +2.06 and -1.77 MJ/d (NS). The new prediction equations allow an accurate estimation of REE in groups of severely obese children and adolescents. These equations might be useful for health care professionals and researchers when estimating REE in severely obese children and adolescents. PMID:17092390

  17. Genetic heterogeneity, modes of inheritance, and risk estimates for a joint study of caucasians with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Glenys; Robinson, Wendy P.; Kuhner, Mary K.; Joe, Sharon; MacDonald, Michael J.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Barbosa, Jose; Rich, Stephen S.; Bertrams, Jörg; Baur, Max P.; Partanen, Jukka; Tait, Brian D.; Schober, Edith; Mayr, Wolfgang R.; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Lindblom, Bertil; Farid, Nadir R.; Thompson, Christine; Deschamps, Ingeborg

    1988-01-01

    From 11 studies, a total of 1,792 Caucasian probands with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are analyzed. Antigen genotype frequencies in patients, transmission from affected parents to affected children, and the relative frequencies of HLA-DR3 and -DR4 homozygous patients all indicate that DR3 predisposes in a “recessive”-like and DR4 in a “dominant”-like or “intermediate” fashion, after allowing for the DR3/DR4 synergistic effect. Removal of DR3 and DR4 reveals an overall protective effect of DR2, predisposing effects of DR1 and DRw8, and a slight protective effect of DR5 and a predisposing effect of DRw6. Analysis of affected-parent-to-affected-child data indicates that a subset of DR2 may predispose. The non-DR3, non-DR4 antigens are not independently associated with DR3 and DR4; the largest effect is a deficiency of DR2, followed by excesses of DR1, DRw8, and DRw6, in DR4 individuals, as compared with DR3 individuals. HLA-B locus distributions on patient haplotypes indicate that only subsets of both DR3 and DR4 are predisposing. The presence or absence of Asp at position 57 of the DQβ gene, recently implicated in IDDM predisposition, is not by itself sufficient to explain the inheritance of IDDM. At a minimum, the distinguishing features of the DR3-associated and DR4-associated predisposition remain to be identified at the molecular level. Risk estimates for sibs of probands are calculated based on an overall sibling risk of 6%; estimates for those sharing two, one, or zero haplotypes are 12.9%, 4.5%, and 1.8%, respectively. Risk estimates subdivided by the DR type of the proband are also calculated, the highest being 19.2% for sibs sharing two haplotypes with a DR3/DR4 proband. PMID:3057885

  18. SLC26A4 gene is frequently involved in nonsyndromic hearing impairment with enlarged vestibular aqueduct in Caucasian populations.

    PubMed

    Albert, Sébastien; Blons, Hélène; Jonard, Laurence; Feldmann, Delphine; Chauvin, Pierre; Loundon, Nathalie; Sergent-Allaoui, Annie; Houang, Muriel; Joannard, Alain; Schmerber, Sébastien; Delobel, Bruno; Leman, Jacques; Journel, Hubert; Catros, Hélène; Dollfus, Hélène; Eliot, Marie-Madeleine; David, Albert; Calais, Catherine; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Obstoy, Marie-Françoise; Tran Ba Huy, Patrice; Lacombe, Didier; Duriez, Françoise; Francannet, Christine; Bitoun, Pierre; Petit, Christine; Garabédian, Eréa-Noël; Couderc, Rémy; Marlin, Sandrine; Denoyelle, Françoise

    2006-06-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is the most frequent sensory deficit of childhood and is of genetic origin in up to 75% of cases. It has been shown that mutations of the SLC26A4 (PDS) gene were involved in syndromic deafness characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and goitre (Pendred's syndrome), as well as in congenital isolated deafness (DFNB4). While the prevalence of SLC26A4 mutations in Pendred's syndrome is clearly established, it remains to be studied in large cohorts of patients with nonsyndromic deafness and detailed clinical informations. In this report, 109 patients from 100 unrelated families, aged from 1 to 32 years (median age: 10 years), with nonsyndromic deafness and enlarged vestibular aqueduct, were genotyped for SLC26A4 using DHPLC molecular screening and sequencing. In all, 91 allelic variants were observed in 100 unrelated families, of which 19 have never been reported. The prevalence of SLC26A4 mutations was 40% (40/100), with biallelic mutation in 24% (24/100), while six families were homozygous. All patients included in this series had documented deafness, associated with EVA and without any evidence of syndromic disease. Among patients with SLC26A4 biallelic mutations, deafness was more severe, fluctuated more than in patients with no mutation. In conclusion, the incidence of SLC26A4 mutations is high in patients with isolated deafness and enlarged vestibular aqueduct and could represent up to 4% of nonsyndromic hearing impairment. SLC26A4 could be the second most frequent gene implicated in nonsyndromic deafness after GJB2, in this Caucasian population. PMID:16570074

  19. Age-related decline in muscle mass and muscle function in Flemish Caucasians: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Ruben; Knaeps, Sara; Mertens, Evelien; Van Roie, Evelien; Delecluse, Christophe; Lefevre, Johan; Thomis, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Aging is a complex process that is accompanied with changes in both muscle mass and muscle function (strength and performance). Therefore, the current longitudinal study aimed to provide a better insight in 10-year aging-related changes in whole-body muscle mass and strength performance of the leg extensors during the adult life span. Data were gathered within the framework of the first- (2002-2004: baseline) and third-generation Flemish Policy Research Center Sport (2012-2014: follow-up). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 591 Flemish Caucasian adults (19-73 years, 381 men). Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was determined with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Biodex Medical System 3® dynamometer was used to measure isometric (PTstatic120°) and isokinetic (PTdynamic60° and PTdynamic240°) strength, ballistic movement speed (S 20 %), and muscular endurance (work) of the knee extensors. Overall strength performance was higher at both evaluation moments in men compared to women (p < 0.01). But only S 20 % declined significantly faster in men compared to women (p < 0.01). Age and baseline strength performance were negatively related with the change in strength performance, even when corrected for SMM, protein intake, and energy expenditure during sports (E sport). In conclusion, strength performance was not associated with E sport in this study, but protein intake was associated with isometric strength in men, and with ballistic and isokinetic strength in women. Changes in S 20 % were significantly greater in men compared to women. Baseline values of strength performance and age were associated with changes in strength performance parameters, even after correction for SMM, protein intake, and E sport. PMID:26961694

  20. Dietary factors in chronic inflammation: food tolerances and intolerances of a New Zealand Caucasian Crohn's disease population.

    PubMed

    Triggs, Christopher M; Munday, Karen; Hu, Rong; Fraser, Alan G; Gearry, Richard B; Barclay, Murray L; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2010-08-01

    Diet is known to play a major role in the symptoms of the inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease (CD). Although no single diet is appropriate to all individuals, most CD patients are aware of foods that provide adverse or beneficial effects. This study seeks to categorise foods in relation to their effects on symptoms of CD, in a New Zealand Caucasian population. Four hundred and forty-six subjects from two different centres in New Zealand were recruited into the study. An extensive dietary questionnaire (257 food items in 15 groups) recorded self-reported dietary tolerances and intolerances. Across each of the food groups, there were statistically significant differences among responses to foods. A two-dimensional graphical summary enabled stratification of foods according to the probability that they will be either beneficial or detrimental. A small number of foods are frequently considered to be beneficial, including white fish, salmon and tuna, gluten-free products, oatmeal, bananas, boiled potatoes, sweet potatoes (kumara), pumpkin, soya milk, goat's milk and yoghurt. Foods that are typically considered detrimental include grapefruit, chilli or chilli sauce, corn and corn products, peanuts, cream, salami, curried foods, cola drinks, high energy drinks, beer, and red wine. For a number of the food items, the same item that was beneficial for one group of subjects was detrimental to others; in particular soya milk, goat's milk, yoghurt, oatmeal, kiwifruit, prunes, apple, broccoli, cauliflower, linseed, pumpkin seed, sunflower seed, ginger and ginger products, beef, lamb, liver, and oily fish. It was not possible to identify a specific group of food items that should be avoided by all CD patients. The wide range of detrimental items suggests that dietary maintenance of remission is likely to be difficult, and to exclude a substantial number of foods. Personalised diets may be especially important to these individuals. PMID:20144628

  1. HTR1B, ADIPOR1, PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and Obesity in a Cohort of Caucasians and African Americans: An Evaluation of Gene-Environment Interactions and Candidate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd L.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Villegas, Raquel; Cohen, Sarah S.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Fowke, Jay H.; Schlundt, David; Long, Ji Rong; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Jeffrey, Smith; Williams, Scott M.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Matthews, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that the number of obese and overweight adults has increased to 1.6 billion, with concomitant increases in comorbidity. While genetic factors for obesity have been extensively studied in Caucasians, fewer studies have investigated genetic determinants of body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) in African Americans. A total of 38 genes and 1,086 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans (n = 1,173) and 897 SNPs in Caucasians (n = 1,165) were examined in the Southern Community Cohort Study (2002–2009) for associations with BMI and gene × environment interactions. A statistically significant association with BMI survived correction for multiple testing at rs4140535 (β = −0.04, 95% confidence interval: −0.06, −0.02; P = 5.76 × 10−5) in African Americans but not in Caucasians. Gene-environment interactions were observed with cigarette smoking and a SNP in ADIPOR1 in African Americans, as well as between a different SNP in ADIPOR1 and physical activity in Caucasians. A SNP in PPARGC1A interacted with alcohol consumption in African Americans, and a different SNP in PPARGC1A was nominally associated in Caucasians. A SNP in CYP19A1 interacted with dietary energy intake in African Americans, and another SNP in CYP191A had an independent association with BMI in Caucasians. PMID:22106445

  2. Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar; Fischer, Julia

    2014-10-14

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several "units" of males with their associated females form "parties," which team up as "gangs." Several gangs of the same "community" use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male-male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  3. The sterile male technique: irradiation negatively affects male fertility but not male courtship.

    PubMed

    Magris, Martina; Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2015-04-01

    The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection. PMID:25794431

  4. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  5. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  6. Quantitative Genomics of Male Reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the review was to establish the current status of quantitative genomics for male reproduction. Genetic variation exists for male reproduction traits. These traits are expensive and time consuming traits to evaluate through conventional breeding schemes. Genomics is an alternative to...

  7. The role of HLA class II genes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Molecular analysis of 180 Caucasian, multiplex families

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, J.A.; Cook, M.; Erlich, H.A. |

    1996-11-01

    We report here our analysis of HLA class II alleles in 180 Caucasian nuclear families with at least two children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 genotypes were determined with PCR/sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe typing methods. The data allowed unambiguous determination of four-locus haplotypes in all but three of the families. Consistent with other studies, our data indicate an increase in DR3/DR4, DR3/DR3, and DR4/DR4 genotypes in patients compared to controls. In addition, we found an increase in DR1/DR4, DR1/DR3, and DR4/DR8 genotypes. While the frequency of DQB1*0302 on DR4 haplotypes is dramatically increased in DR3/DR4 patients, DR4 haplotypes in DR1/DR4 patients exhibit frequencies of DQB1*0302 and DQB1*0301 more closely resembling those in control populations. The protective effect of DR2 is evident in this data set and is limited to the common DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype. Most DR2{sup +} patients carry the less common DR2 haplotype DRB1*1601-DQB1*0502, which is not decreased in patients relative to controls. DPB1 also appears to play a role in disease susceptibility. DPB1*0301 is increased in patients (P < .001) and may contribute to the disease risk of a number of different DR-DQ haplotypes. DPB1*0101, found almost exclusively on DR3 haplotypes in patients, is slightly increased, and maternal transmissions of DRB1*0301-DPB1*0101 haplotypes to affected children occur twice as frequently as do paternal transmissions. Transmissions of DR3 haplotypes carrying other DPB1 alleles occur at approximately equal maternal and paternal frequencies. The complex, multigenic nature of HLA class II-associated IDDM susceptibility is evident from these data. 76 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  8. Sleep and Respiration in 100 Healthy Caucasian Sleepers—A Polysomnographic Study According to American Academy of Sleep Medicine Standards

    PubMed Central

    Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Schönwald, Suzana Veiga; Hackner, Heinz; Gabelia, David; Biermayr, Marlene; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    T, Högl B, Schönwald SV, Hackner H, Gabelia D, Biermayr M, Frauscher B. Sleep and respiration in 100 healthy Caucasian sleepers—a polysomnographic study according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine standards. SLEEP 2015;38(6):867–875. PMID:25515109

  9. Equol producer status, salivary estradiol profile and urinary excretion of isoflavones in Irish Caucasian women, following ingestion of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael C; O'Brien, Bridget; McCormack, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Equol production, isoflavone excretion, and the salivary estradiol profile among 36 females, native Irish Caucasian volunteers following ingestion of 200mL soymilk is reported. The soymilk contained daidzein (73+/-6.7mg) and genistein (86+/-10.2mg). Volunteers provided personal and family medical history. Dietary analysis revealed that all volunteers regularly consumed soy-based or soy-supplemented food products. The mean age, mean age at menarche, and body mass index of volunteers were 46.6+/-12.3 years, 13.1 years and 26.1, respectively. The average number of children per volunteer was 2.13. Twelve (34%) of the volunteers were found to be first-degree relatives of breast cancer patients. Following consumption of the soymilk, equol was detected in the urine of 18 (51%) of the volunteers. Mean urinary daidzein and genistein concentrations during the hours following soymilk ingestion were 13.5 and 16.7microg/mg creatinine, respectively, however, some volunteers excreted little (less than 4.0microg/mg) or no isoflavone. Salivary estradiol in most (24) volunteers had decreased from 51.5+/-28.67pmol/L pre-ingestion to 29.75+/-16.13pmol/L 5h after drinking the soymilk. However, the salivary estradiol in 12 subjects (34%) increased from 33.76+/-13.4pmol/L to 137.4+/-65.64pmol/L over the same period. Individuals whose salivary estradiol increased had significantly less children (1.58 (P<0.05)), were more likely to (a) return urine samples with low isoflavone content (50.3% compared to 25%), (b) to be equol producers (67% compared to 41.7%), and (c) to be first-degree relatives of breast cancer patients (41.7% compared to 25%). Volunteers who reported a first-degree link to breast cancer were more likely to have a higher body mass index (29.0 compared to 26.1 (P<0.05)), to be equol producers (75% compared to 51%), and to excrete isoflavones in low quantities only (60% compared to 50%). First-degree relatives also had fewer children (1.75 (P<0.05)). The results indicate a

  10. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy. PMID:27346307

  11. Systemic mastocytosis: A rare cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Cláudio; Teixeira, Cristina; Ribeiro, Suzane; Trabulo, Daniel; Cardoso, Cláudia; Mangualde, João; Freire, Ricardo; Gamito, Élia; Alves, Ana Luísa; Cremers, Isabelle; Alves, Cecília; Neves, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal neoplastic disorder of the mast cells (MC) that can be limited to the skin (cutaneous mastocytosis) or involve one or more extracutaneous organs (systemic mastocytosis). The clinical manifestations of mastocytosis are heterogeneous ranging from indolent disease with a long-term survival to a highly aggressive neoplasm with survival of about 6 mo. Although liver involvement in aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM) is relatively common, the development of portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis is rare. We report a case of ASM without skin involvement in a 72-year-old caucasian male who presented with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension based on clinical, analytical, imagiological and endoscopic findings. Given the hematological picture, the correct diagnosis was established based on ancillary tests for MC using bone marrow aspirates and biopsy. Extensive involvement of the liver and gastrointestinal tract was histologically documented. The disease progressed rapidly and severe pancytopenia and recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding became the dominant problem. This case illustrates the challenge in establishing a diagnosis of ASM especially when the clinical picture is atypical and without skin involvement. Gastroenterologists should consider infiltrative disease, particularly systemic mastocytosis, as a differential diagnosis in a clinical case of portal hypertension of unknown etiology. PMID:27605890

  12. Systemic mastocytosis: A rare cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Martins, Cláudio; Teixeira, Cristina; Ribeiro, Suzane; Trabulo, Daniel; Cardoso, Cláudia; Mangualde, João; Freire, Ricardo; Gamito, Élia; Alves, Ana Luísa; Cremers, Isabelle; Alves, Cecília; Neves, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Paula

    2016-07-28

    Mastocytosis is a clonal neoplastic disorder of the mast cells (MC) that can be limited to the skin (cutaneous mastocytosis) or involve one or more extracutaneous organs (systemic mastocytosis). The clinical manifestations of mastocytosis are heterogeneous ranging from indolent disease with a long-term survival to a highly aggressive neoplasm with survival of about 6 mo. Although liver involvement in aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM) is relatively common, the development of portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis is rare. We report a case of ASM without skin involvement in a 72-year-old caucasian male who presented with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension based on clinical, analytical, imagiological and endoscopic findings. Given the hematological picture, the correct diagnosis was established based on ancillary tests for MC using bone marrow aspirates and biopsy. Extensive involvement of the liver and gastrointestinal tract was histologically documented. The disease progressed rapidly and severe pancytopenia and recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding became the dominant problem. This case illustrates the challenge in establishing a diagnosis of ASM especially when the clinical picture is atypical and without skin involvement. Gastroenterologists should consider infiltrative disease, particularly systemic mastocytosis, as a differential diagnosis in a clinical case of portal hypertension of unknown etiology. PMID:27605890

  13. Core amino acid variation at position 110 is associated with sustained virological response in Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus 1b infection.

    PubMed

    Di Lello, F A; Mira, J A; Neukam, K; Parra-Sánchez, M; Guelfo, J R; Cifuentes, C; Macías, J; Palomares, J C; Gómez-Mateos, J; Pineda, J A; Real, Luis M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of core variations on sustained virological response (SVR) to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) and its association with predictive factors of response in Caucasian patients infected with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV-1). Full-length core sequences were analyzed in 100 Caucasian HCV-1-infected patients who received therapy with PEG-IFN/RBV. The associations between variations in the core protein and SVR, as well as with predictors of SVR, were analyzed. Variations at core 62, 70 and 110 were selected as candidates. There were almost no variations at these positions among patients harboring HCV-1a. However, they were identified in 10 (30.3 %), 21 (63.6 %) and 13 (39.4 %) subjects with HCV-1b, respectively. Among the HCV-1b patients, 39.1 % individuals carrying core R62 and 70 % subjects with core R62G showed SVR (p = 0.141), and 66.7 % of HCV-1b patients harboring core R70 and 38.1 % with core R70Q achieved SVR (p = 0.157), whereas the rate of SVR was 70 % for individuals with core T110 and 15.4 % for those with core T110N (p = 0.004). No statistical interaction between core variations and IL28B genotype was observed. Patients with R70 showed higher median (interquartile range) baseline plasma levels of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than those with R70Q (96 [86-118] mg/dL vs. 76 [54-88] mg/dL, p = 0.014). We concluded that a substitution at core 110 is associated with a lower rate of SVR in Caucasian HCV-1b-infected patients receiving PEG-IFN/RBV. Furthermore, the variation at the core 70 position is related to plasma levels of LDL-C in these patients. PMID:25161034

  14. Evidence for association of two variants of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor gene OPRL1 with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Judith A.; Nielsen, David A.; Proudnikov, Dmitri; Londono, Douglas; Ho, Ann; Ott, Jurg; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The OPRL1 gene encodes the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP-R), which plays a role in regulating tolerance and behavioral responses to morphine. However, there is limited information on whether variants of OPRL1 are associated with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction. In this study, we examined five variants of OPRL1 and their role in determining vulnerability to develop opiate addiction. Methods We recruited 447 subjects: 271 former severe heroin addicts and 176 healthy controls. Using a 5′-fluorogenic exonuclease assay (TaqMan®), we genotyped subjects at five variants in OPRL1. It was then determined whether there was a significant association of allele, genotype, or haplotype frequency with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction. Results When the cohort was stratified by ethnicity, we found that, in Caucasians but not in African Americans or Hispanics, the allele frequency of rs6090041 and rs6090043 were significantly associated point-wise with opiate addiction (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Of the haplotypes formed by these two variants, one haplotype was found to be associated with protection from developing opiate addiction in both African Americans (point-wise P = 0.04) and Caucasians (point-wise P = 0.04), and another haplotype with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction in Caucasians only (P = 0.020). Conclusions This study provides evidence for an association of two variants of the OPRL1 gene, rs6090041 and rs6090043, with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction, suggesting a role for NOP-R in the development of opiate addiction. PMID:20032820

  15. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. PMID:16220469

  16. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  17. Frequencies of 23 functionally significant variant alleles related with metabolism of antineoplastic drugs in the chilean population: comparison with caucasian and asian populations.

    PubMed

    Roco, Angela; Quiñones, Luis; Agúndez, José A G; García-Martín, Elena; Squicciarini, Valentina; Miranda, Carla; Garay, Joselyn; Farfán, Nancy; Saavedra, Iván; Cáceres, Dante; Ibarra, Carol; Varela, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The cancer incidence rate in Chile is 133.7/100,000 inhabitants and it is the second cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases. Most of the antineoplastic drugs are metabolized to be detoxified, and some of them to be activated. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes can induce deep changes in enzyme activity, leading to individual variability in drug efficacy and/or toxicity. The present research describes the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the Chilean population, which might be useful in public health programs for personalized treatment of cancer, and compares these frequencies with those reported for Asian and Caucasian populations, as a contribution to the evaluation of ethnic differences in the response to chemotherapy. We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in a group of 253 unrelated Chilean volunteers from the general population. The results showed that CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*3, CYP2D6*3, CYP2C19*3, and CYP3A4*17 variant alleles are virtually absent in Chileans. CYP1A1*2A allele frequency (0.37) is similar to that of Caucasians and higher than that reported for Japanese people. Allele frequencies for CYP3A5*3(0.76) and CYP2C9*3(0.04) are similar to those observed in Japanese people. CYP1A1*2C(0.32), CYP1A2*1F(0.77), CYP3A4*1B(0.06), CYP2D6*2(0.41), and MTHFR T(0.52) allele frequencies are higher than the observed either in Caucasian or in Japanese populations. Conversely, CYP2C19*2 allelic frequency (0.12), and genotype frequencies for GSTT1 null (0.11) and GSTM1 null (0.36) are lower than those observed in both populations. Finally, allele frequencies for CYP2A6*4(0.04), CYP2C8*3(0.06), CYP2C9*2(0.06), CYP2D6*4(0.12), CYP2E1*5B(0.14), CYP2E1*6(0.19), and UGT2B7*2(0.40) are intermediate in relation to those described in Caucasian and in Japanese populations, as expected according to the ethnic origin of the Chilean population. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that ethnic variability must be

  18. Frequencies of 23 Functionally Significant Variant Alleles Related with Metabolism of Antineoplastic Drugs in the Chilean Population: Comparison with Caucasian and Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Roco, Ángela; Quiñones, Luis; Agúndez, José A. G.; García-Martín, Elena; Squicciarini, Valentina; Miranda, Carla; Garay, Joselyn; Farfán, Nancy; Saavedra, Iván; Cáceres, Dante; Ibarra, Carol; Varela, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The cancer incidence rate in Chile is 133.7/100,000 inhabitants and it is the second cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases. Most of the antineoplastic drugs are metabolized to be detoxified, and some of them to be activated. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes can induce deep changes in enzyme activity, leading to individual variability in drug efficacy and/or toxicity. The present research describes the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the Chilean population, which might be useful in public health programs for personalized treatment of cancer, and compares these frequencies with those reported for Asian and Caucasian populations, as a contribution to the evaluation of ethnic differences in the response to chemotherapy. We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in a group of 253 unrelated Chilean volunteers from the general population. The results showed that CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*3, CYP2D6*3, CYP2C19*3, and CYP3A4*17 variant alleles are virtually absent in Chileans. CYP1A1*2A allele frequency (0.37) is similar to that of Caucasians and higher than that reported for Japanese people. Allele frequencies for CYP3A5*3(0.76) and CYP2C9*3(0.04) are similar to those observed in Japanese people. CYP1A1*2C(0.32), CYP1A2*1F(0.77), CYP3A4*1B(0.06), CYP2D6*2(0.41), and MTHFR T(0.52) allele frequencies are higher than the observed either in Caucasian or in Japanese populations. Conversely, CYP2C19*2 allelic frequency (0.12), and genotype frequencies for GSTT1 null (0.11) and GSTM1 null (0.36) are lower than those observed in both populations. Finally, allele frequencies for CYP2A6*4(0.04), CYP2C8*3(0.06), CYP2C9*2(0.06), CYP2D6*4(0.12), CYP2E1*5B(0.14), CYP2E1*6(0.19), and UGT2B7*2(0.40) are intermediate in relation to those described in Caucasian and in Japanese populations, as expected according to the ethnic origin of the Chilean population. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that ethnic variability must be

  19. Pecularities of Structure and Development of Caucasian Segment of Alpine-Hymalayan Collizion Zone: Evidence from Geological, Volcanological, and Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.; Rodnikov, A.; Lebedev, V.; Chugaev, A.; Zabarinskaya, L.; Sergeeva, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Caucasus is a part of huge Late Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan zone collision of continental plates, lasted throughout the Eurasian continent. At that the Greater Caucasus is an edge of the Eurasian plate, raised along the large reverse fault - the Main Caucasian Fault. This fault, in turn, is a part of the super-fault, stretching from the Kopetdag to the Trans-European Suture Zone (zone Tornquist-Teisseyre). The Caucasus is limited from its both sides by large depressions of Black and Caspian seas, which "cut off" pre-Pliocene structures both the Caucasus and the Kopetdag; origin of these seas is associated with downward currents in the mantle ("cold plumes"). The peculiar structure of the region is north-south Transcaucasian Rise, which is located in the northern part of Caucasian-Arabian syntaxis. Large positive isostatic anomaly is confined with it, apparently indicating presence here of the mantle plume head. Along the zone of syntaxis the belt of Neogene-Quaternary volcanism occurs which begins in Eastern Anatolia and traced through the Lesser to Greater Caucasus. Two types of volcanic rocks are represented here: (1) prevailing volcanics of calc-alkaline series, very close in petrological and geochemical characteristics to suprasubduction type, and (2) extensive lava plateaus formed by basalts of intraplate (plume related) type. However, subduction zone under the Caucasus region, as well as throughout the Caucasian-Arabian syntaxis, is absent and relatively shallow earthquakes (50-60 km) are dominated here. We considered that origin of calc-alkaline magmas is associated with interaction between the mantle plume head, and crustal material at shallow depths under conditions of deformation at high pressures, leading to melting of the material in the zone of collision. Reduction of space in the area of Caucasian-Arabian syntaxis, which occurred during the Late Cenozoic, reached 400 km; such shortening in absence of subduction was apparently achieved mainly due to

  20. Association Between the MUC5B Promoter Polymorphism rs35705950 and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis in Caucasian and Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Xin-Lin; Zhang, Si-Min; Tang, Shao-Wen; Min, Hai-Yan; Yi, Long; Xu, Biao; Song, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with a poor prognosis. A number of studies reported the association between MUC5B promoter polymorphism rs35705950 and IPF, but substantial inconsistent findings were observed and the strength of association remains unclear.The aim of the study was to investigate the association between rs35705950 and IPF in different ethnic populations.PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CENTRAL were searched from their inception to April 15, 2015. Allelic and phenotypic comparisons were conducted separately, as were comparisons in Caucasian and Asian populations. A meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis was conducted.Nine studies presented in 7 full-text articles were included, encompassing 2733 IPF patients and 5044 controls. Six studies were carried out in the Caucasian population, and 3 in the Asian population. Minor T allele was associated with an increased risk of IPF compared with G allele (odds ratio [OR] 4.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.79-6.21, P = 5.88 × 10), as were TG and TT genotypes compared with GG genotype (TG vs GG: OR 6.20, 95% CI 5.14-7.48, P = 1.70 × 10; TT vs GG: OR 11.29, 95% CI 5.69-22.40, P = 4.22 × 10), in an allele dose-dependent manner. These observations were confirmed in trial sequential analysis in both populations. The strength of association was more remarkable in the Caucasian population than in the Asian population, and no homozygous TT genotype was detected in the Asian population in our study.Our study revealed strong association between the MUC5B promoter rs35705950 polymorphism and the risk of IPF. The strength of association between rs35705950 minor T allele and IPF susceptibility was particularly evident in the Caucasian population, and milder but still significant in the Asian population. PMID:26512610

  1. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  2. Craniofacioskeletal syndrome: an X-linked dominant disorder with early lethality in males.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Roger E; Brasington, Cam K; Skinner, Cindy; Simensen, Richard J; Spence, J Edward; Kesler, Shelli; Reiss, Allan L; Schwartz, Charles E

    2007-10-01

    A syndrome with multisystem manifestations has been observed in three generations of a Caucasian family. The findings in seven females provide a composite clinical picture of microcephaly, short stature, small retroverted ears, full tip of the nose overhanging the columella, short philtrum, thin upper lip, soft tissue excrescences at the angle of the mouth, small mandible, small hands and feet with brachydactyly, finger V clinodactyly, flat feet, an excessive number of fingerprint arches, and mild impairment of cognitive function. Two males were more severely affected and died in the initial months of life. They showed intrauterine growth retardation, broad cranium with wide sutures and fontanelles, cardiac defects, small hands and feet with abnormal digital creases and small nails, and genital abnormalities. The affected males had low serum calcium in the neonatal period. Serum calcium, phosphorous, and parathormone levels in the females were normal. Radiographs showed cortical thickening of the long bones, underdevelopment of the frontal sinuses, narrow pelvis and hypoplasia of the middle phalanx of finger five. MRI of the brain showed slightly reduced brain volumes and an extra gyrus of the superior temporal region. X-inactivation studies showed near complete skewing in two affected females, but were not informative in three others. X-linkage as the mode of inheritance is proposed on the basis of different severity in males/females, complete skewing of X-inactivation in informative females, and a lod score (1.5) suggestive of linkage to markers in Xq26-q27. PMID:17853486

  3. Impact of CAG repeat length in the androgen receptor gene on male infertility - a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feifan; Lan, Aihua; Lin, Zhidi; Song, Jianfei; Zhang, Yuening; Li, Jiatong; Gu, Kailong; Lv, Baihao; Zhao, Dong; Zeng, Siping; Zhang, Ruoheng; Zhao, Wei; Pan, Zhengyan; Deng, Xiaozhen; Yang, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    CAG repeats are polymorphic nucleotide repeats present in the androgen receptor gene. Many studies have estimated the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility, but the conclusions are controversial. Previous meta-analyses have come to different conclusions; however, new studies have been published. An updated meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed, CBM, CNKI and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 October 2015. Case-control studies on the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility using appropriate methodology were included. Forty studies were selected, including 3858 cases and 3161 controls. Results showed statistically significantly longer CAG repeat length among cases compared with controls (SMD = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-0.26). Shorter repeat length was associated with a lower risk of male infertility compared with a longer repeat length in the overall analysis (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.95). Moreover, CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Caucasian populations, but not Asian or Egyptian populations. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant difference in German populations, but CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in China and the USA. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. PMID:27157932

  4. UNDERSTANDING THE BREAST CANCER EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN, ASIAN AMERICAN, LATINA AND CAUCASIAN CANCER SURVIVORS

    PubMed Central

    ASHING-GIWA, KIMLIN TAM; PADILLA, GERALDINE; TEJERO, JUDITH; KRAEMER, JANET; WRIGHT, KAREN; COSCARELLI, ANNE; CLAYTON, SHEILA; WILLIAMS, IMANI; HILLS, DAWN

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. We conducted a qualitative study with breast cancer survivors (BCS) of various ethnicities. A total of 102 BCS participated in focus group interviews (24 African Americans, 34 Asians, 26 Latinas and 18 Caucasians); 20 health professionals participated in key informant interviews. Important ethnic differences in type of treatment were noted, Asians and Latinas were more likely to receive mastectomies and African American BCS were least likely to receive adjuvant therapies, including radiation and chemotherapy. These BCS enjoyed a fairly good overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with some persistent concerns. The prevailing concerns among all women included overall health, moderate physical concerns, cancer recurrence or metastases, psychosocial concerns related to worry about children and burdening the family, and body image and sexual health concerns. Additional challenges included: lack of knowledge about breast cancer; medical care issues such as insurance, cost and amount of time spent with physician; cultural sensitivity of providers, language barriers, cultural factors related to beliefs about illness, gender role and family obligations (e.g. self-sacrifice). These BCS, particularly the women of color, voiced that their spiritual beliefs and practices are central to their coping. This study accomplishes two goals; it adds to the sparse literature concerning the psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer among women of color, and it increases our knowledge of specific cultural influences (e.g. dietary practices, coping) and socio-ecological factors on HRQOL. More importantly, the study addressed areas that have not been studied before, specifically, an in-depth study on BCS QOL comparing multiple ethnic groups

  5. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ...

  6. MedlinePlus: Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Male Infertility? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Living With How a Man's Diet Affects Fertility Too (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Related Issues Finasteride (Propecia/Proscar) and ...

  7. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nanagas, Vivian C.; Stolfi, Adrienne; Nanagas, Maria T.; Eberhart, Gregory M.; Alter, Sherman J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1) uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice. PMID:27336012

  8. Fruit, Vegetable and Dietary Carotenoid Intakes Explain Variation in Skin-Color in Young Caucasian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J.; Whitehead, Ross; Ozakinci, Gozde; Perrett, David; Collins, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes) and skin color in young women. Ninety-one Caucasian women (Median and Interquartile Range (IQR) age 22.1 (18.1–29.1) years, BMI 22.9 (18.5–31.9) kg/m2) were recruited from the Hunter region (Australia). Fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Skin color was measured at nine body locations (sun exposed and unexposed sites) using spectrophotometry. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable intakes and skin yellowness adjusting for known confounders. Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017) were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004) were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted. PMID:26184306

  9. [Haplotypes of mtDNA-HV1/HV2 in non-related individuals of Caucasian population living in the Slovak Republic].

    PubMed

    Repiská, V; Lehocký, I; Galatová, J; Böhmer, D

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the frequency index for mtDNA particular sequences in the Caucasian population is crucial for forensic practice. There are two hypervariable regions in the mtDNA D-loop, HV1 and HV2. Both of them, 610 bp altogether, were sequenced, 342 bp from the hypervariable region HV1 (16024-16365) and 268 bp from the hypervariable region HV2 (73-340). We have analyzed 374 randomly selected non-related individuals of th e Caucasian population and 192 individuals of the Roma subpopulation living in Slovakia. The main goals of the work were to introduce and standardize methods of analysis of variability of the HV1 and HV2 regions of mtDNA for forensic use; to characterize the variability of mtDNA in the Slovakian population taking into account the subpopulations; classification of mtDNA profiles into haplotype groups, and comparison with other haplotype groups in Europe in the frame of phylogenetic studies. PMID:21287808

  10. ApaL1 urokinase and Taq1 vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in first-stone formers, recurrent stone formers, and controls in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Serdar; Tuken, Murat; Gunes, Sezgin; Akin, Yigit; Ozturk, Murat; Seyhan, Serkan; Yuruk, Emrah; Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yılmaz, Ali Faik; Nguyen, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in genotype distribution and allele frequency of urokinase and vitamin D receptor (VDR) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between first-stone formers, recurrent stone formers, and controls in a Caucasian population. A total of 86 first-stone formers, 78 recurrent stone formers, and 167 controls were included. Urokinase and VDR SNPs were tested by gene amplification followed by ApaL1 and Taq1 endonuclease digestion, respectively. Baseline variables, genotype, and allele frequencies were compared between the three groups, using descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risk for recurrent urolithiasis associated with genotypes. We found that differences in the distribution of ApaL1 SNP and Taq1 SNP genotypes were statistically different between recurrent stone formers and first-stone formers, and between recurrent stone formers and controls. Allele frequency analysis showed that the T allele for ApaL1 SNP and the C allele for Taq1 SNP were significantly associated with recurrent urolithiasis. For Taq1 SNP, logistic regression analysis showed that the C/C genotype was associated with a more than threefold higher risk for recurrent urolithiasis. We conclude that ApaL1 and Taq1 SNPs of the urokinase and VDR genes are associated with recurrent urolithiasis in a Caucasian population. PMID:26275878

  11. From placement to prison revisited: Do mental health services disrupt the delinquency pipeline among Latino, African American and Caucasian youth in the child welfare system?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior. PMID:26536399

  12. Heart Failure in Non-Caucasians, Women, and Older Adults: A White Paper on Special Populations From the Heart Failure Society of America Guideline Committee.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Monica; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Albert, Nancy M; Krishnamani, Rajan; Rich, Michael W; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Walsh, Mary Norine; Westlake Canary, Cheryl A; Allen, Larry A; Bonnell, Mark R; Carson, Peter E; Chan, Michael C; Dickinson, Michael G; Dries, Daniel L; Ewald, Gregory A; Fang, James C; Hernandez, Adrian F; Hershberger, Ray E; Katz, Stuart D; Moore, Stephanie; Rodgers, Jo E; Rogers, Joseph G; Vest, Amanda R; Whellan, David J; Givertz, Michael M

    2015-08-01

    The presentation, natural history, clinical outcomes, and response to therapy in patients with heart failure differ in some ways across populations. Women, older adults, and non-Caucasian racial or ethnic groups compose a substantial proportion of the overall heart failure population, but they have typically been underrepresented in clinical trials. As a result, uncertainty exists about the efficacy of some guideline-directed medical therapies and devices in specific populations, which may result in the under- or overtreatment of these patients. Even when guideline-based treatments are prescribed, socioeconomic, physical, or psychologic factors may affect non-Caucasian and older adult patient groups to a different extent and affect the application, effectiveness, and tolerability of these therapies. Individualized therapy based on tailored biology (genetics, proteomics, metabolomics), socioeconomic and cultural considerations, and individual goals and preferences may be the optimal approach for managing diverse patients. This comprehensive approach to personalized medicine is evolving, but in the interim, the scientific community should continue efforts focused on intensifying research in special populations, prescribing guideline-directed medical therapy unless contraindicated, and implementing evidence-based strategies including patient and family education and multidisciplinary team care in the management of patients. PMID:26051012

  13. Population data on the thirteen CODIS core short tandem repeat loci in African Americans, U.S. Caucasians, Hispanics, Bahamians, Jamaicans, and Trinidadians.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Moretti, T R; Baumstark, A L; Defenbaugh, D A; Keys, K M

    1999-11-01

    Allele distributions for 13 tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci, CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, and D21S11, were determined in African American, United States Caucasian, Hispanic, Bahamian, Jamaican, and Trinidadian sample populations. There was little evidence for departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) in any of the populations. Based on the exact test, the loci that departed significantly from HWE are: D21S11 (p = 0.010, Bahamians); CSF1PO (p = 0.014, Trinidadians); TPOX (p = 0.011, Jamaicans and p = 0.035, U.S. Caucasians); and D16S539 (p = 0.043, Bahamians). After employing the Bonferroni correction for the number of loci analyzed (i.e., 13 loci per database), these observations are not likely to be significant. There is little evidence for association of alleles between the loci in these databases. The allelic frequency data are similar to other comparable data within the same major population group. PMID:10582369

  14. The mutation G298A-->Ala100Thr on the coding sequence of the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene in non-caucasian Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Estalote, Angela Cristina; Proto-Siqueira, Rodrigo; Silva, Wilson Araújo Da; Zago, Marco Antonio; Palatnik, Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Ala100Thr has been suggested to be a Caucasian genetic marker on the FY*B allele. As the Brazilian population has arisen from miscegenation among Portuguese, Africans, and Indians, this mutation could possibly be found in Euro- and Afro-Brazilians, or in Brazilian Indians. Fifty-three related individuals and a random sample of 100 subjects from the Brazilian population were investigated using the polymerase chain reaction and four restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Confirming the working hypothesis, among the related individuals three Afro-Brazilians (two of them a mother and daughter) and a woman of Amerindian descent had the Ala100Thr mutation on the FY*B allele. Five non-related Euro-Brazilians also carried the mutation. All nine individuals presented the Fy(a-b+) phenotype. We conclude that the Ala100Thr mutation can occur in populations other than Caucasians and that this mutation does not affect Duffy expression on red blood cells. Gene frequencies for this allele in the non-related individuals were in agreement with those of other populations. The Duffy frequencies of two Amerindian tribes were also investigated. PMID:16110438

  15. An unusual insertion/deletion in the gene encoding the. beta. -subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase is a frequent mutation in Caucasian propionic acidemia

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, T.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E. )

    1990-02-01

    Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder of organic acid metabolism that is caused by deficiency of propionly-CoA carboxylase. Affected patients fall into two complementation groups, pccA and pccBC (subgroups B, C, and BC), resulting from deficiency of the nonidentical {alpha} and {beta} subunits of PCC, respectively. The authors have detected an unusual insertion/deletion in the DNA of patients from the pccBC and pccC subgroups that replaces 14 nucleotides in the coding sequence of the {beta} subunit with 12 nucleotides unrelated to this region of the gene. Among 14 unrelated Caucasian patients in the pccBc complementation group, this unique mutation was found in 8 of 28 mutant alleles examined. Mutant allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization to amplified genomic DNAs revealed that the inserted 12 nucleotides do not originate in an {approx}1000-bp region around the mutation. In the course of the investigation, they identified another mutation in the same exon: a 3-bp in-frame deletion that eliminates one of two isoleucine codons immediately preceding the Msp I site. Two unrelated patients were compound heterozygotes for this single-codon deletion and for the insertion/deletion described above. They conclude that either there is a propensity for the PCC {beta}-subunit gene to undergo mutations of this sort at this position or, more likely, the mutations in all of the involved Caucasian patients have a common origin in preceding generations.

  16. Fruit, Vegetable and Dietary Carotenoid Intakes Explain Variation in Skin-Color in Young Caucasian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Whitehead, Ross; Ozakinci, Gozde; Perrett, David; Collins, Clare E

    2015-07-01

    Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes) and skin color in young women. Ninety-one Caucasian women (Median and Interquartile Range (IQR) age 22.1 (18.1-29.1) years, BMI 22.9 (18.5-31.9) kg/m2) were recruited from the Hunter region (Australia). Fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Skin color was measured at nine body locations (sun exposed and unexposed sites) using spectrophotometry. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable intakes and skin yellowness adjusting for known confounders. Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017) were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004) were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted. PMID:26184306

  17. TNF-α −308 polymorphisms and male infertility risk: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Taymour; Taymour, Mai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies discussing TNF-α −308 polymorphism and male infertility. This study was conformed to Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies by two independent reviewers. Hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effects models when appropriate. Q-test was performed to evaluate study heterogeneity and publication bias appraised using funnel plots. The search yielded five studies (three of Caucasians ethnicity and 2 of Asian ethnicity) comprising 2939 men (2262 infertile men and 677 fertile controls). Most of the studied cases were carried out on TNF-α promoter region at positions −308 G/A (four studies) where −308 C/T was dealt with in one study. Overall, significant associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility risk were observed (fixed effect: OR = 0.472, 95% CI: 0.378–0.589; P = 0.001; random effect: OR = 0.407, 95% CI: 0.211–0.785; P = 0.007) with robust findings according to sensitivity analyses. Funnel plot inspections did not give evidences of publication bias. A stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed significant association in both Caucasian and Asian populations. It is concluded that there are evidences of associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and male infertility risk. PMID:26966560

  18. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  19. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  1. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    PubMed

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  2. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  3. [Therapeutic issues concerning male fertility].

    PubMed

    Bernard, V; Bouvattier, C; Christin-Maitre, S

    2014-10-01

    Men reproductive health has long been ignored although it is responsible for 50% of couple's infertility. However, in recent years, the understanding of endocrine physiology underlying testis development and spermatogenesis has enabled the development of new therapeutic strategies. Some concern the management of male infertility. Others are dealing with finding an effective male contraceptive. In this review, we first present the management of infertility, in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We then describe the major improvements for Klinefelter patient's infertility. Finally, we review the different hormonal and non-hormonal methods for male contraception, currently in development. Efficacy and safety of the some non-hormonal methods remain to be demonstrated so far in humans. PMID:25617918

  4. Male Reference Group Identity Dependence: A Theory of Male Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theory of male identity developed to address the question of why men vary in their masculinity ideology and in their conformity to standards of masculinity. An overview of relevant masculinity research, theoretical foundations for the construct of reference group identity dependence, theoretical postulates, associated behavioral, and…

  5. Male chest enhancement: pectoral implants.

    PubMed

    Benito-Ruiz, J; Raigosa, J M; Manzano-Surroca, M; Salvador, L

    2008-01-01

    The authors present their experience with the pectoral muscle implant for male chest enhancement in 21 patients. The markings and technique are thoroughly described. The implants used were manufactured and custom made. The candidates for implants comprised three groups: group 1 (18 patients seeking chest enhancement), group 2 (1 patient with muscular atrophy), and group 3 (2 patients with muscular injuries). Because of the satisfying results obtained, including significant enhancement of the chest contour and no major complications, this technique is used for an increasing number of male cosmetic surgeries. PMID:17676376

  6. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors. PMID:9489379

  7. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  8. The impact of gout on patient’s lives: a study of African-American and Caucasian men and women with gout

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on quality of life (QOL) and study differences by gender and race. Methods Ten race- and sex-stratified nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients presented, discussed, combined and rank-ordered their concerns. Results A total of 62 patients with mean age 65.1 years, 60% men, 64% African-American, participated in 10 nominal groups: African-American men (n = 23; 3 groups); African-American women (n = 18; 3 groups); Caucasian men (n = 15; 3 groups); and Caucasian women (n = 6; 1 group). The most frequently cited high-ranked concerns among the ten nominal groups were: (1) effect of gout flare on daily activities (n = 10 groups); (2) work disability (n = 8 groups); (3) severe pain (n = 8 groups); (4) joint swelling and tenderness (n = 6 groups); (5) food restrictions (n = 6 groups); (6) medication related issues (n = 6 groups); (7) dependency on family and others (n = 5 groups); (8) emotional Impact (n = 5 groups); (9) interference with sexual function (n = 4 groups); (10) difficulty with shoes (n = 4 groups); and (11) sleep disruption (n = 4 groups). Compared with men, women ranked the following concerns high more often: problems with shoes (n = 4 versus n = 0 groups); dependency (n = 3 versus n = 2 groups); and joint/limb deformity (n = 2 versus n = 0 group). Compared with Caucasians, African-Americans ranked the following concerns high more often: dietary restrictions (n = 6 versus n = 0 groups); severe pain (n = 6 versus n = 2 groups); gout bringing the day to a “halt” (n = 2 versus n = 0 group); effect on emotional health (n = 4 versus n = 1 groups); and the need for canes/crutches during flares (n = 2 versus n = 0 group). Conclusions Gout has a significant impact on a patient’s QOL. Important differences in the

  9. Perspectives on perceived stigma and self-stigma in adult male patients with depression

    PubMed Central

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There are two principal types of stigma in mental illness, ie, “public stigma” and “self-stigma”. Public stigma is the perception held by others that the mentally ill individual is socially undesirable. Stigmatized persons may internalize perceived prejudices and develop negative feelings about themselves. The result of this process is “self-stigma”. Stigma has emerged as an important barrier to the treatment of depression and other mental illnesses. Gender and race are related to stigma. Among depressed patients, males and African-Americans have higher levels of self-stigma than females and Caucasians. Perceived stigma and self-stigma affect willingness to seek help in both genders and races. African-Americans demonstrate a less positive attitude towards mental health treatments than Caucasians. Religious beliefs play a role in their coping with mental illness. Certain prejudicial beliefs about mental illness are shared globally. Structural modeling indicates that conformity to dominant masculine gender norms (“boys don’t cry”) leads to self-stigmatization in depressed men who feel that they should be able to cope with their illness without professional help. These findings suggest that targeting men’s feelings about their depression and other mental health problems could be a more successful approach to change help-seeking attitudes than trying to change those attitudes directly. Further, the inhibitory effect of traditional masculine gender norms on help-seeking can be overcome if depressed men feel that a genuine connection leading to mutual understanding has been established with a health care professional. PMID:25114531

  10. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  11. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Native Males by Age Group, 2013 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2013 Hispanic Males ... Native Males by Age Group, 2011 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2011 Hispanic Males ...

  12. Black Male Images in Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Francis

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the "super" image of the black male in films served three essential purposes: it gave blacks whatever therapy they needed from films; it had hot box office appeal; and it kept white in control of the images blacks have had of themselves. (Author/JM)

  13. Sexual Assault of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

  14. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  15. Male Osteoporosis in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    D'Amelio, Patrizia; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is now recognized as an important public health problem in elderly men as fragility fractures are complicated by increased morbidity, mortality, and social costs. This review comprises an overview of recent findings in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male osteoporosis, with particular regard to the old population. PMID:26457082

  16. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  17. Digital Technology Ownership, Usage, and Factors Predicting Downloading Health Apps Among Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans: The Digital Link to Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. Objective The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Results Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a

  18. Capillary electrophoresis of an 11-plex mtDNA coding region SNP single base extension assay for discrimination of the most common Caucasian HV1/HV2 mitotype.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    The typing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located throughout the human mitochondrial genome assists in resolving individuals with an identical HV1/HV2 haplotype. A set of 11 sites which were selected for distinguishing individuals of a common Western European Caucasian HV1/HV2 mitotype was incorporated into a single base extension (SBE) assay. The assay was optimized for multiplex detection of sequence polymorphisms at positions 3010, 4793, 10211, 5004, 7028, 7202, 16519, 12858, 4580, 477, and 14470 in the mitochondrial genome. PCR primers were designed to allow for multiplex amplification of unique regions in the mitochondrial genome followed by an 11-plex SBE reaction using the SNaPshot(®) reagent kit. Separation and detection can be accomplished with a capillary-based electrophoresis platform commonly found in most forensic laboratories. PMID:22139659

  19. CKM Gene G (Ncoi-) Allele Has a Positive Effect on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Caucasian Women Practicing Sports Requiring Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gronek, Piotr; Holdys, Joanna; Kryściak, Jakub; Stanisławski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The search for genes with a positive influence on physical fitness is a difficult process. Physical fitness is a trait determined by multiple genes, and its genetic basis is then modified by numerous environmental factors. The present study examines the effects of the polymorphism of creatine kinase (CKM) gene on VO2max – a physiological index of aerobic capacity of high heritability. The study sample consisted of 154 men and 85 women, who were students of the University School of Physical Education in Poznań and athletes practicing various sports, including members of the Polish national team. The study revealed a positive effect of a rare G (NcoI−) allele of the CKM gene on maximal oxygen uptake in Caucasian women practicing sports requiring aerobic and anaerobic exercise metabolism. Also a tendency was noted in individuals with NcoI−/− (GG) and NcoI−/+ (GA) genotypes to reach higher VO2max levels. PMID:24511349

  20. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  1. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    PubMed

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18–56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92–0.95; pain rating r = 0.93–0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87–0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity

  3. Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analyses to Identify Common Genetic Variants Associated with Hallux Valgus in Caucasian and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Liu, Youfang; Hannan, Marian T.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad B.; Diatchenko, Luda; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Menz, Hylton B.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Doherty, Michael; Wilson, A.G.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) affects ~36% of Caucasian adults. Although considered highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are unclear. We conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with HV. Methods HV was assessed in 3 Caucasian cohorts (n=2,263, n=915, and n=1,231 participants, respectively). In each cohort, a GWAS was conducted using 2.5M imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mixed-effect regression with the additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, weight and within-family correlations was used for both sex-specific and combined analyses. To combine GWAS results across cohorts, fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses were used. Following meta-analyses, top-associated findings were also examined in an African American cohort (n=327). Results The proportion of HV variance explained by genome-wide genotyped SNPs was 50% in men and 48% in women. A higher proportion of genetic determinants of HV was sex-specific. The most significantly associated SNP in men was rs9675316 located on chr17q23-a24 near the AXIN2 gene (p=5.46×10−7); the most significantly associated SNP in women was rs7996797 located on chr13q14.1-q14.2 near the ESD gene (p=7.21×10−7). Genome-wide significant SNP-by-sex interaction was found for SNP rs1563374 located on chr11p15.1 near the MRGPRX3 gene (interaction p-value =4.1×10−9). The association signals diminished when combining men and women. Conclusion Findings suggest that the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of HV are complex and strongly underlined by sex-specific interactions. The identified genetic variants imply contribution of biological pathways observed in osteoarthritis as well as new pathways, influencing skeletal development and inflammation. PMID:26337638

  4. ROBO1, a tumor suppressor and critical molecular barrier for localized tumor cells to acquire invasive phenotype: Study in African-American and Caucasian prostate cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Parray, Aijaz; Siddique, Hifzur R.; Kuriger, Jacquelyn K.; Mishra, Shrawan K.; Rhim, Johng S.; Nelson, Heather H.; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Konety, Badrinath R.; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Saleem, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    High-risk populations exhibit early transformation of localized prostate cancer (CaP) disease to metastasis which results in the mortality of such patients. The paucity of knowledge about the molecular mechanism involved in acquiring of metastatic behavior by primary tumor cells and non-availability of reliable phenotype-discriminating biomarkers are stumbling blocks in the management of CaP disease. Here, we determine the role and translational relevance of ROBO1 (an organogenesis-associated gene) in human CaP. Employing CaP-progression models and prostatic tissues of Caucasian and African-American patients, we show that ROBO1 expression is localized to cell-membrane and significantly lost in primary and metastatic tumors. While Caucasians exhibited similar ROBO1 levels in primary and metastatic phenotype, a significant difference was observed between tumor phenotypes in African-Americans. Epigenetic assays identified promoter methylation of ROBO1 specific to African-American metastatic CaP cells. Using African-American CaP models for further studies, we show that ROBO1 negatively regulates motility and invasiveness of primary CaP cells, and its loss causes these cells to acquire invasive trait. To understand the underlying mechanism, we employed ROBO1-expressing/ROBO1-C2C3-mutant constructs, immunoprecipitation, confocal-microscopy and luciferase-reporter techniques. We show that ROBO1 through its interaction with DOCK1 (at SH3-SH2-domain) controls the Rac-activation. However, loss of ROBO1 results in Rac1-activation which in turn causes E-Cadherin/β-catenin cytoskeleton destabilization and induction of cell migration. We suggest that ROBO1 is a predictive biomarker that has potential to discriminate among CaP types, and could be exploited as a molecular target to inhibit the progression of disease as well as treat metastasis in high-risk populations such as African-Americans. PMID:24752651

  5. Breast Cancer in Elderly Caucasian Women-An Institution-Based Study of Correlation between Breast Cancer Prognostic Markers, TNM Stage, and Overall Survival.

    PubMed

    Orucevic, Amila; Curzon, Matthew; Curzon, Christina; Heidel, Robert E; McLoughlin, James M; Panella, Timothy; Bell, John

    2015-01-01

    There is still a paucity of data on how breast cancer (BC) biology influences outcomes in elderly patients. We evaluated whether ER/PR/HER2 subtype and TNM stage of invasive BC had a significant impact on overall survival (OS) in a cohort of 232 elderly Caucasian female patients (≥70 year old (y/o)) from our institution over a ten-year interval (January 1998-July 2008). Five ER/PR/HER2 BC subtypes classified per 2011 St. Gallen International Expert Consensus recommendations were further subclassified into three subtypes (traditionally considered "favorable" subtype-ER+/PR+/HER2-, and traditionally considered "unfavorable" BC subtypes: HER2+ and triple negative). OS was measured comparing these categories using Kaplan Meier curves and Cox regression analysis, when controlled for TNM stage. The majority of our patients (178/232 = 76.8%) were of the "favorable" BC subtype; 23.2% patients were with "unfavorable" subtype (HER2+ = 12% (28/232) and triple negative = 11.2% (26/232)). Although a trend for better OS was noted in HER2+ patients (68%) vs. 56% in ER+/PR+ HER2- or 58% in triple negative patients, "favorable" BC subtype was not significantly predictive of better OS (p = 0.285). TNM stage was predictive of OS (p < 0.001). These results are similar to our published studies on Caucasian BC patients of all ages in which ER/PR/HER2 status was not predictive of OS, irrespective of classification system used. PMID:26264027

  6. Genetic Variants Associated with Optic Nerve Vertical Cup-to-Disc Ratio Are Risk Factors for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in a US Caucasian Population

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bao Jian; Wang, Dan Yi; Pasquale, Louis R.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Genetically complex disorders, such as primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), may include highly heritable quantitative traits as part of the overall phenotype, and mapping genes influencing the related quantitative traits may effectively identify genetic risk factors predisposing to the complex disease. Recent studies have identified SNPs associated with optic nerve area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between these SNPs and POAG in a US Caucasian case-control sample. Methods. Five SNPs previously associated with optic disc area, or VCDR, were genotyped in 539 POAG cases and 336 controls. Genotype data were analyzed for single SNP associations and SNP interactions with VCDR and POAG. Results. SNPs associated with VCDR rs1063192 (CDKN2B) and rs10483727 (SIX1/SIX6) were also associated with POAG (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0043 for rs1063192 and rs10483727, respectively). rs1063192, associated with smaller VCDR, had a protective effect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58–0.90), whereas rs10483727, associated with larger VCDR, increased POAG risk (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08–1.65). POAG risk associated with increased VCDR was significantly influenced by the C allele of rs1900004 (ATOH7), associated with increased optic nerve area (P-interaction = 0.025; OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.22–2.94). Conclusions. Genetic variants influencing VCDR are associated with POAG in a US Caucasian population. Variants associated with optic nerve area are not independently associated with disease but can influence the effects of VCDR variants suggesting that increased optic disc area can significantly contribute to POAG risk when coupled with risk factors controlling VCDR. PMID:21398277

  7. First-line gefitinib in Caucasian EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC patients: a phase-IV, open-label, single-arm study

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, J-Y; Ostoros, G; Cobo, M; Ciuleanu, T; McCormack, R; Webster, A; Milenkova, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phase-IV, open-label, single-arm study (NCT01203917) to assess efficacy and safety/tolerability of first-line gefitinib in Caucasian patients with stage IIIA/B/IV, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Treatment: gefitinib 250 mg day−1 until progression. Primary endpoint: objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints: disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety/tolerability. Pre-planned exploratory objective: EGFR mutation analysis in matched tumour and plasma samples. Results: Of 1060 screened patients with NSCLC (859 known mutation status; 118 positive, mutation frequency 14%), 106 with EGFR sensitising mutations were enrolled (female 70.8% adenocarcinoma 97.2% never-smoker 64.2%). At data cutoff: ORR 69.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 60.5–77.7), DCR 90.6% (95% CI 83.5–94.8), median PFS 9.7 months (95% CI 8.5–11.0), median OS 19.2 months (95% CI 17.0–NC; 27% maturity). Most common adverse events (AEs; any grade): rash (44.9%), diarrhoea (30.8%); CTC (Common Toxicity Criteria) grade 3/4 AEs: 15% SAEs: 19%. Baseline plasma 1 samples were available in 803 patients (784 known mutation status; 82 positive; mutation frequency 10%). Plasma 1 EGFR mutation test sensitivity: 65.7% (95% CI 55.8–74.7). Conclusion: First-line gefitinib was effective and well tolerated in Caucasian patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. Plasma samples could be considered for mutation analysis if tumour tissue is unavailable. PMID:24263064

  8. Barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use among Arabic-speaking and Caucasian English-speaking patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, Colette; Marriott, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the decision-making processes and associated barriers and enablers that determine access and use of healthcare services in Arabic-speaking and English-speaking Caucasian patients with diabetes in Australia. Study setting and design Face-to-face semistructured individual interviews and group interviews were conducted at various healthcare settings—diabetes outpatient clinics in 2 tertiary referral hospitals, 6 primary care practices and 10 community centres in Melbourne, Australia. Participants A total of 100 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited into 2 groups: 60 Arabic-speaking and 40 English-speaking Caucasian. Data collection Interviews were audio-taped, translated into English when necessary, transcribed and coded thematically. Sociodemographic and clinical information was gathered using a self-completed questionnaire and medical records. Principal findings Only Arabic-speaking migrants intentionally delayed access to healthcare services when obvious signs of diabetes were experienced, missing opportunities to detect diabetes at an early stage. Four major barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use were identified: influence of significant other(s), unique sociocultural and religious beliefs, experiences with healthcare providers and lack of knowledge about healthcare services. Compared with Arabic-speaking migrants, English-speaking participants had no reluctance to access and use medical services when signs of ill-health appeared; their treatment-seeking behaviours were straightforward. Conclusions Arabic-speaking migrants appear to intentionally delay access to medical services even when symptomatic. Four barriers to health services access have been identified. Tailored interventions must be developed for Arabic-speaking migrants to improve access to available health services, facilitate timely diagnosis of diabetes and ultimately to improve glycaemic control. PMID:26576809

  9. Menopausal Status Modifies Breast Cancer Risk Associated with the Myeloperoxidase (MPO) G463A Polymorphism in Caucasian Women: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pabalan, Noel; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Sung, Lillian; Li, Hong; Ozcelik, Hilmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer susceptibility may be modulated partly through polymorphisms in oxidative enzymes, one of which is myeloperoxidase (MPO). Association of the low transcription activity variant allele A in the G463A polymorphism has been investigated for its association with breast cancer risk, considering the modifying effects of menopausal status and antioxidant intake levels of cases and controls. Methodology/Principal Findings To obtain a more precise estimate of association using the odds ratio (OR), we performed a meta-analysis of 2,975 cases and 3,427 controls from three published articles of Caucasian populations living in the United States. Heterogeneity among studies was tested and sensitivity analysis was applied. The lower transcriptional activity AA genotype of MPO in the pre-menopausal population showed significantly reduced risk (OR 0.56–0.57, p = 0.03) in contrast to their post-menopausal counterparts which showed non-significant increased risk (OR 1.14; p = 0.34–0.36). High intake of antioxidants (OR 0.67–0.86, p = 0.04–0.05) and carotenoids (OR 0.68–0.86, p = 0.03–0.05) conferred significant protection in the women. Stratified by menopausal status, this effect was observed in pre-menopausal women especially those whose antioxidant intake was high (OR 0.42–0.69, p = 0.04). In post-menopausal women, effect of low intake elicited susceptibility (OR 1.19–1.67, p = 0.07–0.17) to breast cancer. Conclusions/Significance Based on a homogeneous Caucasian population, the MPO G463A polymorphism places post-menopausal women at risk for breast cancer, where this effect is modified by diet. PMID:22427832

  10. MC1R variants increased the risk of sporadic cutaneous melanoma in darker-pigmented Caucasians: a pooled-analysis from the M-SKIP project

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Elena; García-Borrón, José C.; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Gandini, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Specchia, Claudia; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred; Nijsten, Tamar; Nagore, Eduardo; Kumar, Rajiv; Hansson, Johan; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Ghiorzo, Paola; Debniak, Tadeusz; Branicki, Wojciech; Gruis, Nelleke A.; Han, Jiali; Dwyer, Terry; Blizzard, Leigh; Landi, Maria Teresa; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Ribas, Gloria; Stratigos, Alexander; Council, M.Laurin; Autier, Philippe; Little, Julian; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Sera, Francesco; Raimondi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The MC1R gene is a key regulator of skin pigmentation. We aimed to evaluate the association between MC1R variants and the risk of sporadic cutaneous melanoma (CM) within the M-SKIP project, an international pooled-analysis on MC1R, skin cancer and phenotypic characteristics. Data included 5,160 cases and 12,119 controls from 17 studies. We calculated a Summary Odds Ratio (SOR) for the association of each of the nine most studied MC1R variants and of variants combined with CM by using random-effects models. Stratified analysis by phenotypic characteristics were also performed. Melanoma risk increased with presence of any of the main MC1R variants: the SOR for each variant ranged from 1.47 (95%CI: 1.17–1.84) for V60L to 2.74 (1.53–4.89) for D84E. Carriers of any MC1R variant had a 66% higher risk of developing melanoma compared to wild-type subjects (SOR; 95%CI: 1.66; 1.41–1.96), and the risk attributable to MC1R variants was 28%. When taking into account phenotypic characteristics, we found that MC1R–associated melanoma risk increased only for darker-pigmented Caucasians: SOR (95%CI) was 3.14 (2.06–4.80) for subjects with no freckles, no red hair and skin type III/IV. Our study documents the important role of all the main MC1R variants in sporadic CM and suggests that they have a direct effect on melanoma risk, independently on the phenotypic characteristics of carriers. This is of particular importance for assessing preventive strategies, which may be directed to darker-pigmented Caucasians with MC1R variants as well as to lightly-pigmented, fair-skinned subjects. PMID:24917043

  11. Influenza Vaccine-Induced CNS Demyelination in a 50-Year-Old Male

    PubMed Central

    Sacheli, Aaron; Bauer, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 50 Final Diagnosis: Acute post-vaccination CNS demyelinating disorder Symptoms: Blurred vision • hemiparesis • hemiplegia • hypertonia • itching • paresthesia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: MRI Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: There are several categories of primary inflammatory demyelinating disorders, which comprise clinically similar neurologic sequelae. Of interest, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are 2 demyelinating conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), whose clinical similarity pose a significant challenge to definitive diagnosis. Yet, both remain important clinical considerations in patients with neurologic signs and symptoms in the context of recent vaccination. Case Report: We report a case of a 50-year-old Caucasian male with a course of progressive, focal, neurologic deficits within 24 h after receiving the influenza vaccine. Subsequent work-up revealed the possibility of an acute central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating episode secondary to the influenza vaccine, best described as either CIS or ADEM. Conclusions: Case reports of CNS demyelination following vaccinations have been previously noted, most often occurring in the context of recent influenza vaccination. This report serves to document a case of CNS demyelination occurring 24 h after influenza vaccination in a middle-aged patient, and will describe some salient features regarding the differential diagnosis of CIS and ADEM, as well as their potential management. PMID:25175754

  12. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Christopher D.; Andrés, José A.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a “scramble”. An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  13. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed

    Beatty, Christopher D; Andrés, José A; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a "scramble". An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  14. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    PubMed

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. PMID:27102810

  15. Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Lung Cancer Risk: A Large Case-Control Study in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Espiridion, Beatriz; Chen, Meng; Chang, Joe Y.; Lu, Charles; Chang, David W.; Roth, Jack A.; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction is a crucial event in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with lung cancer risk, but the relationship has remained controversial. In this study, we investigated whether the association might be confounded by study of different histological subtypes of lung cancer. We measured relative telomere lengths in patients in a large case-control study of lung cancer and performed stratified analyses according to the two major histological subtypes (adenocarcinoma [AC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]). Notably, AC patients had longer telomeres than controls, whereas SCC patients had shorter telomeres compared to controls. Long telomeres were associated with increased risk of AC, with the highest risk associated with female sex, younger age (<60 years) and lighter smoking (<30 pack-years). In contrast, long telomeres were protective against SCC, particularly in male patients. Our results extend the concept that telomere length affects risk of lung cancer in a manner that differs with histological subtype. PMID:24618342

  16. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  17. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  18. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  19. Association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Luo, Y Y; Wu, S; Tang, Y D; Rao, X D; Xiong, L; Tan, M; Deng, M Z; Liu, H

    2016-01-01

    Published studies on the association between the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and male infertility risk are controversial. To obtain a more precise evaluation, we performed a meta-analysis based on published case-control studies. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database for papers on MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and male infertility risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in homozygote, heterozygote, dominant, recessive, and additive models. Statistical heterogeneity, test of publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were carried out using the STATA software (Version 13.0). Overall, 21 studies of C677T (4505 cases and 4024 controls) and 13 studies of A1298C (2785 cases and 3094 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. For C677T, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.629, 95%CI (1.215- 2.184), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.462 (1.155- 1.850). For A1298C, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.289 (1.029-1.616), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.288 (1.034-1.604). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased male infertility risk in the Asian and overall populations, but not in the Caucasian population, and there was a significant association between the A1298C polymorphism and male infertility risk in the Asian, Caucasian, and overall groups. PMID:27173242

  20. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  1. Male-mediated developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  2. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  3. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  4. Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) Polymorphism and Context-Specific Risk of Impaired Fasting Glucose in African American and Caucasian Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Y.; North, K. E.; Heiss, G.; Klein, R.; Girman, C. J.; Lange, E. M.; Pankow, J. S.; Brancati, F. L.; Boerwinkle, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are consistently associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Caucasians, data from large population-based studies of African Americans are lacking. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effects of TCF7L2 on IFG in the context of metabolic risk factors for diabetes. Methods We investigated the association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and incident IFG defined as fasting serum glucose levels of 100–125 mg/dl (5.6–6.9 mmol/l) in 1,377 African American and 5,152 Caucasian participants without diabetes and IFG at intake who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in 1987–1989 and were followed for 9 years. Results Incident IFG was identified in 810 (58.8%) African American and 2,652 (51.5%) Caucasian participants. Compared to homozygous CC Caucasian individuals, heterozygous CT [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09 (95% CI=1.03–1.15)] and homozygous TT [1.18 (1.05–1.33)] individuals had significantly higher risk of developing IFG over 9-year follow up. The association between rs7903146 and IFG risk was stronger in Caucasians with obesity [HRCT vs. CC=1.28 (1.12, 1.47); HRTT vs. CC=1.65 (1.25, 2.17)] or high triglycerides [HRCT vs. CC=1.31(1.10, 1.56); HRTT vs. CC=1.72 (1.21, 2.43)]. No association of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and incident IFG was noted in African Americans. Conclusions Our study replicates the association between rs7903146 and IFG risk in a population-based, longitudinal cohort of Caucasians but not in African Americans. For the first time, our study provides evidence for interactions between TCF7L2 and metabolic risk factors on the occurrence of IFG in Caucasians. PMID:20578204

  5. Gender differences in resource use and evaluation of attributes of places of resource use by Native Americans and Caucasians from Western Idaho: relevance to risk evaluations.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  6. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE USE AND EVALUATUON OF ATTRIBUTES OF PLACES OF RESOURCE USE BY NATIVE AMERICANS AND CAUCASIANS FROM WESTERN IDAHO: RELEVANCE TO RISK EVALUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  7. Male Infertility: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the subfertile male starts with the basic history and physical examination, which often provide indication of probable cause. Aside from analysis of properly collected semen, most cases require very few tests. Etiology can be classified as pretesticular, testicular, and post-testicular. Treatment can be more specific if a definite cause is found. Unfortunately, about 25% of patients are idiopathic, and non-specific treatments generally yield unacceptably low conception rates. Improvement will occur as more becomes known, through animal research and clinical application, about the physiology of spermatogenesis and the pathological processes that can affect it. PMID:21253072

  8. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  9. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana . E-mail: d.anderson1@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F{sub 1} generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F{sub 1} male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from

  10. Male reproductive health and infertility.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. PMID:20705204

  11. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher Ck; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-07-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  12. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  13. Homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Devlin, P K; Cowan, G A

    1985-10-01

    This study examined the relationships among homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimacy with significant male and female best friends. A questionnaire, administered to 130 adult heterosexual males, included McDonald and Game's homophobia measure (ATHMS), eight intimacy scales, and four scales measuring subjects' recollections of their fathers' parenting styles. Correlations of ATHMS and individual intimacy scales revealed a significant relationship between homophobia and intimacy in male-male relationships. Homophobia was related to male-female intimacy on those measures which reflected subjects' perception of their female partner's sensitivity to them. Although homophobia was related to perception of the father as enforcing sex roles, none of the perceived fathering variables were directly related to intimacy with males. The findings provide evidence for a direct relationship between male homophobia and lack of intimacy in friendships between men. PMID:4067792

  14. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  15. Sperm investment in male meadow voles is affected by the condition of the nearby male conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Sperm competition occurs when 2 or more males copulate with a particular female during the same reproductive cycle, and their sperm compete to fertilize the female's available eggs. One strategy that male voles use to assess the risk and intensity of sperm competition involves responding to the presence of scent marks of conspecific males found near a sexually receptive female. Previously, we have shown that if a male vole copulated with a female while he was in the presence of the odors of another male he increased his sperm investment relative to his investment if another male's odors were not present. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that males assess differences in the relative quality of competing males and adjust their sperm investment accordingly. We did so by allowing males to copulate when they were exposed to the scent mark of a 24-h food-deprived male (low-quality male) or the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived (high-quality male). The data indicate that male meadow voles did not increase their sperm investment during copulation when exposed to the scent mark of a food-deprived male but did so when they were exposed to the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived. The results support the hypothesis that male voles are able to adjust sperm investment when they encounter the scent marks of males that differ in quality. PMID:19529815

  16. The vitamin D receptor polymorphism in the translation initiation codon is a risk factor for insulin resistance in glucose tolerant Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ken C; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Yoon, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with abnormal glucose metabolism, the reported polymorphisms are unlikely to have any biological consequences. The VDR gene has two potential translation initiation sites. A T-to-C polymorphism has been noted in the first ATG (f allele), abolishing the first translation initiation site and resulting in a peptide lacking the first three amino acids (F allele). We examined the role of this polymorphism in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. This study included 49 healthy Caucasian subjects (28 females, age 28 ± 1 years old, body mass index 24.57 ± 0.57 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio 0.81 ± 0.01 cm/cm). They were all normotensive (less than 140/90 mmHg) and glucose tolerant, which was determined by a standard 75-gm oral glucose tolerance test. Their beta cell function (%B) and insulin sensitivity (%S) were calculated based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). Their genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Phenotypes were compared between genotypic groups. Results There were 18 FF, 21 Ff, and 10 ff subjects. Since only 10 ff subjects were identified, they were pooled with the Ff subjects during analyses. The FF and Ff/ff groups had similar glucose levels at each time point before and after a glucose challenge. The Ff/ff group had higher insulin levels than the FF group at fasting (P=0.006), 30 minutes (P=0.009), 60 minutes (P=0.049), and 90 minutes (P=0.042). Furthermore, the Ff/ff group also had a larger insulin area under the curve than the FF group (P=0.009). While no difference was noted in %B, the Ff/ff group had a lower %S than the FF group (0.53 vs. 0.78, P=0.006). A stepwise regression analysis confirmed that the Fok I polymorphism was an independent determinant for %S, accounting for 29.3% of variation in %S when combined with waist-hip ratio. Conclusions We report that the Fok I polymorphism

  17. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  18. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  19. Fighting back against male-killers.

    PubMed

    Jaenike, John

    2007-04-01

    Male-killing endosymbionts create a genetic black hole into which host nuclear genes vanish. In a recent paper, Hornett et al. transferred male-killing Wolbachia between different strains of the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina through hybridization and backcrossing. Their results provide unambiguous evidence of genetic variation for resistance to male-killers. A possible consequence of such variation is that male-killing might appear and disappear quickly on an evolutionary timescale. PMID:17276538

  20. Pilot Study on the Homeopathic Treatment of Binge Eating in Males.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, Hertzog Johannes; Razlog, Radmila; Pellow, Janice

    2016-04-01

    Context • Frequent binge eating is often a symptom of an underlying eating disorder, such as bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED). The role of homeopathy in the treatment of binge eating remains poorly explored. Objective • The study intended to measure the efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment for binge eating in adult males. Design • This case study was a 9-wk pilot using an embedded, mixed-methods design. A 3-wk baseline period was followed by a 6-wk treatment period. Setting • The setting was the Homeopathic Health Clinic at the University of Johannesburg in Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants • Through purposive sampling, the research team recruited 15 Caucasian, male participants, aged 18-45 y, who were exhibiting binge eating. Intervention • Individualized homeopathic remedies were prescribed to each participant. Primary Outcome Measures • Participants were assessed by means of (1) a self-assessment calendar (SAC), recording the frequency and intensity of binging; (2) the Binge Eating Scale (BES), a psychometric evaluation of severity; and (3) case analysis evaluating changes with time. Results • Ten participants completed the study. The study found a statistically significant improvement with regard to the BES (P = .003) and the SAC (P = .006), with a large effect size, indicating that a decrease occurred in the severity and frequency of binging behavior during the study period. Conclusions • This small study showed the potential benefits of individualized homeopathic treatment of binge eating in males, decreasing both the frequency and severity of binging episodes. Follow-up studies are recommended to explore this treatment modality as a complementary therapeutic option in eating disorders characterized by binge eating. PMID:27089525

  1. Social-emotional aspects of male escorting: experiences of men working for an agency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael D; Grov, Christian; Seal, David W; Bernhardt, Nicholas; McCall, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Social situations and emotional correlates associated with male sex work have not been well documented. Most of the research in this area focuses on sexual activity with little mention of other aspects of the job. Yet, research with female sex workers finds significant social and emotional components to sex work. The current study focused on how male sex workers (MSWs) perceived and adapted to the social-emotional aspects of their job. As part of a larger project examining MSWs working for a single escort agency, 40 men (M age, 22.3 years, 75 % Caucasian) located in the mid-Atlantic U.S. participated in semi-structured interviews. The agency owner was also interviewed. Participants reported a range of social and emotional factors regarding sex work and employed a variety of strategies to provide good customer service and adapt to negative experiences. For most, social support was inhibited due to fear of stigmatization that might result if participants disclosed sex work to significant others outside the agency. Instead, interactions within the agency provided core work-related social support for most MSWs. Emotional and relational tasks inherent to escort work grew easier with experience and negativity about the job declined. Our data suggested that socially connected individuals seemed to be more satisfied with sex work. Social and emotional requirements represented a significant but unanticipated component of male sex work to which escorts actively adapted. Escorting may be similar to other service occupations in terms of the social-emotional situations and skills involved. PMID:25119388

  2. Genetic evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Men with severe oligospermia (<5 million sperm/mL ejaculate fluid) or azoospermia should receive genetic testing to clarify etiology of male infertility prior to treatment. Categorization by obstructive azoospermia (OA) or non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is critical since genetic testing differs for the former with normal testicular function, testicular volume (~20 mL), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (1-8 IU/mL) when compared to the latter with small, soft testes and increased FSH. History and physician examination along with laboratory testing (following appropriate genetic counseling) is critical to accurate selection of genetic testing appropriate for azoospermia due to primary testicular failure as compared with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Genetic testing options include cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) testing for men with congenital absence of the vas, while karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions (YCMD), and other specific genetic tests may be warranted depending on the clinical context of severe oligospermia or NOA. The results of genetic testing guide management options. The most recent techniques for genetic analysis, including sperm microRNA (miRNA) and epigenetics, are forming the foundation for future genetic diagnosis and therapeutic targets in male infertility. PMID:26813518

  3. Producing Monosex Male Populations for Catfish Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of uses for the preferential production of male catfish in aquaculture operations. Several studies have demonstrated that male channel catfish grow faster than female fish and would be expected to reach market size faster. Also, in the production of hybrid catfish male blue catf...

  4. Male Puberty Rites: A Path Analytic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitahara, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Studies two determinants of male puberty rites: communitywide exclusive male work groups and polygyny which act as an extension of male subculture; and sexual integration in the division of labor and distant father-child relationship which act to reduce the distance between the sexes. (Author/RC)

  5. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  6. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Vatish, Manu; Lawson, Alexander; Wood, Catherine; Sivakumar, Kavitha; McTernan, Philip G.; Webster, Craig; Anderson, Neil; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182), of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood). Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L) and folate (<4.6 μg/L) were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol. PMID:25849948

  7. Morphological and molecular identification of Gyrodactylus bubyri Osmanov, 1965 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from Caucasian dwarf goby, Knipowitschia caucasica (Berg) (Actinopterygii: Gobionellidae) from a Black Sea lagoon.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Borislav; Huyse, Tine; Pankov, Plamen; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2016-04-01

    Gyrodactylus bubyri Osmanov, 1965, a monogenean parasite of Caucasian dwarf goby Knipowitschia caucasica (Berg) described from Aral Sea and subsequently reported from the same host from Strymon River, Greece, is recorded from Atanasovsko Lake, Bulgarian Black Sea coast (the first record of G. bubyri from the Black Sea basin). The species is redescribed by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as the ITS rDNA sequence is obtained. As comparative materials, specimens of G. bubyri from K. caucasica (Strymon River), G. charon Vanhove and Huyse in Vanhove et al., 2014 from Knipowitschia milleri (Acheron Delta, Greece) and G. micropsi Gläser, 1974 from Potamoschistus microps from North Sea (Belgium) are studied. Comparative morphology and molecular data demonstrate that G. micropsi is a junior synonym of G. bubyri (new synonymy). The validity of G. charon is questioned, pending examination of additional materials in order to prove it as a distinct species or as a junior synonym of G. bubyri. PMID:26782810

  8. Association study between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and risk of Alzheimer’s disease in Caucasians of Italian origin

    PubMed Central

    Tannorella, Pierpaola; Stoccoro, Andrea; Tognoni, Gloria; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an epigenetic contribution in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this regard, variants and polymorphisms of DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMTs) are being investigated for their contribution to cognitive decline and dementia, but results are still scarce or controversial. In the present study we genotyped 710 Caucasian subjects of Italian descent, including 320 late-onset AD (LOAD) patients, 70 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 320 matched healthy controls, for the presence of a functional DNMT3A -448A>G (rs1550117) polymorphism, searching for association with disease risk. In addition, we searched for correlation between the studied polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine (hcy) and vitamin B12, all involved in DNA methylation reactions and available from 189 LOAD patients and 186 matched controls. Both allele and genotype frequencies of rs1550117 were closely similar between MCI, LOAD and control subjects, and no association with dementia or pre-dementia conditions was observed. Plasma hcy levels were significantly higher (p = 0.04) and serum folate levels significantly lower (p = 0.01) in LOAD than in controls, but no difference in circulating folate, hcy or vitamin B12 levels was seen between carriers and non-carriers of the minor DNMT3A -448A allele. Collectively, present results confirmed previous associations of increased hcy and decreased folate with LOAD risk, but do not support an association between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and AD in our population. PMID:27073746

  9. Prevalence of hip symptoms and radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis in African-Americans and Caucasians: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Joanne M.; Helmick, Charles G.; Renner, Jordan B.; Luta, Gheorghe; Dragomir, Anca D.; Woodard, Janice; Fang, Fang; Schwartz, Todd A.; Nelson, Amanda E.; Abbate, Lauren M.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Kalsbeek, William D.; Hochberg, Marc C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To report contemporary estimates of the prevalence of hip-related osteoarthritis (OA) outcomes in African-Americans and Caucasians aged ≥ 45 years. Methods Weighted prevalence estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals for hip symptoms, radiographic hip OA, symptomatic hip OA, and severe radiographic hip OA were calculated using SUDAAN® for age, race, and sex subgroups among 3,068 participants (33% African-Americans, 38% men) in the baseline examination (1991–1997) of The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project, a population-based study of OA in North Carolina. Radiographic hip OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grade ≥ 2, moderate/severe radiographic hip OA as grades 3 and 4, and symptomatic hip OA as hip symptoms in a hip with radiographic OA. Results Hip symptoms were present in 36%; 28% had radiographic hip OA; nearly 10% had symptomatic hip OA; and 2.5% had moderate/severe radiographic hip OA. Prevalence of all 4 outcomes was higher in older individuals; most outcomes were higher for women and African-Americans. Conclusion These hip-related outcomes were common in this population, and African-Americans did not have a lower prevalence as previous studies have suggested. Increasing public and health system awareness of the relatively high prevalence of these outcomes, which can be disabling, may help to decrease their impact and ultimately prevent them. PMID:19286855

  10. Association study between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and risk of Alzheimer's disease in Caucasians of Italian origin.

    PubMed

    Tannorella, Pierpaola; Stoccoro, Andrea; Tognoni, Gloria; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an epigenetic contribution in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this regard, variants and polymorphisms of DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMTs) are being investigated for their contribution to cognitive decline and dementia, but results are still scarce or controversial. In the present study we genotyped 710 Caucasian subjects of Italian descent, including 320 late-onset AD (LOAD) patients, 70 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 320 matched healthy controls, for the presence of a functional DNMT3A -448A>G (rs1550117) polymorphism, searching for association with disease risk. In addition, we searched for correlation between the studied polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine (hcy) and vitamin B12, all involved in DNA methylation reactions and available from 189 LOAD patients and 186 matched controls. Both allele and genotype frequencies of rs1550117 were closely similar between MCI, LOAD and control subjects, and no association with dementia or pre-dementia conditions was observed. Plasma hcy levels were significantly higher (p = 0.04) and serum folate levels significantly lower (p = 0.01) in LOAD than in controls, but no difference in circulating folate, hcy or vitamin B12 levels was seen between carriers and non-carriers of the minor DNMT3A -448A allele. Collectively, present results confirmed previous associations of increased hcy and decreased folate with LOAD risk, but do not support an association between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and AD in our population. PMID:27073746

  11. Timing of peak bone mass in Caucasian females and its implication for the prevention of osteoporosis. Inference from a cross-sectional model.

    PubMed Central

    Matkovic, V; Jelic, T; Wardlaw, G M; Ilich, J Z; Goel, P K; Wright, J K; Andon, M B; Smith, K T; Heaney, R P

    1994-01-01

    To determine the timing of peak bone mass and density, we conducted a cross-sectional study of bone mass measurements in 265 premenopausal Caucasian females, aged 8-50 yr. Bone mass and bone mineral density were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry at the spine (anteroposterior, lateral), proximal femur, radius shaft, distal forearm, and the whole body. Bone mass parameters were analyzed using a quadratic regression model and segmented regression models with quadratic-quadratic or quadratic-linear form. The results show that most of the bone mass at multiple skeletal locations will be accumulated by late adolescence. This is particularly notable for bone mineral density of the proximal femur and the vertebral body. Bone mass of the other regions of interest is either no different in women between the age of 18 yr and the menopause or it is maximal in 50-yr-old women, indicating slow but permanent bone accumulation continuing at some sites up to the time of menopause. This gain in bone mass in premenopausal adult women is probably the result of continuous periosteal expansion with age. Since rapid skeletal mineral acquisition at all sites occurs relatively early in life, the exogenous factors which might optimize peak bone mass need to be more precisely identified and characterized. Images PMID:8113412

  12. Perinatal HIV testing among African American, Caucasian, Hmong and Latina women: exploring the role of health-care services, information sources and perceptions of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lee King, Patricia A; Pate, David J

    2014-02-01

    Perinatal HIV transmission disproportionately affects African American, Latina and potentially Hmong women in the United States. Understanding racially and ethnically diverse women's perceptions of and experiences with perinatal health care, HIV testing and HIV/AIDS may inform effective health communications to reduce the risk of perinatal HIV transmission among disproportionate risk groups. We used a qualitative descriptive research design with content analysis of five focus groups of African American, Caucasian, Hmong and Latina women of reproductive age with low socioeconomic status distinguished by their race/ethnicity or HIV status. A purposive stratified sample of 37 women shared their health-care experiences, health information sources and perceptions of HIV testing and HIV/AIDS. Women's responses highlighted the importance of developing and leveraging trusted provider and community-based relationships and assessing a woman's beliefs and values in her sociocultural context, to ensure clear, consistent and relevant communications. Perinatal health communications that are culturally sensitive and based on an assessment of women's knowledge and understanding of perinatal health and HIV/AIDS may be an effective tool for health educators addressing racial and ethnic disparities in perinatal HIV transmission. PMID:24150728

  13. Genetic variation in metabolizing enzyme and transporter genes: comprehensive assessment in 3 major East Asian subpopulations with comparison to Caucasians and Africans.

    PubMed

    Man, Michael; Farmen, Mark; Dumaual, Carmen; Teng, Choo Hua; Moser, Brian; Irie, Shin; Noh, Gyu Jeong; Njau, Reuben; Close, Sandra; Wise, Stephen; Hockett, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies has proven valuable in the assessment of genetic differences and their effects on drug activation, metabolism, disposition, and transport. However, most studies to date have focused on a small number of genes or few alleles, some of which are rare and therefore observed infrequently or lacked rigorous ethnic characterization, thus reducing the ability to extrapolate within and among populations. In this study, the authors comprehensively assessed the allele frequencies of 165 variants comprising 27 drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) genes from 2188 participants across 3 major ethnic populations: Caucasians, Africans, and East Asians. This sample size was sufficiently large to demonstrate genetic differences among these major ethnic groups while concomitantly confirming similarities among East Asian subpopulations (Korean, Han Chinese, and Japanese). A comprehensive presentation of allele and genotype frequencies is included in the online supplement, and 3 of the most widely studied cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9; 2 non-CYP enzymes, NAT1 and TMPT; and 2 transporter genes, SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1, are presented herein according to ethnic classification. PMID:20173083

  14. Do stigma and its psychosocial impact differ between Asian-born Chinese immigrants and Western-born Caucasians with head and neck cancer?

    PubMed

    Lebel, Sophie; Payne, Ada Y M; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary; Devins, Gerald M

    2016-07-01

    Stigma appears to influence emotional distress and well-being in cancer survivors, but cross-cultural differences have been ignored. Previous studies suggest that stigma may be especially relevant for survivors of Asian origin. However, their study designs (e.g. focused on female cancers, qualitative designs, and an absence of comparison groups) limit the strength of this conclusion. We hypothesized that (1) Asian-born Chinese immigrants (AI) would report more perceived cancer-related stigma than Western-born Caucasians (WBC); and (2) the impact of stigma on emotional distress and well-being would be greater in AI as compared to WBC. Head and neck cancer survivors (n = 118 AI and n = 404 WBC) completed measures of well-being, emotional distress, and a three-item indicator of stigma in structured interviews. The majority of respondents (59%) reported one or more indicators of stigma. Stigma correlated significantly with emotional distress (r = .13, p = .004) and well-being (r = -.09, p = .032). Contrary to our hypotheses, WBCs and AIs did not differ in reported stigma nor did we detect differences in its psychosocial impact. Stigma exerts a deleterious psychosocial impact on head and neck cancer survivors. It did not differ significantly between AI and WBC survivors. PMID:26850943

  15. Influence of the details of topography on weather forecast – evaluation of HARMONIE experiments in the Sochi Olympics domain over the Caucasian mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontu, Laura; Wastl, Clemens; Niemela, Sami

    2016-02-01

    New fine-resolution surface elevation data was implemented into HARMONIE-AROME-SURFEX Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The grid-scale mean orography, used as a basis of the model's terrain-following vertical coordinate, as well as variables for suggested new parametrizations of radiation and momentum fluxes were derived. Validation against the surface observations from the Sochi Winter Olympic Games 2014, provided by the WMO FROST-2014 program at the Caucasian mountains, showed minor degradation of the of then screen-level temperature forecast when only the source orography was updated. Implementation of the orographic radiation parametrizations allowed to alleviate the degradation of scores. Detailed sensitivity studies, done by using three-dimensional and single-column experiments, showed that substantial and physically realistic changes in the downwelling short- and longwave radiation fluxes took place locally. However, their influence on the the simulated screen-level temperature remained small. Comparison of the simulated and observed radiation fluxes would offer a reliable alternative for validation of NWP models. Unfortunately, surface-level radiation observations were not made during the Sochi Olympics.

  16. Frequency and rates of outdoor activities, and perceptions of places to perform these activities by Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Marchioni, Meredith

    2012-12-01

    Activity patterns and perceptions play a key role in human health risk, management, and planning. A sample of 233 people attending a Native American festival in Cookeville, Tennessee was interviewed to determine the types, percent participation, and outdoor activities rates, and their perceptions of the importance of characteristics of nuclear sites. Results indicate that: (1) a high percentage of respondents used outdoor environments, (2) they used them for consumptive (hunting, fishing), non-consumptive (hiking, walking, bird-watching), and religious/sacred activities, (3) a higher percentage of respondents engaged in non-consumptive than consumptive activities, (4) praying or meditating, communing with nature, and bird-watching had the highest uses rates (5) the environmental characteristics rated the highest were lack of radionuclides that presented a health risk, no visible smog, clean air, and unpolluted water, (6) the presence of people, buildings and roads were rated the lowest, and (7) Native Americans had higher outdoor participation rates, participated more frequently, and evaluated environmental characteristics higher than did Caucasians. This information can be used by managers to create and maintain outdoor habitats that fit the needs of local people. Planning and management require information on public policy, human needs and requirements, and human perceptions and evaluations of environmental characteristics. PMID:23229153

  17. Frequency and rates of outdoor activities, and perceptions of places to perform these activities by Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2015-01-01

    Activity patterns and perceptions play a key role in human health risk, management, and planning. A survey of 233 people attending a Native American festival in Cookeville Tennessee were interviewed to determine the types, percent participation, and outdoor activities rates, and their perceptions of the importance of characteristics of sites. The indicate that: 1) a high percentage of respondents used outdoor environments, 2) they used them for consumptive (hunting, fishing), non-consumptive (hiking, walking, bird-watching), and religious/sacred activities, 3) a higher percentage of respondents engaged in non-consumptive than consumptive activities, 4) praying or meditating, communing with nature, and bird-watching had the highest uses rates 5) the environmental characteristics rated the highest were lack of radionuclides that presented a health risk, no visible smog, clean air, and unpolluted water, 6) presence of people, buildings and roads were rated the lowest and 7) Native Americans had higher participation rates, participated more frequently, and evaluated environmental characteristics higher than did Caucasians. This information can be used by managers to create and maintain outdoor habitats that fit the needs of local people. Planning and management require information on public policy, human needs and requirements, and human perceptions and evaluations of environmental characteristics. PMID:23229153

  18. ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in a French Caucasian Population of 633 Patients Living in the Same Geographic Area

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Mélanie; Souza, Carlos; Santulli, Pietro; Lafay-Pillet, Marie-Christine; de Ziegler, Dominique; Chapron, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The identification of epidemiological factors increasing the risk of endometriosis could shorten the time to diagnosis. Specific blood groups may be more common in patients with endometriosis. Study Design. We designed a cross-sectional study of 633 Caucasian women living in the same geographic area. Study group included 311 patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Control group included 322 patients without endometriosis as checked during surgery. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. We observed a higher proportion of Rh-negative women in the study group, as compared to healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.20–2.90). There was no significant difference in ABO group distribution between patients and controls. There was no difference when taking into account either the clinical forms (superficial endometriosis, endometrioma, and deep infiltration endometriosis) or the rAFS stages. Conclusion. Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis. Chromosome 1p, which contains the genes coding for the Rhesus, could also harbor endometriosis susceptibility genes. PMID:25243164

  19. When Eastern Surgeons Meet Western Patients: A Pilot Study of Gastrectomy with Lymphadenectomy in Caucasian Patients at a Single Korean Institute.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Choi, Yoon Young; An, Ji Yeong; Seo, Sang Hyuk; Shin, Hyun Beak; Bang, Hui Jae; Li, Shuangxi; Kim, Hyung Il; Cheong, Jae Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    East Asian surgeons generally report lower morbidity and mortality rates for gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy than do surgeons in Western countries; however, the disparity remains unexplained. The aim of this article was to determine the feasibility and safety regarding cases in which East Asian surgeons perform such procedures in Caucasian patients (CPs). Twelve CPs underwent gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer at Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea between June 2011 and April 2014. Procedures performed included total gastrectomy (7 of 12, 58%), distal gastrectomy (4 of 12, 33%), and completion total gastrectomy (1 of 12, 8%). Nine patients (75%) underwent D2 lymphadenectomy, and D1+ lymphadenectomy was performed in three others (25%). In four patients (33%), combined resections were carried out. The median values of surgical parameters were as follows: operative time, 266.5 min (range, 120-586 min); estimated blood loss, 90 mL (range, 37-350 mL); retrieved lymph node count, 37.5 (range, 22-63); and postoperative hospital stay, 13.7 days (range, 5-63 days). No mortality was encountered, although two patients (17%) experienced complications (both Clavien-Dindo classification grade IIIa anastomotic leakages), which were successfully managed by conservative treatment. In the hands of East Asian surgeons, mortality and short-term morbidity appears to be acceptably low in CPs subjected to gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. PMID:27401666

  20. Association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T polymorphism with the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Liu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Maochen; Gong, Ruihong; Xu, Yajun; Wang, Baoming

    2016-03-01

    Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and male infertility susceptibility, but the results remain inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. In this meta-analysis, a total of 26 case-control studies including 5659 infertility cases and 5528 controls were selected to evaluate the possible association. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the strength of association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility in the additive model, dominant model, recessive model and allele-frequency genetic model. In the overall analysis, the frequency of the 677T allele was significantly associated with male infertility susceptibility (OR = 2.32, 95%CI = 2.04-2.65 for TT vs. CC genotype; OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.00-1.19 for CT vs. CC genotype; OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.10-1.29 for CT/TT vs. CC genotype; OR = 1.54, 95%CI = 1.36-1.74 for TT vs. CC/TT genotype; OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.15-1.30 for T vs. C allele). A subgroup analysis of the subjects showed that significantly strong association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and male infertility was present only in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Additionally, MTHFR C677T was associated with a significant increase in the risk of azoospermia in all genetic models. Meanwhile, no significantly increased risks of oligoasthenotertozoospermia (OAT) were found in most of the genetic models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis is in favor that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is capable of causing male infertility susceptibility, especially in Asians and the subgroup of azoospermia. PMID:26584688